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Functional Styles: - / .: .. , .. . : - , 2005. 80 . ISBN 5-7779-0536-6

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ISBN 5-7779-0536-6 2

, 2005

..............................................................................................4 Unit 1. Introduction ..............................................................................5 Unit 2. Scientific Prose Style................................................................8 Unit 3. The Style of Official Documents............................................15 Unit 4. Publicistic Style ......................................................................21 Unit 5. Essay.......................................................................................42 Unit 6. Newspaper Style .....................................................................53 Unit 7. Brief News Items ....................................................................60 Unit 8. Belles-Lettres Style.................................................................68

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1. Write about students' cheating in exams in the style of one of genres below:

Scientific Prose Oratorical Speech Newspaper Headline Essay

Ad Fairy-tale Newspaper Article

Note1. There is no unanimous opinion on the problem of distinguishing the belles-style as a separate one on the ground that fiction is in fact individual creative work of a writer who makes use of all the subsystems of the language both the norm with its functional styles and regional and social varieties (slang, jargon, dialects). Colloquial style is also a problem it is a controversial issue, as it may include different features of different styles. Note2. While analysing a text and referring it to a particular style or a substyle, one should bear in mind that style divisions do not coincide in different languages (as a result of tradition, language structure and some other grounds). Thus, a scientific text in English would sound like a popular-scientific one in Russian. It is especially tangible in text headlines (e.g. Good Birds and Better Birds for an article in cognitive science) In English-speaking tradition in this respect it is more common to differentiate between two types of discourse scientific and journalistic writing, the main basis for differentiation there being the type of the addressee a specialist and a general reader respectively. Then texts can be further subdivided according to the topic they discuss into economic, social, political and other types of discourse. The difference between the journalistic and scientific writing can be also seen in the structure of statements that underlie the text radial or chain (or concatenation).
supporting statements

Official Document

2. Read your pieces of writing to 3. What features of each the class and compare them. Do genre can you distinguish? they have a lot in common?

Functional Styles
Functional Style is a system of interrelated language means, which serves a definite aim in communication. Each style is recognised as an independent whole. The peculiar choice of language means is primarily dependent on the aim of the communication, on the function the style performs. As a matter of fact there exist a number of classifications of functional styles, but the most common one was introduced by I. R. Galperin. It includes the belles-lettres style, the publicistic style, the newspaper style, the scientific prose style, and the style of official documents. All of them, though, can be further subdivided.

Thesis statement
supporting statements supporting statements

Radial structure the information is presented several times from different vantage points and the author may get back to his main claim several times repeating or paraphrasing it, giving various supporting arguments and evidence. This may be necessary when writing for the general reader.
supporting Thesis statements statement supporting statements supporting statements supporting statements supporting statements


Function proving a hypothesis and creating new concepts Features objective, precise, and mostly unemotional language means; words used in primary logical meaning use of terms and learned words impersonality and generalized form of expression reflected in the choice of grammar and syntactic constructions logical sequence of utterances most developed system of connectives accepted sentence-patterns: postulatory, argumentative, and formulative use of quotations and references use of footnotes both of the reference kind and digressive in character

Concatenation (chain structure) the thesis statement tends to the beginning; the information is not repeated several times. The structure is used when communicating with a specialist in the sphere discussed.

PRACTICE TEXT 1 1. Do you know what a snowflake consists of and how the snowfall occurs? Could you give a scientific explanation to this phenomenon? Try to do it. 2. Read the article and check your guesses. A snowfall consists of myriads of minute ice crystals that fall to the ground in the form of frozen precipitation. The formation of snow begins with these ice crystals in the subfreezing strata of the middle and upper atmosphere when there is an adequate supply of moisture
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present. At the core of every ice crystal is a minuscule nucleus, a solid particle of matter around which moisture condenses and freezes. Liquid water 4 droplets floating in the supercooled atmosphere and free ice crystals cannot coexist within the same cloud, since the vapor pressure of ice is less than that of water. This enables the ice crystals to rob the liquid droplets of their moisture and grow continuously. The process can be very rapid, quickly creating sizable ice crystals, some of which adhere to each other to create a cluster of ice crystals or a snowflake. Simple flakes possess a variety of beautiful forms, usually hexagonal, though the symmetrical shapes reproduced in most microscope photography of snowflakes are not usually found in actual snowfalls. Typically, snowflakes in actual snowfalls consist of broken fragments and clusters of adhering ice crystals. For a snowfall to continue once it starts, there must be a constant inflow of moisture to supply the nuclei. This moisture is supplied by the passage of an airstream over a water surface and its subsequent lifting to higher regions of the atmosphere. The Pacific Ocean is the source of moisture for most snowfalls west of the Rocky Mountains, while the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean feed water vapor into the air currents over the central and eastern sections of the United States. Other geographical features also can be the source of moisture for some snowstorms. For example, areas adjacent to the Great Lakes experience their own unique lake-effect storms, employing a variation of the process on a local scale. In addition, mountainous sections or rising terrain can initiate snowfalls by the geographical lifting of a moist airstream. 3. What communicative function is performed in this text? 4. Scientific writing is characterized by a number of structures. What do you think they are? 5. Answer the questions below and find an example for each case in the text above. a) Which tense would scientists use when describing things that are always true?

b) Which verb from is particularly useful when scientists want to focus on what is done rather than who is doing it? c) Which verb forms are particularly useful when the scientist is discussing his or her conclusions and wants to make it clear that the results are not yet established as fact? d) Which structures are particularly useful when scientists want to talk about what happens or would happen under various conditions? 6. Referring to the chart find in the text the features of the scientific prose style. TEXT 2 You will read an excerpt form the introduction to the famous book by Steven Pinker The Language Instinct. Read the text and define its topic.
1. Language is so tightly woven into human experience that it is scarcely possible to imagine life without it. Chances are that if you find two or more people together anywhere on earth, they will soon be exchanging words. When there is no one to talk with, people talk to themselves, to their dogs, even to their plants. In our social relations, the race is not to the swift but to the verbal the spellbinding orator, the silver-tongued seducer, the persuasive child who wins the battle of wills against a brawnier parent. Aphasia, the loss of language following brain injury, is devastating, and in severe cases family members may feel that the whole person is lost forever. 2. This book is about human language. Unlike most books with language" in the title, it will not chide you about proper usage, trace the origins of idioms and slang, or divert you with palindromes, anagrams, eponyms, or those precious names for groups of animals like "exaltation of larks." For I will be writing not about the English language or any other language, but about something much more basic: the instinct to learn, speak, and understand language. For the first time in history, there is something to write about it. Some thirty-five years ago a new science


was born. Now called "cognitive science," it combines tools from psychology, computer science, linguistics, philosophy, and neurobiology to explain the workings of human intelligence. The science of language, in particular, has seen spectacular advances in the years since. There are many phenomena of language that we are coming to understand nearly as well as we understand how a camera works or what the spleen is for. I hope to communicate these exciting discoveries, some of them as elegant as anything in modern science, but I have another agenda as well. 3. The recent illumination of linguistic abilities has revolutionary implications for our understanding of language and its role in human affairs, and for our view of humanity itself. Most educated people already have opinions about language. They know that it is man's most important cultural invention, the quintessential example of his capacity to use symbols, and a biologically unprecedented event irrevocably separating him from other animals. They know that language pervades thought, with different languages causing their speakers to construe reality in different ways. They know that children learn to talk from role models and caregivers. They know that grammatical sophistication used to be nurtured in the schools, but sagging educational standards and the debasements of popular culture have led to a frightening decline in the ability of the average person to construct a grammatical sentence. They also know that English is a zany, logic-defying tongue, in which one drives on a parkway and parks in a driveway, plays at a recital and recites at a play. They know that English spelling takes such wackiness to even greater heights George Bernard Shaw complained that fish could just as sensibly be spelled ghoti (gh as in tough, as in women, ti as in nation) and I that only institutional inertia prevents the adoption of a more rational, spell-it-like-it-sounds system. 4. In the pages that follow, I will try to convince you that every one of these common opinions is wrong! And they are all wrong for a single reason. Language is not a cultural artifact that we learn the way we learn to tell time or how the federal government works. Instead, it is a distinct piece of the biological makeup of our brains. Language is a complex, specialized skill, which develops in the child spontaneously, without conscious effort or formal instruction, is deployed without awareness of its underlying logic, is qualitatively

the same in every individual, and is distinct from more general abilities to process information or behave intelligently. For these reasons some cognitive scientists have described language as a psychological faculty, a mental organ, a neural system, and a computational module. But I prefer the admittedly quaint term instinct. It conveys the idea that people know how to talk in more or less the sense that spiders know how to spin webs. Web-spinning was not invented by some unsung spider genius and does not depend on having had the right education or on having an aptitude for architecture or the construction trades. Rather, spiders spin spider webs because they have spider brains, which give them the urge to spin and the competence to succeed. Although there are differences between webs and words, I will encourage you to see language in this way, for it helps to make sense of the phenomena we will explore. 5. Thinking of language as an instinct inverts the popular wisdom, especially as it has been passed down in the canon of the humanities and social sciences. Language is no more a cultural invention than is upright posture. It is not a manifestation of a general capacity to use symbols: a three-year-old, we shall see, is a grammatical genius, but is quite incompetent at the visual arts, religious iconography, traffic signs, and the other staples of the semiotics curriculum. Though language is a magnificent ability unique to Homo sapiens among living species, it does not call for sequestering the study of humans from the domain of biology, for a magnificent ability unique to a particular living species is far from unique in the animal kingdom. Some kinds of bats home in on flying insects using Doppler sonar. Some kinds of migratory birds navigate thousands of miles by calibrating the positions of the constellations against the time of day and year. In nature's talent show we are simply a species of primate with our own act, a knack for communicating information about who did what to whom by modulating the sounds we make when we exhale. 6. Once you begin to look at language not as the ineffable essence of human uniqueness but as a biological adaptation to communicate information, it is no longer as tempting to see language as an insidious shaper of thought, and, we shall see, it is not. Moreover, seeing language as one of nature's engineering marvels an organ with "that perfection of structure and co-adaptation which justly



excites our admiration," in Darwin's words gives us a new respect for your ordinary Joe and the much-maligned English language (or any language). The complexity of language, from the scientist's point of view, is part of our biological birthright; it is not something that parents teach their children or something that must be elaborated in school as Oscar Wilde said, "Education is an admirable thing, but it is well to remember from time to time that nothing that is worth knowing can be taught." A preschooler's tacit knowledge of grammar is more sophisticated than the thickest style manual or the most state-of-the-art computer language system, and the same applies to all healthy human beings, even the notorious syntax-fracturing professional athlete and the, you know, like, inarticulate teenage skateboarder. Finally, since language is the product of a well-engineered biological instinct, we shall see that it is not the nutty barrel of monkeys that entertainer-columnists make it out to be. I will try to restore some dignity to the English vernacular, and will even have some nice things to say about its spelling system.

Text analysis 1. Where does the author explicitly formulate his thesis statement? Does he repeat or paraphrase it anywhere in the text? Why? What structure of argumentation is it? (See the information in the appendices) 2. Define the communicative function of the text. How is it connected with the topic of the text? 3. Define other goals the author may have had in mind while writing the text. How does he achieve these goals? What explicit and implicit means does he use? 4. Now refer to the information in the appendices about the difference between the communicative function and pragmatic aim of a text. Formulate them as far as this text is concerned. 5. Analyze the authors use of figurative language commenting on the effect achieved by using them. 6. Does the author use emotional or rational appeal to support his claims? Why? 7. What features prevail: those of argumentative or persuasive writing? Give instances from the text to prove your opinion. 8. Sum up your ideas about the ways the author chooses to achieve the aims he has set out. Does he succeed in it?

1. What is the topic of the text? 2. What is the authors main claim? How does he prove it? Questions on style 1. Compare this text with Text 1. What is similar? What is different? Identify the main points of difference. 2. How would you define the style (substyle) of the text? 3. Make a list of features of this type of text in English. (You may use other texts of the same kind). Give examples from the text to illustrate your ideas. 4. In what respect are texts of this substyle in English different form those in Russian? 5. Choose a paragraph and translate it to show the difference in the conventional ways of writing texts of this kind in Russian make necessary changes to adapt it and to make it sound natural in Russian.



Function stating conditions binding two parties in an undertaking and reaching agreement between them


This style is not homogeneous and is represented by four major substyles. The scheme below (illustrated by sample texts) graphically shows what variants it consists of: The Style of Official Documents Legal Documents Documents of Diplomacy Business Documents Military Documents

This is the last will and testament 3 March, 1918: The Peace Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Article I. Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey, for the one part, and Russia, for the other part, declare that the state of war between them has ceased. They are resolved to live henceforth in peace and amity with one another. Article II. The contracting parties will refrain from any agitation or propaganda against the Government and The Style of Official Documents

Invoice to: SMITH & JONES LTD Quantity Description 1. Cleaning and painting two rooms


Features use of words in logical dictionary meaning special system of cliches, terms, set expressions use of terminological nomenclature no emotive words retaining their original meaning special obligatory forms of address, opening and concluding encoded character of language: use of abbreviations (M.P.) and conventional symbols ($) non-flexible compositional design fixed paragraphing restricted choice of syntactical patterns grammar and punctuation depending on the pattern (combining several pronouncements into one sentence)

From Laws of War: General Orders No. 100 INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF ARMIES OF THE UNITED STATES IN THE FIELD Prepared by Francis Lieber, promulgated by President Lincoln, 24 April 1863. SECTION III Deserters - Prisoners of war - Hostages Booty on the battle-field. Art. 48. Deserters from the American Army, having entered the service of the enemy, suffer death if they fall again into the hands of the United States, whether by capture, or being delivered up to the American Army; and if a deserter from the enemy, having taken service in the Army of the United States, is captured by the enemy, and punished by them with death

PRACTICE 1. As you can see from the chart above, the communicative function of any official document is to define the conditions of the relations between two or more parties. Scan the following text and say which parties are in question here. THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES
We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. 16


Article. I.
Section 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. Section 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature. No Person shall be a Representative who shall not attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen. [] Section 3. The Senate of the United Stats shall be composed of two Senators from each state,[chosen by the Legislature thereof] for six Years and each Senator shall have one Vote. Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, and of the second Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; []

1 1 1. . 2. . 2 1. , . , . 3 1. . 2. , . 3. . [] 5 94 1. . 95 1. .

2. What substyle of official documents is this fragment from the US Constitution a sample of? 3. Skim the extract and say which of the features listed in the chart can be found in this document. 4. Now scan the excerpts from the Constitution of Russian Federation and do the task to follow.


2. : . 3. 450 . 96 1. . 2. . 97 1. , 21 . 2. . . As you remember, texts of a particular style have different features in different languages. Compare the peculiarities of the US and Russian constitutions. Mind the aspects to follow: a) compositional design and paragraphing; b) choice of words; c) syntax; d) grammar and punctuation; e) modality*; f) graphical devices. Sum up your ideas and try to find a more or less plausible explanation of the nature of these differences. Do you regard it possible to draw any conclusions about cultural differences between the Peoples whom these two constitutes serve?

* Modality is the term used to refer to the ways in which we express ideas of possibility, obligation, willingness, advisability and so on. Other means of expressing modality include adverbs, e.g. probably, ideally, etc. adjectives, e.g. essential, reluctant, etc. nouns, e.g. likelihood, certainty, etc. phrases, e.g. the chances are, to be on the cards, taken for granted, etc.



The publisistic style has spoken (oratory and speeches) and written (essays) varites. Oratory and Speeches are often refferred to as the Oratorical Style. Publicistic Style Essays Oratory and Speeches Publicistic Style
Substyle Function Features Style direct contact with the audience (use of you, your, we, our) the use of the 1st person singular to justify a personal approach to the problem treated combination of logical argumentation and emotional appeal due to logical argumentation: coherent and logical syntactic structure expanded system of connectives (hence, inasmuch, thenceforward, therefore) careful paragraphing brevity of expression due to emotional appeal: use of emotionally coloured words imagery and stylistic devices are used but usually are not fresh and genuine for the audience to comprehend the message implied with less effort Substyle use of similes and sustained metaphors to emphasize ideas

You may find useful the following definition taken from Merriam Websters Encyclopedia of Literature, 1995: Oratory: the rationale and practice of persuasive public speaking. Some oratorical devices include: Refrain: A regularly repeated line or group of lines in a poem or song Dramatic pause: An intentional pause in delivery in order to build suspense or magnify the importance of a point. Hyperbole: exaggeration used for emphasis or dramatic effect. We will not breathe again until the injustice has stopped. PRACTICE TEXT I 1. What makes a good speaker? 2. Whom do you consider the best public speaker of the 20th century in Great Britain? Why? 3. You already know that the main purpose of every speaker is to persuade. Read the speech below and say what the speaker wants to persuade his audience in? What is his message? Blood, toil, tears and sweat On May 13, 1940, newly appointed British Prime Minister Winston Churchill gave his first speech to the British Parliament in which he prepares them for the long battle against Nazi aggression, at a time when the very survival of England was in doubt.
On Friday evening last I received from His Majesty the mission to form a new administration. It was the evident will of Parliament and the nation that this should be conceived on the broadest possible basis and that it should include all parties. I have already completed the most important part of this task. 22


direct address to the audience (Your Worship, Mr. Chairman; you, with your permission, Mind!) special obligatory forms to open and end an oration (Ladies and Gentlemen; In the name of God do your duty) words expressing speaker's personal opinion (I'm no idealist to believe firmly in, I'm confident that wide use of repetition (lexical, synonymic, syntactical) to focus on the main points frequent rhetoric questions use of similes and sustained metaphors to emphasize ideas contractions are acceptable

Oratory and Speeches (the spoken variety)



A war cabinet has been formed of five members, representing, with the Labour, Opposition, and Liberals, the unity of the nation. It was necessary that this should be done in one single day on account of the extreme urgency and rigor of events. Other key positions were filled yesterday. I am submitting a further list to the king tonight. I hope to complete the appointment of principal ministers during tomorrow. The appointment of other ministers usually takes a little longer. I trust when Parliament meets again this part of my task will be completed and that the administration will be complete in all respects. I considered it in the public interest to suggest to the Speaker that the House should be summoned today. At the end of today's proceedings, the adjournment of the House will be proposed until May 21 with provision for earlier meeting if need be. Business for that will be notified to MPs at the earliest opportunity. I now invite the House by a resolution to record its approval of the steps taken and declare its confidence in the new government. The resolution: "That this House welcomes the formation of a government representing the united and inflexible resolve of the nation to prosecute the war with Germany to a victorious conclusion." To form an administration of this scale and complexity is a serious undertaking in itself. But we are in the preliminary phase of one of the greatest battles in history. We are in action at many other pointsin Norway and in Holland and we have to be prepared in the Mediterranean. The air battle is continuing, and many preparations have to be made here at home. In this crisis I think I may be pardoned if I do not address the House at any length today, and I hope that any of my friends and colleagues or former colleagues who are affected by 23

the political reconstruction will make all allowances for any lack of ceremony with which it has been necessary to act. I say to the House as I said to ministers who have joined this government, I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat. We have before us an ordeal of the most grievous kind. We have before us many, many months of struggle and suffering. You ask, what is our policy? I say it is to wage war by land, sea, and air. War with all our might and with all the strength God has given us, and to wage war against a monstrous tyranny never surpassed in the dark and lamentable catalogue of human crime. That is our policy. You ask, what is our aim? I can answer in one word. It is victory. Victory at all costs Victory in spite of all terrors Victory, however long and hard the road may be, for without victory there is no survival. Let that be realized. No survival for the British Empire, no survival for all that the British Empire has stood for, no survival for the urge, the impulse of the ages, that mankind shall move forward toward his goal. I take up my task in buoyancy and hope. I feel sure that our cause will not be suffered to fail among men. I feel entitled at this juncture, at this time, to claim the aid of all and to say, "Come then, let us go forward together with our united strength." Winston Churchill May 13, 1940

4. What major parts can you divide the speech into? What idea is each of them devoted to? Draw the main idea of each paragraph. What key words express it?

How are the paragraphs made coherent? Now sum up your ideas and comment upon the logical arrangement of the speech. 5. What is the general mood of the speech? How is it changing throughout the speech? What means are employed by the speaker to create the mood he intends to convey? Comment on the choice of elevated words and the result they are expected to produce. 6. What creates the emotional impact of the speech? What stylistic devices contribute to it? 7. Each utterance (which may be different from sentence) may be viewed as a speech act. Speech acts are classified into different types, but the major types that are usually defined are Representatives (acts of stating, asserting, concluding, etc.) Directives (acts of ordering, questioning, requesting, etc.) Commissives (acts of offering, promising, threatening, etc.) Expressives (acts of thanking, apologizing, congratulating, etc.) Declarations (acts of christening, firing from employment, declaring war, etc. Now look through the oratory above and try to find examples of each type. Comment on the purpose of opting for different types of speech acts and the ways they contribute to achieving the goal of the speech. 8. Comment on the usage of tenses. What idea is supported by it? How is the idea of urgency communicated with the help of a) modal verbs;* b) vocabulary; c) adverbs of time?

9. What other ideas are revealed through the usage of modal verbs? What modal verbs and modal-like expressions are used while speaking about a) the speaker's deeds; b) his suggestions; c) what he thinks necessary to in order to win? 10. Does the speech sound personal? If so, by what means is it achieved? What image of him as a citizen is created? *Modal verbs are just one of the means of expressing modality. For more information see the Style of Official Documents. TEXT II 1. Listen to the Inaugural Address of John F. Kennedy. 2. Discuss your impressions after having listened to the tape. What qualities of a good speaker does he seem to have? 3. What seems different from the speech delivered by Churchill? John F. Kennedy: Inaugural Address

delivered January 20, 1961



1. Vice President Johnson, Mr. Speaker, Mr. Chief Justice, President Eisenhower, Vice President Nixon, President Truman, Reverend Clergy, fellow citizens: 2. We observe today not a victory of party but a celebration of freedom, symbolizing an end as well as a beginning, signifying renewal as well as change. For I have sworn before you and Almighty God the same solemn oath our forebears prescribed nearly a century and three-quarters ago. 3. The world is very different now. For man holds in his mortal hands the power to abolish all forms of human poverty and all forms of human life. And yet the same revolutionary beliefs for which our forebears fought are still at issue around the globe the belief that the rights of man come not from the generosity of the state but from the hand of God. 4. We dare not forget today that we are the heirs of that first revolution. Let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed, and to which we are committed today at home and around the world. 5. Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty. 6. This much we pledge and more. 7. To those old allies whose cultural and spiritual origins we share, we pledge the loyalty of faithful friends. United there is little we cannot do in a host of cooperative ventures. Divided there is little we can do, for we dare not meet a powerful challenge at odds and split asunder. 8. To those new states whom we welcome to the ranks of the free, we pledge our word that one form of colonial control shall not have passed away merely to be replaced by a far more iron tyranny. We shall not always expect to find them supporting our view. But we shall always hope to find them strongly supporting their own freedom 27

and to remember that, in the past, those who foolishly sought power by riding the back of the tiger ended up inside. 9. To those people in the huts and villages of half the globe struggling to break the bonds of mass misery, we pledge our best efforts to help them help themselves, for whatever period is required not because the communists may be doing it, not because we seek their votes, but because it is right. 10. If a free society cannot help the many who are poor, it cannot save the few who are rich. 11. To our sister republics south of our border, we offer a special pledge: to convert our good words into good deeds, in a new alliance for progress, to assist free men and free governments in casting off the chains of poverty. But this peaceful revolution of hope cannot become the prey of hostile powers. Let all our neighbors know that we shall join with them to oppose aggression or subversion anywhere in the Americas. 12. And let every other power know that this hemisphere intends to remain the master of its own house. 13. To that world assembly of sovereign states, the United Nations, our last best hope in an age where the instruments of war have far outpaced the instruments of peace, we renew our pledge of support to prevent it from becoming merely a forum for invective, to strengthen its shield of the new and the weak, and to enlarge the area in which its writ may run. 14. Finally, to those nations who would make themselves our adversary, we offer not a pledge but a request: that both sides begin anew the quest for peace before the dark powers of destruction unleashed by science engulf all humanity in planned or accidental selfdestruction. 15. We dare not tempt them with weakness. For only when our arms are sufficient beyond doubt can we be certain beyond doubt that they will never be employed. But neither can two great and powerful groups of nations take comfort from our present course -- both sides overburdened by the cost of modern weapons, both rightly alarmed by the steady spread of the deadly atom, yet both racing to alter that uncertain balance of terror that stays the hand of mankind's final war. So let us begin anew remembering on both sides that civility is not a sign of weakness, and sincerity is always subject to proof. 28

16. Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate. 17. Let both sides explore what problems unite us instead of belaboring those problems which divide us. 18. Let both sides, for the first time, formulate serious and precise proposals for the inspection and control of arms, and bring the absolute power to destroy other nations under the absolute control of all nations. 19. Let both sides seek to invoke the wonders of science instead of its terrors. Together let us explore the stars, conquer the deserts, eradicate disease, tap the ocean depths, and encourage the arts and commerce. 20. Let both sides unite to heed, in all corners of the earth, the command of Isaiah to "undo the heavy burdens . . . [and] let the oppressed go free." 21. And if a beachhead of cooperation may push back the jungle of suspicion, let both sides join in creating a new endeavor not a new balance of power, but a new world of law where the strong are just, and the weak secure, and the peace preserved. All this will not be finished in the first one hundred days. Nor will it be finished in the first one thousand days; nor in the life of this Administration; nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet. But let us begin. 22. In your hands, my fellow citizens, more than mine, will rest the final success or failure of our course. Since this country was founded, each generation of Americans has been summoned to give testimony to its national loyalty. The graves of young Americans who answered the call to service surround the globe. 23. Now the trumpet summons us again not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need not as a call to battle, though embattled we are but a call to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle, year in and year out, rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation, a struggle against the common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself. 24. Can we forge against these enemies a grand and global alliance, North and South, East and West, that can assure a more fruitful life for all mankind? Will you join in that historic effort?

25. In the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I do not shrink from this responsibility I welcome it. I do not believe that any of us would exchange places with any other people or any other generation. The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it. And the glow from that fire can truly light the world. 26. And so, my fellow Americans, ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country. 27. My fellow citizens of the world, ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man.

28. Finally, whether you are citizens of America or citizens of the world, ask of us here the same high standards of strength and sacrifice which we ask of you. With a good conscience our only sure reward, with history the final judge of our deeds, let us go forth to lead the land we love, asking His blessing and His help, but knowing that here on earth God's work must truly be our own.

4. Before working on the text, make sure you know all the words and expressions. Give equivalents of the following ones: To officially end Enemy (*2) Separated suddenly or violently To be affected by To suddenly let smth. have its full effect


To completely get rid of To formally order or ask someone to come to a particular place To create or develop smth Explain what is meant in the text by the following words and expressions. (Use the context these words occur in to comment on their meaning and the nuances of it): The heirs of that first revolution Tempered by war To be committed to smth To pledge the loyalty Casting off the chains of poverty Its writ may run Overburdened by Is subject to proof To belabour smth. To be embattled To shrink from responsibility 5. Look through the text and comment on its structure. Explain and support by the text your idea as to its structural parts. Make sure to mention the following: a) the introduction, the body and the conclusion b) the shifts in the subtopics throughout the speech c) the flow of ideas, the emphasis on some of them and how it influences the structure ( logical emphasis within the parts) 6. What means of cohesion are used in the speech?(You can refer to the appendices for the list of cohesion devices) 7. Comment on the register of the words used in the speech: account for the use of formal (bookish, archaic, poetic) and informal words (if any). Sum up your ideas. 8. What types of information can you find in the text? (Refer to the Appendices to revise your knowledge of informativeness as text category) 9. Analyse the text as to the stylistic devices and expressive means employed to make the speech more vivid and eloquent. Com31

ment on the ideas they express and the pragmatic effect they produce. (Account for different cases of gradation and antithesis in particular). 10. What devices does the speaker use most? In your opinion, does he abuse them? 11. Does he use emotional or logical appeal more? 12. Listen to the speech again and mark the points where the audience applauds. Are they easy to predict from the stylistic devices used and the increase in tonality created by the speaker? Does the speaker get an adequate response from the audience? 13. Comment on the tension created in the speech is it constant, increasing, decreasing, or fluctuating? TEXT 3 1. What do you know about M.L. King? Read the information below and try to identify the main issues that will influence your analysis of his speech. Background Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s most memorable speech from his life as an activist, "I Have a Dream," was delivered August 28, 1963 before more than 200,000 people in front of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. as part of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. The speech not only helped to galvanize the already growing civil-rights movement across the country at the time, it also became one of the most influential and inspirational pieces of rhetoric in American history. Remarkably, midway through his delivery, King suspended his pre-scripted text and began to improvise; what resulted was the speech's most recognizable section, the passage in which the words "I have a dream" are passionately repeated. Indeed, King's background as a Baptist preacher in the South instilled in him a keen awareness of the urgency of the moment and the

ability to make sudden alterations to his plans. This skill helped King establish a rapport with his ever-changing audience so that he could consistently communicate on a meaningful level, a skill that was demonstrated at the March demonstration. What is also apparent in "I Have Dream" is King's deep commitment to scholarship (he earned a Ph.D. from Boston University). King was clearly well versed in both American history and religious scripture, and he seamlessly weaves references to both into the fabric of his oration. Overall, "I Have a Dream" can be held up as a masterful creative work in itself; its dramatic structure coupled with its image-laden content render a remarkably moving piece of American literature that when read even outside of its original context still strongly resonates today. Historical Context for "I Have a Dream" Unfortunately, many of us remain blissfully unaware of the horrific racial inequities that King decried in "I Have a Dream." In 1963, southern states featured not only separate black and white schools, churches, and neighborhoods, but also separate black and white restrooms, drinking fountains, hotels, motels, restaurants, cafes, golf courses, libraries, elevators, and cemeteries. African-Americans were also systematically denied the right to vote. In addition, southern whites could commit crimes against blacks including murder with little or no fear of punishment. The system of racial division was enshrined in southern custom and law. Racism also conditioned life in the North. Although segregationist practices directly violated the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments of the Constitution, the federal government exerted little or no effort to enforce these amendments. Leading politicians including John Kennedy, Robert Kennedy, and Lyndon Johnson advocated racial equality only when pressured by King, James Farmer, John Lewis, Ella Baker, Fannie Lou Hamer, and other activists who fostered nonviolent social disruption in the pursuit of equal rights.

Content for "I Have a Dream" "I Have a Dream" has been misconstrued and sentimentalized by some who focus only on the dream. The first half of the speech does not portray an American dream but rather catalogues an American nightmare. In the manner of Old Testament prophets, Frederick Douglass's "What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?" oration and Vernon Johns, King excoriated a nation that espoused equality while forcing blacks onto "a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity." African-American Folk Pulpit: "I Have a Dream" Important in reaching King's enormous and diverse audience were the resources of black folk preaching. These resources included call-and-response interaction with listeners; a calm-to-storm delivery that begins in a slow, professorial manner before swinging gradually and rhythmically to a dramatic climax; schemes of parallelism, especially anaphora (e.g., "I have a dream that . . ."); and clusters of light and dark metaphors. Martin Luther King, Jr.: "I Have a Dream"


I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation. Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves, who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity. But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land. And so we've come here today to dramatize a shameful condition. In a sense we have come to our nation's capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the unalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note, insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked "insufficient funds." But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. And so we have come to cash this check, a check that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice. We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of Now. This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism. Now is the time to make real the promises of democracy. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of 35

racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood. Now is the time to make justice a reality for all of God's children. It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment. This sweltering summer of the Negro's legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. Nineteen sixty-three is not an end but a beginning. Those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual. There will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges. But there is something that I must say to my people who stand on the warm threshold which leads into the palace of justice. In the process of gaining our rightful place we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred. We must ever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. Again and again we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force. The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to a distrust of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny. And they have come to realize that their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom. We cannot walk alone. And as we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall always march ahead. We cannot turn back. There are those who are asking the devotees of civil rights, "When will you be satisfied?" We can never be satisfied as long as the Negro is the victim of the unspeakable horrors of police brutality. We can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities. We cannot be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote. No, no, we are not satisfied and we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream. 36

I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. Some of you have come from areas where your quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecutions and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive. Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed. Let us not wallow in the valley of despair, I say to you today, my friends. And so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal. I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a dream today! 37

I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification; one day right down in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers. I have a dream today! I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, and every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together. This is our hope. This is the faith that I will go back to the South with. With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day. And this will be the day, this will be the day when all of God's children will be able to sing with new meaning, "My country 'tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of the Pilgrim's pride, from every mountainside, let freedom ring!" And if America is to be a great nation, this must become true. And so let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York. Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania. Let freedom ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado. Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California. But not only that. Let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia. Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee. Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi, from every mountainside, let freedom ring! And when this happens, when we allow freedom to ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and 38

Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, "Free at last, free at last. Thank God Almighty, we are free at last."

Extension Activity I Compare the structure and content of "I Have a Dream," and Kennedy's inaugural address paying attention to both similarities and differences. After having carefully studied the two speeches, address the following questions, being sure to defend your responses with supporting examples: 1. Compare the structure of the two texts. Pay attention to the paragraphing in the two cases. Try to account for the differences and similarities you observed. 2. How are the speeches alike and/or different in their choices of language? In other words, do the speeches seem as if they were composed for the general public or rather for specific groups? How does it influence the register of the words used? 3. Which do you see as being the most direct? That is, which speech uses the least amount of figurative language and/or obscure references? 4. Which is the most metaphorical in its content? In other words, which makes the most use of figurative language? How does it influence the tonality of the two? 5. Compare the communicative function of the texts and means of fulfilling it. 6. For each speech, explain how relevant its ideas would be in society if the speech were delivered today. Do the mentioned struggles still exist? Has the country and the world evolved since the speeches were given? 7. Based strictly on the texts themselves, which speech do you see as the most: eloquent? passionate? intellectual? persuasive? honest?

Questions for discussion and analysis 1. What examples of figurative language can be found in the text? (For example, "seared in the flames of withering injustice"; "manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination"; "whirlwinds of revolt"; "oasis of freedom and justice"; "symphony of brotherhood." 2. What are the peculiarities of the metaphors used by M.L. King (the structure, the images created)? 3. How do these uses enhance the overall impact of the speech? 4. What oratorical devices does King use to add vitality and force to his speech? (Comment on the use of refrains, multiple shifts in sentence lengths; dramatic shifts in tone, use of questions as well as exclamations, etc.) 5. In what specific ways does King call forth his experience as a preacher to lend persuasive power to the speech? (For example, images that call to mind the plight of black Americans; religious and historical allusions?) 6. Sum up your ideas about the rhetorical influences on King's speech, the oratorical devices that King uses in delivering his speech and how a speech is similar to/different from other literary forms. 7. What adjustments do you have to make to translate the text into Russian? What expressive means will you be able to leave unchanged? Which will you have to change? What kind of changes will they be (change in the manner and nature of the image created, change in some words used, etc)?


Extension Activity II In the spirit of "I Have a Dream," compose and deliver speeches that address a wrong or injustice you see in society or community. Suggested guidelines are: 510 minutes in length Clearly defined opening, body and conclusion Clearly defined thesis statement Use of supporting examples to support thesis Use of figurative language Use of oratorical devices such as (but not restricted to!) refrain and hyperbole Clearly expressed goals (legal reform; public awareness; etc.)

As you know, essay is a written variety of publicistic style having a lot in common with oratorical substyle but nevertheless retaining some peculiarities distinguishing it from its counterpart. TEXT 1 1. Read the essay below and say whether you find the logical argumentation relevant or not. Give your grounds. Womens Liberation
1. Since the middle of the century, women around the world have been seeking greater independence and recognition. No longer content with their traditional roles as housewives and mothers, women have joined together to create the womens liberation movement. While the forces behind the international movement vary from culture to culture and from individual to individual, the basic causes in the United States can be traced to three events: the development of effective birthcontrol methods, the invention of labor-saving devices for the home, and the advent of World War II. 2. The first cause of the liberation of women was the development of effective birth-control methods, freeing women from the endless child-bearing and rearing. As a result of having choice as to when and if to bear children, women acquired the freedom and the time to pursue interests outside of the home. Because of the development of birth control, women could delay having children or avoid having them altogether; consequently, women had an opportunity to acquire an education and/ or pursue a career. 3. Another event was the development of mechanized labor-saving devices for the home, resulting in more leisure time



and freedom for women. For example, fifty years ago, a housewife spent an average twelve to fourteen hours per day doing housework. Due to the invention of machines such as vacuum cleaners, washing machines, and dishwashers, a housewife can now take care of her daily housework in about five hours. 4. The final event that, at least in the United States, gave impetus to the liberation of women was World War II. During the war, most men were serving in the military. Consequently, women had to fill the vacancies in the labor force. Women by thousands went to work in factories and took over businesses for their absent husbands. This was a great change for the majority of American women, for they discovered that they could weld airplane parts and manage businesses as well change diapers and bake bread. 5. These events planted the seeds of great change in society, and the effects of this change are being felt at all levels: in the family, in business, and in government.

10. Where could an article like this appear? Who the communicators might be? 11. What conclusions can you come to on the basis of these observations? Do you think the text was written by a man or a woman? Explain. 12. Sum up your ideas and using this piece of writing as an example of essay as a genre prove that it belongs to the realm of the publicistic style and comment on the peculiarities typical for it due to its written form. TEXT 2 Read the text below and try to define its genre. Roger Simon is a columnist for the Baltimore Sun Born in Chicago in 1948, Simon earned his A. from the University of Illinois in 1970 and got his first professional job with the Chicago City News Bureau. He became a columnist for the Chicago Sun-Times in 1972, later moving to the Tribune. He has been a humor columnist for Chicago Magazine, and contributed articles to several popular periodicals. His -work is collected in Simon Says: The Best 'of Roger Simon (1985), and he has written an account of the 1988 presidential campaign, Road Show (1989). Among his honors are several United Press International public-service awards, and the Peter Lisagor Award. No Compassion for Drunk Drivers In this essay, Simon writes an outraged reply to a television program about drunken driving (produced and narrated by the guilty party, a Washington, D.C., television reporter, as part of his punishment), condemning the show as self-serving and dishonest. Simon 's real target, however, is drunken drivers themselves. His view is angry and uncompromising in the extreme. I would like to make an admission up front: I have a thing about drunken drivers.

Questions for Study and Discussion 2. Analyse the paragraphing of the essay and compare it with that of the speech. Which do you consider to be more rigid? 3. Where do you find the authors thesis statement? What is the structure of argumentation used in this essay? What techniques does the author use to support his claim? 4. Draw the main idea of each paragraph in the body of the essay. 5. How are the paragraphs made coherent? Analyze the system of connectives and other means of cohesion. 6. Comment on the register of the vocabulary used in the text. 7. Is the author biased? Does he use emotional appeal? 8. Analyse the language the essay is written in. Is it figurative or rather matter-of-fact? 9. Is the essay argumentative or persuasive?


I hate them. I really hate them. Every time I read about another innocent person slaughtered by a drunken driver, I become enraged. So when I saw the nationally broadcast PBS special on drunken driving last week, I did not react as many did. I did not think it was sensitive and forthright. I did not react as Phil Donahue, the host, did when he came on at the end and said: "I was enormously moved by this documentary, as Im sure you were. Not me, Phil. I wanted to kick in the set. I was plenty moved for the victims. I was plenty moved for the people who were crippled, paralyzed, reduced to vegetables or killed. But the drunken drivers themselves did not move me. I thought most got off real easy. First, let me tell you about the magnitude of the problem. Someone is killed by a drunken driver every 20jninutes in this country. On any given weekend night, on any road in America, 1 out of every 10 drivers is drunk. Which is why drunken drivers will continue to get off easy. Because so many of the lawmakers, so many of the jurors, so many of the judges have driven drunk themselves. They have a certain amount of sympathy for those who get caught. The purpose of the documentary, called Drinking and Driving: The Toll, The Tears," was to show that drunken drivers don't get off easy. Sometimes they go to jail and sometimes they lose their licenses and sometimes they lose their jobs, we were told. But, in reality, they rarely do. Most drunken drivers get away with it. If they are caught,' and few are, most go out and hire the best lawyers they can afford in order to beat the rap. The element that made this documentary special is that it was produced and written by Kelly Burke, 39, a Washington, D.C., television reporter. At 6:17 A.M. on July 1, 1984, after having 6 to 11 glasses of wine, Burke crossed the center line in his van and crashed head-on into a pick-up track driven by Dennis Crouch, 32, who was on his way to Army Reserve training.

Crouch was killed, leaving behind a son and a wife, who was 8 months pregnant. After the" accident, Burke's lawyer told reporters: "It's our feeling that there's a defense no matter what charges come down." That line wasn't in the documentary, of course. Burke's lawyer did a heck of a fine job, by the way. He was worth whatever he cost, because Burke's case was plea-bargained. In return for a guilty plea, the charge of homicide with a motor vehicle while intoxicated was dropped. Instead, Burke pleaded guilty to charges of driving under the influence and failing to stay in the proper lane. His driver's license was revoked. He was sentenced to two years of unsupervised probation, fined $500 and ordered to produce a documentary on the results of drinking and driving. But having seen his documentary, I get the impression that one of the big results of drinking driving for Burke was getting exposure on national TV. The show, which he also narrates, uses a lot of euphemisms. Drivers are "impaired" after "imbibing." In one case, we are told that a drunken driver who killed a family of five "didn't mean it; he didn't even remember it happening." But didn't he mean it? Don't all drunken drivers mean it? If you drink 6 to 11 glasses of wine, Burke did, and then get behind the wheel, just what is it you do mean? In the last segment, Burke comes on the screen. He stands there in a nice suit and there is very dramatic background music. He tells us about a driver who pleaded guilty to driving under the influence of alcohol. This driver had worked "long hours and began celebrating." And then this driver crashed into a guy and he now suffers a "melancholy paradoxically like that of the victims. " And, Burke tells us, this driver now is "bumming rides" and taking "buses and the subway" because his license was revoked. Legal fees are high. If this weren't enough, "social activists kept saying he hadn't suffered enough."

Then Burke tells us: "I was the driver." Wrong, Mr. Burke. You were the killer. So why don't you just say it? A guy is dead, a woman widowed, two children orphaned, and Kelly Burke is telling me what agony it is to take public transportation. As I said, I wanted to kick in the set. I admit my reaction to drunken driving is extreme. But Burke and I do agree on one thing: "I've said many times," he told the judge at his sentencing, "I wished it had been me." If these self-indulgent slobs would just maim and kill each other, drunken driving wouldn't upset me as much. In fact, it wouldn't upset me at all. Questions for Study and Discussion 1. What is the topic of the essay? 2. What is the authors main claim? Where in the text do we read his thesis statement first? Is it repeated anywhere in the text? What structure of argumentation do we observe in this essay (radial or chain)? 3. Comment on the paragraphing and its role in the flow of ideas. Try to analyze how the idea of each paragraph is connected with that of the previous and the following paragraphs. 4. Identify the introduction, the body and the conclusion of the essay. Explain your division. 5. How does the author introduce the topic? Why does he choose to do it this way? What impact on the reader is he aiming at? 6. What does he choose to say in the opening lines of the body? How does he achieve the desired effect? What technique helps him? 7. How are the authors statements and the subject (the documentary itself) intertwined? Can you differentiate between factual reporting and biased opinion? 8. Comment on the register of the words used in the essay. What register prevails (formal, informal, neutral)? Is it different in different parts of the essay or more or less homogeneous throughout

the text? Explain the authors choice of vocabulary, the effect he wants to produce, and how it reflects the type of audience he is writing for. 9. Comment on the authors use of factual data. Do figures in this text add objectivity or subjectivity? 10. Comment on the use of stylistic devices and expressive means and the effect they are supposed to achieve. 11. What kind of contrast is the author basing his essay on? 12. How is this essay different from/ similar to the previous one? (Consider the following issues: type of addressee, argumentative vs. persuasive writing, tone and style, rigid/ loose structure and paragraphing, structure of argumentation, logical/ emotional appeal) 13. Revise the information on argumentative and persuasive writing given in the Appendix. Illustrate the difference between the two using the essays No Compassion for Drunk Drivers and Womens Liberation. FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITY Make up and act out a dialogue between the two journalists Roger Simon (the author of the essay) and Kelly Burke (the author of the documentary) to discuss their works. Decide upon the stance of each and the tonality of their conversation. You can show them as hypocritical or sincere in the works they produced. TEXT 3 1. Before reading the essay, refer to the following introduction for some information about the author of the article. William Raspberry, a nationally syndicated columnist for the Washington Post, was born in Okolona, Mississippi, in 1935. He attended Indiana Central College, earning a degree in history in 1958, and was awarded a Doctorate of Humane Letters there in 1973. Raspberry has worked for the Washington Post since 1962, first as a reporter-editor, then as urban-affairs columnist. He has taught journal48

ism at Howard University, has lectured on race relations and public education, and has been a television commentator in Washington, DC. GOOD ADVICE FOR THE COLLEGE-BOUND 1. High school counselors need to get their hands on a little pamphlet just published by the University of Virginia. Its 22 pages contain more useful advice, guidance and perspective than all the high school baccalaureate addresses I've heard in 35 years including those I've made. 2. The booklet, "Life after Liberal Arts," is based on a survey of 2,000 alumni of the university's College of Arts and Sciences. And, assuming Virginia graduates are reasonably typical, it should lay to rest the myth that a liberal arts education "doesn't prepare you for anything." 3. Ninety-one percent of the survey respondents, representing an array of professions, not only believe that liberal arts prepared them for fulfilling careers but would recommend liberal arts majors to students considering those same careers. 4. At a time when too many parents and counselors are looking at college as a sort of trade school, pressing students into such "hot" majors as engineering and computer science, these undergraduate generalists offer a different view of what college should do. 5. A 1971 biology major, who later earned a master of business administration degree and is now a bank vice president, said the undergraduate years "provided me with an overall understanding of people, politics and society, which are most important to the understanding of marketing." 6. A $60,000-a-year executive, a 1973 psychology major, said "liberal arts helped me with the ability to think and write." 7. A preponderance of the respondents, all of whom graduated between 1971 and 1981, are working in careers that have no obvious connection with their undergraduate majors or even their first full-time jobs.

8. One-fifth of the survey participants are in law, 9 percent in medicine, another 9 percent in financial services and 6 percent each in government and electronics or computer technology. 9. But more important than the revelation that undergraduate majors have essentially no bearing on ultimate careers is the advice these successful men and women offer those who would follow them that they (and their parents) should stop thinking of college as an assembly line that automatically deposits them, after four years, into lucrative professions. Most experienced uncertainty, confusion and discouragement immediately after graduation, and only 16 percent were happy with their first jobs. 10. College, they believe, should provide a solid general education. Far more important to career success, they say, is experiential learning extracurricular activities, internships and summer jobs writing and thinking skills and the students' own initiative. 11. And yet the trend is toward locking into career tracks as early as the sophomore year. "It seems that college students have a sense that their future might be more happy if they were getting an undergraduate professional degree as opposed to an undergraduate liberal arts degree," said Susan Tyler Hitchcock, an assistant professor of humanities at the University of Virginia who, with Richard S. Benner of the university's Office of Career Planning and Placement, co-authored the booklet. "They'll seem more ready-made for a job, whereas they'll have to sell themselves more with liberal arts." 12. But the unsurprising fact is that most students cannot know at age 19 or 20 what they will want to be doing at age 39 or 40. Instead of a too-early commitment to a specific career, the survey consensus recommends this "winning combination": a liberal arts foundation, complemented with career-related experience and personal initiative. 13. It is, to this liberal arts graduate and father of a collegebound daughter, splendid advice.


Questions for Study and Discussion Meaning and Purpose 1. What is the primary claim in Raspberry's essay? Is he attempting to affect opinion, action, or both? Explain. 2. From one perspective, Raspberry may be seen as a reporter rather than an advocate of a belief or policy. Where does he objectively inform in this essay, and where does he actually advocate? 3. According to Raspberry, why is getting a liberal-arts education better than "locking into career tracks as early as the sophomore year"? What is the "winning combination" that he recommends? Strategy and Audience 1. Does Raspberry's case rely mostly on evidence (inductive reasoning) or assumptions (deductive reasoning)? Cite passages to support your answer. 2. What kinds of data does the author use to support his argument? What underlying general principle or warrant links the claim and the data? 3. Is the author writing for an audience of high-school counselors, prospective college students, parents, or all three groups? Explain. Hoe does it influence his choice of words and tone? Style and Language 1. Raspberry's essay appeared as a newspaper column. Often, journalistic style encourages very brief, sometimes single-sentence paragraphs. What effect do such brief paragraphs have? 2. Although the paragraphs may be short, sentences may be relatively long. Do any of Raspberry's sentences seem longer than necessary or in any way unclear? (Check paragraph 9, for instance.) How might you revise? 3. What is different and what is similar between this essay and the one you read in the previous parts? Analyze the text answering the questions for the previous essay. 4. What peculiarities of the genre of review can you point out?

5. Think of the ways you could translate some of the realia mentioned in the text High school counselors Baccalaureate addresses College of Arts and Sciences Liberal arts education Undergraduate majors Assistant professor Office of Career Planning and Placement Experiential learning 6. Discuss possible ways of translating the final paragraph of the essay. 7. What other difficulties in translation do you predict? Discuss them to come up with solutions. FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITY Choose a topic you consider appropriate to write two essays different in manner one argumentative and one persuasive essay. Bring forth the differences between the two types if writing as obvious as possible in structure, register, language means employed, etc.



English newspaper style may be defined as a system of interrelated lexical, phraseological and grammatical means as a separate unity that basically serves the purpose of informing and instructing the reader. It goes without saying that the bulk of the vocabulary used in newspaper style is neutral and commonly literary. But apart from this, newspaper style has its specific vocabulary features, which are presented in the chart below. a) Special political and economic terms (e.g. apartheid, by-election, per capita production). b) Non-term political vocabulary (e.g. public, people, progressive, nation-wide unity). c) Newspaper clichs, i.e., stereotyped expressions, commonplace phrases familiar to the reader (e.g. vital issue, wellinformed sources, overwhelming majority, amid stormy applause). d) Clichs more than anything else reflect the traditional manner of expression in newspaper writing. They are commonly looked upon as a defect of style (e.g. captains of industry, pillars of society). But nevertheless, clichs are indispensable in newspaper style: they prompt the necessary associations and prevent ambiguity and misunderstanding. e) Abbreviations. News items, press reports and headlines abound in abbreviations of various kinds as it helps to save space and time. Some abbreviations are read as individual letters: WHO (read as W-H-O) World Health Organisation BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) UN (United Nations) PM (Prime Minister) MP (Member of Parliament)

Some abbreviations are read as words; they are called acronyms. NATO /'neitou/ North Atlantic Treaty Organisation OPEC /'oupek/ Organisation of Petroleum Exploring Countries AIDS /eidz/ Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Abbreviations are used in titles (Mr, Ms, Mrs, Dr, etc.) f) Neologisms. The newspaper is very quick to react to any new development in the life of society and technology. Hence, neologisms make their way into the language of the newspaper very easily. So, not long ago such words as glasnost and Gorbymania used to cover almost each and every inch of printed matter materials. But many neologisms, the same as slang words, tend to become dated very fast. These are some of the specific vocabulary features of the style but not all of them are covered. To understand the language peculiarities of the newspaper style one has to analyse its basic genres, which can be classed as follows: Newspaper Style Headlines Brief News Items Headlines The headline is the title given to a news item or a newspaper article. The main function of the headline is to inform the reader briefly of what the news that follows is about. Composing headlines is a real art demanding much creativity on the author's part. They are usually written in a sensational way in order to arouse the reader's curiosity. As headline writers try to catch the reader's eye by using as few words as possible the language headlines use is jocularly called Headlinese. This sublanguage is characterised by a number of peculiarities. They are given in the table below.

Articles Advertisements and Announcements



Features concise syntax presented by different kinds of sentences: full declarative sentences ("Allies Now Look to London"), interrogative sentences ("Do You Love War?"), rhetoric questions ("The Worse the Better?"), nominative sentences ("Gloomy Sunday"), elliptical sentences: (a) with an auxiliary verb omitted ("Initial Report Not Expected Until June") (b) with the subject omitted ("Stole Luxury Cars by Photos") (c) with the subject and part of the predicate omitted ("Still in Danger") complex sentences ("Senate Panel Hears Board of Military Experts Who Favoured Losing Bidder") specific use of grammar: simple verb forms used ("Queen Opens Hospital Today") sentences with articles omitted ("Royal Family Quits") phrases with verbals: (a) infinitive standing for "going to happen" ("President to Visit Russia") (b) participial and gerundial constructions expressing present time ("Keeping Prices Down", "Speaking Parts") use of direct speech ("What Oils the Wheels of Industry?" Asks James Lowery-Olearch of the Shell-Mex and B.P. Group) emotive syntax and vocabulary suggestive of approval or disapproval allusive use of set expressions and sayings; their deliberate breaking-up ("Cakes and Bitter Beer") deformation of special terms ("Conspirator-in-Chief") use of stylistic devices producing a strong emotional effect ("And What About Watt")

PRACTICE 1. Read the headlines taken from American and British newspapers and identify the means employed to make them striking.

compact gist of an article

Al l t h e W o r l d s i n Lo v e W i t h Sh a k espea r e



Cro w d Vio le nce Mars C up Final

Why je o p ardiz e the inno c e nt ? O t he r w ays e xist t o fight c rim e

T eLifeo Edg A h f ar llan Po , a Hall o Mirro e f rs



2. Short words save space, and so they are very common in newspaper headlines. Some of the short words in headlines are unusual in ordinary language (e. g. curb, meaning restrict or restriction), and some are used in special senses which they do not have in ordinary language (e. g. bid, meaning attempt). Other words are chosen not because they are short but because they sound dramatic (e. g. blaze, which means big fire, and is used in headlines to refer to any fire). The following is the list of common headline vocabulary. Study the words consulting the dictionary. Try to anticipate their meaning in newspaper context.
Aid alert axe BA back ban bar bid blast blaze blow bolster boom boost BR Brink clear Commons con crash curb cut cutback Deadlock demo dole drama drive Due demo gem go go for go-ahead gun down Hail halt haul head for hike hit hitch hold Lords leak leap life loom Mar mercy mission mob move MP Nail net PM poll probe push (for) Quit quiz Raid rap riddle rift rock row rule out slay slump soar spark split spree stake stun surge swap Toll top trio troops Ulster UN urge VAT vow World-wide wed

3. In the headlines below substitute the words in brackets with the words from the box. a) AMERICA (supports) BRITISH PEACE MOVE b) NEW PRICE (restriction) c) UNIONS (help) HOSPITAL STRIKERS d) NEW TRADE (connection) WITH PERU e) SIX DIE IN HOTEL (fire) f) JAILBREAK (three people) RECAPTURED g) DEFENCE POLICY (changes) h) BIG RESPONSE TO (appeal for help) FOR FLOOD AID i) DOCTOR (is found innocent) OF DRUGS CHARGE j) SCOTTISH ROAD PLAN GETS (approval) k) (step) TO (encourage) TRADE LINKS WITH JAPAN l) DOCTORS (criticize) NEW MINISTRY PLANS m) JAPANESE WOMEN IN NEW EVEREST (attempt) n) TORIES AHEAD IN (election) o) MODERATES (are driven out) IN UNION ELECTIONS 4. Very often use of ellipsis results in ambiguity in headlines. Consider the following examples: a) Farmer Bill Dies In House b) Iraqi Head Seeks Arms c) Prostitutes Appeal To Pope d) Enraged Cow Injures Farmer With Ax e) Eye Drops Off Shelf f) Squad Helps Dog Bite Victim g) Killer Sentenced To Die For Second Time In 10 Years h) Hospitals Are Sued By 7 Foot Doctors i) New Vaccine May Contain Rabies j) Lansing Residents Can Drop Off Trees k) New Study For Obesity Looks For Larger Test Group l) Typhoon Rips Through Cemetery, Hundreds Dead m) Red Tape Holds Up New Bridge

Edge envoy EU Campaign Flak cash flare charge foil City fraud claim freeze (pay claim) Gag clash global goal

Odds opt (for) oust Sack In (the)red out to saga IRA scare Pact scrap Key PC seize peak set to Landslide peg shed lash peril slam launch plea slash lead pledge slate



5. Such misleading sentences are called Garden Path Sentences (the expression is derived from the corresponding idiom). Why are they funny? Is the ambiguity structural, lexical or pragmatic? 6. Make up brief news items to illustrate the headlines. 7. You are applying for a job of the headliner in Monday Weekly. You are to compose headlines using the themes below to demonstrate your skills. Be aware of the garden path sentences! a) Last night a police constable was killed in a bank robbery. b) Our school education system demands more money. c) US Government will increase financial help to developing economies. d) Environmentalists insist on the necessity to save water supplies from contamination. e) As reported by a very good authority, there will be no increase of the Value Added Tax this year. f) The owner of the new Pizza Hut is facing financial trouble. g) The gang of ten children set their school on fire. h) The world champion in boxing is going to marry a topmodel. i) In Milwaukee the election campaign is to begin next month. The final list of the candidates for the post of the governor is already announced.


The above-listed functional peculiarities of newspaper vocabulary are relevant for brief news items, but this substyle has a number of specific features to be considered: Function informing reader, stating only facts without giving comments Features absence of any individuality of expression and lack of emotional colouring matter-of-fact and stereotyped forms of expression peculiar syntactical structure as the reporter is obliged to be brief: (a) complex sentences with a developed system of clauses (b) verbal constructions (infinitive, participial, gerundial); and verbal noun constructions (c) syntactical complexes, esp. the nominative with the infinitive, used to avoid mentioning the source of information (d) attributive noun groups (e) special word order (f) occasional disregard for the sequence of tenses rule

PRACTICE 1. Read these brief news items taken from The Independent, an English newspaper. Analyse the syntax and wording in terms of peculiarities listed above.



HOME NEWS IN BRIEF Policeman injured by hit-and-run driver TWO MEN have been arrested after a policeman was knocked down in a hit-and-run incident that left him with leg, chest and pelvic injuries. The sergeant was attempting to flag down Vauxhall Nova in Dartford, Kent, just after midnight yesterday when it drove straight at him, police said. The car was later found abandoned in Bexley, south-east London. One of those arrested was being held on suspicion of attempted murder. Both suspects are in their late teens and form the Bexley area. The policeman is in a stable condition. Scotland Yard seeks killer on motorcycle POLICE ARE hunting a man on a motorcycle who shot dead a man in a car on Saturday afternoon. Stephen Cairns, 32, was a passenger in a Mercedes when the gunman opened fire. His twentyyear-old friend, who was driving, was injured. They were attacked while driving a way from the Earl Derby pub in Kensal Town, west London. The men, both from west London, were shot at from a motorcycle, carrying two people, which then sped off. Mr Cairns died shortly after being admitted to hospital. His friend was in a stable condition. WORLD NEWS WORLD IN BRIEF Cyber Caf fire kills at least 24 students CHINA: At least 24 students were killed and 13 injured when a fire swept through an internet caf in a university district of Beijing yesterday. The disaster drew a swift response from government leaders. The mayor, Lie Qi, ordered the immediate closure of all internet cafes in the city and the fire inspections for all buildings in the next three months. Web surfers in the Lanjisu caf in northwest Beijiung were trapped behind a locked door and windows blacked by iron bars. Many cyber cafes operate without a licence because of government controls over information.

EUROPEAN NEWS EUROPE IN BRIEF Argentinean parrots invade Madrid By ELIZABETH NASH PARROTS ARE invading the parks of Madrid. The warbling of the caged canaries that traditionally inhabit the citys sunny balconies may soon be drowned by screeching. Naturalists fear the swiftly multiplying green-and-grey parrot (Myiopsitta monachus) with its powerful bill and long tail feathers may see off smaller birds in the wild. Wood pigeons on the fringes of the city are retreating before the exotic Latin American interloper. The parrots are originally from Argentina, where they have reproduced so uncontrollably that they are considered something of a plague. They have been brought to Spain in recent years to be sold as pets, but owners grew sick of the incessant chatter and squawking and freed the birds The parrots fond the habitat around Madrid ideal, and are increasing exponentially. Colonies have formed in Canillejas near the airport and in the Casa de Campo parkland to the west of the city, where the birds have built a network of nests by breaking branches cedars, their favourite trees. Birds who were casually freed by individuals a few years ago have now created a big public problem thats difficult to control, said Alfredo Bengoa, of the veterinary department at Complutense University, Madrid. Theyll soon be the monarchs of all the green spaces of Madrid. 2. Make a report on the hottest event or gossip of the day using the style of brief news items. Advertisements and Announcements There are two basic types of advertisements and announcements in the modern English newspaper: classified and non-classified (separate). In classified ones various kinds of information are ar62

ranged according to subject-matters into sections, each bringing an appropriate name (e. g. BIRTHS, MARRIAGES, IN MEMORIAM, etc.). This classified arrangement has resulted in a number of stereotyped patterns regularly employed in newspaper advertising, of which read in the chart below: Function informing reader Features mostly neutral vocabulary with rare usage of emotionally coloured words or phrases used with the only purpose of attracting readers' attention fixed, often elliptical, pattern telegram-like statements, with articles and punctuation marks omitted

fun! Starting pay $375/ week. Raines, Inc. 351-3617 x 421 Call now 203-0756. or 196. CLOSE TO campus Houses for 1 AVAIL. AUG 265 Stoddard thru 12 person groups. Great Ave. 3 bdrm, lic 3, $900/mo. rents, reduced sec. deposit. & no Dan @ 517-202-0920. application fee. Going fast, call CRMC at 337-7577 or visit our website at www.crmc1.com. ABOUT 2 miles from MSU 2 FOR RENT, 2 bdrm house bdrm, fenced yard, pets ok, w/d. $600/mo w/1 bdrm eff. apt $650. 676-9045 upstairs, $250/mo 216 S. Clemens 989-330-4192 LEASING FOR August '04. Lic-4 526 SPARTAN, E.L., 3 bdrm, @ 226 Collingwood. Starting at extra room in bsmt, Lic 4, $475pp. Call 517-712- 0563 or $1500/mo. 517-206-8469. 517-204-1466. BARTEND $250/DAY potential. No RENO'S EAST hiring servers, exp. nec. 800-965-6520 x 110. drivers, and cooks for all shifts. Outgoing, enthusiastic. Apply in person 1310 Abbott Rd. 2 RMMT needed for great 3 bdrm duplex near MSU. Age 21+, must like dog. Call Doug at 712-8779.

As for the separate (non-classified) advertisements and announcements, the variety of language form and subject-matter is so great that hardly any essential features common to all may be pointed out. The reader's attention is attracted by every possible means: typographical, graphical and stylistic, both lexical and syntactical. There is no call for brevity, as the advertiser can buy as much space as his bank account allows. PRACTICE PART I 1. The examples of classified announcement follow further. Read them through and try to uncode what is meant there. Account for the peculiarities of this part of the newspaper and for the reasons of them.
BORED WITH your job? Then change it! Work outdoors & be a grassroots environmental advocate. For the rest of the summer have a job that is meaningful & REMODELED FRAT/SORIORITY House Lic. 41 Single & Double rooms $200-$375/month. Furnished, parking, & internet. 120 Spartan. Call Tomie

2. Make up your own ad to post in a local student newspaper. PART II 1. As for non-classified advertisements and announcements nearly all means are considered proper in order to catch audience's attention and influence their decision in favour of the service or product advertised. Some of the ways of gaining this aim are listed in the theory part. Can you add anything to the list?


Articles Articles including features/feature articles, reports, and editorials are usually devoted to a latest event or vexed problem of social life, each of them having specific aims and, therefore, typical traits. A feature is an article focused on a certain issue where the author (usually regular) gives his/ her analysis, comments and opinions on the issues of his/ her concern. A report usually presents an account of events, which is supposed to be objective, but occasional comments are not necessarily prohibited. An editorial is a newspaper article in which the editor or a special writer (a leader writer) gives the newspapers opinion about current issues. There is no pretence at factual reporting as there will be in most of the news stories in the paper. Thus, the degree of objectiveness will be lower than that, for instance, in brief news items. Editorials, like some other types of newspaper articles, are an intermediate phenomenon bearing the stamp of both the newspaper

FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITY You and your group are going to produce a collection of short stories inspired by short newspaper articles. Follow these instructions. 1. Choose an article from a newspaper to use as an inspiration for your story. You should use the newspaper article merely as a starting point and may add or change details as much as you wish. 2. In groups of three or four, take turns to describe the article you have chosen. Cover the points: How might the situation have developed? Where exactly did the situation take place? What were the people involved like? How did they feel? What motivation might they have? What might happen next?


influencing reader by giving interpretation of certain facts

2. Have you ever been persuaded to buy anything or do anything because of an advertisement? If so, share this experience in class and try to decide what made you do so. 3. Are there any particular advertisements that you can remember for some reason? What do you think makes them so memorable? 4. Choose any ad you like and comment on the techniques employed to make it persuasive. Compare your ads in class. Which of the adverts do you find most persuasive and which least persuasive? Why? What do they have in common? What do they differ in? 5. Prepare an ad with a picture so that the picture itself does not reveal the product advertised. Exchange your pictures and compose the text for the information part. Check your guesses with the original.

style and the publicistic style. Like any publicistic writing, articles appeal not only to the readers mind but to their feelings as well. Function Features combination of different vocabulary strata usage of emotionally coloured language elements, both lexical and structural accepted usage of colloquial words and expressions, slang, and professionalisms usage of various stylistic devices but trite and traditional in nature (e. g. traditional periphrases, such as Wall Street (American financial circles), Downing Street (the British Government), Fleet Street (the London press), the third world (the remnant of the dated division of the world into three parts socialist, capitalist and developing countries) genuine stylistic means also possible, but comparatively rare

3. Think what should be done in order to turn bare facts into thrilling stories. What techniques can be employed (e. g. dialogues, expressive means, etc.)? Exchange your ideas. 4. Now, individually, write your story thinking carefully about how to bring it alive and make it interesting for the reader. 5. Analyse your stories and point out the features distinguishing a story from an article. Discuss them in class.


Belles-Lettres Style Language of Poetry Language of Drama Language of Fiction (prose) Belles-Lettres Style
Function Substyle Features Typical for Style there are no unique features as this style is not homogeneous: it contains vocabulary and syntax of different registers and styles the choice of the form and means depends on the author's preferences solely wide variety of stylistic devices and expressive means of different kinds use of words in contextual and often in more than one dictionary meaning Typical for Substyle rhythm and rhyme phonetic means (alliteration, assonance) fresh, unexpected imagery (wide use of expressive means) wide use of syntactic means: detached constructions, asyndeton, polysyndeton, inversion, elliptical and fragmentary sentences a great number of emotionnally coloured words combination of the spoken and written varieties of language two forms of communication (monologue and dialogue)

Language of Poetry 67 Fiction (prose)



language is stylized: colloquial speech approximates real conversation but still strives to retain the modus of literary English (unless the author aims to characterize the personage through his language) redundancy of information caused by the necessity to amplify the utterance for the sake of the audience (wide use of repetition) simplified syntax, curtailment of utterances although not so extensive as in natural dialogue the utterances are much longer than in natural conversation monological character of dialogue

Earth, the third planet in distance outward from the Sun. It is the only planetary body in the solar system that has conditions suitable for life, at least as known to modern science. Basic planetary data. The mean distance of the Earth from the Sun is about 49,573,000 km (92,960,000 miles). The planet orbits the Sun at a speed of 29.8 km (18.5 miles) per second, making one complete revolution in 365.25 days. As it revolves around the Sun, the Earth spins on its axis and rotates completely once every 23 hours 56 minutes 4 seconds. The fifth largest planet of the solar system, the Earth has an equatorial circumference of 40,076 km (24,902 miles), an equatorial radius of 6,378 km (3,963 miles), a polar radius of 6,357 km (3,950 miles), and a mean radius of 6,371 km (3,960 miles). The planet's total surface area is roughly 509,600,000 square km (197,000,000 square miles), of which about 29 percent, or 148,000,000 square km (57,000,000 square miles), is land. The balance of the surface is covered by the oceans and smaller seas. The Earth has a mass of 5.976 10{sup 27} grams (or roughly 6 10{sup 21} metric tons) and a mean density of 5.517 grams per cubic cm (0.2 pound per cubic inch). The Earth has a single natural satellite, the Moon. The latter orbits the planet at a mean distance of slightly more than 384,400 km (238,870 miles). Hydrosphere The Earth is the only planet known to have liquid water. Together with ice, the liquid water constitutes the hydrosphere. Seawater makes up more than 98 percent of the total mass of the hydrosphere and covers about 71 percent of the Earth's surface. Significantly, seawater constituted the environment of the earliest terrestrial life forms. The rest of the hydrosphere consists of fresh water, occurring principally in lakes, streams (including rivers), and glaciers. Copyright (c) 1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. All Rights Reserved 70

Language of Drama

PRACTICE PART I You are surely aware of the fact that although any work of imaginative literature is a product of the authors imagination, it is always based upon objective reality, for there is no source that feeds ones imagination other than reality. A literary work is thus a fragment of objective reality arranged in accordance with the vision of the author and permeated with his idea of the world. 1. Below you will find two descriptions of one and the same phenomenon the basic difference between them being the fact that the first one is an entry from Britannica, the other a literary interpretation of almost the same data. Read them both and say which of the two texts makes a more interesting reading. Why?

From The Hitch Hiker's Guide to the Galaxy

By Douglas Adams

Far out in the uncharted backwaters of the unfashionable end of the western spiral arm of the Galaxy lies a small unregarded yellow sun. Orbiting this at a distance of roughly ninety-two million miles is an utterly insignificant little blue green planet whose apedescended life forms are so amazingly primitive that they still think digital watches are a pretty neat idea. This planet has or rather had a problem, which was this: most of the people on it were unhappy for pretty much of the time. Many solutions were suggested for this problem, but most of these were largely concerned with the movements of small green pieces of paper, which is odd because on the whole it wasn't the small green pieces of paper that were unhappy. And so the problem remained; lots of the people were mean, and most of them were miserable, even the ones with digital watches. Many were increasingly of the opinion that they'd all made a big mistake in coming down from the trees in the first place. And some said that even the trees had been a bad move, and that no one should ever have left the oceans. And then, one Thursday, nearly two thousand years after one man had been nailed to a tree for saying how great it would be to be nice to people for a change, one girl sitting on her own in a small cafe in Rickmansworth suddenly realized what it was that had been going wrong all this time, and she finally knew how the world could be made a good and happy place. This time it was right, it would work, and no one would have to get nailed to anything. Sadly, however, before she could get to a phone to tell anyone about it, a terribly stupid catastrophe occurred, and the idea was lost forever. 2. Skim the texts and find all differences in the factual information. Which variant is nearer the truth and more informative? Why? Which information is more likely to be remembered? Why?

FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITY Choose an entry from an encyclopaedia and make up a story or a piece of drama based on the entry. Present your work to the class. As a class discuss the differences and the stylistic value of the pieces you have written. APPENDICES Argumentative vs. Persuasive Writing One should be aware of the differences between argumentative and persuasive writing, as they have different spheres of use and employ different means, though sometimes they have similar or identical goals usually to convince you that you should change your opinions and actions. In argumentative writing, authors try to win readers' assent or agreement by proving a logical case. In persuasive writing, they try to win that assent by moving readers toward emotional or ethical agreement with their position. Argumentative writing is a very general name used to describe different texts that have one common feature the message is conveyed to the reader through argumentation. With arguments the author attempts to show the certainty or prove the validity of his claims. He can argue for the validity of his assertions, or he can argue against others' claims, but in either situation he takes a position and tries to defend it. He tries to build a case that seems logically undeniable. Whether the author defends his/her own position or attacks another, however, the goal is to convince the readers, not to turn them away. His assertion must be limited or qualified, able to be reasonably supported not sweeping, unlimited generalities that no one will take seriously. Types of argumentation may include, but are not limited to the following: 1. Logical reasoning usually has the form if p then q

2. References: a. references proper ( reference to the authority) direct quotation, paraphrasing, restating. b. reference to the readers background knowledge c. reference to the readers experience 3. Factual data figures, dates, facts. Note. Figures are a tricky thing they can form emotional appeal. Consider the following example. Yesterday John Brown, 18, was arrested following his attack on Mary Smith aged 30 on the threshold of her house last October. Exchange the figures 18 and 30, or substitute 70 and 25. 4. Proof by analogy may include: a. analogy proper (E.g. Like all metals, zinc melts and doesnt freeze) b. imagery ( Usually created with the help of stylistic devices) On the other hand, if the rational approach to convincing audiences were always the best choice, there would be no need for advertising slogans, political rhetoric, sermons by religious leaders, heartfelt sentiments in love letters, or the many other forms of persuasive language in everyday life. Like it or not, human beings aren't purely rational creatures. Sometimes, in our attempts to convince others, it can be more appropriate, or more effective, to speak directly to the readers' emotions, sense of ethics or morals, or self-interest. Persuasive writing and speaking, in other words, are often aimed at the heart or the stomach instead of the head. Persuasive writing needn't abandon logic altogether, of course. The author can support rational arguments with appeals to belief, value, or desirable or undesirable emotions. It's just that persuasive rhetoric isn't limited to tests of rationality or logic. Persuasive writing allows writers to use strategies in addition to the purely rational ones appropriate to argument.

Persuasive Strategies Emotional Appeals Appeals based on emotions attempt to move readers by making them feel something strongly. Ethical Appeals With appeals based on ethics, writers attempt to move readers by their sense of right or wrong. (Ethical appeals may have an emotional base, too, for such views are often a matter of feeling or belief.) The ethical appeal often rests on the authors moral character: readers are persuaded because they believe in the writer's sincerity and ethical convictions. Writers can also appeal to his readers' own sense of morality, calling upon them to be conscientious citizens, to think or act according to principles they know to be correct. Whether the persuasive case is chiefly emotional, ethical, or a blend of the two, writers must present it vividly, concretely in words that arouse the reader's feelings or moral intent. To do that, writers employ a number of techniques, some of which you have seen applied to other purposes. Connotative language One of the most common persuasive strategies is to use connotative language words rich in positive or negative meaning or association. Connotative language colors writing, gives it deeper or richer shades of meaning. It can be a powerful tool for affecting an audience's perceptions. Strong language, however, can backfire if used carelessly or in excess. Most readers will see through exaggeration, inflated claims or criticisms, and appeals to bias or prejudice. Notice the persuasive difference in these two sentences: Neutral language: We should give military aid to the rebels because it is in our best interest to do so.



Connotative language: We must help the freedom fighters, those brave and selfless patriots who are willing to sacrifice their lives so that their children may live free of bloody oppression. Figurative language Like connotative language, figurative language can be an effective persuasive tool. Although metaphor can't prove a case logically, figurative language can be convincing in its power of suggestion. Figurative language usually appeals to our senses, makes us see an image or picture that illustrates meaning. According to the old saying, "A picture is worth thousand words," and though that may be an exaggeration, language presenting a visual image can be especially persuasive. Description and narration Description and narration can be effective methods of expressing experience and of conveying information. Well-written description and narration use concrete language to evoke the texture of life, and, because they depend on the writer's choice of detail, they can be slanted for positive or negative effect. Description and narration appeal directly to our sense of the ways things are, or should be, and thus can be powerful means of swaying opinion. Tone and style Finally, the way we use persuasive language reveals our attitude toward our subject and our audience and will affect our results. Choosing an appropriate style and tone means putting ourselves in our reader's shoes, asking what the audience will or won't accept. The tone may be serious and straightforward, the no-nonsense approach, the author may be sarcastic or mocking, criticizing a position with ridicule. He may employ an upbeat or optimistic voice, hoping to instill confidence in the reader, or we may use a dark or menacing tone, trying to arouse the audience's fear or concern.

Likewise, the style he chooses to achieve an appropriate tone or mood may range from the simple, plain, and understated to the flowery and ornate, though it is usually best to avoid overwriting. TEXT CATEGORIES* Texts as information-carriers, able to transmit through time and space, are vehicles of communication. The ability of the text to serve as a means of communication is, to a great extent, accounted for by the fact that it is an integral whole where all the elements are related in a sense that serve the same purpose to convey messages from the writer to the reader. The text is characterized by a certain set of categories among which are the following ones:
Informativeness Cohesion Coherence

I. Informativeness is the content side of the text. The main function of the text is to convey information. Usually 3 types of information are discussed: 1. factual information (-) includes facts, figures, data, events, states, people, actions reflecting reality. This is the most important part of the information. Factual information is easy to extract from the text. It is usually (but not always) neutral, free of subjectivity. 2. conceptual information (-) is the information of the authors vision of the world, the authors opinion and his understanding of the things described. This is the meaning which results from our understanding of the text as a whole. Unlike factual information, conceptual information must be interpreted and it can be done differently by different readers.
The information and examples given in this part are based partly on the book by prof. V.L. Naer ( , M., 2001) and on lectures by prof. E.G. Belyaevskaya.


3. implied information () is the information not given explicitly, underlying the text. It must be rendered from the text. As a rule, it is found in literary texts only. 4. stylistic information consists of emphatic, emotive information, imagery that can influence readers perception of the text. It is a part of pragmatic information, which is aimed at affecting readers emotions, opinion, system of beliefs, as well as their actions. II. Cohesion is defined as the use of explicit linguistic devices to signal relation between sentences and parts of texts. It is translated into Russian as , or , . Cohesion can be realized in the text with the help of different means grammatical, lexical, logical, as well as with the help of images and associations. 1. grammatical and lexico-grammatical means of cohesion include tense forms, deixis ( prepositions, adverbs of place and time: here, there, now, then), conjunctions, parallel constructions, chiasmus, suspense and the like. 2. lexical means chiefly include different types of repetition distant (), contact ( , ) and dispersed (). It may consist on repeating words, phrases and sentences. On the other hand, not only exact words, but their synonyms and antonyms can be repeated. Consider the following examples: Is there a college in the whole country where there is a chair of good citizenship? There is a kind of bad citizenship which is taught in the schools, but no real good citizenship taught. (M. Twain) 3. logical means are represented by a whole system of connectives ( ) and clichs, particularly characteristic of certain functional styles and genres. They are aimed at expressing different types of semantic relations between various phenomena and events relations of time, space, cause and effect, etc.

4. images and associations, especially extended throughout the text, can also unite a text. III. Coherence (, ) means that a text should necessarily make sense to the reader. It is achieved by the text as a whole, when there are semantic and logical connections within the text. Look at the following examples where coherence is violated:

a) The

quarterback threw the ball to the tight end. Balls are used in many sports. Most balls are spherical, but in American football it is elliptical.

b) I put my hand in the pocket. There I found a quarter. A quarter is made of copper. Copper is a semi conductor. I know one conductor who lives across the street. As you see, we can find means of cohesion in the examples above, but the texts in general lack coherence. PRACTICE Read the text below and analyze it as to the representation in it of all text categories. The Faraway Night By William Saroyan 1 This was a day of fog and remembrance of old days and old songs. I sat in the house all afternoon listening to the songs. It was darker everywhere than light and I remembered a song I sang to a girl on a bus once. For a while there we were in love, 5 but when the bus reached Topeka she got off and I never saw her again. In the middle of the night when I kissed her she began to cry and I got c sick with the sickness of love. That was a young night in August, and I was on my way to New York for the first time in my life. I got sick because I was go10 ing my way and she was going hers.






All this day of fog I sat in the house remembering the way a man's life goes one way and all the other lives another, each of them going its own way, and a certain number of young people dying all the time. A certain number of them going along and dying. If you don't see them again they are dead even if it is a small world: even if you go back and look for each of them and find them you find them dead because any way any of them go is a way that kills. The bus came to Topeka and she got off and walked around a corner and I never saw her again. I saw many others, many many of them as lovely as she, but never another like her, never another with that sadness and loveliness of voice and never another who wept as she wept. There never will be another with her sadness. There never will be an American night like that again. She herself may be lovelier now than then but there will never be another sadness of night like that and never again will she or anyone else weep that way and no man who kisses her will grow sick with the sickness of the love of that night. All of it belongs to a night in America which is lost and can never be found. All of it belongs to the centuries of small accidents, all trivial, all insignificant, which brought her to the seat beside me, and all the small accidents which placed me there, waiting for her. She came and sat beside me, and I knew the waiting of all the years had been for her, but when she got off the bus in Topeka I stayed on and three days later I reached New York. That's all that happened except that something of myself is still there in that warm, faraway American night. When the darkness of day became the darkness of night I put on my hat and left the house I walked through the fog to the city, my heart following me like a big patient dog, and in the city I found some of the dead who are my friends, and in laughter more deathly and grievous than the bitterest weeping

we ate and drank and talked and sang and all that I remembered was the loveliness of her weeping because the years of small accidents had brought us together, and the foolishness of my heart telling me to stay with her and go nowhere, telling me there was nowhere to go. FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITY Come up with ideas of differences between literary and nonliterary texts in terms of text categories and means of their realization. Discuss all functional styles in this respect.

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