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TRANSACTIONS OF THE STATE HERMITAGE Museum труды государственного эрмитажа

LXVII LXVII

Mikhail Lomonosov М. В. Ломоносов


and the Time of Elizabeth I и елизаветинское время

Proceedings of the conference held Материалы конференции,


on 23–25 November 2011 состоявшейся 23–25 ноября 2011 г.
in the State Hermitage Museum в Государственном Эрмитаже

St. Petersburg Санкт-Петербург


The State Hermitage Publishers Издательство Государственного Эрмитажа
2013 2013
Summaries

Сп и с о к с о к р а щ е н и й E. M. Lupanova
Scientific instruments constructed by Mikhail Lomonosov.
Innovations and uncompleted projects

АГЭ Архив Государственного Эрмитажа The development of new equipment for physical and astronomical observations was an im-
АН БССР Академия наук Белорусской Советской Социалистической Республики portant facet of Mikhail Lomonosov’s work. The achievements of this polymathic scientist
АН СССР Академия наук Союза Советских Социалистических Республик in mechanical engineering have always intrigued historians. Lomonosov designed a number
ВИМАИВиВС Военно-исторический музей артиллерии, инженерных войск и войск связи of  optical instruments (a catoptric-dioptric incendiary device, refractometers, a bathyscaphe,
ГАСО Государственный Архив Свердловской области mirror telescopes and spyglasses) as well as mechanical tools (barometers, a centroscopic pen-
ГАФКЭ Государственный архив феодально-крепостнической эпохи (ныне РГАДА) dulum and clocks). The amazing variety of apparatus constructed by Lomonosov is yet an-
ГИМ Государственный исторический музей other evidence of his versatile interests, his gift of finding practical applications for his vast
ГМЗ «Петергоф» Государственный музей-заповедник «Петергоф» knowledge of physics and offering original solutions for research problems. Unfortunately,
ГМЗ «Царское Село» Государственный музей-заповедник «Царское Село» the vast majority of his devices never gained wide use; they were forgotten after Lomonosov’s
ГМЭ Государственный музей этнографии народов СССР death and had to be re-invented decades later. Some of the machinery (that approved
ГРМ Государственный Русский музей by the Academy of Sciences) was produced by the Instrumental Chambers; the rest was built
ГЭ Государственный Эрмитаж by Lomonosov himself. In 1762 Lomonosov set up an instrument workshop at home, where
ИАК Императорская археологическая комиссия he continued to improve the existing tools and construct new appliances. Lomonosov’s pio-
ИБО ГРМ Историко-бытовой отдел Государственного Русского музея neering works in  mechanical engineering became the first “university” for Russian natural
ИРЛИ РАН Институт русской литературы РАН scientists and shaped the core principles of Russian experimental science – its inseparable
ЛО ААН  Ленинградское отделение Архива Академии наук СССР connection with practice and a focus on innovation.
МАЭ РАН Музей антропологии и этнографии им. Петра Великого
(Кунсткамера) РАН
НА ИИМК Научный архив Института истории материальной культуры S. A. Chernous
ОЗЕИИ Отдел западноевропейского изобразительного искусства
Lomonosov’s breakthroughs in auroral research
Государственного Эрмитажа
ОЗЕПИ Отдел западноевропейского прикладного искусства Государственного
Эрмитажа
The article explores Mikhail Lomonosov’s research on polar lights from the modern
ОИРК Отдел истории русской культуры Государственного Эрмитажа
perspective, focusing on his discoveries, hypotheses and misconceptions. In our opinion,
ОР ИРЛИ Отдел рукописей Института русской литературы
Lomonosov’s principal achievement was his conclusion that auroras are a type of atmospheric
emission rather than reflected, refracted or dispersed light – a fact largely ignored by many
РАН Российская академия наук
previous studies. This  concept is based on Lomonosov’s own observations of auroras and
РАХ Российская академия художеств
his deep understanding of light propagation. Experimental evidence for this fact is offered
РГАДА Российский государственный архив древних актов
by his drawings and engravings which show the stars shining through polar lights. Lomonosov
РГАЛИ Российский государственный архив литературы и искусства 
advanced our knowledge of   auroral phenomena further than many other illustrious scien-
РГИА Российский государственный исторический архив 
tists including Galileo, Descartes and Euler. Over one hundred years later, a hypothesis simi-
РФФИ Российский фонд фундаментальных исследований 
lar to  Lomonosov’s was made by the Swedish physicist Anders Ångström who confirmed
СГЭ Сообщения Государственного Эрмитажа
the emission-based mechanism of polar lights by analysing auroral spectrum. Importantly,
СПФ АРАН Санкт-Петербургский филиал Архива Российской академии наук
Lomonosov also provided calculations and experimental data proving that polar lights oc-
AFSP Archivio Storico della Fabbrica di San Pietro in Vaticano cur in  the upper atmosphere. He also put forward the hypothesis that auroras are caused
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Summaries Summaries

by electricity, a little-studied phenomenon at that time. Lomonosov correctly suggested that G. A. Mirolyubova
the colours of auroras may be related to certain substances. Our article compares Lomonosov’s
Mikhail Lomonosov and The Firework Theatrum
findings with those of his outstanding Russian, European and American predecessors and
in the mid-18th century
contemporaries. The article quotes his experimental and research works examining the physi-
cal characteristics of auroras.
The article follows Mikhail Lomonosov’s accomplishments as a designer of firework and il-
lumination displays for court pageants on the New Year’s Eve as well as Empress Elizabeth I’s
coronation anniversaries, name- and birthdays in the 1840s – 1850s. The colourful perfor-
I. A. Garmanov
mances were held on a specially constructed platform on the Neva called The Firework Theatrum,
“In doing his professional duty”. with the illuminated river bank serving as a backdrop. On request of the Academy of Sciences,
Georg Richman’s last experiment Lomonosov developed the art programme for firework displays, wrote inscriptions and poetic
(Newly discovered stories from The Sankt-Peterburgskie Vedomosti) dedications. Accounts of the vibrant street festivities that attracted many city residents, both
rich and poor, were published and illustrated with prints. Although not all of  Lomonosov’s
The news about the invention of the lightning rod by Benjamin Franklin reached Europe ideas for fireworks were implemented, he saw them as an important aspect of  his vast sci-
at the beginning of 1752, inspiring numerous experiments with atmospheric electricity and entific work. One of his last academic reports states that he “has made many inventions for
lightnings. In Russia, similar studies were conducted by Мikhail Lomonosov and Georg illumination and firework displays and composed numerous inscriptions for them”.
Richman, professors of chemistry and physics at the Academy of Sciences. The courageous
researchers used every opportunity to observe thunderstorm phenomena. Reports on their G. A. Printseva
discoveries were immediately published in The Sankt-Peterburgskie Vedomosti (The St. Petersburg
Gazette) attracting the avid interest of the readers. In their homes in Vasilyevsky Island, Sketches for allegorical paintings
St. Petersburg, both scientists built “thunder machines” – ungrounded lightning rods which on St.  Petersburg triumphal gates (1742)
caused a tragic outcome. In summer 1753 Richman was killed by a lightning bolt during
a thunderstorm. The Sankt-Peterburgskie Vedomosti gave a detailed account of the tragedy and The sketches for allegorical paintings which appeared on the triumphal gates construct-
its circumstances. A subsequent scientific inquiry provided the theoretical model for the acci- ed in St. Petersburg in 1742 were donated to the Hermitage by the Library of the Academy
dent, enabling researchers to make the right conclusions. The dangerous experiments in both of  Sciences in 1941. Intended for Empress Elizabeth I’s ceremonial arrival in St. Petersburg after
the Old and New World stopped. her coronation, the gates were built “by the Green Bridge” in the “Anichkov Suburb” (Nevsky
Prospect) at  the entrance to the city on the side of Moscow. The Anichkov Gate celebrated
Elizabeth I and was decorated with paintings of court scenes. The Green Gate commemorated
E. V. Karpova Russia’s victories in the recent Russo-Swedish war. All the sketches bear the signature of Johann
Stenglin, who may be identified as the author of the unsigned drawings of the same gates in the
Mikhail Lomonosov’s portrait by Fyodot Shubin: beautiful albums presented to Empress Elizabeth in 1742 and currently held by the Hermitage’s
The original and variations Department of Western European Fine Arts. Stenglin’s authorship is confirmed by the records
of the St. Petersburg Archive of the Academy of Sciences. The Hermitage collection includes
The art works submitted by the State Russian Museum for the exhibition “Mikhail 24 sketches of the Anichkov Gate and 28 sketches of the Green Gate. Johann Stenglin was in-
Lomonosov and the Time of Elizabeth I” included Fyodot Shubin’s sculptural portrait vited to St. Petersburg as a master engraver and teacher of mezzotint and went down into art his-
of  Lomonosov originating from the Hermitage. An identical bronze bust signed and dated tory by creating numerous portraits of Russian tsars and other important historical personalities.
by the sculptor (“F. Shu. 1793”) had been made for the Cameron Gallery in Tsarskoye
Selo. Another sculptural image of Lomonosov traditionally attributed to Shubin is the
L. S. Gerasimova
marble bust currently displayed in the old building of the Presidium of the Academy
of   Sciences in Moscow. However, an in-depth stylistic analysis has identified significant The attribution of the Apostle Peter mosaic
differences from the authentic works by Shubin. Our study of archival documents and from Mikhail Vorontsov’s collection
literary sources shows that this marble bust was created in 1824 for the Russian Academy,
possibly by Triscorni’s Italian marble workshop in St. Petersburg. The article also describes Mikhail Lomonosov’s name is associated with the revival of Russian mosaic art which had
the marble bust of Mikhail Lomonosov in the Literary Museum at the Institute of Russian remained in neglect since the 12th century. Many researchers believe that the great scientist’s
Literature (Pushkinsky Dom), it is iconographically related to Shubin’s work. According inspiration by the art began when he saw a mosaic representing the crying Apostle Peter
to published archival data, the bust was created by Vasily Demut-Malinovsky for the (currently in the State Russian Museum). “This mosaic image of the Holy Apostle Peter was
Kunstkamera in 1821. presented by Pope Benedict XIV to Count Mikhail Vorontsov during his travel to Naples
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Summaries Summaries

via Rome on 28 December 1745”, said the engraved inscription on the copper plate (now to commemorate Mikhail Lomonosov’s 300th anniversary. Three of the bugle bead pictures
lost). Until recently, the author and origin of the Apostle Peter mosaic remained unknown. with views of the Ust-Ruditsa Glass Factory were found to have been executed in Lomonosov’s
Nevertheless, the newly discovered in Vatican archival documents have revealed that the mo- workshop. The other two may represent Peter I’s seaside residence in Revel. The larger seed
saic was created by Alessandro Cocchi at the end of 1745. We have also succeeded in tracing beadwork piece shows a monastery with its surrounding lands. The coloured beads were manu-
the story of the mosaic’s journey from Vatican to Russia after the audience given by Benedict factured at the Ust-Ruditsa factory.
XIV to Count Vorontsov. According to Russian archival documents, it was handed over from
the Imperial Hermitage to the Russian Museum in January 1913. This object of  art is espe- O. S. Kislitsyna
cially noteworthy because it was one of the first mosaics ever commissioned by Vatican (“per
Servitio della reverenda Fabrica”) as a papal gift rather than part of the décor for St. Peter’s On the attribution of the mosaic tables in the Glass Bead Salon
Basilica, which accentuates its importance. of the Chinese Palace, Oranienbaum

Decorated with colourful smalt manufactured at Mikhail Lomonosov’s Ust-Ruditsa


I. V. Tunkina  Glass Factory, the mosaic tables displayed in the Glass Bead Salon of the Chinese Palace,
The Donative Diploma to Мikhail Lomonosov Oranienbaum, are a true masterpiece of Russian applied art. Apart from their unique artistic
value, the mosaics referring to the Russo-Turkish war (1768–1774) are special due to the fact
on the spot of land in  Koporye Uyezd of St. Petersburg province
that they convey an important message expressing the Russian Imperial ideology of the late
The article considers a unique historical source – the property patent on the spot of land in 1760s – early 1770s. The article suggests an interpretation of the allegorical imagery and analy-
Koporye Uyezd granted by Empress Elizabeth to Mikhail Lomonosov for the construction ses the shapes and décor of the furniture items. The author suggests a new chronology for the
of a glass factory (1756). The donative diploma was decorated by drawings from the Heraldry manufacturing of the tables as well as traces the connections between their artistic language
Office of the Senate according to Lomonosov’s recommendations. The author has under- and Antonio Rinaldi’s style in architecture.
taken an effort to attribute and decode the allegorical images of the miniatures, the majority
of which represent the process of manufacture of coloured smalts at the Ust-Ruditsa Glass I. K. Bott
Factory. The pictures fall into nine thematic groups. The first group shows the views of the
The “smalt façade” of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo:
Ust-Ruditsa Factory and the workers’ settlement; the second one represents equipment of the
Mikhail Lomonosov’s experiment?
Factory and ways of tools manufacturing; the third group features the preparation of  initial
components for glass melting and preparatory process; the fourth one displays different modes Issues of restoration and conservation of the Catherine Palace that became so acute after
of work with melted glass; the fifth one describes the ways of processing the solid glass; the the Second World War were first addressed in the pre-war years. In 1938–1940 a large-scale
sixth group depicts the composing process of mosaic pictures; the seventh one displays the investigation was conducted on the palace façade in order to form decisions on restoring part
products of  the Ust-Ruditsa Factory; the eighth group portrays the fundamental physical ex- of the palace’s original décor. The analyses showed that the architect Bartolomeo Rastrelli had
periment of spectral dispersion of the white light; the ninth one represents some scenes from painted the façade a bright turquoise colour using smalt paint. The idea of using this new and
the scholar’s biography, i.e. financial difficulties he met after the construction of the Glass inexpensive home-produced material had to come from Mikhail Lomonosov, a great proponent
Factory. Being an outstanding product of Russian miniature artists, the diploma deserves the of the industrial production of coloured glass. In view of the convincing field and archival find-
facsimile publication in colour. It is of great interest as a valuable source of  information about ings, it was decided to use smalt paint based on the recipe developed by the Leningrad Institute
life and work of Mikhail Lomonosov, history of the Russian science and technology, heraldry of Chemistry and Technology. The azurite-based smalt was manufactured at the Leningrad
and emblem art of the mid-18th century. Porcelain Factory in 1940. However, due to some technical difficulties the restoration of the
Translated by the author Catherine Palace was delayed until the summer of 1941. The Second World War put a stop
to any restoration efforts, and Lomonosov’s glass paints as well as smalt recipes were lost forever.
D. V. Osipov
The attribution study of five glass bead panels E. P. Renne
from the Department of the History of Russian Culture, Vigilius Eriksen’s studies for the portrait of Empress Elizabeth
State Hermitage
Little is known of the early period in the career of the Danish artist Vigilius Eriksen (1722–
The article summarises the attribution analysis of bead panels from the State Hermitage and 1782) in Russia. His work is usually associated with the reign of Catherine II. Indeed, after Louis
the Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, or Kunstkamera (one pan- Tocqué’s departure in 1758 and the death of Pietro Rotari in 1762, Eriksen became Catherine II’s
el was embroidered with seed beads, five with bugle beads). The project was undertaken main portrait painter who created several iconic images of the Empress: Catherine II in mourning,
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Summaries Summaries

in a coronation dress, in front of the mirror and on horseback during the coup-d’état. All of O. G. Kostiuk
these portraits were painted after 1761; however, the artist had arrived in St. Petersburg sev-
Delicate keepsakes of the mid-18th century
eral years before. Jacob von Staehlin wrote in “Notes on the Fine Arts in Russia”: “In 1758
(1757 on page 43 of the manuscript. – Е.R.) Vigilus Eriksen, of Denmark, paints large portraits The Hermitage’s extensive jewellery collection includes two eighteenth-century bracelets
in oil and miniatures, both equally powerful and pleasant <…> Once at a public dinner given made up of six links. The links are medallions composed of oval miniature portraits (­covered
by Her Imperial Majesty to the Cavaliers of the Order of St. Andrew the First-Called, he stood with thin slices of rock crystal) which represent some relatives of a princely couple, Grand
in front of her and looked at her for a long time; at home, he sketched her portrait achieving Duke Peter Feodorovich (future Peter III) and Grand Duchess Catherine Alexeyevna (­future
a great likeness…” Among the miniatures kept in  the Hermitage’s Department of Western Catherine II). The miniatures were identified by comparison with contemporary painted and
European Fine Arts there are two oil sketches representing Empress Elizabeth. Their man- engraved portraits. Two of the medallions depict Peter Feodorovich and Catherine Alexeyevna;
ner bespeaks quick execution and direct observation of the subject. Following N.N. Wrangel, medallions 3 and 4 represent Catherine’s parents (her mother, Johanna Elisabeth, and her
А. Doria and I.S. Nemilova attributed the miniatures to Tocqué, although Wrangel himself ex- father, Christian August of Anhalt-Zerbst); medallions 5 and 6 show Peter’s parents, Anna
pressed some doubts about the authorship. The stylistic similarity of the miniatures to Eriksen’s Petrovna and Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp; the 7th medallion is a portrait of
Portrait of Elizabeth, drawings and oil sketches suggests that they were painted by the same artist. Catherine’s grandfather, Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp; medallion 8 shows Catherine’s
maternal uncle, Adolf Frederick; the 9th medallion depicts his wife, Louisa Ulrike; medal-
V. V. Nikolayeva lion 10 is another portrait of Catherine (identical to medallion 1); the 11th and 12th medal-
lions represent Catherine’s younger brother, Frederick August of Anhalt-Zerbst, and his wife,
Lucas Conrad Pfandzelt: Secrets and discoveries Princess Carolina Wilhelmine Sophia of Hesse-Kassel.
The article reveals some new facts about the life and work of Lucas Conrad Pfandzelt
(1716–1786), a professional restorer and painter, the first curator of the Hermitage picture M. N. Lopato
gallery. Documentary evidence of Pfandzelt’s work before his arrival in Russia as well as a 1749 Precious items commissioned by Empress Elizabeth
chart recording the payment of wages to Pfandzelt for five years of work in St. Petersburg and
documents confirming the existence of silhouette portraits of Pfandzelt and his second wife Ever since the foundation of St. Petersburg, Imperial residences were filled with precious
are presented. We have been able to add two items to the list of the artist’s known works: an objects serving as decorations and status symbols. Many silver and gold items were acquired
engraving made after his drawing (1738) and a copy of his painting The Court of Eberhard III. during the time of Catherine I and Anna Ioannovna; the silver dinner services, dressing table
We have also identified the dates of his arrival in Revel (1739) and his first visit to St. Petersburg sets and massive coolers can still be seen on display in the Hermitage rooms. Empress Elizabeth
(1740). An inscription on the reverse side of the portrait of Andreas Zoege von Manteuffel has kept up with her female predecessors, ordering dinner services for the court, presentation items
been deciphered and the exact date of the portrait identified (1742). Explanations are provided and gold jewellery from St. Petersburg jewellers. Unfortunately, few of these opulent royal pur-
why Pfandzelt was refused government accommodation in Munich’s house in 1753. The initial chases recorded in the archives have survived until today. However, the Hermitage collection
attribution (by Hermitage experts) of the male portrait by Pfandzelt dated to 8 February 1759 has retained some of the precious objects acquired in Elizabeth’s time. These include items
is confirmed, and the exact date and place of Pfandzelt’s death are determined. from the chinoiserie Oranienbaum Service produced by major London silversmiths and parts
of the Pleshcheyev Service, also originating from England. According to the surviving docu-
A. S. Zakharov, V. V. Nikolayeva ments, the Empress also commissioned numerous jewellery items. The English Consul and
merchant Jacob Wolfe lavishly supplied Elizabeth with diamonds, orders, snuffboxes, cavalier
Towards the iconography of Baron Nikolay Korff (1710–1766) crosses, swords and ladies’ jewellery, all of which are catalogued in “Lists of Diamond Items
Belonging to the Empress”.
The article attempts to identify the subject of the male portrait by Lucas Conrad Pfandzelt
dated to 8 February 1759 (Hermitage). Convincing arguments are offered to prove that the
T. N. Lekhovich
painting depicts Baron Nikolay (Nikolaus Frederick) Korff (1710–1766). Information about
seven portraits of Baron Nikolay Korff has been collected and systematised laying the foun- “No one shall wear rich garments…”:
dations of Baron Korff ’s iconography. A previously unknown portrait of Korff by Heinrich What stands behind Elizabeth I’s sumptuary laws?
Buchholtz has been identified, explored and found to be a copy of the portrait by Lucas Conrad
Pfandzelt. It is suggested that Nikolay Korff ’s portrait currently held at the Novgorod State Empress Elizabeth I went down in Russian historiography as an extravagant Tsarina
Museum-Reserve served as an iconographic model for the image presented in A.M. Lushev’s who loved opulent clothes and jewels; according to Jacob von Staehlin, Elizabeth I’s ward-
album and the publication of Grand Duke Nikolay Mikhaylovich. The authors have been able robe after her death filled 32 rooms of the Winter Palace and included 15,000 dresses, two
to determine all state decorations awarded to Nikolay Korff and Count Karl Sivers. chests of silk stockings and several thousand pairs of shoes. However, Elizabeth I’s sense
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Summaries Summaries

of fashion did not impair her political sensibility. In December 1742, shortly after corona- E. A. Anisimova
tion, the Empress signed a decree restraining luxury in clothing for her subjects which had
On the typology of early to mid-eighteenth-century
important consequences for the Russian industry. Rather than being a whim of a female
Russian glass art
despot struggling to outshine her courtiers in splendour, the decree was a serious political
initiative to support national textile businesses. Imported fabrics, though expensive, offered
In the 18th century glass tableware became an indispensable feature of formal dining in Russia.
competition for the nascent Russian textile mills, most of which had emerged just a short
The existing attributions of items believed to have been manufactured in Russia are often based
while before, in the time of Peter I. Elizabeth I’s laws had a beneficial impact on the Russian
on indirect data such as the presence of portraiture or elements of Russian heraldry in the deco-
textile production. During her reign, the number of textile mills in Russia grew by almost
ration. It is quite likely that some glassware traditionally believed to have been produced in Russia
three times, from just 71 factories in 1745 to 205 in 1763. Her thoughtful policy aimed
may be of European origin. According to international publications, glass tableware was widely
at promoting the national industry remained consistent throughout Elizabeth I’s years in
imported in Russia in the early 18th century. Foreign-produced items and the tastes of the for-
power. Elizabeth I’s coronation dress was made of Russian silver brocade – a truly patriotic
eign craftsmen invited to boost Russian glass production determined the look of glasses used
and protectionist gesture logically followed by the sumptuary laws. Elizabeth I encouraged
on formal occasions at the time of Anna Ioannovna and Elizabeth I. A number of examples
Russian craftsmen to be sent to Europe to learn manufacturing techniques and rewarded
demonstrate that the Saxon school was a major influence on the development of  Russian glass
their achievements with ranks and titles. French and Italian experts were invited to Russian
art in that period. At the same time, the engraved ornamentation and the choice of shapes bear
textile mills to train the workers and boost the production standards. The indulgence of the
the features of the Bohemian and Silesian styles. While drawing on the talents of guest experts
Empress and her court, which spread down the social ladder, helped to promote European
and the experience of major European manufacturers, Russian glassmakers also developed some
lifestyles and fashions in Russia and gave an important stimulus for Russian international
unique technologies of glassware production and decoration. However, only the products of the
trade and domestic production.
Potemkin Glass Factory have a truly original Russian design.

L. V. Liackhova M. N. Kosareva


The St. Andrew Service of Empress Elizabeth Eighteenth-century Ural copperware
and Saxony’s “fragile diplomacy” in 1744–1748
Ural copperware is an unparalleled phenomenon in eighteenth-century Russian applied
An embodiment of the elegant tastes of its time, eighteenth-century porcelain also served arts. In a brief period between the 1730s and 1770s, production capacities were set up in the
as a mirror of European diplomacy. The luxurious porcelain services sent to foreign courts Urals to manufacture copper and brass tableware which became an outstanding monument
performed an important mission emphasizing the might of the monarchs and the achieve- of its time. Mikhail Lomonosov made an invaluable contribution to the theory of mining,
ments of their subjects, their military victories and dynastic marriages. Eighteenth-century mineral exploration and survey in Russia. His book “The Fundamentals of Metallurgy, or Ore
Saxony, the homeland of European porcelain, quite clearly preferred “fragile diplomacy” Mining” and the treatise “On the Earth’s Layers” provide the first systematised description
as a means of exerting its influence on the international stage. Work commenced on the fa- of  prospecting guides for ores and associated minerals. The discovery of ore deposits and ac-
mous St. Andrew Service (intended as a gift for Empress Elizabeth I) in June 1744 within a dif- tive involvement of mining experts and manufacturers fostered rapid industrial growth. In the
ficult political climate: on the eve of the Second Silesian War, Saxony hoped to use the sump- remote Ural Mountains, the traditions of ancient Russian art flourished in a new industrialised
tuous diplomatic present to solicit Russia’s support. The ostensible purpose of this extensive environment. The artistic merits of copperware depended as much on the processing tech-
porcelain service was to mark the wedding of the Russian heir to the throne on 21 August nology and decoration methods as on the material, authenticated by the brand. The decline
(2 September New Style) 1745, but in reality it perfectly suited its purpose as a meaningful in copper ore mining in the late 18th century caused the overall downturn in copperware pro-
diplomatic gift. The models first created for the St. Andrew Service were to be used on later duction in the Urals. In addition, Ural copperware could no longer compete with glass and ce-
occasions as part of Saxony’s “porcelain diplomacy’, notably for the services presented to Jean ramic (porcelain and faience) services which came to be preferred in the formal dining settings.
Paris de Monmartel (1746) and to the Marquis d’Argenson (1747). The Hermitage collection
contains a number of previously unpublished items, formerly associated with the St. Andrew
Service, which should clearly be seen within the context of the d’Argenson Service. The stabil- I. N. Ukhanova
ity of the output of the Meissen Porcelain Manufactory was largely determined by its tendency A masterpiece of eighteenth-century bone carving
to vary and repeat the most successful and interesting models. Thanks to this it has proved
possible to identify the surviving stand for a vase of a porcelain centrepiece in the Hermitage The Hermitage is home to a printed image of a carved bone icon (a Kiy Cross), with a multi-
collection as a replica of the now lost centrepiece from the St. Andrew Service, further adding figure composition and inscriptions surrounded with lavish floral décor. This fine late eighteenth-
to our understanding of this important eighteenth-century porcelain ensemble. century icon created by North Russian bone carvers was displayed in the Dormition Church
312 313
Summaries Summaries

on Sennaya Square, St. Petersburg, until 1923. The bone carving is clearly related to an icon E. Yu. Basargina
created by outstanding seventeenth-century Russian painters and depicting the future Patriarch
Lomonosov’s anniversary in 1865 
Nikon’s miraculous rescue on Kiy Island during a tempest on the White Sea in 1635. It is wor-
and proposals for academic reform
thy of note that Osip Dudin, a supremely talented bone carver from Kholmogory, lived in the
area near the Dormition Church in 1760–1770. The carved icon shares many stylistic features The article studies the role of anniversaries in the history of Russian science as exemplified
with Dudin’s other works suggesting identity of authorship. by special events organised by the Imperial Academy of Sciences in 1865 and 1911 to celebrate
the memory of Mikhail Lomonosov. Lomonosov’s anniversaries helped to promote the pres-
A. V. Shibanov tige of national science and provided a stimulus for looking back at the rich experience of the
Academy as a national centre of learning and culture. They also sparked public debates about
The ceremonial artillery carriage of Count Pyotr Shuvalov.
the Academy’s mission and its role in the development of education in Russia. Anniversaries
Aspects of the Restoration were also celebrated with large-scale studies on the history of the top research institution
in the country. The Academy wisely used anniversaries as occasions to solve its internal prob-
Carriage making is a form of Russian eighteenth-century applied art which is impossible
lems and implement ground-breaking projects. Thus, in 1865 a state award was established
to overlook. Carriages were often manufactured under the instruction of foreign craftsmen
to celebrate Mikhail Lomonosov’s contribution to national education; the award was to be
or imported from abroad. Gilded wooden carvings were widely used to reflect the exuberance
bestowed by the Academy of Sciences, the supreme authority in evaluating research achieve-
of the Baroque style. Carriage carving echoes the traditions in the decoration of naval vessels.
ments. In 1911 the government supported a daring plan for the expansion of academic institu-
Ornamental carving on ships served to appeal to the seafarers’ patriotic spirit and celebrate the
tions whereby several laboratories had to be incorporated into the state-of-the-art Lomonosov
young Russian Empire. The ceremonial artillery carriage for transporting the artillery banner
Institute.
(commissioned by Pyotr Shuvalov) performed essentially the same functions. Built in just two
months under the supervision of Major Pyotr Melissino, the carriage remains a unique work
of decorative art unprecedented in world collections. This ambitious project was probably ini- I. M. Zakharova
tiated by the artist and decorator Fyodor Zadubsky. The carriage was seriously damaged during
the Second World War and the siege of Leningrad. In 2003 a joint team of LLC Restavratsia Celebration of Mikhail Lomonosov’s anniversaries
Mebeli and the Military-Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineer and Signal Corps started in the Arkhangelsk Province in the 19th and 20th centuries
a large-scale restoration project preceded by a thorough chemical and technological examina-
tion of the wood, paint and gilding. It took five years to restore and assemble the elements The Arkhangelsk Province sensitively responded to the national initiatives to celebrate
of  the carriage. The restoration team produced numerous sketches, created models of lost the  memory of Mikhail Lomonosov. To mark the 100th anniversary of Lomonosov’s
parts and conducted extensive studies of similar vehicles before the world’s only surviving death, the Arkhangelsk Province Statistical Committee decided to build a monument
ceremonial artillery carriage could be presented to museum visitors in its original splendour. to Lomonosov in his home village Denisovka (Kholmogory Uyezd, Arkhangelsk Province),
start a school named after Lomonosov and establish a Lomonosov scholarship for peasant
children at  the  Arkhangelsk Grammar School. The proposals were accepted and acted on.
N. Yu. Guseva In 1885, at the initiative of the Arkhangelsk Governor Konstantin Pashchenko, the Statistical
A rare Elizabethan mirror Committee attempted to revive the traditional bone  carving art in the Kholmogory Uyezd
by opening a bone carving class at the Lomonosov School; the class functioned until 1900.
The article describes a rare mid-eighteenth-century mirror in a carved frame with rocailles In 1896, the Committee opened a free public library for adult readers in the Kurostrov Volost
at the corners. The mirror carries intricately-shaped cartouches at the top and bottom and is local school. In commemoration of Lomonosov’s 200th anniversary in 1911, the Statistical
crowned with a carved haute-relief which represents a basket overflowing with flowers and Committee published “The Lomonosov Collection” and took part in the exhibition “Mikhail
fruit in the manner of a cornucopia. The flowers and fruit are painted in vibrant colours which Lomonosov and the Time of Elizabeth I”. Alexander Shidlovsky, Vice-Governor of the
look even more dramatic against the white enamel background imitating porcelain. The carv- Arkhangelsk Province, ordered the Arkhangelsk Province Governmental Archive records re-
ing methods resemble those used by Russian carpenters and furniture-makers, which suggests lated to Lomonosov’s personality, descriptions of items belonging to Duke Anthony Ulrich of
that the mirror was made in Russia. However, the delicate painting (intended to be lacquered Brunswick as well as manuscripts from the Arkhangelsk City Public Museum to be sent to the
over) may have been made by foreign artists that had travelled to St. Petersburg in search of Russian Academy of Sciences. Overall, the Arkhangelsk Province, its people and governmen-
livelihood. A label on the reverse side of the frame shows that the mirror belonged to Ivan tal institutions played a major role in preserving Mikhail Lomonosov’s memory in the 19th –
Balashov, a well-known art collector and Vice-President of the Society for the Encouragement early 20th centuries. The exhibits submitted by the region included a writing desk with a figure
of Fine Arts. The label was attached for the exhibition “Mikhail Lomonosov and the Time of Lomonosov on top. In 1963 the Hermitage acquired the desk which is now a jewel of the
of  Elizabeth I” (1912) where the mirror was displayed among the most valuable objects. permanent exhibition “Nineteenth – Early Twentieth-Century Russian Interior Design”.
314 315
Summaries Summaries

O. Yu. Petrova centrepiece of the museum is the model of the Academy of Sciences’ Chemical Laboratory
in the mid-18th century. The model was designed by Robert Kaplan-Ingel, the museum’s
Sergey Kaznakov and the exhibition “Mikhail Lomonosov
first director. He used the surviving drawings and plans to identify the size and layout of the
and the Time of Elizabeth I”
laboratory and the location of doorways and windows and positioned the equipment, glass-
The article examines some less-known facts in the biography of the famous collec- ware and furnaces in accordance with architectural descriptions. The building of the model
tor Sergey Kaznakov (late 19th – early 20th centuries), an organiser of the 1912 exhibition required some complex research. Following a meticulous analysis of archival materials, a full
“Mikhail Lomonosov and the Time of Elizabeth I” commemorating Lomonosov’s bicente- reconstruction project was developed; numerous sketches, working designs and watercolours
nary; Kaznakov also loaned part of the exhibits from his private collection. Particular atten- were made. The model (1/10 of the laboratory’s original size) with approximately 480 items
tion is paid to the attribution of one of the few surviving exhibits – a porcelain snuffbox for- of  equipment is mostly made of wood and painted to achieve the illusion of maximum au-
merly belonging to Kaznakov (Department of the History of the Kunstkamera and Russian thenticity. The most difficult part in creating glassware models was selecting the appropriate
Eighteenth-Century Science, Lomonosov Museum, Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology type of glass. All glassware items carry labels in the coding used by Lomonosov and other
and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences). eighteenth-century chemists. The Chemical Laboratory model looked so authentic that two
replicas of it were specially made for the Polytechnic Museum in Moscow and the Lomonosov
Museum in the scientist’s home town.
N. S. Onegin
The Elizabethan Room in Yury Ozarowsky’s Museum N. P. Kopaneva
In 2011 Russia marked the 270th anniversary of Elizabeth I’s coronation. While preparing The State Hermitage and the beginnings
a series of exhibitions commemorating her reign, researchers addressed some of the earlier in- of the Mikhail Lomonosov Museum
stances when Elizabethan objects were displayed to the general public. One venue particularly
worth of mention was a private museum named The Little Old House which operated in the On 8 May 1947 the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences passed a resolution to es-
1910s and presented a wealth of fine mid-eighteenth-century artefacts. The unique museum was tablish a Lomonosov Museum on the premises of the Kunstkamera. Created as a subdivision
founded by Yury Ozarowsky (1869–1924), Director of the Alexandrinsky Theatre and a “col- of the Ethnography Institute shortly after the Second World War, the museum had a mission
lector of Russian antiquities”. Opened in the winter of 1914 in Solyanoy Lane, St. Petersburg, to collect and study materials related to Lomonosov’s life and achievements as well as the evo-
the museum displayed a vast variety of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century furniture, prints, lution of Russian science in the 18th century. The museum founders (under the leadership
paintings, textiles and bronze items from Ozarowsky’s private collection. The collection was of Sergey Vavilov, President of the Academy of Sciences) were faced with a  task of build-
presented in the order of reigns: the period before Peter I, the reigns of  Peter I, Elizabeth I, ing the museum collection. To achieve this goal, several museums including the Hermitage
Catherine II and Alexander I. The museum attempted to recreate historical interiors, with each had to contribute some of their exhibits to the Lomonosov Museum. The relations between
of the rooms representing a certain period; this way, individual objects were placed in appro- the Hermitage and the Academy of Sciences concerning museum stocks had a long and con-
priate historical environments. The Elizabethan Room imitated a mid-eighteenth-­century bou- troversial history. Just before the Second World War, for instance, the Academy of Sciences had
doir. Most of its furniture came from Peterhof and Oranienbaum; some of the items originat- transferred some exhibits from the Peter the Great Gallery to the Hermitage to fill the newly
ed from the collection of E.R. Sutgof in Pskov. In Yury Ozarowsky’s words, the Elizabethan opened Department of the History of Russian Culture. Another handover to the Hermitage by
Room was “cheerful, light, festive to the point of theatricality, amusing and genteel”. In 1916 the Academy of Sciences, associated with the Museum of History of Science and Technology,
the museum was sold and then closed, but the methods used in The Little Old House provide included scientific instruments, which was considered to be an especially painful loss for the
a valuable source of information for contemporary museum workers specialising in domestic Lomonosov Museum. The Lomonosov Museum founders requested three groups of objects
culture. from the Hermitage: scientific equipment, commemorative medals and engraved or lithograph-
ic portraits of Lomonosov and his contemporaries. At the end of December 1947, a marble
bust of Leonhard Euler by Jean-Dominique Rachette and “porcelain made by Lomonosov
M. F. Khartanovich and Vinogradov” were further added to this list. On  21  February 1948 the list was supple-
The model of Mikhail Lomonosov’s chemical laboratory: mented by  a collection of “samples of coloured glass from Lomonosov’s laboratory held
Past, present and future by the Russian Department”. The exhibits were transferred to the Lomonosov Museum under
the Decree of  the USSR Council of Ministers of 14 May 1948. Academician Sergey Vavilov
Located in the Kunstkamera since the second half of the 20th century, the Lomonosov and the Hermitage Director Iosif Orbeli kept extensive correspondence on handover issues.
Museum became a living centre of research on the biography and achievements of the out- The official opening of the museum took place on 5 January 1949; on 29 December 1949, the
standing Russian scientist and the history of national science in the 18th century. The real Hermitage fulfilled its commitments regarding the exhibit transfer to the Lomonosov Museum.
316
Содержание C ontents

Е. М. Лупанова E. M. Lupanova


Научные приборы конструкции М. В. Ломоносова. Инновации и нереализованные Scientific instruments constructed by Mikhail Lomonosov.
проекты. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Innovations and uncompleted projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
С. А. Черноус S. A. Chernous
Приоритеты Ломоносова в исследованиях полярных сияний. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Lomonosov’s breakthroughs in auroral research. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
И. А. Гарманов I. A. Garmanov
«Исполняя по своей профессии должность». Последний опыт Георга Рихмана “In doing his professional duty”. Georg Richman’s last experiment
(по материалам газеты «Санкт-Петербургские ведомости»). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 (Newly discovered stories from The Sankt-Peterburgskie Vedomosti) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Е. В. Карпова E. V. Karpova
Портрет М. В. Ломоносова работы Ф. И. Шубина: оригинал и вариации. . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Mikhail Lomonosov’s portrait by Fyodot Shubin: The original and variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Г. А. Миролюбова G. A. Mirolyubova
М. В. Ломоносов и «Театрум фейерверка» в середине XVIII в. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Mikhail Lomonosov and The Firework Theatrum in the mid-18th century. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Г. А. Принцева
G. A. Printseva
Эскизы аллегорических композиций для триумфальных ворот
Sketches for allegorical paintings on St. Petersburg triumphal gates (1742). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
в Санкт-Петербурге 1742 г.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
L. S. Gerasimova
Л. С. Герасимова
The attribution of the Apostle Peter mosaic from Mikhail Vorontsov’s collection . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Атрибуция мозаики с изображением апостола Петра из собрания М. И. Воронцова . . . 62
И. В. Тункина I. V. Tunkina
Дарственная М. В. Ломоносову на земли в Копорском уезде The Donative Diploma to Мikhail Lomonosov on the spot of land in Koporye Uyezd
Петербургской губернии . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 of St. Petersburg province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Д. В. Осипов D. V. Osipov
Атрибуционное исследование пяти стеклярусных (бисерных) панно из фондов The attribution study of five glass bead panels from the Department of the History
Отдела истории русской культуры Государственного Эрмитажа . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 of Russian Culture, State Hermitage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
О. С. Кислицына O. S. Kislitsyna
К вопросу атрибуции мозаичных столов из Стеклярусного кабинета On the attribution of the mosaic tables in the Glass Bead Salon of the Chinese Palace,
Китайского дворца в Ораниенбауме . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Oranienbaum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
И. К. Ботт I. K. Bott
«Смальтовый» фасад Большого Царскосельского дворца – эксперимент The “smalt façade” of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo: Mikhail Lomonosov’s
М. В. Ломоносова?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 experiment? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Е. П. Ренне E. P. Renne
Эскизы Вигилиуса Эриксена к портрету императрицы Елизаветы Петровны . . . . . . . . . 130 Vigilius Eriksen’s studies for the portrait of Empress Elizabeth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
В. В. Николаева V. V. Nikolayeva
Л. К. Пфандцельт: загадки и открытия. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Lucas Conrad Pfandzelt: Secrets and discoveries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
318 319
Содержание Contents

А. С. Захаров, В. В. Николаева A. S. Zakharov, V. V. Nikolayeva


К иконографии барона Н. А. Корфа (1710–1766) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Towards the iconography of Baron Nikolay Korff (1710–1766). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
О. Г. Костюк O. G. Kostiuk
Изящные напоминания середины столетия . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Delicate keepsakes of the mid-18th century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
М. Н. Лопато M. N. Lopato
Заказы драгоценных вещей императрицей Елизаветой Петровной. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Precious items commissioned by Empress Elizabeth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Т. Н. Лехович T. N. Lekhovich
«О неношении никому богатых платьев…»: что стоит за указами “No one shall wear rich garments…”: What stands behind Elizabeth I’s
Елизаветы Петровны против роскоши?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 sumptuary laws?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Л. В. Ляхова L. V. Liackhova
Андреевский сервиз императрицы Елизаветы Петровны и саксонская The St. Andrew Service of Empress Elizabeth I and Saxony’s “fragile diplomacy”
«фарфоровая дипломатия» 1744–1748 гг.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 in 1744–1748 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Е. А. Анисимова E. A. Anisimova
К вопросу о типологии русского стекла первой половины – середины XVIII в. . . . . . . . 194 On the typology of early to mid-eighteenth-century Russian glass art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
М. Н. Косарева M. N. Kosareva
Уральское меднопосудное дело XVIII в.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Eighteenth-century Ural copperware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
И. Н. Уханова I. N. Ukhanova
Об одном шедевре косторезного искусства XVIII в.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 A masterpiece of eighteenth-century bone carving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
А. В. Шибанов A. V. Shibanov
Парадная литавренная колесница графа П. И. Шувалова. Проблемы реставрации. . . . . 222 The ceremonial artillery carriage of Count Pyotr Shuvalov. Aspects of the Restoration . . . . . 222
Н. Ю. Гусева N. Yu. Guseva
Редкое зеркало елизаветинского времени . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 A rare Elizabethan mirror. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Е. Ю. Басаргина E. Yu. Basargina
Ломоносовский юбилей 1865 г. и проект академической реформы. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Lomonosov’s anniversary in 1865 and proposals for academic reform. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
И. М. Захарова I. M. Zakharova
Празднование юбилейных дат М. В. Ломоносова в Архангельской Celebration of Mikhail Lomonosov’s anniversaries in the Arkhangelsk Province
губернии в XIX–XX вв.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 in the 19th and 20th centuries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
О. Ю. Петрова O. Yu. Petrova
С. Н. Казнаков и выставка «Ломоносов и елизаветинское время» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Sergey Kaznakov and the exhibition “Mikhail Lomonosov and the Time of Elizabeth I”. . . . 256
Н. С. Онегин N. S. Onegin
Елизаветинская комната в музее Ю. Э. Озаровского. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 The Elizabethan Room in Yury Ozarowsky’s Museum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
М. Ф. Хартанович M. F. Khartanovich
Макет Химической лаборатории М. В. Ломоносова: вчера, сегодня, завтра . . . . . . . . . . . 270 The model of Mikhail Lomonosov’s chemical laboratory: Past, present and future. . . . . . . . . 270
Н. П. Копанева N. P. Kopaneva
Создание Музея М. В. Ломоносова и Государственный Эрмитаж. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 The State Hermitage and the beginnings of the Mikhail Lomonosov Museum . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
Список сокращений . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 Abbreviations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
Резюме статей на английском языке. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 Summaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305