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Gerund.

Герундий

Герундий (gerund) – это англий ская часть речи, обладающая свой ствами
существительного и глагола. В англий ском языке есть еще части речи,
совпадающие по форме с герундием.  Это отглагольное
существительное и дей ствительное причастие.

Герундий — это форма глагола с окончанием ING, которая переводится на русский


глаголом, но имеет свой ства существительного.

 В каком из трех предложений слово "playing" является герундием?

The playing of this game is exciting.


Playing this game is exciting.
We watched a group of playing girls. Мы смотрели на группу играющих девочек

Формы герундия (Gerund forms)

Форму герундия PERFECT (having written), как правило, можно заменить на NON-
PERFECT (writing).

ПРИМЕРЫ
 I remember meeting her. = I remember having met her. – Я помню, что встречал ее.
 After doing such hard work they decided to rest a little. = After having done such hard
work for a long time they decided to rest. – Они решили немного отдохнуть после
того как выполнили такую тяжелую работу.

 форма writing – переводится придаточным предложением в настоящем или


будущем времени;
 а форма having written — переводится придаточным предложением в
прошедшем времени.

ПРИМЕРЫ
 She thinks of writing a book. – Она думает о том, что напишет книгу.
 She thinks of having written a book. – Она думает о том, что написала книгу.

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Случаи употребления

4 основных случая его употребления:

1. после глаголов начала, продолжения и окончания дей ствия;


2. после глаголов предпочтения;
3. после предлогов;
4. после глагола to go.

Случай I.  Герундий употребляется после глаголов, выражающих начало,


окончание или продолжение действия:

1. start, begin, take up (начать  делать, заняться)

ПРИМЕРЫ
 Start reading.  — Начинай читать.
 I began dancing.- Я начал танцевать.
 I took up dancing. — Я занялся танцами.

2. stop, finish, give up (перестать делать, бросить)

ПРИМЕРЫ
 Stop talking. — Перестань разговаривать.
 Have you finished writing? — Ты закончил писать?
 Give up smoking. — Брось курить.

3. go on, continue, keep on (продолжать делать)

ПРИМЕРЫ
 Go on writing.- Продолжай писать.
 Continue reading.- Продолжай читать.
 Keep on asking questions. — Продолжай задавать вопросы.

Случай II. Герундий употребляется после глаголов предпочтения:

1. Love ПРИМЕРЫ
2. like
3. enjoy  I like dancing; I love to dance, I like
4. don’t mind to dance
5. dislike  I don’t mind playing football.
6. hate  I hate skiing.
7. can’t stand

Сочетание Would you mind с герундием выражает вежливую просьбу:

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Would you mind waiting a little? — Вы не против, того, чтобы немного подождать?

После глаголов like, love и dislike можно употреблять также и инфинитив, но в том
случае, если вы имеете в виду целесообразность или факт.

СРАВНИТЕ:
 I like reading newspapers. ( like = enjoy)
 I like to read newspapers at lunch. (факт, а не процесс).

ИЛИ
 I like swimming. (нравится сам процесс плавания.)
 I like to swim in the swimming pool every week. (целесообразность, а не процесс)

Случай III.  Герундий употребляется после предлогов

Итак, ЗАПОМНИТЕ, что герундий употребляется после любых предлогов, а также в


распространенных конструкциях c прилагательными.

ПРИМЕР. After visiting the gallery we decided to go to the museum.

Устойчивые конструкции «прилагательное с предлогом»

1. be fond of — любить
2. be tired of — устать от
3. be proud of — гордиться
4. be afraid of — бояться
5. be famous for — быть знаменитым за
6. be ready for — быть готовым к
7. be responsible for — отвечать за
8. be good/ bad at — иметь способности к
9. be interested in — интересоваться чем-то
10. be bored with — скучать от
11. be angry with smb for doing smth — сердиться на кого-то за что-то
12. be keen on — увлекаться

ПРИМЕРЫ
 I am fond of visiting my relatives.
 He is bored with writing tests.

Также, запомните два прилагательных BUSY и WORTH, которые употребляются без


предлога.

 BUSY – I am busy reading. — Я занят чтением.

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 WORTH – The book is worth reading. — Эту книгу стоит прочитать.

Случай IV. Герундий употребляется после глагола go для выражения


некоторых видов деятельности:

1. go shopping – ходить по магазинам


2. go skiing – кататься на лыжах
3. go fishing – ходить на рыбалку
4. go sailing – плавать на яхте
5. go sightseeing – осматривать достопримечательности
6. go climbing – ходить в горы
7. go swimming – заниматься плаванием
8. go riding, etc. – кататься верхом и т.д.

Пословицы и выражения с герундием для запоминания:

1. It goes without saying. — Само собой разумеется.


2. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. — Слезами горю не поможешь. Что о том
тужить, чего нельзя воротить.
3. Seeing is believing. — Лучше один раз увидеть, чем сто раз услышать.
4. You can’t make an omelet without breaking eggs. — Лес рубят, щепки летят.
5. There is no harm in trying. — Попытка не пытка.

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Упражнения

Упражнение (вводное). Переведите предложения с герундием на русский язык.


Объясните, почему в нем употребляется герундий.

1. Taking a cold shower in the morning is very healthy.


2. She likes sitting in the sun.
3. It looks like raining.
4. Let’s go boating.
5. He talked without stopping.
6. Some people can walk all day without being tired.
7. My son took up wrestling for a while but soon lost interest.
8. What composer continued writing music after he became deaf?
9. It goes without saying
10. We thought of seeing a film after supper.

Упражнение 1. Переведите предложения с герундием на русский язык.

1. They went on talking.


2. He gave up smoking a few years ago.
3. Have you started working on the project?
4. My wife keeps insisting on buying a house in the country.
5. Oh, please, stop laughing at me.
6. Have you finished washing the dishes?
7. I continued walking in that direction.
8. They began building that house in 1999.
9. Would you like to take up dancing

Упражнение 2. Раскройте скобки, употребляя герундий, где это необходимо.

1. Stop (talk).
2. When will you finish (translate) the text?
3. He gave up (play) football last year and took up (swim).
4. Continue (work).
5. Please, don’t pay attention to me and keep on (write).
6. I started (play) the piano when I was four.
7. When will you begin (think) about your studies?
8. Go on (read).

Упражнение 3. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя герундий.


1. Перестань плакать.
2. Продолжай те писать.
3. Я думаю, что тебе следует начать заниматься спортом.
4. Ты уже закончил читать эту книгу?
5. Он бросил играть в компьютерные игры.
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6. Хорошая идея начать играть на музыкальном инструменте.

Упражнение 4. Переведите предложения с герундием на русский язык.

1. She dislikes living in her old house.


2. I enjoy talking to people and don’t mind helping them.
3. My granny likes cooking.
4. My brother doesn’t like washing up.
5. My sister doesn’t mind doing morning exercises but she hates getting up early.
6. I love travelling but I can’t stand flying.
7. He enjoyed talking of his travels.
8. She enjoys meeting people because she likes being helpful.

(To make acquaintance with; to get acquainted – знакомиться с; to become acquainted


with – познакомиться с)

«Вы не против того, чтобы…» … – «Would you mind…»

Упражнение 5. Составьте свои предложения с выражениями:

 open the window


 pass the bread
 bring a glass of water
 have a cup of tea
 turn off the light

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Упражнение 1. Complete the sentences with the expression get a good job. Use the Infinitive
or the -ing form of the verb get.

1. I want _________________________.
2. I suggest _________________________.
3. I decided _________________________.
4. I recommend _________________________.
5. I hope _________________________.
6. I feel like _________________________.
7. I managed _________________________.
8. I am trying _________________________.
9. I would appreciate _________________________.
10. I will not refuse _________________________.
11. I agree _________________________.
12. I have denied _________________________.

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Упражнение 2. Tick the correct item.

1 Greg enjoys … in the rain.

□ walk □ walking □ to walk

2. I’d like … Molly an e-mail now.

□ send □sending □ to send

3. What does Steve want ...?

□ do □ doing □ to do

4. The cold coach watched his team … football.

□ play □ playing □ to play

5. I prefer … detective stories.

□ read □ reading □ to read

6. Would you like something …?

□ drink □ drinking □ to drink

Упражнение 3. Use Infinitive or -ing form.

1. It was quite late when they saw Martin … (come) up the other side of the street. They
saw him … (pause) in front of his house, … (look) up at it and … (knock) at the door.
2. My parents let me (stay) at Molly’s house last weekend. They agreed … (take) me to his
place in the car and they made me (promise) to behave myself.
3. Mel hates (answer) the phone. And very often Mel just lets it … (ring).
4. At first Jenny enjoyed … (listen) to Steven but after a while she got tired of … (hear) the
same story.
5. Polly can’t (go) to the cinema today. She’s busy … (study) for her exam, which is next
week, but she’s decided … (take) a break and … (phone) Megan.
6. I tried … (listen) carefully and in order (not/show) how I was embarrassed, I did my best
… (keep) the conversation … (go) on one topic and another.

Упражнение 4. Прочитайте предложения. Выберите один из предложенных


вариантов ответа.

1. Peace activist Baroness Bertha von Suttner encouraged Alfred Nobel ... a prize for peace.
(establish / to establish / establishing / to be established)
2. The police officer made Neil get out of the car and demanded … his driver's licence.(see /
seeing / to see / to be seen)
3. In the time of Peter the Great the noblemen were not allowed … beards. (have / to have /
having / having had)

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4. They wouldn't let ... the country without the entry visa, would they? (him to enter / he
enters / him enter / him entering)
5. Fred couldn’t make … that he had caught the huge fish himself. (I believed/ me believe /
me believed / me to believe)
6. Nick was very close to the phone-box and Mary noticed him … the number, and then she
heard him ... something to passer-by. (to dial, to say / dialing, to say / to dial, say / dial,
say)
7. Nick was seen ... the hall and then Jane watched him ... (enter, go away / be entered, to go
away / enter, go away / to have entered, to be gone away)
8. It's too late now, but I will always regret ... John to do the work. (to ask / asking / ask / to
be asked)
9. My friend Moira stopped ... whole milk because she is on a diet. (to buy / buying / buy /
to be bought)
10. They were allowed... discussing the plans, so their partner introduced himself and went
on to talk about the project. (to continue / continuing / continue / to be continued)

Упражнение 5 Put one of the given verbs in the correct form – infinitive or gerund:

to see, to lock, to explain, to go, to show, to play, to listen, to do, to write, to earn, to discuss, to
drive, to look, to speak, to understand, to do, to stay, to work, to spend

1. I wish ... the manager.— It’s no use ... to him.


2. Don’t forget ... the door before ... to bed.
3. My mother told me not ... to anyone about it.
4. He tried ... but she didn’t want ...
5. Would you mind ... me how the lift works?
6. I’m beginning ... what you mean.
7. The boys like ... tennis but not ... this in bad weather.
8. Try ... this correctly.
9. He likes ... in his cabinet.
10. I prefer ... my car myself.
11. I advise you ... at my place and ... for a new flat.
12. Let’s ... this tomorrow, I’m tired now.
13. Most people prefer ... money. Some don’t want ... them.

Упражнение 6. Complete the sentences using either the Infinitive or Gerund. Insert
prepositions if necessary. Раскройте скобки, употребив герундий или инфинитив
(с или без частицы to). Если нужно, вставьте предлог

1. He used ... (think) that life ended at 40, but now when he’s 41, he knows it’s not true.
2. ... (make) such a terrible noise!
3. It’s five in the morning. I’m not used ... (get) up this early,
4. It’s impossible... (cut) with this knife. It’s blunt.
5. My father enjoys ... (listen) to jazz music.
6. I’m sorry... (hear) that your mother isn’t well. 
7. Harry looked so funny that I couldn’t help ... (laugh).
8. I couldn’t help them ... (find) what they were looking for as I was in too much of a hurry.
9. I’d like... (cook) something special when guests come.
10. What do you feel like... (do) tonight?
11. My dad promised ... (buy) me a bike if I passed my exams well.
12. I hate... (wait) in queues. It really annoys me.
13. I looked forward ... (see) you again soon.
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14. It’s difficult ... (concentrate) when there’s loud playing on the radio.
15. We stopped for a while ... (admire) the scenery.
16. He can’t afford ... (hire) a taxi every day.
17. Is it worth ... (run) such an awful risk?
18. Would you mind ... (fetch) another chair?
19. I offered ... (pay) for the meal, but she refused.
20. I’m sorry... (disturb) you, but could you tell me the time?
21. My younger sister can’t stop... (eat) sweets.
22. He dislikes... (spend) money on car repairs.
23. I remember... (go) to Venice as a child.
24. ... (call) Mike
25. I suggested ... (call) a taxi so we wouldn’t be late.
26. I can’t stand ... (wait) in queues.
27. There used to ... (be) a cinema in our village but it closed down three years ago.
28. He is Spanish so he’s used ... (drive) on the right.
29. Did you remember ... (send) your sister a card? It’s her birthday today.
30. Have you tried ... (read) a book to help you to sleep?
31. Nowadays I’m used... (go) to bed early.
32. He’ll never forget ... (see) the Grand Canyon for the first time.
33. He offered ... (drive) me to the airport.
34. I’ll stop ... (lend) you money if you waste it on cigarettes.
35. Maya stopped ... (tie) her shoelace.
36. John suggested ... (go) together in one car.
37. Will you stop ... (make) so much noise, boys?
38. It’s difficult to get used ... (sleep) in a tent after having a soft, comfortable bed to lie on.
39. Linda offered ... (look after) my cat while I was out of town.
40. Could you please stop... (whistle)! I’m trying ... (concentrate) on my work.

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