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Геофизические измерения с

использованием оптического волокна:


теория и практика
Алексей Титов
Ph.D. Candidate in Geophysics

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Содержание
• Теория
• Практические применения
• Авторские работы
• Сейсмический мониторинг
гидроразрыва пласта
• Промысловый каратаж

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Теория
Теория
Оптоволокно и Оптоволоконный Кабель

Lumens, 2014

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Принцип Работы
DAS
Rayleigh
Backscattered intensity

DSSDAS DSS
Brillouin Brillouin
DSS 𝑇, 𝜀 DSS𝑇, 𝜀

DTS DTS
Raman Raman
DTS
𝑇
𝜆𝐼 DTS
Return wavelength

DAS - Distributed Acoustic Sensing

DSS - Distributed Strain Sensing

DTS - Distributed Temperature Sensing

Lumens, 2014 https://silixa.com/resources/what-is-distributed-sensing/

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Сравнение DAS, DSS, DTS
DAS DSS DTS
Scattering Mechanism Rayleigh Brillouin Raman
Measurand Relative strain/strain Strain/ temperature Temperature
rate/ temperature
Spatial Resolution (m) 1 0.1 1
Temporal resolution (s) 10−4 5 100
Sensitivity to strain (𝑛𝜀) 0.05 @ 𝑓 = 1𝑚𝐻𝑧 500 N/A
Sensitivity to 10−5 @ 𝑓 = 1𝐻𝑧 0.5 0.8
temperature (°𝐶)

Kechavarzi, 2016; Becker et al., 2017; Jin et al., 2017; Bao et al., 2012

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Принцип Работы DAS 𝑛 = 1.45 – показатель преломления
𝜆 = 1550 𝑛𝑚 – длина волны лазера
𝜉 = 0.79 – поправка за фотоупругость
DAS
DSS DSS
𝑐
𝑐𝑛 = ≈ 2.07 ⋅ 108 𝑚/𝑠
𝑛
𝑥 = 𝑐𝑛 𝑡/2
DTS Частота зондирования:
DTS 𝑐𝑛 2 ⋅ 108 𝑚/𝑠
𝑓𝑠𝑚𝑎𝑥 = → = 10 𝑘𝐻𝑧
2𝑥𝑚𝑎𝑥 2 ⋅ 104 𝑚

4𝜋𝑛𝜉𝐿
ΔΦ = 𝜀𝑥
𝜆

Bakku, 2015 Hartog, 2017

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Сравнение с Геофоном
𝐿
𝑥+
‫𝐿 ׬‬2 𝜀𝑥 𝑙 𝑑𝑙 𝐿 𝐿
𝑢ሶ 𝑥 + 2 − 𝑢ሶ 𝑥 + 2
𝑥−
2
𝜀𝐷𝐴𝑆
ሶ 𝑥 = =
𝐿 𝐿

∝ cos 2 𝜃

𝜕𝑢 1 𝑘
𝜀𝐷𝐴𝑆 = = ± 𝑢ሶ = ± 𝑢ሶ
𝜕𝑥 𝑐 𝜔

∝ sin 𝜃 cos 𝜃

Wang et al., 2018 https://rcp.mines.edu/rd-projects/ Wu et al., 2017

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Лабораторное Тестирование DAS
Пьезокерамический растяжитель
оптоволокна

https://www.photonics.com/ https://www.halliburton.com/
SEAFOM MSP-02

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Широкополосность DAS
Тензометр Сейсмометр Геофон
0.0002 − 0.005 𝐻𝑧 0.04 − 13 𝐻𝑧 20 − 40𝐻𝑧 40 − 60 𝐻𝑧

Paitz et al., 2020

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Установка Кабеля

https://www.linkedin.com/in/andreaswuestefeld/

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Применение
Теория
Детектирование Землетрясений

Lindsey et al, 2020

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Обнаружение Разломов

Lindsey et al, 2019

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Изучение Океана

Lindsey et al, 2019

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Cотрясение Ледяных Полей

Walter et al, 2020

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Cотрясение Ледяных Полей
DAS record of normalized stick-slip seismogram Bedrock topography

Walter et al, 2020

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Детектирование Гроз

Zhu et al, 2020

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Таяние Мерзлоты и Изменение Скоростей
Installation Surface orbital vibrator source

Precipitation-induced Thaw-induced
velocity changes velocity changes

Ajo-Franklin et al., 2017

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Просадка Грунта из-за Таяния Мерзлоты
Titov et al, 2018

Rodriguez-Tribaldos, 2020

Wagner et al., 2018

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MASW Используя Шум Трафика

Dou et al., 2017

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Умный Город

https://www.vam.ac.uk/bigglassmic

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Анализ Рынка

Grand View Research, 2017

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Установка Кабеля в Скважине

https://www.halliburton.com/

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4D DAS VSP Deep Water Monitoring

Mateeva et al., 2017

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CO2 Monitoring with Engineered Fiber

Pevzner et al., 2017

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Наземная Сейсмика

raw legacy raw DAS processed DAS


Bakulin et al., 2017

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Авторские работы
Гидроразрыв Пласта

https://www.geoengineer.org/

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Observed PS-wave
Scattered waves

Models

Titov et al, 2019

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Travel-time curves

Observed events
PS-moveout fit
Titov et al., 2019

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Titov et al., 2020

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Field and Synthetic Data

Titov et al., 2020

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Field and Synthetic Flattened Data

Titov et al., 2020

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Scattered Events Distribution

Titov et al., 2020

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Список Литературы
• Lumens, P. G. E. (2014). Fibre-optic sensing for application in oil and gas wells. P.hD thesis, Eindhoven University of
Technology. DOI:10.6100/IR769555
• Kechavarzi, C., Soga, K., De Battista, N., Pelecanos, L., Elshafie, M. Z. E. B., & Mair, R. J. (2015). Distributed fibre optic strain
sensing for monitoring civil infrastructure. Ice Publishing. ISBN:978-0-7277-6055-5
• Becker, M. W., Ciervo, C., Cole, M., Coleman, T., & Mondanos, M. (2017). Fracture hydromechanical response measured by
fiber optic distributed acoustic sensing at milliHertz frequencies. Geophysical Research Letters, 44(14), 7295-7302.
DOI:10.1002/2017GL073931
• Jin, G., & Roy, B. (2017). Hydraulic-fracture geometry characterization using low-frequency DAS signal. The Leading
Edge, 36(12), 975-980. DOI:10.1190/tle36120975.1
• Bao, X., & Chen, L. (2012). Comparative Experiment Study of Distributed Optical Fiber Temperature Monitoring
Methods. Sensors, 12, 8601-8639. DOI:10.3390/s120708601
• Bakku, S. K. (2015). Fracture characterization from seismic measurements in a borehole (Doctoral dissertation,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology). URI:1721.1/97331
• Hartog, A. H. (2017). An introduction to distributed optical fibre sensors. CRC press. DOI:10.1201/9781315119014
• Wang, H. F., Zeng, X., Miller, D. E., Fratta, D., Feigl, K. L., Thurber, C. H., & Mellors, R. J. (2018). Ground motion response to
an ML 4.3 earthquake using co-located distributed acoustic sensing and seismometer arrays. Geophysical Journal
International, 213(3), 2020-2036. DOI:10.1093/gji/ggy102
• Wu, X., Willis, M. E., Palacios, W., Ellmauthaler, A., Barrios, O., Shaw, S., & Quinn, D. (2017). Compressional-and shear-wave
studies of distributed acoustic sensing acquired vertical seismic profile data. The Leading Edge, 36(12), 987-993.
DOI:10.1190/tle36120987.1
• SEAFOM. (2018). Measuring sensor performance document (SEAFOM MSP‐02)—DAS parameter definitions and tests.
• Paitz, P., Edme, P., Gräff, D., Walter, F., Doetsch, J., Chalari, A., Schmelzbach, S. & Fichtner, A. (2020). Empirical
Investigations of the Instrument Response for Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) across 17 Octaves. Bulletin of the
Seismological Society of America. DOI:10.1785/0120200185

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Список Литературы
• Lindsey, N. J., Rademacher, H., & Ajo‐Franklin, J. B. (2020). On the broadband instrument response of fiber‐optic DAS
arrays. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 125(2), e2019JB018145. DOI:10.1029/2019JB018145
• Lindsey, N. J., Dawe, T. C., & Ajo-Franklin, J. B. (2019). Illuminating seafloor faults and ocean dynamics with dark fiber
distributed acoustic sensing. Science, 366(6469), 1103-1107. DOI:10.1126/science.aay5881
• Walter, F., Gräff, D., Lindner, F., Paitz, P., Köpfli, M., Chmiel, M., & Fichtner, A. (2020). Distributed acoustic sensing of
microseismic sources and wave propagation in glaciated terrain. Nature communications, 11(1), 1-10. DOI:10.1038/s41467-
020-15824-6
• Zhu, T., Shen, J., & Martin, E. R. (2020). Sensing earth and environment dynamics by telecommunication fiber-optic sensors:
An urban experiment in Pennsylvania USA. Solid Earth Discussions, 1-30. DOI:10.5194/se-2020-103
• Ajo-Franklin, J., Dou, S., Daley, T., Freifeld, B., Robertson, M., Ulrich, C., Wood, T., Ekblaw, I., Lindsey, N., Martin, E., &
Wagner, A. (2017). Time-lapse surface wave monitoring of permafrost thaw using distributed acoustic sensing and a
permanent automated seismic source. In SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2017 (pp. 5223-5227). Society of
Exploration Geophysicists. DOI:10.1190/segam2017-17774027.1
• Wagner, A. M., Lindsey, N. J., Dou, S., Gelvin, A., Saari, S., Williams, C., Ekblaw, I., Ulrich, C., Borglin, S., Morales, A., & Ajo-
Franklin, J. (2018). Permafrost Degradation and Subsidence Observations during a Controlled Warming Experiment. Scientific
reports, 8(1), 1-9. DOI:10.1038/s41598-018-29292-y
• Titov, A., Lindsey, N., Rodríguez Tribaldos, V., Wagner, A. M., Gelvin, A., Ekblaw, I., Ulrich C., Freifeild, B.M., & Ajo Franklin, J.
B. (2018). Permafrost Monitoring with Brillouin Based Fiber Optic Distributed Strain and Temperature Sensing: Findings from a
Controlled Thaw Experiment. AGUFM, 2018, NS43B-0846.
• Rodríguez Tribaldos, V. Using Low-frequency Fiber-optic DAS for Slow Deformation and Geomechanical Monitoring. In IRIS
DAS Virtual Workshop and Tutorial, 2020
• Dou, S., Lindsey, N., Wagner, A. M., Daley, T. M., Freifeld, B., Robertson, M., Peterson, J., Ulrich C., Martin, E.R., & Ajo-
Franklin, J. B. (2017). Distributed acoustic sensing for seismic monitoring of the near surface: A traffic-noise interferometry
case study. Scientific reports, 7(1), 1-12. DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-11986-4

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Список Литературы
• Mateeva, A., Lopez, J., Chalenski, D., Tatanova, M., Zwartjes, P., Yang, Z., Bakku, S., de Vos, K., & Potters, H. (2017). 4D
DAS VSP as a tool for frequent seismic monitoring in deep water. The Leading Edge, 36(12), 995-1000.
DOI:10.1190/tle36120995.1
• Pevzner, R., Urosevic, M., Tertyshnikov, K., Gurevich, B., Shulakova, V., Glubokovskikh, S., & Robertson, M. (2017). Seismic
Monitoring of a Small-scale Supercritical CO2/CH4 Injection-CO2CRC Otway Stage 2C Case Study. In 11th IEAGHG
Monitoring Network Meeting Traverse City, Michigan June 13th – 15th, 2017
• Bakulin, A., Golikov, P., Smith, R., Erickson, K., Silvestrov, I., & Al-Ali, M. (2017). Smart DAS upholes for simultaneous land
near-surface characterization and subsurface imaging. The Leading Edge, 36(12), 1001-1008. DOI:10.1190/tle36121001.1
• Titov, A., Binder, G., Liu, Y., Simmons, J., Tura, A., Byerley, G., & Monk, D. (2019). Observations and modeling of scattered
waves from hydraulic fractures in a DAS VSP experiment in the Permian Basin. In SEG Technical Program Expanded
Abstracts 2019 (pp. 4849-4853). Society of Exploration Geophysicists. DOI:10.1190/segam2019-3203933.1
• Titov, A., Binder, G., Jin, G., Tura, A., Aaron, P., Yates, M., & Gunnell, A. (2020). Analysis of scattered waves observed in inter-
stage DAS VSP data from zipper-fracturing operations. In SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2020 (pp. 3793-3797).
Society of Exploration Geophysicists. DOI:10.1190/segam2020-3412788.1

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Список Использованных Интернет Ресурсов
• https://silixa.com/resources/what-is-distributed-sensing/
• https://rcp.mines.edu/rd-projects/
• https://www.photonics.com/Products/Piezo-electric_Fiber_Stretcher/pr63031
• https://www.halliburton.com/content/dam/ps/public/lp/contents/Data_Sheets/web/H/fibervsp-das-interrogator.pdf
• https://www.linkedin.com/posts/andreaswuestefeld_fiberoptic-sensing-activity-6732035683571003392-CZ7M
• https://www.vam.ac.uk/bigglassmic
• https://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/distributed-fiber-optic-sensor-sensing-dfos-market
• https://www.halliburton.com/content/dam/ps/public/pinnacle/contents/Brochures/web/fiber-optics.pdf
• https://www.geoengineer.org/news/mitigating-the-earthquake-hazard-of-hydraulic-fracking

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Полезные Интернет Ресурсы
• https://motionsignaltechnologies.com/what-is-das-and-what-is-it-measuring/ – What Is DAS And What Is It Measuring?
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gs3SQoe5w8Q – A 15 minute YouTube video from EAGE featuring Mark Willis discussing
comparisons of DAS sensors with other measurements.
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LAcQ44YRMuM – A 30 minute YouTube video explaining some of basic ideas behind DAS
given by Nate Lindsey (Berkley) and Eileen Martin (Virginia Tech).
• https://www.iris.edu/hq/event/2020_DAS_Workshop – IRIS DAS Workshop. Presentations, Videos, Codes & Public Data

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