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: . ida. Toward a Science of Translation . With Special


Reference to Principles and Procedures involved in Bible Translating. Leiden
1964, pp. 155171.
1
West Constance . 1932. La theorie de la traduction an XVIII sience. Revue
Litterature Comparee 12, pp. 330355.
2
Fang Achilles. 1953. Some reflections on the difficulty of translation.
In: Wright, ed. Studies in Chinese Thought (q. v.), pp. 263285.
3
. : Phillips Herbert P. 1959. Problems o] translation and meaning
in field work. Human Organization 18, pp. 184192.

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Rieu E. V. 1953. Translation. In: Cassells Encyclopedia of Liter ature


(London), vol. I, pp. 554E59.

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Belloc H. 1931. On Translation. OUP.


1931. On translation. Bookman 74. pp. 3239.

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E. 1959. Introduction a la theorie de la traduction. (Review of Andrei


Fedorov, Vvedemj'e v teoriju perevoda. "Babel", 5. 1920.)
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CM. Garvin P. 1954. Delimitation of syntactic units. "Language", 30, pp.


345348.
2
Mathews Jackson. 1959. Third thoughts on translating poetry. In: Brower, ed.
"On Translation" (q. v.), pp. 8777.
3
Lattimore Richmond. 1959. Practical notes on translating Greek poetry. In:
Brower, cd. "On Translation" (q. v.), pp. 4850.

13

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. Cooper William A. 1928. Translating Goethe's poems. "J. English-Germanic


Philology 27", pp. 484-470485.
2
Forster Leonard, ed. 2. 1958. Aspects of Translation. "Studies in
Communication 2". London, Seeker and Warburg, p. 6.
3
Orr C. W. 1941. The problem of translation. Music and Letters, 22, pp. 318
332.

14

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Edwards Oliver. 1957. Cynara. LT, July 11, p. 13.


Savory Th. 1957. The Art of Translation. London, Jonathan Cape,
pp. 4950.
3
Pound Ezra. 1954. Literary Essays of Ezra Pound. (Ed. and introduced by T.
S. Eliot). London, Faber and Faber, p. 273.
4
Campbell George. 1789. The Four Gospels. Vol. I. London, Slrahan and
Cadell, p. 445 ff.
5
Milligan E. E. 1957. Some principles and techniques of translation. Mod.
Lang. J. 41, pp. 6671.
6
Camphell G. 1789. Op. cit., vol. I, p. 445 ff.
7
Campbell G. 1789. Op, cit., vol. 1, p. 547.
2

15

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Underbill Ruth. 1938. Singing for Power. Berkeley, Univ. California Press, p.
16.
2
Sprachgefuhl (.) .: .
3
Campbell G, 1789. Op. tit., p. 445 ff.
4
Beerbohm Max. 1903. Translation of plays. Sat. Rev. (London),
p. 7576.

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Goodspeed E. J. 1945. Problems of New Testament Translation. Chicago,


Univ. Chicago Press, p. 8.
2
Phillips J. B. 1953. Some personal reflections on. New Testament translation.
4, pp. 5359.
3
O'Brien Justin. 1959. From French to English. In: Brower, ed,, "On
Translation" (q. v.), pp. 7892.

17

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Savory. Th, 1957. Op, cit., p. 45.


Newman F. W. 1861. Homeric Translation in Theory and Practice. London,
Williams and Norgate, p. XIV.
3
Jowett B. 1891. Preface to The Dialogues of Plato. (2d, ed.) OUP.
4
Souter, A. 1920. Hints on Translation from Latin into English. London,
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, p. 7.
5
Knox R. A. 1957. On English Translation. OUP, p. 57.
2

18

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Prochazka V. 1942 Notes on translating technique. CM. P. Garvifl. 1955. A


Prague School Reader on Esthetics, Literary Structure and Style. Washington,
pp. 108130.
2
Tancock L. W. 1958. Some problems of style in translation from French in:
Forster, ed. "Aspects of Translation" (q. v.), pp. 2951.
3
Latfimore R. 1959. Practical notes on translating Greek poetry, pp. 4656.

19

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474505.

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Rev.", 31, p. 50.

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S. Eliot.) London, Faber and Faber, p. 298.
2
Manchester P. T. 1951. Verse translation as an interpretive art. pp. 68-73.
3
Newman Stanley S. 1955. Vocabulary levels: Zuni sacred and slang usage.
Southwestern J. Anthropology II, pp. 345354.

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: R. Jakobson. On Linguistic Aspects of Translation. In: R.A.


Brower (ed.) On Translation. New York, Oxford University Press, 1966, pp.
232-239.

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The man who is a God-intoxicated (.: ",
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"). , XI-17:
"Diademmed with mace, discus, too, splendrous mass
everywhere flaming, I see Thee, dazzling to be seen from
everywhere, a flaming Fire-Sun-Glory immeasurable".
:
"Material contacts, verily, - of cold, heat, pleasure, sorrow, the
givers, Coming near and vanishing, inconstent - these endure
patiently, O Thou of Bharata's Race. When, indeed, (these), do not
distress (that) man, O Man-Bull, The same is woe and weal
determined, he for immortality's nectar is fit [formed]. Never for the
non-existent is there being; never non-being is there for the existent.
Of the two also (has been) seen the ultimate, verily, of these by the
Reality Seers. As imperishable, verily that know by which all this
[world] is spread out [as on a loom]. The ruin (of this)
undiminishable, never (is) anyone to accomplish able. "As having an
end" (are called) these bodies belonging to the constant embodied
one, Indestructible, immeasurable. Therefore, fight, O Son of
Bharata Race!".
,
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: J. Catford. A Linguistic Theory of Translation. London, 1967,


pp. 20 42. 25. .

53

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, , .

.
|
.

,

(2,2), (2,3) (2,4).
2.2. .
(
) ,
. , .
, ,
, , , ,
. .

.
2.21. (full translation) ,
.
2.22. (partial translation) -

,
54

. ,
,
.
,
, ,
,
.
2.23.
.
,
,
,
(restricted)
, 2.3.
2.3. (Total and
restricted translation).
, .
2.31.
, ,
: ,
. ,
, ,
,
(. 2.1).
.
/
/ ,
,
1.

:
,
, /
/
.
55

2.32. :

, ,
, ,
.
, ,

,
,

. , ,

,

/
/ ,

.
, ,



.
,

, , ,
;
, ,
,

/ , ,
.
2.321. .
,

,
, , cats
56

() ,
,
cat.
2.322.
,
.
2.323.
, ,
,
( -

,
.
E
( ) ,
.
,
,
.
,
,

,
, .
2.324. . , ,
, , .
,

; ,
...
2.325. , ,


. ,
57

, , ,


.

,

; ,
,
. ,
,
,
. ( . .)
2.4. (Rank of translation).

( ) ,
.

, ,
, , , ;
,
. ., ,
(...).
, , 2.31 (.
),

( , ).
(rank-bound
translation).

:
,
, , (clause)
.2
,
58

,
(unbounded translation).
2.41. , ,
,
H, . , ,
, ,

, , ,

. , ,
, ,


...
2.42. , , , .
,

, .
, ,
(
).

:
,
(, ,
. .);
. ,
, ,
,
,

()
3.


, -,
, :
It' s raining cats and dogs.
59

1. II est pleuvant chats et chiens. ()


2. II pleut des chats et des chiens. ()
3. II pleut a` verse. ()
1 , 2 (

). 3-
SPC SPA
; ,
.
3
.
(
) .
.

1. God with them! ()
2. God is with them! ()
3. Never mind about them! ()
3 ( )
,
-
.

60

. .



, - ,
.
:
,
, ,
,
,
, . ,
,**
.
, ,
,
,
.

, ,
. ,
,
,
.
(, ,
, ,
, ;
.) He ,
-
, , ,

: . . . Halliday, The comparison of languages. In: A.


McIntosh, M.A.K. Halliday. "Patterns of Language." London, 1966, pp. 28
39.
**
, .
. .

61

,
. .;
, .
,
,

,
.
, .
, , ,

. ,
,

.
,
; ,
. ,

; ,
, ,
,

. ,
,
,
.
? , ; , , ,
traduttore traditore
( ), 1
2.
, , (
) ? 62

* ,
;
. , ,
, :
1 1
2; , ,
,
,
; (2) 1
2 .
,
;
, .
, ,
. . ,
,
1 2
( (2), );
(1), 1
2.
,
,
,
.

,
(. ).
,
( ),
*

,
, :
, , ( ),
( ,
)
(, ). . .

63

.
.
: ,
-.
, (clause), ; ,
,
1.

;
,
. ,
-, . , ,
, . , ,
:


(, , ) ,

. ,
.

( , . .) 2
,
.
, ont t choisis
, , were chosen
( ).
, have been chosen
( );
,
.
, , .

.
,
, . ,
les dlgus ont t choisis hier soir
64

were chosen (
), les dlgus ont t dj choisis
have been chosen ( ).
:
head () tete,
head of the
department ( ), : chef de
section. , ,
.

2: ( , .),
, , .
, 1
;
, .
,
. , ,
,
. ,
, .

:
, .

65



1. , "
,
".

.
,

,
"
",
.
. ,
un simple
soldat,
a simple soldier
: a private.
,
, ,
, ,
, .

("
,
;
, ,
, ,
,
,
( )
; , ,

:
. , , 1978.

66

, ,
,
.
2. ?
,
.
,
, ( )
, ,
, "" ,
.
, ,
, , ,
,
,

: ,
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,
.
3. , -
.
,
.
,
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; ,

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.
, , , ,
"",
:
" ,
, ,
, ,
67


(...). , , ,

.

, ,
, ".

""
,

, (
).
: ",

, , ,
,
, ,

".
,
"
",

( ) ".
"
,
,
,
,
".
,
,
.
,
: " :
100%- ; ,
,
,
,
68

, .
, ,
,

".
4. , ,
,
,
, ,
,
.
,
, ,
,

. , ,
,
, , , .
" ,
,
".
,

,
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- ,
".
, ,
,

,

. ,

, ,
, ,
, , ,
, ,

69

. (
)
,

.
, ,
:
1.
,
,
,

, 1932 ,
, 1948 ,
(Index Translationum). ,

,


.
2. ,
, ,
.
3.
:
,
, ,
. ,
, .
,
.

.
,
. ,

,

sui generis
70

,
.
,
:

(
, );

.
:

, ;
, , .
,
, , , ,
"
".
,
, , , ,

,
.

71

..


*
1.

: 1) ,
,
; 2)
3) .

.
,
.

, . ,

,
.

.

?
, ,
, . , , ,
*

: ..
. ., , 1974.
72

,
.
,
.


. , ,
, ,
, , ,
,

.
,
, .
- , , ,
, . ,
,
. ,
, , .

, ?

.
. ,
, , .
,
,
,

73

2.
.

, , ,
.

.
, ,
.
.
. ,
,


, .
,
.

, , .
, , .
. 400-
- . .
( )
: doctrinarianism (.) , dodder (.)
, dodman (.) , dog-bee (.) , dogbolt (.) , dog-collar .
-,
, .

.

, , , ,
,
.
74

,
.
,
, . .
Dirt cheap
:
. Shadow
,
: . the shadows of
the gods ,
.
,
.
, , pin,
: ; ; ;
; : ; ;
; (),
.

.
7- pin
8- (.) .

.
,
, , . . , supermarket -
,
:
.

. , brinkmanship
policy of brinkmanship
. sell-out : . :administrative efficiency ,
75

joint thinking , spirit of discipline , mail cover check .




.
.
, ,
. .
- .
.
,

() ()1.

. ,
,
.
.
I have arrived , ,
.
, . .
,
,
: , ,
, , .

sauna
, . . , ,

.
,
: restricted translation total translation,
,

1

. J. . a t f d. A Linguistic Theory of Translation. Lnd. 1965, p. 35.

76

, (shifts), . .

1.
,

, 2. ,
.
,
,

3.
,
.
, , . .
,
, , ,
. , , , ,
.
,
.
,
.
3.

,
1

., J. . a t f d. , ., . 52.
., , . .
. ., , 1972.
3
. J. . a t f d. , ., . 72.
2

77

.
soldier

:
,
,
, .
oc, soldier .
,
,

. ,
,
. . ,
.
.

sincerity: , ; , .
sincrit
, . sincer
: I) ,
; 2) , , ; 3) ,
, .
, , , sincere friend
: () , sincere life
() . ,

sincere, . .
.
, , justice .

: , ,
. . Department f Justice,
, .
,

justice .

78

1,
, ,
. , ,
,

( )
( ).
:
,
...
, .
,
justice,
,
.

, .
, , writing: , , ,
(writing hand , writing table
, writing paper , writing materials
).
flying: , , ,
(flying saucers , flying apparatus
, flying weather , the Flying Dutchman
). ,
flying , ,
writing. , ,
,
, .

. . . .
., . 14, . M., - , 1962, . 211;
, . 11, . 256.

79

,

.
, : big large , little small
, high tall .
,

. , floor storey;
dirt, filth, mud. , ;
,
,

. , filth '
(. -
. . . ).

.
. .

:
- , , ...
:
"But here he comes talk of the devil."

:
- ? ? ...
; .
"But here she comes talk of the angel."
80

devil angel
,
,
, .
, ,
:
"Was Tony Hawker there?"
Before Poirot could answer, the door opened and Hawker
and Sheila Grant came in...
"Hullo, people, we've come in for a drink. Tony's flask is
dry."
Poirot murmured. "Talk of the angels "
Pam Grant snapped: "Devils, you mean." (A. Christie. The
Labours of Hercules. 'The Horses of Diomedes")
,
, , (. 12).
, , :
: .
, .
4.
, ,
,
.
()

(,
) .
, ,
. '


.
81



.1. X. ,
,
, ,
( . , , (, ),
, .2 , , ,
.
.
, 14 ,
,
, . , academic : , ,
.
,
: academic year , academic failure -'
, academic argument . academic
question .
,

.
.

X. . . ., -
, 1958, . 73.
2
. . X. . . .,
- , 1958, . 73.

82


-

,
, : 1) () ; 2)
- ; 3) ,
; 4)

1.
, . . , , ,
, .
,

.


.
. ,

. ,
,
.
-
-
: ruthless , , ; cynical
1

. . ., , 1972,
. 419.

83

; cold-blooded ; wanton (
wanton murder ). :

? ,

. : the ruthless War
Secretary Stanton
, cold-blooded plans , cynical
appreciation of economic set-up
, wanton murder of Negroes
. , ,
1.
, .
, ,
.
The press proprietors have taken the Tories' point
and for many years the noisy presses of Fleet Street have
skilfully maintained an almost total silence on Irish affairs. It
was an effective blackout. (Labour Monthly}.

,
-
() .
.
, :
, blackout
,

,
1

. . . .
. , 1971, N 1, . 25.

84

- , 60-
: , 1.

,
,
.

- (. 25),

.

resent . , , () ,
resent.
, ,
.

,
,
.
,
,
, , -,
, . (. . . . .
. . . ., 1959)
;
Nobody stared at him as he walked, nobody asked
for his papers, nobody seemed to resent him as a foreigner.
(R. Aldington. All Men are Enemies)
1

Chambers's Shorter English Dictionary, Lnd., 1963


blackout suppression of news .
(14- ., 1969) 6- : .
(1972 .) .

85

resent, , ,
, . .

resentful ,
,
:
"But are you still a Marxian Socialist?" asked Tony
point-blank.
The old resentful light jumped into Crang's eyes at
this blunt question, but he replied with a wonderful show of
urbanity...
, -,
? .

,
...
,
,
:
Antony foundsome difficulty in maintaining these
conversations; and rather resented it after the easy friendliness of the line.

;
.
, .
resentment,
, , :

86

...whenever Margaret was with Helen Marsland, Harold's sister, they immediately formed a feminine alliance
against him, trying to push him into the same class as the
schoolboys. He found it impossible to get up any resentment
against this childish female cheek, as was apparently expected .
... ,
,
,
.
,
, -, .
,
,
, .

87


1.
-
8.

,


.
:
, , ,
.
,
.

, ,
, .

1.
,

, ,
.


,
( ),
.

. . . . ., , , ,
1956, . 63.

88


- ,
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) ;
5) ;
6) ;
7) .

.
, .

. . ,
- 1.
,
,
. .
-
.
: , ,
, .

, , , , ,
,
- .
,
, 1

. . , . . .
. . . . . .
., , 1971, . 78.

89

. ,
, ,
,

.
.
9. ,
-


...,
1. -

:

. - .
. :
( . .
. .),
,
,
.
, (
), ( )
, , , ,
, , ,
2.


,
1
2

. . , . , , 1958, . 56.
. . . , ., . 82.

90

.
.

, drink, ,
. , and
ordered a drink (W. Somerset Maugham. The Bum)
: , ,
. (
), ,
, : . ,
,
.
,

. ,
.
. ,
.

,
. .
ruthless , .
, . , - ,
the orgasmic acme of ruthless newspaper jingoism,
ruthless, , ,
, , ,
. orgasmic acme
, , :
.
91

; "Affection is the best substitute of love", (, , . ) ,


,
attachment.
affection, ,
.
,
.
. ,
,
.
,
,
.
. meal :
, (, ).
Have you had your meal?
.
: ? ?
? ,
,
( , ),

.
mount
.
: , , . . ( ).
. . , Christ on his mount
.
, 40- ,
: Napoleon on his mount
visiting the plague stricken in the streets of Jaffa. -
,
.
:
, .
92


,
. , rnonture
( mount) . Qui veut
aller loin menage sa monture :
.

: II quittait pas sa
monture1 . 1799
,
, .
vider , , (),
, .
II alla chercher sa serviette, la vida de son
contenu...et fourra les liasses. (G. Simnon. Le train de
Venise)
...,
. (
, 1967, 8)

, vida, (
fourr).
student,
, , ().

.
Even the greatest authors have written a number of very poor
books. Balzac himself left a good many out of the Comdie
Humaine, and of those he inserted there are several that only a
student troubles to read. (W. Somerset Maugham. The Summing
Up)
1

La revue des deux mondes, 1936, 9.

93


. , ,
,
,
. (. .
)
-, .
student
:
Preparation for college in the United States involves a
succession of choices. The student does not have to make a
choice at an early age as to whether or not he will go to
college.
student, , ,
. , , . -,

,
.


.
.

,
, .

, .
.
,
, .

, . ,

,
. A young
94

man of 6 feet, 2 inches


, ,
foot leg, hand arm. Wrist-watch ,
.
. ,

.
No Hanging Bill.

, , .

:
.
: , . .
, .
4 resentment
resent. ,
,
, .
-
. ,
,
,
.
...the Doremus family used to spend their summers on Cape
Cod, too. They weren't as important in the government, or rich,
but I guess they saw the Kennedys sometimes. Dave resented the
Kennedy boys, he says, but then he got to know... John Kennedy.
(Vance Bourjaily. The Man Who Knew Kennedy)
.

, . ,
, ... .
95

(. . , . . .
. )
( ,
.) , resented
,
, .
10.
-

,
. ,
.
,
, ,
1.
,
: , ,

, . ,
.
, ,
. .
. : The
Liverpool by-election was an acid test for the Labour candidate.
:
. ,
,
1

. . . . ., . 50.

96

.
:

, .

,
( ), .
, ,
:

1) ,
2) ,
3) ,
4) ,
5) ,
6) .
,
, .
,
.

.
,
.
,

. .
Many South African sanctuaries are readily reached
from Johannesburg. (Land of Salaries. The New York Times)

.
( ) ). 97

,
-
,
, ,
.
"I don't think she's living here at the moment. Her
bed wasn't slept in." (A. Christie. Third Girl)
,
. .
, , , .
:
. .
, , ,

.
, 16- :
"...oh, miss, something must have happened
there's nobody in Miss Sharp's room; the bed ain't been slept
in..." (W. M. Thackeray. Vanity Fair)
! , - :
, ...
, , , ,
,
, , .
,
.


.
to stick one's neck out .
, ,
:
Few U. S. presidents dare stick their necks out in
mid-term poll. (The New York Times).
98


.
- ,
.
,
I gave the horse his head. (A. Conan Doyle.
Adventures of Gerard)
.
:
.

. ,
, :
At last he found his voice. (A. Christie. The Double
Evidence)
- : .

. , :
- .

.
11.
,
,
- ,
,

99

.
-
.
(
) ,
1.
- : 1) ; 2) - . , ,

, .

.
The woman at the other end asked him to hang on.
(Stan Barstow. The Raging Calm)

.
I had myself awakened every morning at six and
wrote with perseverance till hunger forced me to break off
and have breakfast. {W. Somerset Maugham. The Summing
up)

, ,
. (. . . . .
. )

. :
...
: , - .

. . . . ., . 55.

100

No man is wise at all times.


.
1.
. ,
,
, . :
The adoption of the defensive does not necessarily
mean weakness of inferiority of our troops.
.
inferiority 1-
, . . ()
,
inferiority superiority.
our troops ,
. ,
, . , ,
.
.
keep off:
, , ,
. keep out :
Shut the window to keep cold air out. ,
. Keep children out of mischief. He
. Keep foreign goods out. He
1

. .
,
, ; A word spoken is past
recalling. , . Let the sleeping dog
lie. He , . Every cloud has a silver lining.
.

101

. kept us out of war.


. (
1916 .)
keep in:
The windows of the workshop were closed to keep the
cool air in... (Nevil Shute. A Town Like Alice)
,
...

.
,
,
: he (she, they) did
not die till... (until...) ... ,
(- ...
) .
(, ,
.)

:
. to
sit up , ,
. (
.)
,
;
- , , ,
; , , .
:
"I must set off to-morrow, my dear fellow," he
observed, "to-day, if you will excuse it, we will sit up late."
102

, ,
:
"today, however, with your permission, we will
stay up late."

. -
tout court
:
La politique conomique des Etats-Unis est aussi
prjudiciable aux intrts de la France que leur politique tout
court.


, .
tout court,

. , tout court ,
(
conomique).
,
.
Which of the dead are most tenderly and
passionately deplored? Those who love the survivors the
least, I believe. (W. M. Thackeray. Vanity Fair.)

? , ,
, . (.
. . . . . .,
1908)
103

?
? ,
, :

? , ,
. (. .
. . . . . ., 1929)
survivors
.

? , ,
. (. .
. . . . .
. . . .,1953).
,
,
,
, . ,
,
.
1851 , :


? , , , ,
. ( .
. . . . . .,
1885, II)

,
.
104

12.
-
, ,

, .
, , , 1.

: .
, , ,
2.
-
. . . ,
, . .

3.
, ,

.
grue ()
, Quand passent les cigognes, . .
.
,
-
.

.. . . ., . 49.
, . 49.
3
.. . . ., . 83.
2

105



:
James. Give me the cheque-book... What's this
ninety?
Walter. But look here, father, it's nine I drew a
cheque for. (John Galsworthy. Justice. Act I)
: . ...
?
. , ,
. (. . )
, ,
, nine
ninety.
, ,
,
.
.
,
cinq
cinquante.
,


. , .

.
, , , .
, , ,

. , , , - ,
106


.

.

,


.

,
.

. :
How do you do. . Welcome!
. Never mind. , ,
. Don't mention. He .
Forget it. He . you are. ,
. Here's to you. . Well donel !
. Have done! , . That'll do. ,
, , . Now then! -, !
Well now! , ! Shut up! ! Help yourself.
, . Hear, hear! , !

.
Allez donc! ! ! Vous allez bien.
. La belle histoire. . . Grand
bien vous fasse. , . Bien de choses chez vous.
! a te la coupe? , ? , ? Qu'
cela ne tienne! !
,

,
107

Soyez le bienvenu! Wlkommen!;


Here's to you A votre sante,
, cin cin!
forget it!
:
, ,
( ) ( ).

. , .
,
.

, .
. :
Even the most perfunctory account of the plain facts
would blow the myths sky-high. (R. Palme Dutt. Problems of
Contemporary History)

.
.
.

,
.
The other tasks of the revolution in the South could
be left to work themselves out. (J. S. Allen. Reconstruction.
The Bttle for Democracy (18651876)
108


.
North Carolina was thrown back into the lap of its
former masters in 1870, when the President refused to send
Federal troops to supress the . . ( ).

1870 ,

.
, , . ,
-
.
, -
.
.
,
.

.
I have exercised moderation because I was hard to
please. When from time to time I have seen the persons with
whom the great lovers satisfied their desires I have been
more often astonished by the robustness of their appetites
than envious of their successes. (W. Somerset Maugham.
The Summing Up)
,
. , ,
,
,
.

109

,
.

.
. 1 - .

110

. 1.
.
.

. . ,
.
,

, ,
. ., ,
, , . , ,
, , , , ,

.
, ; , ,
,
,
,
.
111


, ,

1.
, (
)

- ,
.

.
.

.
,
. , ,
. -
. . ,
,

.
, , , ,

,
. .
,
.

: , ,
: Just wait till the Christmas
1

. . . . ., ,
1968. . 146-147.

112

holidays; ,
: I've brought a Christmas present for dad.
,
,
. 1.
.
() ().

Burbery , . , 20-
, .
, . ,
,
.
convict ,
,
.

, ,
, ( )
.
: , , , , ,
, ,
a convict.
, ,
,
, ,
,
:

. . . . . .
. . 1969, ., Co. , 1970,
. 432.

113

Matt. Hush! It's quite . .


: ! ! (. . .
., . 15. . . . )
.

. ". ."

,
,
.
,
.

,
.

, , ,
, ,
.
Cook. That girl ought to be follered. She might
throw herself in the river.
: .
. (. ,
. ., . 15. . . . ).
follered, .
h, ,
(, ,
) ,
,
.

114

Odihan ... and if you tell this feller the reason of


youd 'usband's 'avin' done what he did, m'amand stop 'em
gluin their noses to the shop winder.
. ... , ,
,
, ,
.
:
, ,
. ,
1.
,
,
.
, ,

, .

,
40-
2.
Miss Landon, Miss Mitford, or my Lady
Blessington, writes a song upon the opposite page, about
water-lily, chilly, silly, shivering beside a streamlet, plighted,
blighted, love-benighted, falsehood sharper than a gimlet,
lost affection, recollection, cut connexion, tears in torrents,
true-love token, spoken, broken, sighing, dying, girl of
Florence; and so on. The poetry is quite worthy of the pic-

. . . ? , 3, ., 1966, . 73; .
. .
, 5, ., 1968, , 92.
2
, - .

115

ture, and a little sham sentiment is employed to illustrate a


little sham art. (W. M. Thackeray. A Word on the Annuals.)
, ,
(,
), {, )
, ( )
(, ) ; ,
(, ), ( ,
) (), ,
() (, , , ,
). , :
.
( . )
.
,
(?),
.
, , .

plighted, blighted, love-benighted.
. , lost affection, recollection , ,
: , , ,
, .
: "Though this be madness, yet there is method in't"1.
,


.
,

1

Shakespeare. Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. Act II.

116

, .

.
,
,
,
. .
.
,
.
,
,
. , , ,
, ,
.
, : , ,
. ,
, ,
:
, : ,
. ( , . 7
. . . ., 1958)
:
: nouveau nez ( )
nouveau n ().

, ,
.
.

117

II. 1
13.
,

-
,

,
2,
. , . .
, ,

. , . .

, .
-
, . . , ,
:
1)
;
2)
;
3)
.


, 11, ., 1974.
2
, 6- . ., ,
1964, . 744.

118

17.

.
,
.

( ),
, ( )
, .


.
, ,
,
.

, .

( ),

, , .

,

, .

,
, , ,
119

. ,
, .

, , , ,
:

.

,
,
.

.

,
.

. , , .
,
,
,
,
.


,
.
,
XIX ,
. ,
,
120

- ,

,

-
.
,
,


.

. ,
. ,
.
,
.
.

,
.



. ,
.

.
,

. , . .
. ,
(
).

121


. . 1

2. ,

,

. , . ,

3, ,
, ,
, .,
,
, .
, ,

,

. ,
. :
(

:
),
.

- .
, ,
, ... ,
, .
1

. . N i d a, Ch. a b e r. The Theory and Practice of Translation. Leiden,


1969.
2
. . a . . , 1970, 4.
3
, . 8.

122

1. ,
.
-
.
, .
,
,

.
,

. , ,
-.
, , , . . . . ,
.
18.


.
,
. ,
,
,
.
. .
,
, :
1) ;
1

. .: . , . 32.

123

2) ;
3) ;
4) () ;
5) - .
, , , .
,

-,
, ,
.
,
. to have
,
.
,
: I have a dog. .
has many friends. . They have a new flat.
. ,
,
: had the
courage to avow. . had the cheek
to object. . I have the honour to greet
you. .
,
:
Long habit has made it more comfortable for me to
speak through the creatures of my invention:- I can decide
what they would think more readily than I can decide what I
think myself. (W. Somerset Maugham. The Summing Up)


. , , ,
, . (. .
. . . )
124

. ,
, .
,
:
On July 8, 150 years ago, a storm blew up off Leghorn,
Italy, and drowned Shelley who was sailing in his small
schooner, Ariel. (Morning Star)
150 , 8 , , , , , , .
, :
II ne s'tait j'amais senti ni si nu, ni si seul de sa vie. (G.
Simnon. Le train de Venise)

. ( ,
1967, 8)

,
,
. , :
Nous avons tous assez de force pour supporter les maux
d'autrui.
,
.
.
:

125

La vrite n'est qu'un vain bruit de mots pour les homines


auxquels on limpose. (A. France)
,
.

.

,
.

. -
.
sat now by the stream watching the clear water flowing between the rocks... He crossed the stream... He knelt by
the stream and, pushing his automatic pistol around on his
belt... he lowered himself with a hand on each of two boulders
and drank from the stream. {E. Hemingway. For Whom the
Bell Tolls)

, :
, ,
... ...
, ,
, , , ,
. (. . .
. . . , . ., . III)
,



.
.
, ,
126

,
: , , , ; ,
; , ; .

: -
, -

.
Drowning is the biggest killer of children and young
people in twenty-one countries, according to a World Health
report published in Geneva yesterday.
, .
,
:

, ,
,
21 ,
.
Three hundred building workers employed on the construction of Fylingsdale (Yorkshire) early-warning station
went on strike over a bonus claim. (Morning Star)
claim ,
( , ). :
,
( ), , .

, .
II .
white-schools, white churches,
lily-white jury :
127

, , , ,
.
:
As to Monsieur de Balzac, his manners were
deplorable. (W. Somerset Maugham. Ten Novels and Their
Authors)
.
.
,
:
Lord Nesby stretched a careless hand. (W. Somerset
Maugham. Theatre)
.
Poirot waved an eloquent hand. (A. Christie. Evil
under the Sun)
.
The Democrats, cheered by striking gains in the November elections, were casting a hopeful eye toward 1932. (F.
L. Allen. Only Yesterday)
(1930 ), 1932 .
.
,

. - . , :
The accusation has been disproved editorially. (The
Guardian)
.
128


,
. :
Yet the eventual popularity of the automobile depended
abjectly on the improvement: over the solid rubber tire, even
though it was disastrously prone to blowouts, punctures and
slow leak. (J. C. Furnas. The Americans. A Social History of
the United States)
abjectly , abject. abject: 1. , , ', 2.
, .
' ,

.
abjectly ,
.
.
abject odious , ,
. :
, :
,

, .
,
, -
. 70- . :
But it was then solid-tired and grotesquely composed of
one five-foot wheel and one tiny one.

129

:
5 ,
.
, , , , , :
From the very time Ross has taken his seat ... he made it
clear that he was not in sympathy with Andrew Johnson
personally or politically. (J. F. Kennedy, Profiles in Courage)
,
, ... ,
,
.
, ,
.
.
"I'll just have a word with her first and then she can go
of! to bed. Rather cruel to keep an old lady like that up," said
Inspector Carry virtuously. (A. Christie. They Do it with
Mirrors)
, .
,
.
,
. . . ,
,
- ,

130

,
- 1
,
,
, ;

, (, , ).
,

;
2.

,

,
. Vatican Protest
, ,
.
,
: , ,
, .

, :
An attorney, not celebrated for his probity, was robbed
one night on his way irom Wicklow to Dublin. His father,
meeting Baron O'Grady the next day, said: "My lord, have you
heard oi my son's robbery?" "No, indeed," replied the Baron,
"pray, whom did he rob?"3
, , , . ,
1

. . . ., -
, 1958, . 152.
2
, . 158.
3
, : . . , ., . 194.

131

', : , ,
? , ,
. ?
, - ,
, my son's
robbery : , ,
,
,
.
, . ,
1,
, ,

. , Right or wrong, my country! Qu'il ait tort
ou raison, c'est mon pays! . ,

,
, ,
, 2.

.

( ).
, :

. . Lombard. Les constructions nominates dsns la langue franaise.


Upsala, s. a.
2
. . . ., , 1965, . 56.

132

...the greedy tyranny and avarice of Mrs Bute Crawley


has caused the old lady to revolt against the exorbitant
pretensions of that part of the family. (W. M. Thackeray.
Vanity Fair)
...la tyrannie interesse de mistress Bute Crawley avail
pouss la vieille fille se rvolter centre les prtentions
envahissante de sa cupide parente. (W. M. Thackeray. La
Poire aux vanits. Traduit avec I'automation de 1'auteur par
Georges Guiffrey. P., 1899)
,
,
.
19.

( ) , , . . .

, ,
. ,

had his horse killed,
,
.
.

to be + : was the first to speak
.
-,
, ,
, ,
,
.
133

.

,

1.


.
:

.
, , .

, 2.

. 1940
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
.

, .

-
, :
...
,

. 21 .
Raymond Las Verganas. La langue qui ne merut pas. Les nouvelles
littraires, 1947, 6 fvrier, p. 1, 6.
2

134

,
1.
: , ,
; ,
.


. : swore the day he was born,
: ,
,
.

, , . .
: went to the United States never to return
,
. ,
.

. ,
. ,
:
Some blame it on television, or the weather, or bad films, or
slimmer purses. (Daily Worker)
, some ,
:

, . 1.

135

,
, ,
.

, ,
.

,
,
:
Everyone was afraid to go. So he went to the waterfront and
boldly seized some sailors and forced them to go. He begged and
bribed and threatened others. (D. Carnegie. Little-Known Facts
about Well-Known People).

, ,
, .
:
.
.
, ,
.
. .
1928 ,

.
...millions of men and women turned to Hoover because they
thought Smith would make the White House a branch office of
the Vatican, or turned to Smith because they wished to strike at
religious intolerance, or opposed Hoover because they thought
he would prove to be a stubborn doctrinaire, or were activated
136

chiefly by dislike of Smith's hats or Mrs Smith's jewelry. (F. L.


Allen. Only Yesterday)
,
, .

,
( } .

, ,
, ,
,
, ,
,
.
.


, ,
, ,
.

.
,

. ,
. . . , as + +
+ as +

1.
1

. . .

-
.
. ., 1964, . 971991.

137

. . , as +
+ as + any, anything, anywhere
, .
,

:
, .
- ,
. . . , .
.


, ,
: .
, ,

.
,

. ,
.
, as old
boots, as all get-out (. .), like a cartload of bricks, like blue
murder, like nothing on earth,
: as the day is long, as they make'em, as you please, ,

,
, ,
.

, 1
. , 4- -

Willielm Franz. Die Sprache Shakespeares in Vers und Prosa. 4te Auflage.
Halle/Saale. 1939; E. A. Abbott. A Shakespearian grammar. 3ed, N. Y., 1966.

138


,
, ,
.

, .
,
1.

, ,

,
.


2.
.
.
Clown. Give me thy hand. I will swear to the prince
thou art as honest and true fellow as any is in Bohemia.
(Shakespeare. The Winter's Tale, Act V, Sc. II)
,

:
1

H. Putsma. A Grammar of Late Modern English. Gronin-gen, 1904.


Parti. The Sentence. Adverbial Clauses of Quality, pp.495510, Adverbial
Clauses of Degree, pp. 510521.
2
Erhard Agi1a. Syntaktische Mchrdeutigkeit (Polysyn taktizitat) bei
der Analyse des Deutschen und des Englischen. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin,
1968, S. 203.

139

. . ,
,
. (. . , -
, . 8)
,
. ,
.
.
- , , XVII
XVIII
. ,
, .
,
, . ,
The Way of the World (1700 .),
,
, ,
:
Mincing. But when your la'ship pins it up with poetry, it
sits so pleasant the next day as anything, and is so pure and so
crips. (W. Congreve. The Way of the World, Act II, Sc. 2)
so pleasant ... as anything
. (
,
crisp crips.)
The Beaux's Stratagem (1707
.)
, :
Gibbet. Here, my dear Cherry. (Gives her a bag.) Two
hundred sterling pounds, as good as any that even hanged or
saved a rogue. (G. Farquar. The Beaux's Stratagem, Act. II, Sc. 2)
140

.
,
, , ? '
. ,
:
,
, ,
. (. . ,
3- ., , 1843)

( ) , ,

.
, XVIIXVIII

. ,
(1772 .) ,
.
I learned to dance and speak French as well as any on
them, and to sing much better. (D. Defoe. Moll Flanders)
-,
, .
as well as any
of them ,
.
:
I had ... the common vanity of my sex, viz. that being
really taken for very handsome, or, if you please, for a great
141

beauty, I very well knew it, and has as good an opinion of


myself as anybody else could have of me.
... ,
, , , , . .

, . ,
. ,
,
: , .
, .
as + + as + ( )
, , ,

.
,
.
.


XIX XX ,
-
.
.
,

. , :

142

I believe our boys were, generally, as ignorant a set as any


schoolboys in existence. (Ch. Dickens. David Copperfield)
,
, ... (. .
. ., . 15, ., - , 1959.)
,
. (
) ,
,
.
,
,
:
,
,
, , -
... (. . .
. . i, ., - , . .)
as ignorant a set as any ,
.
-.
, :
, - . -
.
When I heard this, 1 made a sudden bound back, and
gave such a cry as any man might who was in such a way. (W.
M. Thackeray. The Fatal Boots)

143

,
:
, ,
. ,
.
,
: as + + +
any such a + ,
,
. . .
as
4- + as + any (anything, anybody, anywhere .)
, , . ,
Penguin Books :
After "Many a Summer", which appeared in 1939, "The
Island" is a fantastic parable treating of the ultimate topics of
philosophy, and at the same time as nightmarish a tale, as
brilliant and amusing as anything Huxley has written.
as brilliant and
amusing as anything Huxley has written . ,
. , .
:
In 1891, it was a flourishing institution, perhaps less
restrictive as before, but still as smart and aristocratic as any
club in London. (John Galsworthy, The Country House)
1891 ,
, ,
,
,
. (. . . . ., . 6)
144

,
. : .

:
The Senator knew common and criminal law, perhaps,
as well as any citizen of his state. (Th. Dreiser. Jenny
Gerhardt)
, ,
. (. .
. . ., . 2)
, ,
, ,
. , ,
, . . ,
, .

,

.
-,
,
.
comme tout (.)
, , ; (.
,
)1. : Elle est belle comme tout.
.
come altro, -,
. :
1

. . . ., ,
1965, . 169. ,
scomme tout ce qu'il a de +
.

145

... un'awentura comeunaltra, la prima e


sara 1'ultima volta che una donna cerca di ingannare un uomo
e viceversa. (G. Deledda. La danza delta collana)
,
.
, as great as any the greatest,
as aristocratic as any the most aristocratic,
, ,
.
.
e
( ),

. ,
,
.
20.


, , ,
,
.

, .
,

-,
- , , , ,
.
, ,
.
146

In his hand was a copy of the speech he would give to


the U. S. and the world. It was, perhaps, as tough a speech as
any president has ever had to give in peace time. (Hugh Sidey.
John F, Kennedy President)
,
,
.
ever.
,

. , ,
-
.
,
:
may grant an interview while he swims, and the
number of sun-lighted conferences on his patio or on one of his
boats are so many they have gone uncalculated. Yet they have
been as vital as any other conferences.
, , ,
, .
, .
-.
(
,
: ,
1.
1

, 6, ,, . , 1932, .
505506.

147


-,
, ,
1.
.
- . , : , .
, -
,
: , -,
. , , ,
, -. ; , , . .
, . :
, ... ,
2.
:
Poet, editor, literary critic and short-story writer he, as
much as any other writer, deserves the name of the father of
the modern short story. (The Best Short Stories of the Modern
Age. Edited by Douglas Angus. New York, 1962)

.
. . . . . -
. ., 1958, . 218.
2

148

, ,
, ,
:
, , , .
, - ,
.


: .
:
I started down toward the office, and on the way encountered another bosom friend, who told me that a quart of
salt water, taken warm, would come as near curing a cold as
anything in the world. (Mark Twain's San Francisco. Edited
by Bernard Taper. New York, 1963)

as near as anything ,
,
, - , .
: .

, ,

.

:
149

... , , .
,
. ,
. , ,
188589 1893 97
:
The Monroe Doctrine cannot become obsolete while our
Republic endures ... Its importance has been as great as that of
any principle in America. (The New York Herald Tribune)
,
...
.


. ,

.
The mythology that has grown up around Thomas Jefferson is as massive and imposing as any in American history.
(R. Hofstadter. The American Political Tradition)

: , .

, ,
.

, .

150

,

.

, .
1971
,
,
( ,
), :
Mr Justice Harlan... dissenting.
With all respect, I consider that the Court has been
almost irresponsibly ieverish with dealing with these cases... It
is a reflection on the stability of the judicial process that these
great issues as important as any that have arisen during my
time on the Court should have been decided under the
pressures engendered by the torrent of publicity that has
attended these litigations. (Newsweek)
...
.
, ,
, , ... ,
,

, ,
,
,
.
, , ,

,
: , ,
.
.
151

as + + as +
( ) , . ,
- ,
.
,
.
,
,
,
-
. , ,
.
,
,
,

. ,

, :
House is full of Indian curiosities. Thaddeus brought this up,
and if this splinter be poisonous Thaddeus may as well have
made murderous use of it as any other man (A. Oman Doyle. The
Sign of the Four)
.
. ,
. (.
. . . . . . ., . I,
M-, 1966).
, . , , as well as any other man .
152


*



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, ,
, ".
",
.

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.
. ,
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-, , ,
,
, ,
,
.
, -, ,

, ,
. ""

,

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, , , ,
, , ,
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*

: http://www.lib.ru/NABOKOW/lolita.txt
153

, -;

,
,
,
,
,

- -
,
.

, ,
: ,
, ,
,
. !
.

154

..

*


I.

16. ,
,
,
, .
, ,
, ,
.
()
, ,
,
( ), ,

.

, . X
,

;

. ,

,
(., ;

: .. . .,
, 1985.
155

, 4
).


: 1) ; 2) , 3)
.
, ,

(
).
17.

. , ,

; , ,
.
,
:
1) , , :
Homer, Moscow, , Poland . .
2) , :
logarithm, hexahedron, -hydrogen,
sodium, mammal, no
vertebra, - cruciferous, proton,
equator, voltmeter . .
3) ,
, , :
- January, Monday . .
, :
thousand, million . ,
, ,
, .
,
.
, -
, , ,
, :
power (, ,
): , , ,
.
; ,
: chamber, compartment, cell, camera
156

(), tube (), chest, barrel (), lining () .;


plate, slab, lamina, lamella, bar,
sheet, blade .

, : porcupine,
flamingo .,

,

. , tiger , ,
(, , ):
, , , .
-
,
, , , ,
.
,
-; ,
binominal polynominal p
, ,
( -
).1
,
, . ,
, lion, :
1) ' ';
2) ', ; 3) '
' ( ).

lions

'
'
(.,

to see, to show the lions),


.
,
,
1

.
, . 4, 43.

157

,
.
18.
,
, .

,
, ,
.
. ,
, (
), ( )
, ( ), ,
,
. , ,
character, : 1) '
; 2) ' ,
' ( has no
character); 3) ', , -'.
character, , ,

, : 4) ''; 5) '
, '; 6) ' ,
, '; 7) ', ( ,
)'; 8) ' , epo,
'; 9) ' , , 1 (., Chinese
characters ().


: ,
;

158


.
,
- , . , table
' '1, :
'', '', (.,
', ' ') '', '
' (., ' ', ' '),
table
board, food, cooking, diet office, department.

table

,

: , , , ,
.
: house '' '' (.,
the House of Romanovs), :
' , ',
home,
'', '',
-, ,
: . children's home
orphanage, . (commercial) firm,
reformatory, - gambling-house casino,
(.), lunatic asylum .
1

, ' '
- table, desk.

159

house ,
, , '
' (the House of Commons), '', ',
', ', ' .
.
,
, , ,

.
19. , , ,

, ,

.

, - ,
()
,
,

,
, , ,
. ,
,
arm hand,
: arm
, a hand ,

160

.
, ,
: leg '
' foot ''.
: finger '
', thumb ' ' toe '
'.
, .:

watch ( )
clock
(,

)
blanket ( )
quilt()
dawn ()
evening glow, sunset ()

bicycle ()
tricycle ()
dining-room
(

)
mess-room ()
canteen ( )
refectory ( )
porridge ()
gruel ()

( Pluralia Tantum),
watch clock
.

161

comfortable ( , ,
.)
convenient ( , ,
.)
abstain ( , ,
.)
refrain
(
-
,
)

, , , , , :
stove

()

bud

( )
( )

cold (.)

cherry2


, conveniences,
facilities amenities.
2

, , ,
, ()
,
, herry, strawberry
, , ()
. . The
cherries are ripe; He is fond of strawberries.

162

strawberry1

story

poem

blue

stale

( )
( )

crisp

( )
( )
( )

to marry

to wash

( , )

to draw (the curtain)

()

,
; ,
cherry
'' '.
(
, ,
', ', ' ),
,
.
163

,

, , ,
', -',
victim, '
' '
-' sacrifice ( ,
'').
, ,
. , ,

swim, float sail. (
, , .
. . 1), ( )
: 1) '
, (
)'; 2) ', '; 3)
'
, , . . ( )'.
swim, float sail . ,
, ,

' ' (
).


,

2. , ,
,

1
2

. . III, 311.
. . . . , . 923.

164


1.
20.
, ,
. , ,

cheese cottage cheese2.
( , cheese
,
'')
. , ,
: cottage cheese
cheese,
( , 3)
; , -
, , ,
., - It is not
cheese but cottage cheese, neither cheese nor cottage cheese .
. , cheese

,
,
.
, ,
(
,
) ;
. . iron
1

. L. Bloomfield "Language N. Y.,


1933, pp. 278279.
2
. R. J a k b s . On Linguistic Aspects of Translation 'On Translation'',
ed. by R. Brower, Cambridge, Mass., 1959, p. 233.
3

165

,
, cast
iron,
,
*production of iron and cast iron.

chair armchair: armchair
chair (. armchair,
: "a chair with supports at the sides for one's
arms or elbows"), - :
, *This is not
chair but an armchair . (. 40
.)
garden kitchen (vegetable) garden
( ; ,
orchard,
garden);
melon watermelon .
,
,

,
. , ,
' ' table
;
( )
desk,

.
() kidnap, ,
, abduct1.

criminal,

, abduct
, .

166

,
;
,

criminal (. crime,
crime1).'
21.
, , ,

, ,
.
,

. ,
,
arm hand, ,

, ,
cherry
, ,
.
, ,
,

. , ,

,
, , , ;


arm hand,

. ,
, ,
1

penal code.

167

sour cherry sweet cherry


dark blue light blue1 (,
, 19,

, ,
.) ,
,

cherry blue .,


. .
( . 82) ,
, , ,
, , .
, ,
,
, ,
;
,
arm hand,
watch clock ..

(
. ).
,
hand,
arm.
, ,

,
,
was wounded in the arm, was
1

, , - .,
.

168

wounded in the hand. ,




(. ).
,
, ,
,
. feet, legs,
, , ;
,
feet,
legs.
,
,
.
( )
. ,

digit,


( , );

,


,
pointed his digit at me). To
timepiece,
, (
, ,
, watch, clock),
, ,
.
,
, ,
169

hand foot,


,
,
, (.
).
, . .
:1
...he was slightly disturbed by the cashier, a young and
giggling Wisconsin school-teacher with ankles... (S. Lewis,
Arrowsmith).
,
,
... (. . ).
ankle , , ,
., - ; .

, .
22.
,
. ,
, ;
,
,
(
). , ,
,
,
1

. . . , . 147; , . .
.

170

,
,
,
( ). , ,


, (. 14).


.

; ,

,
. ,
blue,

- .
, ( ,
)
,
, , , , ,
;
,
red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple (
purple violet).
purple
: -
. . .
: 1) ' '; 2) ' ',
.
, purple
;
,

, , ,

"mixture of red and
171

blue in various proportions".


, , crimson, scarlet .,

.
,
,
, ,
, . ,
glas ,
blue green
, .1 ,

( ,
) ( ,
, ). ,
,

, ,
(. . , -, - .)
, ,
,
.
,


( )
( , ), , ,

xanthic cvanic.2

. . . . ., , 1937, . 221
. . A. Gleason. An Introduction to Descriptive Linguistics. N. Y., 1958. p.
5.
2

172

, , ,

, .1 ,
,
.
, -
morning, day,
evening night,
:
morning =
day =
evening =
night =

, ,
,
. ,

afternoon, . ,
morning night
,
, :
They were not summoned to Hitler's presence until 1.15
a. m. ... And he saw at once, as he entered the Fuehrer's study
in the early-morning hour, that... (W. L. Shirer, The Rise and
Fail of the Third Reich)

. . .: . . . ,
., 1965.

173

Rawdon lefl her and went home rapidly. It was nine


o'clock at night. (W. Thackeray, Vanity Fair)
,
,
.
. ,
,
; , day and night
twenty-four hours. ,
-
. ( -
: morning ( 0 12 ), afternoon (
18 , ) evening (
,
morning). day night,
, , : (day)
(night). Kpo day ,
day and night, .

, : (
10 11 ), ( 10 11 ),1
( 10 11 ) (
, , ). ,


:

, , day, '',
., .:
.

174

NIGHT
MORNING

DAY

TWENTYFOUR
HOURS

AFTERNOON

EVENING

NIGHT

23.
-

, , ,
. ,

, ,
,
- - .
.
,
, . ,
, - ,
. ,
1 glass, tumbler beaker.
1

,
;
, ,

.

175

- ,
.
tumbler (
). glass ( ' ')
: , , ,
, , , .

glass

), glass
, ,
(); (
.) glass,
(paper, plastic, .) u.
- .
(wine) glass, .
glass, goblet beaker. , goblet :
. -
goblet, cup, beaker, bowl. Cup -
, , , ,
( .) . ,
- , : cup,
bowl basin. Bowl -
, , , , ,

,
. Basin
() ( , ,
bowl).
-
,
u glass,
, u, .

176

beaker ,
- ( ),
.
;

glass .
- (tall wine)
glass. glass, mug tankard. mug
- , a tankard
(, ) ,
,

,
,

.

,
,
(. . 93).
,

.

() ; ,

( ,
,
,
.).


(., ).
,

,
, .1
1

177

,

;

,
.

tumbler

glass

goblet

cup

beaker

bowl

basin

mug

tankard

,
:
, , , ,
strength, power, might, force, energy,
- ,
.

178

24. ,

.
.
, ,
( )
, ,
.
:
1) , ,
, , , .,
.
, 13.IX.1973
. , ,
, , , , ,
, .
, , , , -
. ,
, ,
,
, np.,
: Pushkin, Dostoevski,
Moscow, Kiev, the Crimea . .
. "Couples"
, Thome, Appleby, Guerin, Gallagher
Tarbox, Mather, Quogue, Harbor.
Millbrook, Scituate .,
, -
John, George, Shakespeare, Dickens, Lincoln . .
London, New York, the Thames,
the Mississippi .,
: , , , ,
, , -, , .
,

,

179

,
, ,

, ,
,
, , .
,
,
(, ,

).
2) , ,
, , , .
, ,
, , (.
, , , , ; , muffin, haggis, toffee,
butter-scotch, sundae .),
(. , , , ),
(. , ; , pop-gees-the-weasel),
(. ; , limericks)
. . ,

(.,
. , , , ,
; , primaries, caucus, lobbyist . .),
(. ,
; ./. drugstore, grill-room, drive-in)
.
- ,

, , ( . .
103) . ,
:
House of Commons, -Lord Privy Seal,
the Garter, -Speaker, week180

end, strip-tease
,

. ,
,

.
3) ,
.
, - (
) (
) .
, ,
,
:
, ,
( ) I shall come back in twenty-four (fortyeight) hours, , ,
, day and night1,
: They worked four
days and nights.
coo
, , , .
,
glimpse, floorer, exposure (
' : ,
, , ') .
po
; ,
, ,
,

1

, ,
,
- (. . , . , ., . 152154).

181

, ,
(
),

. , ,

,
,
,
,
,
.
25. ,


.
.
,
;
-


. ,

. ,
, ,
, .

:
1) .
(. .
4). ,
(
) , .

,
, , , , ,
182

.
14.VII.1973 .
1

: ,
,
, ,
, , -
.
;
-
, ,
(.,
). ,

,
: tribalism , brain drain -,
public school , drive-in -, teach-in -,
drugstore , know-how -, impeachment
. -
,
agitprop, sovkhoz, technicum .

: , . . . , ,
, , , , borshch,
shchi, kvass, kalatch, rassolnik, samovar, ,
, (. .
99).

.
. ,
:

: , ,
1

, ,
(. , . 4).

183

, , ,
... (. XI)
His trunks were full of many extraordinary costumes:
brocaded skirts, satin vests, cloth-of-gold saraiani, kiki: and
kokoshniki, ornamented with pearls... (tr. by M. Wet-tlin)

: "sarafani long, sleeveless dresses; kiki and
kokoshniki headdresses". ,
,
.


,
.

. ,
, . .
:


; ;
; #'
(writs) (
. , ,
, ,
-... :
, , , , ,
,, , , .... , , , ,
,... ,
, , ,,
, , , , , ,
, 1.
1

. . .
, ., 1952, 2, . 33. . . .
. ., , 1972, . 51.

184



, .

,
, ,
.

.
2) .

( ) .
. 4.


: grand jury ;
backbencher ; brain drain
( -);
House of Culture; Park
of Culture and Rest; Candidate of Science . .
,
, ,
. ,
,
,
,
,


. ,
-
.
3) () .


,
,
185

, , ()
.
:
landslide ,
brinkmanship whistlestop speech
, bull ,
, bear ,
, coroner ,
,
floorer , (
) , .

:
I used to caddy once in a while... (J. D. Salinger, The
Catcher in the Rye, Ch. 4)
... (. . -)


: cabbage soup, beetroot and cabbage soup
( shchi borshch),
site of a recent fire charred ruins, a
person who has lost all his possessions in a fire, voter
education centre, public order volunteers.
, ,
,
,
. ,

, ,
, ,
.
-
,
(. .
) .
,
186

( ),
, :
,
,
. , .
,
25.XI.1972 ., holding
company -, : , ,
' '
, ;

.
-.
4) ( )
,
.
. ,
vest. ,
vest, '' ' ',
,
;
,
.

.
-
,
(
), , Municipal
Council; Mayor; junior college
( technicum);
( , ) voucher . .

,

187

,
.

, drugstore ; know-how
; muffin .
,
,


. ,
drugstore

() ,

, , , , . ,
, . ,
,
, "Food
is awful in drugstores"
, .

.
,

. ,
prince;
. ,
. .
, ,
;
. . ,
,
.
5) .

,

, ,
188

-
(. . 5);
. ,
glimpse,
, to have
to catch a glimpse of (something or somebody),

np;
, I could catch glimpses of him in the
windows of the sitting-room (A. C. Doyle, The Adventures of
Sherlock Holmes) :
.
exposure, ,
;
died of exposure
( ),
. . . ,

, .
, ,

.
, , , ,

, . ,

(, ()
,
, , ()
.
,
, , .
,
(, ,
).
189

. ,
,
,
, ,
()
. ,
, ,

,
,
"; ,
cabbage soup ,
,
,
( ), . , ,
.
,
,

1.
26.
( ), ,
(. 2, 14),
, -
( )
, , .
, ,

() , -
( , .),
1

., ., . .: . . . nep
. ., 1958. .. X .

. ., 1967,
,
.

190

. ,
, , ,
().

, . ,

,
.
, ,
:
, , .

homeland, motherland, mother country, ,
,

,
.
. , , to leave for
home ; ,

,
,
,
(.: ).
:
. , ,
; ,
.
left for
Vietnam (for the DRV for Hanoi).
, ,
,
Vietnam, (DRV,
Hanoi, . .) , .

.
:
191

That isn't too far from this crumby place... (Ch. I)


, ...
ll he did was lift the Atlantic Monthly off his lap and
try to chuck it on the bed, next to me. (Ch. 2)

, .
place
,
,
, (
, , ,
).


( ,
monthly ).


(
), ( ),
.


.
:
, , ...,
... (. ,
, . VII).
The bird would cock its round eye at her..., knoc kits
wooden leg against the floor of the cage...
bird
;
,

.

192

, 5, (.
, 33 .)
,





,

( ,
, ,
).1


. . Kade Koommunikationswissenschaftliche Probleme de
translation, Fremdsprachen, H. Leipzig, 1968, S. 11.

193


*
1.
.

,
, .
, ,
,
,
( ) , , ,
. ,

:

:
, .
*

: . . ., , 1974.
194

: ) . .
,
, ) ,
. . ,

.


(. . )
,
; ,
, . .
(), ( ).
(
)
,

1. ,
,
.

-
,
,
, , .
1

.: J. Levy, Teorie
informace a literarni proces ( ),
eska literatura, ro. II, Praha, 1963, p. 281-307. E. A. Nida. Toward the
Science of Translation ( ), Leiden, 1964. .. , .
, , ., 1964.

26-29 . 1965 . .
.: .. ,
, ., 1957. . ,
, ., 1949 (. .).

195


:
. ,

,

.

,
,
. ,
.
,
, .
,

: XII
, XVI ,
, .
,

,
, . ( )
,

: ,

.
,

: ,
.
, ,
- .

.
196




. ,
, , ,
, ,
, , ,
(J. V. Sladek) ,
,
.

(Tympanuchus cupido),
. ,
- ,
, ,
. ,
, ,

,
. ,

. ,
, ,
,
.
,
,

.

, , - (),
. ,
:
, , , ,
.
197


: ( )
;
, . . ,
. , ,
. , ,


, , , ,

. (

, , ,
, .)
,

,

, .
.
- - , .
, ,

, .
,
, , . 198

, ,
,
, , , , . .
nehmen Sie Platz :
, , ,
, ,
, -
. ,
.
Z letopis
lasky ( ), Z eskych mlyn (
). ,
, Ze ivota hmyzu
( ) The Insect Play (. .
. ).
...and Other Stories
( ); n povidky (
)
Money and Other Stories.
,
;
II .
, ,
:
,
, .
,
, . , ,
:
,

199

, . . , .
, . .

, .
,
,
, .
.
, . , . .

,
.
.

.

.
,
. ,
, .
, (F. Vodika)

(...
)
(... ,

)1, . .

. (R. Ingarden, Das literarishe


Kunstwerk. ), Halle (Saale), 1931, p. 342-369,
. (F. Vodika), Literarnehistoricke studium ohlasu literarnich dl.

200

;
,
,
.

, .
,
. ,
,
.

.
(. Lachmann),
,
- ,

. , (.
Vinaicky)
, . .


. -,
, ,
, ,
(F. L. elakovsky),
(. J. Erben) ,
. ,

, .
, . .
, .
(- ),
Slovo a slovestnost, ro. 7, Praha, 1941, s. 113-132.

201

,
.

. ,
: ,

, , ,
,
.
.
(,

) (,
,

).
. ,
,
,
. laska paska
( )
, ;
amore cuore ( )

,
love - dove ( ) , , , -
womb tomb ( ) : .

. , , ,
. ,
, ,
202

, , , . ,
.
, ,
o, . . , .
,

,
: esprit, passion, douceur, honntet .
; , ;

:
das
Sichvorwegsein, das Auf-sich-zukomnenlassen, Sein
Dasein ( M. Heidegger), Verstand Vernunft
( I. Kant), Gehalt Gestalt ( . Walzel)
.

( )
;

.

: , . (.
Sapir) ,
:
,

203


. ,
, . :
,
( - -)
,
.
,
,
,
,

.
,
, , , .

, 1.
, , , , ,

.
,
, ,
,

: , ,

,
, .

;
, ?..

.
,
,
1

E. Sapir, Language (), New York, 1921, p. 237-239.

204


1.

,
. , ,
, . ,

:

;

, ,
, .
,
, ,
, ,
. ,
, . ,
,
,
, (fines)
. .
,
,
. , , .
,
,
, ,

.
. ,
,
;


1

.. , . ., . IX, ., 1955, . 370.

205

. (
.)
, ,
:
.

, ,

:
. ,
,

.

.

: )

; )
( )
( )

,
; )

.

.
,
. ,

,
:
206

1) ,
2) ,
3) (pestylizace) .
1.

, , , .

. , ,
, ,
, ,
(, , ,
):
)
, .. .
,
.

:
) :
1.
, : sige (.) = .
2. ,
: found (.) . find
found .
3.
: joke (.) =
das Joch (.) = .
) - :
4.
.
207

5.
( ).
6.
( ).
, -
.
, - -,
,
, , ,
... ,

. , ,

,
,
1.
, ,
, .
)
,
. . , ,
.
,

,
. ,

, .
,
, ,
.
IV
:
1

I. A. Richards, Practical Criticism ( ), London, 1929, p.


327.

208

Thrice the brinded cat hath mew'd...


Thrice and once hedge-pig whined.

,

. :

,
.
(Otokar Fischer):
Tikrat pestry kocour mouk.
Jeek tikrat a ednou kvik.
(Ludwig Tieck):
Die scheckige Katz' hat dreimal miaut.
Dreimal und einmal der Igel gequiekt.
(Ernst Ortlepp),
,
, ,
:
Dreimal hrt' ich die Katze schrein,
Und einmal grunzte das Stachelschwein.
To
:
Trois fois le chat miaula.
Le hrisson piaula.
:
209

Tikrat straka kocour mouk',


tikrat; a jednou jeek kvik'.
(Friedrich Bodenstedt)

,
:
Dreimal hat die Katze miaut.
Viermal hat der Igel gequiekt.

(. F. ):
Tikrat mourek zamoukal.
Jeek zakvik' tyikrat.
. :
.
.
. .
. ,
:
.
.
.
3
; .
)

210


, . .
: , , ,
.
, , ,
,
,
.
, ,
;
.
, ,
.

,
,
,
.

:

,
,
. - ,

, , . .
, , ,
.

:
,
:
. , , ,
:
.
211

.
, ,
,
, ,
.,
, , ,
,
, ,
. ,
, ,
. , ,
, ,
,
,
,
,
. ,

, .

. (Friedhelm Kemp)
(Hier rgnant dsert (Yves
Bonnefoy) :
Bien des astres ont franchi
La terre toujours niable,
Mais toi tu as gard pure
Une antique libert.
Es-tu vgtale, tu
As des arbres la patience
D'tre ici li, mais libre
Parmi les vents les plus hauts.
Et comme natre impatient
Bouleverse le sol,
Toi de tes yeux tu dnies
212

Le poids des glaises d'toiles.


Manches Gestirn berstieg
Die immer verneinbare Erde,
Du aber hast dir rein bewahrt
Eine unvordenkliche Freiheit,
Du Pflanzenhafte, denn du hast
Wie Bume die Geduld, hier
Gebunden zu sein und frei doch
Zwischen den hchsten Winden.
Und wie Geburt unduldsarn
Den Boden sprengt, so
Verneinst mit deinen Augen du
Die Last der Sternen-Schollen.
: ,
, ,
; ,
, , , , , , , ,
,
, [
], ...
,
, , -
(der
Hintergrund eines Sinnes)...

1.
,
,
.
1

F. Kemp, Vom bersetzen franzsischer Dichtung (


). .: Die Kunst der bersetzung, Mnchen, 1962, s. 105-106.

213


. , ,
, .
, ,
, , , ,
, .
, , , , .
(I. A. Richards) 1927
., , ,
, , . 1,
,
...
,


.
,
...
, ,
?2
close reading ,

1


, .
,
. close reading.
2
I. A. Richards, op. cit., p. 312-313.

214

,

.
2.
,


, ,
, .
,
, ;

, ,
,
.

the grave
and foppishly determined Eustace. foppish
,
foolish, stupid
foplike... in dress or manners.

foppish,
. ,

. , im besten
Mannesalter,
in his prime in early middle age. ,
, 215

.
. (J. Cladel) (A. Maillol):
Bourgade terrienne et maritime, Bayeuls sent la
basse-cour et la mare... A mi-hauteur du quartier de
1'ouest, parmi la bousculade des cubes de maonnerie
crpis de blanc ou 1'cr, sur leurs toits de tuiles, une
maison plus importante et mieux construite que les autres
se dtache, car elle est la seule qui soit rose, de ce joli
rose cendr de soleil particulier au Midi.
bourgade terrienne et maritime

?
de joli rose cendr de soleil?
, ,
, , . .
,
?

,
.
:
) ,
) ,
)

.
) , ,
,
.
,
,
.
. . :

, , ,
216

, . . , ,
, , ,
, 1. .
,
, ,
. :
,
.

, .
.
,
,
,
. ,

; ,
,
, ,
, ,
.


.

(. A. Saudek)
:



.
, (Zschokke),

. :
Ah, der Okiavianus von Tieck gttlich! :
1

. . , , ., 1966, . 48.

217

Kennen Sie auch Wieland und Voss? :


Wieland ist kein Dichter, und Voss ein lngst vergessener
alter Schmauch!1

. ,

1900
, ,
. Grashalme,
(. . ), Leaves of Grass
Grasbltter (. . ).
Blades of Grass (),
,
, Spears of Grass (. ).
, Leaves of Grass,
,
Grasbltter.
,

.
.
,
(Stbla travy) .
(Emanuel z Leegradu) 1901 .
,
,
1

, ... ?..
, !..

218

. ,
. ,
,
, ,
. (Jaroslav Vrchlicky).
,
,

:
,
, , .
(Jii Kola)

.

, -,
, ,
,
.
A child said What is the grass? fetching it to me with full hands;
How could I answer the child? I do not know what is any more
than he.
I guess it must be the flag of my disposition, out of hopeful green
stuff woven.
Or I guess it is the handkerchief of the Lord,
A scented gift and remembrancer designedly dropt,
Bearing the owner's name someway in the corners, that we may
see
and remark, and say Whose?
Or I guess the grass is itself a child, the produced babe of the
vegetation.
Or I guess it is a uniform hieroglyphic,
And it means, Sprouting alike in broad zones and narrow zones,
Growing among black folks as among white,
Kanuck, Tuckahoe, Congressman, Cuff, I give them the same, I
receive them the same.
219

(flag of my
disposition... hopeful green stuff),
(handkerchief of the Lord),
(babe of the vegetation)
(a uniform hieroglyphic...
I give them the same, I receive them the same),
,
( ).

.,
, :
: ?

;
? ,
.
, ,

,
, , ,
, , ,
- , , ,

?
, , ,
.
, , ,
, , : ,
, ,
, , ,
, .
(Johannes Schlaf) 1907 .
,
:
220

Ein Kind sagte: Was ist das Gras? und brachte es mir mit vollen
Hnden;
Wie konnte ich dem Kinde Antwort geben? Ich weise es
ebensowenig. Ich meine, es mte die Fahne meines Herzens
sein, ganz aus einem
hoffnungsgrnen Stoff gewoben. . .
(disposition Herz
. .)
. 1946 ., (Miguel R. Mendoza):
Que es esto?, me dijo un nio mostrandome
un puado de hierba.
Que podia yo responderle?
yo no se lo que es la hierba tampoco.
Tal vez es la bandera de mi amor, tejida con la sustancia
verde de la esperanza.
Tal vez es el pauelo de Dios,
un regaio perfumado que alguien ha dejado caer
con alguna intencion amorosa. . .
, , , ;
.

(Hans Reisiger)
1922 ., :
Ein Kind sagte: Was ist das Gras? und pflckte es mit
vollen Hnden. Wie konnt' ich dem Kinde antworten? Ich
wei nicht besser, als
das Kind, was es ist.
Ich glaube, es mu die Flagge meines Wesens sein, gewoben
aus
221

hoffnungsgrnem Stoff.
Oder vielleicht ist das Gras selber ein Kind, das Neugeborne
der
Pflanzenwelt.
Oder ich glaube, es ist das Taschentuch Gottes,
Eine duftende Gabe und Andenken, mit Absicht fallen
gelassen,
Mit dem Namen des Eigentmers in einer der Ecken, so da
wir
schauen und fragen rngen: Wem gehort's? . .
)
. ,

,
, -.
, ,
,
, ...
.

, ,
.
: ,
? , .
.
,
...
-, ,
-,
, ,
1.
,
,

, ,
1

R. Wellek. Confrontations (). Yale UP, 1958, p. 224-226.

222

.
-: ,

,
,
.



: ,
,
.
, ,

, ,
,

1. , ,

, . . ,
, , . -,
, ;
, ,
. (. Mathesius)
:

. 1943/44 .,
, , :
, , -
,
1

.: On Translation, Harvard UP, 1958, p. 213.

223

... , ,
, 1.
)
, , ..
.
?
,
, .
,
,

,
,
.
,
.


.
, .
,
:
, .
.
,
. , , 1

B. Mathesius, O Peer Gyntovi, Ibsenovi a teto uprav. .: Henric Ibsen,


Peer Gynt, Praha, 1948, s. 161.

224


, (God)
(Jove ).

; ,
. ,

Gtter ( August Schlegel),
Himmel ( Franz von Dingelstedt) .
,
.
,
, ,
,

.
,

, .

,

, .

.

1930 . (Georg von der Vring).
Comme un vol criard d'oiseaux en emoi,
Tous mes souvenirs s'abattent sur moi,
S'abbattent parmi le feuillage jaune
De mon coeur mirant son tronc plie d'aune
Au teint violet de l'eau des Regrets.
Qui rnelancoliquement coule auprs,
S'abattent, et puis la rumeur mauvaise
Qu'une brise moite en montant apaise,
S'eteint par degres dans 1'arbre, si bien
225

Qu'au bout d'un instant on n'entend plus rien,


Plus rien que la voix celebrant 1'Absent,
Plus rien que la voix si languissante!
De l'oiseau qui fut mon Premier Amour,
Et qui chante encore comme au premier jour;
Et, dans la splendeur triste d'une lune
Se levant blafarde et solenelle, une
Nuit melancolique et lourde d'ete,
Pleine de silence et d'obscurite,
Berce sur 1'azur qu'un vent doux effleure
L'arbre qui frissonne et l'oiseau qui pleure.
Die Nachtingall
Wie ein Schwarm schreiender Vgel
Strzen sich die Erinnerungen
Unter das gelbe Laub meines Lebensbaumes,
Dessen gebeugter Stamm sich spiegelt
Im bitteren Bache der Reue
Strzen sich lrmend
Bis sie im schlaffen Winde hinsterben,
Verstummen, und nichts mehr tnt
Als die feierliche Stimme, deine!
Nichts als die schmachtende arme
Stimme des Vogels, Stimme meiner ersten
Und unaustilglichen Liebe
Tnt
Im trben Mond,
Welcher steigt durch die schwere
Stumme Nacht auf und sclwebt
Und im Wind,
Welcher anrhrt meinen frstelnden Baum
Und darin
Den schluchzenden Vogel.1
1

. :

, ,

226


( 151 , 86) ,
fin de
sicle, ,
en emoi sur moi,
, . .

10- (5+5)
.

XIX : , (Lebensbaum
), [] , ,
, , ,
.
, , ,
;
.
,
, .
, ,

, ,
, ,
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,
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, ;
,

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227

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,

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3.
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) .
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.
, ;
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, ,
.

228



:
Saint Martin soit beni. / Les affaires ne vont plus./ Inutile de
s'ereinter. / J'ai assez travaille / dans ma vie./ Prenons un peu de bon
temps. / Me voici ma table, / un pot de vin ma droite, / 1'encrier
rna gauche; / un beau cahier tout neuf, / devant moi, / m'ouvre ses
bras. / A ta sante, mon fils, / et causons! / En bas, ma femme
tempte.
(6676+37 7 7 66+3 46+36 = 83
15 .)
Gelobet sei der heilige Martinus. / Mit den Geschften ist es
aus und vorbei. / Ein eitles Tun wr's,/sich noch weiter abzurackern.
/ Ich habe in meinem Leben / genugsam gearbeitet. / Jetzo will ich
mir's / ein wenig wohl sein lassen./ Da sitze ich an meinem Tische
nieder, / rechts einen Humpen Wein, / links das Tintenfass. /Vor mir
liegt ein gar schnes neues Heft, / das mir zum Schreiben winket. /
Zum Wohl, alter Junge, / nun lass uns schwatzen! / Unten belfert
meine Frau.
(1011588+7571165107657 = 118
16 .)

,
67 ;
.
( 7,4
5,5 ), ,
,
: Inutile de s'ereinter weiter abzurackern. ,


,

. , ,
,
, ,
. :
(Erna Grautoff)
229

,
, ?
-,
:
-
, .
:
- . . ,
.
. .
,
6(12)-
45(8-9)-, . .
, :
/ ! / . /
. / / . /
. / , /
/ , / /
; / / , /
/ . / , , /
! / /.
(4449138964646568869 =
119 18 .)

230

2.

.
1.

;
, . . , (,
),
(1 ,
. .
).

.
.

.

, .
,


,
,
.,
;
,

. .

,
1

- .

231

,
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.
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.

(
232

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,


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- (V.
Kubertova-Zatkova).
?1 - [],
h
1

. . -: Jakpak se mate? - , h.

233

(
). (
: : How are
you?) :
...[],


, 1,
.


, . .
, ,
. , Ma
ucta, ,
.

ti,
.
, ,
.
2.

.
, ,
.
.
, , :
.

: (..
, ) 1

employees.

234

( ). ,


.
(, , )
,
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,

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:
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(
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, .
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.
1

,
(18731940) .,
.., ..
,
.

235

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, :
.
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. ,
, ,
;
,
.

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, :
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,
.)

.
.
: ) , )
.

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236

-1 )
.
,
.
(
),
,
.
.
XIII
, -,
- Mittclhochdeutsch,
, , ,
,
. ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
,
.
: ,
.


. .
. .

,
1
- (18481931),
, . ?

;
.

237

. ,
.
. (F.
Kral), ,
. . (. . Tilschovy), ,
,
:
Everything in Marseilles, and about Marseilles, had
stared at the fervid sky, and been stared at in return, until a
staring habit had become universal there. Strangers were
stared out of countenance by staring white houses, staring
white walls, staring white streets, staring tracts of arid roads,
staring hills from which verdure was burnt away... Far away
the staring roads, deep in dust, stared from the hill-side,
stared from the hollow, stared from the interminable plain.
Vechno v Marseilli i
Cela Marseille i okoli
kolem Marseille hledlo civlo do rozpalene ban
ztrnu-le na rozhavene nebe oblohy, ktera ztrnuly po-hled
a to opt tento pohled opt vracela, a ta ztrnulost
vracelo, a se ztrnuly ten zachvatila kdeco i kdekoho.
pohled stal veobecnym Z bodave blosti dom, z
zvykem. Cizinci byli zmateni pronikave bli zdi i ulic, z
tmi ztrnule hledicimi bilymi bloby jednotvarnych pas,
domy, ztrnule hledicimi vy-prahlych silnic, z edobilymi
zdmi,
ztrnule bilych kopc, jejich zele
hledicimi bilymi ulicemi, neodolala slunci, la cizinztrnule hledicimi pranymi cm a hlava kolem...
silnicemi, ztrnule hledicimi
Od uboi kopc, od
pahorky, jejich zele byla udoli, or nezmrnych ro-vin,
sluncem spalena
od cele te dali se oste
V dalce ztrnule hledici odraely blave prane cesty.
silnice vysoko pokryte pra. .
chem ziraly s uboi pahork,
ziraly z udoli, ziraly z nekonene roviny.
.
,
238


, ,
(, -, )
ztrnule hledicimi ( ),
,
staring (
, ).
,

.
. , ,
staring
ztrnule hledici. ,
: , , .
;
, ,
, :
,
, . , , , , ,
,
.
,
, , ,
,
. ,
,
, ,
.
239

. .
1 2 (V. Hanka),
, ,
, .
,
; ,
,
,
.
:

, , ,
.


; .
,
, .

, ,

. ,

.
, ,
,
,
,
1

(17991852), ,
;
.
2
(17911861), ;
, . ;

, .

240

, , ,
,
,
.

(L. Fikar)
1952 . . . .


, ,

.
Listek se nehne. Nebe
, .
Pinou podle sebe

jdou v polich chodci dva.
.
U peli iku, sady
,
i kee angretu.

On: uitel byl mlady

a ona: cizi tu.
.
Jake ma asi oi?
, ,
Pul cesty mleli.

Jen hulikou svou plail

melaky v jeteli.
.
Vli mak hoel v ovse.
,
Dali se do ei.
, ,
Najednou stibilo se

detikem oei.
.
Pod rozklenuty habr
.
se oba stulili.
,
A lijak je tarn zabl

a kapky studily.
.
Pod plat' mj, kdybys

chtla,
...
vejdem se ja i ty.

Ramena divi mla
.
a teple, sladke rty.
je jako z olova.
Jede kol traktorista,
.
po deti voni zem,
241


obloha je u ista
, , ,
a ti dva pod platm.
.
, ,
.
,
(angret)
,
. ,
, ,
, , (U peli
iku, sady i kee angretu, . . ,
).
: Jen hulikou svou plail melaky v
jeteli ( ), Vli mak
hoel v ovse ( ).

, ,
:
Pinou podle sebe jdou v polich chodci dva (
).

; , . .
, :
listek se nehne ( ); ,
Jake ma asi oi? ( );
Ramena divi
mla a teple, sladke rty (
), ,
: , ,
. Najednou
stibilo se detikem oei (
).
. ,
.
: ,
242

,
,
.
, . ,
,
.
.
3.
,
. , , :
,
, ,
.
, , , ,
,
.

, .
,

. ,
,

.
.
, :
Nicholas, James, Philip, Irene, Soames, Swithin, Jolyon,
George, Ann. ,

,
George, Ann, Philip, Irene, Nicholas.
,
, , Soames, Jolyon,
Swithin, 243

? .
, . . , .


.

, .
,

.


: , !
.
, ,
cried.
,
. ,
,
, .

,
, ,
.


.
;
,
, , . ,

: ,
244

,
XIX
,
. ,
:

(, , ).
,
.
,
,
:

,
. ,
, ,
,
, ,
,
.

.


: ,

.
. ,
, , ,
... ,
, , ,
- ...

,
, ,
245

1
... . ,

.
, ,
.
4.

-
,
.

,
. , ,
,
;

.

.
,
.
.

, . ,

:
1

Otokar Fier, Pekladatelv doslov. ( ). .:


Villon, Basn. Praha, 1958, s. 98.

246

. (,
,
,
,
,
.) ,
,
:
.
:
, , , , ,
, ,
.


:

.
,
.
, , , ,
- .
, (Julia Novakova) ,
,
. ,
(Josef Kral)
(Ferdinand Stiebitz),
.
,
.
,
,
247

, .
,
, ,
; ,
.

(, )

,

.

.

, .
, .



, .
, . ,


, ;
.



.
, , ,
, , , ,
, . .

,
,
248

(J. . Tyl) . , ,
(A. Bayard)
. ,
.

.
20- 1.
:
,
, .

,
,
,
.
,

. ,
,
,
,
2 .
(Gyrg Faludy)
,
.
,

1

, , , , , ;
.
2
-
. .

249

, ,
. (,
), , ,
(
XIX .), ,
, (
(Jakub Arbes), . ,

,
).
, (
,
Authorized Version), , ,
(, ,
(R. Borchardt).
,
( XVIII .),
,
(
; ,
La Guzla, ou Choix
de Poesies Illiriques, recueillies dans la Dalmatie, la Bosnie, la
Croatie et l'Herzegovine1; a
).
,
,
.
: , (Josef Jungmann),
,
,
.

. . , , ,
, .

250

. ,
(Jaques Amyot),
,
, 1.
,


: , ,
:

.
,
, ,
,
,
2.
, ,
:
,
, (,
, , , ).
,
.

1
2

G. Mounin, Les belles infidles ( ), Paris, 1956, p. 85-86.


Ibid. p. 98.

251

..
*

-

.

- ,
,
, ,
, , .
, .
, ,
.
.
,
, ,
.
, ,
,
: ,
.
: ,
.
,
.

: .. 6- . . 3.
., , 1966.
252

,
, ,
, .
, ,
,
. ,
, , ,
, -, , -,
1.
,
- , ,
,
.

.


, .
: ,
. ,
. , ,
, .
, , , , ,
, .
:
( . . .)
, ,
, .
:
,
, .
, . ,
,
. ,
1

'' '', 1933, N38

253

, ,
, ,
. , , ,
- 1.

, .
- , , ,
.
,
.
,
, .
,

, .
,

.
:
.
.
, , ,
, ,
. , ,
, , ,
.

:

.
( ) , ,
,
.

The Complete Writings of Walt Whitman, , 1902,


9, . 39 ( 1855 1856 ).

254


, ,
, ,
.
: , :
(619, 186) 1.
: , :
(623, 194).
: , : (500,213).
: , :
(507, 179).
: , :
(505, 203).
, .
.
, (532,
153).
, (532,153).
, (505,
13).
,
(504, 191).

.
,
.
- ,
:

The
Poetical Works of Percy Bysshe Shelley with Memoir, Explanatory Notes etc.
London {James Finch and Co.), (
, . . . . . , , I, , .
1903).

255

(!) (!) (!)


(!), (!) (!) (!),
(!) (!) (!) (!).
(211)1
,
(
) .

.
, :
, (440, 7).
, , : ,
:
(!), (!) (!),
(!) (!) (!) (!).
(627, 3)
, , (A Bridal
Song) ,
,
:
, , ,
.
, :
(!) (!) (!).
(108)
, !
,
:
... (!) (!)
(!),
, (!) (!) (!).
(532, 18)
1

,
.

256


, ,
, ,
, , ,
, ,
.
,
, :
, , (!) (!),
?
(503, 86)

, .

, ,
.
, -, -
, , .
: ,
,
,
. ,
,

.
, .

, .
,
,
, ,
, , ,
.

, ,
, ,
257

;
,
.
-
, ,

.
, .
, , ,
, ,
, ,
, .
, ,

, , .
, , .
.
. .
.
1.
,
.
. 38- .
43- .
, , ,
.
, (138),
(135), (135),
, , :
,
1

.: , . . . .
, , . 1911, . 133, 136, 139.

, .

258

.
(133)
:
, , ,
, , .
(137)

, .
,

, .
: , , .
,
, :
, , .
(136)

, . :

, ...

:
,
,
.
(136)

.
,
.
, ,
Shoots of Grass, Leaves of Grass. ,
,

...
259

,
,
:
, ,
, ,
.
,
. , , figure , ,

- (?) (?),
: .
:
.
:
, , ,
(111)
wings winds.
,
. - lilac (),

: , .
, ,
. ,
,
: , ,

: .
, ,

.

,
260

,

.
, :
- ,
, ,
: , , ,
, .

, ,
. ,

, - (
!) ,
,
.
.
.
.
-
,
(, )
.
, ,
:
, ,
(V, 2, 41-42) 1.
,

:
...
, ?

, , ; 1939.
.

261

, , :
... () ... () ?
!
,
.
, , , ,
:
( ),
- (III, 4, 186, 187).

:
!
! !
! ! ! .
, ,
.
, ,
. , ,
:
, , ,
, (III, 3, 194).

:
, , !
. , , ,
:
? (I, 3, 17)
:
!

262

:
,
.
,
, ,
.
, , ?:
, (?) ,
.
(IV, 1, 88)
:
...
, , (?) ,
(?) .
(V, 2, 345, 346)

.
(V, 2, 6)

, ,
, . (?!)
(IV, 1, 239)
,
, , ,
. ,
,
,
, .
,
.
.
,
(V, 1, 100),
263

,
.
, .
,
,
.
. ,
, .
1
! ! ! !
, ! ( ?)
2
...
3
. (?)
4
(?), .
5
; (?) ?
6
, ,
. (?)
. , ,

.
,
:
(?) .
,
? , ,
?
,
:
264

, , ,
(I, 3, 3).
-
: ? ?
? ? ?
, :
...
, , : ?
:

.
: ? ?

:
e ( ?), (?),
( ?), ( ? ?) . . . .

,
.
: , ,
,
.
, , :
(?) ,
(?) (?) .
? ?
, -,
,
?
. ,
- ,
, . The robb'd
, .
:
265

, ,
-,
, ,
1.
.
, ,
.
. ,
,
,
,
. , . , .

.
:
, , (?) ,
(?) .
-. ,
- .
- ,
, ,
.
:
,
, ,
.
, ,
, .
1

, , . III, . 1902, . 300. (


.)

266

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Et 1'ont enchn tout 1'hivor.

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1. . . ..
2. .
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3. . . .
4. . .
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5. . .. .
6. . .
7. ..
I
...........................................
II
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III
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8. . ..
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10. .
1. ..
2. ..
11. ..
....
12. ..
13. .

306

3
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32
42
53
61
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72
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119
153
155
194
194
231
252
280
288


. .. ( - ..)
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27.08.07
18.09.07
1000


.
..
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