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английским

Сборник
грамматических
упражнений
А. В. Смирнов
I. Prepositions of movement

Предлоги движения используются для того, чтобы показать


направление, в котором кто-либо или что-либо движется.

1 Fill in the missing words.

Preposition Translation Preposition Translation


over into
up through
под по направлению
out of down
ВДОЛЬ через
мимо

2 Choose the correct variant.


D G o _________ (along/across) the street and you will see the mansion to the right.
2) The tra ffic __________ (through/under) the bridge is closed.
3) If you m ove_________(down/into) the street, you can see the monument you
want.
4) The bridge_________ (past/ across) the river was built a year ago.
5) The car was moving_________ (towards/along) me and I stopped.
6) When I cam e__________ (into/up) the room, everybody looked at me.
7) Mary w e n t__________(out of/past) the house and saw it was raining.
8) The coach m oved__________(past/across) the long fence and stopped.
9) The balloon went ______ (down/up) and soon it was flying above the fields
and meadows.
Ю ) The travellers had to push_________ (across/through) the forest a n d _________
(over/under) the hill to reach the village.

3 Fill in th e c o rre c t prepositions.


1) We w e n t___________several shops and at last came to the park gates.
2) Moving over small bridges___________canyons is very dangerous.
3) When we cam e___________the cathedral, there were many tourists.
4) The village we were looking for sto o d ___________the river.
5) G oing___________the dark places, first get used to the sunlight.
6) There are nice roses growing___________the Green Street.
7) During the storm, the boat w e n t___________a n d ___________ .
8) Many years ago, there were no ships to g o ___________ice in Antarctica.
9) Walking___________a ladder in considered bad luck in England.
Ю) The bus was moving___________the bus stop, so we had to hurry.

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II. Present Simple
Формообразование
• В утвердительных предложениях форма 3-го лица единственного числа
образуется путём добавления -s к смысловому глаголу: / run - Не runs.
We w rite - She writes.
• Отрицательные предложения, в которых глагол стоит в форме 3-го лица
единственного числа, образуются так: вспомогательный глагол does
n o t/d o e sn ’t + смысловой глагол без окончания -s: Не does
n o t/d o e sn ’t до to school at the weekend.
• Отрицательные предложения, в которых глагол стоит в других
грамматических лицах, образуются так: вспомогательный глагол do
n o t/d o n ’t + смысловой глагол: / do n o t/d o n ’t like hockey.
• Вопросительные предложения, в которых глагол стоит в форме 3-го лица
единственного числа, образуются так: вспомогательный глагол does +
подлежащее + основной глагол без окончания -s: Does she often buy
clothes?
• Вопросительные предложения, в которых глагол стоит в других
грамматических лицах, образуются так: вспомогательный глагол do +
подлежащее + основной глагол: Do you know this author?
Употребление
Present Simple используется, когда речь идёт о:
• повседневных действиях:
Iwoke up at 8 o ’clock every day. He walks to school.
• постоянных действиях:
They live in Russia, (постоянно)
It snows every winter in Alaska, (факт)
• расписаниях/программах:
The bus leaves at 10a.m.
• об общеизвестных фактах или законах природы:
Water boils at 100 °С.
Правила правописания (3-е лицо единственного числа)
• К большинству глаголов в 3-м лице единственного числа добавляется -s:
/ talk — he talks I hate — he hates.
• К глаголам, оканчивающимся на -ss, -sh, -ch, -x и -о, добавляется -es:
Ipass — he passes I fix — he fixes
I brush — he brushes I go — heg
• У глаголов, оканчивающихся на согласную + у, -у заменяется на -/ и
добавляется -es: / cry — he cries.
• К глаголам, оканчивающимся на гласную + у, добавляется -s: / play —he plays.
Указатели времени (сигналы), употребляемые с Present Simple: every
hour/day/week/month/year и т. д ., usually, always, every morning/afternoon/
evening/night, at noon, at night, in the morning/afternoon/evening и т. д.
1 Fill in the table.

Infinitive Present Simple Infinitive Present Simple


to write to jog
to learn to live
to swim to do
to wash to have
to go to return

2 Open the brackets.

1) I _________ (to live) in the mountains.


2) _____ ___ y o u _________ (to swim) much?
3) They always_________ (to return) on time.
4) The tra in _________ (to leave) at 8.30 a.m.
5) Jerem y_________ (to walk) to school.
6) Kate and Nikita_________ (to take) a school bus every morning.
7) _____ ___ A m ie_________ (to miss) her parents?
8) They usually_________ (to play) basketball on Friday.
9) I always_________ (to pass) the park on my way home.
10) W ater________ (to boil) at 100 °C.

3 Write negative sentences to the following.

1) My mother always cooks Haggis for dinner.

2) I climb the fence on my way home.

3) Water boils at 200 °C.

4) My sister comes home at night.

5) We have parties every day.

6) My friend studies on Sunday.

7) My granny can speak Chinese and Japanese.

8) My brother plays music.

9) Most elderly people go jogging.

Ю ) Animals brush their teeth every morning.

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Я

III. Present Continuous


ж
Present Continuous образуется при помощи вспомогательного
глагола to be (am, is, are) и смыслового глагола с окончанием -ing.

Утвердительные предложения Отрицательные предложения


1am reading. 1am not reading.
You ч You 1I
We l are reading. We \ are not (aren’t) reading.
They J They 1J
He \ He ] I
She > is reading. She r is not (isn’t) reading.
It J It J
1

Вопросительные предложения Краткие ответы

Am I reading? Yes, I am. / No, I’m not.


you \ Yes, he/she/it is. /
Are J
( we
they J
l reading? No, he/she/it isn’t.
Yes, we/you/they are. /

{r }
No, we/you/they aren’t.
Is reading?

Правила правописания причастия настоящего времени


• У большинства глаголов окончание -ing добавляется к
неопределённой форме глагола без частицы to: wash - washing,
read - reading, watch - watching.
• У глаголов, оканчивающихся на -е, опускается -е и добавляется -ing:
write - writing, take - taking.
• У односложных глаголов с гласной между двумя согласными
удваивается последняя согласная и добавляется -ing: run - running,
stop - stopping.
Present Continuous употребляется, когда речь идёт о:
• действиях, происходящих сейчас, в момент речи: Tommy is doing his
homework now. (Томми делает свою домашнюю работу в данный
момент.)
• действиях, происходящих в настоящий период времени, но не
обязательно в момент речи: Sam is working hard these days. (Сэм
напряжённо работает в эти дни.)
Указатели времени (сигналы), употребляемые с Present Continuous:
now, at the moment, at present, these days и т. д.

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1 Write the -ing forms of the verbs.

to come to play
to travel to wait
to make to look
to work to learn
to swim to prepare

2 Open the brackets.


1) I ___________(to swim) now.
2) My friends___________(to jog).
3) ______ ____ sh e ___________ (to go) to school now?
4) They___________(to go) to the cinema this weekend.
5) I- m ___________(to fly) to Hong Kong this Sunday.
6) My grandm a___________(to wait) for me in the park now.
7) ______ ____ my relatives___________ (to come) to our place on holidays?
8) The kid s___________ (to play) football on the football pitch now.
9) The d o g ___________ (to run) with my younger brother.
Ю) The baby___________(to cry). Find out what the matter is.

3 Write negative sentences to the following.


1) I’m taking a shower.

2) The weather is changing this week.

3) Our sportsmen are going to Canada tomorrow.

4) Yaroslavl is changing all the time.

5) Water is getting colder every day.

6) My friend is doing his work now.

7) My dad is washing his car now.

8) The sea is getting dirty.

9) The sun is shining.

Ю ) She is writing a poem for her mother’s birthday.

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IV. Present Simple vs Present Continuous

Present Simple употребляется, когда речь идёт о:


• постоянных действиях: John lives in New York.
• повторяющихся действиях: He works from 11 to 7 every day.
• повседневных действиях: He usually plays tennis at weekends.
Present Continuous употребляется, когда речь идёт о:
• действиях, происходящих сейчас, в момент речи: Carl is writing
I
something on Facebook right now.
• действиях, происходящих в настоящий период времени, но не
обязательно в момент речи: Misha is looking fora new job these
days.
Некоторые глаголы состояния (stative verbs) обычно не имеют
форму Present Continuous. Среди них: have like,
love, want, know, live, remember, understand, believe, need, see
smell и т. д. Ilove fast food. (Неправильно: I ’m loving fast food.)
I have a computer. (Неправильно: I ’m having a computer.)
HO: I’m having breakfast now. (= I ’m eating)

1 Fill in the table.

Infinitive Present Simple Present Continuous


to look
to make
to swim
to wash
to go
to jog
to leave

2 Write the interrogative and negative sentences.

1) She gets up early.

2) She is waiting for me now.

3) He is looking for a job of a manager.


4) Dmitry does a lot of work on designing.

5) Dad is coming from his trip to Sebastopol.

6) The boys are having lunch now.

7) Our teacher usually comes to the lesson on time.

3 Open the brackets using Present Simple or Present Continuous.

- What you 1 . ____________(to do) now?


- I 2 . ___________(to listen) to the new CD of Uriah Heep.
- Mm, I haven’t heard about this group. Where is it from?
- Great Britain. I 3 . ____________(to have) all its CDs. I like it!
- I 4 . ____________(to want) to learn something about this group.
- I 5 . ____________(to think) I can lend you some CDs. I hope you like them.
- OK. What CDs would you like to advise me to listen?
- I 6 . _____________ (to believe) you must start with the first CD.
- Are you free now?
- I’m afraid not! I 7 . ______________ (to look) after my little sister. She
8 . ___________________ (to play) with her toys.
- That’s OK. I 9 . ______________ (not to go) to disturb you anymore. What you
1 0 .________________ (to do) tomorrow?
- 1 1 1.______________ (to look) for a part-time job in the neighbourhood in the
morning. Then I am free.
V. Модальные глаголы can/be able to - can’t - could -
(don’t) have to - must - mustn’t

• Глагол can не изменяется по лицам и числам и за ним всегда


следует смысловой глагол без частицы to.
• Сап употребляется для того, чтобы:
- показать способность/умение: Неcan speak En
to.)
- попросить разрешения сделать что-либо: Can I look at your book?
(Is it OK if I ...?)
- дать разрешение сделать что-либо: Yes, you can use my smartphone.
(You are allowed.)
- выразить возможность что-либо сделать: You can book the hotel
online. (It’s possible.)
Отрицательная форма глагола can - cannot или can’t.
• Can’tупотребляется для того, чтобы выразить запрет: No, you can’t
до fora walk until you finish your homework. (You aren’t allowed to.)

1 Choose the correct variant.

1) You____________(must / can) drive carefully near the crossing.


2) The w a te r____________ (was able to / couldn’t) be cold. It has been very hot
these days.
3) The elephants______________ (mustn’t / are not able to) stand the mice.
4) My Granny____________ (could / mustn’t) speak several languages.
5) People____________ (mustn’t / are not able to) litter in the city.
6) He was weak and everybody____________(had to / was able to) beat him.
7) (Can / C ould)___________you hear a strange noise out there?
8) W e_____________ (could / had to) smell something burning.
9) The children____________(are able to / mustn’t) talk with their mouthful.
10) She is a perfect psychologist. S he____________(was able to / had to) persuade
me to come.

2 Complete the sentences using can or be able to. Use the proper tense forms.

1) Harry has travelled a lot and h e ________ speak three languages.


2) I haven’t __________sleep well this night.
3) Sam ________ drive but he hasn’t got a car.
4) She used________ do karate.
5) H e________ drive slowly if he wants.
6) I can’t understand George. I ________never understand him.
7) Be careful with the reptile. I t ________ be poisonous.
8) Kangaroos________ run at a high speed.
9) S he________ take up the job. She does not have any experience.
Ю) I ________ come and see you tomorrow if you want.

3 Complete the sentences using modals. Use the proper tense forms.
1 ) You____________park here it’s strictly forbidden.
2) ____ y o u ____________ to understand his singing?
3) Children____________wash their hands before taking meals.
4) She is too sick. S he____________walk a n d ____________ stay in bed.
5) I had to go to the next shop, because I ___________ to buy any bread in the
nearest one.
6) You____________smoke here.
7) The city is a big jungle where y o u ____________easily get lost.
8 ) Everybody____________to escape from fire.
9) Elephants____________carry big logs.
Ю) I used___________ to sing well.

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VI. The Comparative & Superlative

• К односложным прилагательным добавляется -(е)г для образования \


сравнительной степени и -(e)s t для образования превосходной
степени:
small — smaller ( than) — the smallest
• У прилагательных, состоящих из двух или более слогов,
сравнительная и превосходная степени образуются при помощи
тоге(более) / most (самый): expensive — more expensive (than) —
the most expensive (of/in)
Правила правописания
• У односложных прилагательных, оканчивающихся на -е, добавляется J
только -г в сравнительной и -st в превосходной степенях:
nice — nicer (than) — the nicest
• У односложных прилагательных, оканчивающихся на гласную +
согласную, эта согласная удваивается:
thin — thinner (than) — the thinnest
• У прилагательных, оканчивающихся на согласную +у, -у заменяется
на -/:
busy — busier (than) — the busiest (of/in)
Употребление
• Сравнительная степень используется для сравнения двух людей,
животных, предметов, мест и т. д. В этих случаях обычно используется j
than.
Mark is more intelligent than Tony.
Trains are faster than cars.
• Превосходная степень указывает на высшую степень качества у того
или иного лица или предмета в группе подобных. Для выражения
превосходной степени используется the of/in:
The cheetah is the fastest animal of all.
Sandra is the tallest girl in the class.
• (not) as + adjective + as используется для того, чтобы подчеркнуть,
что люди, места или предметы похожи или отличаются:
The green dress is not as expensive as the red one.
Для усиления смысла используются:
• very + прилагательное. It is very hot today. (Сегодня очень жарко.)
• much / a lot /f ar / a little / a bit + сравнительная степень
прилагательного + than. She isn’t much younger than me. (Она не j
намного моложе меня.)

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ШШшт

1 Write the comparatives and superlatives of the given adjectives.


small
tall
old
old-fashioned
messy
light
clean
colourful
comfortable
large
modern
bad
thin
fat
good

2 Choose the correct variant.

1) This film is _________ _(more interesting / interesting) than the play (пьеса).
2) Their TV set is ______ ____ (the most modern / more modern) than our one.
3) The car is __________ _ (the most modern / more modern) of all.
4) English is __________ _ (the most important / more important) language in the
world.
5) Our country cottage is ___________ (beautiful / more beautiful) than our friends’
house.
6) Sochi is ___________ (small / smaller) than Brighton.
7) A bungalow is ______ ____ (cheaper / the cheapest) than a villa.
8) Villages are not a s ___ ________(crowded / bigger) as cities.
9) The city centre is ____ _______(noisier / the noisiest) than the suburbs.
Ю) The mansion is ____ _____ (older / the oldest) building in the city.

3 Make sentences to the model.

e.g. This flower (beautiful) that flower. — This flower is more beautiful than that
flower. A car (expensive) a plane. — A car is not as expensive as a plane.
1) This newspaper (interesting) the book.

2) This house (not modern) that one.

3) His flat (comfortable) mine.

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4) English (important) for me Technology.

5) Art (not important) for her French.

6) A sea (deep) a river.

7) A skyscraper (tall) a townhouse.

8) His iPad (expensive) mine.

9) Tom’s kitchen (not modern) Mary’s one.

Ю) Our curtains (not colourful) theirs.

4 Complete the sentence using a s ... as; is not

1) Mike is n o t_____ ta ll_____ Pete.


2) Kate is _____ n ice ______Ann.
3) My room is _____ light_____ this one.
4) This book is _____ th in ______that one.
5) Sergei is _____ o ld ______Vadim.
6) I a m _____ ta ll______Pete.
7) Amy is n o t_____ beautiful______Kate.
8) Our flat is n o t___ com fortable______his.
9) The building is _____ m odern______the cinema.
Ю) A block of flats is n o t_____ sm all_______a villa.

5 Open the brackets using the correct forms of the adjectives.

1) In summer the nights a re ___________(short) than in winter.


2) His bedroom is ___________(small) room in the flat.
3) My brother is ___________(young) than my sister.
4) This letter is ___________(long) than that one.
5) Olga is a s ___________(pretty) as Kate.
6) This car is ___________(fast).
7) This season of the year is ___________(good).
8) Their house is ___________(comfortable) than ours.
9) The painting of this artist is ____________ (colourful) of all.
Ю) His room is not a s ____________ (messy) as mine.

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VII. Модальные глаголы to

• Should / shouldn’t / ought to / ought not to употребляются для


выражения совета:
You should be careful with electricty. (Тебе стоит быть осторожным с
электричеством.)
You ought to respect the elderly. (Тебе надо уважать старших.)
• Should/shouldn’tиспользуются для выражения рекомендации:
You shouldn’t eat fatty foods. (Тебе не следует есть жирную пищу.)

Write a sentence for each situation with should/shouldn’t using the word
combinations from the box.

make the bed; hoover the carpets; take out the rubbish; dust
the furniture; realize the problem; put pictures on the walls; lay
the table; look for another job; wear a scarf; mop the floor

1) (There’s so much dust)_____


2) (The kitchen looks dull)_____
3) (The weather is warm)_____
4) (The carpets look dirty)_____
5) (Guests are c o m in g )______
6) (The bedroom is messy)____
7) (My salary is very low)_____
8) (The cat upset the vase)____
9) (The dustbin isn’t fu ll) _____
10) (Mary is bad at Mathematics)

2 Complete the sentences using should/shouldn’t or ought / ought not.

1) Bikers__________wear a helmet.
2) They__________share the household chores to help parents.
3) Do you think I __________to apply for the job?
4) It was a great concert. You__________to have come.
5) She looks exhausted. S he__________ go to bed earlier.
6) He works hard, so h e __________to pass his exams.
7) They don’t love each other. I believe, th e y __________get married.
8) Sam __________to go away so early. There is some surprise for him.
9) You__________ give her your advice.
10) Be careful with electricity! You__________ call an electrician to check it.
I. Countable / uncountable nouns
:: ..........

Исчисляемые существительные имеют форму единственного и


множественного числа: one book — two books — three books и т. д.
• Неисчисляемые существительные не имеют формы множест­
венного числа: milk, bread, pasta, meat (Неправильно: meats).
Следующие слова используются с соответствующими неисчисля­
емыми существительными для обозначения количества:
a bottle of: a bottle o f lemonade] a glass of: a glass o f water, a carton of:
a carton o f milk] a cup of: a cup o f coffee] a bowl of: a bowl of rice] a bag
of: a bag of flour, a slice of: a slice of toast] a loaf of: a loaf o f bread] a kilo
of: a kilo o f meat] a packet of: a packet of crisps] a box of: a box of
chocolates] a bar of: a bar of soap] a pot of: a pot of tea-, a tub of: a tub of
ice cream] a jar of: a ja r of honey, a tin of: a tin of soup] a bunch of:
a bunch of bananas] a can of: a can of cola

1 Write the plural forms of the nouns.

1) a flower
2) a tomato
3) an orange
4) a banana
5) a strawberry
6) a cherry
7) a lemon
8) a carrot
9) a cucumber
Ю) an onion

2 Classify the nouns from the box into the table.

porridge, carrot, lemon, chocolate, cereal, soup, ice cream, carton, milk,
bunch, cheese, product, jam, tomato, tea, egg, sugar, sweet, banana

With a/an Without a/an


3 Match the two columns.

1) a glass of a) beef
2) a carton of b) bread
3) a cup of c) cereal
4) a bowl of d) cheese
5) a slice of e) chocolate
6) a loaf of f) coffee
7) a kilo of g) crisps
8) a packet of h) flowers
9) a box of i) honey
10) a bar of j) juice
11) a tub of k) milk
12) a jar of I) sardines
13) a tin of m) soda
14) a bunch of n) sweets
15) a can of o) yogurt

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II. А / An - Some / Any / No

Артикль a/an употребляется с исчисляемыми существительными


в единственном числе: There is a dog. There isn’t a cat. Is there a
mouse?
Some употребляется с исчисляемыми существительными во
множественном числе и с неисчисляемыми существительными
в утвердительных предложениях: / want some oranges and some
yogurt.
Any употребляется с исчисляемыми существительными во
множественном числе и с неисчисляемыми существительными
в отрицаниях и вопросах: Are there any apples in the fridge? There
isn’t any/is no coffee.
Примечание: Some используется в вопросах для выражения
предложения или просьбы: Would you like some juice?
(предложение).

1 Choose the correct variant.


1) Is there any/some milk in the fridge?
2) There’s no/any sugar at home.
3) Can I have any/some water, please?
4) The English put no/some milk into their tea.
5) Гve got some/any apples. Let’s make an apple pie.
6) There are some/no oranges left. I must go and buy some.
7) Гm going to buy some/any boxes of chocolate for the birthday party.
8) We don’t need any/no cartons of juice. There are plenty of them here.
9) She needs no/some fish and potatoes to cook the traditional English dish.
Ю) Are there any sweets, Carly? - Not some/any.

2 Fill in som e/any/no.


1) I can’t s e e ____________sugar here. Where is it?
2) There a re ____________fruit in the basket. Where have they gone?
3) Let’s g e t____________bottles of Coca-Cola.
4) Liza has____________money in the purse.
5) I think they can b rin g ____________packets of crisps for the party.
6) Mother thinks we don’t need to b u y____________yogurt.
7) There a re ____________jars of jam in granny’s cellar. Go and b rin g_________
you like.
8) Do you have____________new recipes? — Yes, I’ve fo u n d ____________ .
9) To cook a pizza we need____________tomatoes, cheese, an onion and some
oregano.
Ю ) How about____________chocolate cakes? — Good idea!

20
III. Quantifiers

• A lot o f (/lo
tsof) употребляется в утвердительных предложениях с
неисчисляемыми и исчисляемыми существительными во
множественном числе. Предлог of опускается, если
нет существительного. There is a lot of meat in the fridge. There are a
lot of sardines in the tin. Were there lots of sardines in the tin? — Yes,
there were lots.
• Much и many употребляются в отрицательных или вопросительных
предложениях. Much употребляется с неисчисляемыми существи­
тельными, a many — с исчисляемыми существительными во мно­
жественном числе: Is there much water in the pot? There isn’t much
bread left. Do you have many oranges? There aren’t many apples left.
• How much употребляется с неисчисляемыми существительными в
вопросах о количестве чего-либо:
A: How much beef do we need?
B: A kilo, (количество)
• How many употребляется с исчисляемыми существительными в
вопросах о числе людей/предметов:
A; How many students are there in your class?
B: Fifteen, (число)
• Too much употребляется с неисчисляемыми существительными,
чтобы показать, что чего-либо больше, чем нужно или требуется:
The neighbours are making too much noise. (Соседи слишком сильно
шумят.)
• Too many употребляется с исчисляемыми существительными,
чтобы показать, что чего-либо больше, чем нужно или требуется:
Don’t buy too many tomatoes. (He покупай слишком много
помидоров.)
• A few означает «немного, но достаточно», и употребляется с
исчисляемыми существительными во множественном числе: We
have a few eggs. We can make an omelette. (У нас есть немного яиц.
Мы можем приготовить омлет.)
• A little означает «немного, но достаточно» и используется с
неисчисляемыми существительными: Can I have a little milk in ту
tea? (Можно мне добавить немного молока в чай?)
• Few/Little означает «почти нет», недостаточно и может
I ' , ■
использоваться с very для усиления смысла: There is (very) little
sugar in my tea. I can’t drink it. (В чае слишком мало сахара. Я не могу
его пить.) There are (very) few apples. I can’t make a pie. (У нас
слишком мало яблок. Я не могу испечь пирог)

21
1 Fill in the missing quantifiers.

countable uncountable
many
a lot of
some / a few
little / isn’t much
any / no

2 Write sentences using the words in brackets.

e.g . H e hasgot pens, (few) — He has got few pens.

1) She has got brothers, (some)

2) They have got friends, (many)

3) Nick has got pens, (many)

4) We have got sisters, (no)

5) Kate and Andrew have got German and French books, (some)

6) They need milk to make curds, (much)

7) Don’t eat junk food, (much)

8) There’s butter in the fridge, (very little)

3 Choose the correct variant.

1) There’s no/any need to be so upset.


2) Can we have few/som e popcorn while watching the film?
3) There was no/any fresh water in the bottle, only fizzy drinks.
4) I’d like to have little/som e ice cream in the park. What about you?
5) How many/much money do you have Pete?
6) She eats iots/some of fish products.
7) Are you ready? — Not yet. I need a few /little more minutes.
8) Would you like some/а lot of juice to drink?
9) Would you like any/few side orders?
Ю) There’s few /little food left. We must do the shopping.

22
Too - Enough

Too + прилагательное/наречие + инфинитив с частицей to


Too ставится перед прилагательными или наречиями и имеет
отрицательный смысл, показывая, что чего-либо больше, чем нужно
или требуется: The tea is too hot to drink. (Чай слишком горячий.)
Прилагательное/наречие + enough + инфинитив/enoug/i +
существительное
Enough ставится перед существительным, но после прилагательных
или наречий. Enough несёт положительный смысл и показывает, что
чего-либо столько, сколько требуется или нужно: Masha is tall
enough to reach the top shelf. (Маша достаточно высокая, чтобы
дотянуться до верхней полки.) We have enough money to go on
holiday this year. (У нас достаточно средств, чтобы поехать отдыхать в
этом году.) The shoes are not big enough. (Размер ботинок
недостаточно большой. = Ботинки малы.) You are not walking fast
enough. (Ты идёшь недостаточно быстро. = Ты идёшь медленно.)

1 Choose the correct variant.

1 ) The potatoes are too/enough hot. I can’t eat them.


2 ) It’s warm too/enough, so we can go for a walk.
3) The environment is getting too/enough polluted.
4) The cities are not too/enough convenient to live in.
5) You’re old too/enough to understand the rules.
6) The rule is too/enough complicated to understand.
7) I have got too/enough food to travel to the farthest point.
8) She has got too/enough much water and can share it with us.
9) Do you have too/enough time to listen to my problem?
10) There are too/enough many people in the room.

2 Fill in too/enough.

1) I can’t see anything. It’s __________ dark outdoors.


2) This year winter w a s__________cold to come out.
3) I don’t have__________ products to invite my friends tonight.
4) The jeans a re __________ short for her. She needs size 34.
5) She can swim fa s t__________ to compete with the last-year winner.
6) Charlie is ta ll__________to take the cat off the tree.
7) My MP3 player is __________ old. I need a new one.
8) I can’t drink the coffee. It’s __________strong and I won’t sleep.
9) Mum cooks pizza ta sty_________ to eat it all.
Ю) The face of the clock is _________ small for my granny to see the time.

23
V. Infinitive -ing/to

-ingформа глагола употребляется:


в роли подлежащего: Boxing is ту favourite sport.
после глаголов admit, appreciate, avoid, begin, consider, continue,
deny, dislike, enjoy, fancy, finish, hate, imagine, like, love, mind, miss,
prefer, prevent, spend, start, stop, suggest, waste( time, money) ит.д.:
They enjoy spending time at home.
после глагола go, когда речь идёт о роде деятельности или
физической активности: / often до jogging in the mornings.
после предлогов: She’s good at wasting money.
после таких выражений, как: be busy, it ’s no use, it ’s (not) worth,
there’s no point (in), what’s the use of, can’t help, can’t stand, have
difficulty (in), look forward to: I look forward to meeting you next week.
Инфинитив с частицей to употребляется:
для выражения цели: / bought cheese to make a pizza.
после глаголов advise, agree, ask, decide, expect, explain, hope,
manage, offer, plan, promise, refuse, seem, want ит.д .: / want to buy
a new tablet PC.
после словосочетаний be + прилагательное (happy, nice, sorry
и т .д .):// is nice to be back home.
после too/enough: It’s too late to visit her now. She’s old enough to
go shopping.
после would like, would love, would prefer: I ’d love to go to the theatre
with you.
Инфинитив без частицы to употребляется:
после модальных глаголов (can, may, should и т. д.): can play
volleyball. You may eat some pie. You should call your grandmother.
после глаголов make и let: Let’s go to the park! You shouldn’t make
her do it.
после would rather (not)/had better (not): I’d rather stay out tonight.
You had better not park here.

1 Classify the verbs from the box to the table.

like, too/enough, don’t mind, it ’s worth, want, ask, can’t stand, look forward to,
can’t help, like, avoid, imagine, hope, suggest, fancy, enjoy, promise, expect

24
-ing form to-lnfinitive

2 Choose the correct variant.

1) I don’t mind (to have/having) a bite.


2) She looks forward (to meet/meeting) them.
3) I want (to visit/visiting) my grandparents on weekend or holidays.
4) I can’t imagine her (to get/getting) married to Harry.
5) I’d like to make him (work/working) better.
6) Let’s stop (to eat/eating) at this restaurant.
7) We couldn’t help (to laugh/laughing) at Robin Williams’s acting.
8) How do you prefer (to travel/travelling): by train or plane?
9) Do you fancy (to eat/eating) out?
10) It was difficult enough (to learn/learning) to play the guitar.

3 Put the verbs into the to Infinitive or -ing form.


1) She can’t _____________ (to imagine) him a doctor.
2) We don’t want th e m _____________ (to disturb) us.
3) I don’t m ind_____________ (to open) the window, it’s so stuffy.
4) He stopped_____________ (to smoke). I would like him to stop _
(to smoke)!
5) The story is w o rth _____________ (to retell).
6) Would you prefer_____________ (to start) with salad?
7) She isn’t fan cy______________(to go) out tonight.
8) It’s too d ifficu lt_____________ (to workout) in such hot weather.
9) He promised m e _____________ (to come) the other day.
Ю) Avoid_____________ (to drink) water from rivers. Boil it first.

25
I.Past Simple

Правильные глаголы
( )
1 Утверждение Отрицание Вопрос
5 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 \I
1 you you you
j he he he
§ she danced. she 1l did not/didn’t dance. Did she dance?
| 1
j it it it
we we we
f
I you you you
f they 1 they | \ they 1

Неправильные глаголы
Утверждение l/you/he/she/it/we/they saw.
Отрицание l/you/he/she/it/we/they did not/didn’t see.
Вопрос Did l/you/he/she/it/we/they see?
Краткие ответы
Yes, l/you/he/she/it/we/they did.

}No, l/you/he/she/it/we/they didn't.

Формообразование
Past Simple образуется при помощи подлежащего (существи­
тельного или личного местоимения) и соответствующей формы
глагола.
Утвердительные предложения
Past Simple правильных глаголов образуется путём добавления -ed
к начальной форме глагола без частицы to: — I played.
Неправильные глаголы особую форму Past Simple без окончания
-ed: I eat — ate.
Отрицательная форма
Отрицательная форма образуется при помощи вспомогательного
глагола did not / didn’t + подлежащее + начальная форма
глагола без частицы to: I didn’t watch television yesterday. He didn’t
sleep well last night.
Вопросительная форма
Вопросительная форма образуется при помощи вспомога­
тельного глагола did + подлежащее + неопределённая форма
глагола без частицы to: Did you play football yesterday? Did you eat
breakfast this morning?

26
Краткие ответы
Краткие утвердительные ответы образуются с а краткие
отрицательные ответы — с didn’t. “Did call him?” “Yes, I did.”
“Did you tell her?” “No, I didn ’t.
Правила правописания правильных глаголов
в утвердительной форме
• В глаголах, оканчивающихся на -е, добавляется только -d: I live —
I lived.
• В глаголах, оканчивающихся на согласную + у, -у заменяется на -/
и добавляется -ed:Istudy - / studied.
• В односложных глаголах с гласной между двумя согласными
удваивается последняя согласная и добавляется -ed: I slip —
I slipped.
Употребление
Мы используем Past Simple для рассказа о:
• прошлых привычках: Не often studied till very late at night when he
was a student.
• действиях, которые произошли в определённый момент времени в
прошлом. Время либо упоминается, либо подразумевается: Не
moved to Russia from America in 1984.
• последовательных действиях в прошлом: Не turned on his computer,
connected to the Internet and checked his e-mails.
Указатели времени (сигналы), употребляемые с Past Simple:
yesterday, last night/week ит .д ., two weeks/а month ago,
и т. д.

1 Write the past forms of the verbs.

1) to d o ______________________
2) to l e a r n ______________________
3) to c o m e ______________________
4) to t e a c h ______________________
5) to t a k e ______________________
6) to w i n ______________________
7) to l e a d ______________________
8) to fight ______ _______________
9) to m e e t ______________________
10) to b e ______________________
2 Make the sentences negative.

1) Leonardo Da Vinci was a famous composer.

2) Sir Arthur Conan Doyle wrote many stories about plants and animals.

3) Alexander Bell painted the famous Lisa.

4) Michael Lermontov studied the anatomy of the human body.

5) Bill Gates created the early flying machine.

6) Claude Monet explored nature.

7) Isaac Newton founded many historical artefacts in Asia.

8) Michael Cane was a famous architect in the 70’s.

9) Roger Moor starred in Gone with the Wind, the famous Hollywood blockbuster.

Ю) John Lennon invented reggae music in the early 80’s.

3 Put the verbs from the box in each sentence. Use them in Past Simple.

to become, to get, to happen, to find, to die,


to build, to create, to make, to draw, to explore

1) David Livingstone_________ Africa.


2) Julius Caesar_________ strong Roman Empire.
3) The Great Fire of London_________ in 1666.
4) Alexander the Great_________ one of the most talented commanders.
5) Cleopatra_________ of the poisonous snake’s bite.
6) Sir Benjamin Hall_________ the symbol of London — Big Ben.
7) Paul McCartney_________ many international awards for his music.
8) Isaac Levitan_________ fine sketches now housed in his museum in Plyos.
9) Michael Lomonosov_________ the Moscow State University.
Ю) Vladimir Putin_________ our country one of the most powerful in the world.

28
II. Wh-questions with who,what, where, when - P

Специальные вопросы начинаются с вопросительных слов what,


where, when и т. д. Вспомогательный или модальный глагол в таких
вопросах ставится перед подлежащим: вопросительное слово + ;
вспомогательный или модальный глагол + подлежащее.
\ • Who, когда спрашиваем о людях.
A:Who did you call?
В:My mother.
• Which, когда спрашиваем о предметах.
A: Which hotel did you stay at?
B: The Ritz Hotel.
• What, когда запрашиваем информацию.
A: What did you do last night?
В: I read a book.
• Where, когда спрашиваем о местоположении чего-либо/кого-либо.
A: Where did he до last night?
В: He went to a party.
• When, когда спрашиваем о времени или дате.
A: When did they leave?
В: Yesterday morning.
• Why, когда узнаём причину чего-либо.
A: Why did they leave so early?
B: They were really tired.
| • How, когда спрашиваем о качестве чего-либо.
A: How was the film?
В: It was great.
I • How long, когда спрашиваем о продолжительности чего-либо.
A: How long did she stay?
B: 3 weeks.

1 Choose the correct variant.

1) What/Who is your favourite writer?


2) When/Who was the first American President?
3) When/Where did Yury Gagarin fly into space?
4) When/Where was William Shakespeare born - in England or Wales?
5) Where/Who did the Mayflower sail?
6) When/Who was the Moscow State University founded?
7) Where/Who discovered India?
8) Who/When built St. Paul’s Cathedral?
9) Who/When did the World War I break out?
10) Where/What did Ivan Kruzenshtern travel?
2 C om plete th e qu estions using w h o w
, hat, wh

1) ________invented electricity?
2) ________did he live in 1998?
3) ____ ___ was Albert Einstein born?
4) ____ ___ did The Rolling Stones start their career — in Liverpool or London?
5) ____ ___ was the famous writer to create James Bond?
6) ____ ___ was Lewis Carroll?
7) _______ country was Mendeleev from?
8) ____ ___ wrote the famous novel Gulliver’s ?
ra
T
9) ____ ___ did Leonardo Da Vinci create the Mona Lisa — in America or Italy?
Ю) ____ ___ was Michael Faraday’s most famous invention?

3 Ask qu estions using th e w ords in brackets.

1) Albert Einstein was born in 1879 in Germany.


Where _____________________________________________________________
2) Marie Curie died in 1934.
Who _____________________________________________________________
3) Michael Jackson began his career in America.
What _____________________________________________________________
4) Valentin Pikul was the famous Russian writer.
What ______________________________________________________________
5) Christopher Columbus made his sea voyages in the 15th century.
Where ______________________________________________________________
6) Mary Groholtz, known as Madame Tussaud, studied the anatomy of the human body.
What ______________________________________________________________
7) Pele was the outstanding football player of all times.
Who ______________________________________________________________
8) Ringo Starr joined The Beatles in the late 60s.
When ______________________________________________________________
9) The Australian actor George Lazenby starred in the part of James Bond only once.
Who _____________________________________________________________
Ю ) David Cameron created many well-known Hollywood films, such as Terminator,
Titanic, Avatar and others.
What ______________________________

30
III. Past Continuous

Утверждение
l/He/She/lt was reading. WeДouДhey were reading.

Отрицание
Полная форма Краткая форма
l/He/She/lt was not reading. l/He/She/lt wasn’t reading.
We/You/They were not reading. WeДои ДЬеу weren’t reading.

Вопрос Краткие ответы


Was 1reading? Yes, 1was./No, 1wasn’t.
Were you reading? Yes, you were./No, you weren’t.
Was he/she/it reading? Yes, he/she/it was./No, he/she/it wasn’t.
Were we/you/they reading? Yes, we/you/they are./No, we/you/they aren’t.

Правила правописания
глагол + -ing:work - working
глагол -e + :dance - dancing
g
-in
у односложных глаголов с гласной между двумя согласными
удваивается последняя согласная и добавляется -ing: sit - sit
HO: travel - travel ling
Употребление
Past Continuous употребляется для:
описания действия, которое происходило в определённое время в
прошлом. При этом не указывается, когда действие началось или
закончилось: She was texting at 7 o ’clock yesterday afternoon. (Она
отправляла SMS-сообщения вчера в 7 часов вечера. (Мы не знаем,
когда она начала отправлять сообщения или когда она закончила.)
описания действия, которое происходило в прошлом и которое было
прервано другим действием: / was sleeping when Dima called. (Я
спал, когда позвонил Дима.)
описания двух или более одновременных действий, происходивших в
развитии в прошлом: Mum was cooking while I was doing my
homework. (Мама готовила, пока я делал уроки.)
описания атмосферы, обстановки и т. п., а также во вступлении к
рассказу: It was raining and the wind was blowing when we left home.
(Когда мы вышли из дома, шёл дождь и дул ветер.)
Указатели времени (сигналы), употребляемые с Past Continuous:
while, when, as, all day/night/morning, all day yesterday, и т. д.
Примечание:... while/as + Past Continuous (длительное действие);
... when + Past Simple (короткое действие).
1 Make the statements negative.
1) Bob was writing a letter at 5 p.m.

2) It was snowing when they returned home.

3) The wind was blowing from the east.

4) It was raining the whole day yesterday.

5) The boys were talking when I saw them.

6) Nick was waiting for Mary when we saw him near the cinema.

7) Mary was singing when he came home.

8) It was snowing hard when father returned home from the office.

9) The car was moving quickly when something wrong happened.

10) I was watching Pirates of the Caribbean at noon yesterday.

2 Make the statements interrogative.


1) Bob was writing a letter at 5 p.m.

2) It was snowing when they returned home.

3) The wind was blowing from the east.

4) It was raining the whole day yesterday.

5) The boys were talking when I saw them.

6) Nick was waiting for Mary when we saw him near the cinema.

7) Mary was singing when he came home.

8) It was snowing hard when father returned home from the office.

9) The car was moving quickly when something wrong happened.

10) I was watching Pirates of the Caribbean at noon yesterday.

32
3 Complete the sentences using the verbs from the box in Past Continuous.

to go, to think, to climb, to travel, to do,


to get, to write, to look, to come, to walk

1) I ______________ out of the window when I saw my aunt.


2) The b o y______________ by bus when the accident took place.
3) S he______________ out when the snowstorm began.
4) My parents______________ in Italy from August to September.
5) The s k y______________ black.
6) A nn______________ very quickly when she heard someone cry.
7) H e______________ experiments when something went wrong.
8) W e______________ the mountain when night came.
9) The students______________ the paper from 5 p.m. to 7 p.m.
10) My grandparents______________ of their past when I came in.

33
IV. Past Continuous vs Past Simple
- aw*- -ws*? -i

Past Simple Past Continuous


Действие, которое происходило в
Действие, которое произошло в определённое время в прошлом.
указанное время в прошлом: Tanya При этом не указывается, когда
visited Yakutsk last month. (Время действие началось или закончилось:
указано. Действие завершилось.) Leonid was working at six o ’clock
yesterday afternoon.

Два или более одновременных


Последовательные действия в
действия, происходивших в
прошлом: She got up, made
прошлом: / was surfing the Net while
breakfast and went to work.
my brother was listening to music.

1 Choose the correct variant.


1) She read / was reading when mother came.
2) Dad was sleeping while mother cooked / was cooking dinner.
3) They did / were doing yoga at this time yesterday.
4) We were going to the theatre when we met / were meeting him at the bus stop.
5) What were you doing when your brother watched / was watching TV?
6) Was it fine, when you skied / were skiing?
7) The girls were dancing when the music stopped / was stopping.
8) I listened / was listening to opera all evening yesterday.
9) He stayed / was staying at his place from 1 to 5 o ’clock yesterday.
Ю) The sun was shining while we sailed / were sailing.

2 Use the verb from the box and complete the sentences.

play, go, look, run, read, stay, call, get, take, study

1) She medicine all the year.


2) We photos while we were travelling in the Crimea.
3) She the piano from 5 to 9 o ’clock yesterday.
4) I you when the film started.
5) Ram after his little sister yesterday evening.
6) It dark while we were trying to reach the camp.
7) The scientist the report while the others were listening very attentively.
8) He at 7 o ’clock yesterday evening.
9) My family at the Hilton on holidays.
Ю) you home when it started to rain?
3 Open the brackets.

1) The w in d ____________(to blow) when w e ____________ (to be) in the open sea.
2) S he____________(to watch) the children play.
3) They____________(to leave) when sh e ____________ (to arrive).
4) I ____________(to travel) abroad when I ____________ (to get) his letter.
5) S he____________(to drive) when s h e ____________ (to see) me in the street.
6) I t ____________(to rain) all the evening yesterday.
7) When I ____________(to enter) the classroom, everybody____________ (to sit) at
the desks.
8) My frie n d ____________(to work) at 1 o ’clock yesterday.
9) W e____________(to have) breakfast when the postm an____________ (to come).
10) M ary____________(to get) ready for the exam while I ____________ (to read).
тш ■т т ю ш т >

V. Linking words - e
su
a
cbs
o, too / and/ also, but

Слова-связки обычно используются для того, чтобы объединить


предложения или идеи. Они выражают причину, результат, i
дополнения, сравнения и т. п.
• Because используется для выражения причины чего-либо: / spent the
weekend in bed because I was sick. i
• So используется, чтобы выразить результат: Не wanted to become an
actor so he went to college.
• Too, and или also используются для дополнения: She had shows in
Rome and Milan. She exhibited her work in Paris too. She fell down the
stairs and broke her leg. She has also visited Spain.
• But используется для выражения противопоставления: The
performance was good, but few people came.

1 Choose the correct variant.

1) She knows me, but/too I don’t know her.


2) We ran home because/but it started to rain.
3) Christopher Columbus sailed around the world because/so he wanted to discover
new lands.
4) We travelled in the south last summer so/and took many photos.
5) I don’t understand German so/and I need an interpreter.
6) She was born in China and/so she was aware of different national traditions.
7) It was hot and/but windy.
8) I was working hard and/because I had to pass my exams.
9) She was watching the play, me too/and.
Ю) The match wasn’t interesting because/but it didn’t mean anything for the teams.

2 Combine the sentences using the correct linking word.

1) She has many problems. She is not careful.

2) We were pressed for time. We had to run.

3) The weather was rainy. We had to take umbrellas.

4) The winter was cold. It was snowy.

5) Leonardo Da Vinci was a nice engineer. He was a sculptor.

36
6) Sir Arthur Conan Doyle created Sherlock Holmes. His famous character was
Dr Watson.

7) She can speak French. She doesn’t know Chinese.

8) I have many friends. I have many enemies.

9) He could compose catchy tunes. He couldn’t sing well.

10) Agatha Christie was a brilliant writer. Her private life was unsuccessful.

3 Fill in the blanks with linking word.

1) I can speak English fluently____________I practise it regularly.


2) Arnold Schwarzenegger worked hard__________ _ became famous.
3) Alexander Pushkin was a talented p o e t____________ he died young.
4) Mary Groholtz studied the anatomy of the bo dy____________created wax figures
of the prominent characters.
5) It was nasty____________we had to go out.
6) The theatre was far from our house____________we had to take a taxi.
7) Cleopatra was a beautiful____________clever woman.
8) Roald Dahl wrote books for children and film scrip ts____________.
9) When I was a boy I could play football w e ll____________I couldn’t swim.
10) My weekend was interesting___________ relaxing too.

37
I. Future Simple

Формообразование: will + инфинитив без частицы to


Употребление
Future Simple употребляется, когда речь идёт:
| • о прогнозах и предсказаниях на будущее обычно с выражениями
I think, I hope, I believe, I expect, наречиям
perhaps: I think we will arrive late. I expect he will be here at about
10 o ’clock. Perhaps we will go shopping later.
• о сиюминутных решениях: This dress is beautiful. buy it.
• об обещаниях (с глаголами I promise I’ll write
every day.
Don’t do this or I’ll be angry, (угроза) Don’t touch it or you’ll get
burnt, (предупреждение) / hope he’ll pass the test, (надежда)
I’ll get you a glass o f water, (предложения)
Указатели времени (сигналы), употребляемые с Future Simple:
tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next week/month/year, tonight,
soon, in a week/month/year и т. д.

1 Write the sentences in the Future Simple.

1) The kids go wind-surfing to the coast today.

2) They worry about it.

3) Our parents play paintball if it’s fine.

4) They have bubbles of fun swimming in the lake.

5) My schoolmates do archery in the legendary Sherwood Forest.

6) The museum organizes medieval festival for the guests.

7) It is exciting to learn scuba diving.

8) There are more than a hundred activities to do at the holiday village.

9) The weather is perfect for going horse-riding in the mountains.

Ю ) She does different types of water sports at the cost.

38
2 Make the sentences negative and interrogative.

1) We will make our holiday plans in a week.

2) They will arrange an unforgettable party for the kids.

3) Terry will go trekking tomorrow.

4) She will have a dangerous holiday without an instructor.

5) You will remember the time you spend there.

6) He will have great fun playing laser combat with us.

7) Our friends will take wind-surfing lessons at the beach tomorrow.

3 Put the verbs from the box in each sentence. Use them in Future Simple.

to play, to climb, to drive, to learn, to do, to go, to teach, to miss, to take, to worry

1) The tourists wind-surfing to the coast tomorrow.


2) What time the instructor us to make fire in the forest?
3) I don’t think we a guad bike. It’s too dangerous.
4) You the coach to the seaside. Hurry up!
5) They paintball if the weather isn’t rainy.
6) The kids walls in the camp.
7) They about it if they don’t make a try.
8) My parents scuba diving next summer holidays.
9) Ann and Mike a plunge tomorrow morning.
Ю) I fencing at the club next week.

39
II. To be going to

Употребление
J>
To be going to употребляется, когда речь идёт о:
планах на будущее и намерениях: / am going to fly to Paris next
week. (Я собираюсь лететь в Париж на следующей неделе.) What
are you going to do tonight, Ivan? (Иван, что ты собираешься
делать сегодня вечером?)
прогнозах, основанных на том, что мы видим или знаем: Таке а
photo! She’s going to blow out the candles. (Сфотографируй! Она
собирается задуть свечи.) Look at the clouds, it is going to snow!
(Взгляни на облака! Сечас снег пойдёт.)
принятых решениях по поводу действий в ближайшем будущем:
We’re going to travel to Thailand this summer. (Мы уже приняли
решение.)

1 Choose the correct variant.

1) I am /are going to take scuba diving lessons.


2) Their friends am /are going to play paintball at the weekend.
3) She is/are going to do fencing next year.
4) We am /are going to arrange a party for the delegation.
5) Mike and Tom is/are going to try to ride a quad bike on the beach.
6) The tourists am /are going to do water sports during their summer holidays.
7) I am /are going to organize an unforgettable disco for our colleagues.
8) The water in the lake is/are going to get warmer in a day or two.
9) You am /are going to go wind-surfing next month.
Ю) The holiday village is/are going to be built next September.

2 Complete the questions using the words given.


1) The water in the sea is going to get warmer in a day or two.
What ___________________________________________
2) Tanya is going to go wind-surfing next month.
When ___________________________________________
3) The holiday village is going to organize a party next week.
Where ___________________________________________
4) We are going to take scuba diving lessons.
Who ___________________________________________
5) Their friends are going to play paintball at the weekend.
When ___________________________________________
6) We are going to arrange a party for the delegation.
What ___________________________________________

40
7) He is going to do fencing next year.
When ______________________________________________________________?
8) The staff is going to arrange a party for the delegation.
Who ___________________________________________________________ ?
9) Mary and Tim are going to try to ride a quad bike on the beach.
Where ______________________________________________________________?
Ю) The tourist group is going to do water sports during their summer holidays.
What ___________________________________________ ?

3 Write sentences with ‘to be going to ’ using the word combinations


from the box.

to go wind-surfing, to do fencing, to take a plunge, to play paintball,


to learn scuba diving, to climb walls, to do archery, to drive a quad bike,
to organize medieval festival, to have a marvelous holiday

D
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)

41
III. Present Continuous в форме будущего времени

тжжш*
Present Continuous в форме будущего времени употребляется,
когда речь идёт о запланированных действиях в будущем, особенно
когда известно время и место действия:
I’m going to arock concert tomorrow. (Я уже купил билеты.) Гт going
on holiday on 12th May.
- - г--"--* - ---I

1 Make the statements negative and interrogative.

1) I was taking scuba diving lessons the whole summer.

2) Their friends were playing paintball from 5 p.m. to 7 p.m. yesterday.

3) She was doing fencing the whole day.

4) We were arranging a party for them when they arrived.

5) Mike was trying to ride a quad bike when he fell down.

6) The tourists were doing water sports when the storm began.

7) I was organizing a disco for our colleagues the whole night.

8) The water was getting warmer from day to day.

9) I was going wind-surfing when I met her at the beach.

10) They were dancing till the dawn on Friday.

42
IV. Time Clauses

Придаточные предложения времени вводятся при помощи таких слов


и выражений, как when, as, while, before, the moment that, after,
till/until, by the time, whenever, as long as, as soon as: I ’ll call you as j
soon as I get home.
• Если придаточное предложение времени стоит перед главным I
предложением, после придаточного предложения ставится запятая:
When I get home, ГII call her.
• В придаточных предложениях времени используется правило
согласования времён. Это означает, что когда глагол в главном j
предложении стоит в настоящем или будущем времени, глагол в j
придаточном предложении тоже стоит в настоящем или будущем I
времени. А когда глагол в главном предложении стоит в прошедшем
времени, глагол в придаточном предложении тоже ставится в j
прошедшем времени: Не reads a book before he goes to bed. I mI
old friend while I was walking around the market.
% • В придаточных предложениях времени форма будущего времени не |I
употребляется: Ann will visit us as soon as she comes back.
(Неправильно:... assoon as she will come b a ck... )
I 8
Примечание: When she finishes, she’ll call me (when — союз)
HO: When will you finish your homework? (When — вопросительное j
\ слово)

1 Choose the correct variant.


1) I’ll call you as/as soon as I return home.
2) The rain had stopped by the time/while we arrived at the station.
3) When/While we finish doing homework, we’ll tell you.
4) My dad ran into the parking meter as soon as/while he was parking the car.
5) She takes a shower after/before going to bed.
6) I am going to wait for him until/before he comes home.
7) He understood everything the moment that/whenever he saw everything with his
eyes.
8) I am ready to follow you while/whenever you start.
9) The scientists will do the experiment after/before their leader calls them.
Ю) Rose will invite us for a cup of tea, as/after she is interested in the affair.

2 Fill in when, as soon as, as, while, by the time, whenever, the moment that,
till/until, after, before, as long as.
1) I’ll call y o u _________ I return home.
2) The rain had stopped_________we arrived at the station.
3) _____ ___ we finish doing homework, we’ll tell you.

43
4) You should call m e _________you get the e-mail. I won’t be sleeping.
5) Let’s go for a w alk_________ the rain stops.
6) _________ I saw her, I understood she was the person to admire.
7) We had decided to mop the flo o r_________ mother came home.
8) I am free now, so I can w a it_________ 3 p.m. You don’t need to hurry.
9) Let him know what has happened_________ he arrives.
10) Don’t tell anyone about our problem _________ we cope with it.
■1

V. Conditionals О, 1 & 2

Условные предложения состоят из двух частей: условного придаточного


С )
предложения с союзом i f (условие) и главного предложения (р
Тип 0 используется для выражения общеизвестных истин или того, что
всегда случается: If you heat water, it boils.
Тип 1 используется для выражения реальной или очень вероятной ситуации
в настоящем или будущем: If it ’sreally hot tomorrow, we’ll go
Тип 2 используется для выражения воображаемой или маловероятной
ситуации в настоящем или будущем или совета: If I had a lot of money, I ’d buy
a new house. (But I haven’t) If I were you, I ’d see a doctor, (advice)
Примечание:
Если придаточное предложение условия стоит перед главным
предложением, эти два предложения отделяются запятой: If the weather
improves, flights will run as normal.
С придаточными предложениями условия (тип 1) может использоваться
unless (если не) + глагол в утвердительной форме (=/f + глагол в
отрицательной форме): Unless you до to bed now, you’ll be tired in the

1 Write the statements in Conditional 0.

1) Mix yellow and green (to get blue).

2) Leave butter in the sun (to melt).

3) Stay in the sun too long (to get sunburn).

4) Practise a foreign language hard (to learn).

5) Drink cold water (to have a sore throat).

6) Offer a tour beforehand (to have problems).

7) Smoke (to have lung disease).

8) Work hard (to achieve success).

9) Add milk to tea (to get English tea).

10) Heat ice (to turn into water).

45
2 Combine the sentences and write them in Conditional 1.
1) She comes. We call her.

2) It is fine. She goes for a ride.

3) She buys tickets. We go to the opera.

4) They go to the beach. They do water sports.

5) She takes archery lessons. She becomes a champion.

6) We ride a quad bike. We have a nice day.

7) They go to the seaside. They get suntanned.

8) I go to China. I try local food.

9) It is not rainy. They play paintball.

Ю) He goes to the lake. He takes nice photos.

3 Combine the ideas and write about your fantasies using Conditional 2.
D to have enough money; to travel to Japan;

2) to have relatives in London; to visit them;

3) to live at the coast; to do water sports;

4) to go to an English-speaking country; to practise English;

5) to have time; to climb walls;

6) to live in the country; to go horse-riding;

7) to buy tickets; to go to the theatre;

8) in your place; learn to cook exotic meals;

9) to be free; to go on the adventure tour;

10) to win a lottery; to travel around the world;


VI. Modal verbs m ay - might - could - will probably
definitely

May - might - could используются для выражения возможности.


Обратите внимание на разницу в значении:
- Where’s Sam?
|
- Не may/could still be at work. (Возможно/может быть он на j
работе. еmight still be at work. (Вероятно, он всё ещё на работе.)
)/Н
Примечание: вероятность может также выражаться с помощью f
наречий probably и definitely. I’ll probably до sailing tomorrow, (очень
вероятно/скорее всего) We’ll definitely до on holiday this summer, (это j
| определённо будет так)

1 Choose th e c o rre c t variant.

1) There is no news from him. He c o u ld /m ig h t still be in the holiday camp.


2) She will d e fin ite ly /p ro b a b ly visit us this summer. She always does.
3) I will d e fin ite ly /p ro b a b ly go on a boat trip next month. I am still thinking about it.
4) The water in the swimming pool m ay/is d e fin ite ly be cool. It’s early morning.
5) He c o u ld /m ig h t work for the travel agency. I have seen him in one of the agencies.
6) He c o u ld /w ill probably be out. I can’t get him on the phone.
7) The trip will d e fin ite ly /p ro b a b ly cost much.
8) The flight from the USA to Japan will d e fin ite ly /p ro b a b ly be rather expensive.
9) I don’t know where Jane is. She c o u ld /m ig h t still be at school.
Ю) Jane is d e fin ite ly /p ro b a b ly at school. It is only 10 a.m.

2 Fill in th e blanks w ith may - might - could - will probably - will definitely.

1) - Where’s Sarah? - S he__________be very busy.


2) My father is __________at work now. I can’t see his car near the house.
3) It is windy and rainy. The water in the lake is __________cold.
4) Ja c k __________ still be at his office doing some urgent work.
5) He hasn’t called me yet. H e__________ still be busy.
6) She w ill__________go on a boat trip across the Mediterranean Sea. She hasn’t
planned it yet.
7) They didn’t tell me about their plans for the coming weekend yesterday. They
go to the country.
8) She has promised me. She w ill__________pay for the ticket.
9) The taxi w ill__________ be stuck in traffic jam in the afternoon.
10) They_________ be travelling at the moment.

47
VII. Articles A/An - The
ШЩЩШЩ
ШЖ
шшлм
A/An употребляется:
• с существительными, относящимися к предметам без
конкретизации: Emily has got a dog.
• с исчисляемыми существительными в единственном числе,
когда речь идёт о том, чем или кем является человек/предмет:
Greg is a teacher. It’s a panda.
The употребляется с:
• существительными, если они были упомянуты ранее или из
контекста ясно, о ком/чём идёт речь: That’s the man I told you
about.
• существительными, обозначающими объекты, единственные в
своём роде (the sky, the moon)]
• названиями рек ( theThames), групп островов ( Maldi
горных цепей (the Rocky Mountains), пустынь (the Sahara),
океанов (the Atlantic), каналов (the Bridgewater), стран, если в
названии есть слова: State, Kingdom, Republic (the UK),
географическими названиями the North Pole/Arctic/Amazon, the
South of England, the North/East/South/West;
• названиями музыкальных инструментов (the piano)]
• фамилиями в значении «семья, семейство» (the Browns) и
национальностями, заканчивающимися на -sh, -ch или -ese (the
Polish)]
• существительными, обозначающими глав государств (the King,
the Prime Minister), HO: the опускается перед этими
существительными, если они включают имя собственное (Queen
Elizabeth).
The не употребляется с:
• неисчисляемыми существительными и существительными во
множественном числе, представляющими какую-либо группу:
Huskies pull sledges over the snow.
• личными именами: Alan is a doctor.
• названиями языков (если не следует слово language): / speak
Spanish. НО: The Spanish language.
• названиями стран (если в название не входят слова State,
Kingdom или Republic): England, France. HO: the United States,
the Czech Republic]
• названиями улиц (Wilson Street), парков (Hyde Park), городов
(Rome), отдельных гор (Mount Olympus), отдельных островов
(Ireland), озёр (Lake Windermere) и континентов (Asia).

48
1 Fill in a rtic le s a/an — the.

D Jane has g o t____ dog a n d ____ cat.


2) Miss Green is ____ teacher.
3) There is ____ tiger in _____picture.
4) _ __man in _____ picture is my uncle.
5) She has gone o n ____ holiday t o _____ mountains.
6) I can’t see anything through____ window, because it is misty.
7) ____ water in _____river is warm, so we can have a swim.
8) ____ dentist’s is round_____corner, you won’t miss it.
9) _ __Chinese language is rather difficult to learn.
10) ___ apple is ____ fruit.

2 Fill in a rtic le s a/an - the w here necessary.

1) ____ French language


2) ____ North Pole
3) __ _Moscow
4) ____ driver
5) _ _expensive trip
6) _ _Petersons
7) ____ King
8) _ __Queen Elizabeth
9) ____ Gobi
Ю) _ _Slovenia

3 Fill in a rtic le s a/an - the where necessary.

1) ______ Petersons are going to arrange a camping holiday next summer.


2) Slovenia is one of the most famous travelling destinations in ______ Europe.
3) The travel agency is looking fo r ______ driver a n d _______engineer.
4) ______ Onega Lake is nice for boat cruise.
5) It’s dangerous to cross______ Sahara Desert alone.
6) My father has recently travelled t o ______ Antarctica as a scientist.
7) The river is in ______ north of the region.
8) She has never been t o ______ Appalachian mountains.
9) I think we are going to travel t o ______ Italy next spring holidays.
Ю) Don’t miss the chance of visiting______ UK.
VIII. Relative pronouns / adverbs - - that - which - whose
- when - where - why

Относительные местоимения вводят придаточные определительные.


Употребление
• w
h
o
/ta
по отношению к людям: Genghis the man whI
started the Mongol Empire.
• w hich/th a t по отношению к животным или предметам: The Mona Lisa
is the painting which/that I like the most.
• whose означает принадлежность: Tutankhamon was a ruler of Egypt I
whose tomb had a lot of treasure inside.
Относительные местоимения используются по отношению к
придаточным определительным.
Употребление
• when употребляется по отношению ко времени: 1254 was the year
when Marco Polo was born.
• where употребляется по отношению к месту: is the museum where
Emma works.
• why выражает причину: This art gallery is very interesting, that’s why so \
many people visit it.

1 Fill in the table with relative pronouns / adverbs - who - that - which -
whose - when - where - why according to their use.

People Things Possession Time Place Reason

2 Com bine the sentences, using relative pronouns / adverbs - who - that -
which - whose - when - where - why.

1) Robin Hood was an outlaw. He helped the poor.

2) You can get into water. The river bank is not so steep.

3) I will meet you. The street ends.

4) This is the book. We have read it today.

5) The famous scientists lived in the house. The monument is near the house.

50
3 Fill in relative pronouns / adverbs - who - that - which - whose - when -
where - why.

1) I was greatly surprised______ I saw his surprise.


2) 1960 was the year______ my father remembers very well.
3) This is the travel agency______ we bought our trip to Venice.
4) My friend is the person______ I can rely on.
5) Pizza is the fo o d ______ I tried in Italy.
6) London is the c ity ______ I first studied English.
7) It was foggy,______ we had to be careful.
8) I have never met the m an______ suitcase was lost.
9) The Louvre is the place,______ I like very much.
10) Hampstead Heath is a peaceful place,______ is very dear to me.

51
I. Present Perfect

Формообразование
Present P erfect образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола
have/has и причастия прошедшего времени основного глагола.

Утверждение
Полная форма Краткая форма
l/You have arrived/eaten. l/You’ve arrived/eaten.
He/She/lt has arrived/eaten. H e/S he/lt’s arrived/eaten.
We/You/They have arrived/eaten. WeAou/They’ve arrived/eaten.

Отрицание
Полная форма Краткая форма
l/You have not arrived/eaten. l/You haven’t arrived/eaten.
He/She/lt has not arrived/eaten. He/She/lt hasn’t arrived/eaten.
We/YouAhey have not arrived/ We/You/They haven’t arrived/
eaten. eaten.

Вопрос Краткие ответы


Yes, l/you have./No, l/you
Have l/you ^
haven’t.
Has he/she/it ( arrived/eaten?
Yes, he/she/it has./No,
Have we/
he/she/it hasn’t.
you/they »
Yes, we/you/they have./No,
we/you/they haven’t.

Формообразование
Present Perfect образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола
have/has и причастия прошедшего времени основного глагола.
Причастие прошедшего времени от правильных глаголов образуется
путём добавления -ed к глаголу: play - played.
Причастие прошедшего времени от неправильных глаголов образуется
иначе: leave - left.
Вопросительная форма образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола
have/has и причастия прошедшего времени: Have you travelled by plane?
Отрицательная форма образуется при помощи отрицательной частицы not
после вспомогательного глагола have/has и причастия прошедшего
времени: They haven’t finished yet.
Употребление
Present Perfect употребляется, когда речь идёт о:
действии, начавшемся в прошлом и продолжающемся до сих пор: Не
has worked as a doctor for five years.
действии, произошедшем в прошлом, но имеющем видимый
результат в настоящем: She has lost a lot of weight.
действиях, произошедших в неустановленное время в прошлом. При
этом действие более важно, чем время: Не has bought a new саг.
недавно завершённых действиях: Linda has just cleaned her room.
личном опыте, переживаниях, изменениях, которые произошли:
Ihave never tried bungee jumping.
Указатели времени (сигналы), употребляемые с Present Perfect:
just, already, yet, for, since, ever, never, so far, this week/month/year и т. д.

1 Open the brackets using Present Perfect.

1) The hurricane_ (to destroy) the town.


2) The group____ just (to arrive) at Honolulu airport.
3) Jerem y___________(to join) the rescue team to help people after the earthquake.
4) The rangers from the group___________(to help) the injured.
5) Forest fire s____ (not to occur) in the area since last year.
6) Their house___ _ (to collapse) because of the flood.
7) There never (to be) such a terrible natural disaster there for 2 years
already.
8 ) Volunteers from all parts of the country________ (to come) here.
9) There___________(not to be) running water since the flood.
Ю) His family (to survive) in the tsunami.

2 Ask questions using the words given.

1) I have worked as a volunteer in a rescue team.


Where _______________________________________________________ ?
2) The tornado has stopped all of a sudden.
How _______________________________________________________ ?
3) Because of air pollution, we have moved to the country since spring.
Why _______________________________________________________ ?
4) The natural disaster has destroyed the town.
What _______________________________________________________ ?
5) The villagers have come from the farthest regions.
Where _______________________________________________________ ?
6) The volunteers have cleared roads.
What _______________________________________________________ ?

53
7) Mike’s rescue team has brought food supplies to the homeless.
Who _______________________________________________
8) The earthquake has lasted for three hours.
How _______________________________________________
9) The avalanche has ruined the houses.
What _______________________________________________
Ю ) The neighbouring house has disappeared after the tsunami.
Who ____________

3 Fill in yet - already - since - for - never - just.

1) She has________ seen an avalanche.


2) We have________ brought all the equipment to help the injured.
3) My brother hasn’t arrived at hom e________ .
4) I haven’t heard from him ________ the terrible earthquake.
5) We have________ raised money for the homeless.
6) They haven’t m e t________ a long time.
7) They haven’t booked tickets to Nepal________ .
8) The earthquake has________ caused a dangerous tsunami.
9) The e-mails from her haven’t com e________ last spring.
10) My brother has________ tried skateboarding.
II. Have been to / Have gone to

• Have been (to) используется, когда речь идёт о том, что кто-либо
%
побывал где-либо и вернулся назад: Тот has been to Italy. (He went to
I!

Italy, but he’s no longer there.)


• Have gone (to) используется, когда речь идёт о том, что кто-либо
пошёл/поехал куда-либо и всё ещё там находится: Мед has gone to I
London. (She’s still there.)

1 Change the sentences using have been to/have gone to.


1) My friend is still in London.

2) Mike went to the Crimea, but he is in Moscow.

3) Susan is at the holiday camp.

4) Tom is still at the station.

5) She was at school, but she’s at home now.

6) Yury is away. He is in Volgograd.

7) Mary was in Pskov last summer.

8) My parents are in the country.

9) Jim is away. He is in Liverpool.

10) We were in Tula yesterday.

2 Fill in just - yet - already - since - for - ever - never.


1) She has________ finished doing her home assignment.
2) They have________ returned from the country. You can talk with them.
3) Unfortunately, we can’t contact them. They haven’t returned________ .
4) Has sh e ________ worked in the rescue team?
5) He is quite old, but he has________ seen the tornado.
6) We have stayed in the mountains________ a month.
7) The city has changed greatly________ last year.
8) I haven’t written anything________ . Let me have a rest first.
9) We haven’t met h im ________ the earthquake.
Ю) She has been________ shown on TV.
III. Present Perfect vs Past Simple

PastSimple используется для рассказа о:


• прошлых привычках: She lived on a farm when she was young.
• действиях, которые произошли в определённый момент времени в
прошлом: They flew to Italy last month.
Present Perfect употребляется для обозначения:
• действия, начавшегося в прошлом и продолжающегося до сих пор:
She has lived on a farm since she was young.
• опыта и впечатлений: They have flown to Italy.

1 Choose the correct variant.

D She has joined/joined never a rescue team.


2) He has taken/took part in food delivery for the needy last week.
3) Where has worked/did ... work she as a volunteer?
4) I haven’t seen/didn’t see him since the terrible flood.
5) The volunteers have cleared/cleared roads three days ago.
6) The news from her hasn’t com e/didn’t come since last spring.
7) She has seen/saw the terrible earthquake ten years ago.
8) The forest fire has destroyed/destroyed the farm.
9) They have moved/moved to the country since spring.
10) They have brought/brought already all the equipment to help the injured.

2 Open the brackets.


1) I can’t switch on the light. The tornado__________ (to tear) down the wires?
2) - Where is Jack? - I believe h e __________ (to leave) already.
3) The c ity __________ (to be) far from the rescue team ’s camp.
4) - Where y o u __________(to be) all the time? - We were hiding in the cellar.
5) The village__________(to grow) into a big centre lately.
6) The tree s__________ (to grow) up high last year.
7) Tornadoes__________(to take) place very often here many years ago.
8) The workers__________(to repair) the roof of the farm very quickly. It’s all right now.
9) The heavy tru c k __________(to overturn) by the hurricane easily.
10) It __________ (to be) hot and all the houses __________ (to burn) down last
summer.
IV. Present Perfect Continuous

Формообразование
подлежащее + have/has + been + глагол с окончанием -ing.
Утверждение
1/УЬи/\Л/еДЬеу have/’ve been playing.
He/She/lt has/’s been playing.
Отрицание
l/You/We/They have not/haven’t been playing.
He/She/lt has not/hasn’t been playing.
Вопрос
Have l/you/we/they been playing?
Has he/she/it been playing?
Краткие ответы
Yes, l/you/we/they have. No, l/you/we/they haven’t.
Yes, he/she/it has. No, he/she/it hasn’t.
Употребление
Present Perfect Continuous употребляется, когда:
подчёркивается значение длительности действия, которое
началось в прошлом и продолжается до настоящего
времени: Мед has been trying to fix my computer for two
hours.
обозначается действие, начавшееся в прошлом и
продолжающееся некоторое время. Оно может ещё длиться
или быть завершено, но обязательно иметь видимый,
ощутимый результат в настоящем: She’s tired because she
has been cleaning the house all morning.

1 Choose the correct variant.


1) She has been/have been playing golf for a long time.
2) It has been/have been raining since the early morning.
3) They has been/have been driving since 10 p.m.
4) The river has been/have been flooding the city since afternoon.
5) We has been/have been touring for a week.
6) The storm has been/have been going on since last night.
7) I has been/have been learning to drive since September.
8) Our village has been/have been growing for a long time.
9) The tornado has been/have been roaring for 10 minutes.
10) My grandparents has been/have been living in Italy since 1984.
2 Make sentences using the information.

1) The city centre / to grow / since last year.

2) They / to work hard / since morning.

3) Our parents / to travel / for 12 days.

4) The forest fire / to destroy / the farm / since 3p.m .

5) Mary / to work / as a volunteer / for a long time.

6) Flood / to damage / fields / since the early spring.

7) Strong winds / to blow / since summer.

8) My friend / to take pictures / since the beginning of the trip.

9) Rainforest / to turn into desert / since last year.

Ю) Our grandparents / to run the house / since youth.

3 Open the brackets using the verbs in Present Continuous.


1) People in many countries______________ (to play) football for more than hundred
years.
2) His garden______________ (to grow) for a year.
3) The city historic sights______________ (to change) since the past centuries.
4) S he______________ (to study) French since she was 10.
5) Tourists______________ (to use) different kinds of transport for a long time.
6) W e______________ (to work) as volunteers for some years.
7) The English Queen______________ (to rule) the country for a long time.
8) People______________ (to pollute) our planet since the early times.
9) The lake______________ (to flood) the village since the 70’s.
10) I ______________ (to stay) at the seaside since August.

58
V. -ing / -ed adjectives

f • Прилагательные, оканчивающиеся на -ing, описывают качество кого-


либо или чего-либо: I ’ve had a very tiring day. (What was the day like? '
Tiring.) Lucy is very interesting. (What’s Lucy like? Interesting.)
• Прилагательные, оканчивающиеся на -ed, описывают чьё-либо
состояние или ощущения: Cathy is very tired!(How does Cathy feel? Tired.) f

1 Choose the correct variant.


1) The film is very interesting/interested.
2) She is very interesting/interested in table tennis.
3) The show was amusing/amused and we didn’t want to leave.
4) The audience was amusing/amused by the speaker’s intelligence.
5) The suburbs of the city are extremely frightening/frightened.
6) Our parents were frightening/frightened when we returned home too late.
7) I found the book rather educative/educated.
8) She has never met such an educative/educated person.
9) It was rather surprising/surprised how a man could walk along the rope.
Ю) The people were surprising/surprised by his silly behaviour.

2 Open the brackets and fill in the blanks with -ing / -ed adjectives

1) I can’t deny that she is ve ry_______________ (to tire) of the working day.
2) Jack w a s______________ (to bore) by the silly comedy we had seen.
3) She says she has never seen such a ____________(to bore) birthday party in her
life.
4) The students didn’t agree with th e ____________ (to convince) facts.
5) Nancy found her niece quite a ______________ (to charm) girl.
6) The film director was a n ____________(to excite) man and his new serial became a
hit.
7) Tom thinks the music to be rather____________ (to annoy).
8) The teachers are o fte n ____________ (to shock) by his ignorance.
9) The group w a s__________(to bore) by the inexperienced guide’s excursion.
Ю ) I am n o t______________ (to interest) in modern prose.

59
VI. Past Perfect

Употребление
Past Perfect употребляется, когда речь идёт о:
действии, которое произошло перед другим действием в прошлом или j
до обозначенного момента в прошлом: They had had dinner by the time
I arrived.
They had planted all the trees by 6 o ’clock.
действии, которое завершилось в прошлом, при описании его j
I
результата:
She couldn’t get into the house because she had lost her keys.
Past Perfect имеет то же самое значение, что и Present Perfect, только \
в прошлом: She was tired because she had walked a long way.
Указатели времени (сигналы), употребляемые с Past Perfect: before, I}
after, until, by the time, already, yet, just, for, since и т. д. J

1 Make the sentences interrogative.

1) She had sprained her waist after the ambulance took her to hospital.
?
2) The sportsman had set a world record by 1997.
?
3) We had already booked tickets before we went to the opera.
?
4) The match had ended before we arrived.
?
5) We had left for home before the rain began.
?
6) I had twisted my ankle before the match was over.
?
7) The fox had run away before we could catch it.
?
8) My dreams had come true by 2013.
?
9) Mike’s family had moved to another place before the terrible earthquake.
?
10) By the time we called him, he had returned.
?

2 Make one sentence combining the given ones. Use Past Perfect. Make the
necessary changes.

60
1) I was tired. I played basketball.

2) She finished writing letters. Her mother arrived.

3) The child cut his finger. We could take the knife from him.

4) The rain stopped. We moved home.

5) He decided to study French. He left school.

6) Sam worked hard. He could get success.

7) The house was built. The tornado ruined it.

8) My brother received an e-mail. He wrote back.

9) I bought a new dog. My old dog died.

10) They took up playing tennis. They saw the tennis tournament on TV.

3 Open the brackets using the verbs in Past Perfect.

1) It________________(to become) cold before reached the destination.


2) W e________________(to win) the tournament before the last round.
3) My friend________________(to take) up playing baseball before he was 10.
4) The c ity ________________(to change) greatly by the 2000s.
5) The player________________(to twist) his shoulder before the last volleyball game.
6) M ary____________ _ _ (to lose) her handbag before she left the shop.
7) By the end of the month, the earthquake________________(to ruin) the city.
8) The students________________(to finish) writing their papers before the lesson was
over.
9) I ________________ (to understand) everything before she told me about the
problem.
10) George_______________ (to learn) to play the guitar before he joined the band.

61
VII. Conditional 3

Употребление
Придаточные предложения условия используются для:
• описания нереальной ситуации в прошлом:
If I had saved enough money, I would bought that car.(B utl didn’t.)
e
m
• выражения сожаления или критики: If I had taken your advice, I wouldn’t
havebeen in trouble. (But I didn’t.)

1 Choose the correct variant.

t) She would have come/would come on time if she had hurried.


2) They would have seen/would see me if they had looked better.
3) I would have won the game if I did/had done my best.
4) The student would have passed/would pass the test if he had learned grammar.
5) We would have gone skiing if the snow stopped/had stopped.
6) My parents would have travelled/would travel if they had had enough money.
7) They would have played better if they tried/had tried.
8) Many kids would have gone/would go camping if the workers had finished
repairing the campsite.
9) We would have arrived late if we waited/had waited for the bus.
10) The problem would have aroused/would arouse if the scientist had reported about
it earlier.

2 Combine the sentences using Conditional 3.

1) I didn’t think about the problem. The situation was bad.

2) She didn’t work well because of her age.

3) They didn’t start earlier. They didn’t prepare everything beforehand.

4) We didn’t leave the kid alone. He didn’t break his arm.

5) The team wasn’t tired. They didn’t lose.

6) Mike didn’t collect the information. He didn’t make the report earlier.

7) They didn’t catch the dog. They didn’t hurry.

8) The students didn’t win the completion. I wasn’t pleased.


9) The water wasn’t warm. We didn’t go swimming.

Ю) She didn’t buy the tour. She didn’t go to Egypt.

3 Open the brackets.

D S he______________________ (to travel) much, if she had had money.


2) They would have visited me, if th e y ______________________ (to have) time.
3) I would have won the game, if I ___ (to train) better.
4) The student (to pass) the exam, if he had studied hard.
5) We would have gone fishing, if the rain _(to stop),
6) My parents ___________________ (to understand) everything, if I
(to explain) the problem.
7) T h e y_________ ____ (to get) injured, if they
(to be) careless.
8) Many people (to perish), if the rescue team
______________________ (to come) late.
9) W e______________________ (to be) late, if w e ______________________ (to wait)
for them any longer.
Ю) The accident _______________________ (to happen), if the driver
______________________ (to be) inexperienced.

63
VIII. Wishes

тшттт?.шт^т&&тштт#т£%ms&ш^тз^вш
С J

Wish/lf only Употребление

/ wish/lf only 1 Для выражения


+ Past Simple/Past was/were on holiday желания изменить
Continuous right now. (But I’m что-либо
not.) в настоящем

Для выражения
/ w ish/lf only 1 had
сожаления, что что-
booked the plane
+ Past Perfect либо произошло или
tickets earlier. (But 1
не произошло в
didn’t.)
прошлом

1wish it would stop


Для выражения:
raining (It’s
• желания изменить
+ subject + would + annoying.)
ситуацию или
bare infinitive If only you would stop
поведение кого-либо
complaining (Please
• вежливой просьбы
stop complaining.)

Примечание:
Конструкция if only используется так же, как и I wish, но п
высказыванию большую экспрессивность и яркость.
Were может употребляться вместо was после wish и only.
У ■■■■■■■■• =»■; mmsmmiSH®

1 Choose the correct variant.

1) I wish the Siberian tigers w as/were not in danger.


2) If only I was/were powerful.
3) I wish we can/could save the endangered species.
4) If only she was/were clever.
5) I wish we can/could help the needy.
6) If only they w as/were useful.
7) I wish we didn’t pollute/don’t pollute the environment.
8) If only we can/could protect the earth.
9) I wish I can/could stop wars.
10) If only we can/could prevent global warming.

64
2 Make sentences, using / wish / If only using the information.

1) That’s a pity, I am not a scientist.

2) i have nobody to address to.

3) I didn’t try better and failed.

4) I have sprained my wrist and I can’t play the guitar.

5) She can’t play the piano.

6) I have lost my dog.

7) I can’t speak Chinese.

8) I can’t ski well.

9) I can’t help my brother.

10) I’m not so tall.

3 Open the brackets.

1) If only w e _____ _(can) save the earth from pollution.


2) I wish y o u _____ __(to be) here.
3) If only people__ _____ (can) help the homeless.
4) I wish w e ______ _ (can) stop water pollution.
5) If only I _______ (can) live in the country.
6) I wish my friends ________(to be) not so senseless.
7) If only w e _____ _(can) stop natural disasters.
8) I wish I ________ (can) fly like a bird.
9) If only people__ _____ (can) live in peace.
Ю) I wish I ________ (to be) a pop star.

65
I. The Passive

Формообразование
j подлежащее + to be (в нужной временной форме) + Past Participle.
Употребление
| Страдательный залог употребляется:
j • когда очевидно или, напротив, неважно, кто выполняет действие: The glass was
broken. The decision will be announced tomorrow. The patient has already been 1
operated on.
| • когда само действие важнее, чем субъект, выполняющий его, например, в
заголовках новостей, газетных статьях, заметках, рекламе, инструкциях и т. п.:
Hundreds o f buildings were damaged by the earthquake.
I • чтобы сделать высказывание более официальным или вежливым: The ceremony j
will be held in the city hall. This saucepan has not been cleaned properly. (Фраза j
звучит более вежливо, чем You haven’t cleaned the saucepan properly.)
Соотнесение предложений в действительный и страдательный залог:
j • Дополнение в действительном залоге становится подлежащим в страдательном f
залоге.
j • Смысловой глагол не изменяется по времени, но форма его изменяется на '
форму страдательного залога.
• Подлежащее в действительном залоге становится дополнением, указывающим |
на исполнителя действия, и употребляется с предлогом by или опускается.
I S
I • Существительное, обозначающее исполнителя действия, может быть опущено,
если подлежащее в действительном залоге выражено словами they, he, j
someone/somebody,people, one ит.д.
Действительный залог: Someone has left the window open.
I
Страдательный залог: The window has been left open,
i • Существительное, обозначающее исполнителя действия, не может быть
опущено, если исполнитель действия является существенным для значения j
предложения: The announcement will be made by the president himself.
1 • У глаголов, имеющих два дополнения, таких, как tell, send, show, teach,
| promise, sell, read, offer, give, lend и т. д., можно образовать две модели |j
страдательного залога.
Действительный залог: Не offered her some flowers.
Страдательный залог: She was offered some flowers. Some flowers were offered
to her. (такая форма страдательного залога используется реже)
I • В вопросах в страдательном залоге с who, whom или which by не опускается.
Ср.: Who will give the speech? Who will the speech be given by?

66
1 Fill in the table.

Tense Active Passive

Present Simple make/makes


Present Continuous is/are making
Past Simple made
Past Continuous was/were making
Present Perfect Simple have/has made
Future Simple will make
Modals might make
could make
should make
have to make

2 Choose the correct variant.

1) The new museum is opened / was opened in Moscow last month.


2) The new house is made / has been made of steel and glass.
3) His friends will be met / are met at the exposition.
4) The city is being transformed / are being transformed by new unusual parks.
5) Cameras can’t be used / were used in the museum. You’ll have to pay a fine.
6) Fine souvenirs are bought / have been bought recently at the gift shop.
7) The Tretyakov Gallery is visited / will be visited by millions of tourists.
8) We are invited / were invited to a picnic last week.
9) The decision has to be made / is made in two days.
10) His masterpiece has just been / is being created.

3 Write the sentences in The Passive.

1) She invited us to the museum.

2) They closed the front door before the night.

3) We consider it one of the most famous tourist stops.

4) She will make her souvenirs of fibreglass.

5) Scientists have done the experiment well.

6) I am sending an e-mail and you will receive it in no time.

67
7) The museum will exhibit many items next year.

8) They were taking their decision when we entered the room.

9) People should take urgent measures in order to stop pollution.

Ю) The students visited their sick friend a week ago.

4 Open the brackets using the verbs in The Passive.

1) The museum (to visit) by tourists since 1990.


2) The date and time of the trip (to arranqe) last week.
3) The city (to consider) the hottest place in the country.
4) Our plan (to discuss) carefully.
5) The tickets (to buy) next Monday.
6) Her car (to repair) now.
7) The letter (to send) by airmail and received on time.
8) The broken TV set (to return) to the shop some days ago
9) The house (to construct) when we arrived at the town.
Ю) Details (to pay) great attention.

68
ЯШ

Reported Speech / Reported Questions / Reported


Commands / Requests

Косвенная речь передаёт содержание чьего-либо высказывания, но не


точные слова. В косвенной речи на письме кавычки не используются.
После глаголов (say, tell) используется или может быть опущено :
Не said that he liked the film. Или He said he liked the film.
Say - Tell (сказать - рассказать)
Say без частицы to используется в косвенной речи при отсутствии
дополнения, обозначающего адресата: She said (that) she was angry.
Say с частицей to используется в косвенной речи при наличии
дополнения, обозначающего адресата: She said to те (that) she was
angry.
Tell без частицы to используется в косвенной речи при наличии
дополнения, обозначающего адресата: She told те that she was angry.
В косвенной речи личные/указательные местоимения изменяются
соответственно значению предложения: bought a new book,” said
Louise. - Louise said (that) she had bought a new book.
Если глагол в главном предложении употребляется в Past Simple, то в
придаточном времена изменяются следующим образом:
Прямая речь Косвенная речь
“1like playing tennis. He said that he liked playing tennis.
“We are having dinner. ” They said ( that) they were having dinner.
“He has been to London. She said (that) he had been to London.
“We lo st our ca They said (that) they had lost their cat.
“1was listening to music. He said he had been listening/he was
listening to music.
“1will buy a laptop. ” She said she would buy a laptop.
При этом слова и выражения, обозначающие время, изменяются
следующим образом:
now then, immediately
today, tonight, this that day, that night, that week/month/year и т. д.
week/month/year и т. д. the day before, the previous day, the week before,
yesterday, last week the previous week
tomorrow, next week the next/following day, the following week, the
week after
ago before
here there
this, these that, those
come go

69
Reported Questions (Вопросы в косвенной речи)
• Вопросы в косвенной речи обычно образуются при помощи глаголов ask
или want без вопросительного знака с глаголом в утвердительной форме:
“What time does the film start?” Mary asked me. Mary asked me what time
the film started.
• Когда вопрос в прямой речи начинается с вопросительного слова [who,
where, how, when, what и т. п.), вопрос в косвенной речи начинается с
того же вопросительного слова. “When is your birthday?” she asked. She
wanted to know when my birthday was.
• Когда вопрос в прямой речи начинается со вспомогательного глагола
(be, do, have) или модального глагола (can, may), вопрос в косвенной
речи образуется при помощи if или whether. “Is this bookcase new?” he
asked. He asked if/whether that bookcase was new. Have you ever been
to Rhodes? She asked if/whether I had ever been to Rhodes.
Reported Commands/Requests (Команды и просьбы в косвенной речи)
• Конструкция order/tell + sb + (not) to-infinitive
выражения команды в косвенной речи: “Be qu ie t!” she said. She
ordered/told them to be quiet.
• Ask/beg + sb +(not) to-infinitive используется для выражения прось
косвенной речи. Обычно просьба в косвенной речи содержит слово please:
“Please don ’tshout, ”he said. He asked them
don’t go, ”he said. He begged me not to go.
-- ----- f 3asesss*w& --

1 Report the sentences.


1) “ I went to the cinema yesterday,” he said to me.

2) “She is coming to see us tonight,” they said to us.

3) “ I’ll buy you a new magazine,” mother said to me.

4) “She’s played the violin once,” Jack said to him.

5) “There are many icicles in the cave,” the instructor said to the campers.

6) “ The water in the lake was cold last week,” my father said.

7) “ I can’t hear the music,” said my granny to me.

8) “Our group helped the needy last year,” said the man.

9) “ I can’t listen to this loud music,” said Alice to Harry.

10) “They have composed the song themselves,” said the producer to the engineer.

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2 Report the questions.

1) “Can she go out with us?” he asked.

2) “Are they going to visit us on Sunday?” asked granny.

3) “When did they go travelling?” asked mum.

4) “ Has she taken photos this summer?” asked Jane.

5) “Will the weather be fine tomorrow?” asked dad.

6) “ How much did the CD cost?” asked my friend.

7) “Where are they going tomorrow?” asked the guide.

8) “ How did you get home so late?” asked my brother.

9) “Why are you going to stay at home?” asked my sister.

10) “Where is the Opera House?” asked the stranger.

3 Report the orders.

1) “ Don’t stay there too late,” said mother.

2) “ Show me the bus stop,” he said to us.

3) “ Follow the instructor,” said the guide.

4) “ Come home on tim e,” said father.

5) “ Don’t play music that loud at night,” said the police officer.

6) “ Come to see us on Friday,” said the teacher.

7) “ Hand in your papers,” said the professor.

8) “ Don’t bring your dog with you,” said the zookeeper.

9) “ Listen to his orders attentively,” said the man.

Ю ) “ Don’t play on the road,” my father said.

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Ml. Reflexive Pronouns

Ед. ч. Мн. ч .

I - myself
You - yourself We - ourselves
He - himself You - yourselves
She - herself They - themselves
It - itself
Употребление
• Возвратные местоимения употребляются с такими глаголами, как:
bum, cut, enjoy, hurt, introduce, look at, teach ит.д., когда подлежащее и
дополнение относятся к одному лицу: / cut myself with a knife.
• Возвратные местоимения употребляются, чтобы подчеркнуть, что
действие совершено самостоятельно, без посторонней помощи: I made
this cake myself. (I made it, not someone else)
• Возвратные местоимения употребляются с такими выражениями, как:
enjoy myself / yo u rse lf (havea good time), behave
good), by myself / yourself (without company or without help), make
m yself / yourselfat home (feel comfortable), help myself / yourself (to
take something freely).
Примечание:
• Некоторые глаголы с возвратным значением обычно употребляются без
возвратных местоимений, например: concentrate, feel, get up, meet,
relax, remember, sit down, wake up, wonder, worry и т. д.
• Возвратные местоимения обычно не употребляются с глаголами wash,
dress, shave и change ( Shewashed and had breakfa
случаев, когда необходимо сделать акцент на субъекте: She’s got а
broken leg, but she can dress herself.

1 Fill in the table.

Personal Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns


I
You
He
She
It
We
They
2 Choose the correct variant.

1) I’d like to travel there myself/himself.


2) He couldn’t do it myself/himself, so he asked us to help him.
3) It’s very important to try to understand the rule yourselves/herself.
4) She was unable to see herself/himself in the mirror, as it was too dark in the room.
5) “ It’s too late to blame itself/yourself,” said the teacher.
6) They are too small to do the task by ourselves/themselves.
7) The dog managed to get out of the hole by itself/herself.
8) The fog was so dense that we lost themselves/ourselves in the field.
9) I will make ourselves/myself a try.
10) The noise was so loud that I couldn’t hear myself/herself.

3 Fill in the proper Reflexive Pronouns.

1) The knife was so sharp, that I c u t_____________.


2) It’s a pity, but they never control_____________ in any situation.
3) They can read the foreign prose_____________ .
4) The child is too small to dress_____________ .
5) Look a t_____________ ! You are so untidy!
6) Don’t think she can get out of the situation_____________ .
7) We made our way in a crowd and finally lo s t_____________ .
8) Martin fell and h it_____________ while playing.
9) The city is too small to identify_____________ as a capital.
Ю) Don’t help me! I can co p e _____________ .

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IV. Tag questions
Разделительный вопрос представляет собой вопрос в конце высказывания.
Разделительные вопросы употребляются в речи, чтобы подтвердить что-
либо или убедиться в правильности или ошибочности утверждения.
Разделительные вопросы образуются при помощи вспомогательного
глагола, соответствующего сказуемому основного предложения, и
личного местоимения, соответствующего подлежащему: Amanda is an
artist, isn’t she? You can speak Spanish, can’t you?
Употребление
Если предложение утвердительное, то разделительный вопрос будет
отрицательным: It is cold today, isn’t it?
Если предложение отрицательное, то разделительный вопрос будет
утвердительным: They aren’t sleeping, are they?
Если глагол в предложении стоит в настоящем времени, то в вопросе
используется вспомогательный глагол do not)/does (not): Lynne works as a
teacher, doesn’t she?
Если глагол в предложении стоит в прошедшем времени, то в вопросе в
конце используется did (not): You lost your luggage, didn you?

1 Choose the correct variant.


D You can’t believe it, can/can’t you?
2) She hasn’t arrived yet, has/hasn’t she?
3) The problem was too complicated, was/wasn’t it?
4) They are playing tennis, are/aren’t they?
5) The water in the pond is too cold, is/isn’t it?
6) She hasn’t written the letter, has/does she?
7) She doesn’t like taking photos, has/does she?
8) The story has been very interesting, isn’t/hasn ’t it?
9) Your pen friend isn’t polite, is/isn’t he?
Ю) Our cousins won’t go out tomorrow, will/won’t they?
2 Write tag questions.

1) It’s easy to understand,____________?


2) I can’t imagine him without her,____________?
3) We have made the most important discovery,______
4) The book isn’t so boring,____________?
5) The city traffic is quite busy,____________?
6) He arrived yesterday,____________?
7) The village is situated in the northern part of the area,
8) The sportsmen are tire d ,____________?
9) You can’t see anything in the driving rain,__________
Ю) His idea is quite clear,____________?

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V. Punctuation rules

Capital letters (Заглавные буквы)


Заглавные буквы используются:
в начале предложения: Here we are.
с названиями дней недели, месяцев, праздников: Friday, August,
Christmas
с именами людей и названиями мест: Му teacher’s name is Sally and she’s
from Chester, Vermont.
в словах Mr, Mrs, Dr, Professor и т. д. при обращении к людям: M r and
Mrs Parker; Dr Mortimer; Professor Riggs, etc
с названиями национальностей и языков: They are Chilean. He’s fluent in
German and Russian.
Примечание: личное местоимение / всегда пишется с большой буквы:
Gus and I are going on holiday together.
Full stop (Точка)
Точка ставится:
в конце предложения, если это не вопрос и не восклицание: We’re having
a great time. You can never get bored here in Rio.
в сокращениях: Mr. Jones is a great teacher.
Comma (Запятая)
Запятая ставится:
для разделения слов: We need sugar, milk, tomatoes and apple juice.
чтобы выделить придаточное предложение в составе главного: Топу,
who is a doctor, lives in Africa.
после некоторых соединительных конструкций (in addition to this,
moreover, for example, however, in conclusion ит.д.): Moreover, Jenny
is very patient with children.
если придаточное предложение c if или другое придаточное является
началом сложноподчинённого или сложносочинённого предложения: If
you have any questions, don’t hesitate to ask.
Примечание: если придаточное предложение стоит после главного,
запятая не ставится.
для отделения вопросительной части разделительного вопроса от
утвердительной части: Mr Stephens is your Math teacher, isn’t he?
чтобы отделить прямую речь от слов автора: “Turn down the music,” said
Sarah.
Question mark (Вопросительный знак)
Вопросительный знак ставится:
в конце вопроса в прямой речи: Where are the children?

75
Exclamation mark (Восклицательный знак)
Восклицательный знак ставится:
в конце восклицательного предложения: That’s a lie! What awful weather!
Quotation marks (Кавычки)
Одинарные кавычки ставятся:
когда задаётся вопрос внутри прямой речи: “Then Helen said, ‘Are you
sure this is the right address?’”
Двойные кавычки ставятся:
в прямой речи: “What’s your name?” she asked him.
Colon (Двоеточие)
Двоеточие ставится:
перед перечислением: There were three of us on the boat: my brother, my
cousin Lyn and me.
Brackets (Скобки)
Скобки ставятся для того, чтобы отделить дополнительную информацию
от остальной части предложения: The most popular newspapers i.e. The
New York Times, The Observer, etc can be found almost anywhere in the
world.
Apostrophe (Апостроф)
Апостроф ставится:
в кратких формах, если некоторые буквы или цифры пропущены для
краткости: Тт (= I am)writing to complain about ...she left for Italy in the
winter of ’98. (=1998)
перед окончанием -s или после него, чтобы показать принадлежность
или отношения между людьми: Tom’s саг, ту friend’s husband (singular
noun + ’s), my parents’ friends (plural noun + ’), women’s dresses (irregular
plural + ’s).

1 Correct the mistakes using capital letters.

1) My friends have never been to los angeles.

2) His friends are Chinese.

3) We like our english lessons, because mr. higgs is a perfect teacher.

4) We are going to have a meeting on friday.

5) The weather on Christmas is going to be nasty.


6) Susan and i have been great friends since childhood.

7) Our granny is not well. We would better call dr. Jones.

8) Two languages Spanish and german are a must for the job.

9) Winter months are quite warm here, especially december.

Ю ) She has been to henfield, england twice.

2 Fill in the necessary punctuation signs.

1) There were two of us in the c a r____ Mr. Thomson and my father.


2) D r____ Robert is a very experienced dentist.
3) When will the taxi com e____
4) You don’t say s o ____
5) ____ Come up to m e !_____said the manager.
6) I need a pair of scissors____ some carto n_____a pencil and glue.
7) Jane, who is a friend of ours____ comes next Friday.
8) As for m e ____ I hate flies.
9) If you don’t understand the ru le ____ ask your English teacher to help you.
Ю) Mrs. Parker is your head teacher____ isn’t she?

77
MODULE 1
I. Prepositions of movement
Preposition Translation
over над
up вверх
under под
out of из
along вдоль
past м им о
into внутрь
through сквозь, через
tow ards по направлению
down вниз
across через

Ex. 2 1) along 2) under 3) down 4) across 5) towards 6) into 7) out of 8) past 9) up 10) through; over
Ex. 3 1) We went past several shops and at last came to the park gates. 2) Moving over small bridges
across canyons is very dangerous. 3) When we came into the cathedral, there were many
tourists. 4) The village we were looking for stood over the river. 5) Going out of the dark places,
first get used to the sunlight. 6) There are nice roses growing along the Green Street. 7) During
the storm, the boat went up and down. 8) Many years ago, there were no ships to go through
the ice in Antarctica. 9) Walking under a ladder in considered bad luck in England. 10) The bus
was moving towards the bus stop, so we had to hurry.
II. Present Simple
Infinitive Present Simple
to w rite w rite; w rites
to learn learn; learns
to swim swim; swims
to wash wash; washes
to go go; goes
to jog jog; jog s
to live live; lives
to do do; does
to have have; has
to return return; returns

Ex. 2 1)1 live in the mountains. 2) Do you swim much? 3) They always return on time. 4) The train
leaves at 8.30 a.m. 5) Jeremy walks to school. 6) Kate and Nikita take a school bus every
morning. 7) Does Amie miss her parents? 8) They usually play basketball on Friday. 9) I always
pass the park on my way home. 10) Water boils at 100 °C.
Ex. 3 1) My mother doesn’t cook Haggis for dinner. 2) I don’t climb the fence on my way home.
3) Water doesn’t boil at 200 °C. 4) My sister doesn’t come home at night. 5) We don’t have
parties every day. 6) My friend doesn’t study on Sunday. 7) My granny can’t speak Chinese and
Japanese. 8) My brother doesn’t play music. 9) Most elderly people don’t go jogging.
10) Animals don’t brush their teeth every morning.
III. Present Continuous
to com e com ing
to travel travelling
to make m aking
to w ork w orking
to swim sw im m ing
to play playing
to w ait w aiting
to look looking
to learn learning
to prepare preparing

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Ex. 2 1) I am swimming now. 2) My friends are jogging. 3) Is she going to school now? 4) They are
going to the cinema this weekend. 5) I’m flying to Hong Kong this Sunday. 6) My grandma is
waiting for me in the park now. 7) Are my relatives coming to our place on holidays? 8) The kids
are playing football on the football pitch now. 9) The dog is running with my younger brother.
10) The baby is crying. Find out what the matter is.
Ex. 3 1) I am not taking a shower. 2) The weather is not changing this week. 3) Our sportsmen are not
going to Canada tomorrow. 4) Yaroslavl is not changing all the time. 5) Water is not getting
colder every day. 6) My friend is not doing his work now. 7) My dad is not washing his car now.
8) The sea is not getting dirty. 9) The sun is not shining. 10) She is not writing a poem for her
mother’s birthday.
IV. Present Simple vs Present Continuous
Infinitive Present Simple Present Continuous
to look look; looks is/are looking
to make make; makes is/are making
to swim swim; swims is/are swim m ing
to wash wash; washes is/are washing
to go go; goes is/are going
to jog jog; jogs is/a re jog gin g
to leave leave; leaves is/are leaving

Ex. 2 1) Does she get up early? She doesn’t get up early.


2) Is she is waiting for me now? She isn’t waiting for me now.
3) Is he looking for a job of a manager? He isn’t looking for a job of a manager.
4) Does Dmitry do much work on designing? Dmitry doesn’t do much work on designing.
5) Is Dad coming from his trip to Sebastopol? Dad isn’t coming from his trip to Sebastopol.
6) Are the boys having lunch now? The boys are not having lunch now.
7) Does our teacher usually come to the lesson on time? Our teacher doesn’t usually come to
the lesson on time.
Ex. 3 - What are you doing now?
- I’m listening to the new CD of Uriah Heep.
- Mm, I haven’t heard about this group. Where is it from?
- Great Britain. I have all its CDs. I like it!
- I want to learn something about this group.
- I think I can lend you some CDs. I hope you like them.
- OK. What CDs would you like to advise me to listen?
- I believe you must start with the first CD.
- Are you free now?
- I’m afraid not! I’m looking after my little sister. She is playing with her toys.
- That’s OK. I’m not going to disturb you anymore. What are you doing tomorrow?
- I’m looking for a part-time job in the neighbourhood in the morning. Then I am free.
V. Can / Be able to - Can’t - Could - (Don’t) have to - Must - Mustn’t
Ex. 1 1) You must drive carefully near the crossing. 2) The water couldn’t be cold. It has been very hot
these days. 3) The elephants are not able to stand the mice. 4) My Granny could speak several
languages. 5) People mustn’t litter in the city. 6) He was weak and everybody was able to beat
him. 7) Can you hear a strange noise out there? 8) We could smell something burning. 9) The
children mustn’t talk with their mouthful. 10) She was able to persuade me to come.
Ex. 2 1) Harry has travelled a lot and he can speak three languages. 2) I haven’t been able to sleep
well this night. 3) Sam can drive but he hasn’t got a car. 4) She used to be able to do karate.
5) He can drive slowly if he wants. 6) I can’t understand George. I have never been able to
understand him. 7) Be careful with the reptile. It can be poisonous. 8) Kangaroos can run at a
high speed. 9) She is not able to take up the job. She does not have any experience. 10) I can
come and see you tomorrow if you want.
Ex. 3 1) You mustn’t park here it’s strictly forbidden. 2) Are you able to understand his singing?
3) Children must wash their hands before taking meals. 4) She is too sick. She can’t walk and
must stay in bed. 5) I had to go to the next shop, because I wasn’t able to buy any bread in the
nearest one. 6) You mustn’t smoke here. 7) The city is a big jungle where you can easily get lost.

80
8) Everybody was able to escape from fire. 9) Elephants can carry big logs. 10) I used to be able
to sing well.
VI. Comparative & Superlative
Ex. 1 Small - smaller - the smallest
tall - taller - the tallest
old - older - the oldest
old-fashioned - more old-fashioned - the most old-fashioned
messy - messier - the messiest
light - lighter - the lightest
clean - cleaner - the cleanest
colourful - more colourful - the most colourful
comfortable - more comfortable - the most comfortable
large - larger - the largest
modern - more modern - the most modern
bad - worse - the worst
thin - thinner - the thinnest
fat - fatter - the fattest
good - better - the best
Ex. 2 1) This film is more interesting than the play (пьеса). 2) Their TV set is more modern than our
one. 3) The car is the most modern / more modern of all. 4) English is the most important
language in the world. 5) Our country cottage is more beautiful than our friends’ house.
6) Sochi is smaller than Brighton. 7) A bungalow is cheaper than a villa. 8) Villages are not as
crowded as cities. 9) The city centre is noisier than the suburbs. 10) The mansion is the oldest
building in the city.
Ex. 3 1) This newspaper is more interesting than the book. 2) This house is not as modern as that one.
3) His flat is more comfortable than mine. 4) English is more important for me than Technology.
5) Art is not as important for her as French. 6) A sea is deeper than a river. 7) A skyscraper is
taller than a townhouse. 8) His iPad is more expensive than mine. 9) Tom’s kitchen is not as
modern as Mary’s one. 10) Our curtains are not as colourful as theirs.
Ex. 4 1) Mike is not as tall as Pete. 2) Kate is as nice as Ann. 3) My room is as light as this one. 4) This
book is as thin as that one. 5) Sergei is as old as Vadim. 6) I am as tall as Pete. 7) Amy is not as
beautiful as Kate. 8) Our flat is not as comfortable as his. 9) The building is as modern as the
cinema. 10) A block of flats is not as small as a villa.
Ex. 5 1) In summer the nights are shorter than in winter. 2) His bedroom is the smallest room in the
flat. 3) My brother is younger than my sister. 4) This letter is longer than that one. 5) Olga is as
pretty as Kate. 6) This car is the fastest. 7) This season of the year is the best. 8) Their house is
more comfortable than ours. 9) The painting of this artist is the most colourful of all. 10) His
room is not as messy as mine.
VII. Модальные глаголы should / ought to
Ex. 1 1) You should dust the furniture. 2) They should put pictures on the walls. 3) She shouldn’t wear
a scarf. 4) He should hoover the carpets. 5) She should lay the table. 6) He should make the
bed. 7) I should look for another job. 8) You should mop the floor. 9) He shouldn’t take out the
rubbish. 10) She should realize the problem.
Ex. 2 1) Bikers should wear a helmet. 2) They should share the household chores to help parents.
3) Do you think I ought to apply for the job? 4) It was a great concert. You ought to have come.
5) She looks exhausted. She should go to bed earlier. 6) He works hard, so he ought to pass his
exams. 7) They don’t love each other. I believe, they shouldn’t get married. 8) Sam ought not to
go away so early. There is some surprise for him. 9) You should give her your advice. 10) Be
careful with electricity! You should call an electrician to check it.

MODULE 2
I. Countable / uncountable nouns
Ex.1 1) a flower - flowers
2) a tomato - tomatoes
X 3) an orange - oranges

81
4) a banana - bananas
5) a strawberry - strawberries
6) a cherry - cherries
7) a lemon - lemons
8) a carrot - carrots
9) a cucumber - cucumbers
10) an onion - onions

With a/an Without a/an

carrot, lemon, carton, bunch, product, porridge, chocolate, cereal, soup, ice
tomato, egg, sweet, banana cream, milk, cheese, jam, tea, sugar

Ex. 3 1k 2j 3f 4c5d 6b 7a 8g 9n 10e 11o 12i 131 14h 15m.


II. A/An - Some/Any/No
Ex. 1 1) Is there any milk in the fridge?
2) There’s no sugar at home.
3) Can I have some water, please?
4) The English put some milk into their tea.
5) I’ve got some apples. Let’s make an apple pie.
6) There are no oranges left. I must go and buy some.
7) I’m going to buy some boxes of chocolate for the birthday party.
8) We don’t need any cartons of juice. There are plenty of them here.
9) She needs some fish and potatoes to cook the traditional English dish.
10) Are there any sweets, Carly? - Not any.
Ex. 2 1) I can’t see any sugar here. Where is it?
2) There are no fruit in the basket. Where have they gone?
3) Let’s get some bottles of Coca-Cola.
4) Liza has some money in the purse.
5) I think they can bring some packets of crisps for the party.
6) Mother thinks we don’t need to buy any yogurt.
7) There are some jars of jam in granny’s cellar. Go and bring any you like.
8) Do you have any new recipes? - Yes, I’ve found some.
9) To cook a pizza we need some tomatoes, cheese, an onion and some oregano.
10) How about some chocolate cakes? - Good idea!
III. Quantifiers
Ex.1 C ountable U ncountable
many m uch
a lot of a lot of
s o m e / a few s o m e / a little
few / aren’t many little / isn ’t m uch
any / no any / no
Ex. 2 1) She has got some brothers.
2) They have got many friends.
3) Nick has got many pens.
4) We have got no sisters.
5) Kate and Andrew have got some German and French books.
6) They need much milk to make curds.
7) Don’t eat much junk food.
8) There’s very little butter in the fridge.
Ex.3 1) There’s no need to be so upset.
2) Can we have some popcorn while watching the film?
3) There was no fresh water in the bottle only fizzy drinks.
4) I’d like to have some ice cream in the park. What about you?
5) How much money do you have, Pete?
6) She eats lots of fish products.

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7) Are you ready? - Not yet. I need a few more minutes.
8) Would you like some juice to drink?
9) Would you like any side orders?
10) There’s little food left. We must do the shopping.
IV. Too - Enough
Ex. 1 1) The potatoes are too hot. I can’t eat them.
2) It’s warm enough, so we can go for a walk.
3) The environment is getting too polluted.
4) The cities are not convenient enough to live in.
5) You’re old enough to understand the rules.
6) The rule is too complicated to understand.
7) I have got enough food to travel to the farthest point.
8) She has got too much water and can share it with us.
9) Do you have enough time to listen to my problem?
10) There are too many people in the room.
Ex. 2 1)1 can’t see anything. It’s too dark outdoors.
2) This year winter was too cold to come out.
3) I don’t have enough products to invite my friends tonight.
4) The jeans are too short for her. She needs size 34.
5) She can swim fast enough to compete with the last-year winner.
6) Charlie is tall enough to take the cat off the tree.
7) My MP3 player is too old. I need a new one.
8) I can’t drink the coffee. It’s too strong and I won’t sleep.
9) Mum cooks pizza tasty enough to eat it all.
10) The face of the clock is too small for my granny.
V. Infinitive/ -in g /to
-ing form to-lnfinitive

like, d on’t mind, it ’s would like, too/enough,


worth, can’t stand, look want, ask, hope,
forward to, can’t help, promise, expect
avoid, imagine, suggest,
fancy, enjoy

Ex. 2 1) I don’t mind having a bite.


2) She looks forward to meeting them.
3) I want to visit my grandparents on weekend or holidays.
4) I can’t imagine her getting married to Harry.
5) I’d like to make him work better.
6) Let’s stop to eat in this restaurant.
7) We couldn’t help laughing at Robin Williams’s acting.
8) How do you prefer to travel by train or plane?
9) Do you fancy eating out?
10) It was difficult enough to learn to play the guitar.
Ex. 3 1) She can’t imagine him a doctor.
2) We don’t want them to disturb us.
3) I don’t mind opening the window, it’s so stuffy.
4) He stopped to smoke. I would like him to stop smoking!
5) The story is worth retelling.
6) Would you prefer to start with salad?
7) She isn’t fancy going out tonight.
8) It’s too difficult to workout in such hot weather.
9) He promised me to come the other day.
10) Avoid drinking water from rivers. Boil it first.
MODULE 3
I. Past Simple
Ex. 1 1) to do - did - done 6) to win - won - won
2) to learn - learnt - learnt 7) to lead - led - led
3) to come - came - come 8) to fight - fought - fought
4) to teach - taught - taught 9) to meet - met - met
5) to take - took - taken 10) to be - was, were been
Ex. 2 1) Leonardo Da Vinci wasn’t a famous composer.
2) Sir Arthur Conan Doyle didn’t write many stories about plants and animals.
3) Alexander Bell didn’t paint the famous MonaLisa.
4) Michael Lermontov didn’t study the anatomy of the human body.
5) Bill Gates didn’t create the early flying machine.
6) Claude Monet didn’t explore nature.
7) Isaac Newton didn’t find any historical artefacts in Asia.
8) Michael Cane wasn’t a famous architect in the 70’s.
9) Roger Moor didn’t star in Gone with the Wind, the famous Hollywood blockbuster.
10 ) John Lennon didn’t invent reggae music in the early 80’s.
Ex. 3 1) David Livingstone explored Africa.
2) Julius Caesar built strong Roman Empire.
3) The Great Fire of London happened in 1666.
4) Alexander the Great became one of the most talented commanders.
5) Cleopatra died of the poisonous snake’s bite.
6) Sir Benjamin Hall created the symbol of London — Big Ben.
7) Paul McCartney got many international awards for his music.
8) Isaac Levitan drew fine sketches now housed in his museum in Plyos.
9) Michael Lomonosov founded the Moscow State University.
10) Vladimir Putin made our country one of the most powerful in the world.
II. Wh-questions with Who,What, Where, When - Past Simple
Ex. 1 1) Who is your favourite writer?
2) Who was the first American President?
3) When did Yury Gagarin fly into space?
4) Where was William Shakespeare born — in England or Wales?
5) Where did the Mayflowersail?
6) When was the Moscow State University founded?
7) Who discovered India?
8) Who built St. Paul’s Cathedral?
9) When did the World War I break out?
10) Where did Ivan Kruzenshtern travel?
Ex. 2 1) Who invented electricity?
2) Where did he live in 1998?
3) When was Albert Einstein born?
4) Where did The Rolling Stones start their career — in Liverpool or London?
5) Who was the famous writer to create James Bond?
6) What was Lewis Carroll?
7) What country was Mendeleev from?
8) Who wrote the famous novel Gulliver’s ?
9) Where did Leonardo Da Vinci create the Mona Lisa — in America or Italy?
10) What was Michael Faraday’s most famous invention?
Ex. 3 1) Where was Albert Einstein born?
2) Who died in 1934?
3) What did Michael Jackson begin in America?
4) What was Valentin Pikul?
5) Where did Christopher Columbus make his sea voyages in the 15th century?
6) What did Mary Groholtz, known as Madame Tussaud, study?
7) Who was the outstanding football player of all times?
8) When did Ringo Starr join The a?
e
B
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9) Who stared in the part of James Bond only once?
10) What did David Cameron create?
III. Past Continuous
Ex. 1 1) Bob was not writing a letter at 5 p.m.
2) It was not snowing when they returned home.
3) The wind was not blowing from the east.
4) It was not raining the whole day yesterday.
5) The boys were not talking when I saw them.
6) Nick was not waiting for Mary when we saw him near the cinema.
7) Mary was not singing when he came home.
8) It was not snowing hard when father returned home from the office.
9) The car was not moving quickly when something wrong happened.
10) I was not watching Pirates of Caribbean at noon yesterday.
Ex. 2 1) Was Bob writing a letter at 5 p.m.?
2) Was it snowing when they returned home?
3) Was the wind blowing from the east?
4) Was it raining the whole day yesterday?
5) Were the boys talking when I saw them?
6) Was Nick waiting for Mary when we saw him near the cinema?
7) Was Mary singing when he came home?
8) Was it snowing hard when father returned home from the office?
9) Was the car moving quickly when something wrong happened?
10) Was I watching Pirates of the Caribbean at noon yesterday?
Ex. 3 1)
1) I was looking out of the window when I saw my aunt.
2) The boy was going by bus when the accident took place.
3) She was coming out when the snowstorm began.
4) My parents were travelling in Italy from August to September.
5) The sky was getting black.
6) Ann was walking very quickly when she heard someone cry.
7) He was doing experiments when something went wrong.
8) We were climbing the mountain when night came.
9) The students were writing the paper from 5 p.m. to 7 p.m.
10 ) My grandparents were thinking of their past when I came in.
IV. Past Continuous vs Past Simple
Ex. 1 1) She was reading when mother came.
2) Dad was sleeping while mother was cooking dinner.
3) They were doing yoga at this time yesterday.
4) We were going to the theatre when we met him at the bus stop.
5) What were you doing when your brother was watching TV?
6) Was it fine, when you were skiing?
7) The girls were dancing when the music stopped.
8) I was listening to opera all evening yesterday.
9) He was staying at his place from 1 to 5 o’clock yesterday.
10) The sun was shining while we were sailing.
Ex. 2 1) She was studying medicine all the year.
2) We were taking photos while we were travelling in the Crimea.
3) She was playing the piano from 5 to 9 o’clock yesterday.
4) I was calling you when the film started.
5) Ram was looking after his little sister yesterday evening.
6) It was getting dark while we were trying to reach the camp.
7) The scientist was reading the report while the others were listening very attentively.
8) He was running at 7 o’clock yesterday evening.
9) My family was staying at the Hilton on holidays.
10) Were you going home when it started to rain?
Ex. 3 1) The wind was blowing when we were in the open sea.
2) She was watching the children play.
3) They were leaving when she arrived.
4) I was travelling abroad when I got his letter.
5) She was driving when she saw me in the street.
6) It was raining all the evening yesterday.
7) When I entered the classroom, everybody was sitting at the desks.
8) My friend was working at 1 o’clock yesterday.
9) We were having breakfast when the postman came.
10) Mary was getting ready for the exam while I was reading.
V. Linking words - becauseso, but
Ex. 1 1) but 2) because 3) because 4) and 5) so 6) so 7) but 8) because 9) too 10) because
Ex. 2 1) She has many problems because she is not careful.
2) We were pressed for time so we had to run.
3) The weather was rainy and/so we had to take umbrellas.
4) The winter was cold and snowy.
5) Leonardo Da Vinci was a nice engineer he was a sculptor too.
6) Sir Arthur Conan Doyle created Sherlock Holmes and his famous character was Dr Watson.
7) She can speak French but she doesn’t know Chinese.
8) I have many friends I also have many enemies.
9) He could compose catchy tunes but he couldn’t sing well.
10) Agatha Christie was a brilliant writer but her private life was unsuccessful.
Ex. 3 1) I can speak English fluently because I practise it regularly.
2) Arnold Schwarzenegger worked hard and became famous.
3) Alexander Pushkin was a talented poet but he died young.
4) Mary Groholtz studied the anatomy of the body and created wax figures of the prominent
characters.
5) It was nasty but we had to go out.
6) The theatre was far from our house so we had to take a taxi.
7) Cleopatra was a beautiful and clever woman.
8) Roald Dahl wrote books for children and film scripts too.
9) When I was a boy, I could play football well but I couldn’t swim.
10) My weekend was interesting and relaxing too.
MODULE 4
I. Future Simple
Ex. 1 1) The kids will go wind-surfing to the coast tomorrow.
2) They will worry about it.
3) Our parents will play paintball if it’s fine.
4) They will have bubbles of fun swimming in the lake.
5) My schoolmates will do archery in the Sherwood Forest.
6) The museum will organize medieval festival for the guests.
7) It will be exciting to learn scuba diving.
8) There will be more than a hundred activities to do at the holiday village.
9) The weather will be perfect for going horse-riding in the mountains.
10) She will do different types of water sports at the cost.
Ex. 2 1) Will we make our holiday plans in a week?
We won’t make our holiday plans next week.
2) Will they arrange an unforgettable party for the kids?
They won’t arrange an unforgettable party for the kids.
3) Will Terry go trekking tomorrow?
Terry won’t go trekking tomorrow.
4) Will she have a dangerous holiday without an instructor?
She won’t have a dangerous holiday without an instructor.
5) Will you remember the time you spend there?
You won’t remember the time you spend there.
6) Will he have great fun playing laser combat with us?
He won’t have great fun playing laser combat with us.

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7) Will our friends take wind-surfing lessons at the beach tomorrow?
Our friends won’t take wind-surfing lessons at the beach tomorrow.
Ex. 3 1) The tourists will go wind-surfing to the coast tomorrow.
2) What time will the instructor teach us to make fire in the forest?
3) I don’t think we will drive a quad bike. It’s too dangerous.
4) You will miss the coach to the seaside. Hurry up!
5) They will play paintball if the weather isn’t rainy.
6) The kids will climb walls in the camp.
7) They will worry about it if they don’t make a try.
8) My parents will learn scuba diving next summer holidays.
9) Ann and Mike will take a plunge tomorrow morning.
10) I will do fencing at the club next week.
II. To be going to
Ex. 1 1) I am going to take scuba diving lessons.
2) Their friends are going to play paintball at the weekend.
3) She is going to do fencing next year.
4) We are going to arrange a party for the delegation.
5) Mike and Tom are going to try to ride a quad bike on the beach.
6) The tourists are going to do water sports during their summer holidays.
7) I am going to organize an unforgettable disco for our colleagues.
8) The water in the lake is going to get warmer in a day or two.
9) You are going to go wind-surfing next month.
10) The holiday village is going to be built next September.
Ex. 2 1) What is going to get warmer in a day or two?
2) When is Tanya going to go wind-surfing?
3) Where is the holiday village going to organize a party next week?
4) Who is going to take scuba diving lessons?
5) When are their friends going to play paintball?
6) What are we going to arrange for the delegation?
7) When is he going to do fencing?
8) Who is going to arrange a party for the delegation?
9) Where are Mary and Tim going to try to ride a quad bike?
10) What is the tourist group going to do during their summer holidays?
Ex. 3 1) My friends are going to go wind-surfing to Australia.
2) She is going to do fencing.
3) I am not going to take a plunge in a strange place.
4) The clerks are going to play paintball during their Christmas holidays.
5) They are not going to learn scuba diving as it takes much time.
6) My sister is going to practise to climb walls at a leisure centre.
7) I’m going to do archery as I am a fan of Robin Hood.
8) Are you going to drive a quad bike in Turkey?
9) The historical club is going to organize a medieval festival for its members.
10) We are going to have a marvellous holiday in Egypt next summer.
III. Present Continuous
Ex. 1 1) I was not taking scuba diving lessons the whole summer.
2) Their friends were not playing paintball from 5 p.m. to 7 p.m. yesterday.
3) She was not doing fencing the whole day.
4) We were not arranging a party for them when they arrived.
5) Mike was not trying to ride a quad bike when he fell down.
6) The tourists were not doing water sports when the storm began.
7) I was not organizing a disco for our colleagues the whole night.
8) The water was not getting warmer from day to day.
9) I was not going wind-surfing when I met her at the beach.
10) They were not dancing till the dawn on Friday.

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1) Was I taking scuba diving lessons the whole summer?
2) Were their friends playing paintball from 5 p.m. to 7 p.m. yesterday?
3) Was she doing fencing the whole day?
4) Were we arranging a party for them when they arrived?
5) Was Mike trying to ride a quad bike when he fell down?
6) Were the tourists doing water sports when the storm began?
7) Was I organizing a disco for our colleagues the whole night?
8) Was the water getting warmer from day to day?
9) Was I going windsurfing when I met her at the beach?
10) Were they dancing till the dawn on Friday?
IV. Time Clauses
Ex. 1 1) I’ll call you as soon as I return home.
2) The rain had stopped by the time we arrived at the station.
3) When we finish doing homework, we’ll tell you.
4) My dad ran into the parking meter while he was parking the car.
5) She takes a shower before going to bed.
6) I am going to wait for him until he comes home.
7) He understood everything the moment that he saw everything with his eyes.
8) I am ready to follow you whenever you start.
9) The scientists will do the experiment after their leader calls them.
10 ) Rose will invite us for a cup of tea, as she is interested in the affair.
Ex. 2 1) I’ll call you as soon as I return home.
2) The rain had stopped by the time we arrived at the station.
3) When we finish doing homework, we’ll tell you.
4) You should call me whenever you get the e-mail. I won’t be sleeping.
5) Let’s go for a walk after the rain stops.
6) The moment that I saw her, I understood she was the person to admire.
7) We had decided to mop the floor before mother came home.
8) I am free now, so I can wait till 3 p.m. You don’t need to hurry.
9) Let him know what has happened when he arrives.
10 ) Don’t tell anyone about our problem before we cope with it.
V. Conditionals 0, 1 & 2
Ex.1 1) If you mix yellow and green, you get blue.
2) If you leave butter in the sun, it melts.
3) If you stay in the sun too long, you get sunburn.
4) If you practise a foreign language hard, you learn it.
5) If you drink cold water, you have a sore throat.
6) If you offer a tour beforehand, you have no problems.
7) If you smoke, you have lung disease.
8) If you work hard, you achieve success.
9) If you add milk to tea, you get English tea.
10) If you heat ice, it turns into water.
Ex.2 1) She will come, if we call her.
2) If it is fine, she will go for a ride.
3) If she buys tickets, we will go to the opera.
4) If they go to the beach, they will do water sports.
5) If she takes archery lessons, she will become a champion.
6) We will have a nice day if we ride a quad bike.
7) If they go to the seaside, they will get suntanned.
8) If I go to China, I will try local food.
9) They will play paintball if it is not rainy.
10) If he goes to the lake, he will take nice photos.
Ex.3 1) If I had enough money, I would travel to Japan.
2) If I had relatives in London, I would visit them.
3) If I lived at the coast, I would do water sports.
4) If I went to an English-speaking country, I would practise English.

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5) If I had time, I would climb walls.
6) If I lived in the country, I would go horse-riding.
7) If I bought tickets, I would go to the theatre.
8) If I were you, I would learn to cook exotic meals.
9) If I were free, I would go on the adventure tour.
10) If I won a lottery, I would travel around the world.
VI. Modal verbs may - might - could - will probably - will definitely
Ex. 1 1) There is no news from him. He might still be in the holiday camp.
2 ) She will definitely visit us this summer. She always does.
3) I will probably go on a boat trip next month. I am still thinking about it.
4) The water in the swimming pool may be cool. It’s early morning.
5) He might work for the travel agency. I have seen him in one of the agencies.
6) He could be out. I can’t get him on the phone.
7) The trip will probably cost much.
8) The flight from the USA to Japan will definitely be rather expensive.
9) I don’t know where Jane is. She could still be at school.
10) Jane is definitely at school. It is only 10 a.m.
Ex. 2 1) — Where’s Sarah? - She might be very busy.
2) My father is probably at work now. I can’t see his car near the house.
3) It is windy and rainy. The water in the lake is definitely cold.
4) Jack could still be at his office doing some urgent work.
5) He hasn’t called me yet. He might still be busy.
6) She will probably go on a boat trip across the Mediterranean Sea. She hasn’t planned it yet.
7) They didn’t tell me about their plans for the coming weekend yesterday. They could go to
the country.
8) She has promised me. She will definitely pay for the ticket.
9) The taxi will probably be stuck in traffic jam in the afternoon.
10 ) They could be travelling at the moment.
VII. Articles A/An - The
Ex. 1 1) Jane has got a dog and a cat.
2) Miss Green is a teacher.
3) There is a tiger in the picture.
4) The man in the picture is my uncle.
5) She has gone on a holiday to the mountains.
6) I can’t see anything through the window, because it is misty.
7) The water in the river is warm, so we can have a swim.
8) The dentist’s is round the corner, you won’t miss it.
9) The Chinese language is rather difficult to learn.
10) An apple is a fruit.
Ex. 2 1) the French language
2) the North Pole
3) Moscow
4) a driver
5) an expensive trip
6) the Petersons
7) the King
8) Queen Elizabeth
9) the Gobi
10) Slovenia
Ex. 3 1) The Petersons are going to arrange a camping holiday next summer.
2) Slovenia is one of the most famous travelling destinations in Europe.
3) The travel agency is looking for a driver and an engineer.
4) The Onega Lake is nice for boat cruise.
5) It’s dangerous to cross the Sahara Desert alone.
6) My father has recently travelled to Antarctica as a scientist.
7) The river is in the north of the region.

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8) She has never been to the Appalachian mountains.
9) I think we are going to travel to Italy next spring holidays.
10) Don’t miss the chance of visiting the UK.
VIII. Relative pronouns / adverbs - Who - That - Which - Whose - When
Where - Why
People Things Possession Time Place Reason
who/that which/that whose when where why

Ex. 2 1) Robin Hood was an outlaw who helped the poor.


2) You can get into water where the river bank is not so steep.
3) I will meet you where the street ends.
4) This is the book that we have read today.
5) The famous scientists whose monument is near the house lived there.
Ex. 3 1) I was greatly surprised when I saw his surprise.
2) 1960 was the year which my father remembers very well.
3) This is the travel agency where we bought our trip to Venice.
4) My friend is the person who I can rely on.
5) Pizza is the food that I tried in Italy.
6) London is the city where I first studied English.
7) It was foggy, that’s why we had to be careful.
8) I have never met the man whose suitcase was lost.
9) The Louvre is the place, which I like very much.
10) Hampstead Heath is a peaceful place, which is very dear to me.
MODULE 5
I. Present P erfect
Ex. 1 1) The hurricane has destroyed the town.
2) The group has just arrived at Honolulu airport.
3) Jeremy has joined the rescue team to help people after the earthquake.
4) The rangers from the group have helped the injured.
5) Forest fires haven’t occurred in the area since last year.
6) Their house has collapsed because of the flood.
7) There have never been such a terrible natural disaster there for 2 years already.
8) Volunteers from all parts of the country have come here.
9) There has not been running water since the flood.
10) His family has survived in the tsunami.
Ex. 2 1) Where have you worked as a volunteer?
2) How has the tornado stopped?
3) Why have you moved to the country since spring?
4) What natural disaster has destroyed the town?
5) Where have the villagers come from?
6) What have the volunteers cleared?
7) Who has brought food supplies to the homeless?
8) How long has the earthquake lasted?
9) What has ruined the houses?
10) Who has disappeared after the tsunami?
Ex. 3 1) She has never seen an avalanche.
2) We have already brought all the equipment to help the injured.
3) My brother hasn’t arrived at home yet.
4) I haven’t heard from him since the terrible earthquake.
5) We have already raised money for the homeless.
6) They haven’t met for a long time.
7) They haven’t booked tickets to Nepal yet.
8) The earthquake has just caused a dangerous tsunami.
9) The e-mails from her haven’t come since last spring.
10) My brother has never tried skateboarding.
II. Have been to / Have gone to
Ex.1 1) My friend has gone to London.
2) Mike has been to the Crimea.
3) Susan has gone to the holiday camp.
4) Tom has gone to the station.
5) She has been at school.
6) Yury has gone to Volgograd.
7) Mary has been in Pskov.
8) My parents have gone to the country.
9) Jim has gone to Liverpool.
10) We have been in Tula.
Ex. 2 1) She has just finished doing her home assignment.
2) They have already returned from the country. You can talk with them.
3) Unfortunately, we can’t contact them. They haven’t returned yet.
4) Has she ever worked in the rescue team?
5) He is quite old, but he has never seen the tornado.
6) We have stayed in the mountains for a month.
7) The city has changed greatly since last year.
8) I haven’t written anything yet. Let me have a rest first.
9) We haven’t met him since the earthquake.
10) She has been just shown on TV.
III. Present Perfect vs Past Simple
Ex. 1 1) She has never joined a rescue team.
2) He took part in food delivery for the needy last week.
3) Where has she worked as a volunteer?
4) I haven’t seen him since the terrible flood.
5) The volunteers cleared roads three days ago.
6) The news from her hasn’t come since last spring.
7) She saw the terrible earthquake ten years ago.
8) The forest fire has destroyed the farm.
9) They have moved to the country since spring.
10) They have already brought all the equipment to help the injured.
Ex. 2 1)1 can’t switch on the light. Has the tornado torn down the wires?
2) - Where is Jack? - I believe he has already left.
3) The city was far from the rescue team’s camp.
4) - Where have you been all the time? - We were hiding in the cellar.
5) The village has grown into a big centre lately.
6) The trees grew up high last year.
7) Tornadoes took place very often here many years ago.
8) The workers have repaired the roof of the farm very quickly. It’s all right now.
9) The heavy truck has been overturned by the hurricane easily.
10) It was hot and all the houses burnt down last summer.
IV. Present Perfect Continuous
Ex. 1 1) She has been playing golf for a long time.
2) It has been raining since the early morning.
3) They have been driving since 10 p.m.
4) The river has been flooding the city since afternoon.
5) We have been touring for a week.
6) The storm has been going on since last night.
7) I have been learning to drive since September.
8) Our village has been growing for a long time.
9) The tornado has been roaring for 10 minutes.
10) My grandparents have been living in Italy since 1984.

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Ex. 2 1) The city centre has been growing since last year.
2) They have been working hard since morning.
3) Our parents have been travelling for 12 days.
4) The forest fire has been destroying the farm since 3 p.m.
5) Mary has been working as a volunteer for a long time.
6) Flood has been damaging fields since the early spring.
7) Strong winds have been blowing since summer.
8) My friend has been taking pictures since the beginning of the trip.
9) Rainforest has been turning into desert since last year.
10) Our grandparents have been running the house since youth.
Ex. 3 1) People in many countries have been playing football for more than hundred years.
2) His garden has been growing for a year.
3) The city historic sights have been changing since the past centuries.
4) She has been studying French since she was 10.
5) Tourists have been using different kinds of transport for a long time.
6) We have been working as volunteers for some years.
7) The English Queen has been ruling the country for a long time.
8) People have been polluting our planet since the early times.
9) The lake has been flooding the village since the 70’s.
10) I have been staying at the seaside since August.
V. -ing / -ed adjectives
Ex. 1 1) The film is very interesting.
2) She is very interested in table tennis.
3) The show was amusing and we didn’t want to leave.
4) The audience was amused by the speaker’s intelligence.
5) The suburbs of the city are extremely frightening.
6) Our parents were frightened when we returned home too late.
7) I found the book rather educative.
8) She has never met such an educated person.
9) It was rather surprising how a man could walk along the rope.
10) The people were surprised by his silly behaviour.
Ex. 2 1)1 can’t deny that she is very tired of the working day.
2) Jack was bored by the silly comedy we had seen.
3) She says she has never seen such a boring birthday party in her life.
4) The students didn’t agree with the convincing facts.
5) Nancy found her niece quite a charming girl.
6) The film director was an exciting man and his new serial became a hit.
7) Tom thinks the music to be rather annoying.
8) The teachers are often shocked by his ignorance.
9) The group was bored by the inexperienced guide’s excursion.
10) lam not interested in modern prose.
VI. Past P erfect
Ex. 1 1) Had she sprained her waist after the ambulance took her to hospital?
2) Had the sportsman set a world record by 1997?
3) Had we already booked tickets before we went to the opera?
4) Had the match ended before we arrived?
5) Had we left for home before the rain began?
6) Had I twisted my ankle before the match was over?
7) Had the fox run away before we could catch it?
8) Had my dreams come true by 2013?
9) Had Mike’s family moved to another place before the terrible earthquake?
10) Had he returned by the time we called him?
Ex. 2 1)1 was tired after I had played basketball.
2) She had finished writing letters before her mother arrived.
3) The child had cut his finger before we could take the knife from him.
4) The rain had stopped before we moved home.

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5) He had decided to study French before he left school.
6) Sam had worked hard before he could get success.
7) The house was built after the tornado had ruined it.
8) My brother had received an e-mail before he wrote back.
9) I bought a new dog after my old dog had died.
Ю) They took up playing tennis after they had seen the tennis tournament on TV.
Ex. 3 1) It had become cold before reached the destination.
2) We had won the tournament before the last round.
3) My friend had taken up playing baseball before he was 10.
4) The city had changed greatly by the 2000s.
5) The player had twisted his shoulder before the last volleyball game.
6) Mary had lost her handbag before she left the shop.
7) By the end of the month, the earthquake had ruined the city.
8) The students had finished writing their papers before the lesson was over.
9) I had understood everything before she told me about the problem.
Ю) George had learned to play the guitar before he joined the band.
VII. Conditional 3
Ex.1 1) She would have come on time if she had hurried.
2) They would have seen me if they had looked better.
3) I would have won the game if I had done my best.
4) The student would have passed the test if he had learned grammar.
5) We would have gone skiing if the snow had stopped.
6) My parents would have travelled if they had had enough money.
7) They would have played better if they had tried.
8) Many kids would have gone camping if the workers had finished repairing the campsite.
9) We would have arrived late if we had waited for the bus.
10) The problem would have aroused if the scientist had reported about it earlier.
Ex.2 1) If I had thought about the problem the situation would have been better.
2) She would have worked better if she had been younger.
3) They would have started earlier it they had prepared everything beforehand.
4) The kid would have broken his arm if we had left him alone.
5) The team would have lost if they had been tired.
6) Mike would have made the report earlier if he had collected the information.
7) They would have caught the dog if they had hurried.
8) If the students had won the competition I would have been pleased.
9) If the water had been warm we would have gone swimming.
10) If she had bought the tour she would have already gone to Egypt.
Ex.3 1) She would have travelled much if she had had money.
2) They would have visited me if they had had time.
3) I would have won the game if I had trained better.
4) The student would have passed the exam if he had studied hard.
5) We would have gone fishing if the rain had stopped.
6) My parents would have understood everything if I had explained the problem.
7) They would have got injured if they had been careless.
8) Many people would have perished if the rescue team had come late.
9) We would have been late if we had waited for them any longer.
10) The accident would have happened if the driver had been inexperienced.
VIII. Wishes
Ex.1 1) I wish the Siberian tigers were not in danger.
2) If only I were powerful.
3) I wish we could save the endangered species.
4) If only she were clever.
5) I wish we could help the needy.
6) If only they were useful.
7) I wish we didn’t pollute the environment.
8) If only we could protect the earth.
9) I wish I could stop wars.
10) If only we could prevent global warming.

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Ex. 2 1) I wish I were a scientist.
2) I wish I had somebody to address to.
3) I wish I tried better.
4) I wish I didn’t sprain my wrist.
5) If only she could play the piano.
6) I wish I didn’t lose my dog.
7) If only I could speak Chinese.
8) I wish I were good at skiing.
9) I wish I could help my brother.
10) I wish I could grow up faster.
Ex. 3 1) If only we could save the earth from pollution.
2) I wish you were here.
3) If only people could help the homeless.
4) I wish we could stop water pollution.
5) If only I could live in the country.
6) I wish my friends were not so senseless.
7) If only we could stop natural disasters.
8) I wish I could fly like a bird.
9) If only people could live in peace.
10) I wish I were a pop star.
MODULE 6
I. The Passive
Ex. 1 Tense Active Passive
Present Sim ple M ake / makes Is/are m ade
Present C ontinuous Is/are m aking Is/are being m ade
Past Sim ple Made W as/w ere m ade
Past C ontinuous W as/w ere m aking W as/w ere being m ade
Present P erfect Sim ple Have/has m ade Have/has been m ade
Future Sim ple Will make Will be m ade
M ight make M ight be m ade
Could make Could be m ade
M odals
Should make Should be m ade
Have to make Have to be m ade

Ex. 2 1) The new museum was opened in Moscow last month.


2) The new house is made of steel and glass.
3) His friends will be met at the exposition.
4) The city is being transformed by new unusual parks.
5) Cameras can’t be used in the museum. You’ll have to pay a fine.
6) Fine souvenirs have been recently bought at the gift shop.
7) The Tretyakov Gallery is visited by millions of tourists.
8) We were invited to a picnic last week.
9) The decision has to be made in two days.
10) His masterpiece has just been created.
Ex. 3 1) We were invited to the museum.
2) Before the night, the front door was closed.
3) It is considered one of the most famous tourist stops.
4) Her souvenirs will be made of fibreglass.
5) The experiment has been done well.
6) An e-mail is being sent and will be received in no time.
7) Many items will be exhibited next year.
8) Their decision was being taken when we entered the room.
9) Urgent measures should be taken in order to stop pollution.
10) The sick friend was visited by the students a week ago.
Ex. 4 1) The museum has been visited by tourists since 1990.
2) The date and time of the trip were arranged last week.
3) The city is considered the hottest place in the country.

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4) Our plan should be discussed carefully.
5) The tickets will be bought next Monday.
6) Her car is being repaired now.
7) The letter was sent by airmail and received on time.
8) The broken TV set was returned to the shop some days ago.
9) The house was being constructed when we arrived at the town.
10) Details have been paid great attention.
II. Reported Speech / Reported Questions / Reported Commands / Requests
Ex. 1 1) He told me he had gone to the cinema the day before.
2) They told us she was coming to see them the following night.
3) Mother told me she would buy me a new magazine.
4) Jack told him she had played the violin once.
5) The instructor told the campers there were many icicles in the cave.
6) My father told me the water in the lake had been cold the week before.
7) My granny told she could not hear the music.
8) The man said their group had helped the needy the year before.
9) Alice told Harry she could not listen to that loud music.
10) The producer told the engineer they had composed the song themselves.
Ex. 2 1) He asked if she could go with them.
2) Granny asked if they were going to visit them on Sunday.
3) Mum asked when they had gone travelling.
4) Jane asked if she had taken photos that summer.
5) Dad asked if the weather would be fine the next day.
6) My friend asked how much the CD had cost.
7) The guide asked where they were going the next day.
8) My brother asked how he had got home so late.
9) My sister asked why they were going to stay at home.
10) The stranger asked where the Opera House was.
Ex. 3 1) Mother ordered not to stay there too late.
2) He asked us to show him the bus stop.
3) The guide asked to follow the instructor.
4) Father ordered to come home on time.
5) The police officer asked not to play music that loud at night.
6) The teacher asked to come to see them on Friday.
7) The professor said to hand in their papers.
8) The zookeeper warned not to bring their dog with them.
9) The man asked to listen to his orders attentively.
10) My father said not to play on the road.
III. Reflexive Pronouns
Ex. 1 Personal Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns
I M yself
You Yourselves
He Himself
She Herself
It Itself
We Ourselves
They Them selves

Ex. 2 1) I’d like to travel there myself.


2) He couldn’t do it himself, so he asked us to help him.
3) It’s very important to try to understand the rule yourselves.
4) She was unable to see herself in the mirror, as it was too dark in the room.
5) “It’s too late to blame yourself,” said the teacher.
6) They are too small to do the task by themselves.
7) The dog managed to get out of the hole by itself.
8) The fog was so dense that we lost ourselves in the field.

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9) I will make myself a try.
10) The noise was so loud that I couldn’t hear myself.
Ex. 3 1) The knife was so sharp, that I cut myself.
2) It’s a pity, but they never control themselves in any situation.
3) They can read the foreign prose themselves.
4) The child is too small to dress himself.
5) Look at yourself! You are so untidy!
6) Don’t think she can get out of the situation herself.
7) We made our way in a crowd and finally lost ourselves.
8) Martin fell and hit himself while playing.
9) The city is too small to identify itself as a capital.
10) Don’t help me! I can cope myself.
IV. Tag questions
Ex.1 1) You can’t believe it, can you?
2) She hasn’t arrived yet, has she?
3) The problem was too complicated, wasn’t it?
4) They are playing tennis, aren’t they?
5) The water in the pond is too cold, isn’t it?
6) She hasn’t written the letter, has she?
7) She doesn’t like taking photos, does she?
8) The story has been very interesting, hasn’t it?
9) Your pen friend isn’t polite, is he?
10) Our cousins won’t go out tomorrow, will they?
Ex. 2 1) It’s easy to understand, isn’t it?
2) I can’t imagine him without her, can I?
3) We have made the most important discovery, haven’t we?
4) The book isn’t so boring, is it?
5) The city traffic is quite busy, isn’t it?
6) He arrived yesterday, didn’t he?
7) The village is situated in the northern part of the area, isn’t it?
8) The sportsmen are tired, aren’t they?
9) You can’t see anything in the driving rain, can you?
10) His idea is quite clear, isn’t it?
V. Punctuation rules
Ex. 1 1) My friends have never been to Los Angeles.
2) His friends are Chinese.
3) We like our English lessons, because Mr. Higgs is a perfect teacher.
4) We are going to have a meeting on Friday.
5) The weather on Christmas is going to be nasty.
6) Susan and I have been great friends since childhood.
7) Our granny is not well. We would better call Dr. Jones.
8) Two languages Spanish and German are a must for the job.
9) Winter months are quite warm here, especially December.
10) She has been to Henfield, England twice.
Ex. 2 1) There were two of us in the car: Mr. Thomson and my father.
2) Dr. Robert is a very experienced dentist.
3) When will the taxi come?
4) You don’t say so!
5) “Come up to me!” said the manager.
6) I need a pair of scissors, some carton, a pencil and glue.
7) Jane, who is a friend of ours, comes next Friday.
8) As for me, I hate flies.
9) If you don’t understand the rule, ask your English teacher to help you.
10) Mrs. Parker is your head teacher, isn’t she?

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