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R.N. Abramova, A.L. Botova


Recommended for publishing by the Editorial Board

of the Tomsk Polytechnic University

Tomsk Polytechnic University Publishing House


Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования

Р.Н. Абрамова, А.Л. Ботова


Книга для учителя

Рекомендовано в качестве учебного пособия

Редакционно-издательским советом
Томского политехнического университета

Томского политехнического университета

УДК 811.111’36(076.5)
ББК Ш143.21-923.2

Абрамова Р.Н.
А16 Грамматический сборник: книга для учителя: учебное посо-
бие / Р.Н. Абрамова, А.Л. Ботова; Томский политехнический уни-
верситет. – Томск: Изд-во Томского политехнического университе-
та, 2011. – 76 с.

Книга для учителя содержит ключи к заданиям и методические рекомен-

дации по работе с учебным пособием «Грамматический справочник» авторов
Р.Н. Абрамовой, А.Л. Ботовой. Кроме того, даются дополнительные пояснения
и рекомендации по использованию и варьированию материалов данного посо-
бия на занятиях и во внеаудиторной деятельности. 

УДК 811.111’36(076.5)
ББК Ш143.21-923.2


Кандидат филологических наук, доцент ТГПУ

А.Ю. Казанцев

Кандидат исторических наук

старший преподаватель ТГУ
К.А. Семёнова


© Абрамова Р.Н., Ботова А.Л., 2011
© Оформление. Издательство Томского
политехнического университета, 2011


1. INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................... 6

2. NOUNS ......................................................................................................................... 9

3. ADJECTIVES ............................................................................................................. 15

4. PRONOUNS ............................................................................................................... 19

5. NUMERALS ............................................................................................................... 22

6. INTERJECTIONS ....................................................................................................... 24

7. ADVERBS .................................................................................................................. 26

8. ARTICLES .................................................................................................................. 27

9. CONJUNCTIONS ....................................................................................................... 38

10. VERBS ........................................................................................................................ 39

11. MODAL VERBS ........................................................................................................ 45

12. PREPOSITIONS ......................................................................................................... 47

13. NON-FINITE VERBS ................................................................................................ 49

14. EMPHASIS / INVERSION......................................................................................... 58

15. SYNTAX ..................................................................................................................... 62

16. PUNCTUATION......................................................................................................... 70

1.1 State the definition to each of the following parts of speech and the questions that
this or that part of speech can answer.
1. noun what someone \ something is called; What? Who?
the name of a thing, place, quality,
2. adjective describes the person, thing which a What? Which?
noun refers to
3. pronoun word that can be used in place of a Who? Whose? Whom?
noun \ a noun phrase
4. adverb adding to the meaning of the verb How?
states something about the action in
a sentence by modifying a verb
5. verb word \ phrase which expresses the
existence of a state or the doing of
an action
6. numeral expresses an abstract numerical
value, a numerical determination
7. modal verbs words used with other parts of
speech (noun \ and may change the
meaning of the word itself verb)
8. interjection expresses the feeling of the speaker \
shows the will of the speaker or his \
her order or appeal to the hearer
9. preposition concerned with our relationship with Where? When?
someone else How?
10. conjunction word used to connect different
phrases\ sentences
11. particle expresses a relationship between one
person, thing, event, etc. and another
12. article affects \ determines the meaning of
the noun
13. quantifiers often modify nouns and show how How much? How
many things \ how much of some- many?
thing we are talking about; some-
times refer to whole amounts; refer
to unspecified \ particular person \
14. determiner word which precedes a noun in a
noun phrase to indicate which
thing/person you are referring to,
and whether you are referring to one
thing/person or several

1.2 Discuss the position of each part of speech in a sentence.
In written English, the basic unit of expression is the sentence, and the words in a sentence
are classified into ten word classes, which I have already described.

1.3 Identify the word class of each of the words in the following sentences.
1. A young with long black hair walked confidently across the room.
art.\ adj.\ prep.\adj.\ adj. \n \v \ad. \ prep. \ art. \ noun
2. We often played dangerous games when we were children.
pron. \ adv. \ verb \ adj. \ noun \ conj. \ pron. \ verb \ noun
3. His old firm gave Sam a beautiful gold watch on his retirement.
pron. \ adj. \ noun \ verb \ noun \ art. \ adj. \ adj. \ noun \ prep. \ pron. \ noun
4. Catherine explained to me what the situation was.
noun \ verb \ prep. \ pron. \ pron. \ art. \ noun \ verb
5. He bought a gift for his niece who lives in Australia.
pron. \ verb \ art. \ noun \ prep. \ pron. \ noun \ pron. \ verb \ prep. \ noun
6. That the match will be cancelled is now certain.
deter. \ art. \ noun \ verb \ verb\ adv. \ adj
7. In spite of the fact that hotel prices have risen sharply, the number of tourists is as
great as ever.
conj. \ art. \ noun \ conj. \ noun \ noun \ verb \ adv. \ art. \ noun \ prep. \ noun \ verb \
part. \ adj. \ part. \ adv.
8. Operations were difficult in the 18th century in those days there were no anesthetics.
noun \ verb \ adj. \ prep. \ art. \ numeral \ noun \ prep. \ determ. \ noun \ part. \ verb \ determ. \ noun
9. Joy is engaged to a daring very attractive young Air Force pilot.
noun \ verb \ prep. \ art. \ adj. \ determ. \ adj. \ adj. \ noun \ noun
10. We have 60 % chance of winning the next election.
pron. \ verb \ numeral \ noun \ prep. \ noun \ art. \ adj. \ noun
11. The material will be ready in ten days.
art. \ noun \ verb \ prep. \ numeral \ noun
12. We went round and round the town looking for the hotel.
pron. \ verb \ prep. \ conj. \ prep. \ art. \ noun \ non-verbal \ prep. \ art. \ noun
13. When I lived in London the postman usually delivered our mail at 7.
conj. \ pron. \ verb \ prep. \ noun \ art. \ noun \ adv. \ verb \ pron. \ noun \ prep. \ numeral
14. He could swim five miles when he was a boy.
pron. \ modal verb \ verb \ numeral \ noun \ conj. \ pron. \ verb \ art. \ noun
15. She asked her boss if she must work overtime.
pron. \ verb \ pron. \ noun \ conj. \ pron. \ modal verb \ verb \ adv.
16. Many people have been questioned and the owner of the stolen getaway car has been traced.
quan. \ noun \ verb \ conj. \ art. \ noun \ prep. \ art. \ adj. \ noun \ verb
17. It is feared that many lives have been lost in the train crash.
pron. \ verb \ adj. \ conj. \ quan. \ noun \ verb \ prep. \ art. \ noun
18. Charles I was beheaded in 1649.
noun \ numeral \ verb \ prep. \ numeral
19. They tried for hours but they couldn’t rescue the cat.
pron. \ verb \ prep. \ noun \ conj. \ pron. \ modal verb \ verb \ art. \ noun
20. Bill is only 9 months old and he is already able to stand up.
noun \ verb \ adv. \ numeral \ noun \ adv \ conj. \ pron. \ verb \ adv. \ modal verb \ prep. \

1.4 Identify the clause elements in the following sentences.
Yesterday the newspapers labeled the match the event of the year.
adverbial \ subject \ verb \ indirect object \ object \ adverbial
The attendant has called me a fool twice.
subject \ verb \ indirect object \ direct object \ adverb

1.5 Write an example of each of the four different types of sentence.

1. It is raining today.
2. What are you doing tomorrow?
3. Come up to me.
4. It’s great!

1.6 Write examples of simple, compound and complex sentences.

1. The cat is on the table.
2. They went to the cinema and then they decided to go to the park.
3. They went to the park because it was a sunny day.


2.1 State the morphological composition of the following nouns.

Simple – S; Derivative – D; Compound – C. Snow (S), sandstone (C) , impossibility (D),
widower (D), opinion (S), exclamation (D), passer-by (C), misunderstanding (D), inactivi-
ty (D), snowball (C), kingdom (D), anticyclone (D), mother-of-pearl (C), immobility (D),
might (S), warmth (D), succession (D), ex-president (D), nurse (S), misdeed (D), wisdom
(D), blackbird (C), attention (D), policeman (C), merry-go-round (C), girlhood (D), use-
fulness (D), fortune (S), friendship (D), statesman (C), brother-in-law (C), population (D),
fellow-boarder (C), smelling-salt (C).

2.2 Give the plural of the following nouns.

Face (faces), portfolio (portfolios), swine (swine), house (houses), tomato (tomatoes),
hearth (hearths), mother-in-law (mothers-in-law), basis (bases), clergyman (clergymen),
ox (oxen), cry (cries), key (keys), fox (foxes), downfall (downfalls), looker-on (lookers-
on), rock (rocks), bush (bushes), enemy (enemies), leaf (leaves), roof (roofs), genius (ge-
niuses), hero (heroes), bunch (bunches), sheep (sheep), ship (ships), criterion (criteria),
youth (youths), journey (journeys), penknife (penknives), man-of-war (men-of-war), loss
(losses), datum (data), goose (geese), deer (deer), pie (pies), Englishwoman (Englishwom-
en), wolf (wolves), mouse (mice), formula (formulae), bath (bathes), volcano (volcanoes),
possibility (possibilities), forget-me-not (forget-me-nots), foot (feet), handkerchief (hand-
kerchiefs), thief (thieves), crisis (crises), stepdaughter (stepdaughters), birth (births), echo
(echoes), finger-tip (finger-tips), court martial (court martial), joy (joys), mischief-maker
(mischief-makers), extremity (extremities), spy (spies), lie (lies).

2.3 Use the appropriate form of the verb.

1. "There is money in my pocket", said to the porte.
2. I know my hair is beautiful, everybody says so.
3. The works were his country, his home, his reason for being.
4. Means was easily found.
5. ...this watch was a special favourite with Mr. Pickwick, having been carried about... for
a greater number of years than we feel called upon to state, at present.
6. "Good", I said. "No one shall tell me again that fish have no sense with them".
7. The deer were ravaging the man's fields.
8. Money was so scarce that it could fairly be said not to exist at all.
9. I was here before the gates were opened, but I was afraid to come straight to you.
10. The papers were dull, the news was local and stale, and the war news was all old.
11. At Capracotta, he had told me, there was trout in the stream below the town.
12. The sugartongs were too wide for one of her hands, and she had to use both in wield-
ing them.
13. Her hair was loose and half-falling, and she wore a nurse's dress.
14. The china was good, of a delicate pattern.
15. The nurse's wages were good.

2.4 Point out the nouns and define the class each belongs to.
1. Don't forget, Europe is still the heart of the world, and Germany the heart of Europe.
(proper \ common-abstract\ common-class\ proper)

2. His face was sick with pain and rage. (common-class \ common-abstract)
3. He drank coffee, letting the warmth go through his cold, tired body. (common-class\
common-abstract\ common-class)
4. The mysteries of storm and the rain and tide were revealed. (common-class)
5. By this time, quite a small crowd had collected, and people were asking each other what
was the matter. (common-collective)
6. He was professor of physics. (common-class)
7. A band of dark clouds lay across the sky, and underneath it was the last pale brilliance
of the evening. (common-class\ common-abstract)
8. The crowd laughed and moved, pushing every way and everybody. (common-collective)
9. A stone caught her heel. (common-class)
10. George suggested meat and fruit pies, cold meat, tomatoes, fruit and green stuff.
(proper \ common-class)
11. The silver coloured carpet felt wonderfully soft beneath his feet, the furniture was of a
golden wood. (common-class)
12. The moon was shining through the tree stems when they sat again side by side on the
log seat. (common-class)

2.5 Explain the use of the genitive case.

1. For four months, since in the canteen she saw Jon's tired smile,(characteristic) he had
been one long thought in her mind.
2. Agnes was at her wit's end. (regular use)
3....the Radicals' real supporters (relationship) were the urban classes.
4. They were to leave the house without an instant's delay (action) and go at once to the
river's edge and go aboard a steamer that would be waiting there for them.
5. "Where are the children?" "I sent them to mother's (relationship)".
6. That early morning he had already done a good two hours' work. (purpose)
7. Crime is the product of a country's social order.
8. I spotted the bride's father's (relationship) uncle's silk hat (regular use) on the seat of a
straight chair across the room.
9. He was still thinking of next morning's papers. (purpose)
10. A man stepped out from a tobacconist's (purpose) and waved to them, and the car slid
to the kerb and stopped.

2.6 Translate into English, using a noun in the genitive case where possible.
1. Давид провел две недели в Ярмуте у мистера Пеготти. (David spent two weeks in
Yarmouth at Mr. Pegotte’s.) 2. Уезжая в Ярмут, мальчик ничего не знал о предполага-
емом (intended) браке своей матери. (Arriving to Yarmouth the boy didn’t know about
his mother’s intended marriage) 3. После путешествия, которое длилось несколько
часов, Пеготти с Давидом прибыли в Ярмут. (After a several hour journey Pegotte and
David arrived in Yarmouth.) 4. Приближаясь к дому мистера Пеготти, Давид увидел
детскую фигурку, стоявшую на пороге. (Approaching Mr. Pegotte’s house David saw a
child’s figure.) 5. Дядя Хэм и тетя Эмили усыновили их, когда они были детьми.
(Uncle Ham and aunt Emily adopted them when they were children.) 6. Пеготти с
гордостью говорила о доброте своего брата. (Pegotte proudly spoke about her broth-
er’s generosity.) 7. Двухнедельное пребывание в Ярмуте доставило Давиду большое
удовольствие. (David had a pleasant two-week stay in Yarmouth.) 8. В присутствии

мужа миссис Копперфильд боялась приласкать своего сына. (In her husband’s pres-
ence, Mrs. Cooperfield was afraid to hug her son.) 9. После минутной нерешительно-
сти Давид подошел к миссис Копперфильд и поцеловал ее. (After a minute’s hesita-
tion David came up to Mrs. Cooperfield and kissed her.) 10. После смерти жены мистер
Мердстон послал Давида в Лондон, где мальчик должен был работать в торговом
доме (warehouse) Мердстона и Гринби. (After his wife’s death, Mr. Merdson send the
boy to London to work in Merdson and Grinbin’s warehouse.)

2.7 Underline the nouns and explain their functions in the sentences below:
e.g., Many young people leave their hometown for work in the big city.
 people – subject
 hometown – direct object
 for work – prepositional complement
1. Philip (subject) heard a man’s voice (direct object) talking quickly over the phone.
(prepositional complement)
2. The boys and girls (compound subject) took some bread and cheese (direct object)
with them.
3. Mr. Smith (subject) was still thinking of next morning’s papers. (prepositional com-
4. The breakfast table (subject) at Mr. Boffin’s (prepositional complement) was usually
very pleasant.
5. The woman (subject) needed a good night’s sleep. (direct object)
6. I will have extensively studied English grammar. (direct object)
7. The woman (subject) whom you are looking for is she.
8. My professor (subject) recommended an extremely captivating book. (direct object)
9. The woman (subject) has always hated mice. (direct object)
10. America (subject) recently elected Barack Obama (direct object) president. (indirect
11. The child (subject) drew his mother (indirect object) a picture. (direct object)
12. The students (subject) studied during their spring break. (prepositional complement)
13. Because of a lengthy delay, we missed our flight. (direct object)
14. We reserved twenty hotel rooms. (direct object)
15. The librarians’ report (subject) was informative.
16. The musician Stevie Nicks (subject) is a singer (predicative) in Fleetwood Mac.
(prepositional complement)
17. We decided to go home. (adverbial modifier)
18. Yesterday the children (subject) slept in late.
19. Both native speakers and ESL students (compound subject) must learn ten functions
(direct object) of nouns. (genitive case)

2.8 Underline the noun phrases in the sentences below. Put the head word(s) of the
noun phrases above in parentheses.
Ex. (Indiana Jones) is famed for his adventures.
 Indiana – pre-modifier (noun as an adjective)
 Jones – head (word)
 for his adventures – post-modifier (prepositional phrase)

1. The teacher gave an (determiner) exciting (pre-modifier) lecture (head) on noun
phrases (post-modifier – prepositional phrase).
2. This news is such a (determiner) surprise (head).
3. My sister was born in the month of September.
4. The (determiner) battered old (pre-modifier) car (head) that my neighbour bought
yesterday (post-modifier) was parked outside my house.
5. The (determiner) stairs (head) in my house (post-modifier – prepositional phrase)
is made of wood.
6. The class was all (head) working on a project together (post-modifier – ing clause).
7. The police found some (determiner) glass (head) from the broken window (post-
modifier – prepositional phrase) on the ground (post-modifier – prepositional phrase).
One (determiner) of my (premodifier) friends (head) is a vet.
8. They saw an (determiner) old (pre-modifier) film (head) at the cinema (post-
modifier – prepositional phrase).
9. I have a (determiner) terrible (pre-modifier) headache (head).
10. His father went to school (head) to see his teacher (post-modifier – infinitive
clause). Many people spend their summer (pre-modifier) holidays (head) in one of the
many cities in Italy (post-modifier – prepositional phrase).
11. Venice looks just as beautiful the (determiner) first, second or third (post-
determiner) time (head) you visit (post-modifier).
12. Some prefer the (determiner) small (pre-modifier) town (head) of Lecce in the
south of the country (post-modifier – prepositional phrase).
13. Lecce attracts a lot of (determiner) Italian (pre-modifier) visitors (head).
14. Its (determiner) fine (pre-modifier) churches (head) are usually decorated the year
round (post-modifier – ed-clause).
15. The (determiner) mountain (pre-modifier) country (head) to the north of Milan
(post-modifier – prepositional phrase) provides skiing in winter and walking in summer.
16. Each (determiner) region (head) in Italy (post-modifier – prepositional phrase) of-
fers something different.
17. His (pre-modifier) translations (head) of ancient scripts (post-modifier – preposi-
tional phrase) show how intelligent and knowledgeable he is.

2.9 Analyze the following text:

2.9.1 Analyze the nouns (morphological composition, types, category, genitive) in sen-
tences 1, 3, 5.
2.9.2 Underline the nouns and explain their functions in sentences 2, 4, 6.
2.9.3 Underline the noun phrases in sentences 8, 10, 11. Put the head word(s) of the
noun phrases above in parentheses. State their functions.
(1) Art experts have a large number of scientific ways to check whether a painting is a
forgery. (2) Forged paintings are often discovered because the materials used were not
available at the time the original painting was made. (3) Ultra-violet light, x-rays and
powerful microscopes can show modern paints and repairs which cannot normally be
seen. (4) Many new colors were introduced during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
(5) One of the commonest ways of proving that a supposedly seventeenth century painting
is a forgery is to find paints in it which did not exist at the time that the original was pro-
duced. (6) For example, many forgeries of old paintings were uncovered when it was dis-
covered that the artists had used titanium white, a paint first produced in 1921. (7) Unfor-

tunately forgeries of more modern paintings can be difficult to identify. (8) There are also
techniques available for testing the age and origin of a painting’s frame, paper or canvas
and backing. (9) However, many forgeries still slip through the expert’s net. (10) Many
insist that the best way to spot a forgery is to compare it with an undisputed original. (11)
One leading expert believes that no single scientific test can reliably prove a painting is a
forgery. (12) The important thing is to look at the painting as a whole.
(1) Art experts (simple \ common-class \ plural\ genitive) have a large number of scientific
ways (simple \ class-abstract \ plural) to check whether a painting (derivative \ common-
class \ singular) is a forgery (simple \ common-class \ singular).
(3) Ultra-violet light (simple \ common-abstract \ singular), x-rays (derivative \ common-
abstract \ plural) and powerful microscopes (derivative \ common-class \ plural) can show
modern paints (simple \ common-class \ plural) and repairs (simple \ common-class \ sin-
gular) which cannot normally be seen.
(5) One of the commonest ways of proving that a supposedly seventeenth century (simple
\ common-class \ singular) painting is a forgery is to find paints in it which did not exist at
the time that the original (derivative \ common-abstract \ singular) was produced.
(2) Forged paintings (subject) are often discovered because the materials (subject) used
were not available at the time the original painting (predicative) was made.
(4) Many new colors (subject) were introduced during the nineteenth and twentieth centu-
ries. (prepositional complement).
(6) For example, many forgeries of old paintings (subject-genitive case) were uncovered
when it was discovered that the artists (subject) had used titanium (direct object) white, a
paint (attribute) first produced in 1921.
(8) There are also techniques (head) available (post-modifier – adjective) for testing the
age and origin of a painting’s frame, paper or canvas and backing. (post-modifier – prepo-
sitional phrase).
(10) Many insist that the (determiner) best (pre-modifier) way (head) to spot a forgery
(post-modifier – infinitive-clause) is to compare it with an undisputed original.
(11) One leading expert believes that no (determiner) single (post-determiner) scientific
(pre-modifier) test (head) can reliably prove a painting is a forgery.

2.10 Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на 1) существительные во

множественном числе; 2) существительные в притяжательной форме
1. Все данные говорят в пользу этой теории.
2. Наша левая рука не знает, что делает правая.
3. Эта реакция протекает в вакуумах.
4. Что касается работы этого ученого, то она имеет огромное значение.
5. После недельного отдыха кролику можно дать вторую дозу витаминов.
6. В нашем распоряжении существует несколько способов достижения этой цели.
7. Они постоянно пытаются расширить сферу применения локальных свойств
простоты этой программы.
8. Приемлемый уровень рабочих характеристик для данной машины может рас-
сматриваться как ее собственные характеристики.
9. Очевидно, что сама структура будет определять правило полюсов как пара-
метры системы.
10. Хотя меморандумы по этому вопросу и были неофициальными……..

11. Согласно статистическим данным, почти одна треть населения Земли испы-
тывает недостаток пресной воды даже сегодня.
12. Наиболее важной проблемой является математическая природа задач……
13. Дурное окружение не влияет на хороших людей.
14. Следует видеть ситуацию своими собственными глазами.


3.1 State the morphological composition of the following adjectives.

Pretty (grammar category conversion), bushy (grammar category conversion),
weather-stained (composition), thoughtful (derivative), hard-hearted (composition), illegit-
imate (derivative), sober (grammar category conversion), non-party (derivative), low-bred
(composition), improbable (derivative), sceptical (derivative), counter-revolutionary (de-
rivative), careworn (composition), beloved (derivative), wicked (grammar category con-
version), disobedient (derivative), long-legged (composition), regular (grammar category
conversion), water-proof (composition), large (grammar category conversion), well-timed
(composition), homeless (derivative), shaky (grammar category conversion), courageous
(derivative), panic-stricken (composition), blindfold (composition), Portuguese (deriva-
tive), newly-baked (composition), antique (grammar category conversion), peace-making
(composition), forlorn (grammar category conversion), illegible (derivative), abundant
(grammar category conversion) , red-haired (composition), small (grammar category con-
version), deep-blue (composition), bookish (derivative), snow-white (composition),
respectable-looking (composition).

3.2 Use the adjective in the comparative or superlative degree.

1. They had dined well and were now drinking hard ... their faces getting redder and
redder. (red, red)
2. Was there anything in the world worse than indecision? (bad)
3. He was only five years younger than I was which made him forty-five. (young)
4. She is stopping at one of best hotels in town. (good)
5. She received congratulations as if she were the happiest of women. (happy)
6. I think we'll resume the conversation when you're a little calmer, Caroline. (calm)
7. He felt her breathing grow slower and easier. (slow, easy)
8. It's hotter in here than it is on the street. (hot)
9. I think you're about the prettiest girl in school. (pretty)
10. All his life he had taken pains to be stronger, braver than his fellows. (strong, brave)

3.3 Put in the missing adjectives. Alternatives are sometimes possible.

alive asleep beautiful big complete fast fresh lovely

pleased polished poor quick-drying shiny tall young


Three and a half years ago Mr. Bell received a beautiful present from his grandson.
The boy had had a lovely holiday by the seaside and had bought his grandfather a present.
It was a shiny sea-snail which had been stuck on top of an oyster and another shell.
Mr. Bell was very pleased with his gift and put it on a shelf. While he was dusting one
morning, he accidentally knocked the polished snail off the oyster. He went to find some
quick-drying glue. When he came back, he couldn’t believe his eyes. The snail had
moved along the shelf. It was alive! “It must have been asleep all these years and the
shock woke it up” , Mr. Bell said. He put the snail in a paper bag to show his friends. At
first they thought story was complete nonsense, until they saw the snail. The poor crea-

ture was so hungry, it had eaten a hole in the bag. Mr. Bell gave it a big meal of fresh
cabbage leaves which it really enjoyed. “It’s not such a tall story”, a scientist explained.
These creatures live on the seashore and don’t lead a fast life. They can hibernate years
without eating.

3.4 Put in relative pronouns where necessary. Underline the adjective clauses.


People who tell the truth about the properties they are selling should be given prizes
for honesty. A house which is described as “spacious” will be found to be large. Words
like “enchanting”, “delightful”, “convenient”, “attractive”, that are commonly used all
mean “small”. The words “small” and “picturesque” that are not so frequently used both
mean “too small”. A “picturesque house” is one with a bedroom which is too small to put
a bed in and a kitchen which is too small to boil an egg in. My prize for honesty goes to
someone who recently described a house that he was selling in the following way: “This
house which is situated in a very rough area of London is really in need of repair. The
house which has a terrible lounge and a tiny dining room also has three miserable bed-
rooms and a bathroom which is fitted with a leaky shower. The central heating which is
expensive to run is unreliable. There is a handkerchief-sized garden which is overgrown
with weeds. The neighbours who are generally unfriendly are not likely to welcome you.
This property that is definitely not recommended is ridiculously overpriced at $85.000.

3.5 Complete the following dialogue using the correct word from the box.

bored boring confusing convinced convincing relaxed

disappointed entertained entertaining frightened interesting surprised

 What sort of films do you like?

 When I go to the cinema, I like to be entertained.
 And what sort of films do you find interesting?
 Well, I like films that tell a good entertaining story. And I mean a story that you
can follow, not the sort that goes backwards and forwards in time. I find those very bor-
ing. I’m frightened when I watch a horror film. I usually close my eyes when the horror
 Yes, but if the story is too simple, surely you get disappointed because you know ex-
actly what’s going to happen.
 I don’t mean that. If something is intelligible, it’s not necessarily disappointing. Often
good stories have confusing events or endings that you can’t possibly know at the begin-
 For me the most important thing is that the actors must be convincing so that you real-
ly believe that they are the person they are acting.
 If that’s true, I image that you are bored most of the time because, well, for example,
Harrison Ford is always Harrison Ford. I’m never convinced that he’s somebody else.
 Yes, but it’s often not important in his films because they’re escapist (стремящийся
уйти от действительности, жизненных проблем) if you’re feeling tense about work or

something, you have a good laugh and you come out feeling relaxed and happy with the
 I’m surprised that you like his films. Although the special effects are good, the story
is always terribly simple.
 He’s not my favorite, but his films are not bad.

3.6 Consider the uses of modifiers in this adjectivally rich paragraph from Thomas
Wolfe's Look Homeward, Angel. (Charles Scribner's, 1929, p. 69). Underline them.
He remembered yet the East India Tea House at the Fair, the sandalwood, the tur-
bans, and the robes, the cool interior and the smell of India tea; and he had felt now the
nostalgic thrill of dew-wet mornings in Spring, the cherry scent, the cool clarion earth,
the wet loaminess of the garden, the pungent breakfast smells and the floating snow of
blossoms. He knew the inchoate sharp excitement of hot dandelions in young earth; in
July, of watermelons bedded in sweet hay, inside a farmer's covered wagon; of canta-
loupe and crated peaches; and the scent of orange rind, bitter-sweet, before a fire of
coals. He knew the good male smell of his father's sitting-room; of the smooth worn
leather sofa, with the gaping horse-hair rent; of the blistered varnished wood upon the
hearth; of the heated calf-skin bindings; of the flat moist plug of apple tobacco, stuck
with a red flag; of wood-smoke and burnt leaves in October; of the brown tired autumn
earth; of honeysuckle at night; of warm nasturtiums, of a clean ruddy farmer who comes
weekly with printed butter, eggs, and milk; of fat limp underdone bacon and of coffee;
of a bakery-oven in the wind; of large deep-hued string beans smoking-hot and seasoned
well with salt and butter; of a room of old pine boards in which books and carpets have
been stored, long closed; of Concord grapes in their long white baskets.

3.7 The following paragraph is taken from D.H. Lawrence's short story "The Horse
Dealer's Daughter". Underline the adjectives, predicate adjectives, and modifying parti-
ciples in the order in which they appear. For the purposes of this exercise, we have not
included the articles "a, an, the", and we have not included the possessive pronouns
"his" and "her".
And he hastened straight down, running over the wet, soddened fields, pushing
through the hedges, down into the depression of callous, wintry obscurity. It took him
several minutes to come to the pond. He stood on the bank, breathing heavily. He could
see nothing. His eyes seemed to penetrate the dead water. Yes, perhaps that was the dark
shadow of her black clothing beneath the surface of the water.
He slowly ventured into the pond. The bottom was deep, soft clay, then he sank in,
and the water clasped… his legs. As he stirred he could smell the cold, rotten clay that
fouled up into the water. It was objectionable in his lungs. Still, repelled and yet not
heeding, he moved deeper into the pond. The cold water rose over his thighs, over his
loins, upon his abdomen. The lower part of his body was all sunk in the hideous cold el-
ement. And the bottom was so deeply soft and uncertain, he was afraid of pitching with
his mouth underneath. He could not swim, and was afraid.

3.8 Translate into English.

1. Киев – более древний город, чем Москва; это один из древнейших городов
России. (Kiev is older than \ more ancient than Moscow, which is one of the oldest cities
in Russia.) 2. В XVI веке Испания была самой могущественной державой мира. (In

the 16th century Spain was the most powerful country in the world.) 3. Волга длиннее
Днепра; это самая длинная река Европы. (The Volga is longer than the Dnieper, which
is the longest river in Europe.) 4. Ватикан – самое маленькое государство в Европе.
(The Vatican is the smallest country in Europe.) 5. Одной из важнейших проблем сего-
дняшнего дня является установление прочного и длительного мира. (The most im-
portant problem today is to establish stable and permanent peace.) 6. Можно надеяться,
что в ближайшем будущем культурные связи с Англией будут еще более тесными.
(In the near future the cultural relationship with England will be much closer.) 7. Точка
кипения (the boiling point) спирта ниже точки кипения воды. (The boiling point of
spirit is lower than that of water.) 8. Платина тяжелее золота; это один из самых
тяжелых металлов. (Platinum is heavier than gold; it is the heaviest metal in the world.)
9. Утро было прекрасное, но к вечеру погода стала хуже, ветер усилился, и темные
тучи покрыли небо. (It was a beautiful morning; but the weather became worse in the
evening and dark clouds covered the sky.)


4.1 Point out the pronouns in the following sentences and define the class each belongs to.
1. There's nothing (negative) for any of us (objective) to do. 2. Both (defining)
these (demonstrative) people were resolved to treat Mr. Polly very well, and to help his
(possessive) exceptional incompetence in every (defining) possible way. 3. Such (demon-
strative) were the reflections of Felix before the brass tablet. 4. She (personal) hesitated a
moment, and then sat down beside me (objective), and laid her (possessive) hand on mine
(possessive). 5. None (negative) of us (objective) except Collingwood knew what the
Prime Minister thought of Roger or his (possessive) policy. 6. There were some aviators in
the compartment who (relative) did not think much of me (objective). 7. Husbands and
wives never listen when they (personal) talk to each other (reciprocal), only when the
other (defining) is talking to somebody (indefinite) else. 8. Let me (objective) tell you (ob-
jective) something (indefinite). 9. There was at least one person in the world who (inter-
rogative) knew that he (personal) was alive and attached some importance to the fact. 10.
We (personal) said good-bye to one another (reciprocal) and arranged to meet in the

4.2 Use the appropriate form of the possessive pronoun.

1. She put out __ hand and I took out __ (her, hers; my, mine). 2. "Let me see your
passports", I gave him __ and Catherine got __ out of __ handbag (my, mine; her, hers;
her, hers). 3. Mind __ own business and I'll mind __ (your, yours; my, mine). 4. That, at
least, is my opinion of him; and I see it is not very far removed from __ (your, yours).
5. __ was not a marriage that could last (their, theirs). 6. __ nerves are as bad as __ (your,
yours; my, mine). 7. His eyes were as bright as __ (her, hers). 8. After all, this is __ home
just as much as __ (your, yours; my, mine). 9. His own hand shook as he accepted a rose
or two from __ and thanked her (her, hers).

4.3 Point out the reflexive pronouns and define their function.
1. Much more than most politicians Gave knew himself (adverbial modifier of
manner). 2. He did not doubt the logic, he realized suddenly; what he was doubting was
himself (predicative). 3. Still, he must be thankful that she had been too young to do any-
thing in that war itself (attribute). 4. Miss Adele Gerry opened the door herself (direct ob-
ject). 5. They blamed themselves (direct object) for this unlucky marriage. 6. The theatre
manager himself (attribute)... came to shake hands with them. 7. I have made myself (ad-
verbial modifier of manner) perfectly pleasant here. 8. I want to be kept in constant touch
with his progress myself (preceded by a preposition).

4.4 Point out conjunctive, relative, and interrogative pronouns.

1. "Who (interrogative) is that girl with yellow hair and dark eyes", he asked.
2. Who (interrogative) could tell what (interrogative) his son's circumstances really were?
3. What (interrogative) do you expect me to believe? 4. It was evident, indeed, that (con-
junctive) she wished me to drop the subject, which (relative) I did accordingly. 5. Would
she go with them or stay here and write to William. Which (interrogative), which (rela-
tive) should it be? 6. He mentioned things in the play which (conjunctive) she most ap-
proved of, things which (relative) swayed her deeply. 7. What (interrogative) hurt him
most was the fact that (conjunctive) he was being pursued as a thief.

4.5 Underline the pronouns and analyze them – type, function in the sentence.
1. It (personal – subject) follows that (conjunctive – a subordinate clause) this (demon-
strative – subject) is not satisfactory way for preparing it.
2. The level density is roughly the same (demonstrative predicative) – in all (defining–
attribute) the cases.
3. Now the impulse appeared, now it (personal – subject) disappeared.
4. It (personal – subject) reflects itself (reflexive – direct object) in many organizations.
5. The authors restricted themselves (reflexive – attribute) only to a description of the phe-
6. It (personal – subject) is surprising that (conjunctive – a subordinate clause) such
(demonstrative – attribute) a simple measure should give such (demonstrative – attribute)
constant information.
7. The confidence was destroyed by the mistakes made by him (objective – adverbial mod-
ifier of manner).
8. This (demonstrative – subject) is exactly the subject of the paper.

4.6 Translate the word «it» in the following sentences.

1. It is no use to dispute the truth. – Бесполезно ставить под сомнение истину.
2. It was an underlying factor in their difference. – Это являлось обусловливающим
фактором их различия.
3. It is a purely ethical system. – Это сугубо этическая система.
4. It is difficult to see in what respect the programs are different. – Сложно понять, чем
отличаются программы.
5. It was stated the conclusion was right. – Было заявлено о правильности вывода.
6. It was quite right when he tried to prove his point. – Совершенно верно, что он попы-
тался доказать свою точку зрения.
7. It results that this postulate is universally accepted. – Это привело к тому, что данный
постулат является общепринятым.
8. The supposition was correct. It was scientifically proved. – Предположение было вер-
ным и научно доказанным.
9. It was from the Portuguese that Europe first learned something about India. – Именно
от португальцев Европа впервые хоть что-то узнала об Индии.
10. It concerns the conduct of human beings. – Это касается поведения людей.

4.7 Translate the following sentences.

1.Это его часы? Да, эти – мои. (Is this his watch? Yes, and this is mine). 2. Чьи это де-
ти? – Наши. Они играют со своими друзьями. (Whose children are these? – Ours. They
are playing with their friends). 3. Ты сделал это для меня? – Нет, для него. (Did you do
for me? – No, I did it for him). 4. Это моя комната, а та – Бориса. Моя больше, чем его.
(This is my room, and that one is Boris’s. Mine is larger than his). 5. Почитай, пожалуй-
ста, эту информацию. Она поможет тебе. (Please, read this information. It may help
you). 6. Ее родители очень приятные люди. Ты их знаешь? (Her parents are very
pleasant people. Do you know them?). 7. Моя кошка любит играть со своим хвостом.
(My cat likes playing with its tail). 8. Это ее фотография? Дай ее мне. (Is this her photo?
– Give it to me). 9. Где мои очки? Я не могу найти. (Where are my glasses? I can’t find
them). 10. Познакомься с моими друзьями. Их зовут Лена и Алексей. (Let me intro-

duce my friends. They are Lena and Alexei). 11. Наша семья любит ездить в Крым. Мы
любим его природу. (My family likes traveling to the Crimea. We like its nature). 12. Он
останется с нами на выходные? – Поговори с ним об этом. (Will he stay with us at the
weekends? Talk to him about this). 13. Никогда не обсуждай свои личные проблемы на
работе. (Never discuss your personal problems at work). 14. Помой руки и иди с нами
обедать. (Wash your hands and have dinner with us). 15. Слушай советы, но не всегда
им следуй. (Listen to advice, but do not always follow it). 16. Моя дочь не любит боль-
ших животных. (My daughter dislikes big animals). 17. Цветы очень красивые. Ты их
видел? – Нет, а кто их принес? (The flowers are beautiful. Did you see them? – No, who
brought them?). 18. Тим предложил им пригласить нас на их свадьбу. (Tim asked them
to invite us to their wedding). 19. Эти деньги его. Дай их ему и поблагодари его. (This
is his money. Give it to him and thank him). 20. Я не интересуюсь компьютерными иг-
рами. Я их не люблю. (I am not interested in computer games. I don’t like them). 21. Это
крокодил. Его зубы очень острые. (This is a crocodile. Its teeth are very sharp). 22. Я
дал ему мою визитку, а он мне свою. (I gave him my card, and he gave me his). 23.
Есть удивительные новости. Ты слышал о них? (There is astonishing news. Did you
hear it?). 24. Где моя пижама? Я не могу без нее заснуть. (Where are my pajamas? I
can’t find them). 25. Вы позвонили в полицию? – Да, они уже едут сюда на своей ма-
шине. (Did you call the police? – Yes, they are coming here in their car).

4.8 Fill each space in these sentences with it\there and an appropriate word.
1. It is very expensive to buy a new car.
2. It is difficult trying to reach her by phone so I sent a fax.
3. He put his coat on because it is getting cold.
4. There has to be some mistake – I’ve never met you before in my life.
5. There were several fights outside the stadium but no one was hurt.
6. It has been some time since I wrote to you, as I’ve been very busy.
7. It is a pity you didn’t come to the party; we had a lovely time.
8. Is there life after death? I wonder.
9. There must be some kind of explanation for such strange behavior.
10. There is no special way of doing it.


5.1 Translate the following text.

a. Что лучше – часы, которые показывают правильное время лишь раз в год, или
часы, что показывают верное время ежедневно дважды? (Which is better, a clock that
is right only once a year, or a clock that is right twice every day?).
b. «Конечно, последние лучше», – ответишь ты без сомнения. (“The latter”, you
reply, unquestionably).
c. Очень хорошо, а теперь – смотри. У меня есть двое часов: одни совсем не хо-
дят, а другие – отстают на минуту в день. Какие бы ты предпочел? (Very good, now
attend. I have two clocks: one doesn’t go at all, and the other loses a minute a day: which
would you prefer?).
d. «Те, что отстают», отвечаешь ты, – «вне сомнения». (“The losing one”, you an-
swer, “without a doubt”). А теперь, будь внимателен: те часы, что отстают на минуту
в день, должны отстать на двенадцать часов, или на семьсот двадцать минут к тому
времени, как вновь покажут правильное время, т. е. они будут идти верно лишь раз
в два года. Тогда как другие, очевидно, показывают правильное время всякий раз,
как подходит то время, которое они показывают, что случается дважды в день. Итак,
ты опроверг сам себя. (Now observe: the one which loses a minute a day has to lose
twelve hours, or seven hundred and twenty minutes before it is right again, consequently it
is right once in two years, whereas the other is evidently right as often as the time it points
to come round, which happens twice a day. So you’ve contradicted yourself once.)

5.2 Translate the text – pay attention to the translation of the numerals.
We find ourselves today between a forest and an ocean – a forest of new knowledge and
an ocean of need. We are generating more new knowledge in one year than we generated
in a full decade less than half a life-span ago. In fact, if you look upon the last
50,000 years of man’s existence in terms of life-spans, the speed of our progress – the
pace of change is readily apparent. Because 800 modern life-spans would bridge more
than 50,000 years. But of those 800 people 650 would have spent their lives in caves or
something worse; only the last 70 had any truly effective means of communicating with
one another; only the last six ever saw a printed word; only the last six had any real means
of measuring heat and cold; only the last four could measure time with any precision; only
the last two used an electric motor; and many of the items that make up our material world
were developed within the life-span of the 800th person.
Сегодня мы находимся между небом и землей – небом знаний и землей потребно-
стей. (We find ourselves today between a forest and an ocean – a forest of new knowledge
and an ocean of need.) Мы создаем гораздо больше нового за год, чем делали это за
целое десятилетие менее, чем 35–45 лет назад. (We are generating more new
knowledge in one year than we generated in a full decade less than half a life-span ago.)
Действительно, если рассмотреть последние 50 000 лет существования человечества
в единицах продолжительности жизни, то скорость нашего прогресса, темп перемен,
будет очевиден. (In fact, if you look upon the last 50,000 years of man’s existence in
terms of life-spans, the speed of our progress – the pace of change is readily apparent.)
Потому что 800 сроков современной продолжительности жизни составили бы более
50 000 лет. (Because 800 modern life-spans would bridge more than 50,000 years.) Но из
этих 800 человек 650 провели бы свою жизнь в пещерах или жилищах еще хуже;

(But of those 800 people 650 would have spent their lives in caves or something worse;)
лишь у последних 70 были бы действительно эффективные средства коммуникации
друг с другом; (only the last 70 had any truly effective means of communicating with one
another); только последние шесть когда-либо увидели бы печатное слово и имели бы
приспособления для измерения температуры; (only the last six ever saw a printed
word;) only the last six had any real means of measuring heat and cold); только послед-
ние четыре могли бы измерять время хоть с какой-нибудь точностью; (only the last
four could measure time with any precision;) лишь последние два использовали бы
электродвигатель; (only the last two used an electric motor); и многое из того, что со-
ставляет наш материальный мир, было разработано в течение жизни восьмисотого
человека! (and many of the items that make up our material world were developed within
the life-span of the 800th person.)

5.3 Complete the sentences with the words and phrases. Add of, as, a and the where nec-
eighth four times once quarter twenty per cent twice two-fifths
1. The money was divided equally among the four brothers, so each received a quarter of it.
2. Once a year we have our annual family gathering at my grandparents’ house.
3. A centimeter is about two-fifths of an inch or 0.394 inches to be exact.
4. A litre bottle holds almost twice as much as a pint.
5. Did you know that at least twenty percent of the adult population can’t read.
6. At £ 200,000, the selling price is almost four times the price (£ 51,000) that Dan and
Ginny Swisher paid for their house just six years ago.
7. A furlong is an eighth of a mile.


6.1 Identifying interjections. Now that you’ve looked at a list of interjections, practice
identifying them in these ten sentences:
1.Yowza! That is a fine looking car. (Yowza is the interjection here. It is expressing the
emotion of being quite impressed with the car).
2. Hurray! It is a snow day and school is cancelled. (Hurray is the emotion here. Clearly,
it is expressing happiness).
3. It is so exciting, my goodness, I just can’t believe it. (My goodness is the interjection
here, expressing excitement).
4. Joe was late to school and yikes, the teacher was mad. (Yikes is the emotion being ex-
pressed here).
5. Oh! I can’t believe how nice you look. (Oh, the interjection, acts as a classic interjec-
tion at the beginning of a sentence. It is offset by its exclamation point).
6. Well, gee, that sure is a kind thing to say. (Here, we have two interjections: well and
7. Boo! I scared you. (Boo is the rather obvious (and scary) interjection in this sentence.)
8. Woops, I dropped the milk and it spilled. (Woops is the interjection used to express the
9. Yay, it is finally Friday and the work week is over. (Yay is another interjection that ex-
presses the emotion of happiness, just as hurray did in sentence).
10. Oh well, all good things must come to an end. (Oh well is the emotion here, an inter-
jection with a tinge of resignation).

6.2 Directions for the interjection worksheet. In the following sentences, identify the in-
terjection and underline it.
1. Hi, I'm glad that you could make it to my party. (Hi is the interjection and is used as a
2. Wow! You look great tonight. (Wow is the interjection and shows surprise).
3. That was the best performance that I have ever seen, bravo! (Bravo is the interjection
and is also used as a way to congratulate the participants).
4. I can’t believe you broke my favorite toy, bah. (Bah is the interjection and shows dis-
5. Hmm, I wonder where I put my keys and wallet. (Hmm is the interjection and a verbal-
ization of a mental process).
6. Miners used to shout, eureka, when they struck gold. (Eureka is the interjection and
shows excitement).
7. “Shoo!” shouted the woman when she saw the cat licking milk from her cereal bowl.
(Shoo is the interjection and is being used to verbally startle the cat).
8. I guess that’s the end of the movie, darn. (Darn is the interjection and shows disap-
9. Stop! You should always wear a helmet when riding a bike. (Stop is the interjection and
ceases the forthcoming action).
10. Yippee, I made this picture all by myself. (Yippee is the interjection and shows ex-

6.3 In the following sentences, write an appropriate interjection in the space provided.
The answers to the fill-in section may vary. Here is a list of interjections to help get start-
ed. However, more than one word can fit in each space above.
Balderdash,Bingo, Cheers Dang, Darn, Doh, Eureka, Goodness, Hey, Hurray, Incredi-
ble, Oomph, Ouch, Wow, Yay
1.______________, why didn't you hold the door for me?
2.______________, I’m so happy that you decided to visit this summer.
3.______________, it’s not every day that you see a dog riding a skateboard.
4.______________! How can you possibly agree with that point of view?
5. He just cost us the game with that error, ______________!
6.______________! You just gave me a great idea.
7.______________, that’s a very large dog at the end of that leash.
8. I can’t believe that I finally got an A on a project, ____________!
9.______________, my favorite author is doing a reading at the local library.
10. This is my first new car, _______________.

6.4 Point out all the interjections and say whether they are emotional or imperative.
1. "The Boers are a hard nut to crack, uncle James." "H'm! (imperative)" muttered James.
"Where do you get your information? Nobody tells". (Galsworthy) 2. "Oh! (emotional)
My eye" he said looking very low-spirited, "I am sorry for that". (Galsworthy) 3. "Good
Lord! (emotional)" said Fleur. "Am I only twenty-one? I feel forty-eight". (Galsworthy)
4. "Good Heavens (emotional)" cried my mother, "you'll drive me mad!". (Dickens)
5. Heavens! (emotional) How dull you are (Sheridan) 6. "Oh (imperative), Karen", he
said, "it's good to have you around!". (Heym) 7. Alas (imperative)! The white house was
empty and there was a bill in the window. (Dickens) 8. A man jumped on top of the barri-
cade and, waving exuberantly, shouted. "Americans! Hurrah. (emotional)". (Heym)
9. Hallo (imperative), Michael! I'm rather late; been to the club and walked home. (Gals-
worthy) 10. Ah (imperative)! You are both of you good-natured. (Sheridan) 11. "Hark
(imperative)!" cried the Dodger at this moment, "I heard the tinkler", catching up the light,
he crept softly upstairs. (Dickens) 12. "Who is that?" she cried. "Hush, hush (emotional)!"
said one of the women, stooping over her... (Dickens) 13. Well (imperative), I don't like
those mysterious little pleasure trips that he is so fond of taking. (Voynich) 14. Now, Ma-
ria, here is a character to your taste... (Sheridan) 15. Here (imperative)! I've had enough of
this. I'm going. (Shaw).


7.1 State the morphological composition of the following adverbs.

Where (simple), abroad (derivative), too (simple), tenfold (compound), nowadays (com-
pound), inside (compound), quickly (derivative), underneath (derivative), once (simple),
homeward (derivative), seldom (simple), nowhere (compound), heartily (derivative), afoot
(derivative), headlong (compound), twice (simple), beyond (derivative), then (simple),
eastward (derivative), otherwise (derivative), upstairs (compound), rarely (derivative), late
(simple), outside (compound), ahead (derivative), forever (compound), so (simple), be-
neath (derivative), forward (derivative), fast (simple), scarcely (derivative), inquiringly
(derivative), sometimes (compound), good-naturedly(compound\derivative).

7.2 Point out the adverbs and define the group each belongs to.
I. She talked to them naturally (manner), sang a little song to them... And gave them their
Sunday toys. (Buck) 2. He was free (manner) to go off with his easel where and when he
liked. (Galsworthy) 3. The man must have had diabolically (manner) acute hearing.
(Wells) 4. Patients insist on having microbes nowadays (time). (Shaw) 5. As soon as An-
nette found herself outside (place), she began to run. (Murdoch) 6. I never felt better
(manner) in my life. (Saroyan) 7. I think sometimes (time) there is nothing before me but
hard work ... (Galsworthy) 8. It was as if (adverbial conjunction – manner) his soul had
been cramped and his eyes bandaged from the hour of his birth. Why had he lived such a
life? Why had he submitted to things, blundered into things? (Wells) 9. Yes, George had
lived too fast (manner), or would not have been dying twenty years before his time – too
fast (Galsworthy) 10. She consulted her husband at once (time). (Galsworthy) 11. Fleur
having declared that it was "simply (manner) too wonderful to stay indoors", they all went
out. (Galsworthy) 12. And she lived at Mapledurham a jolly name, too, on the river
somewhere (place). (Galsworthy) 13. A week later (time) I am visited by a very stylish-
ly(manner) dressed young woman. (Saroyan) 14. They had been dancing together (man-
ner). (Dreiser) 15. He remembered her birthday well (manner) – he had always observed
it religiously (manner). (Galsworthy) 16. The driver, was ordered to take the car to the
pool, and Jates and Karen went afoot (manner). (Heym) 17. The only thing is to cut the
knot for good (manner). (Galsworthy) 18. Why, you've hardly (manner) started, it isn't
fair to bother you. (Cronin) 19. Twice (how many times) I doubled round corners, thrice I
crossed the road and came back on my tracks. (Wells) 20. They went eyeing (manner)
each other askance. (Galsworthy) 21. He took a few steps towards (manner) her and
looked less (manner) at her than at the open doorway behind her... (Greene) 22. In another
moment Adyl was leading the way downstairs (place). (Wells) 23. Soames looked at her
hard (manner). (Galsworthy) 24. The boy was due to go tomorrow (time). (Galsworthy)
25. She seems to be simple enough (manner). (This is America) 26. It [the cry] came from
the terrace below (place). (Galsworthy) 27. They are quiet at present (time). (Galsworthy)
28. I must get the money somehow (manner). (Shaw) 29. He had never (time) had a love
of music. (Galsworthy) 30. He spoke little (manner) and listened much (manner). (Hor-


8.1 Insert articles where necessary. (Articles with class nouns.)

1. Not a word was spoken in the parlour. (Caldwell) 2. The room itself was filling up, so
was the staircase. (Snow) 3. I think that a man's life is worth saving, whoever it belongs
to. (Shaw) 4. Though the earth was cold and wet, the sky was clear and the sun rose
bright and beautiful. (Dickens) 5. He made them provide not one car, but half a dozen.
(Snow) 6. The compass was invented in ancient China. 7. Not a word was spoken, not a
sound was made. (Dickens) 8. The sky outside the window was already dark, the secretar-
ies had gone home, all was quiet. (Snow) 9. Edward remained a week at the cottage. (Aus-
ten) 10. I tell you, he's as brave as a man can reasonably be. (Snow) 11. After that they
would meet, perhaps, two or three times a year. (Galsworthy) 12. Dinny looked up at the
house; and suddenly saw a face in the window of the dining-room. (Galsworthy) 13. You
know I never cared for drama. 14. "It is not a large house," I said. "We don't want a large
house." (Jerome K. Jerome) 15. He looks older than he is, as dark men often do. (Dickens)
16. Roger looked at him and, without a word, took out his wallet and gave him a ten-
shilling note. (Snow) 17. As a man sows, so shall he reap. 18. This morning the tobacco-
nist was at his door. (Bennett) 19. It was Sunday afternoon, and the sun, which had been
shining now for several hours, was beginning to warm the earth. (Murdoch) 20. I have a
long story to tell you. Come and sit down on the sofa and let us have a comfortable chat.
(Marryat) 21. Arm in arm, they walked toward home. (Shaw) 22. It was a cottage built
like a mansion, having a central hall with a wooden gallery running round it, and rooms
no bigger than closets. (Hardy) 23. And what a beautiful moth there is over there on the
wall. (Murdoch) 24. She had a key of her own. (Conan Doyle) 25. He was a short, plump
man with a very white face and very white hands. It was rumoured in London that he
powdered them like a woman. (Greene) 26. The old couldn't help the young... (Galswor-
thy) 27. To him she would always be the loveliest woman in the world. (Maugham) 28.
The strongest have their hours of depression. (Dreiser) 29. Her aunt, in a straw hat so
broad that it covered her to the very edges of her shoulders, was standing below with two
gardeners behind her. (Galsworthy) 30. I am afraid I addressed the wrong person. (Col-
lins) 31. They must have had very fair notions of the artistic and the beautiful. (Jerome K.
Jerome) 32. The rich think they can buy anything. (Snow) 33. The room has three doors;
one on the same side as the fireplace, near the corner, leading to the best bedroom.
(Shaw) 34. My thousand a year is not merely a matter of dirty banknotes and jaundiced
guineas ... but, it may be, health to a drooping, strength to a weak, consolation to the sad.
(Ch. Bronte) 35. Thank you, Stephen: I knew you would give me the right advice. (Shaw)
36. Sometimes ... visitors rang the wrong bell. (Bennett) 37. My family came from herea-
bouts some generations back. I just wanted to have a look at the place, and ask you a
question or two. (Galsworthy) 38. A woman will only be "the equal of a man when she
earns her living in the same way that he does. (Maugham) 39. He arrived half an hour be-
fore dinner time, and went up to the schoolroom at the top of the house, to see the chil-
dren. (Galsworthy) 40. You will see him a steady character yet. I am sure of it. There is
something in the very expression of his face that tells me so. (Marryat) 41. Far away in a
little street there is a poor house. One of the windows is open and through it I can see a
woman seated at a table. She is a seamstress. (Wilde) 42. The man who entered was short
and broad. He had black hair, and was wearing grey flannel trousers with a red woollen
shirt, open at the neck, whose collar he carried outside the lapels of his dark tweed jacket.

(Clark) 43. Believe me, when a woman really makes up her mind to marry a man nothing
on God's earth can save him. (Maugham) 44. I stopped,., still uncertain of myself and
whether I was saying the right thing. (Du Maurier) 45. Then it was night and he was
awake, standing in the street, looking up at the dark windows of the place where he lived.
The front door was locked and there was no one in the house. (Saroyan) 46. I believe I
can tell the very moment I began to love him. (Galsworthy) 47. We are told that the heart
of a man is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked. (Shaw) 48. "I must do it,"
said Adam; "it's the right thing." (Eliot) 49. Mr. Boythorn lived in a pretty house with a
lawn in front, a bright flower garden at the side and a kitchen-garden in the rear, enclosed
with a wall. The house was a real old house. (Dickens) 50. The bartender was a pale little
man in a vest and apron, with pale, hairy arms and a long, nervous nose. (Shaw) 51. Face
to face, he was as warm and easy-natured as he had ever been. (Snow) 52. I had not yet
learnt how contradictory human nature is; I did not know how much pose there is in the
sincere, how much baseness in the noble, or how much goodness in the reprobate.
(Maugham) 53. During the country house parties one day is very like another. The men
put on the same kind of variegated tie, eat the same breakfast, tap the same barometer,
smoke the same pipes and kill the same birds. (Galsworthy) 54. Almost at the very mo-
ment when he had returned Aileen had appeared. (Dreiser) 55. The old man quitted the
house secretly at the same hour as before. (Dickens) 56. We are told that the wicked shall
be punished. (Shaw) 57. Arm in arm we walked on, sometimes stumbling over a hump of
earth or catching our feet in rabbit-holes. (Hansford Johnson) 58. Clare was the most viv-
id member of the family. She had dark fine shingled hair and a pale expressive face, of
which the lips were slightly brightened, the eyes were brown, with a straight and eager
glance, the brow low and very white. Her expression was old for a girl of twenty, being
calm and yet adventurous. (Galsworthy) 59. When I was a child my mother used to make
cakes and send me out with them as presents to neighbours. And the neighbours would
give us presents too, and not only at Christmas time. (Murdoch) 60. I wrote to the Manag-
ing Editor that this was the wrong moment to change their correspondent. (Greene)

8.2 Translate into English.

1. Приходил почтальон? (Where is the postman?) 2. Это был высокий белый дом; он
был окружен большим садом. (It was a high white house, surrounded by a big garden.)
3. Дом построен два года назад. (The house was built two years ago.) 4. Мое любимое
дерево – дуб. (My favorite tree is the oak.) 5. Возле дома рос старый дуб. (An old oak
grew near the house.) 6. Мы опоздали на поезд, и нам пришлось долго ждать на вок-
зале. (We were late for the train and we had to wait at the station for a long time.)
7. Попугай может подражать человеческой речи. (A parrot can imitate a man’s
speech.) 8. Мы вошли в маленькую комнату, в которой стоял стол, несколько стуль-
ев и кресло. (We entered the small room, where was a table, several chairs and an arm-
chair.) 9. Я надеюсь, что завтра вы дадите мне ответ. (I hope you to give our answer
tomorrow.)10. Телескоп нужен астрономам, а микроскоп – биологам. (Astronomers
need telescopes, biologists – microscopes.) 11. Серебряная луна светила на небе. (The
silver moon was shining in the sky.) 12. Скрипка – струнный инструмент, флейта –
духовой. (A violin is a stringed instrument; a flute – a wind instrument.) 13. Шекспир и
Сервантес умерли в одном и том же году. (Shakespeare and Servantes died in one and
the same year.) 14. Мы получили телеграмму в самый день нашего отъезда. (We re-
ceived the telegram on our departure day.) 15. Вы мне дали не тот адрес. (You did not
give me the right address.)16. Некоторые из гостей ушли рано. (Some guests left early.)

17. Они живут на одной улице. (They live on the one and same street.) 18. Он
постучался не в ту дверь. (He knocked on the wrong door.)

8.3 Insert articles where necessary. (Articles with nouns modified by attributes in post-
1. The man of whom I speak is a low pantomime actor. 2. Excuse me now, I have to see
the man who's in trouble... (Galsworthy) 3. The people familiar with these moors often
miss their road on such evenings. (E. Bronte) 4. He listened attentively to a great many
stories she told him about the amiable and handsome daughter of hers, who was married
to the amiable and handsome man and lived in the country. (Dickens) 5. I always think
there's something rather cold and cheerless about the house that lacks a woman's touch.
(Maugham) 6. He stood up and looked at the house where he had been born, grown up,
and played, as if asking for an answer. (Galsworthy) 7. Her throat aches because of the
tears locked in it. (Lessing) 8. I am persuaded that this will be the shock of which he will
feel the effects all his life. (Eliot) 9. There were half a dozen pocket robberies on the day
in the trams of Brussels. (Bennett) 10. There we were in the country none of us knew any-
thing about, amongst Indians and the people that were only half civilised. (Galsworthy)
11. At last they reached the door at which a servant knocked cautiously. (Murdoch)
12. We passed a set of chambers where I had worked as a young man. (Snow) 13. It is in
the hour of trial that a man finds his true profession. (Shaw) 14. We dropped into a very
pleasant nook under a great elm tree, to the spreading roots of which we fastened the
boat. (Jerome K. Jerome) 15. It chanced that when this lonely young lady was about nine-
teen, she, being a fearless horsewoman, was riding, with only a young lad.., in one of the
woods near her uncle's house... and, in trotting along, her horse stumbled over a root of
the felled tree. She slipped to the ground, not seriously hurt, and was assisted home by the
gentleman who came in view at the moment of her mishap. It turned out that this gentle-
man... was on a visit at the house of the neighbouring landowner. (Hardy) 16. He was
staring at the waves like a man cornered by a strange animal. (Murdoch) 17. You don't
know the man you are married to. (Shaw) 18. He spoke with a very slow, distinct voice...
and always looked over the shoulder of the person to whom he was talking. (Wilde)
19. There had been at the dining table a middle-aged man with dark eyes and a sunburnt
face, who had attracted Martin's attention. (Dickens) 20. And he had tea sitting on the
edge of the chair that did not look too firm, all gilt and spindly. (Galsworthy) 21. They
walked a mile or more along the handsome street which the colonel said was called
Broadway... Turning, at length, into one of the numerous streets which branched from this
main thoroughfare, they stopped before a rather mean looking house. (Dickens) 22. Colo-
nel Mordaunt does not look like the man who would do a mean or dishonourable thing.
(Marryaf) 23. She is an elderly matron who has worked hard and got nothing by it. (Shaw)
24. He was, in fact, the younger edition of his father. (Galsworthy) 25. As Dick took up
his pipe, the man who had passed into the smoking car with him put down his newspaper
and looked at him. For a moment Dick was puzzled. It was the face he knew, but he could
not put a name to it. Where had he seen the man? (Winter) 26. During the twenty minutes
Michael took to read the deem, there was not a sound, except from the sheets being
turned. (Galsworthy) 27. Rosa then noticed with surprise that she was in the room in
which the party had been held. (Murdoch)

8.4 Translate into English.
1. Сегодня я, наконец, достал книгу, которую я уже давно хочу прочесть. (Today, I
got the book that I wanted to read.) 2. Вот человек, с которым вы хотите поговорить.
(This is the man that you wanted to speak to.) 3. Я не люблю людей, которые ко всем
придираются. (I don’t like the people who find fault in everybody.) 4. Я знаю девушку,
которая удивительно хорошо декламирует стихи. Вчера она прочла стихотворение,
которое мне очень понравилось. (I know a girl who recites poems excellently. Yesterday
she recited a poem that I liked very much.) 5. Улицы, по которым он проходил, были
узкие и грязные. (The streets where he walked were narrow and dirty.) 6. Старик посту-
чал в дверь небольшого домика, окна которого были ярко освещены. (The old man
knocked on the door of a small house, the window of which was brightly lighted.) 7. Когда
Ольга вернулась домой, она увидела, что ее сестра разговаривает с человеком, кото-
рого она никогда прежде не видела. (When Olga returned home she saw her sister talk-
ing to a man that she had never seen before.) 8. Я нашла гостиницу, где мы жили
несколько лет назад. (I found the hotel where we had lived a few years ago.) 9. Письмо,
которое она получила утром, расстроило ее. (The letter that she received in the morn-
ing upset her.) 10. Утром она получила письмо, которое ее расстроило. (In the morn-
ing she received a letter which upset her.) 11. Молодая девушка долго думала об уди-
вительном открытии, которое она сделала. (The young girl thought about the surpris-
ing discovery which she had done.) 12. На дороге они увидели большой камень, кото-
рого там раньше не было. (They saw a big stone on the road which wasn’t there before.)
13. Я знаю адрес человека, которому вы хотите написать. (I know the man’s address
who you wanted to write to.) 14. Дверь открыла женщина; в ней он сразу узнал ориги-
нал портрета, который ему показал его приятель. (The woman, who opened the door,
was the original copy, which his friend had showed him.) 15. Она поехала в город, где
жила ее дочь. (She went to the city where her daughter lived.)

8.5 Insert articles where necessary. (Articles with nouns of material.)

1. We sipped a tea so weak that it tasted like metal against the teeth. (Snow) 2. You
will be wishing to have tea after your journey, I'm thinking. (Shaw) 3. George said that we
must take a rug, a lamp, soap, a brush and a comb, a tooth-brush, tooth-powder and a
couple of big towels for bathing. (Jerome K. Jerome) 4. The children of his age seldom
have natural pleasure in soap and water. (E. Bronte) 5. He bought cold beef, and ham, and
French bread and butter, and came back with his pockets pretty heavily laden. (Dickens)
6. There were two bottles of wine, a plate of oranges... with powdered sugar. (Dickens)
7. Here, have champagne, I quite forgot to offer you any, or would you rather have tea?
(Murdoch) 8. She made coffee. (Murdoch) 9. Coffee without bread could never honestly
serve as supper. (Saroyan) 10 The rest of us had finished eating, but Cave had cut himself
another slice of cheese. (Snow) 11. Mrs. Leek... frankly gave way to soft tears while eating
the bread-and-butter. (Bennett) 12. You've caught cold: I saw you shivering, and you must
have a gruel to drive it out. (E. Bronte) 13. She did not answer, but her face was hard and
pale as a stone. (Galsworthy)

8.6 Translate into English.

1. Портфель мал, но кожа хорошая. (The bag is small, but the leather is excel-
lent.) 2. Я люблю зеленый бархат. (I love green velvet.) 3. Он не любил кофе. (He
didn’t like coffee.) 4. Ему не понравился кофе. (He didn’t like the coffee.) 5. Чай
слишком крепкий; я не люблю крепкий чай. (The tea is too strong; I don’t like strong

tea.) 6. Не забудьте дать кошке молока, у нее теперь котята! (Чехов) (Don’t forget to
give the cat milk; she has kittens.) 7. Я ходил по аллее и думал о вишневом варенье.
(Чехов) (I was walking through the alley and thinking about cherry jam.)

8.7 Insert articles where necessary. (Articles with abstract nouns.)

1. We both appreciate simplicity. (Du Maurier) 2. In less than a week Copperwood
knew the financial condition of Messrs. Waterman as well as they did, better, to a dollar.
(Dreiser) 3. It is such weary, weary work. (Dickens) 4. He [White] had a comfortable feel-
ing of working alone in the large empty building, a feeling of peace and complete privacy.
(Wilson) 5. I've reason to believe she [Fleur] has never properly got over the feeling she
used to have. (Galsworthy) 6. I had seldom heard my friend speak with such an intensity
of feeling. (Conan Doyle) 7. His footsteps were now heard striking upon the stony road at
a distance of about twenty yards. (Hardy) 8. We had wonderful weather. (Du Maurier)
9. You must learn to face life seriously. Stephen. (Shaw) 10. However, the life of such
striking monotony does not seem to depress him. (Durrell) 11. May you be happy in the
life you have chosen! (Dickens) 12. I love to think of the time that must come some day
when man will have conquered nature, and toilworn human race enter upon an era of
peace. (Leacock) 13. She was panting now, and in her face was a terror which was inex-
plicable. (Maugham) 14. His round blue eyes behind the spectacles were ghastly with ter-
ror. (Maugham) 15. I think in some curious way the horror which she felt for him was a
transference of the horror which she felt for herself because he so strangely troubled her.
(Maugham) 16. She was brilliantly familiar with the literature, the tongues, art, history,
physics, metaphysics, philosophy, and politics (in which I include modern politics). (Ben-
nett) 17. It was cold, bleak, biting weather. (Dickens) 18. The weather was sunny and dry.
(Hardy) 19. Modern science is a wonderful thing. (Shaw) 20. He was a steady, uninspired
researcher in the properties of the liquid state of matter. (Wilson) 21. Their blue eyes be-
came filled with gaiety and ferocity and joy, and their mouths with laughter. (Murdoch)
22. Jon laughed, and the sound of the laugh was hard. (Galsworthy) 23. Then she gave a
crisp, ironic, almost cheerful laugh... (Snow) 24. On that fine day the poverty of the dis-
trict she was entering seemed to her country-nurtured eyes intensely cheerless (Galswor-
thy) 25. Reason is the greatest discovery ever made by man. Yet it is the most disregarded
and least used. (Jones) 26....what I offer is security and respect. That doesn't sound very
exciting, but perhaps it's better than passion. (Greene) 27. And the passion that held
Strickland was a passion to create beauty. (Maugham) 28. She looked the incarnation of
supreme loveliness, the loveliness which was always revealing itself anew. (Bennett)
29. She [Aileen] knew nothing of literature except certain authors who to the truly cul-
tured might seem banal. (Dreiser) 30. The expression on her face hungry and hard and
feverish that had the most peculiar effect upon Soames. (Galsworthy) 31. She listened
with, an expression impatient, strained and intent. (Snow) 32. At that age I had a very
faulty view of geography. (Miller) 33. The poor fellow's face looked haggard with want:
he had the aspect of a man who had not known what it was to live in comfort... for the
weeks, perhaps the months past. (Ch. Bronte) 34. He longed for the comfort of his sister's
society. (Marryaf) 35. He pines for kindness. (E. Bronte) 36. She sighed for the air, the
liberty, the quiet of the country. (Austen) 37. Miss Cherrell, I am going to do all I can to
remove the unpleasant impression you have of me. I am your very humble servant, and I
hope some day to have a chance to be something else to you. (Galsworthy) 38. Then all
four sat down and began to inspect Hunter and Calvin with an air of suspicion and curiosi-
ty. (Murdoch) 39. He spoke with an air of someone who has got over with an unpleasant

duty and can now get on to brighter matters. (Murdoch) 40. How quietly you live, John.
I love the silence of this room and garden. (Murdoch) 41. At other times he would come
and sit for long periods in her room in silence. (Murdoch) 42. What a noble thing courage
is. (Reade) 43. Nothing gave him [little Hans] greater pleasure than to listen to all the
wonderful things Miller used to say about the unselfishness of true friendship. (Wilde)
44.The friendship which he had imposed from the beginning he now emphasised more
than ever. (Greene) 45. And when multitudes of men are hurt to death in wars I am driven
to grief which borders on insanity. (Saroyan) 46. She could not only sing like a lark... but
she had such a kindly, smiling, tender, gentle, generous heart of her own as won the love
of everybody who came near her. (Thackeray) 47. What delightful weather we are having!
(Wilde) 48. Pray, don't talk to me about the weather, Mr. Worthing. Whenever people talk
to me about the weather, I always feel quite certain that they mean something else.
(Wilde) 49. Such weather makes everything and everybody disgusting. (Austen) 50. When
he let her go, she sank breathless into the chair, gazing at him with an expression of such
terror that he put his hands over his face. (Galsworthy) 51. And so, concerned in talk that
touched not on the feelings within them, they reached Mount Street. (Galsworthy)
52. Owen saw the figure of Edward at a distance of two or three hundred yards. (Hardy)
53. Mrs. Maylie took up her abode with her son and daughter-in-law to enjoy during the
tranquil remainder of her days the, greatest felicity that age and worth can know, the con-
templation of happiness of those on whom the warmest affections and tenderest cares...
have been unceasingly bestowed. (Dickens) 54. Art is the manifestation of emotion, and
the emotion speaks the language that all may understand. (Maugham) 55. Ada sat at the
piano, Richard stood beside her. She touched the notes so softly, and sang so low, that the
wind, sighing away in the distant hills, was as audible as the music. (Dickens)
56. Mr. Bob Sawyer adjusted his skates with the dexterity which to Mr. Winkle was per-
fectly marvellous. (Dickens) 57. He had not been stationary half a minute, when he heard
his own name pronounced by a voice which he at once recognized as Mr. Tupman's, and
looking upwards, he beheld a sight which filled him with surprise and pleasure. (Dickens)
58. She sat by the window reading. From her position she could see up the lane for a dis-
tance of at least a hundred yards. (Hardy) 59. I can see the beauty and peace of this home;
I think I have never been more at rest in my life than at this moment. (Shaw) 60. Beside
his bed, for the first time during a period of nearly twenty years, he fell down on his knees
in a passionate outburst of feeling. (Hardy) 61. It was a new fear, different from that
which she had once confided in her own flat, yet grown from the same root. (Snow)
62. The empty windows of the ruins were filled with a life of their own. (Heym) 63. Cop-
perwood awakened to a sense of joy in life such as he fancied he had never experienced
before. (Dreiser) 64. Mr. Pickwick stood in the principal street of this illustrious town,
and gazed with an air of curiosity not unmixed with interest, on the objects around him.

8.8 Translate into English.

1. Все народы земли хотят мира. (All people in the world want peace.) 2. Мы
никогда не забудем героизм тех, кто боролся против фашизма. (We will never forget
the heroism of those who fought against fascism.) 3. Я очень ценю в людях скромность
и простоту. (I appreciate modesty in people.) 4. Природа играла большую роль в твор-
честве романтиков. (Nature plays an important role in the life of romanticists.)
5. Музыкант должен знать историю оперы. (A musician should know opera history.)
6. С ней он мог говорить о литературе, об искусстве, о чем угодно, мог жаловаться

ей на жизнь, на людей. (He could talk with her about literature, art, and everything else;
complain about life and people.) (Чехов) 7. Я хочу быть артисткой, я хочу славы,
успехов, свободы. (Чехов) (I want to be an actress as I want success, fame and freedom.)
8. Оставим пока геометрию. Обратимся к науке, которую вы, как чиновник почтово-
го ведомства, вероятно, любите. География – наука почтальонов. (Чехов) (Let’s for-
get about geometry. Let’s look at the subject that every postman should like – geography –
the postman’s subject.) 9. Зачем я стереометрию учил, ежели ее в программе нет?
(Чехов) (Why am I studying stereometry as it is not included in the curriculum?)
10. Я с детства люблю музыку. (I loved music from my childhood.) 11. Он изучает ан-
глийскую историю. (He studies English history.) 12. Он изучает историю Англии. (He
studies the history of England.) 13. На расстоянии 20–30 шагов мы увидели странную
фигуру. (We saw a strange figure at a distance of 20–30 feet.) 14. Если вы плохо себя
чувствуете, не выходите в такую погоду. (If you feel so bad, don’t go out in such
weather.) 15. Мой брат очень любит архитектуру и мечтает стать архитектором. (My
brother likes architecture and wants to be an architect.) 16. Меня интересует история
развития английского романа. (I am interested in the history of the development of Eng-
lish novels.)

8.9 Insert articles where necessary. (Articles with geographical names.)

1. After a tour in the Austrian Alps they had gone to Hotel Splendide at Montreux, in or-
der to enjoy for a day or two the charms of Lake of Geneva. (Bennett) 2. Dusk was al-
ready falling on the noble curve of the Thames. (Bennett) 3. I hear he's off to Central Af-
rica. (Bennett) 4. In Ivanhoe Walter Scott describes England of the Middle Ages.
5. Capetown is in South Africa. 6. In the heart of Central Asia lies Khoresm, a small fer-
tile area in the sea of sand. 7. The prospect ends... in little hills that come nearly to the
sea; rudiments, these, of the Atlas Mountains. (Shaw) 8. "We've been touring the world...
We tried South America...We lasted three days in Australia..." "Have you ever been to the
States?" (Amis) 9. Michael looked quizzically at his parent. Did he quite understand the
England of today? (Galsworthy)

8.10 Translate into English.

I. Кордильеры находятся в Северной Америке (The Cordilleras are located in North
America.) 2. Берега Рейна очень живописны. (The Reine banks are very picturesque.)
3. Эльбрус – очень красивая гора (The Elbrus is a very beautiful mountain.).
4. Средиземное море находится между Европой, Азией и Африкой. (The Mediterra-
nean is located between Europe, Asia and Africa.) 5. Венеция расположена на берегу
Адриатического моря. (Venice is located on the Adriatic Sea banks.) 6. Ливингстон по-
гиб в Центральной Африке. (Livingstone died in Central Africa.)

8.11 Insert articles where necessary. (Articles with names of hotels, streets, ships, and
1. She nodded a command to the footman, and they drove off westward, down the
Strand, and so into a little side street by Charing Cross. (Bennett) 2. I am going to Folke-
stone to-day, and shall stay at the Metropole. (Bennett) 3. They were excited because they
had been dining with the editor of the Times, and had been given a glimpse of next day's
paper. (Snow) 4. She sat in her superb private drawing room at Hotel Cecil. 5. The boys
loved him because he told them that the Navy had borrowed him from the U. S. Army just
in time to blow taps on the Maine as she was sinking, and he remained long after every-

one including the captain had abandoned the ship. (Wilson) 6. He began to walk very rap-
idly up towards the Trafalgar Square. (Greene) 7. He went out and ate ices at the pastry-
cook's shop in Charing Cross; tried a new coat in the Pall Mall; and called for Captain
Cannon, played eleven games at billiards with the captain, and returned to the Russell
Square. (Thackeray) 8. The street was empty, unlighted save by the reflection from
Grandlieu Street behind them... (Faulkner) 9. In 1905 the revolt broke out on the Potem-
kin, one of the battleships of the Black Sea Fleet. 10. Yet, in the bright drawing room in
Lord North Street, all he was thinking of... was what the Telegraph, the Guardian, the
popular press, would say next day. (Snow)

8.12 Insert articles where necessary. (Articles with nouns modified by proper nouns).
1. I often go to the Pushkin Theatre. 2. I am very fond of Pushkin's short tragedies.
3. The Tretyakov gallery was founded nearly a century ago by Pavel Tretyakov. Tretya-
kov's devotion to art and his indefatigable efforts had magnificent results and furthered the
development of Russian painting. 4. I am a medical student and have held the post of
house surgeon at one of London hospitals for some time. (Marryat) 5. Fox apartment had
a spacious old-fashioned feeling. 6. Towards the end of the year 1913 several young stu-
dents living in Moscow founded a small group known as the Students' Drama Studio.
It was from that group that the Vakhtangov Theatre sprang. Vakhtangov was a tireless
innovator. Some of Vakhtangov's pupils became capable producers. 7. The sets of furni-
ture were imitations of one of Louis periods. (Dreiser) 8. The Pulkovo Observatory is over
a hundred years old. 9. The chin of the founder of the Forsyte clan was settled comforta-
bly between the widely separated points of an old-fashioned collar. (Galsworthy) 10. He
had known all the pretty Montjoy sisters scattered over the Society, but of them all Diana
was the youngest, the prettiest, most tasteful and wittiest... (Galsworthy)

8.13 Insert articles where necessary. (Articles with set expressions).

1. I trust you to tell me the bare truth, whatever it is. (Snow) 2. The maid, looking
to right and left, spoke in a low and hurried voice. (Galsworthy) 3. On his trip round the
world with Fleur he had often put his nose out and watched the dancing on the deck.
(Galsworthy) 4. He decided that he would not at present explain to her who he was. (Ben-
nett) 5. I saw a good deal of him during the war. (Snow) 6. He has taken his death very
much to heart indeed. (Collins) 7. What did her education and her accomplishments
amount to? She could keep house. (Bennett) 8. They seemed perfectly at their ease, by no
means in a hurry. (Dickens) 9. Somebody important must have been arriving from Europe
by air... (Greene) 10. Am I dealing, young people, with a case of love at first sight?
(Galsworthy) 11. We've had some tea already on board the yacht. (Shaw) 12. Rosa was
well aware that she had never taken the trouble to get to know Annette. (Murdoch)
13. You will go to the sea and forget all about me in a month. (Galsworthy) 14. He was
about to start on a long journey, a difficult one, by sea, and no soul would know where he
was gone. (Eliot) 15. It is a pleasure to see you. (Galsworthy) 16. He held a very guarded
conversation with her on his way home, for fear that she would take additional offence.
Argument was out of the question. (Dreiser) 17. On the other hand, if he was beaten he
took it with complete good humour. (Maugham) 18. He is beginning to lose heart, they
say. (Reade) 19. She burned like a fire from head to foot. (Hardy) 20. I got into conversa-
tion with him by chance at a concert. (Shaw) 21. She's taken quite a fancy to you,
Ridgeon. (Shaw) 22. The furniture was all sent round by water. (Austen) 23. I returned at

once, and found Ada sitting at work by the fireside. (Dickens) 24. He played the flute.
(Miller) 25. Somewhere great many men were singing. (Greene) 26. He was chronically in
debt... (Snow) 27. The woman I fixed my eye on was the woman who kept the house for
me at my cottage. (Collins) 28. It is a pity to worry her if she has a talent for uneasiness.
(Galsworthy) 29. He has given permission to go up and see her there. (Priestley) 30. Be-
hind the house was a large garden, and in summer, the pupils almost lived out of doors.
(Ch. Bronte) 31.The rain had stopped, and we went on foot to Ebury Street. (Snow)
32. They started at dawn, and the boy I sent with them didn't come back till next day.
(Maugham) 33. On being informed... that her departure would be delayed... she had flown
into a violent passion. (Collins) 34. All of a sudden, his face had become stony. (Snow)
35. Dear, dear! It seems only the other day since I took you down to school at Slough
(Galsworthy) 36. Mr. Byron Waller could play a violin. (Lee)

8.14 Translate into English.

1. Он всегда говорит очень тихо. (He spoke in a low voice.) 2. На днях я слу-
чайно встретила Нину. (I met Nina accidentally the other day.) 3. Если вы ей так отве-
тите, она придет в ярость. (If you answer in such a way, she’ll fly into a violent passion.)
4. По правде говоря, я так и не поняла, почему она обиделась. (To tell you the truth, I
don’t understand why she took offence.) 5. Она читает с утра до ночи. (She reads from
morning till night.) 6. Я люблю путешествовать морем. (I like travelling by sea.) 7. Вы
по ошибке принесли не тот журнал. (You brought the wrong magazine by mistake.) 8.
Мы всегда заставали его за работой. (We always found him at work.) 9. Приходите ко
мне завтра. – Об этом и речи быть не может, я очень занята. (Come tomorrow to see
me. That’s impossible, as I am very busy.) 10. Он даже не потрудился встретить нас на
вокзале. (He had never taken the trouble to meet us at the station.) 11. Жаль, что вы не
можете пойти с нами в театр. (It’s a pity that you can’t come with us to the theater.)12.
Мы уже можем читать Диккенса и Теккерея в оригинале. (We can read Dickens and
Thackeray in the original.) 13. Мой брат очень хорошо играет на скрипке. (My brother
can play the violin very well.)

8.15 Translate into English.

1. Такую интересную книгу приятно перечитать. (It is a pleasure to read such
an interesting book.) 2. Это слишком длинный роман, чтобы его можно было про-
честь в два дня. (This novel is too long to read it in two days.) 3. Это такая же светлая
каюта, как та. (This cabin is as light as that one.) 4. Я не могу ответить на такой
странный вопрос. (I can’t answer such a strange question.) 5. Это довольно интересная
статья. (This is a rather interesting article.) 6. Как вы могли упустить такой редкий
случай? (How could you have missed such a thing?) 7. Какое нелепое выражение!
(What a silly expression!) 8. Оба письма были отправлены утром. (Both letters were
sent in the morning.) 9. Все бумаги подписаны. (All the papers are signed.) 10. Это
слишком сложная проблема, чтобы ее можно было разрешить в такое короткое вре-
мя. (This is such a difficult problem to solve in such a short time.)

8.16 Translate into English.

1. Я не знала, что собака в комнате. (I didn’t know that the dog was in the room.)
2. Я не знала, что в комнате есть собака. (I didn’t know that there was a dog in the
room.) 3. Принесите муку. (Bring flour.) 4. Принесите муки. (Bring some flour.)

5. Девушка подошла к окну. (The girl came up to the window.) 6. К окну подошла
девушка. (A girl went to the window.)
8.17 Insert articles where necessary.
Day, night, morning, evening.
1. Outside it was night. (Murdoch) 2. It was a warm summer night. (Snow) 3. The
night outside seemed very quiet. (Greene) 4. It was a foggy evening in November. (Mur-
doch) 5. During the evening we played innumerable games of piquet... (Maugham)
6. It was evening, and he was walking across the school grounds on his way home. (Sa-
royan) 7. He wondered what hour it was. The sun seemed to indicate late morning...
(Greene) 8. I think it's going to be a fine morning, after all. (Shaw) 9. The morning was
cold and sharp and sunny. (Greene) 10. It is early morning. (Shaw) 11. We are going to
have an ideal night. (Shaw) 12. The night being sharp and frosty, we trembled from head
to foot. (Dickens) 13. It was early in the afternoon. (Murdoch) 14. The night was a windy
one, with broken clouds drifting swiftly across the face of a three-quarter moon. (Conan
Doyle) 15. Night came and he sent his sadness into his sleep. (Saroyan) 16. I was up at six
in the morning. (Shaw) 17. She has had a bad night, probably a rather delirious night.
(Shaw) 18. The machines at the factory were in perpetual motion day and night. (Mur-
doch) 19. Arthur did not pass a sleepless night; he slept long and well, for sleep comes to
the perplexed, if the perplexed are only weary enough. (Eliot) 20. It was about ten o'clock
at night. (Maugham) 21. The fine September afternoon was dying fast. (Galsworthy)
22. I persuaded him to stay a night with me, and I put him into my own bed. (Maugham)
23. It was the morning after Roger had talked to me in the Park, and Margaret and I were
sitting at breakfast. (Snow) 24. Day was by this time approaching; the West was dim, the
East beginning to gleam. (Ch. Bronte) 25. On a bright January morning the telephones
kept ringing in my office. (Snow) 26. I cannot describe to you the intense silence of the
night. (Maugham) 27. I shall not forget the evening I spent with him. I had not intended to
stay more than an hour, but he insisted that I should spend a night. (Maugham)
28. He painted and he read, and in the evening, when it was dark, they sat together on the
veranda, smoking and looking at the night. (Maugham) 29. It was as lovely morning as
one could desire. (Jerome K. Jerome) 30. It was a glorious night. The moon had sunk, and
left the quiet earth alone with the stars. (Jerome K. Jerome) 31. Nell dropped a curtsey,
and told him they were poor travellers who sought a shelter for the night. The schoolmas-
ter told them that they were welcome to remain under his roof till morning. (Dickens)
32. Every day I was up at dawn, clearing, planting, working on my house, and at night
when I threw myself on my bed it was to sleep like a log till morning. (Maugham)

8.18 Translate into English.

1. Утро было холодное и ветреное. (The morning was cold and windy.) 2. Был
теплый летний вечер. (It was a warm summer evening.) 3. Настала ночь, и
путешественники решили отдохнуть. (It was night and the travelers decided to rest.)
4. Он пишет с утра до ночи. (He writes from morning to night.) 5. Он переночевал у
приятеля. (He spent the night at his friend’s) 6. Он провел бессонную ночь и был
очень бледен. (He spent a sleepless night and was very pale.) 7. Приятно поехать за
город в ясный летний день. (It is a pleasure to spend a clear summer day in the coun-
try.) 8. И днем и ночью он думал об одном. (He was thinking about this day and night.)
9. Было прекрасное утро – солнечное и тихое. (It was a beautiful morning – sunny and

quiet.) 10. Было раннее утро, и все в доме еще спали. (It was an early morning and
everybody was still sleeping.)

8.19 Translate into English.

1. Была ранняя весна. (It was early spring.) 2. Была дождливая, холодная осень.
(It was a cold and rainy autumn.) 3. Осень была исключительно теплая; стояла ясная,
солнечная погода. (It was a rather warm autumn; the weather was clear and sunny.)
4. Мое любимое время года – лето. (My favorite season is summer.) 5. Лето 1941 года
было очень жаркое. (The summer of 1941 was very hot.)

8.20 Translate into English.

1. Она легла спать в три часа и встала с головной болью. (She went to bed at 3
and woke up with a headache.) 2. Почему вы так поздно вернулись из города? (Why
did you return so late from the city?) 3. Женщина подошла к кровати и накрыла ребен-
ка одеялом. (The woman came up to the bed and covered the child.) 4. Она плохо себя
чувствовала и провела весь день в постели. (She felt bad and spent the day in bed.)
5. Сегодня мне надо пойти в школу на родительское собрание. (Today I have to go to
a parent’s meeting.) 6. Я провела все лето в городе. (I spent the whole summer in the
city.) 7. Когда сестра окончила школу, она поступила в консерваторию. (When my
sister finished school, she entered the conservatory.) 8. Мы провели несколько дней в
маленьком городке на Кавказе. (We spent a few days in a small town in the Caucasus.)
9. Мы живем на даче, но часто приезжаем в город. (We live in the countryside, but of-
ten come to the city.) 10. О. Генри был обвинен в краже, и, хотя он был невиновен,
его посадили в тюрьму. Он сидел в тюрьме три года. (O’Henry was accused of rob-
bery and, although he was innocent, he was sentenced to prison. He was in prison for
three years.)

8.21 Translate into English.

1. Мы позавтракали в восемь часов. (We had breakfast at 8.) 2. Завтрак состоял
из хлеба с маслом, сыра и кофе. (The breakfast included bread with butter, cheese and
coffee.) 3. Не опаздывайте к обеду. (Don’t be late for dinner!) 4. Обед еще не готов.
(Dinner is not ready yet.) 5. Наши знакомые пригласили нас на обед. (Our friends in-
vited us to dinner.)


9.1 State the morphological composition of the following conjunctions.

For (single), as well as (compound), unless (single), now that (compound), and
(single), neither... nor (correlative), while (single), although (single), not only... but also
(correlative), provided (single), as though (compound), supposing (single), no sooner...
than (correlative), or (single), so that (compound), if (single), both... and (correlative), as
long as (compound), so (single), either... or (correlative), as... as (correlative), when (sin-
gle), until (single), before (single), after (single), as if (compound), as soon as (compound),
lest (single), for fear that (compound), notwithstanding (single), nor (single).
9.2 Point out all the coordinating conjunctions and define the group each belongs to.
1. The stranger had not gone far, so he made after him to ask the name. (Dickens)
2. Be quick, or it may be too late. (Dickens) 3. ...real accuracy and purity she neither pos-
sessed, nor in any number of years would acquire. (Ch. Bronte) 4. ...Mrs. Septimus Small
let fall no word, neither did she question June about him. (Galsworthy) 5. The river was not
high, so there was not more than a two or three mile current. (Twain) 6. It seemed to him
that he could contrive to secure for her the full benefit of both his life insurance and his fire
insurance... (Wells) 7. Karl is solid and extremely certain of himself, while Joseph on the
other hand, though no less certain of himself, is a good deal less solid. (Saroyan) 8. He
could see no one, and he began to believe that either his instinct had deceived him, or else
that the shadowing was over. (Greene) 9. But for a long time we did not see any lights, nor
did we see the shore, but rowed steadily in the dark riding with the waves. (Hemingway)
9.3 Point out all the subordinating conjunctions and say what kind of subordinate
clauses they introduce.
1. She stood quite silent while Butler appealed to her. (Dreiser) 2. Since Miss
Wilfer rejected me, I have never again urged my suit. (Dickens) 3. Whenever I looked at
Susan she gave me a frank full-hearted smile. (Braine) 4. So the tiny woman closed the
shutter of the cottage window and fastened the door, and trembling from head to root for
fear that any one should suspect her, opened a very secret place, and showed the Princess
a shadow. (Dickens) 5. And yet tired though he was after his three long days, Soames
dreaded the moment when the car should stop. (Galsworthy) 6. I extinguished my taper,
locked my bureau, and left her, since she would not leave me. (Ch. Bronte) 7. Once they
reached the open country the car leapt forward like a mad thing. (Murdoch) 8. He was a
tall fellow with a very wide mouth and prematurely bald in front, so that he appeared to
have a colossal forehead. (Priestley) 9. The reference was as plain as it was unexpected.
(Clark) 10. Early as he was, another man was there before him. (Dreiser) 11. We're as
we're made. (Maugham) 12. They were all smiling widely at me as I came toward them.
(Shaw) 13. He was a fattish, worried, untidy man, always looking as if he had slept in the
expensive clothes he wore. (Priestley) 14. Mr. Pancks has come down into the Yard to-
night, on purpose that you should hear him. (Dickens) 15. The most I can say now is that
it is very cold in San Francisco, and I am freezing. (Saroyan) 16. Give me your promise
that this shall be done. (Priestley) 17. In that small room he seemed even bigger than I
remembered him. (Maugham) 18. Whatever I intend to do I'll do without advice from the
outside. (Dreiser) 19. Breakfast was not yet over before the men came to put up the mar-
quee. (Mansfield) 20. He prized the pencil, because it had been a gift from his mother.
(Warren) 21. As soon as he had gone, I looked at the clock. (Snow) 22. After a sleepless
night, he [Copperwood] wrote his resignation to the chairman of the board of directors, in
order that he should be prepared to hand it to him at once. (Dreiser)


10.1 State the morphological composition of the verbs.

To worry (simple), to precipitate (simple), to forbid (derived), to retire (derived), to
retell (derived), to do away (composite), to whitewash (compound), to whiten (derived), to
ascend (derived), to apologize (derived), to engage (simple), to enfold (derived), to give in
(composite), to decompose (derived), to translate (simple), to transport (simple), to brow-
beat (compound), to subscribe (derived), to subordinate (derived), to run away (compo-
site), to underestimate (derived), to backbite (compound), to mislead (derived), to forget
(simple), to succeed (simple), to disobey (derived), to take off (composite), to overrun (de-
rived), to satisfy (simple), to recede (derived), to come in (composite), to resign (derived),
to superintend (derived), to descend (derived), to blackmail (compound), to put up (com-
posite), to unbind (derived), to win (simple), to counteract (derived), to go on (composite),
to forecast (compound), to befriend (derived), to go away (composite), to lie (simple), to
predispose (derived).

10.2 Point out notional, auxiliary, modal, and link verbs.

She went (notional) into the drawing-room and lighted (notional) the fire; then,
picking up the cushions, one by one, that Mary had (auxiliary) disposed (notional) so
carefully, she threw (notional) them back onto the chairs and the couches. That made
(link) all the difference; the room came (link) alive at once. As she was (link) about to
throw the last one she surprised (notional) herself by suddenly hugging it to her, passion-
ately, passionately. But it did (auxiliary) not put (notional) out the fire in her bosom. Oh,
on the contrary! The windows of the drawing-room opened (notional) onto a balcony
overlooking the garden. At the far end, against the wall, there was (link) a tall, slender
pear tree in fullest, richest bloom; it stood (notional) perfect, as though becalmed against
the jade-green sky. Bertha couldn't (modal) help (notional) feeling, even from this dis-
tance, that it had (notional) not a single bud or a faded petal. Down below, in the garden
beds, the red and yellow tulips, heavy with flowers, seemed (link) to lean upon the dusk.
A grey cat, dragging its belly, crept (notional) across the lawn, and a black one, its shad-
ow, trailed after. The sight of them, so intent and quick, gave (notional) Bertha a curious
shiver. Really – really – she had (notional) everything. She was (link) young. Harry and
she were (link) as much in love as ever, and they got (notional) on together splendidly.
She had (notional) an adorable baby. They didn't (auxiliary) have (notional) to worry
about money. They had (notional) this absolutely satisfactory house and garden.

10.3 Point out all the verbs. State whether they are transitive or intransitive. Translate
into Russian.
1. The door opened (intransitive) and a thick set heavy-looking young man en-
tered. (intransitive) 2. Fleur did not answer. (intransitive) She stood (intransitive) for a
moment looking at him and his mother... 3. The soldiers pushed (transitive) the foreign
workers into groups and led (transitive) them off. 4. While she stood (intransitive) hesitat-
ing, the door opened (intransitive), and an old man came (transitive) forth shading a can-
dle with one hand. 5. Fleur looked (transitive) at her watch and rose. 6. He was waiting
(transitive) for us... at the public house; and asked (transitive) me how I found (transitive)
myself, like an old acquaintance. I did not feel (intransitive), at first, that I knew (transi-
tive) him as well as he knew (transitive) me, because he had never come (transitive) to

our house since the night I was born (intransitive), and naturally he had (transitive) the
advantage of me.
1. Дверь открылась, и вошел коренастый молодой человек крепкого телосло-
жения. (The door opened, and a thick set heavy-looking young man entered...) 2. Флер не
ответила. Она остановилась на мгновение, глядя на него и его мать (Fleur did not
answer. She stood for a moment looking at him and his mother.) 3. Солдаты согнали
иностранных рабочих в группы и вывели их прочь. (The soldiers pushed the foreign
workers into groups and led them off.) 4. Пока она стояла в замешательстве, дверь от-
ворилась, и появился пожилой мужчина, прикрывая свечу рукой. (While she stood
hesitating, the door opened, and an old man came forth shading a candle with one hand.)
5. Флер взглянула на свои часы и встала. (Fleur looked at her watch and rose.) 6. Он
ждал нас в трактире; и спросил меня, словно старый знакомый, как я себя чувствую.
Вначале у меня было чувство, что я не знаю его, так же, как и он не знает меня, по-
тому что он никогда не приходил в наш дом, начиная с той ночи, когда я родился. И,
конечно, у него было преимущество передо мной. (He was waiting for us... at the pub-
lic house; and asked me how I found myself, like an old acquaintance. I did not feel, at
first, that I knew him as well as he knew me, because he had never come to our house
since the night I was born, and naturally he had the advantage of me.)

10.4 Translate into English. Future Simple or Present Simple.

1. Вы опоздаете на поезд, если не возьмете такси. (You will be late for the train
if you don’t take a taxi.) 2. Я не уйду, пока вы не вернетесь. (I won’t go until you come
back.) 3. Мне хотелось бы узнать, когда ваша сестра вернется из Ленинграда.
(I would like to know when your sister will return from St. Petersburg.) 4. Мне хотелось
бы узнать точный день, когда ваша сестра вернется из Ленинграда. (I would like to
know the exact day of your sister’s arrival from St. Petersburg.)5. Я не могу с уверенно-
стью сказать, будет ли он на собрании, но если он придет, то обязательно выступит
в прениях. (I can’t be sure that he will be at the meeting; if he comes, he’ll take part in
the debates.) 6. Пока дамы будут у себя в комнатах, я спущусь вниз и постараюсь
раздобыть тебе что-нибудь поесть. (While the ladies are in their rooms, I’ll go down-
stairs and get something to eat for you.)

Present Simple or Present Continuous

1. He говорите так громко. Я вас хорошо слышу. (Don’t talk so loudly. I hear
you.) 2. Становится темно. (It is getting dark.) 3. Я уезжаю в Москву на будущей не-
деле. (I am going to Moscow next week.) 4. Когда бы я ни пришла к вам, вы всегда ра-
ботаете. (Whenever I come to you, you are always working.) 5. Где ваш брат? – Он
провожает приятеля. (Where is your brother? He is seeing his friend off.) 6. Пароход
уходит завтра. (The boat is arriving tomorrow.) 7. Я слышу шаги. Кто-то идет сюда.
(I hear footsteps. Somebody is coming here.) 8. Не беспокойте его, когда он работает.
(Don’t disturb him when he is working.) 9. Мой брат завтра уезжает в Москву.
(My brother is going to Moscow tomorrow.) 10. Вы чувствуете себя лучше сегодня?
(Do you feel better today? \ Are you feeling better today?)

Past Simple or Past Continuous

1. Когда Давид приехал, Хэм уже ждал его. (When David arrived, Ham was
waiting for him.) 2. Когда декан вошел в аудиторию, тов. Петров делал доклад. (When
the dean entered the room, Petrov was reading the report.) 3. Когда туристы вернулись,

они увидели, что машина их уже ждет. (When the tourists returned, they saw the car
was waiting for them.) 4. Она постоянно говорила о своем ребенке. (She was constantly
talking about her child.) 5. Том Сойер не мог играть со своими приятелями. Он белил
забор. (Tom Sawyer couldn’t play with his friends. He was whitewashing the fence.)
6. Миссис Гуммидж постоянно жаловалась на холод. (Mrs. Gummich was constantly
complaining about the cold.)

Present Perfect or Past Simple

1. Вы написали контрольную работу? Покажите мне ее. (Have you finished the
test? Show it to me.) 2. Она написала последнюю контрольную работу без ошибок.
(She wrote the last test without a mistake.) 3. Я давно видела эту пьесу. Я уже забыла
ее. (I saw this play long ago. I have forgotten it.) 4. Я давно с ней познакомилась.
(I knew her long ago.) 5. Я давно ее не видела. (I have not seen her for a long time.)
6. Я давно пришла сюда. Я здесь с девяти часов. (I have come here long ago. I have
been here since 9 o’clock.) 7. Я только что видела тов. Петрова. Он недавно приехал
из Москвы. (I have just seen Petrov. He has recently returned from Moscow.) 8. Я не
слышала вашего вопроса. (I didn’t hear your question.) 9. Что вы сказали? (What did
you say?) 10. Я не слышала, что вы сказали. (I didn’t hear what you said.)
11. Хотелось бы знать, куда она положила мои книги. (I want to know where she put
my books.) 12. Вчера у нас была интересная лекция о международном положении.
Все студенты присутствовали на лекции. (Yesterday there was an interesting lecture on
international affairs. All the students were present.) 13. Когда вы начали читать эту
книгу? – Мы начали читать ее на прошлой неделе. (When did you begin to read this
book? – We began to read it last week.)

Present (Future) Simple or Present Perfect

1. Если он об этом узнает, он придет в ярость. (If he finds out he’ll be furious.)
2. Я не смогу вам дать определенного ответа, пока не поговорю с главным инжене-
ром. (I can’t give you a definite answer until I have talked to the chief engineer.)
3. Мы выедем в пять чаcов, если дождь к этому времени перестанет. (We leave at 5 if
it has stopped raining.) 4. Я переведу предложение после того, как проанализирую
его. (After I have analyzed the sentence I’ll translate it.) 5. Я приду после того, как
закончу работу. (I’ll come after I have finished my work.) 6. Он поедет на юг, как
только защитит диссертацию. (After he has defended his dissertation, he’ll go to the
South.) 7. Я дам вам эту книгу после того, как прочту ее. (I’ll give you the book after
I have read it.) 8. Как только мы решим этот вопрос, я вам позвоню. (As soon as we
have discussed this question, I’ll call you.)

Past Simple or Past Perfect

1. He успел он пообедать, как ему позвонил приятель. Он только что приехал
из Крыма, где провел несколько месяцев. (He had just had dinner when his friend
called. He just arrived from the Crimea where he had spent a few months.) 2. Он не
прочел и трех страниц, как его прервали. (He had hardly read three pages when he was
disturbed.) 3. Иван Иванович любил эти одинокие прогулки, которые с недавнего
времени стали его единственным развлечением. (Ivan Ivanovich liked these lonely
walks which had become his only entertainment.) 4. Наконец она осталась одна. Гости
ушли. (At last she was alone. The guests had left.) 5. Не успела мисс Бетси узнать, что
у миссис Копперфильд родился сын, как она уехала из дому. (Hardly had Betsy found

out that Mrs. Copperfield gave birth to a son, then she left the house.) 6. Когда я ее видел
в последний раз, она казалась очень счастливой. Она только, что получила письмо
от брата, который вернулся с Севера, где он пробыл долгое время. (When I last saw
her, she seemed to be happy. She just received a letter from her brother who returned
from the North, where he had been for a long time.) 7. Я не пробыл и пяти минут в ком-
нате, как дверь отворилась и она вошла. (Hardly had I been in the room for five minutes
when the door opened and she entered.) 8. Оливер пробыл в стенах работного дома не
более четверти часа и едва успел покончить со вторым ломтем хлеба, как мистер
Бамб вернулся и объявил, что мальчик должен немедленно предстать перед советом.
(Oliver had been in the orphanage for less than 15 minutes and had just finished eating a
second piece of bread when Mr. Bamb returned and announced that the boy must stand
for the Counsel.) 9. Когда мы приехали в санаторий, мы прежде всего пошли к морю.
(When we arrived to the resort we went to the sea.)

Past Continuous or Past Perfect

1. Он настроил скрипку и сыграл сонату. (He had tuned the violin and played
the sonata.) 2. Он настроил скрипку и играл сонату. (He had tuned the violin and was
playing the sonata.) 3. Мистер Мелл отложил книги в сторону и играл на флейте.
(Mr Mill put the books aside and played the flute.) 4. Мистер Мелл отложил книги в
сторону и стал играть на флейте. (Mr. Mill put the books aside and was playing the
flute.) 5. Том принес воды и побежал играть с приятелями. (Tom fetched the water and
went to play with his friends.) 6. Том принес воды и играл с приятелями. (Tom fetched
the water and was playing with his friends.) 7. Корабли вышли из порта и плыли в се-
верном направлении. (The ships left the port and were sailing northward.) 8. Корабли
вышли из порта и взяли курс на север. (The ships had left the port and sailed north-
ward.) 9. Сэм закрыл дверь за Вильджоком и сел у камина. (Sam closed the door be-
hind Wildgecom and sat down before the fireplace.) 10. Когда Сари вошла в кухню, Сэм
уже закрыл дверь за Вильджоном и мешал огонь в камине. (When Sara entered the
kitchen, Sam was closing the door behind Wildgecom and stirring the coals in the fire-
place.) 11. В доме было тихо. Дети уснули. (It was quiet in the house. The children had
fallen asleep.) 12. В доме было тихо. Дети спали. (It was quiet in the house. The chil-
dren were sleeping.) 13. Когда я проснулся, солнце уже взошло. (When I woke up the
sun had risen.) 14. Когда я проснулся, солнце уже ярко светило. (When I woke up the
sun was shining brightly.) 15. Когда я вышла из дома, ветер уже стих и светило солн-
це. (When I left the house, the wind had calmed down and the sun was shining.)

Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous

1.Сколько времени вы меня ждете? (How long have you been waiting for me?)
2. Я знаю ее уже два года. (I have known her for two years.) 3. Я всегда предпочитала
трагедию комедии. (I have always preferred tragedy to comedy.) 4. Они пишут
изложение уже два часа. (They have been writing the essay for two hours.) 5. Сколько
времени вы занимаетесь музыкой? (How long have you been studying music?)
6. Я не получаю от него писем с августа. (I haven’t received a letter from him since
August.) 7. Я не видела словаря с тех пор, как вы его взяли из шкафа. (I haven’t seen
the dictionary since you took it from the bookcase.) 8. Я чувствую себя очень одиноким
с тех пор, как брат уехал. (I feel lonely since my brother has left \ gone.) 9. Я очень
устала. Я готовилась к экзамену по экономике. (I am very tired. I have been preparing
for my exam in economics.)

Past Simple, Past Perfect, or Past Perfect Continuous
1. Я две недели гостила у приятельницы. (I had visited my friend for two
weeks.) 2. Я уже две недели гостила у приятельницы, когда получила ваше письмо.
(I had been visiting my friend for two weeks when I received your letter.) 3. Он вчера два
часа играл на скрипке. (Yesterday he played the violin for two hours.) 4. Он уже целый
час играл на скрипке, когда мы пришли. (He had been playing the violin for two hours
when we came.) 5. Девушка долго играла на рояле, и мы слушали ее с большим удо-
вольствием. (The girl had been playing the piano for a long time, and we were listening
to her with pleasure.) 6. Сестра была больна уже несколько дней, когда я узнал об
этом. (My sister had been ill for several days when I found out about it.) 7. Она отложила
в сторону письмо, которое писала, и задумалась. (She put aside the letter that she had
been writing and became thoughtful.) 8. Она пошла на почту отправить письмо,
которое написала накануне. (She went to the post-office to send the letter which she had
written last night.) 9. Все еще спали, когда зазвонил телефон. (Everybody was sleeping
when the phone rang.) 10. Сью внимательно наблюдала за Джонси, когда та открыла
глаза. (Sue was observing Johnie when she opened her eyes.) 11. Сью, которая некото-
рое время наблюдала за своей больной подругой, подошла к ее кровати. (Sue had
been observing her sick friend for some time, then came up to her bed.) 12. Она отложила
в сторону книгу, которую читала. (She put aside the book which she had been reading.)

Revision – tenses
(A) 1. Ты уложила свои вещи? Такси уже десять минут ждет у дверей. (Have
you packed your things? The taxi has been waiting for ten minutes at the door.) 2. Теперь
я поняла. (Now I understand.) 3. Он уже пять месяцев заведует лабораторией и мно-
гому научился за это время. (He has been supervising the lab for five months and has
learnt a lot.) 4. Я приду к вам, если только меня не задержат на работе. (I’ll come if I
don’t stay too long at work.) 5. Я всегда интересовалась естественными науками.
(I have always been interested in sciences.) 6. Кто взял мой словарь? Я уже полчаса
ищу его. (Who has taken my dictionary? I have been looking for it for half an hour.) 7.
Мы здесь уже с начала месяца, но не было еще ни одного солнечного дня. (We have
been here since the beginning of the month, but there has not been a single sunny day.) 8.
Она вечно говорит по телефону. (She is always talking on the phone.)
(B) 1. Сэм, негритянский мальчик, очень любил рисовать. (Sam, a black boy,
liked drawing very much.) 2. В детстве Сэм постоянно что-нибудь рисовал. (In his
childhood Sam was always drawing something.) 3. Сэм уже несколько недель посещал
класс рисования, когда он начал рисовать красную розу. (Sam had been going to
drawing classes when he began to draw a red rose.) 4. Когда мисс Ролстон подошла к
Сэму, он уже кончил рисовать розу и рисовал негритянскую девушку. (When Miss
Rollstone came up to Sam, he had finished drawing the rose and was drawing a black
girl.) 5. Сэм некоторое время рисовал негритянскую девушку, когда мисс Ролстон
подошла к нему. (Sam was drawing the black girl for some time, when Miss Rollstone
came up to him.) 6. Сэм не рисовал и десяти минут, когда мисс Ролстон подошла к
нему. (Sam had been drawing for only ten minutes when Miss Rollstone came up to him.)
7. Мисс Ролстон подошла к Сэму и остановилась позади него. (Miss Rollstone came
up to Sam and stood behind him.) 8. Мисс Ролстон подошла к Сэму и стояла позади
него. (Miss Rollstone came up to Sam and was standing behind him.) 9. Мисс Ролстон
подождала, пока Сэм не окончил рисунок. (Miss Rollstone was waiting until Sam had
finished the drawing.) 10. Рисунок был превосходен. Хотя Сэм взял только несколько

уроков, он сделал большие успехи. (The drawing was perfect. Though Sam had taken
only a few lessons, he made great progress.) 11. Мисс Ролстон взяла рисунок и обеща-
ла отвезти его в Филадельфию вместе с рисунками, которые он закончил раньше.
(Miss Rollstone took the drawings and promised to take them to Philadelphia with the
other drawings which he had finished earlier.) 12. Заведующий художественным отде-
лом просмотрел рисунки, которые мисс Ролстон принесла ему. Рисунки ему очень
понравились, но он отказался их принять, когда узнал, что художник – негр. (The
museum supervisor looked through the drawings which Miss Rollstone had brought him.
He liked the drawings very much, but he refused to take them when he found out that the
artist was a black boy.) 13. Мисс Ролстон пробыла в Филадельфии около недели.
(Miss Rollstone stayed in Philadelphia for a week.) 14. Мисс Ролстон пробыла в Фила-
дельфии около недели, прежде чем поняла, что ничего не может сделать для Сэма.
(Miss Rollstone had been in Philadelphia for a week then she understood that she could
do nothing for Sam.)
(C) 1. Молодые художники жили несколько месяцев вместе, прежде чем
Джонси заболела воспалением легких. (The young artists had been living for several
months when Johnnie caught pneumonia.) 2. Она была больна уже несколько дней и
плохо выглядела. (She had been ill for several days and looked bad.) 3. В то время как
Сью рисовала, она услышала голос Джонси. Джонси смотрела в окно и считала.
(When Sue was drawing she heard Johnnie’s voice. Johnie was looking through the win-
dow and counting.) 4. Джонси сказала: «Когда упадет последний лист, я умру».
(Johnnie said «When the last leaf falls, I’ll die. ») 5. «Не смотри в окно, пока я не кончу
свою работу», – попросила Сью подругу. («Don’t look at the window until I have fin-
ished my painting. » Sue asked her friend.) 6. Сью рисовала своего «Старого шахтера»
около часа. (Sue was drawing her «The Old Miner» for an hour.) 7. Сью рисовала свое-
го «Старого шахтера» около часа, когда, наконец, почувствовала смертельную уста-
лость и легла спать. (Sue had been drawing her «The Old Miner» for an hour, when she
was dead tired and went to bed.) 8. Когда Сью проснулась на следующее утро, Джон-
си пристально смотрела на опущенную штору. Она думала о последнем листе – ду-
мала о нем, быть может, уже не один час. (When Sue woke up the next morning Johnnie
was staring at the lowered curtains. She was thinking about the last leaf – she had been
thinking about it for more than an hour.) 9. Сью отложила кисть и пошла готовить
бульон для Джонси. (Sue put the brush aside and went to prepare soup for Johnnie.)
10. Сью отложила кисть в сторону и готовила бульон для Джонси. (Sue put the brush
aside and was preparing soup for Johnnie.) 11. Старый Берман постоянно говорил о
своем шедевре. (Old Berman was constantly talking about his masterpiece.)
12. Умирающий художник был счастлив – он создал свое великое произведение.
(The dying artist was happy – he had created his masterpiece.)


11.1 Point out all the modal words and define their meaning.
1. Over the ridge she would find him. Surely (certainty) she would find him.
(Wells) 2. He had stopped their mouths, maybe (supposition), but at what a cost. (Gals-
worthy) 3. She s just engaged to him. Of course (certainty) she is frightfully excited about
it, and naturally he wants her to come away and marry. (Wells) 4. Winifred could barely
get a word out of him, he ate nothing, but he certainly (certainty) took his liquor and his
face kept getting whiter. (Galsworthy) 5. She was probably (supposition) dissatisfied just
as he was. (Dreiser) 6. Knowledge of something kept from her made him, no doubt (cer-
tainty), unduly sensitive. (Galsworthy) 7. The Buccaneer, watching him go so sadly, felt
sorry perhaps (supposition) for his behaviour to the old man. (Galsworthy) 8. Thorp was
actually (certainty) too sick to see anybody. (Heym) 9. "Allow me, Sir, the honour of
grasping your hand – permit me, Sir, to shake it", said the grave man. "Certainly" (cer-
tainty), said Mr. Pickwick. (Dickens) 10. My dear Ma'am, you deserve a very excellent
husband-you do indeed (action-desirable). (Dickens) 11. Bertine and I are just on our way
home, truly (action-desirable). (Dreiser) 12. He saw Fleur, standing near the door, hold-
ing a handkerchief which the boy had evidently (supposition) just handed to her. (Gals-

11.2 Translate into English using the verbs can and may whenever possible.
1. He может быть, чтобы она прочла эту книгу за два дня; она, возможно, толь-
ко просмотрела ее. (She couldn’t have read this book in two days; she could have only
looked through it.). «Не может быть, чтобы вы потеряли билет, вы могли положить его
в карман». – «Нет, я могла выронить его в трамвае». (You couldn’t have lost the ticket;
you could have put it in your pocket. – No, I could have dropped it in the tram.) 3. Не мо-
жет быть, чтобы он уже приехал, я получила телеграмму только вчера. (He couldn’t
have arrived already; I received the telegram only in the evening.) 4. Неужели он уже
получил мое письмо? (Has he received my letter already?) 5. Неужели он не получил
моего письма? (He might not have received my letter, might he?) 6. Ваши часы, возмож-
но, спешат; не может быть, чтобы сейчас было девять часов. (Your watch may be fast, it
can’t be 10 now.) 7. Он не мог получить книгу, потому что библиотека была закрыта.
(He couldn’t get the book because the library was closed.) 8. Не может быть, чтобы он
получил книгу, ведь библиотека была закрыта. (He couldn’t have got the book, as the
library was closed.) 9. Не могли бы вы дать мне эту книгу дня на два? (Could you give
me this book for two days?) 10. Нет, я не верю этому, не может быть, чтобы она меня
обманула. (No, I don’t believe this; she couldn’t have deceived me.) 11. Я останусь дома;
она, возможно, будет мне звонить. (I’ll stay at home. She might phone me.) 12. Право,
Джордж, ты мог бы помочь мне нести этот тяжелый чемодан, разве ты не видишь, как
мне это тяжело? (Indeed, George, you could help me to carry this heavy suitcase; can’t you
see how heavy it is.) 13. «Где ключ?» – «Не знаю, Ольга могла взять его с собой по
ошибке». – «Не может быть, чтобы она его взяла, у нее ничего не было в руках, когда
она уходила». (Where are the keys? I don’t know, Olga might have taken them by mistake.
– It’s impossible, she couldn’t have taken them. There was nothing in her hands when she
was leaving.) 14. Наконец-то вы пришли! Вы могли прийти пораньше, ведь вы же зна-
ли, что я больна. (You have come at last. You could have come earlier, as you knew that I
was ill.)

11.3 Translate into English, using modal verbs.
1. «Помочь вам?» – «Нет, спасибо, я сделаю все сама». (Can I help you? – No,
thanks, I’ll do it myself.) 2. «Не знаю, справлюсь ли я с этой работой в такой короткий
срок». – «Вы должны были подумать об этом раньше». (I possibly will not do the work
in time. – You should have thought about it before.) 3. Не может быть, чтобы он уже
вернулся, ведь он вчера только уехал в Москву. Вы, должно быть, ошиблись. (He
couldn’t have returned because he left for Moscow only yesterday. You must be mistaken.)
4. Вы не должны позволять ей читать в сумерки, она может испортить глаза. (You
shouldn’t permit her to read in the dusk \ twilight; she can spoil her eyes.) 5. Вы не
должны были оставлять гореть газ, такими вещами нельзя шутить, ведь мог про-
изойти пожар! (You should not have left the burning gas; there could have been a fire!)
6. Он должен был поехать в Москву на прошлой неделе, но конференция задержала
его на несколько дней. (He ought to have gone to Moscow last week, but the conference
detained him for a few days.) 7. Тысячу раз я просила ее не хлопать дверью, когда я
занимаюсь, но она все равно хлопает. (I asked her not to slap the door when I was stud-
ying, but she apparently kept on doing it.) 8. Я вас, должно быть, неправильно понял и
поэтому пришел так рано. (I think I have probably misunderstood you so I came so ear-
ly.) 9. Вам не к чему брать зонтик, на небе нет ни облачка. (Of course you cannot take
an umbrella; there are no clouds in the sky.) 10. Мне придется оставить ей записку, я
ее, наверно, не увижу. (No doubt, I will have to leave her a note; I will probably not see
her.) 11. «Почему они ее тогда не видели? » – «Она могла уйти до их прихода». (Why
didn’t they see her? – She could have left before they came.) 12. Вам незачем идти на
почту, я отправлю ваше письмо. (Certainly, you may not go to the post office. I’ll post
your letter.) 13. Джордж должен был вчера у нас обедать, но он не пришел. (George
should have had dinner with us yesterday, but he didn’t come.) 14. Погода была пре-
красная; мы пошли в сад, всюду можно было видеть счастливые лица детей. (The
weather was fine, we went to the garden, and one could see children’s happy faces every-
where.) 15. Доктор велел ей лежать в постели, но она и слышать об этом не хотела.
(The doctor made her stay in bed, but she didn’t want to.) 16. Обычно я хожу в филар-
монию пешком, но вчера я вышел поздно, и мне пришлось сесть в автобус. (I usually
go to the Philharmonic Society on foot, but yesterday I left late and I had to take a taxi.)


12.1 State the morphological composition of the following prepositions:

in (simple), below (derivative), with regard to (composite), during (simple), con-
cerning (simple), till (simple), in front of (composite), without (compound), behind (deriv-
ative), under (simple), in view of (composite), outside (compound), off (simple), into
(compound), until (derivative), across (derivative), according to (composite), with (sim-
ple), along (derivative), up (simple), inside (compound), out of (composite), owing to
(composite), at (simple), regarding (derivative).

12.2 This is a weather forecast on a local radio station. Fill in the missing words.
Good morning. This is the weather (1) at six in the morning (2) on Thursday 7 Fri-
day. It’s cold (3) outside, and there’s ice (4) on the roads, so don’t drive too close to the
car (5) in front of you! There should be forty meters (6) between you and the car! If
you’re driving (7) in the city this morning, pay attention to schoolchildren walking (8)
along the road. Remember, you might be (9) next to a school! Traffic is moving very
slowly (10) through the city centre at the moment. There was an accident last night – if
you’re driving (11) past Central Library, the Police may stop you and ask you a few ques-
tions. That’s all for now. More weather news every hour, (12) from six (13) in the morn-
ing (14) to six in the night, this is the KC News Network making sure you’re up to date
with the news on the road!

12.3 Tony is talking to Michelle. Write in the following missing words in the correct place.

for at by (x2) in of with (x2) without (x2)

TONY: Jack says he can learn a new language without working.

MICHELLE: Who’s Jack?
TONY: He’s the new boy in the bright blue jumper. The one with long hair.
He’s bought a book, a CD, and he says he learns by listening to the
CD while he’s asleep.
MICHELLE: I think that’s silly.
TONY: But you’re good at learning new words, aren’t you? I might try
Jack’s CD. I’m sick of making mistakes all the time.
MICHELLE: It’s no use worrying about mistakes. We learn by making mistakes.
TONY: It’s easy for you. You can pass French exams without doing much
work. How do you do it?
MICHELLE: I just sit down with a dictionary and a French newspaper. It’s not
buying an expensive CD, in my view.

12.4 Melanie is sending an e-mail to Shelia. Cross out the wrong words.
I want to be (1) on \ in holiday! It’s too hot to work. The office is (2) as \ like an
oven (3) on \ at the moment. It looks (4) as \like if my boss will be in Germany (5) on \ in
business next week, so I’ll be (6) at \ in charge. Are you enjoying yourself in Cancun? Is
Mexico cheap (7) like \ as a place to stay? (8) Like \ As usual, I haven’t booked my holi-
day yet, but I think I’ll go to Spain (9) by \ in car and visit my old friend Pilar in Madrid.

You really sounded (10) as \ like though you were (11) on \ in love when I spoke to you
(12) by \ on the phone last week. !13) As \ Like you know, I think your new boyfriend is a
really nice guy. I’m sure you’ll be happy together.

12.5 A tour guide is showing tourists a Roman camp near Hadrian’s Wall in the north
of England. Put the words from the box in the spaces.

reach interested waiting (x2) talk sure proud listen depended grateful surprised brilliant

(1) Listen to me now, please. Can you hear me? I’m going to (2) talk to you today
about daily life for Romans living in the camp. I think you will be (3) surprised by some
of the things that you see. This part of the camp was the kitchen. Imagine fifteen cooks (4)
waiting with the meals for the soldiers and their families. The achcooks (5) depended on
local farms for the food, and they were (6) brilliant at keeping food for a long time, using
salt for example. If you’re (7) interested in cooking, please ask for more information at
the tourist centre. Shall we continue? Who are we (8) waiting for? We’re not (9) sure
about this part of the camp, but we think it was a bathing area, and we know that Romans
were (10) proud of their bathrooms. I expect that the people living here were (11) grate-
ful for hot water in winter. Let’s move on. In a moment we’ll (12) reach family part of the
camp, and I’ll let you look around by yourselves.

12.6 Paula and Nigel are talking to each other on the phone. In numbers 1–8, circle the
correct preposition. In the rest, put in the correct preposition.
Paula: Hi! Is that you, Nigel? I’m glad you haven’t left yet. When you come to the
conference tonight, could you bring the green file? It’s (1) on \ onto my desk,
(2) behind \ between the telephone. Can you see it? That’s right. It’s (3) across \
under the address book. Great! Now, do you know how to get to the hotel?
Nigel: I think so. After I’ve driven out (4) from \ of London, I go north (5) in \ up the
A54, through Watford, (6) as \ like though I was going to Milton Keynes. But
in fact I take the B254 (7) on \ to Halton before I reach Milton Keynes. I think
I should get there about nine o’clock, shouldn’t I?
Paula: That’s right, unless you get lost (8) like \ as me!
Nigel: Isn’t there a big house (9) for sale, just before the Halton road?
Paula: Yes. It’s (10) on the left. I didn’t see it, so I had to ask (11) for directions.
Nigel: Is the boss there already? I plan to arrive at the hotel (12) in jeans instead (13) of
my suit and tie. I hope that’s OK. By the way, did you apply (14) for Phil’s job?
Paula: I wasn’t sure about it, but yes I did apply. I was a bit annoyed (15) with the
advertisement on the website, though. There was a sentence (16) at the end of
it, saying “You must be good (17) at talking to people.”
Nigel: What’s wrong with that?
Paula: Well, Phil was very good at talking to people, but he wasn’t fond (18) of doing
any work, was he?
Nigel: You sound (19) like you didn’t really like Phil.
Paula: Well, I thought he was a bit cruel (20) to his secretary.
Nigel: Yes, I think she was frightened (21) of him, wasn’t she? Look, I’d better go.
See you later!


13.1 Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. The student translating the article is Novikov. (Студент, который переводит
статью, – Новиков.) 2. The student is translating an article on refrigerators. (Студент
переводит статью о холодильниках.) 3. The student has translated an article.
(Студент перевел статью.) 4. The article is translated by the student. (Статью
переводит студент.) 5. The article is being translated by the student. (Сейчас статья
переводится студентом.) 6. The article translated by the student is difficult. (Статья,
переводимая студентом, трудная.) 7. The article translated is devoted to electrical fur-
naces. (Переводимая статья посвящена электропечам.) 8. Translating an article, the
student used a dictionary. (При переводе статьи студент пользовался словарем.)
9. Having translated the article, the student gave it to the teacher. (Закончив перевод
статьи, студент отдал ее учителю.) 10. Having been asked to translate the article, the
student translated it with great interest. (После того, как студента попросили переве-
сти статью, он перевел ее с большим интересом.) 11. The article being translated is
about the application of electricity. (Статья, которую сейчас переводят, – о
применении электричества.)

13.2 Define the function of Present Participle and translate the sentences into Russian.
1. A substance resisting all ordinary or chemical efforts to decompose it into simpler sub-
stances is an element. (attribute) – Вещество, сопротивляющееся разложению на бо-
лее простые составляющие любыми обычными или химическими способами, явля-
ется элементом.
2. Being a good conductor, copper is often used in industry. (adverbial modifier) – Явля-
ясь хорошим проводником, медь часто используется в промышленности.
3. Having high melting point tungsten is widely used for the production of electrical
lamps. (adverbial modifier) Имея высокую точку плавления, вольфрам широко ис-
пользуется для производства электрических ламп.
4. The changes affecting the composition of materials are chemical changes. (attribute)
Изменения, оказывающие влияние на состав вещества, являются химическими про-
5. Adding heat we can change the state of a substance. (adverbial modifier) – Нагревая,
мы можем изменить состояние вещества.
6. A molecule is a compound consisting of two or more atoms. (attribute) Молекула –
это соединение, состоящее из двух или более атомов.
7. Heating a substance we cause a more rapid motion of its molecules. (adverbial
modifier) При нагревании вещества, мы добиваемся более быстрого движения его

13.3 Define the function of Past Participle and translate the sentences into Russian.
1. Many experiments with different kinds of gases were made in the laboratory. (verbal –
В лаборатории было проведено много экспериментов с различными газами.) 2. The
substance formed was made up of two elements. (adjectival – Образовавшееся вещество
состояло из двух элементов.) 3. When water was heated evaporation took place. (adver-
bial – Когда воду нагрели, началось парообразование.) 4. Various materials will be

used for our report. (verbal – Для нашего отчета будут использованы разные
материалы.) 5. The substances obtained were subjected to a chemical change. (adverbi-
al – Полученное вещество подверглось химической реакции.) 6. Different new ele-
ments are produced artificially. (verbal – Разные новые элементы производятся
искусственно.) 7. Some weather sputniks will be launched next year. (verbal –
В следующем году будет запущено несколько искусственных метеорологических
спутников.) 8. Atoms can be further divided into smaller particles. (verbal – Атомы
можно разделить дальше на более мелкие частицы.)

13.4 Translate the sentences into Russian and define the function of Participle.
1. When speaking about a direct current, we mean a continuous current. (adverbial – Го-
воря о прямом токе, мы имеем в виду постоянный ток.)
2. While flowing along a conductor a current heats it. (adverbial – Протекая по провод-
нику, ток его нагревает.)
3. If taken from the library books must be returned in time. (adverbial – Взятые из биб-
лиотеки книги должны быть возвращены в срок.)
4. If placed in a strong magnetic field iron becomes magnetized. (adverbial – Будучи по-
мещенным в сильное магнитное поле, железо становится намагниченным.)
5. Having passed his examinations for a scientific degree Dr. Manson returned to his town.
(adverbial – Сдав экзамены на получениe научной степени, доктор Менсон вернулся
в свой город.)
6. Having been given all the necessary information he continued his job. (adverbial –
Получив всю необходимую информацию, он продолжил свою работу.)
7. Heat produced in transmission lines is wasted energy. (adverbial – Тепло, образующе-
еся в линиях передачи, является бесполезно потерянной энергией.)
8. Electric incandescent lamps use a light given off by a wire heated by a current. (adver-
bial – Электрические лампы накаливания используют свет, испускаемый проволоч-
кой-проводником, нагретой током.)

13.5 Translate the sentences into Russian (Participle I as an attribute).

1. Электроны, образующие атом, находятся в движении. (Electrons forming an atom
are in motion.)
2. Одним из четырех основных частей турбины является статор, состоящий из ци-
линдра и корпуса. (One of the four fundamental parts of the turbine is the stator consist-
ing of a cylinder and casing.)
3. Уведомление о готовности должно сопровождаться подробным исковым заявле-
нием, указывающим точные размеры, процентное соотношение и исковую сумму.
(The notice of readiness must be accompanied by a detailed statement of claim showing
exactly sizes, percentages and the amount claimed.)

(Participle I in the function of an adverbial modifier).

1. Используя преимущества конструкции сидений, было решено поворачивать их
так, чтобы все пассажиры могли бы сидеть по направлению движения при каждом
рейсе. (Taking advantage of the seat design it was decided to turn the seats for each run so
that all the passengers could be sitting in the direction of travel.)

2. Применение пластика для внутренней отделки оказалось более практичным, чем
ожидалось. (Applying plastics for interior decoration appeared more practicable than it
was anticipated.)
3. Этот универсальный двигатель внедряется как более экономичный. (This universal
motor is adopted as being more economical.)
4. Электронные компьютеры осуществляют арифметические и логические действия,
делая возможным управление процессом в достаточно сложных условиях. (Electron-
ic computers perform arithmetical and logical operations making it possible to govern the
process under rather complicated conditions.)

13.6 Translate the sentences into Russian (Participle II as an attribute).

1. Поврежденные части тотчас же были осмотрены и отремонтированы специали-
стом. (The damaged parts were immediately examined and repaired by a specialist.)
2. Единицы, используемые для измерения времени, пространства и массы, называ-
ются основными единицами. (The units used to measure time, space and mass are called
fundamental units.)
3. Изучаемые предметы были розданы всем в соответствии с их специальностью.
(The examined articles were given to all according to their speciality.)
4. Количество проводимых вычислений зависит от качества используемого
электронного компьютера. (The amount of calculations carried out depends on the quali-
ty of the electronic computer used.)

(Participle II in the function of an adverbial modifier).

1. Расположенные в соответствии с их атомным весом, элементы показывают выра-
женную повторяемость свойств. (Arranged according to their atomic weights, the ele-
ments exhibit an evident periodicity of properties.)
2. Будучи установленным, провод может использоваться в качестве проводника. (In-
stalled, the wire may be used as a conductor.)
3. Освободившись, тело, оказывается, будет вибрировать вокруг своего положения
равновесия. (When released, the body will be found to vibrate about its equilibrium posi-
4. В широком использовании термин «сплав» может включать смесь металлов, а не
твердых растворов. (When broadly used, the term «alloy» may include mixture of metals
and not solid solutions.)

13.7 Translate the sentences into Russian and define the function of Absolute Participle
1. При возрастании температуры растопленного льда скорость движения его моле-
кул увеличивается. (The temperature of melted ice rising, the movement of its molecules
is speeded up.)
2. После определения силы, прилагаемой к мосту, возможно учесть допустимую
грузоподъемность пласта. (The forces imposed upon the bridge being determined, it is
possible to take into account the bearing capacity of stratum.)
3. Квантовые генераторы могут собирать свет в чрезвычайно узкие лучи, их ширина
в угловых единицах составляет порядка тысячных градуса. (Quantum generators can
focus light in extremely narrow beams, their angular width being in the order of thousands
of degree.)

4. Ток, проходя через катушку провода, образует магнитные полюса на концах ка-
тушки, которая действует как магнит. (Current passing through a coil of wire, magnetic
poles are produced at each end of the coil and it acts like a magnet.)
5. У нас есть много полимеров, новые методы применения которых постепенно
разрабатываются. (We have many polymers, new methods of their applying being
worked out gradually.)

13.8 Translate into English.

1. Отвечая на вопросы преподавателя, он сделал несколько ошибок. (Answering the
teacher’s questions, he made several mistakes.)
2. Ответив на вопросы преподавателя, мы начали читать новый текст. (Having an-
swered the teacher’s questions, we began to read a new text.)
3. Посещая лекции по химии, они узнали много нового. (Attending the lectures in
chemistry, they got to know a lot.)
4. Являясь хорошим проводником электричества, медь широко применяется в про-
мышленности. (Being a good conductor, copper is widely used in industries.)
5. Когда меня спросили о магнитах и их свойствах, я дал полный ответ. (When I was
asked about magnets and their properties, I gave a complete answer.)

13.9 Choose the correct translation.

(A) 1. Давление, измеряемое этим прибором ……….
(a) measuring (b) measured (c) being measured (d) having measured
2. Условия, приводящие к повышению температуры……
(a) resulted in (b) resulting in (c) have resulted in (d) having resulted in
3. Учитывая различные свойства материалов……
(a) considering (b) considered (c) having considered (d) being considered
4. Предотвратив поломку прибора…..
(a) preventing (b) prevented (c) having prevented (d) having been prevented
5. Опыты, проведенные учеными……
(a) making (b) having been made (c) made (d) being made
6. Нагревая воду……..
(a) heating (b) heated (c) having been heated (d) being heated
7. Вещества, влияющие на скорость реакции……….
(a) influenced (b) influencing (c) being influenced (d) having influenced
8. Инженеры, разрабатывающие эти материалы……….
(a) working out (b) worked out (c) are working out (d) having worked out
9. Вещества, требуемые для этой реакции.
(a) when required (b) required (c) requiring (d) having required
10. Предотвращая аварию…….
(a) prevented (b) having prevented (c) being prevented (d) preventing
11. Повысив температуру…….
(a) while increasing (b) having been increased (c) increased (d) having increased

1. Insert the appropriate form of the gerund.
1. Stark sat down without speaking. (Jones) 2. He did not go without being con-
gratulated by Amy. (Dickens) 3. After shaving more closely than usual and brushing his
hair, he [Herzog] took the bus uptown. (Bellow) 4. At South Square, on discovering that
Michael and Fleur were out, he did not dress for dinner, but went to the nursery. (Gals-
worthy) 5. I had to sound as if I didn't mind being insulted, as though I had no temper of
my own. (Snow) 6. She kept on talking, her voice low and controlled. (Braine) 7. In the
morning light, she was, ashamed of herself for being so elated the night before. (Snow)
8. The house wanted doing up. (Galsworthy) 9. Even a criminal must be told the nature of
his crime before being convicted. (Stone) 10. She showed none of the usual feminine
pleasure at being hard to understand, inscrutable, mysterious. (Priestley) 11. I still re-
proached myself for not being open with Douglas Osbaldiston from the start, when he had
invited me to do so. (Snow) 12. No woman looks her best after sitting up all night. (Shaw)
13. His legs were somewhat stiff from not having hiked or climbed for days. (Baum)
14. I'm tired of being treated like a silly fat lamb. (Coppard) 15. I know everyone who's
worth being known. (Maugham) 16. After saying this, he cursed himself for not having
said the opposite, so that he might have used the expected guest as a lever to get rid of
Misha. (Murdoch) 17. There is vivid happiness in merely being alive. (Coppard)
18. "Your tie needs straightening", Mrs. Simpson said. (Greene) 19. The attempt is at
least worth making. (Collins) 20. Mr. Creakle then caned Tommy Traddles for having
been discovered in tears, instead of cheers, on account of Mr. Mell's departure... (Dick-
ens) 21. He apologized to Hooker for being down so late. (Priestley) 22. One could not
walk or drive about Philadelphia without seeing and being impressed with the general
tendency toward a more cultivated and selective social life. (Dreiser) 23. I just couldn't
stand being away from you any longer. (Stone) 24. I remember having seen him with her
and Marner going away from church. (Eliot) 25. When I told him that I meant to live in
Paris for a while, and had taken an apartment, he reproached me bitterly for not having let
him know. (Maugham) 26. He had a flat smooth face with heavy-lidded green eyes that
gave the impression of being set at a slant. (Braine) 27. His latest craze was to discover
her age, which he cursed himself for not having observed when he had her passport in his
hands. (Murdoch) 28. Let me tell you whose house you've come into without asking or
wanting. (Faulkner) 29. I'm tired of talking to you. (Maugham) 30. They soon discovered
that the gate was securely locked. They looked at one another in a mixed fashion, a trifle
disappointed at being held up, but still triumphant at finding the place. (Priestley)

2. Insert the correct preposition before the gerund where required.

1. "I hated the idea of your going", he said simply. (Greene) 2. She said: "Excuse
me for corning in without knocking". (Lessing) 3. The others insisted on accompanying
them. (Lessing) 4. I am tired of being old and wise. (Greene) 5. We'll look forward to see-
ing you. (Hansford Johnson) 6. Why were you so anxious to prevent anybody from leav-
ing the house? (Maugham) 7. I'm afraid I shan't succeed in being as sympathetic as you
have the right to expect. (Maugham) 8. I was afraid of saying the wrong thing. (Maugham)
9. Look here, it may sound funny, but I'm terrifically grateful to you for saying it. (Hans-
ford Johnson) 10. Both windows needed cleaning. (Hansford Johnson) 11. I've paid very
heavily for being a romantic girl. (Maugham) 12. She could not bear lying. (Priestley)
13. I suppose nothing is gained by delaying. (Maugham) 14. They were in the habit of
coming up to London for the season. (Maugham) 15. We wouldn't mind being poor again.

(Hansford Johnson) 16. I didn't at all like the idea of going to the station in the luggage
cart. (Maugham) 17. He looked at me for a long time before answering. (Clark)
18. He felt he was going to be denounced in daring to suggest such a thing. (Priestley)
19. I thought you had just been blaming me for being neutral. (Snow) 20. If you won't tell
me what's wrong, what's the use of my being here? (Braine)

3. Translate into English using the gerund where possible.

(A) 1. Увидев карикатуры, все рассмеялись. (Seeing the cartoons, everybody
began to laugh.) 2. Вы ничего не имеете против того, чтобы я открыл окно? (Do you
object if I open the window?) 3. Врач приказал больному бросить курить. (The doctor
ordered the patient to give up smoking.) 4. Мальчик не отрицал, что потерял книгу,
взятую в библиотеке. (The boy did not deny that he had lost the book taken from the li-
brary.) 5. Извините, что я заставил вас ждать. (Excuse me for keeping you waiting.)
6. Детям доставляло удовольствие играть в саду. (The children liked playing in the
garden.) 7. Эту книгу стоит почитать. (It is worth reading this book.) 8. Читая этот рас-
сказ, мы не могли не смеяться. (Reading this story, we couldn’t help laughing.)
9. Я предпочитаю сделать эту работу сегодня. (I prefer doing this work today.)
10. Я надеюсь, что ничего не помешает мне пойти на концерт. (I hope nothing will
prevent me from coming to the concert.) 11. Преподаватель возражал против того, что-
бы студенты пользовались словарем, переводя этот текст. (The teacher was against if
the students used dictionaries when translating this text.) 12. Преподаватель настаивал,
чтобы новые выражения записывались. (The teacher insisted on writing down the new
expressions.) 13. Преподаватель настаивал, чтобы студенты записывали новые
выражения. (The teacher insisted that the students write down the new expressions.)
14. Я устала от того, что со мной обращаются как с ребенком. (I am tired of being
treated as a child.) 15. Я не возражаю против того, чтобы помочь вам, но я возражаю
против того, чтобы мне мешали, когда я занят. (I don’t object helping you, but I hate
being disturbed when I’m busy.) 16. Мы слышали, что ваша сестра уехала в Англию.
(We heard that your sister has left for England.) 17. Мне не хочется (to feel like) гулять.
(I don’t feel like walking.) 18. Было невозможно достать билет, и мне пришлось отка-
заться от мысли послушать знаменитого пианиста. (It was impossible to get a ticket,
and I had to give up the idea of listening to the famous pianist.) 19. Я не одобряю того,
что вы пропускаете лекции. (I disapprove that you are missing the lectures.) 20. Похо-
же на то, что будет дождь. (It’s going to rain.) 21. Вы можете рассчитывать на то, что
я достану вам эту книгу. (There is no doubt that I’ll get the book for you.) 22. Декан не
согласился, чтобы собрание отложили. (The dean did not agree to cancel the meeting.)
23. Мать горячо благодарила доктора за то, что он спас ее ребенка. (The mother
thanked the doctor for saving her child.) 24. Не упустите случая посмотреть эту
выставку. (Don’t miss the opportunity to go to the exhibition.) 25. Все были удивлены,
что этот трудный вопрос был так быстро разрешен. (Everybody was surprised that this
difficult question was easily solved.) 26. Мы уверены, что письмо будет получено
вовремя. (We are sure that the letter will come in time.) 27. Мы уверены, что письмо
было получено вовремя. (We are sure that the letter was received in time.) 28. Я гор-
жусь тем, что была в состоянии помочь вам. (I am proud of being able to help you.)
29. Мне стыдно, что я сделала так много ошибок в последнем диктанте. (It’s a shame
that I made so many mistakes in my dictation.)

4. Insert the appropriate form of the infinitive.
1. But there was nothing now to wait for. (Wilson) 2. She put on the cape and
turned round to be admired. (Cain) 3. He appeared to be listening. (Lessing) 4. He ap-
peared to have plenty of money, which was said to have been gained in the Californian
goldfields. (Conan Doyle) 5. When I seemed to be dozing a long while, the Master of Sa-
lem House unscrewed his flute into the three pieces, put them up as before, and took me
away. (Dickens) 6. Every feature seemed to have sharpened since he saw her last. (Gals-
worthy) 7. This fellow seemed to be a famous explorer or something of that sort. (Priest-
ley) 8. The house appeared to have been repaired recently. (Hardy) 9. Nobody seemed to
have perceived his entry, but there he certainly was. (Hardy) 10. Paula would be the first
concentration camp to be liberated by American troops. (Heym) 11. Willoughby was not
the man to overlook the lessons of his predecessor. (Heym) 12. A twelve year old girl, Pa-
tience Barlow, was the first to have attracted his attention or to be attracted by him.
(Dreiser) 13. One might guess Mr. George to have been a trooper once upon a time.
(Dickens) 14. I suppose Mr. Jelleby had been more talkative and lively once; but he
seemed to have been exhausted long before I knew him. (Dickens) 15. Dave seemed to
be watching Stephanie, waiting for her to make the first move. (Saxton) 16. For the last
few days she seemed to have been talking to nobody but strange men. (Priestley)
17. I lack the will-power to do anything with my life, to better my position by hard work.
(Durrell) 18. There's no time to lose. (Clark) 19. And, in a very little while, the Murdstone
and Grinby life became so strange to me that I hardly believed in it, while my present life
grew so familiar, that I seemed to have been leading it a long time. (Dickens) 20. Roger
Quaife was a youngish Conservative member who was beginning to being talked about.
(Snow) 21. He is said to have put away a small fortune. (Durrell) 22. That Jolyon seems
to have born in 1710, son of Jolyon and Mary. (Galsworthy)

5. Translate into English, using the infinitive.

1. Было приятно гулять в лесу в такой жаркий день. (It was a pleasure to walk
in the forest on such a hot day.) 2. По правде говоря, я читал эту книгу в переводе. (To
tell the truth, I have read this book in its translation.) 3. Он достаточно хорошо знает
английский язык, чтобы перевести эту статью. (He knows English enough to translate
this article.) 4. Первое, что надо сделать, – это выписать новые слова из текста. (The
first to do is to write out the new words.) 5. Бесполезно противоречить вам; вы очень
упрямы, чтобы не сказать больше. (It’s useless to contradict you; you are too stubborn.)
6. Никогда не поздно признать свою ошибку. (It’s never late to admit your mistake.)
7. Она уехала на Дальний Восток и больше не вернулась в свой родной город. (She
left for the Far East to never return to her native city.) 8. Мягко выражаясь, он не сказал
вам всей правды. (To say the least, he did not tell you all the truth.) 9. Я чувствую себя
слишком плохо, чтобы поехать с вами за город. (I feel too bad to go to the countryside
with you.) 10. Короче говоря, их вина осталась недоказанной. (To put it short, their
guilt was not proved.)

6. Translate into English, using the to-infinitive or the bare infinitive.

1. Я чувствовал, что его рассказ правдив. (I feel that his story is true.)
2. Я почувствовал, что кто-то тронул меня за плечо. (I felt somebody touch my shoul-
der.) 3. «Вы выглядите утомленным, вы бы лучше пошли домой». «Нет, я бы пред-
почел закончить работу». (You look too tired, so you should go home. No, I prefer to fin-

ish the work.) 4. Почему бы не поговорить с деканом? (Why not talk to the dean?) 5.
Ему ничего не оставалось делать, как признать свою вину (to admit one's fault).
(There was nothing for him to do but admit his fault.) 6. Она только и делает, что вор-
чит. (She only complains.) 7. Я не могу не согласиться с вами. (I can only agree with
you.) 8. Степан Аркадьевич тонко (subtly) улыбался. Левин тоже не мог не улыб-
нуться. (Stepan Arkadivich subtly smiled. Levin could nothing but smile.) (Л. Толстой) 9.
Надевайте же коньки, и давайте кататься вместе. (Put on your skates, let’s go skating.)
(Л. Толстой) 10. Что ж, он прекрасный жених (match)... Зачем не выдти за него?...
(He’s a good match. Why not marry him?) (Пушкин) 11....Я три дня занимался только
тем, что... наслаждался чтением какого-нибудь романа... (I did nothing but read a
novel for three days.) (Л. Толстой) 12. «Ты опять заснешь, Николенька? — говорит
мне maman. — Ты бы лучше шел наверх». (You’ll fall asleep again, Nickie, said
maman. You better go upstairs.) (Л. Толстой) 13. Я никогда не видел (to know), чтобы
ты сказал неправду. (I never knew that you told the truth.) (Л. Толстой) 14. Я не мог не
подивиться странному сцеплению (chain) обстоятельств. (I was surprised at the
strange coincidence of circumstances.) (Пушкин)

7. Translate into English.

1. Он первый прервал молчание. (He was the first to break the silence.) 2. Он
ушел из лаборатории последним. (He was the last to leave the lab.) 3. У нее есть ребе-
нок, о котором ей надо заботиться. (She has a child to take care of.) 4. Мне надо вам
кое-что сказать. (I have something to tell you.) 5. Вот книга, которую хорошо почитать
в поезде. (Here is a good book to read in the train.) 6. Мне надо о многом поговорить с
вами. (I need to tell you a lot.) 7. У меня есть друзья, которые могут мне помочь. (I
have friends to help me.) 8. У меня не было времени прочитать эту статью. (I had no
time to read the article.) 9. Я знал, что нельзя терять времени. (I knew there was no time
to be lost.) 10. Вот статья, которую вы должны прочитать. (Here is the article for you
to read.) 11. У меня есть хорошая новость, которую я должен вам рассказать. (I have
good news to tell you.)

8. Translate into English.

1. Известно, что римляне построили на Британских островах хорошие дороги
и много крепостей. (It is known that the Romans had built good roads and many for-
tresses on the British isles.) 2. Полагают, что поэма «Беовульф» была написана в VIII
веке. (It is supposed that the poem «Beowulf» was written in the VIII century.) 3. Вальтер
Скотт считается создателем исторического романа. (Walter Scott is considered to be
the founder of the historical novel.) 4. Сообщают, что экспедиция достигла места
назначения. (It has been announced that the expedition has reached its destination.)
5. Едва ли его назначат главным инженером, ведь он кончил институт всего два года
тому назад. (Hardly will he be appointed the chief engineer as he has graduated the insti-
tute only two years ago.) 6. Он, по-видимому, хорошо знает английский язык; навер-
ное, он изучал его в детстве? (It seems he knows English well; probably he has studied it
in his childhood.) 7. Я случайно знаю номер его телефона. (I accidentally know his tele-
phone number.) 8. Он оказался хорошим спортсменом. (He turned to be a good sports-
man.) 9. Шум, казалось, все приближался. (The noise seemed to be approaching.)
10. Я случайно проходил мимо вокзала, когда в Ленинград приехали артисты Шекс-
пировского мемориального театра. (I was passing the station when the artists of Shake-
speare Memorial Theatre arrived.) 11. Певицу заставили повторить арию. (The singer

was made to repeat the aria.) 12. Он, кажется, пишет новую статью; кажется, он рабо-
тает над ней уже две недели. (It seems he is writing a new article; it seems he has been
working at it for two weeks.) 13. Его статья, несомненно, будет напечатана. (Without
doubt his article will be published.) 14. Я случайно встретил его в Москве. (I met him
by accident in Moscow.) 15. Обязательно прочитайте эту книгу; она вам, несомненно,
понравится. (You should read this book; you will like it.) 16. Говорят, что это здание
было построено в XVII веке. (It is said that this building was built in the XVII century.)

9. Translate into English, using the infinitive.

1. Стихи трудно переводить. (Poems are difficult to translate.) 2. Ничего не по-
делаешь, придется идти пешком. (There’s nothing to do but to go on foot.) 3. Я уезжаю
завтра, а многое еще надо сделать. (I’m leaving tomorrow, there’s a lot to do.) 4. Кому
писать протокол? (Who is to write these proceedings?) 5. Доклад начнется ровно в
пять; нeпременно приходите вовремя. (The report starts at 5 sharp; come in time.) 6.
Уже поздно посылать письмо. Единственное, что нам остается делать – это послать
телеграмму. (It’s too late to send this letter. The only thing to do is to send a telegram.) 7.
Не уходите. Мне надо вам кое-что сказать. (Don’t go. We have to tell you something.)
8. Роман Герцена! «Кто виноват?» написан в 1846 году. (Gercen’s novel «Who’s to
blame?» was written in 1846.) 9. Перестаньте спорить, этим ничего не достигнешь.
(Stop arguing, nothing will come out of this.) 10. Некоторым людям трудно угодить. (It
is difficult to please some people.) 11. Он очень умный человек, но с ним трудно иметь
дело. (He is very clever, but difficult to cope with.) 12. Эта актриса очень красива. (This
actress is very beautiful.)

10. Translate into English, using the infinitive where possible.

1. Я рад, что послушался вашего совета. (I am glad to take your advice.)
2. Я рад, что вы послушались моего совета. (I am glad that you took my advice.)
3. Мне жаль, что я не видела эту пьесу. (It’s a pity not to see this play.) 4. Мне жаль,
что вы не видели эту пьесу. (It’s a pity that you didn’t see this play.) 5. Я доволен, что
поступил в университет. (I’m glad to enter the university.) 6. Я доволен, что моя сест-
ра поступила в университет. (I am glad that my sister entered the university.) 7. Мне
жаль, что я не застала ее дома (It’s a pity she wasn’t at home.) 8. Мне жаль, что вы не
застали ее дома. (It’s a pity that she wasn’t at home.) 9. Он был счастлив что получил
путевку в санаторий. (He was happy to get a resort package.) 10. Он был огорчен, что
не достал билет на концерт. (He was disappointed that he didn’t get a concert ticket.)


14.1 Complete each sentence by using the phrases from the box.

Rarely have No sooner had Under no circumstances are

Not only did Under no circumstances will as did
Were you Hardly had Little did Rarely have

1. No sooner had we arrived at the hotel, when there was a power cut.
2. Under no circumstances are members of staff to accept gratuities from clients.
3. Little did Detective Dawson realize what she was to discover!
4. Were you to pay the full amount now, there would be a ten percent discount.
5. I supposed, as did most people, that I would be retiring at 60.
6. Rarely have the doctors seen a more difficult case.
7. Not only did Jean win first prize, but she was also offered a promotion.
8. Under no circumstances will late arrivals be admitted to the theatre before the interval.
9. Hardly had one missing child been found, than another three disappeared.
10. Rarely have so many employees taken sick leave at the same time.

14.2 Decide which sentences are inappropriate in the contexts given.

1. Guest to host: «So nice was that pudding, that I would like to have some more».
2. Witness to court: «No sooner had I turned out the light, than I heard a noise outside».
3. News reader: «Such was the force of the earthquake, that whole villages have been dev-
4. Parent to child: «Should you fancy a pizza, let’s order one now».
5. Friend to friend: «Never before have I seen this film».
6. Politician to audience: «Seldom has the country faced a greater threat».
7. Celebrity to interviewer: «Were I to have the time, I’d go climbing more often».
8. Victim to police officer: «Scarcely had we been introduced when he punched me for no
9. Printed notice: «Under no circumstances is this control panel to be left unattended».
10.Colleague to colleague: «Should you change your mind, just let me know».

14.3 Underline the correct word or phrase in each sentence.

1. Jim promised that he would never \ never would he tell anyone else.
2. Not until it was too late I remembered \ did I remember to call Susan.
3. Hardly had we settled down in our seats than \ when the lights went out.
4. Only after checking three times I was \ was I certain of the answer.
5. At no time I was aware \ was I aware of anything out of the ordinary.
6. Only Catherine and Sally passed \ did they pass the final examination.
7. Only when Pete has arrived \ has Pete arrived can we begin the programme.
8. No sooner had it stopped raining than \ when the sun came out.

14.4 Complete the text by using the words and phrases from the box.

little such not only under no circumstances

had seldom along no sooner as scarcely

Well, ladies and gentlemen, we’ve done it again – another election victory. The
last four years of office has been a wonderful time for the party, a tale of adversity over-
come. (1) Scarcely had we come to office than the Stock Market crashed. But we survived
that scare, and we came out of it stronger for the experience. The opposition claimed we
were faltering. (2) Seldom have I heard such hypocrisy from a party which continued to
squabble internally for the next four years. Then (3) along came a fellow called David
Rew, with his new breakaway Democratic party – but he didn’t have much success in the
opinion polls! (4) Not only did he claim he’d become Prime Minister within three years,
he also reckoned that this party was now unpopular with younger voters. (5) Little did he
realize that it would be the young voters who gave us an overwhelming vote of confidence
in yesterday’s election. (6) No sooner had the first votes rolled in when it was obvious
that we would be re-elected with a huge majority. (7) Such was the extent of our victory
that the new Democrats obtained a meager five seats. (8) Had they known they would per-
form so poorly, I don’t think they would have been quite so scathing in their criticism of
our economic policy. But rest assured, ladies and gentlemen, (9) under no circumstances
will we rest on our laurels. There is no room for complacency in this government. And I
am confident, (10) as I’m sure are most of you, that the next four years will be a resound-
ing success. Thank you.

14.5 Choose the most appropriate continuation (1–10) for each sentence (a–j).
(a) All of the trains were delayed by fog. 4
(b) It wasn’t so much my qualifications that impressed them. 9
(c) I found that I was spending more time staying late at the office. 7
(d) I don’t find that the buses are especially late, actually. 5
(e) Actually my fridge is in quite good condition, considering its age. 2
(f) I don’t find watching television particularly relaxing. 10
(g) I’ve decided to buy a new stereo after all. 1
(h) This book didn’t teach me everything I know about cooking. 8
(i) The flight itself didn’t really bother me at all. 6
(j) Actually I wasn’t in the office yesterday. 3
1. Where I am going to get the money from is another matter.
2. What I really need is a new washing machine.
3. It must have been my assistant whom you dealt with.
4. It was after 10.00 when I finally got home.
5. What really gets on my nerves is people who push into the queue.
6. It was when I got off the plane that I felt ill.
7. What I did in the end was to ask for a pay-rise.
8. It was Sarah who taught me how to make bread.
9. It was because I spoke well at the interview that I got the job.
10. What I like most is a long walk in the country.

14.6 Complete each sentence with one suitable word (emphasis).
1. You can’t complain. It’s your only fault, isn’t it?
2. – That looks like Janet. – Only if it is! My goodness, hasn’t she changed.
3. I’m sorry to keep you waiting. I do hope you haven’t been here long.
4. It is by no means certain that the Prime minister will attend the meeting.
5. What I really enjoy in winter is a bowl of hot soup.
6. I searched and searched for my keys but I couldn’t find them.
7. Time and time again you are all going to sleep. I can’t work out!
8. What the government then did was to raise interest rates.
9. There isn’t much to eat. As it may seem we’ve got some leftovers.
10. Cathy wasn’t the least bit put out when I couldn’t make it to her wedding.

14.7 Complete each sentence with a suitable phrase from the box.

the least bit waited and waited by no means

what we did not at all as it may seem can’t have been
none at all do think time and time again

1. I know you’re busy, but I do think you could have helped me with the decorating.
2. It’s by no means certain that the president will be re-elected.
3. You may have lots of restaurants where you live, but there are none at all in this
part of town.
4. I told you time and time again about the leaking pipes, but you wouldn’t listen.
5. You don’t seem the least bit interested in my problems!
6. Strange as it may seem, the bus is actually faster than the train.
7. In the end what we did was to call a plumber.
8. We waited and waited all day, but Chris never turned up.
9. Pauline was not at all bothered by our turning up so late.
10. It can’t have been Jim that you saw; he is in Germany at the moment.

14.8 Tick (√) the sentences that include examples of fronting.

1. Up in the air went the balloon. (√)
2. Early the following morning we all got into the car. (√)
3. That people should get angry nobody ever anticipated. (√)
4. I rushed out of the room, grabbing my glasses from the table.
5. What happened next we shall find out next week. (√)

14.9 Change the order of information in these sentences to emphasis a different part.
Make any other necessary changes.
1. He burst in through the window. – Through the window he burst in.
2. They crossed the Atlantic in record time. – In record time they crossed the Atlantic.
3. He destroyed the first letter. – It was the first letter that he destroyed.
4. He put the second letter into his pocket. – Into his pocket he put the second letter.
5. The letter was on the table. – On the table there was a letter.
6. It is terrible that he was punished so severely. – So severely was he punished.
7. It is very difficult to imagine him failing. – To imagine him failing is very difficult.
8. It’s perhaps not surprising that he’s done so well. – That he’s done so well is not surprising.

9. I can’t imagine how he got here so fast. – How he got here is so fast I can’t imagine.
10. He’s useless. That’s the problem. – The problem is that he’s useless.

14.10 Underline the nominalised in the following examples.

1. A sharp fall in the value because people were speculating about the Government’s
planned policy.
2. The total eradication of smallpox was the direct result of an intensive programme of
3. It is a truth universally acknowledged that a single man in possession of a good for-
tune must be in want of a wife.

14.11 Write W next to the sentences that contain a what-clause \ all-clause; C next to
those that contain a cleft sentence and X next to any that contains neither.
1. What we did was to go back to the beginning and start again. – W
2. All I’m concerned with is your progress. – W
3. He promised to call me but it wasn’t until later that week that he eventually phoned. – C
4. It is unbelievable the lengths I had to go to in securing the contract. – X
5. I think it’s because we have the same sense of humor that we work so well together. – X

14.12 In each sentence one of the underlined words or phrases does not fit. Write the
number beside it in the space and the correct word or phrase.
1. What you did (1) wrong was that (2) you started on the topcoat before (3) the undercoat
that was (4) dry. (was)
2. All that (1) happened that I (2) told him what I thought of (3) him in no uncertain (4)
terms. (I)
3. It was (1) while trying (2) to mend the window when (3) I fell off the ladder . (that)
4. He claimed to like (1) music but it was (2) literature what (3) he loved more than any-
thing else (4). (that)
5. All (1) I love most about the weather (2) in this country is that (3) it is totally unreliable.
6. He left the country at the age of (1) twenty and it was (2) only after several years when
(3) he returned. (that)
7. I mislaid my wedding ring once and it (1) wasn’t before (2) we eventually moved house
that it (3) came to light (4) again. (until)
8. It’s (1) not learning (2) new words that I find (3) difficult, and (4) remembering them.


15.1 What is the sentence type in each example?

1. Her name is Sachiko and she comes from Japan.
A. Simple
B. Compound
C. Complex
D. Compound-complex

2. She runs every day, so she is very fit.

A. Simple
B. Compound
C. Complex
D. Compound-complex

3. She failed her driving test because she didn't look in her mirror often enough.
A. Simple
B. Compound
C. Complex
D. Compound-complex

4. My family came to Germany when I was in grade 5, but I never learned to speak Ger-
man very well.
A. Simple
B. Compound
C. Complex
D. Compound-complex

5. I'll help you if you help me.

A. Simple
B. Compound
C. Complex
D. Compound-complex

6. He told me that he is returning to London next summer.

A. Simple
B. Compound
C. Complex
D. Compound-complex

7. Although it was cold and the rain was getting heavier, we decided to go fishing as
A. Simple
B. Compound
C. Complex
D. Compound-complex

8. To build a doll's house you need wood, a hammer, a saw, and lots of nails.
A. Simple
B. Compound
C. Complex
D. Compound-complex

9. I didn't know what time it was so I was very late to class.

A. Simple
B. Compound
C. Complex
D. Compound-complex

10. This is a simple sentence.

A. Simple
B. Compound
C. Complex
D. Compound-complex

11. The new girl in our ESL class has a brother in grade 7 and a sister in grade 9.
A. Simple
B. Compound
C. Complex
D. Compound-complex

12. While I was doing my homework, my father cooked the dinner and my mother was
asleep in front of the television.
A. Simple
B. Compound
C. Complex
D. Compound-complex

13. I have not seen my grandmother since I came to Germany.

A. Simple
B. Compound
C. Complex
D. Compound-complex

14. Because she runs every day, she is very fit.

A. Simple
B. Compound
C. Complex
D. Compound-complex

15. You should start working a little harder or you are going to fail your test.
A. Simple
B. Compound
C. Complex
D. Compound-complex

16. I like playing basketball, and my brother likes playing tennis.
A. Simple
B. Compound
C. Complex
D. Compound-complex

17. Do you want to go swimming tomorrow, or would you prefer to play tennis?
A. Simple
B. Compound
C. Complex
D. Compound-complex

18. I don't know why he did that.

A. Simple
B. Compound
C. Complex
D. Compound-complex

19. I'm so pleased that you can come to my party.

A. Simple
B. Compound
C. Complex
D. Compound-complex

20. Most European countries now use the Euro, but the United Kingdom still uses the pound (£).
A. Simple
B. Compound
C. Complex
D. Compound-complex

21. He got up, walked over to the window, and jumped out.
A. Simple
B. Compound
C. Complex
D. Compound-complex

22. My mother cooked dinner while I was doing my homework.

A. Simple
B. Compound
C. Complex
D. Compound-complex

23. We were doing a mathematics test when the fire alarm rang yesterday.
A. Simple
B. Compound
C. Complex
D. Compound-complex

24. You should read every day if you want to improve your English more quickly.
A. Simple
B. Compound
C. Complex
D. Compound-complex

25. I've brought my umbrella with me in case it rains.

A. Simple
B. Compound
C. Complex
D. Compound-complex

15.2 These sentences focus on the distinction between conjunctions in the sentences and
sentence adverbials. Using the lists in APPENDIX, fill the gaps in the b sentences with a
sentence adverbial, so that two sentences have the same meaning.
1a (conj) Silvia went for a swim after she had done her homework.
1b (adv.) Silvia did her homework. Afterwards, she went for a swim.
2a She was dying for a swim by the time she had finished studying.
2b She studied till midday. by then she was dying for a swim.
3a While she was swimming, I continued to study.
3b I continued to study. meanwhile \ in the meantime \ at the same time, she was swimming.
Reason and result
4a The Addams live in a strange house, so they don’t get many visitors.
4b The Addams live in a strange house. as a result \ because of this \ consequently \ for
this reason \ on account of this \ therefore, they don’t get many visitors.
5a Since she had promised to visit him, she went there the next day.
5b She had promised to visit him. she went accordingly there the next day.
Contrast and concession
6a A lot of men are uncomfortable with Morticia, even though she has a sweet nature.
6b Morticia has a sweet nature. despite this \ in spite of this \ nevertheless \ nonetheless \
however, a lot of men are uncomfortable with her.
7a The English eat potatoes, whereas the Chinese eat rice.
7b The English eat potatoes. The Chinese on the other hand \ by comparison \ by con-
trast \ however \ though eat rice.
8a Not only does Marcel play the trumpet, but he can also juggle.
8b Marcel plays the trumpet. also \ well as that what is more \ in addition \ as he can juggle.

15.3 Complete the sentences by adding any appropriate word or phrase, note which
conjunctions are used with commas APPENDIX.
1. We are advised to do this exercise very
a. carefully, otherwise we will make a lot of mistakes.
b. carefully(,) while our teacher in the pub.
c. carefully, even though it looks easy.

2. My weeks of captivity weren’t too
a. unpleasant(,) considering the terrible reputation of my kidnappers.
b. unpleasant once I got used to the conditions.
c. unpleasant, even if the food was terrible.

3. The tigers ran away from the

a. Englishwoman as if she was going to eat them.
b. Englishwoman the way mice run away from a cat.
c. Englishwoman the moment they saw her.

4. Her Olympic gold medal was

a. remarkable, though many people for her arrogance.
b. remarkable, not that she didn’t deserve it.
c. remarkable in view of the fact that she had just had a baby.

5. His clothes smelled of

a. Chanel Number 5, just as she had expected.
b. Chanel Number 5, besides which he had lipstick on his collar.
c. Chanel Number 5 now that he was going out with Vanessa.

6. I’ll look after your crocodiles while you are on

a. holiday provided that you look after my grandparents next August.
b. holiday, as though they were my very own children.
c. holiday as well as watering the pineapple plants.

7. I told him I had decided to break off our

a. engagement, much as I regretted losing the opportunity of living in a castle.
b. engagement, whereupon he started to cry.
c. engagement, so he made me gave him back the ring.

8. The FBI took the

a. photographs so that they could put pressure on the minister.
b. photographs in case the President needed evidence.
c. photographs in spite of CIA asking them not to.

9. I’ve decided to do two hours of aerobics every

a. day in order to lose weight and look good at the beach.
b. day as soon as I can afford the clothes.
c. day as long as my boyfriend comes with me.

10. a. By the time we arrived in Barbados, I was sorry I had married him.
b. No sooner had we got to Barbados than I discovered his secret.
c. Whenever I return to Barbados I am filled with nostalgia.

11. a. Hardly had Ana entered the room when everyone started to applaud.
b. As a result of Ana’s recent Hollywood success everyone wanted to meet her.
c. Despite her reputation Ana didn’t seem to be interested in the men.

12. a. Not only was their relationship happy but it also produced two children.
b. Since she has been with Bruno she has forgotten all her old friends.
c. So as to celebrate their anniversary they returned to Barbados.

15.4 For each of the eight lists APPENDIX 8 there is an exercise A which focuses on
the meaning of the items. Exercise B then puts these words into context. It consists of
pairs of sentences: in each case the second sentence requires a sentence adverbial in
order to show how it is connected to the first. Think carefully about:
 meaning
 word order
 degree of formality
 punctuation
Then choose an appropriate word from the list indicated above.
1. Time
A Under the heading Time, find
– three items similar in meaning to immediately (at once \ instantly \ now)
– three items similar in meaning to at the same time (simultaneously \ meanwhile \ in
the meanwhile)
– three items similar in meaning to finally (at last \ eventually \ in the end)
Which of these implies a feeling of relief? – at last
B 1. I’ve been waiting an eternity for this moment. At last I can hold you in my arms.
2. A friend of mine got a job on a ranch near Buenos Aires. At first (,) he found the life
very hard, but it didn’t take him long to find his feet.
3. The food’s in the oven and dinner will be ready in an hour. In the meantime let’s go
and do some gardening.
4. We are always looking for bright young men to join our staff. However, there are no
vacancies at present.
5. The police received the bomb threat at 6.15 pm and arrived at the scene six minutes lat-
er. By then, the cinema had already been evacuated and the adjoining streets cordoned off.
6. On my twelfth birthday, I was finally told where babies come from. Until then, I had
imagined they came from the supermarket like everything else.

2. Ordering points, adding information

A when giving a number of reasons for something adverbials can be used to mark each
reason, and sometimes to indicate which is most important:
There are three reasons why I crossed the Atlantic in a pedal boat. First, it had never
been done before. Second I was generously sponsored by a soft drink company. And last-
ly, I want to promote «green» technology.
Find three items that could be used in the place of First in this text. (Firstly \ First of all
\ In the first place)
Find three items that could be used in the place of Second in this text. (Secondly \ Next \
In addition)
Find three items that could be used in the place of Lastly in this text. (Finally \ Fur-
thermore \ On top of that)
B There are ten adverbials in the list similar in meaning to also. Two are rather informal,
and another two are particularly formal. Concentrating on the formality of the context,
choose appropriate words for the gaps in each of these three sentences.

1. It’s luxurious, it’s not too expensive, and the food’s out of the world. On top of that
there’s the Italian barman: my friends think he’s the real reason I always go there.
2. I don’t want to have a drink with you because it’s too early in the day and also I don’t
like you very much. Besides, I’m not thirsty.
3. We are not wholly satisfied with your work to date, particularly in terms of productivi-
ty. Moreover, on more than one occasion your poor timekeeping record has been
brought to our attention.

3. Reformulating, clarifying
A Find three items similar in meaning to in other words. (that is \ I mean \ to put it an-
other way)
B 1. It came as a surprise to hear that Clea was married. In fact, it came as a shock.
2. The only thing Chantal wants for her birthday is a new English grammar book. At
least, I think that’s all she wants.
3. Our hotel was what the travel agents describe as «lively and colorful». In other
words, it was in the red light district.
4. I don’t know how you can listen to that music. I mean, it sounds like Rambo’s foreign
policy: no harmony but lots of explosions.

4. Comparing and contrasting

A 1. Find four items similar in meaning to similarly (equally \ in the same way \ like-
wise \ by the same token)
2. Find five items similar in meaning to by contrast (by comparison \ conversely \ in
comparison \ on the contrary \ on the other hand)
3. Find 12 items similar in meaning to but (all the same \ and yet \ despite this \ even
so \ however \ nevertheless \ still \ then again \ though \ yet)
B 1. All three films give an extremely fine grained result. Delta, however, cannot quite
match T-Max 100 for the fineness of its grain structure.
2. The Delco freezer is cheap and efficient. Sometimes, though, it can be difficult to open.
3. Batman Returns is surely Hollywood at its most original. Nevertheless, the film has its
4. He’s not much to look at, and he’s certainly no hero. But, I love him.
5. Managers are advised to avoid confrontation. Instead, they should encourage staff to
discuss their problems.
6. Professional cyclists do not get stomach pains, even though they eat and drink while
competing. Likewise, swimmers rarely suffer.
7. You say I was driving fast and dangerously. On the contrary, I was observing the
speed limit and driving with great care.

5. Concluding, summarizing, generalizing

A Find three items similar in meaning to in brief (in short \ in conclusion \ to sum up)
Find four items similar in meaning to in general (as a rule \ generally \broadly speak-
ing \ by and large)
B 1. The earnings gap between men and women in Europe is at its highest in Britain. On
average, women in British industry receive 69 % of men’s earnings.
2. The Personnel Manager interviews all job applicants here. On the whole, she looks for
potential rather than experience or qualifications.

3. And what was worse, it was raining all the time. All in all, it was a disastrous week-
4. (430 students voted in favor of the motion to ban smoking on the college premises,
while 462 voted against.) Overall, students at the college are against a smoking ban.
5. At the back of the bookshelf, I found the cassettes of the telephone calls. It was Barba-
ra, then, who had been tapping the Palace phone lines.

6. Giving examples, focusing

A Find two items similar in meaning to for example (for instance \ among others)
Find two more items similar in meaning to mainly (primarily \ principally)
B 1. My cat seems to think she’s a dog. Yesterday, for instance, she bit the postman, and
this morning she jumped up and started licking my face.
2. Yes, I am studying English at the moment. It’s primarily for my job, but it also means
that I’ll find it a lot easier to travel.
3. His parents said I was a bad influence on him. In particular, they accused me of tak-
ing him drinking last Sunday morning; they didn’t mention any other ways in which I
was supposed to have corrupted him.

7. Changing subject, referring to subject

A Find two items similar in meaning to anyway (anyhow \ at any rate)
Find the item closest in meaning to by the way (incidentally)
B 1. I spent the rest of the day watching the cycling on television. Talking about bikes,
have you got yours mended, yet?
2. Darlene is as miserable as ever, and Jackie never comes to visit us. Anyway, I’m sure
you don’t want to hear about my problems, so let’s get back to those holiday plans.
3. I had a letter from Patrick Eggli the other day. By the way, I don’t suppose you re-
member Carine Imhof?
4. Education is still way behind the rest of Europe, and the Health Service is in crisis.
As for the economy, there’s no immediate sign of an end to the recession.

8. Cause and effect, reason and result, inference

A Find four formal items that can mean as a result (accordingly \ consequently \ hence \ thus)
Find two words that can mean in that case (for this \ because of this)
B 1. It was not advisable to drink beer after vigorous exercise because alcohol is a diuret-
ic – it makes you urinate. Thus, rather than replacing what you lose in sweat, it promotes
2. Finally, I found the pricing to be as attractive as the other features detailed above. Ac-
cordingly, I recommend purchase of the A\EU\W4CAE Mark 1.
3. Sorry I didn’t come out last night, but I was feeling a bit under the weather. That’s
why I stayed at home and watched telly.
4. Don’t forget to pack insect repellant. Otherwise, you may find yourself eaten alive by
the local mosquitoes.
5. «She’s only inviting you because you’ve got a car». «In that case I won’t go».


16.1 It is possible to combine two sentences in many ways, but a comma alone cannot
join two sentences. Which of these sentences are correct? Which of them need full stops
to divide them into two or more sentences? Insert full stops in the place of commas
where necessary.
EXAMPLE: I watched the soldiers march past, when they had gone I went back to my
I watched the soldiers march past. When they had gone I went back to my writing.
1. One day he married a cabaret dancer. This woman already had two daughters.
2. She was surprised to see her father, who had come home, earlier than usual.
3. I think that a teacher’s method is very important. Would I have learned as much with
another teacher?
4. I seem to have lost Naomi’s address. I wonder, if you could have a look to see if you’ve
got it.
5. Cinderella was in her room. She couldn’t help thinking about the boy who had bought
her the Coke. Her father came in and asked her how the disco had been. She told him
about the boy, and how she didn’t even know his name. Finally she told her father the
worst of it, that she had forgotten her bicycle when she left the disco some time around
midnight. Suddenly there was a ring at the doorbell. It was the boy who had bought her the
Coke, and he had her bicycle with him. «This bike’s much too small for you», he said.
«Shall I adjust the saddle? Or better still, if you’ll be my girlfriend. I’ll buy you a new
mountain bike».

16.2 In the following text, some commas are used correctly, while other commas are used
incorrectly in the place of full stops. Use full stops and capital letters, then divide the text
into three paragraphs. The first paragraph is an introduction to the theme, the second
tells the story, and the third is the writer’s concluding comment.
The Fakirs of India are distinguished by their attempts to demonstrate their resistance to pain
and privation. Some have been frauds, and some have shown remarkable powers of mind
over matter, demonstrating that all pleasure and pain is Maya, or illusion. At the end of the
19th century, Fakir Agastiya of Bengal proved the mental control he possessed over his body
by raising his left arm above his head and leaving it in that position until he died in 1912.
Gradually, the blood circulation diminished to almost nothing and rendered the arm com-
pletely numb and rigid. Even the joint locked, and Agastiya was laid to rest with his arm in
the same position. The only poetic touch to an otherwise pointless exercise was the decision
by a bird to nest in the palm of his hand. Whether the accumulating bird-lime set solid over
the years and helped to support his arm is unknown and open to after-dinner speculation.

16.3 Rewrite the following pairs of sentences as single sentences in three different ways:
 using a present participle
 using a conjunction
 using a relative clause
Example: Lucy saw an advertisement in Times. She was immediately interested.
Lucy, who……….

1. Lucy was looking for an adventure. She answered the advertisement.
Looking for an adventure, Lucy answered the advertisement.
Since she was looking for an adventure, Lucy answered the advertisement.
Lucy, who was looking for an adventure, answered the advertisement.
2. She approached the desert island. She was impressed by its beauty.
Approaching the desert island, she was impressed by its beauty.
As she approached the desert island, she was impressed by its beauty.
She approached the island, whose beauty impressed her.
3. They found a good place to camp. They pitched the tent there.
Finding a good place to camp, they pitched the tent.
When they found a good place to camp, they pitched the tent.
They found a good place to camp, where they pitched the tent.
4. Lucy needed to find food in order to survive. She learned to fish.
Needing to find food in order to survive, Lucy learned to fish.
Since she needed to find food in order to survive, Lucy learned to fish.
Lucy, who needed to find food in order to survive, learned to fish.

16.4 Rewrite the following pairs of sentences as single sentences using a past participle.
1. I was excited about the job interview. I woke up many times in the night.
Excited about the job interview, I woke up many times in the night.
2. He was frightened by the anonymous phone calls. He went to the police.
Frightened by the anonymous phone calls, he went to the police.
3. The stamps were collected by my father. They are worth a fortune.
The stamps collected by my father, are worth a fortune.
4. Children must be accompanied by an adult. If they are not, they will be refused admission.
Children not accompanied by an adult will be refused admission.

16.5 Write the main idea in these sentences.
1. We all agreed that, in view of the condition of our feet, we would spend the next day
touring the village.
We all agreed that we would spend the next day touring the village.
2. The deer, which stood, silently gazing at us, about 30 meters away, were not disturbed
by our presence.
The deer were not disturbed by our presence.
3. After many years of study, years which I believe I have the right to describe as both
long and painful, my brother, Matthew, about whom you will hear more later, finally be-
came a good enough trumpet player to join the army.
My brother, Matthew, finally became a good enough trumpet player to join the army.

16.6 Remember to use a pair of commas for parenthesis. If you forget one of the two
commas, the sentence can become difficult to read. In each of the following pairs of
sentences, one is badly punctuated. Supply the missing commas.
1a She was, however tired, after her expe- 1b She was, however tired after her expedi-
dition. tion, still smiling.
2a Politicians have to be fair, lied the 2b Politicians have, to be fair, lied less this
Prime Minister. year.

3a He told me when his company was go- 3b He told me, when his company was go-
ing to be taken over by a multinational, so I ing to be taken over by a multinational,
quickly bought shares. that he was drinking too much.
4a Jenny, told the story of her husband’s 4b Jenny told the story of her husband’s
accident, was angry with him. accident, laughing till the tears ran down
her face.

16.7 Insert any necessary commas in the following sentences. At least one of the sen-
tences does not need a comma.
1. My birthday, which had begun with sunshine, ended with rain.
2. Cleopatra, Henry’s dog, or rather bitch, was a nuisance the whole day.
3. Norway being a bit cold in January, I’ve decided to go to Morocco.
4. Marion, who was frightened of spiders, begged us crying to turn back.
5. What’s happened to the car you used to drive when you were in California?
6. Henry’s brother the doctor was unable to accompany us (,) but his brother the guitarist
did come.
7. However, old as she is, she has entered the London Marathon again.
8. He told me, and I know you’re not going to like this (,) after all the drinks you’ve
bought him and all the energy you’ve put into your attempt to sell him a Jaguar, that he’s
bought a Fiat.

16.8 Add commas that may be necessary in the following sentences.

1. I asked her what time her mother expected her home.
2. I couldn’t persuade him to tell me when he had started to indulge in this habit.
3. I told her to simplify matters, that I was the boss.
4. There was no way we could have guessed who was going to be at the party.

16.9 In each of the following pairs of sentences, one of the sentences is well punctuated,
while the other needs one or two commas- add those commas.
1a She promised to leave the ball before 1b She promised to keep her mother happy
midnight. to leave the ball before midnight.
2a If only you’d told Helen she would be 2b If only you’d told Helen, she wouldn’t
welcome! have been shocked when she saw it.
3a She asked me , to cut a long story short , 3b She asked me to devote my whole
to mend her car. weekend to working on the engine of her
Seat 127.
4a I can’t remember whether we drank five 4b I can remember, whether you can or
or six. not.
5a It was she who chose , which was unu- 5b It was she who chose which film we
sual for her. went to see.

16.10 In each of the following pairs of sentences, one of the sentences is correctly punc-
tuated. The other sentence is incorrectly punctuated and requires one comma. Decide
which sentence is incorrectly punctuated, and add the missing commas.
1a When he started to play polo was when 1b When he started to play polo, Kate
Kate stopped loving him. stopped loving him.
2a Whether or not you’re going doesn’t 2b Whether or not you’re going, I certainly
interest me at all. am.

3a Where there used to be a factory, now 3b Where large sums of money change
there were fields of wild flowers. hands is where lawyers are to be found.

16.11 Add any commas that may be necessary.

1. Wasn’t it Churchill who said that power corrupts and absolute power corrupts abso-
2. Many of the students and their friends and supporters were shot at by the police, who
later claimed that they were only obeying orders.
3. My youngest sister, who was a baby during the time I spent in the House of the Ris-
ing Sun, was strongly advised not to do what I had done.
4. A large number of fairly successful trials had already been completed with laborato-
ry animals before any change in the behaviour of the professor who was responsible for
the project was noted.

16.12 In the following sentences, add any commas that may be useful.
1. Australian footballers can kick the ball or throw it.
2. The burglars ate all our food, and the baby never woke up.
3. She thought Miss Verner was going to be furious and she waited all morning to be
summoned to the 5th floor, but the call never came.
4. She squashed a grapefruit in Cagney’s face and walked out of his life.
16.13 Insert commas as appropriate in the following sentences.
1. Before he took off, Lindberg made himself some sandwiches.
2. Much as I admire his paintings, I wouldn’t trust him with my daughters.
3. I bought this bicycle so I could go to the beach every morning.
4. Footballers dream of scoring goals, and the philosophy students dream of finding
the meaning of life.

Revision of commas
The commas have been removed from the following text. Put the commas back in the
The ageing process effects us all at different rates. Some people of 53, like the esteemed
author, look a mere 35, with sparkling brown eyes and a handsome gait. Others, like the
author’s friend Colin, look like little middle-aged men of 21(,) with middle-aged outlooks,
set ways and planned futures. In women the former condition is common, but women rare-
ly suffer from the latter, being fired with the insatiable drive of ambition for either an in-
dependent and distinguished career in a still male-dominated world, or a home and seven
children by the time they are 30.
No such luck for Charles Charlesworth, who was born on the 14th of March 1829 in Staf-
ford. At the age of four (,) Charles had a beard and was sexually mature.
In the final three years of his life (,) his skin wrinkled and he developed varicose veins,
shortness of breath, grey hair, senile dementia and incontinence. Some time in his seventh
year (,) he fainted and never regained consciousness. The coroner returned a verdict of
natural causes due to old age.
(Ralph Steadman Charles Who Died of Old Age at the Age of Seven) 

16.14 In which of the three examples below might a semicolon be preferred to the full stop?
1. Neurotic men, from Lord Byron to Cary Grant, have been admired for dominating their
condition. Neurotic women, notably Marilyn Monroe, have been admired for surrendering
to it.
2. Sir John was found guilty of driving with double the legal limit of alcohol in his blood-
stream. «You are a very foolish man», said the judge, «but on this occasion I shall turn a
blind eye to your folly».
3. At about 2 in the morning, the last customers left the bar. The next day I was awakened
early by the sound of laughter outside my window.
4. In winter, I bring the geraniums into the house. All the other plants I leave outside.
5. The strong kept on walking until they reached the safety of the woods. The weak
stopped to rest by the side of the road.
6. It was good to be in Italy at last. My grandmother had travelled a lot in Europe, but the
rest of the family had little or no curiosity about the Old World.

16.15 The following sentences all contain lists. Supply commas and semicolons, as ap-
propriate. Make sure that the meaning is absolutely clear and unambiguous.
1. Almost half the club will be playing in the doubles tournament: six women including
myself; Peter Bates and John Wade; the twins; and, of course, the team captain with his
2. While working at the hospital she was overworked, exploited and constantly criticized
at the same time as being underpaid, undervalued and taken for granted.
3. When you come to one of our theatre workshops you can expect a whole rainbow of
activities: music and singing; circus skills, including juggling; vegetarian cooking; mime
and acrobatics; improvisation and, above all, a warm group experience.

16.16 Write a phrase after the colon to complete the unfinished sentences. In your fin-
ished sentence, the colon should have the meaning of the linking word given so you do
not need to use the linking word.
Because (The river is polluted: \ because \ there is a paper factory upstream.)
1. I think Mary is in love: she hasn’t bitten anybody today.
2. I’m sure I will pass my exams: I’m going out with the examiner.
Indeed \ in fact (He comes from an athletic family: \ in fact\ both his parents are Olympic
1. Silvia is interested in animals: she has hundreds of wildlife videos.
2. The dress was elegant, sensual and provocative: tonight she would be irresistible.
So \ as a result (The river is polluted: \ so \ why are they swimming in it?)
1. He was bitten by a cobra: he died at once.
2. I had a terrible hangover this morning: I stayed in bed till midday.
Namely \ and that is \ in other words \ for example (Empress Wu’s eldest son came to
fast Wu-type end: \ in other words \ she had him murdered.)
1. Suddenly I remembered my grandmother’s advice: never trust a man whose eyebrows
meet in the middle.
2. She thinks she’s a model: she spends all her time dressing up and posing in front of the

16.17 Add colons and commas where appropriate to these sentences.
1. Rosewell no longer had the strength and energy of his youth and so his game became
more economical: nothing was wasted.
2. The string quartet I play with comprises two violins, a viola and a cello, but my jazz
quartet has rather an unusual line-up: double bass violin piano and tenor saxophone.
3. But now, after a bath, a change of clothes and a drink, the thought returned to me: how
was Foxton going to react when he found that I had escaped?
4. I’ve just decided to emigrate to Canada: it sounds like the perfect solution.
5. There are four things we would need to know more about before we could offer you a
job: we would need to question you further about your education, your family back-
ground, your experience(,) and your plans for the future.

Учебное издание

АБРАМОВА Раиса Николаевна

БОТОВА Анастасия Леонидовна

Книга для учителя

Учебное пособие

Научный редактор
кандидат филологических наук,
доцент О.С. Ульянова

Выпускающий редактор Т.С. Савенкова

Редактор В.Ю. Пановица
Компьютерная верстка и дизайн обложки
О.Ю. Аршинова

Подписано к печати 03.11.2011. Формат 60х84/8. Бумага «Снегурочка».

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