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Ann "I ", ## 1997
FFK 81.2AHI.923

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ISBN 572180033
K , 1997

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Chapter . LAW AND ORDER............................................................/W7
Unit I. The Need Ior Law............................................................................,..*
Unit II. An Outline oI Lawmaking Process in Great Britain and the USA......*.*9
Unit III. The Court System oI England and Wales............................................11
Unit IV. People in Law Cases in Great Britain................................................. 13
A. Types oI Legal ProIessions...................................................................... 13
B. Solicitors and Barristers...........................................................................14
C. Judges in Great Britain...........................................................................18
Unit V. The Court System oI the USA........................,,....................................25
Unit VI. Attorneys in the USA...................................*41.,..,.......,,.................27
Unit VII. Language Activities.....................................,...................,..................30
A. Radio Phone-in.......................................................,...............................30
B. Spy Photo Case................................................................................*-.., 33
Just Ior Fun..............................................................................................40,`36
* *
Chapter . GREAT BRTAN,............................^.........,.>.^......:......43
Unit I. The System oI Government......................,..4i4,......w.U*.W4i,.............43
Unit II. Parliament.......................................,.......,.,.*,........,;*,...**..,,..............45
Unit III. A Member oI Parliament...................................................k.................51
Unit IV. Elections..............................................................................................54
Unit V. The Royal Family..................................................................................59
Just Ior Fun........................................................................................................68
Chapter . THE USA..............................................................................71
Unit I. The Constitution....................................................................................1
Unit II. The System oI Government..................................................................75
Unit III. The System oI Checks and Balances...................................................85
Unit IV. American Federalism...........................................................................87
Unit V. Elections............................................................,..,..I........,Y,...,............90
Unit VI. Language Activities. Glimpses oI American History...........,......,.......94
Glossary to chapters II and III............................................................................97
Chapter V. YOU - THE JURY...............................................................103
Unit I. A Handbook on Jury Service....................,...............................,.........103
Unit II. Justice?....................................................................................,.`.....115
Unit III. Language Activities. Lady Wyatt Accused oI Shop-LiIting..,..,.......118
Just Ior Fun.......................,............................................................................. 122
Chapter V. CRME AND PUNSHMENT.............................................128
Unit I. Crime...................................................................................................128
Unit II. Punishment..........................................................................................131
Unit III. A Policeman and the Criminal World................................................135
Unit IV. The World oI Crime........................................................................... 143
Unit V. Language Activities. Let's Do Justice...............................................151
Just Ior Fun......................................................................................................158
Part I. Famous Lives. Crime and Justice..........................................................164
Part II. Law Stories..........................................................................................181
Part III. Tom Sawyer TestiIies.........................................................................192
Some words with diIIicult pronunciation.........................................................197
Some names with diIIicult pronunciation........................................................198
Law and Order
Unit I. The Need Ior Law..........................................................................7
Unit II. An Outline oI Lawmaking Process
in Great Britain,and the USA...................................................................9
Unit III. The Court System oI England and Wales.................................11
Unit IV. People in Law Cases in Great Britain......................................13
A. Types oI Legal ProIessions...........................................................13
B. Solicitors and Barristers................................................................14
C. Judges in Great Britain..................................................................18
Unit V. The Court System oI the USA...................................................25
Unit VI. Attorneys in the USA...............................................................27
Unit VII. Language Activities................................................................30
A. Radio Phone-in............................................................................30
B. Spy Photo Case............................................................................33
Just Ior Fun.............................................................................................36
TASKl. Read te te!t.
Mr. Jones, having murdered his wiIe, was burying her in the garden one night, when his neighbour, hearing the
noise, asked him what he was doing.
"Just burying the cat," said Mr. Jones.
"Funny sort oI time to bury a cat," said the neighbour.
"Funny sort oI cat," said Mr. Jones.
Now it is obvious to everyone that, in a community such as the one in which we live, some kind oI law is necessary
to try to prevent people like Mr. Jones Irom killing their wives. When the world was at a very primitive stage, there
was no such law, and, iI a man chose to kill his wiIe or iI a woman
succeeded in killing her husband, that was their own business and no one interIered oIIicially
But, Ior a very long time now, members oI every community have made laws Ior themselves in selI-protection.
Otherwise it would have meant that the stronger man could have done what he liked with the weaker, and bad men
could have oined together and terroried the whole neighbourhood.
II it were not Ior the law, you could not go out in broad daylight without the Iear oI being kidnapped, robbed or
murdered. There are Iar, Iai more good people in the world than bad, but there are enough oI the bad to make law
necessary in the interests oI everyone.
There is no diIIiculty in understanding this but it is ust as important to understand that law is not necessary ust
because there are bad people in the world. II we were all as good as we ought to be, laws would still be necessary. II
we never told lies, never took anything that didn't belong to us, never ommitted to do anything that we ought to do
and never did anything thai ve ought not to do, we should still reuire a set oI rules oI behaviour, in other words
laws, to enable us to live in any kind oI satisIactory state.
How ts one good man in a motor-car to pass another good man also in a motor-car coming in the opposite direction,
unless there is some rule oI the road? People sometimes hover in Iront oI one another when the are walking on the
pavement beIore they can pass, and they may even collide. Not much harm is done then, but, iI two good men in
motorcars going in opposite directions hover in Iront oI one another, not knowing which side to pass, the result will
probably be that there will be two good men less in the world.
So you can see that there must be laws, however good we may be. UnIortunately, however, we are none oI us
always good and some oI us are bad, or at any rate have our bad moments, and so the law has to provide Ior all
kinds oI possibilities. Suppose you went to a greengrocer and bought some potatoes and Iound on your return home
that they were mouldy or even that some oI them were stones, what could you do iI there were no laws on the
subect? In the absence oI law you could only rely upon the law oI the ungle. You could go back to the shop,
demand proper potatoes and hit the shopkeeper on the nose iI he reIused to give them to you. You might then look
round the shop to try to Iind some decent potatoes. While you were doing this,
the shopkeeper might hit you on the back oI the neck with a pound weight. Altogether not a very satisIactory
morning's shopping.
Or you might pay your money to go to see a Iilm at a cinema. You might go inside, sit down and wait. When the
cinema was Iull, there might be Ilashed on the screen: "You've had it, Chums". And that might be the whole oI the
entertainment. II there were no law, the manager could saIely remain on the premises and, as you went out, smile at
you and say: "Hope you've enoyed the show, sir." That is to say, he could do this saIely iI he were bigger than you
or had a well-armed bodyguard.
Every country tries, thereIore, to provide laws which will help its people to live saIely and as comIortably as
possible. This is not at all an easy thing to do, and no country has been successIul in producing laws which are
entirely satisIactory. But we are Iar better oII with the imperIect laws which we have, than iI we had none at all.
TASK ". A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
R(le$, la%$, &e+(lat)*#$ , What is your personal understanding oI these words? Is there any diIIerence between
TASK -. .*&/ )# +&*(0$. 1a/e a l)$t *2 a&+(3e#t$ 2*& a#d a+a)#$t te 2*ll*%)#+ $tate3e#t$.
1. Laws haven't changed since primeval times.
2. However hard people try, laws are always insuIIicient.
3. Laws are not Ior ordinary people, they are Ior lawyers.
TASK 4. 5*#t)#(e te l)$t6 7(3, 8l*/e, 0al...
T.)SK 9. Read te 2*ll*%)#+ te!t$.
New legislation in Britain usually starts in the House oI Lords. In each house a bill is considered in three stages,
called readings. The Iirst reading is
purely Iorma to introduce the bill. The second reading is usuertr? the occasion Ior debate. AIter the second reading
the bill is eamihed )a detail by a committee. '
` t`
TheI bill is then returned to one oI the houses Ior the report stage, when it can be attended/ ilI passed aIter its third
reading, it goes to the other house. Amendments made to a bill by the House oI Lords must be considered by the
Commons. II the House oI Commons does not agree, the bill is altered and sent bask to the Lords. In the event oI
"persistent disagreement between the two houses, Commons prevails.
Finally, the bill goes to the reigning monarch Ior the royal assent Nowadays the royal assent is merely a Iormality.
In theory the ueen could still reIuse her consent, but the last monarch to use this power was ueen Anne, who
vetoed the unpopular Scottish Militia Bill in 1707.
1),'23 States
The US Congress, the lawmaking arm oI the Iederal government, consists oI two houses: the House oI
Representatives and the Senate. Any congressman in either house, or the president, may initiate new legislation.
The proposed legislation, or bill, is Iirst introduced in the House oI Representatives, then reIerred to one oI the
standing committees, which organies hearings on it and may approve, amend or shelve the draIt. II the committee
passes the bill, it is considered by the House oI Representatives as a whole. II passed there, it goes to the Senate Ior
a similar seuence oI committee hearings and general debate.
In cases oI disagreement, the House oI Representatives and the Senate conIer together. Once passed by the Senate as
a whole, the bill has to be eamined by two more standing committees - the Committee on House Administration
and the Senate Committee on Rules and Administration - and is then signed by the speaker oI the House and by the
president oI the Senate.
Finally, it must be signed by the president, who has the right to veto it. II the president vetoes a bill, it can still
become a law - but only iI it is passed by a two-thirds maority in both houses oI Congress.
TASK ". A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
1. In which House does new legislation usually start? `a in Great Britain
b in the USA
2. What is a bill ? How does a bill become a law ?
a in Great Britain
b in the USA
3. Who has the right oI veto ?
a in Great Britain
b in the USA
; 11
TASK - .*&/ )# +&*(0$. :)#d a$ 3a#; d)22e&e#7e$ <$)3)la&)t)e$= )# te la%3a/)#+ )# >? a#d te @SA a$ 0*$$)8le.
TASK 9 Read te te!t a#d e!a3)#e te 7a&t.
iThe most common type oI law court in England and Wales is the magistrates' court. There are 700 magistrates'
courts and about 30,000 magistrates.
AB2a t -
More serious criminal cases then go to the Crown Court, which has 90 branches in diIIerent towns and cities. Civil
cases Ior eample, divorce or bankruptcy cases are dealt with in County courts.'
Appeals are heard by higher courts. For eample, appeals Irom magistrates' courts are heard in the Crown Court,
unless they are appeals on points oI law. The highest court oI appeal in England and Wales is the House oI Lords;
Scotland has its own High Court in Edinburgh, which hears all appeals Irom Scottish courts. Certain cases may be
reIerred to the European Court oI Justice in Luembourg. In addition, individuals have made the British
Government change its practices in a number oI areas as a result oI petitions to the European Court oI Human
The legal system also includes uvenile courts which deal with oIIenders under seventeen and coroners' courts
which investigate violent, sudden or unnatural deaths There are administrative tribunals which make uick, cheap
and Iair decisions with much less Iormality. Tribunals deal with proIessional standards, disputes between
individuals, and disputes between individuals and government departments Ior eample, over taation.
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The House oI Lords
3 Law Lords
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8/,6,)0+ :;%/'& <
.----------1-----f.------ ________________________
Court oI Appeal 1-3 udges, no ury
High Court 1-3 udges, no ury
County Courts
1 udge, no uryU-J Crown Court
1 udge ury
Magistrates' Courts 3 magistrates, no ury
TASK ". :)#d )# te te!t te E#+l)$ e'()Fale#t$ 2*& te %*&d$ 8el*%.
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TASK -. @$e te )#2*&3at)*# +)Fe# a8*Fe t* a#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
1. Who is responsible Ior making laws in Britain?
2. In the United ingdom, what is the diIIerence between criminal and civil law?
3. What is the most common type oI law court in England and Wales ?
4. Name three other types oI British courts.
TASK 4. .*&/ )# 0a)&$ a#d d)$7($$ te 2*ll*%)#+.
Which courts do you think would deal with:
a a bank robbery?
b a divorce case?
c a burglary committed by a IiIteen-year-old?
d a drowning?
,GH , -
e a case oI driving too Iast?
A. Types of Legal Professions
TASK 9. Read t)$ 7la$$)2)7at)*#.
There are about 50,000 solicitors, a number which is rapidly increasing, and they make up by Iar the largest branch
oI the legal proIession in England and Wales. They are Iound in every town, where they deal with all the day-today
work oI preparing legal documents Ior buying and selling houses, making wills, etc. Solicitors also work on court
cases Ior their clients, prepare cases Ior barristers to present in the higher courts, and may represent their client in a
Magistrates' court.
C .DBBA>4(B>
There are about 5,000 barristers who deIend or prosecute in the higher courts. Although solicitors and barristers
work together on cases, barristers specialie in representing clients in court and the training and career structures Ior
the two types oI lawyer are cIui'te separate. In court, barristers wear wigs and gowns in keeping with the etreme
Iormality oI the proceedings. The highest level oI barristers have the title C ueen's Counsel.
There are a Iew hundred udges, trained as barristers, who preside in more serious cases. There is no separate
training Ior udges.
C A ury consist oI twelve people "urors", who are ordinary people chosen at random Irom the Electoral
Register the list oI people who can vote in
elections. The ury listen to the evidence given in court in certain criminal cases and decide whether the deIendant
is guilty or innocent. II the person is Iound guilty, the punishment is passed by the presiding udge. Juries are rarely
used in civil cases.
There are about 30,000 magistrates Justices oI the Peace or JPs, who Iudge cases in the lower courts. They are
usually unpaid and have no Iormal legal ualiIications, but they are respectable people who are given some training.
Coroners have medical or legal training or both, and inuire into violent or unnatural deaths.
H 8@(BK> ?L 4M( 8?1B4
Clerks look aIter administrative and legal matters in the courtroom. v II
TASK " 5**$e te 7*&&e7t de2)#)t)*# 2*& ea7 le+al 0&*2e$$)*# 3e#t)*#ed )# te te!t.
HA a an oIIicer acting as a udge in the lower courts. - b a public oIIicial with authority to hear and decide cases in
a law court.
c a group oI people who swear to give a true decision on issues oI in a law court.
d an oIIicial who investigates the cause oI any death thought to be violent or unnatural causes.
e a lawyer who has the right to speak and argue in higher law courts.
I a lawyer who prepares legal documents, advises clients on legal and speaks Ior them in lower law
B. Solicitors and Barristers
TASK 9 ?e2*&e l)$te#)#+ t* t' Ja0e, &ead te 2*ll*%)#+ te!t
, J
England `is almost uniue in having two diIIerent kinds oI lawyers, with separate Jobs in the legal system. The
two kinds oI lawyers are solicitors and barristers.*` *'i
II B1 has a legal problem, he will go and see a solicitor.
Almost every town will have at least one. In Iact there are at least 50,000

i solicitors in Britain, and the number is increasing

Many problems are delalt with eclusively by a solicitor. 'For'instance, solicitor deals with petty crimes and some
matrimonial matters in
Magistrates' Courts, the lowest Courts. He prepares the case and the 'evidence. `He Actually speaks K Court Ior
In a civH action he can speak in the County Court, when the case is one oI divorce or recovering some deMs. In the
County Court the solicitor wears a black gown over his ordinary clothes.
A `olicitor also deals with matters outside Court. He does the legal work involved in buying a house, Ior Instance.
He writes legal letters Ior you and carries or legal arguments outside Court. II you want to make a will the best man
to advise you is a solicitor.
To ualiIy as a solicitor, a young man or woman oins a solicitors a "clerk" and works Ior him whilst studying part
time Ior the "Law Sdciery" eams. Interestingly enough, it is not necessary Ior you to go to university. When you
have passed all the necessary eams, you can "practice", which means you can start business on your own.
Barristers are diIIerent Irom solicitors. Barristers are eperts in the
i J$V
interpretation oI the Law. They are called in to advise on really diIIicult points. The barrister is also an epert on
`advocacy the art oI presenting cases in Court. Indeed,r iI you desire" representation in any Court ecept* me
Magistrates' Court, you must have a barrister, with one or two eceptions.
Barristers are rather remote Iigures. II you need one, Ior irisbnc'e, you never see him without your solicitor being
with him. Barristers do not have public oIIices in any street They work in ,wIyat are known as chambers', oIten in
London. They all belong to institutions called Inns oI Court, which are ancient organiations rather like eclusive
clubs` In many ways the remoteness they have and the ob they do are medieval in conception. 71 To ualiIy as a
barrister you have to take the eaminations oI the Bar
A @ O
Council. These are diIIerent Irom solicitors' eaminations. There are pver 2 5,000 barristers in England. A good
one can earn 30,000 pounds a year.
Only LIL barristers can become udges in an English Court above a Magistrates'
*Barristers are also Iound in South AIrica and New South Wales Australia
TASK ". A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$
1. What is almost uniue about the English legal system?
2. What kind oI problems does a solicitor deal with? 3 How do you ualiIy as a solicitor?
4. What are barristers eperts in?
5. When must you have a barrister?
M. What reasons are there Ior saying a barrister is rather remote?
7. How do you ualiIy as a barrister?
TASK -. Read te 2*ll*%)#+ te!t a#d a#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$
One oI the most important Iigures in the British legal system is the solicitor.i-It is his ob to advise you on legal
matters oI all kinds. II you get into 'trouble with the police you will probably ask a solicitor to help prepare your
deIence and, iI the oIIence is to be heard in a Magistrates' Court, you can ask a solicitor to appear Ior you and argue
your case. II the case goes to a higher Court, the solicitor still advises you, but you must get a barrister to appear Ior
, ` ltl , F IN
On this tape a young solicitor discussed his eperience: the reasons Ior theIt, crimes oI violence and how he Ieels
when he knows the man he is
A* \A'i
) >
deIending is guilty. He gives his reason Ior deIending someone in these circumstances.
1. What are the two main obs oI a solicitor?
2. What does the young solicitor talk about on the tape?
TASK 4. P)$te# t* Ba&t 9 *2 te ta0e.
The solicitor says why he thinks theIts occur and then gives his views on violence.
TASK 5 1at7 ea7 %*&d *& e!0&e$$)*# *# te le2t %)t te 7*&&e7t de2)#)t)*# *# te &)+t.
a motive
b there's a patteh oI...
c we'll do that house
d broken homes
TASK M. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
1. the same thing occurs again and

2. Iamilies in which either the Iather or mother has leIt
4. we'll rob this house
1. What is the strongest motive Ior theIt?
2. What pattern oIten occurs in lives oI people involved in theIt?
3. What house do robbers usually choose?
4. What background do robbers most oIten come Irom?
TASK Q. P)$te# t* Ba&t " *2 te ta0e.
The solicitor describes a case oI a violent crime he has had to deIend.
TASK R. E!0la)# te 3ea#)#+ *2 te 2*ll*%)#+ %*&d$ a#d e!0&e$$)*#$.
a Iair degree oI seriousness oI a crime;
b to chase sb.;
c to assault sb.
TASK S. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
1. AIter what event in his liIe did the man become a criminal?
2. Why couldn't the man keep any ob Ior very long?
3. How serious was the crime that this man committed?
4. Where did the crime occur?
5. Where was the elderly man sitting when the criminal beat him ? Why did the criminal beat him?
6. What inIormation did the solicitor obtain about his deIendant beIore starting to work on the case?
TASK 9T P)$te# t* Ba&t - *2 te ta0e
The solicitor eplains why he deIends people who admit they are guilty. Then he gives an eample.
TASK 99. 1at7 ea7 %*&d *& e!0&e$$)*# *# te le2t %)t te 7*&&e7t de2)#)t)*# *# te &)+t.
a witness
b crosis-eamme
c witness bo
d evidence
e deIence
I allege
1. everything witnesses say in court: Iacts, etc.
2. where witnesses stand in court.
3. someone who sees a crime or an accident
4. ask all witnesses involved in a case uestions
5. to say something happened though the Iact hasn't been proved yet
6. all the evidence, Iacts, things, etc. that a solicitor can use to prove a man is not guilty.
t i A -f
TASK 9". A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
1. What reputation does the solicitor's Iirm have?
2. Why does the solicitor deIend people he knows are guilty?
3. Describe what he has been told in the case he has at the moment.
4. What will his client do in court?
5. What eactly will the solicitor do? What will he ask uestions about?
6. How does the solicitor Ieel about what he has to do?
*' TASK 9-. U)$7($$ te 2*ll*%)#+.
1. Are you satisIied with the solicitor's reasons Ior deIending guilty people? Say why you
are or are not.
2. What would happen iI solicitors reIused to do their best Ior people they think or know are guilty?
C. Judges in Great Britain
TASK 9. ?e2*&e l)$te#)#+ t* te ta0e, &ead te 2*ll*%)#+ te!t a#d a#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
In Britain, the vast maority oI udges J that is, the people who decide what should be done with people who
commit crimes are unpaid. They are called "Magistrates", or "Justices oI the Peace" JPs. / They are ordinary
citiens ho are selected not because they have any legal training but`because they have "sound common sense" and
understand their Iellow`uman beIogs. They give up time voluntarily.
A small proportion oI udges are not
Magistrates. They are called "High Court Judges" and they deal with the most serious crimes, such as those Ior
which the criminal might be sent to prison Ior than a year. High Court Judges, unlike Magistrates, are paid
mn` the State and have eonsiderable legal training.
Magistrates are selected by special committees in every town and district. Nobody, not even the Magistrates
themselves, knows, who is on the special committee in their area. The committee tries to*arawlviagistrates Irom as
wide a variety oI proIessions and social classes as possible. ,
On this tape, a Magistrate describes the sort oI people who come beIore
him, gives eamples oI a Iew typical cases and Iinally talks about the diIIiculty oI deciding between when to help a
person and when to punish him.
1 . What kind oI people are Magistrates?
2. Why are they selected?
3. Who would udge a person who had committed a crime like murder?
4. Who selects Magistrates and what is 'unusual about'the system?
5. What does the Magistrate on the tape talk about?
TASK ". P)$te# t* Ba&t 9 *2 te ta0e.
Magistrate talks about the sort oI people who come beIore him.
TASK -. 1at7 ea7 %*&d *& e!0&e$$)*# *# te le2t %)t te 7*&&e7t de2)#)t)*# *# te &)+t.
a inadeuate
1. the main impression
b punishment
2. not to have enough sympathy
c overwhelming impression
3. treat too soItly dinsuIIiciently concerned with 4. inadeuacies
e shortcomings
5. the prison sentence or Iine given to a
I molly - coddle
6. used Ior people who somehow lack
the necessary intelligence or maturity to make a success oI their lives TASK 4. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
1. What word does the Magistrate use to describe most oI the people who come beIore him?
2. How, according to him, do they react to situations?
3. What does he think most oI them need?
4. What sort oI things does the public say about criminals?
5. What sort oI people has the public sympathy Ior?
6. What sort oI people has the public not enough sympathy Ior?
TASK V. .*&/ )# 0a)&$. U)$7($$ te 2*ll*%)#+.
"Criminals should be punished." How do you Ieel about that?
TASK M. P)$te# t* Ba&t " *2 te ta0e.
The Magistrate describes a serious case he had recently, in which it was diIIicult to decide what to do.
TASK Q. 1at7 ea7 ,%*&d *& e!0&e$$)*# *# te le2t ,%)t te 7*&&e7t de2)#)t)*# *# te &)+t.
a Iorgery
b post oIIice savings book
c put on probation
d old age pensioner
e seriously in debt
I a Iine
1. punishment in the Iorm oI money you have to pay the Court
2. owing other people a lot oI money
3. an old person receiving a pension money Irom the State
4. allowed to remain Iree but only under supervision
5. signing a check or some other document with another person's name
6. many people have a post oIIice savings account. They put sums oI money in the post
oIIice. When they want to take money out, they take this small book to the post oIIice with them
TASK R. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
1. What eactly had the woman done? Give details?
2. What do you learn about the woman herselI?
3. He could have sent her to prison or Iined her. Did he?
4. What Iinally happened to the woman?
5. What were the reasons Ior this?
TASK S. U)$7($$ te 2*ll*%)#+.
Do you agree or disagree with what the Magistrate did? Give your reasons.
TASK 9T. 5*38)#e te 2*l)*,%)#+ 0a)&$ *2 $e#te#7e$ )#t* *#e a77*&d)#+ t* te 3*del.
MODEL: We had a case. A woman stole a post oIIice savings book. We had a case *2 a. woman ,%* stole a post
oIIice savings book.
a We had a case. Someone attacked a man.
b I remember having a case. Three men broke into a house.
c I've never had a case. A man robbed a bank.
d A colleague had a case. A young boy took a motor cycle.
TASK 99. P)$te# t* 0a&t - *2 te ta0e.
The Magistrate describes two less serious cases. In both oI them, it was easier to decide what to do.
TASK 9". 1at7 ea7 %*&d *& e!0&e$$)*# *# te le2t %)t te de2)#)t)*# *# te &)+t.
1. being Iound guilty oI anything beIore
2. she had planned what she was going to do
3. something that makes you Ieel pity
4. to be mied up, unclear about what you aredoing or what is happening
e she had set out on a deliberate 5. to be accused by the police in court epedition
a charged with
b pathetic
c conIused
d previous convictions
TASK 9-. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
1. The two women were both the same in one way. In what way?
2. How does the Magistrate describe the Iirst woman?
3. What eactly does he say about "sleeping pills" in her case?
4. What did he with her and why?
5. What was diIIerent about the second woman?
6. What happened to her?
TASK 94 U)$7($$ te 2*ll*%)#+.
1. "There is no deIinite prooI about the sleeping pills and the Iirst woman. The Magistrate would
have been right to send her to prison". Discuss it.
2. Why was it easier to decide what to do with the second woman?
TASK 9V. 9. 1a/e te $e#te#7e$ 7*#ta)#)#+ &e0*&ted '(e$t)*#$ a77*&d)#+ t* te 3*del.
MODEL: How many had she taken? Nobody knew. C*8*d; /#e% *% 3a#; $eHd ta/e#.
a How conIused was she? It's diIIicult to say.
b When had she last had a pill? We couldn't Iind out.
c Where had she got the pills? The doctor didn't know.
d How many things had she stolen? The police couldn't say.
e How much were the things worth? Nobody asked.
2. 1a/e $e#te#7e$ 7*#ta)#)#+ te )#+,2*&3 a77*&d)#+ t* te 3*del.
MODEL: There was no uestion oI conIusion oI mind.Iming her There was no uestion oI Iining her.
a sending her to prison
b putting her on probation
c being to soIt
d not punishing her somehow
e not knowing what she was doing
TASK 9M. P)$te# t* 0a&t 4 *2 te ta0e.
The Magistrate says why he gives help in some cases and punishment in others.
TASK 9Q. E!0la)# te 3ea#)#+ *2 te e!0&e$$)*#$.
a to Ieel desperate;
b on the other hand.
TASK 9R. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
1. Why does the Magistrate Ieel desperate sometimes?
2. What does he have to consider when he sees that someone needs help?
3. What would happen iI some people were leIt Iree?
4. What does he say would happen iI people were never punished?
TASK 9S. U)$7($$ te 2*ll*%)#+.
From what the Magistrate has said throughout the tape, do you think he is too "soIt", too "hard" or what? Why?
TASK "T. 9. 1a/e $e#te#7e$ 7*#ta)#)#+ &e0*&ted '(e$t)*#$ a77*&d)#+ t* te 3*del.
MODEL: It depends. How anti-social has their action been? Dt de0e#d$ *% a#t),$*7)al te)& a7t)*# a$ 8ee#.
a It depends. What did he do?
b You must consider. How much has a man done?
c It all depends. How many times has a criminal been in prison?
d I always consider. What is his background?
e It depends. How serious is the crime?
2. 1a/e 7*#d)t)*#al $e#te#7e$ a77*&d)#+ t* te 3*del. MODEL: People must be punished. II people were not
punished crime would increase. Discipline must be taught. II discipline weren't taught, crime would increase.
a Things like this must be done.
b The law must be enIorced.
c Fines must be given.
d People must be sent to prison.
e Magistrates must be Iirm.
TASK "9. Read te te!t a#d a#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
4-2 A));:2)' 0)3 '-2 F%,+'5
Imagine, iI you can, that you have been arrested Ior somethinglike shopliIting, or Ior dangerous driving, or Ior
getting drunk and causing "a disturbance oI the peace". You are in a Magistrates Court now.
You, "the accused", are in a kind oI large, open bo. The sides come up almost to your chin. It is on a raised
platIorm almost in the centre oI the court and is called "the dock". You are "in the dock". There are three
Magistrates "on the bench" in Iront oI you. At least one oI them is, ,woman. They are also on a raised platIorm, at
desks, side by side. In Irdnt oI and below them there is another man. He is the "Clerk oI the Court" and e, unlike
them, is Iramed in the law and is paid Ior his work. During your case he will handle the administrative details and
perhaps give advice to the Magistrates on legal points.
, /
The case begins. The policeman who arrested you gives evidence. He reads details Irom a small black notebook that
he always carries. He tells the court when and why he arrested you, what you said, what he said, and so on. tYour
solicitor uestions, or "cross-eamines" hirrIoOne oI the Magistrates speaking Ior all three, also asks uestions.'
Other witnesses appear. Perhaps you yourselI say nothing at all. You do not have to speak in your deIence.
"Everyone is innocent urileVs proved guilty". In other words, you do not have to prove that you are innocent. The
police have to prove you are guilty.
At the end the Magistrates probably do not even go out oI the court. They discuss your case in low voices in Iront oI
you. You try to hear, but cannot. Then the Clerk oI the Court tells you to standThe Magistrate who has done the
talking Ior the others tells you whether they have Iound you innocent or guiltv`He can sentence you to no more than
si months in gaol Ior one oIIence, to a maimum oI one year Ior two or more oIIences or to a Iine oI 400 pounds.
"` serious cases are heard'in the Crown Court,-Avhere the Judge is always a legal epert and is also paid Ior
his work. In the Crown Court you may, iI you choose, be given a "trial by ury". Twelve ordinary people like
yourselI udge you. But the Judge himselI always decides on the sentence.
Reporters Ior local newspapers oIten go to Magistrates' Courts; the net day articles appear in the paper and Iull
names, ages, addresses and details oI the case are given. Find such an article iI you can Irom an English local
newspaper. It will give you an idea oI the kind oI cases that can be tried in such a court.
1. What are the names oI at least three oIIences less serious than crimes Ior which people are tried in a
Magistrates' Court.
2. What eactly is meant by "the dock"?
3. II you are "in the dock", what and who do you see is Iront oI you?
4. II you are the accused, describe what these people will do during your case.
a the policeman who arrested you
b your solicitor
c one oI the three Magistrates
d the other two Magistrates
e witnesses
5.In what way, with regard to Iraming and pay, is the Clerk oI the Court diIIerent Irom the Magistrates?
6. What is the longest term a Magistrates' Court can sentence anyone to?
7. Where are more serious cases heard?
TASK 9. E!a3)#e te 7a&t a#d &ead te te!t.
US Supreme Court Opinions
Ut` `Approimately 140 signed opinions
Original urisdiction
Approimately 10 cases
Reuest Ior review Approimately 4200 petitions and appeals
From Federal Administrative Agencies
US Courts oI Appeals 36,000 cases
State Courts oI Last
Resort 60,000 cases
State Intermediate Appellate
Courts 130,000 cases
US District Courts
94 Courts 280,000 cases
State Trial Courts 27,000,000 cases
4-2 ?/*0),U0',;) ;< '-2 L232/0+ 8;%/'& 4;305
The American court system is comple. It Iunctions as part oI the Iederal system oI government. Each state runs its
own court system, and no two are
W27 L 1. In additic
identical. In addition, we have a system oI courts Ior the national government. These Iederal courts coeist with the
state courts.
Individuals Iall under the urisdiction oI two diIIerent court systems, their state courts and Iederal courts. They can
sue or be sued in either system, depending mostly on what their case is about. The vast maority oI cases are
resolved in the state courts.
) The Iederal courts are organied in three tiers, like a pyramid. At the bottom oI the pyramid are the US district
courts, where litigation begins. In the middle are the US courts oI appeals. At the top is the US Supreme Court. To
appeal means to take a case to a higher court. The courts oI appeals and the Supreme Court are appellate courts,
with Iew eceptions, they review cases that have been decided in lower courts. Most Iederal courts hear and decide a
wide array oI cases; the udges in these courts are known as generalists.
TASK ". :)#d )# te te!t te E#+l)$ e'()Fale#t$ 2*& te ,%*&d$ 8el*%.
, ;
- u n;
- m;
- n ;
- ;
- nm m;
- nn n mnm;
- m n;
- ;
- ;
- , x;
- x ;
- m ;
- nnn ;
- mu;
- m ;
- n n;
- .
TASK -. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
1. Who is responsible Ior making laws in the US?
2. Name American courts in the descending order.
3. In what way are the Iederal courts organied?
4. Where does litigation begin?
5. What does the word "to appeal" mean? TASK 4. :)ll )# te 8la#/$.
4-2 L232/0+ 0)3 >'0'2 8;%/' >5&'26&
The Iederal courts have three tiers: a`/ * '
,ILH "' oI bgipI"' ;' /i and the c / "P/VIc Court. The d, was
created by the Constitution; all other e created by Congress. Most litigation occurs in <2=tX)J)TO structure oI g
courts, courts
courts were `courts. The
courts varies Irom state to state; usually there are
Ior less serious cases, iIor more serious cases,
State courts
courts, and courts oI last k
were created by state constitutions.
Unit V
TASK 9. Read te 2*ll*%)#+ te!t.
F/;V'- ;< '-2 W/;<2&&,;)
Today, the number oI awyers in the United States eceeds 675,000. This translates to one lawyer Ior every 364
people. Twenty-Iive years ago, there was one lawyer Ior every 70P people. The rate at which the legal proIession is
growing will probably continue to outpace rate oI population growth through the end oI the century.
Why is a career in law so popular? Market Iorces account Ior some oI the allure. We know that in 1984 the average
salary oI eperienced lawyers was 88,000 dollars. II we could include in this average the salaries oI all lawyer`,
whatever their eperience, the Iigure would probably be much lower, certainly well below the 108,000 dollars
average salary oI physicians. But lawyers' salaries are still substantially greater than those oI many other
proIessionals. Salaries Ior newly minted lawyers heading Ior elite New York law Iirms eceeded 71,000 dollars in
1987; some Iirms oIIered additional bonuses Ior clerkship eperience in the Iederal courts and state supreme courts.
The glamour oI legal practice strengthens the attraction oI its Iinancial rewards.
There are other reasons Ior the popularity oI the legal proIession and the unuenchable demand Ior legal services.
Materialism and individualism in American culture encourage dispute. Federalism gives separate legal
systems Ior each state plus the national government. Advertising can now create demand Ior legal services, too.
Finally, the principles oI separation oI powers and oI checks and balances make governing diIIicult and sometimes
impossible. When political institutions act, they oIten are Iorced to compromise, deIerring critical issues to the
courts. Pluralist democracy operates when groups are able to press their interests on, and even challenge, the
government. The epression oI group demands in a culture that encourages lawsuits thrusts on the courts all manner
oI disputes and interests` Is it any wonder that America needs all the lawyers it can train?
TASK ". :)#d )# te te!t te E#+l)$ e'()Fale#t$ 2*& te %*&d$ 8el*%6
, nm;
- n;
- n;
- ;
- n;
- n m;
- x n;
- n n ;
- n u-.
TASK -. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
1. Why is the number oI lawyers in the US increasing?
2. What Iactors create demand Ior legal services?
TASK 4. Read te te!t.
1> D'';/)25&
The Justice Department is responsible Ior IaithIul eecution oI the laws under the president's authority. The main
administrators oI Iederal law enIorcement are the ninety-Iour US attorneys, appointed by the president with the
advice and consent oI the Senate. Unlike Iederal udges, these appointees serve at the pleasure oI the president and
are epected to relinuish their positions when the reins oI government change hands.
There is a US attorney in each Iederal udicial district. Their staIIs oI assistant attorneys vary in sie with the amount
oI litigation in the district. US attorneys have considerable discretion, which makes them powerIul political Iigures
in any community. Their decision to prosecute or not aIIects the wealth, Ireedom, rights, and reputation oI
individuals and organiations in the district.
US attorneys are political appointees who oIten harbour political ambitions. Their position commands media
attention and can serve political goals. In 1983 President Reagan appointed Rudolph Giuliani as US attorney Ior the
Southern District oI New York covering a large portion oI the New York metropolitan area. Over the net Iive
years, Giuliani notched his brieIcase with doens oI successIul prosecutions oI elected oIIicials, udges, organied
crime Iigures, and Wall Street inside traders. Giuliani's activities generated reels and reams oI Iavourable press
coverage, he even appeared on a Newsweek cover. This kind oI public eposure an helr`a US
launch a potential
sucgessIul career in elected oIIice, opponentItmliani's name must make
s a powerIul some politicians
TASK V. Ba&a0&a$e te 2*ll*%)#+ e!0&e$$)*#$.
a IaithIul eecution oI laws;
b under somebody's authority;
c consent;
d appointee;
e to relinuish;
I amount oI litigation;
g to prosecute; h elected oIIice; i inside traders; press coverage;
k to harbour political ambitions; 1 to launch a career.
TASK M. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
1. What is an attorney in the US? How is he appointed?
2. When does an attorney resign?
3. What does the number oI assistant attorneys in Iederal udicial districts depend on?
4. What makes attorneys so important in American communities?
5. How do attorneys in the US realie their political ambitions?
6. What eample in the tet proves that US attorneys harbour political ambitions?
TASK Q. .*&/ )# 0a)&$. U)$7($$ te d)22e&e#7e 8et%ee# te A3e&)7a# a#d ?&)t)$ la%;e&$.
A. Radio Phone-in
9. YaFe ;*( eFe& ad a#; le+al 0&*8le3$ Z S(7 a$
, your neighbours' bathroom leaked into your ceiling, and they do not want to pay damages;
- you were delayed by a metro accident and missed an important business appointment;
- a couple you know intends to divorce but they cannot decide who their Iavourite pressure-cooker
should belong to;-
- you rent an apartment and pay Ior 3 months in advance.At the end oI the second month your landlady
demands etra Iee...
What are the ways to solve these problems?
TASK ". Read te lette&$ 8el*% 2&*3 a %ee/l; 3a+a[)#e. 5**$e te &)+t de7)$)*# t* ea7 0&*8le3.
A. Annoyed
The other weekend I bought a acket Ior my son in a sale. When I got home he said it was too small and reIused to
wear it. So I went back the net day and asked them to echange it Ior a larger sie. UnIortunately they didn't have a
larger sie and when I asked Ior my money back they reIused, saying
that no reIunds wer given on sales goods. Are they within their rights to do this?
.. 7;//,23
MyselI and two Iriends have been renting a house near the college we go to Ior the last two years. The landlord has
now decided he wants us to leave and has more or less said that we have to be out within the net two weeks. We
have nowhere else to go and with eams coming up shortly we would rather stay where we are. Friends oI ours are
saying he can't get us out unless we have signed a contract agreeing to go. Is this right?
8. (X-0%&'23
I have been living in what used to be a very uiet area Ior about a year now but in the last Iew months it has changed
completely - iI I had known this would happen I would never have bought my house. Opposite me there is now a
Iish and chip shop which Iries day and night ecept Ior Sunday - the irhell is disgusting and so are all the empty
paper bags all over the street. It doesn't close until aIter midnight so every night there are people shouting, radios
blaring, car doors slamming - I never seem to get a night's sleep these days and it's beginning to aIIect my work. Is
there anything I can do about it?
A: 1 They must give you your money back, or a credit note.
2 They are not obliged to do anything. B: 1 He can get you out iI he needs the house back Ior his Iamily.
2 Your Iriends are right. C: 1 There is nothing you can do ecept move.
2 II the disturbance happens regularly you can ask a solicitor to to them. Discuss your answers in groups.
TASK -. P)$te# t* te ta0e. A le+al e!0e&t, 5a&le$ A#d&e%$ )$ a#$%e&)#+ te tele0*#e 7all$. 1at7 te 7alle& %)t
)$ *& e& lette&. B(t a 7)&7le &*(#d te a00&*0&)ate lette& 8el*%. First caller: ABC Second caller: ABC
TASK 4. Te 2*ll*%)#+ %*&d$ a#d 0&a$e$ %e&e ($ed )# te ta0e. >(e$$ te)& 3ea#)#+ a#d e!0la)# te3.
, rent book;
- to keep on sb.;
- to get sb. down;
- to keep pestering;
- a court order Ior possession;
- to sue Ior harassment;
- to regain possession oI;
- a chance oI staying put;
- a comple issue;
- Legal Aid;
- to be legally obliged;
- Iaulty;
- credit note;
- purchase.
TASK V. 5*30lete te 2*ll*%)#+ $(33a&)e$, ($)#+ te %*&d$ l)$ted 8el*% ea7 $(33a&;.
a Shops are not legally 1. back or 2.
` to give you your money
goods iI the items are bought in a 3.` although
most big stores would probably give you a 4.\iI
you had a 5..
receipt; sale; credit note; obliged; echange
b Stephen is not 1.an agreement but he pays 2.
monthly. The 3. 'does not live in the house and 4.no
services. He has to write Iormally asking them to leave - at least a
5. in advance. Unless he wants the house Ior himselI or
6. , Stephen is probably a protected
month ; rent; provides; landlord ; tenant; his Iamily ; signed
TASK M. .&)te a lette& *2 &e0l; t* LE!a($tedL, $(++e$t)#+ %at $e 3)+t d*. @$e e!0&e$$)*#$ l)/e6
iI I were you
why don't you
you should
have you thought about
B. Spy Photo Case
LAli Y!!" !!! T# SPST# A $AY %&& T$ %%'( S!)Y *)$#T# CAS C#+.!! LAST A ,-
Di has given a witness statement and the case is expected to last a week.
Anthony Jylius, head of litigation at her solicitors Mishcon de Reya, said it was possible she would give
evidence for up to a day.
Mr. Julius said: "The principle is that people who break confidences shouldn't profit from their bad
Di has refused pleas to settle privately against New Zealander Mr. Taylor, who took the shots with a
hidden camera, and Mirror Group Newspapers which published them.
The Princess wants an order against Mr. Taylor and MGN for profits they made.
Mr. Julius said the profits could top one million pounds - and that the Princess may well decide to give
any money she recovered to charity.
Mr. Taylor's solicitor, Razi Mireskandari, said: "f she doesn't appear would say her case is much,
PRNCESS Diana could spend a whole day in the witness box in her battle over peeping-tom photos, her
lawyer confirmed last night.
Di is determined to get public revenge and huge damages over sneakily-taken pictures of her exercising
in a gym in a leotard.
Next February 13 has already seen set as the date for the start of ler High Court hearing against Mirror
Group Newspapers and ex-gym boss 3ryce Taylor.
TASK 9. :)#d )# te te!t te E#+l)$ e'()Fale#t$ 2*& te %*&d$ a#d 0&a$e$ 8el*%.
, ;
- nx ;
, x; '*/ / 1 e
, ;
X - m C; JV
, nu ; v `
, x; ,^ H /`
- ;
, , _
o '

- m u- ;
- nu nnm ;
- um x;
, u n;
- ; V `L4
, n;
- nu n;
, n.
TASK. ". E!0la)# te 3ea#)#+ *2 te e!0&e$$)*# L0ee0)#+ , t*&# 0*t*$L.
TASK -. D3a+)#e ;*(&$el2 a a*(&#al)$t at a 0&e$$,7*#2e&e#7e. Ye&e a&e te 0e*0le 0&e$e#t6
, Princess Di
- e-gym boss Bryce Taylor and photographer
- MGN representative
A$/ te3 all $*&t$ *2 '(e$t)*#$.
TASK 9H. 5*30lete te 2*ll*%)#+ $e#te#7e$ %)t te 7*&&e7t #a3e$ *2 7*(&t$G,
The most common type oI Law Court in Great Britain is thIe

``'- court. More serious criminal cases then go to bcourt.
Civil cases are dealt with in c; courts. Appeals are heard by
dt Abl courts. The highest court oI appeal in England and Wales is
Certain cases may be reIerred to I in Luembourg.
The legal system also includes glll
which deal with
oIIenders under seventeen and h<b<b courts which investigate violent,
sudden or unnatural deaths. There are also administrative i' u * which deal with proIessional standards,
disputes between individuals, and disputes between individuals and government departments.
1. Most litigation in the US occurs in
2. TheCourt was created by the Constitution, all other
courts were created by Congress.
3. Cases are primarily heard in the courts oIurisdiction.
4. At the bottom oI the system oI American courts are the middle there are ' '
courts. In
court. They review cases
5. To appeal means to take a case to a that have been decided in
TASK ". 5*30lete te 2*ll*%)#+ $e#te#7e$ %)t te %*&d$ a#d 0&a$e$ 2&*3 te 8*!, ($)#+ te3 )# te 7*&&e7t 2*&3.
to plead guilty; attorney; to recover; barrister; to cross-eamine; civil action; to inuire into; advocacy; to sentence;
at random; solicitor; the dock.
1. II a person in Britain has a legal problem, he will go and see a
G - ' * In the US, he will go and see a. 2. A case oI divorce is a
. 3. II you want toyour debts, your case will be heard in the
County Court. 4.is an epert in the interpretation oI law. He is also
an epert on the art oI presenting cases in Court. 5. Coroners who
have medical or legal training ;violent or unnatural deaths. 6. A ury
consists oI twelve urors who are ordinary people chosen HII
`Irom the Electoral Register. 7. In a Magistrates'
Court the accused is placed in
. 8. A deIence lawyer in court the accused iI he
the witnesses. 9. A udge
TASK -. >)Fe de2)#)t)*#$ *2 te 2*ll*%)#+ %*&d$ a#d e!0&e$$)*#$.
a to allege; b Iorgery; c to put on probation; d witness-bo; e accomplice; I appeal; g bankruptcy; h a gaol; i
litigation; damages.
TASK 4. 5*30lete te 2*ll*%)#+ $e#te#7e$ 8; $(8$t)t(t)#+ te %*&d$ a#d e!0&e$$)*#$ )# 8&a7/et$ 2*& te)& $;#*#;3$.
1. Th president oI the US has the right to reIuse the assent oI a bill.
2. To become a law a bill must not only be adopted in both houses oI Parliament, but also get the
ueen's approval.
3. A bill is Iirst put Iorward in the House oI Representatives, then reIerred to one oI the standing
committees which organies debates on it and may agree on it, change it or shelve the draIt.
4. A bill can still become a law only iI it is enacted by the greater number oI the members 2/3 in
both houses oI Congress.
Just for Fun
,ActL "t
When asked to eplain the diIIerence between an ordinary citien and a lawyer, a well-known barrister eplained,
"II an ordinary citien gave you an orange, he would say, "I give you this orange." But iI a lawyer gave you an
orange, he would say, "I hereby give, grant and convey to you all my interest, right, title and claim oI and in this
orange, together with all its rind, skin, uice and pulp, and all right and advantage therein with Iull power to bite, cut,
suck, or otherwise eat or consume the said orange, or give away or dispose oI to any third party the said orange, with
or without its rind, skin, uice and pulp, subect to any amendments subseuently introduced or drawn up to this
"Have you anything to say Ior yourselI beIore I pass a sentence?" the udge Irowned at the pickpocket. "Just what
good have you ever done Ior
"Well, Your Honour", ventured the prisoner, "I've helped several
reporters, prison guards and you keep your obs".
A woman visited her Iamily solicitor and said, "I'd like to go over my will again, Mr Jenks. I'm a bit worried
"Don't you worry about a thing, Mrs Smith", said the solicitor, "ust
leave it all to me."
"I suppose I might as well," said Mrs Smith with a sigh. "You'll get it
all in the end"
Visitor: "What terrible crime has this man committed?" Jailer: "He has done nothing. He merely happened to be
passing by when "Gyp the Blood" tried to kill a man, and he is held in prison as a
V. "And where is "Gyp the Blood"?"
J. "He is out on bail".
"I don't want a lawyer to tell me what I cannot do; I hire him to tell me
how to do what I want to do."
J. Priepont Morgan
*** Murphy's Law: II anything can go wrong, it will.
Whistler's Law: You never know who's right, but you always know
who's in charge.
Oak's principles oI law-making:
Law epands in proportion to the resources available Ior its enIorcement.
Bad law is more likely to be supplemented than repealed.
Social legislation cannot repeal physical laws.
The rule oI law:
II the Iacts are against you, argue the law.
II the law is against you, argue the Iacts.
II the Iacts and the law are against you, yell like hell.
accuse voI - to charge with an oIIence, crime; to blame. Accuse/ ad- a person charged with an oIIence, the
deIendant in a criminal case.
accuser n- a person who accuses. Accusation n- charge oI wrongdoing; allegation. advocate n - 1. a person who
deIends or supports a cause or proposal 2. a proIessional pleader beIore tribunal or court. advocacy n - 1. active
support or pleading. 2. the Iunction oI an advocate. I/ allege v- to assert without prooI or beIore proving.
- alle+ed ad.
allegation n - statement oI what one undertakes to prove. amend v - see Ch. 11,111.
/appeal v - to take a case to a higher court Ior rehearing and a new decision.
appeal n - a legal proceeding by which a case is brought to a higher court Ior review.
- 5*(&t *2d.
appoint v - 1. to Ii or name oIIicially. 2. to select Ior an oIIice or position.
- a00*)#t3e#t n.
appointee n - a person who is appointed. argue v - to consider arguments Ior and against; discuss. a 7a$e.
0&&2)' v - to agree to sth. 0&&2)' n - agreement.
- &*;al d.
0'';/)25 n -1. sb. with legal authority to act Ior another.
2. US - lawyer. Y0)Z/%[' n - a Iinancially ruined person whose estate is administered
under the bankruptcy law Ior the beneIit oI his /her creditors.
Y0)Z/%[':5 n - 1. being bankrupt.
2. utter Iailure, impoverishment, or destitution. Y0//,&'2/ nBr.-a lawyer who has the right to plead as an advocate
an English or Welsh superior court. Y2):- n - 1. any oI the long seats on which members sit in parliament.
2. a udge's seat in court.
3. udges or magistrates hearing a particular case collectively. Y,++ n - a Iormal proposal Ior a new law.
- t* de2eat a d.
, t* )#t&*d(7e a .
- t* 0a$$ a
- ?)ll *2 R)+t$ , see Ch. II, III.
Y/0):- \)] O ^ ;< *;92/)62)' - a division oI an organiation oI
government e.g. the legislative, the eecutive, the udicial.
-oI law- a distinct area oI law e.g. civil, criminal, etc.. Y%/*+0/5 \)] O &22 8-. _. #:,9,+ ad - relating to private
rights and remedies sought'by civil.
actions as contrasted with criminal proceedings.
a7t)*# , action brought to enIorce, redress or protect
private rights.
7a$e , a court case that involves a private dispute arising
Irom such matters as accidents, contractual obligations and
&)+t$ , powers or privileges guaranteed to individuals and
protected by the constitution.
$e&Fa#t , a government oIIicer. :;66,' \)] O ^ 0 :/,62 - to carry out. :;)&2)' n - compliance in or approval oI
what is done or proposed.
- 7*#$e#t v.
:;)&2)&%& n - general agreement, unanimity. :;)9,:' v oI - to Iind or prove to be guilty.
`:;)9,:' n - a person serving a prison sentence.
,7*#F)7t)*# n. :;/;)2/ n - a public oIIicer whose principal duty is to inuire into
the cause oI any unnatural death.
dH$ 7*(&t. :;%/'/;;6 n - the portion oI a courthouse in which the actual
proceedings take place. :/,6,)0+ ad - relating to crime or its punishment as contrasted with
a7t , commission oI a crime.
a7t)*# , an action, suit or cause instituted to punish a criminal.
7a$e , a court case involving a crime, or violation oI public
order. criminal n - a person who has committed or being convicted oI
a crime.
a:/;&&O2X06,)2 v - see Ch. V. damages n - see Ch. V. 32Y0'2 \)] O &22 Ch. II, III. 32<2)3 v - 1. to maintain
by argument in the Iace oI opposition or
2. to act as a legal representative in court.
32<2):2 n US deIense - a deIending party or group in a court
oI law.
la%;e&, att*&#e;
32<2)30)' n - a person, company, etc. against whom a criminal
charge or civil claim is made. 3,&[%'2 v - to argue, to call into uestion.
3,&[%'2 n - legal controversy, debate. 3;:Z n - the prisoner's enclosure in a criminal court. 2)<;/:2 v - to put
into eecution.
,da la%
, e#2*&7e3e#t. 29,32):2 \)] O &22 8-. _. <,)2 n,v - see Ch. V. <;/*2/5 \)] O &22 8-. _.
*%,+' n - responsibility Ior oIIence.
*%,+'5 ad oI 1. having committed a crime, or other breach oI
2. responsible Ior a crime or tort or other oIIence or Iault.
t* 2)#d $8. d , to prove sb's guilt in court.
t* 0lead d , to admit one's guilt in court vs. to plead not . -20/,)* n - a trial in court. ,));:2):2 n - being Iree
Irom guilt or sin.
- )##*7e#t ad.
,)'/;3%:2 v -1. to present Iormally.
2. to announce Iormally or by an oIIicial reading.
- a 8)ll, a la%. investigate v - see Ch. V. ail n Br. also gaol - a prison.
t* aa)l v. udge n - a public oIIicial authoried to decide uestions brought
beIore a court.
udge v - to act as a udge. urisdiction n oI a court - the power, right or authority to apply the
*&)+)#al , - the authority oI a court to hear a case beIore any
other court does.
a00ellate d , the authority oI a court to hear cases that have
been tried, decided, or reeamined in other courts. uror n, ury n - see Ch. IV. ustice n - 1 . proper
administration oI laws.
2. title given to udges e.g. the US Supreme Court, appellate
J($t)7e *2 te Bea7e , see Ch. 11 uvenile ad court - a court with special urisdiction over
delinuent and dependent young people. kidnap v - see Ch. V.- VbO `7 (e
n - 1 . a rule oI conduct Iormally recognied as binding or
enIorced by authority. '
2. the whole body oI such rules.
lawIul ad - allowed by law, legal.
lawsuit n - a noncriminal case in a court oI law.
lawyer n - a person licensed to practice law. legal ad - 1. recognied and permitted by law.
,A)d, the system oI payments Irom public Iunds to those who
cannot aIIord legal advice or representation. litigate v to carry on a lawsuit. litigation n - a lawsuit.
litigant n - a person engaged in litigation. magistrate n 1 . Br. an inIerior udicial oIIicer, such as Justice oI the
2. US since 1 99 1 a udicial oIIicer appointed by udges oI Iederal
district courts having many but not all oI the powers oI the udge
they may conduct civil or misdemeanour criminal trials. maority n - see Ch. II, III. matrimonial ad - relating
to marriage. 3atte&$ fe/ bv - `7 murder v,n - see Ch. V/ 051
;<<2):2 n US oIIense - an illegal act or omission punishable under
criminal law.
oIIender n - a person who has committed an oIIence. order n court - a written direction oI a court or udge
determines some point or directs some step in the proceedings. pass v a bill, law - to enact or to sanction the
adaptation by the
maority oI votes.
a $e#te#7e , to pronounce udicially. petition n - a Iormal written reuest to a superior.
- 0et)t)*# v.
- 0et)t)*#e& n.
petty ad - small, minor, oI less or inconsiderable importance.
*22e#7e , a minor crime, the maimum punishment Ior which is
generally a Iine or a short term in ail.
$e$$)*#$ petty sessional courts - Magistrates' court, plaintiII n-see Ch.IV. plea n - 1. an allegation made by a
party in support oI his/her
2. an accused person's answer to an indictment. "" plead n - 1. To argue a case as an advocate in a court.
2. to make or answer an allegation in a legal proceeding.
3. to make a speciIied plea. guilty/not guilty.
pleading n - a Iormal written allegation made by a party in a legal
preside v - to eercise guidance, authority or control over. probation n - see Ch. V. `TK
proceedings n - the Iorm and manner oI conducting uridical business
in a court.
prosecute v,prosecution n,prosecutor n - see Ch. IV. punishment n - see Ch. V. Gg `-V`CC. reading n -
an act oI Iormally reading oI a bill that constitutes any oI
the three successive stages oI approval by a legislature. recover v - to get back, regain possession or use oI.
- de8t, 3*#e;.
/2,*) v - to hold oIIice as head oI state, although possessing little governing power.
- ,)#+ 3*#a&7. rob v - see Ch.V.
&-2+92 v a draIt - to remove Irom active service, to put oII or aside. &-;[+,<',)* n - see Ch.V. cK he 9
LU*U m `u <A i &;+,:,';/ n - a ualiIied lawyer who advises clients, represents them in
'-2 +;V2/ :;%/'&H 0)3 [/2[0/2& :0&2& <;/ Y0//,&'2/& '; '/5 ,) -,*-2/ :;%/'&.
&'0)3,)* :;66,''22 \)] O 0 [2/60)2)' :;)*/2&&,;)0+ :;66,''22 '-0' &[2:,0+,U2& ,) 0 [0/',:%+0/ +2*,&+0',92 0/20.
theIt n - see Ch. V.2oIc5 D
,tiy?v`"SCh.IV. tribunal n - a court dealing with proIessional standards, disputes
between individuals and government departments e.g. over taation. violence n - 1. unust or unwarranted
eercise oI Iorce, usually
accompanied with outrage or Iury. 2. Iorce unlawIully eercised against the laws and against public
violent ad death - death caused by violent, eternal means, as
distinguished Irom natural death.
violation n - the act oI breaching oI right, duty or law. veto n -the president's disapproval oI a bill that has been
passed by
both houses oI Congress.
- Fet* v.
will n - a written legal declaration oI the manner in which sb. would have his/her property disposed oI aIter his/her
- t* 3a/e a
witness v - to testiIy, to act as legal witness.
8*! Br.; $ta#d US - an enclosure in which a witness testiIies in court.
witness n - a person who testiIies to what he has seen, heard or otherwise observed; a person whose declaration or
aIIirmation under oath is received as evidence Ior any purpose.
Great Britain
Unit I. The System oI Government.........................................................43
Unit II. Parliament..................................................................................45
Unit III. A Member oI Parliament..........................................................51
Unit IV. Elections...................................................................................54
Unit V. The Royal Family.............................................................,........59
Just Ior Fun.............................................................................................68
TASK P ?e2*&e &ead)#+ te te!t, tell te 7la$$ %at ;*( &e3e38e& a8*(t te $;$te3 *2 +*Fe&#3e#t )# >&eat ?&)ta)#.
TASK " Read te te!t.
In theory, the constitution has three branches: Parliament, which makes laws, the government, which "eecutes"
laws, i.e. puts them into eIIect, and the law courts, which interpret laws. Although the ueen is oIIicially head oI all
three branches, she has little direct power.
Parliament has two parts: the House oI Commons and the House oI Lords. Members oI the House oI Commons are
elected by the voters oI 650 constituencies. They are known as MPs, or Members oI Parliament. The Prime
Minister, or leader oI the Government, is also an MP, usually the leader oI the political party with a maority in the
House oI Commons.
The Prime Minister is advised by a Cabinet oI about twenty other ministers. The Cabinet includes the ministers in
charge oI maor government departments or ministries. Departments and ministries are run by civil servants, who
are permanent oIIicials. Even iI the Government changes aIter an election, the same civil servants are employed.
The House oI Lords consists oI the Lords Temporal and the Lords Spiritual. The Lords Spiritual are the Archbishops
oI York and Canterbury, together with twenty-Iour senior bishops oI the Church oI England. The Lords Temporal
consist oI hereditary peers who have inherited their titles; liIe peers who are appointed by the ueen on the advice
oI the Government Ior various services to the nation` and the Lords oI Appeal Law Lords who become liIe peers
on their udicial appointments. The latter serve the House oI Lords as the ultimate court oI appeal. This appeal court
consists oI some nine Law Lords who hold senior udicial oIIice. They are presided over by the Lord Chancellor and
they Iorm a uorum oI three to Iive when they hear appeal cases.
TASK -. A#al;[e te 7a&t >)Fe R($$)a# e'()Fale#t$ 2*& te %*&d$ )# 8*ld t;0e. 4-2 >5&'26 ;< F;92/)62)'
The ueen is head oI government,
she makes laws with Parliament
and she is head oI the courts
TASK 4. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
1. Which oI these people are not elected: a peer, an MP a civil servant, the Prime Minister?
2. What is the diIIerence between liIe peers and hereditary peers, Lords Temporal and Lords Spiritual?
3. What are civil servants?
4. Which areas oI government do these people deal with: the Chancellor oI the Echeuer, the Home
Secretary, the Lord Chancellor?
5. Find two eamples oI eecutive organisations outside central government.
TASK V. .*&/ )# 0a)&$ a#d d)$7($$ te 2*ll*%)#+ '(e$t)*#$.
1. What diIIerences are there between Parliament and the Government?
2. What are the similarities and diIIerences between the U parliamentary system and that oI your
your own country?
TASK 9. 5*30lete te 2*ll*%)#+ te!t %)t te %*&d$ a#d e!0&e$$)*#$ 2&*3 te 8*!.
4-2 M;%&2 ;< 8;66;)&
Cabinet;*benches; e.
backbenchers;," Budget; A `
Prime Minister; "r Speaker ; 6
ministers`; t

Iront bench
debates; -C`C
Foreign Secretary; O Shadow Cabinet;
Home Secretary; `Leader oI the Opposition;
Chancellor oI the Echeuer.
This is the House oI Commons, where Members oI Parliament take their
i -.!
seats on the green leather a` I/ `1 according to their party and position. One oI them is chusen to be the b
, who acts as a kind oI
, cliairman oI the
which take place in the House. In Iront oI him
_b..;. The one who deals with Iinancial matters and prepares the
speech on the economic state oI the country is called
,.-..* Opposite this group sits the n the
on his right sit the MPs oI the biggest party, which Iorms the government, and
Iacing them sit the MPs oI the parties who oppose them, the d ` .
The leaders oI these two groups sit at the Iront on each side. MPs without special positions in their parties sit behind
their leaders at th,e back. They are called e.l ` . '. *"* W, The leader oI the government, the I`lii, sits
on the government gJ, 'oI course, net to his or her
h. The most important oI these Iorm the i
*. The
minister responsible Ior relations with other countries is called the ' '*0n".v.I 3+ one responsible Ior law and
security is called the k nual I the <3=)j
main person in the largest party opposing the government and the , u * , each member oI which specialies in a
particular area oI government. ' * HH
TASK ". Read te te!t.
I0Z,)* J2V @0V&d .,++& 0)3 D:'&
The Iunctions oI Parliament are: making laws; providing money Ior the government through taation; eamining
government policy, administration and spending; debating political uestions.
Every year Parliament passes about a hundred laws directly, by making Acts oI Parliament. Because this can be a
long process, Parliament sometimes passes a very general law and leaves a minister to Iill in the details. In this way,
it indirectly passes about 2,000 additional rules and regulations.
No new law can be passed unless it has completed a number oI stages in the House oI Commons and the House oI
Lords. The monarch also has to give a Bill the Royal Assent, which is now ust a Iormality. Since 1707 no sovereign
has reIused a Bill. Whilst a law is still going through Parliament it is called a Bill. There are two main types oI Bills
- Public Bills which deal with matters oI public importance and Private Bills which deal with local matters and
Public and Private Bills are passed through Parliament in much the same way. When a Bill is introduced in the
House oI Commons, it receives a Iormal Iirst reading. It is then printed and read a second time, when it is debated
but not
amended. AIter the second reading the Bill is reIerred to a committee, either a special committee made up oI certain
members oI the House, or to the House itselI as a committee. Here it is'discussed in detail and amended, iI
necessary. The Bill is then presented Ior a third reading and is debated. II the Bill is passed by the Commons it goes
to the Lords, and provided it is not reected by them, it goes through the same procedure as in the Commons. AIter
receiving the Royal Assent the Bill becomes an Act oI Parliament. In order to be enIorced, it must be published in
Statute Iorm, becoming a part oI Statute Law. ,The power oI the Lords to reect a Bill has been severely curtailed. A
money Bill must be passed by the Lords without amendment within a month oI being presented in the House. The
Act oI 1949 provides that any Public Bill passed by the Commons in two successive parliamentary sessions and
reected both times by the Lords, may be presented Ior the Royal Assent, even though it has not been passed by the
Lords. The Lords, thereIore, can only delay the passage oI a Public Bill, they cannot reect it.
TASK -. :)#d )# te te!t te E#+l)$ e'()Fale#t$ 2*& te 2*ll*%)#+ e!0&e$$)*#$.
, m m;
- n;
- n;
- x;
- nn n;
- x nu n; X , n;
* - x n;
- n ;
- x n;
- n ;
- n n ;
- x n n.
TASK 4. E!0la)# te 3ea#)#+$ *2 te 2*l)*,%)#+ e!0&e$$)*#$ 2&*3 te te!t.
H Statute Law;
- to be published in Statute Iorm;
- to receive a Iormal reading;
- to enIorce an Act oI Parliament;
- to be severely curtailed;
- a money Bill.
TASK V. A#al;[e te 7a&t. >)Fe R($$)a# e'()Fale#t$ 2*& te %*&d$ )# 8*ld t;0e. M;V .,++& F; '-/;%*- W0/+,062)'
f L,/&' B203,)* e
Publication is
announced >2:;)3 B203,)* General debate on
8;66,''22 >'0*2
Detailed discussion
in committee
B2[;/' >'0*2
Committee reports to
the House 4-,/3 B203,)* Formal review oI contents oI the Bill .
/` II the Bill has ` been introduced in the
Commons, it is then reviewed in the Lords Some Bills start in the
Lords and then go to the Commons
The Lords have less
Iormal methods oI
debating Bills They
can delay but not stop
v a Bill )
2 The Bill is `
signed by the ueen and becomes
The Royal Assent
is still read out in
Parliament in
,"La reyne le veult'V
TASK M. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
1. What is the diIIerence between a Bill and an Act oI Parliament?
2. What are the two types oI Bills? Discuss the diIIerence between them.
3. How many readings should a Bill receive to become an Act?
4. What is the role oI the House oI Lords in law-making process?
5. Which oI the two Houses oI Parliament has more power?
6. How does a Bill go through Parliament? How eIIicient and democratic is this process, in your opinion?
TASK Q. Read te te!t.
4-2 (X2:%',92
The eecutive can be divided into the three parts.
Te B&)F; 5*(#7)l6 The Privy Council developed Irom a small group oI royal advisers at court into the chieI source
oI eecutive authority. But its position was weakened in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries as more oI its
Iunctions were transIerred to a developing parliamentary Cabinet.
Today its main role is to advise the monarch on a range oI matters, like the resolution oI constitutional issues and the
approval oI Orders in Council, such as the granting oI Royal Charters to public bodies. The most important task oI
the Privy Council today is perIormed by its Judicial Committee. This serves as the Iinal court oI appeal Irom those
dependencies and Commonwealth countries which have retained this avenue oI appeal. It may also be used as an
arbiter Ior a wide range oI courts and committees in Britain and overseas, and its rulings can be inIluential.
The oIIice oI Privy Councillor is an honorary one, conIerred, Ior eample, on Iormer Prime Ministers.
Te 1)#)$t&;6 The Ministry is the government oI the moment. The head oI the Ministry is the Prime Minister. The
Iunctions oI the Prime Minister are: leading the maority party; running the Government; appointing Cabinet
Ministers and other ministers; representing the nation in political matters.
Upon accepting oIIice the Prime Minister must Iorm a government, that is, select a cabinet and ministry Irom among
the Members oI Parliament oI his own party. The Cabinet constitutes the centre oI the government and is composed
oI about 20 oI the most important ministers. All maor decisions oI the Government are made by the Cabinet, and
thereIore it is the Cabinet which Iorms Government policy. Decisions made by the Cabinet must be unanimous, i It
makes its decisions collectively and is collectively responsible to Parliament.
AIter the Prime Minister has Iormed his cabinet, he selects the rest oI his ministry. Most oI these ministers are the
political heads oI Government Departments and are members oI one oI the Houses.
>*Fe&#3e#t Ue0a&t3e#t$6 Government departments are responsible Ior implementing Government policy. Each
department is headed by two people: a political head who is usually the minister, and an administrative head Irom
the Civil Service, called a permanent secretary. They are responsible Ior a permanent staII which is part oI the Civil
Service. There are many such departments, Ior eample the Home OIIice, the Department oI Education, the Ministry
oI DeIence, etc. The most important department is the Treasury, and the Prime Minister is usually its political head.
It is the Department which controls the economy oI the nation.
As well as government departments there are government agencies Iormed to operate public services, e.g., the Post
OIIice, British Rail, etc. Most oI these agencies are subect to the control oI one oI the government departments.
TASK R. >)Fe R($$)a# e'()Fale#t$ 2*& te 2*ll*%)#+ %*&d$ a#d e!0&e$$)*#$.
- The Privy Council;
- Royal Charters;
, Commonwealth;
- The Ministry;
, Government Departments;
- Civil Service;
- The Home Foreign OIIice;
- The Treasury.
ITASK S. :)#d )# te te!t te E#+l)$ e'()Fale#t$ 2*& te 2*ll*%)#+ e!0&e$$)*#$.
, n x;
- n;
- n;
- nu x;
- m;
- n n;
- nx m. 4
TASK 9T. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
1 . What are the Iunctions oI:
a Parliament;
b the Prime Minister;
c the Privy Council;
d the Cabinet;
e the Government Departments?
2. Who does the Cabinet consist oI?
3. What is "collective responsibility"?
4. Who is each department headed by? What are their Iunctions?
5. What is a government agency?
TASK 99. .*&/ )# 0a)&$ a#d d)$7($$ te 2*ll*%)#+ '(e$t)*#$.
1 . What is the diIIerence between the Constitutions oI the United ingdom and the United States? 2. II the Prime
Minister wants to introduce a new law, what are the Iunctions oI the Iollowing: the Cabinet; the House oI Commons;
the House oI Lords; the ueen? 3. What are the Ieatures oI the British Constitution which you consider important?
Compare them with the Constitution oI your own country.
TASK 9". .&)te a de$7&)0t)*# *2 te 7*#$t)t(t)*#al $;$te3 *2 ;*(& *%# 7*(#t&;, ($)#+ te te!t$ a8*Fe a$ a 3*del.
TASK D. U* ;*( /#*%Z .*&/ +&*(0$ a#d +)Fe a#$%e&$ t* te 2*ll*%)#+ '(e$t)*#$.
1. What are the main political parties in Great Britain? What is the diIIerence between them?
2. What kind oI people do you think might stand Ior Parliament in Great Britain?
TASK ". Read te te!t.
I26Y2/& ;< W0/+,062)' ,) F/20' ./,'0,)
Each Member oI Parliament MP represents one oI 650 constituencies in the U. British elections are usually
Iought between political parties, not individuals. ThereIore, people who want to be elected to Parliament need to
be nominated by one oI the main political parties.
There is nothing to stop unconventional candidates Irom standing Ior election, however. A candidate has only to put
down a deposit oI 500 pounds and collect ten signatures Irom residents in the constituency where he wants to stand.
A candidate who gets less than 5 per cent oI the total votes loses his deposit. For somebody who is standing Ior
election Ior publicity purposes, this is a small price to pay.
Although MPs will support a particular party, they are not controlled by that political party and theoretically do not
have to vote with their party in Parliament. MPs represent everyone in the constituency, not ust the people who
voted Ior them.
A lot oI MPs' work has nothing to do with voting in Parliament. There are hundreds oI things MPs have to deal with
in the day-to-day business oI constituency liIe, such as housing or health care. MPs are there to help people and to
try to make sure their rights under the law are not violated.
Some MPs hold an advice bureau in their constituencies, where people can go Ior advice. Anyone who Ieels that he
has been unIairly treated by the central government can complain to their local MP who will do his best to see that
the problem is solved.
Members oI Parliament have been paid salaries since 1911. The rate has lately been nearly twice the average
industrial worker's wages. Since 1965 the allowances Ior travel, living in London, and paying part-time secretaries
and research assistants, have all been increased. Still many MPs insist that they
need to have outside earnings, through ournalism, work in the law courts or business, to enable them to live up to
the standard they epect.
TASK - :)#d )# te te!t te E#+l)$ e'(Fale#t$ 2*& te 2*ll*%)#+ 0&a$e$.
, ; 2LHL
, ; G
, m n;
- m n;
- nn;
I '
- u n n;
- n u;

, n -. A < ,
TASK 4. 5*30lete te 2*ll*%)#+ te!t %)t te %*&d$ a#d e!0&e$$)*#$ 2&*3 te 8*!, ($)#+ te3 )# te a00&*0&)ate
My.iiv '. ---

to appoint;
to elect2;
local councils;
to appeal.
Some people suppose that there are Iew women and members oI the
ethnic ain Parliament. In 1979, Margaret Thatcher became the
Iirst woman Prime Minister, yet she never b OO b G a woman to her
Cabinet, and until 1983 the c, / D "* oI women dto the
House oI Commons was under 5 In the election in 1992, 59 women
the House oI Commons. This
total is still below the Iin other European countries.
Although the Conservatives choose Iew women as their candidates Ior the House oI Commons' seats, women are
very active in the aIIairs oI the party
as a whole. The Labourists have also tried to gto women voters
by giving women h positions. In all parties, a higher
i oI women is elected to
than the House oI
Commons. B.
private sector; opposition; inIlation;
unemployment; general election.
1 The United ingdom is divided into 650 parliamentary
2 A takes place every Iour or Iive years.
3 BeIore an election, each party prepares a their policies.
which outlines
the O
4 An important Conservative policy was the rerurn oI state industries to
5 During the period oI Conservative government,
4 Ior the Iirst time in nearly thirty years.
6 However,
continued to be unacceptably high.
Iell to
7 While the Conservatives were in power, Labour Iormed the
TASK V. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
1. Who can stand Ior elections in Great Britain?
2. What does the ob oI an MP consist oI? Is it a ob you would like to do?
3. Who does an MP represent?
4. Is the ob oI an MP a well-paid one?
5. Are there many women in Parliament in Great Britain? Can you compare this proportion to the
proportion oI women in the legislative body in your country?
TASK M ?e2*&e l)$te#)#+ t* te ta0e &ead te 2*ll*%)#+ )#2*&3at)*# a#d a#$%e& te '(e$t)*#.
Diane Abbot is a member oI Parliament Ior Hackney in North London. On the tape she describes liIe in the House oI
Commons. She is going to make a complaint about her ob. In pairs, decide what you think is the most likely and the
least likely complaint Irom the list.
- She isn't paid enough;
- She doesn't have any Iree time;
- She hasn't got a desk or a telephone;
- Her oIIice is too small;
- There is too much work to do.
TASK Q P)$te# t* te ta0e a#d $ee )2 ;*( %e&e &)+t )# ;*(& a#$%e&$ t* te '(e$t)*#$ )# Ta$/ M A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$
1. What is Diane Abbot's background?
2. What was one oI her earliest ambitions?
3. How long had Ms. Abbot been an MP when the interview took place?
4. What Iour things does she dislike about her ob?
5. What is unusual about her being an MP?
6. What three inIluences does Diane give Ior her interest in politics?
7. What three things does she like about her ob?
8. When is she going to get her missing oIIice euipment?
9. What two thing` are noticeable about her Iellow MPs*
TASK R. E!0la)# te 3ea#)#+$ *2 te 2*l)*,%)#+ %*&d$ a#d e!0&e$$)*#$ ($ed )# te )#te&F)e%.
, to listen avidly;
- an underclass oI British society;
- to be eposed to unIairness and inustice;
- an amateur place;
- a "clubby" atmosphere;
- backbiting;
- to get Ied up with;
- a male-dominated place.
TASK S. .*&/ )# 0a)&$ a#d d)$7($$ te 2*ll*%)#+ '(e$t)*#$.
1. What is the euivalent oI MPs in your country?
2. What does their work involve? List their responsibilities and write a short paragraph describing their
TASK 9. 5*30lete te 2*ll*%)#+ te!t %)t te %*&d$ a#d e!0&e$$)*#$ 2&*3 te 8*!.
election campaign; support; polling day; ballot bo;
vote; predict;
opinion poll; polling station; candidate.
People sometimes try to a
the result oI an election
weeks beIore it takes place. Several hundred people are asked which party they preIer, and their answers are used to
guess the result oI the coming election.
This is called an b. Meanwhile each party conducts its
c with meetings, speeches, television commercials, and
party members going Irom door to door encouraging people to
called a I
Jheir party. In Britain everyone over 18 is eligible to
The place where people go to vote in an election is
and the day oI the election is oIten known as
and later they are counted. The i declared the winner.
TASK ". Read te te!t.
. The voters put their votes in a h
with the most votes is then
4-2 (+2:',;) 4,62'0Y+2
The British government is elected Ior up to Iive years, unless it is deIeated in Parliament on a maor issue. The
Prime Minister chooses the date oI the net General Election, but does not have to wait until the end oI the Iive
years. A time is chosen which will give as much advantage as possible to the political party in power. Other
politicians and the newspapers try very hard to guess which date the Prime Minister will choose.
About a month beIore the election the Prime Minister meets a small group oI close advisers to discuss the date
which would best suit the party.
The date is announced to the Cabinet. The Prune Minister Iormally asks the Sovereign to dissolve Parliament.
Once Parliament is dissolved, all MPs are unemployed, but government oIIicers continue to Iunction.
Party maniIestos are published and campaigning begins throughout the country, lasting Ior about three weeks with
large-scale press, radio and television coverage.
Voting takes place on Polling Day usually a Thursday. The results Irom each constituency are announced as soon
as the votes have been counted, usually the same night. The national result is known by the net morning at the
As soon as it is clear that one party has a maority oI seats in the House oI Commons, its leader is Iormally invited
by the Sovereign to Iorm a government.
TASK -. :)#d )# te te!t te E#+l)$ e'()Fale#t$ 2*& te 0&a$e$ 8el*%.
, ;
- n n;
- n nn x;
- - n;
- n;
- m n n n;
- ;
- ;
- m n ;
- n n;
- nu ;
- nn nx n.
TASK 4 Read te te!t.
W;+,',:0+ W0/',2&
The main parties in the U are the Conservative party right wing, the Labour party leIt wing and the Liberal
Democrats centre.
The Conservative party goes back to the Tories, or Royalists, who originated in ing Charles' reign 1660-1685.
The Tories were the party that supported Church and ing; the other main party at the time were the Whigs, who
were a group eager Ior political reIorm. The Tory party gave way to its successor, the Conservative party, in around
The Conservative party believes in Iree enterprise and the importance oI a capitalist economy, with private
ownership preIerred to state control.
In 1899 the Trade Union Congress summoned a special conIerence oI trade unions and socialist bodies to make
plans to represent labour in Parliament. The proposal Ior such a meeting had come Irom Thomas Steels, a member
oI the Independent Labour Party which had been Iormed in 1893. The conIerence met in February 1900 in London
and has always been looked on as the Ioundation oI the Labour Party. The Labour party believes that private
ownership and enterprise should be allowed to Ilourish, but not at the epense oI their traditional support oI the
public services.
There has been a Liberal party in Great Britain since 1868 when the name was adopted by the Whig party. The
Whig party was created aIter the revolution oI 1688 and aimed to subordinate the power oI the Crown to that oI
Parliament and the upper classes. In 1981 a second centre party was created by 24 Labour MPs. It was called the
Social Democratic party, and soon Iormed an alliance with the Liberal party. They Iormed a single party which
became the Liberal Democrats aIter the 1987 election.
The Liberal Democrats believe that the state should have some control over the economy, but that there should be
individual ownership.
There are other political parties within the U. The Green party oIIers economic and industrial policies that relate
directly to the environment. The Scottish Nationalist Party wants independence Ior Scotland within the European
Community. Plaid Cymru - the Welsh Nationalist Party - is determined to preserve the Welsh language and culture
as the Ioundation oI a distinctive
Welsh identity within the U. Its radical wing has resorted to arson attempts as a means oI protest.
TASK V. E!0la)# te 3ea#)#+$ *2 te 2*l)*,%)#+ %*&d$ a#d e!0&e$$)*#$.
, Iree enterprise;
- to Ilourish;
- at the epense oI;
- to subordinate;
- environment.
TASK M. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
1. What are the origins oI the main political parties in Great Britain?
2. What political priorities do the main political parties in Britain have?
TASK Q. .*&/ )# 0a)&$ a#d 7*30a&e te 3aa*& <te 3)#*&= 0*l)t)7al 0a&t)e$ )# ?&)ta)# t* t*$e )# ;*(& *%# 7*(#t&;.
TASK R. Read te te!t. 5**$e te $tate3e#t tat ;*( l)/e 3*$t a#d deFel*0 te )dea.
4-2 STQg F2)2/0+ (+2:',;)
L/;6 '-2 8;)&2/90',92 W0/'5 L/;6 '-2 @0Y;%/ W0/'5 I0),<2&'; I0),<2&';
Te Cat)*#al Yealt Se&F)7e6 "Because we have created a sound economy, we are in a position to spend more than
ever beIore on the National Health Service." Ue2e#7e6 "We will keep the nuclear deterrent and invest in a new
nuclear system with Trident." @#e30l*;3e#t6 "As long as we continue with our successIul policies Ior a sound
economy and more training schemes, unemployment will Iall to acceptable levels."
Te Cat)*#al Yealt Se&F)7e6 "We will spend more money on the NHS and recruit more staII.
Ue2e#7e6 "We will ban all nuclear weapons on British soil."
@#e30l*;3e#t6 "We will increase ependiture on civil works, more training schemes and more obs in the state
sector, creating a million obs in the net two years."
Ta!at)*#6 "We will raise taes to Iund our plans Ior reducing unemployment." Ed(7at)*#6 "We will spend more on
euipment and reduce class sies. Teachers will regain the right to strike."
Ta!at)*#6 "We wttl continue to cut
Ed(7at)*#6 "We will set a basic
syllabus with new eaminations and
tests to ensure that our children are
B&)*&)t)e$6 "The most important
problem Iacing the net government
oI Britain is to ensure the continued
growth oI the economy."
TASK S. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
1. In 1987 which oI the biggest British political parties supported the Iollowing policies?
a a ban on nuclear weapons;
b cuts in taation;
c a basic national education syllabus;
d more obs in the state sector;
e an increase in taation.
2. How is the date oI a British general election decided?
TASK 9T. .*&/ )# 0a)&$ a#d d)$7($$ te 2*ll*%)#+ '(e$t)*#.
II you were a British voter, which party do you think you would vote Ior and why?
TASK 9. Read te te!t$.
4-2 Sovereign
"Her Most Ecellent Maesty Eliabeth the Second by the Grace oI God, oI the United ingdom oI Great Britain
and Northern Ireland and oI Her other Realms and Territories ueen, Head oI the Commonwealth, DeIender oI the
/The ueen is the oIIicial Head oI State and, Ior many people, a symbol oI the unity oI the nation. For a thousand
years England and later the whole oI the United ingdom has been united under one sovereign, a continuity
broken only aIter the Civil War, by the republic oI 1649 to 1660. The hereditary principle still operates and the
Crown is passed on to the sovereign's eldest son or daughter iI there are no sons.
The ueen has a central role in state aIIairs, not only through her ceremonial Iunctions, such as opening Parliament,
but also because she meets the Prime Minister every week and receives`copies oI all Cabinet papers.
However, she is 'epected to be impartial or
"above politics", and any advice she may oIIer the Prime Minister is kept secret.
:(#7t)*#$ *2 te S*Fe&e)+#6
, opening and closing Parliament;
- approving the appointment oI the Prime Minister;
- giving her Royal Assent to bills;
- giving honours such as peerages, knighthoods and medals;
- Head oI the Commonwealth;
- Head oI the Church oI England;
- Commander-in-ChieI oI the armed Iorces.
4-2 B;50+ L06,+5
v = `9
` *"
Many members oI the Royal Family'undertake oIIicial duties in Britain ana abroad. Their various responsibilities
reIlect tradition, their own personal interests and Britain's Iormer imperial status. For eample, among her many
titles the Princess Royal Princess Anne is Chancellor oI the University oI London, Colonel-in-ChieI oI eleven
Army regiments, including the 8th Canadian Hussars and the Royal New ealand Nursing Corps, and President oI
the Save the Children Fund, Ior whom she has travelled widely.
The Royal Family's money comes Irom two sources government Iunds and their own personal wealth, which is
considerable. On the one hand the ueen is certainly one oI the richest women in the world, while on the other her
power is limited by the Iact that so many oI her epenses are paid Ior by government money. Parliament has had
eIIective control oI the monarch's Iinances since the seventeenth century.
TASK ". P**/ at te 7a&t
Te R*;al :a3)l;
C(38e&$ $*% *&de& *2 $(77e$$)*# t* te 5&*%#
1 1









& ;<



S i f
Prince Prince Peter ara




2 3 9 10 5 6
TASK -. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$
1. What powers does the ueen have in government?
2. Who is net in line to the British crown aIter Prince Charles?
3. How can Parliament control the Royal Family?
4. What connections can you Iind between the Royal Family and the world outside Britain?
5. Which member oI the Royal Family has the highest number oI public engagements?
TASK 4 Read te te!t.
The ueen is really a Iigurehead representing the country, but she has the power to prevent any politician Irom
establishing a dictatorship. The ueen and her Iamily are a symbol that people can identiIy with. The British public
is obsessed with the details oI the royal Iamily liIe, and when people Ieel that the ueen has problems with her
children, or her sister, they see her as a "real person" with the same worries and anieties as themselves.
The monarchy has not always been popular. During the late 19th century there was a growing republican sentiment,
but the personality and Iamily image oI the ueen, her Iather and grandIather have removed that Ieeling. The ueen
is probably the wealthiest woman in the world, most oI the money coming Irom Iamily investments rather than the
state. Her state salary the Civil List pays Ior her servants and transport. In recent years the ueen has become a
roving ambassador Ior Britain, and iI we calculate the increase in trade aIter a royal visit abroad, the nation probably
makes a proIit Irom her activities, and that does not take into account the income Irom tourism in Britain generated
by the monarchy and great state events such as royal weddings.
Just how popular is she? In the late 1980s a newspaper conducted an opinion poll. People were asked, "II there were
no monarchy, who would you vote Ior as President?" More than 80 per cent chose the ueen. Prince Charles came
second, closely Iollowed by his Iather, Prince Philip. The prime minister oI the day was the Iourth - with 2 per cent
oI the votes.
TASK V E!0la)# te 3ea#)#+$ *2 te 2*ll*%)#+ %*&d$ a#d e!0&e$$)*#$.
, a Iigurehead;
- obsessed with;
- a growing republican sentiment;
- a roving ambassador;
- an opinion poll.
TASK M P)$te# t* te )#te&F)e% a#d te# &ead te ta0e$7#0t
When it comes to selling newspapers, nothing increases the circulation Iigures more than a right royal scandal.
There's no doubt about it. The British public are
Iascinated by their Iigureheads. In Iact, most people seem to Ieel uite strongly about the royal Iamily, one way or
I spoke to Patrick Orman Ward Irom England and Jean O'Sullivan Irom Ireland about their Ieelings Ior the British
monarchy. First, I asked Patrick iI the royal Iamily was important to him.
It's not important to me, personally, but I think it's important to the social structure oI British society. And I think it's
important also to the political structure oI British society.
.;Z Te;H&e a0*l)t)7al, )tH$ a e&ed)ta&; )#$t)t(t)*#, )# %at %a; )$ )t )30*&ta#t t* te 0*l)t)7al $t&(7t(&eZ
Eactly. It's hereditary, O, but it's, you say apolitical but in Iact not apolitical. The British constitution is a very
diIIicult constitution, because it doesn't eist. It eists by, through history, basically, through acuired points oI
reIerence, through acuired gentlemen's agreements, iI you like. What is important about the royal Iamily is that it's
a Iigurehead, and, like other Iigurehead institutions, it perIorms a useIul socio-political role.
?(t )$#Ht )t 3(7 8ette& t* aFe $*3e8*d; ele7ted %)7 7*3e$ 2&*3 te 0e*0le, ta# $*3e8*d; %* $)30l; )#e&)t$
te t)tle %* 7*(ld a#d a$ *2te# 8ee# )# E#+l)$ )$t*&; $*3e8*d; *2 d(8)*($ a#7e$t&; %* )$ al2,3ad a#d %* )$
#*t eFe# E#+l)$ a#;%a;Z
HalI-mad, yes, oIten; not even English, absolutely. I don't think that's important, in absolute terms. When, you
know...let's Iace it - not English? What is English? I call myselI an Englishman and I'm a uarter Dutch. The English
Royal Family,aIter all, have German origins, yes, but they've been in England Ior, Ior, Ior Iive generations.
Anybody who can count back Iive generations and be completely English is indeed very unusual and rare.
Its important Iunction, its important role, is to, is to represent the state. And symbolically. To say that it, perhaps it's
better to have somebody elected Irom the people, yes, but it's not part oI British social tradition.
?(t te '(al)t; *2 te 0e*0le 0&*d(7ed, D 3ea#, 3a;8e %eH&e l(7/;, 3a;8e B&)#7e 5a&le$ )$ +*)#+ t* 8e a %*#de&2(l
/)#+, 8(t $*3e%e&e )tH$ de$7&)8ed tat )tH$ a Fe&;, te &*;al 2a3)l; )$ a Fe&; aFe&a+e, 3)ddle,7la$$ 2a3)l;, d*)#+ a
8*&)#+ a*8 Fe&; %ell. .*(ld ;*( a+&ee %)t tat de2)#)t)*#Z
Yes, insoIar as I think they are average in their talents, I think they are middle class in their aspirations, in their, in
their tastes, let's say, doing a diIIicult ob very well, yes, I think so, too. I, personally, would not like to do that ob.
A#d Jea#, %*(ld ;*( l)/e t* d* te a*8 *2 a 3e38e& *2 te &*;al 2a3)l;Z
I certainly wouldn't mind being the ueen. She is the single largest landowner in all oI Britain. And they have vast
wealth, they own great estates, and at the same time they manage to take a goodly slice oI the tapayer's money.
And I don't think that the epense is ustiIied in keeping this Iamily up ust Ior show.
Their role to me is very mystiIying; I can't understand why people want to read about Diana going to discos and
Fergie taking Ilying lessons, and yet they seem to have this Iascination Ior the British general public.
.;Z C*%, %; )$ t)$Z .;, %; a&e 0e*0le $* 2a$7)#ated 8; )3a+e$ *2 te &*;al 2a3)l; )# te 0&e$$Z
I'll tell you my theory about the royal Iamily. I think they are there to distract people Irom the social ills oI present-
day Britain. I think that when the unemployment level climbs to an unacceptable Iigure, the royal Iamily will do
something to distract. The ueen will abdicate; something will be done. There'll be a wedding; there'll be another
baby. There's always something to keep the proletariat happy.
TASK Q. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
l8F)*($l; Bat&)7/ a#d Jea# aFe Fe&; d)22e&e#t *0)#)*#$ a8*(t te ?&)t)$ &*;al 2a3)l;. Y*% 3(7 d)d ;*(
(#de&$ta#d *2 %at te; $a)dZ
Bat&)7/ $a)d6
What is important about the royal Iamily is that it's a Iigurehead.
U)d e 3ea#6
a sign? a symbol?
A#d #*% $ee %at Jea# $a)d6
I certainly wouldn't mind being the ueen. She is the single largest landowner in all oI Britain. And they have vast
wealth, they own great estates, and at the same time they manage to take a goodly...oI the tapayers' money.
.at %*&d )$ ($ed t* de$7&)8e te &*;al 2a3)l;H$ $a&e *2 te ta!0a;e&$H
a slice?
a portion? D2 ;*( aFe +&eat e$tate$, d* ;*( aFe6
a lot oI land?
a lot oI businesses? A#d )2 ;*( aFe Fa$t %ealt, d* ;*( aFe6
a lot oI money?
a lot oI Iree time?
C*% $ee %at Jea# $a)d6
I don't think that the epense is ustiIied in keeping this Iamily up ust Io
U*e$ L2*& $*% " 3ea#6 to entertain?
Ior appearances, to make an impression? U*e$ La($t)2)edL 3ea#6 eplained? proved to be right?
TASK R. :)#d )# te ta0e$7&)0t te E#+l)$ e'()Fale#t$ 2*& te %*&d$ a#d e!0&e$$)*#$ 8el*%.
, x;
- ;
- nx;
- n;
- ;
- n;
- n ;
- n;
- ;
- ;
- n.
TASK S. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
A. Why does any inIormation published about the royal Iamily increase the circulation Iigures?
2. What makes the Britishers Ieel so strongly about the royal Iamily?
3. How can you eplain the Iact that their opinions tend to be uite opposite? What social groups
tend to Iavour the ueen and the royal Iamily? Why?
TASK 9T. A. P)$t 2*(& 7*(#t&)e$ %)7 aFe 3*#a&7)e$.
?. .)7 *2 te$e adae7t)Fe$ d* ;*( a$$*7)ate %)t te ?&)t)$ 3*#a&7 _
ostentatious; greedy; modest; vulgar; hard-working; lay; wealthy; digniIied; popular.
TASK DD. P)$te# t* te ta0e. D# t)$ ta0e te $0ea/e& tell$ ($ aF*(t )$ att)t(de$ t* te ?&)t)$ 3*#a&7;.
TASK 9". A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$
1. Does the speaker approve:
a oI the British monarchy?
b oI monarchies in general?
2. How does he compare monarchs and presidents?
3. Which monarchies does he praise? Why?
4. Does he Ieel sorry Ior the British Royal Family?
5. How does he compare monarchs and "soap operas" popular television dramas?
6. Which oI the adectives in TAS 10 does he associate with the British monarchy? Is your own list
TASK 9-. P)$te# a+a)# a#d 7*30lete te '(*tat)*#$ 2&*3 te ta0e.
a I used to............royal Iamilies in general.
b I think now I...............the idea oI a royal Iamily.
c I...............them personally, iI you like.
d I think I would...............a monarchy oI the sort you Iind in
other countries in Northern Europe.
TASK 94. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
1. What do you see as the advantages and disadvantages oI having a monarchy?
2. Would you echange lives with a member oI the British Royal Family? Why Why not? II
so, which member would you swoop with?
TASK 9. E!0la)# te 3ea#)#+$ *2 te$e e!0&e$$)*#$ 2&*3 te (#)t. 1a/e *#e $e#te#7e 2&*3 ea7 $et *2 %*&d$, ($)#+
te3 )# a#; *&de&, t* de$7&)8e te ?&)t)$ $;$te3.
a MPs election ;
b Prime Minister;
c maority ; d bill
House oI Commons,
ministers Cabinet.
House oI Lords;
Royal Assent; hereditary. Act oI Parliament.
TASK ". T(&# te 2*ll*%)#+ #*(#$ )#t* adae7t)Fe$.
constitution administration
ceremony empire
politics royalty
TASK -. 5*30lete te 2*ll*%)#+ te!t %)t te %*&d$ a#d e!0&e$$)*#$ 2&*3 te 8*! a#d t&a#$late te3 )#t* R($$)a#
cabinet; alliance; coalition; maority;
right-wing; prime minister; split; leIt-wing; opposition; one-party states.
In most countries, ecept a political parties. The one with the b
, there are several diIIerent
oI seats normally Iorms the
government, and the parties which are against the government are called
c. Sometimes no single party wins enough seats, and several
parties must combine together in a dto Iorm a government. The
principal ministers in the government Irom a group are called the
e. The leader oI this group, and oI the government, is the
I. OI course, there are many diIIerent kinds oI parties and
governments. A socialist or communist party is oIten described as
. A conservative party on the other hand, is usually said to be . Political situations are always changing. Sometimes
in a party
or between two parties there is a big argument or deep diIIerence oI opinion.
This is called a i. When, on the other hand, two parties work
together, this is sometimes called an .
TASK 4 E!0la)# te d)22e&e#7e 8et%ee#
a pro- and anti-
b an election and a reIerendum
TASK V. 5*30lete te 2*ll*%)#+ $e#te#7e$ %)t te %*&d$ 2&*3 te 8*!.
a I voted
b Put your voting papers
the Liberal candidate.
the ballot bo.
the socialists.
c He's very right-wing, so he's
d She belongsthe Communist Party.
e The Liberals Iormed an alliancethe Social Democrats.
I There's a split
g There's a split
the two parties. the party.
TASK M. 5*30lete te 2*ll*%)#+ te!t %)t te %*&d$ a#d e!0&e$$)*#$ 2&*3 te 8*!.
proportional representation; Member oI Parliament; call an election; House oI Commons; stand Ior election; General
polling day; canvassing; secret ballot; constituents; constituencies; polling stations
by-election; eligible; campaigns; turn-out.
MiddleIord. Election Result. No. oI registered voters: 100,000
Mr G. Smith Labour Mrs R. Green Conservative Miss L. Jones Independent Mr W. Woods Communist
30,000 votes 25,000 votes 10,000 votes 5,000 votes
A ahas ust taken place all over the United ingdom. These
must take place every Iive years unless the Prime Minister decides to
bearlier. Above is the result in MiddleIord, one oI the
approimately 650 cinto which the country is divided Ior this
purpose. dwas last Thursday, when the election
eand door-to-door Istopped and the people oI
MiddleIord went to the gto make their choice, in a
aaaaaaaaaaaa OOOO kO# lmD,95X%9H ,) 0
, Irom the Iour candidates anyone over the age oI 21 can
. Voting is not compulsory and the number oI people
to vote in MiddleIord everyone over 18 was 100,000, so the
was 70 per cent. Now Mr Smith will become the
Ior MiddleIord, which means he will represent the people oI
MiddleIord in the min London. II he should die or be Iorced to
give up his seat, the people oI MiddleIord will have to vote again, in a
nto replace him. It is a very simple system and Mr Smith will try
to represent all his oIairly, whether they voted Ior him or not.
However, the Iact remains that most voters in MiddleIord voted Ior candidates and parties other than Mr. Smith,
and their votes are now lost. It is seats which are important in Parliament, not votes, and it is easy to see why smaller
would like a system oI p, in which the number oI votes they won
was reIlected in the number oI seats they received in Parliament.
Just for Fun
Ye&e a&e $*3e 3*&e 2a7t$ a8*(t te c(ee# a#d e& 2a3)l;.
The ueen meets thousands oI people every year. She has to shake hands with each oI them, and she has to Iind
something interesting to say. II you meet the ueen you should call her "Your Maesty", then "Ma'am". The other
Princes and Princesses are "Your Highness", then "Sir" or "Madam". When she wants to end a conversation, she
takes a halI step backwards, smiling broadly, then moves on.
Here are some Iavourite royal conversation starters.
1. "How long have you been waiting?" The ueen.
2. "What eactly are you doing?" Prince Charles.
3. "How long have you been working here?" Princess Anne.
4. "eep you busy, do they?" Prince Charles.
5. "What's your ob?" Prince Philip.
At the reply: "I'm a postman," he will say "Oh, you're a postman, are you?"
6. "Where have you come Irom?" The ueen.
7. "Pay you enough, do they?" Prince Charles.
8. "Have you done this sort oI thing beIore?" Princess Anne.
How would you start a conversation with Her Maesty?
42) '-,)*& '-2 n%22) :;%+3 3; Y5 %&,)* '-2 /;50+ [/2/;*0',92
1. Dismiss the Government.
2. Declare war.
3. Disband the Army.
4. Sell all the ships in the Navy.
5. Dismiss the Civil Service.
6. Give territory away to a Ioreign power.
7. Make everyone a peer.
8. Declare a State oI Emergency.
9. Pardon all oIIenders.
10. Create universities in every parish in the United ingdom.
(+292) '-,)*& '-2 n%22) '0Z2& ;) c;%/)25&
1. Her Ieather pillows.
2. Her hot water bottle.
3. Her Iavourite China tea.
4. Cases oI Malvern water.
5. Barley sugar.
6. Cameras.
7. Her monogrammed electric kettle.
8. Her toilet soap.
9. A special white kid lavatory seat.
10. Jewellery associated with the countries she is visiting.
11. Mourning clothes and black-edged writing paper in case oI bereavements.
4-2 n%22)`& [0/',:%+0/ +,Z2&
1. Horse racing "Were it not Ior my Archbishop oI Canterbury, I should be oII in my plane to
Longchamps every Sunday".
2. Scottish country dancing.
3. Jigsaw pules.
4. Long-stemmed, deep-pink carnations.
5. Champagne.
6. Deerstalking.
7. uiet evenings at home watching television with her supper on a tray.
8. Crossword pules.
9. Bright red dresses.
10. The Beatles Iilm "Yellow Submarine".
11. Sandringham.
E,&+,Z2& ;< '-2 n%22)
2. Snails "How can you like those beastly things?" she asked Prince Philip.
3. Tennis, including Wimbledon.
4. Milk pudding.
5. The cold.
6. Grouse.
7. Any talk oI Edward VIII.
8. Charles Dickens.
9. Dictating letters.
11. Cigar smoke.
12. Sailing.
13. Listening to aIt`r-dinner speeches`,* :)#d te$e te l)$t$ a8*Fe.
1. The name oI a Iamous French horse-racing track.
2. The name oI the ueen's country house in NorIolk.
3. The title oI the head oI the Church oI England.
4. The name oI the sport oI hunting deer.
5. A green plant which grows on the outside walls oI houses.
6. A bird which is shot, and eaten, mainly in Scotland.
7. The name oI the ueen's uncle, who gave up the throne to marry a divorced American woman.
8. The name oI a Iamous nineteenth-century British writer.
9. The name oI the Iirst stone in a new building.
Chapter ill
The Usa
Unit I. The Constitution........................................................,................71
Unit II. The System oI Government.......................................................75
Unit III. The System oI Checks and Balances..........................*..............85
Unit IV. American Federalism...............................................................87
UnitV. Elections.....................................................................................90
Unit VI. Language Activities. Glimpses oI American History..............94
Glossary to chapters II and III................................................................97
TASK 9. ?e2*&e &ead)#+ te te!t$, tell te 7la$$ %at ;*( &e3e38e& a8*(t te $;$te3 *2 +*Fe&#3e#t a#d te
5*#$t)t(t)*# *2 te @SA.
TASK ". Read te te!t.
"Americans are a nation born oI an idea; not the place, but the idea, created the United States Government."
Theodore H. White
D J2V J0',;)
In 1776, the thirteen weak British colonies in America came together, stood up, and told what was then the world's
greatest power that Irom now on they would be Iree and independent states. The British were neither impressed nor
amused, and a bitter si-year war Iollowed, the Revolutionary War 1776-83. It's hard to appreciate today, over two
centuries later, what a revolutionary act this was. A new republic was Iounded, turning into reality the dreams and
ideals oI a Iew political philosophers. Americans broke with an age-old tradition, and so sent shock waves back
across the ocean: they decided that it
was their right to choose their own Iorm oI government. At that time, the statement that governments should receive
their powers only "Irom the consent oI the governed" was radical indeed. Something new was under the sun: a sv
stern oI government, in Lincoln's words, "oI the people, by the people, Ior the people".
TASK -. U* ;*( /#*%Z .*&/ )# +&*(0$, a#d t&; t* +)Fe a#$%e&$ t* te 2*ll*%)#+ '(e$t)*#$ a8*(t te 8e+)##)#+ *2
te @S )$t*&;.
1. When was America discovered?
2. Who were the original inhabitants oI the American continent?
3. When did the Iirst settlers Irom England arrive in America? What was the name oI their
4. Who were these people? Why do you think they leIt their homes Ior an unknown land?
5. What was the Iirst state oI the US?
6. What is the oldest big city in the US?
7. What was the Iirst name oI New York?
8. What is the name oI the region where the oldest American states are situated?
9. Have you ever heard oI the "Boston tea party"? What is it?
10. Why is America oIten called a "melting pot"?
TASK 4. Read te te!t.
The Constitution and the Bill oI Rights
The Iormer colonies, now "the United States oI America", Iirst operated under an agreement called the Articles oI
ConIederation 1781. It was soon clear that this loose agreement among the states was not working well. The
central, Iederal government as too weak, with too Iew powers Ior deIence, trade, and taation In 1787, thereIore,
delegates Irom the states met in Philadelphia. They wanted to revise the Articles, but they did much more than that.
They wrote a completely new document, the Constitution, which aIter much argument, debate, and compromise was
Iinished in the same year and oIIicially adopted by the thirteen states by 1790.
The Constitution, the oldest still in Iorce in the world, sets the basic Iorm oI government: three separate branches,
each one having powers "checks and balances" over the others. It speciIies the powers and duties oI each Iederal
branch oI government, with all other powers and duties belonging to the states. The Constitution has been repeatedly
amended to meet the changing needs oI the nation, but it is still the "supreme law oI the land". All governments and
governmental groups, Iederal, state, and local, must operate within its guidelines. The ultimate power under the
Constitution is not given to the President the eecutive branch, or to the Supreme Court the udicial branch. Nor
does it rest, as in many other countries, with a political group or party. It belongs to "We the People", in Iact and in
In this way, Americans Iirst took Ior themselves the liberties and rights that elsewhere were the privileges oI an elite
Iew. Americans would manage their own laws And, oI course, they would make their own mistakes.
They stated in the Iirst ten Constitutional Amendments, known together as the Bill oI Rights, what they considered
to be the Iundamental rights oI any American. Among these rights are the Ireedom oI religion, speech, and the press,
the right oI peaceIul assembly, and the right to petition the government to correct wrongs. Other rights guarded the
citiens against unreasonable searches, arrests, and seiures oI property, and established a system oI ustice
guaranteeing orderly legal procedures. This included the right oI trial by ury, that is, being udged by one's Iellow
The great pride Americans have in their Constitution, their almost religious respect Ior it comes Irom the knowledge
that these ideals, Ireedoms, and rights were not given to them by a small ruling class. Rather, they are seen as the
natural "unalienable" rights oI every American, which had been Iought Ior and won. They cannot be taken away by
any government, court, oIIicial, or law.
The Iederal and state governments Iormed under the Constitution, thereIore, were designed to serve the people and
to carry out their maority wishes and not the other way around. One thing they did not want their government to
do is to rule them. Americans epect their government to serve them and tend to think oI politicians and
governmental oIIicials as their servants. This attitude remains very strong among Americans today.
Over the past two centuries, the Constitution has also had considerable inIluence outside the United States. Several
other nations have based their own Iorms oI government on it. It is interesting to note that LaIayette, a ' oI the
American Revolution, draIted the French declaration oI rights when he return l to France. And the United Nations
Charter also has clear echoes oI what onte was considered a revolutionary document.
TASK V. 5*30lete te 2*ll*%)#+ te!t %)t $()ta8le %*&d$ *& 0&a$e$ 2&*3 te te!t a8*Fe.
When the Constitution was written in 1787, there were only 13 states.
Because the a oI the Constitution saw that the Iuture might bring a
. Over
need Ior changes, they b
a method oI adding c
the years 26 amendments have been added, but the basic d
has not
been e
. The pattern oI government planned so long ago Ior 13
states today meets the needs oI 50 states and more than 57 times as many people.
The Iirst 10 amendments to the Constitution, called the I
assure individual gand h. Added in 1791, they include
provisions Ior Ireedom oI the iand oI ; the right oI
citiens to kpeaceIully; the right to be 1in one's own
home against unreasonable m and n oI person or
property; and the right oI any person charged with o a speedy trial by a poI Iellow .
the law to have
The Constitution r branches: the s
the powers oI the government into three
headed by the t; the u, which
the Senate and the House oI
includes both houses oI v
Representatives and the wwhich is headed by the Supreme Court.
The Constitution limits the role oI each to prevent any one branch
Irom gaining undue y.
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, nn nm;
- n ;
- m;
- ;
- n ;
- n nm;
- n u- nu;
- n;
- nu mm ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- .
TASK Q. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
1. How does the American Constitution separate the powers oI the government?
2. Has the tet oI the Constitution ever been changed? How did it become possible?
3. Does any governmental organ or oIIicial in the US have the ultimate power? Why?
4. What is the Bill oI Rights?
TASK R. .*&/ )# 0a)&$ a#d d)$7($$ te 2*l)*,%)#+ '(e$t)*#$.
...-,- 1. What is the diIIerence between the American Constitution
md ` Bm oI Rights?
2. What is the diIIerence between the constitutions oI the U and the US?
TASK S. 1a/e a l)$t *2 2eat(&e$ *2 te A3e&)7a# 5*#$t)t(t)*# %)7 ;*( 7*#$)de& te 3*$t )30*&ta#t a#d 7*30a&e
te3 %)t te 5*#$t)t(t)*# *2 ;*(& 7*(#t&;.
TASK 9. Read te te!t.
4-2 D62/,:0) >5&'26 ;< F;92/)62)'
The governmental systems in the United States - Iederal, state, county, and local - are uite easy to understand, that
is, iI you grew up with them and studied them in school. One Ioreign epert complained, Ior eample, that the
compleity oI ust the cities' political and governmental structure is "almost unbelievable." The "real Chicago," he
eplained ", spreads over 2 states, 6 counties, 10 towns, 30 cities, 49 townships, and 110 villages. Overlaid upon this
comple pattern are 235 ta districts and more than 400 school districts..."
There are, however, several basic principles which are Iound at all levels oI American government. One oI these is
the "one person, one vote" principle which says that legislators are elected Irom geographical districts directly by the
voters. Under this principle, all election districts must have about the same number oI residents.
Another Iundamental principle oI American government is that because oI the system oI checks and balances,
compromise in politics is a matter oI necessity, not choice. For eample, the House oI Representatives controls
spending and Iinance, so the President must have its agreement Ior his proposals and programmes. He cannot
declare war, either, Without the approval oI Congress. In Ioreign aIIairs, he is also strongly limited. Any treaty must
Iirst be approved by the Senate. II there is no approval, there's no treaty. The rule is "the President proposes, but
Congress disposes." What a President wants to do, thereIore, is oIten a diIIerent thing Irom what a President is able
to do.
TASK ". 5*30lete te 2*ll*%)#+ te!t %)t te %*&d$ a#d 0&a$e$ 2&*3 te D;<,2H ($)#+ te3 )# te a00&*0&)ate
I r
to divide; to be
based on; to
track down;
to manage; to
Iollow; to deal with;
to warrant; to provide;
to cross;
to be put; to
to be enIorced; to be
to involve; to be
The whole system oI American government a
the principles
bin the Constitution and Bill oI Rights. The people believe that the
government should ca Iramework oI law and order in which they are
leIt Iree to run their own lives.
The state governments dmuch the same pattern as the Iederal
government. Each has a governor as the chieI eecutive, with power e
among the Eecutive, Legislative and Judicial branches. State governments
I such aIIairs as maintaining order, educating children and young
adults, and building highways. The Iederal government gnational
problems and international relations and with regional problems that h
more than one state. Laws aItecting the daily lives oI citiens iby
police in the cities and towns. Agents oI the Federal Bureau oI Investigation -
the Iamous FBI - criminals who kstate borders or who 1
Iederal laws.
BeIore an accused person can mon trail Ior a serious crime in a
Iederal court - or in the courts oI many states - the case must no`
to a grand ury oI private citiens who decide whether there is enough evidence oI probable guilt pa trial.
TASK - :)#d )# te te!t$ te E#+l)$ e'()Fale#t$ a*& te 2*ll*%)#+ %*&d$ a#d e!0&e$$)*#$.
, ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- x ;
- K;
- m n;
- n ;
- n x ;
- nx nn;
- x nn;
- u;
SSo==p = qr sqt u=".
TASK 4. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
1. What are the basic principles which are Iound at all levels oI American government?
2. How do you understand the saying: "The President proposes, but Congress disposes"?
3. Who is the chieI eecutive in each state?
4. What laws do the local police enIorce?
TASKS. Read te te!t.
Congress, the legislative branch oI the Iederal government, is made up oI the Senate and the House oI
Representatives. There are 100 Senators, two Irom each state. One third oI the Senators are elected every two years
Ior si-year terms oI oIIice. The Senators represent all oI the people in a state and their interests.
The House has 435 members. They are elected every two years Ior two-year terms. They represent the population oI
"congressional districts" into which each state is divided. The number oI Representatives Irom each state is based
upon its population. For instance, CaliIornia, the state with the largest population, has 45 Representatives, while
Delaware has one. There is no limit to the number oI terms a Senator or a Representative may serve.
Almost all elections in the United States Iollow the "winner-take-all" principle: the candidate who wins the largest
number or" votes in a Congressional district is the winner. Congress makes all laws, and each house oI Congress has
the power to introducs legislation. Each can also vote against legislation passed by the other. Because legislation
only becomes law iI both houses agree, compromise between them is necessary. Congress decides upon taes and
how money
The House oI Representatives meets in the leIt wing oI the Capitol, and the Senate occupies the right wing BeIore a
site was selected Ior a new national capital and the government buildings were constructed there Congress met in
'-2 Iormer County Courthouse in Philadelphia
is spent. In addition, it regulates commerce among the &'0'2& 0)3 with Ioreign countries. It also sets rules Ior the
naturaliation oI Ioreign :,',U2)&.
TASK M. 5*30lete te 2*ll*%)#+ te!t 8; t&a#$lat)#+ te ,%*&d$ *& e!0&e$$)*#$ )# 8&a7/et$.
The - - consists oI the C and the H H. Each
is elected Ior si years and each n Ior two years, with no limitation on the number oI
Each oI the 50 states elects two under a system in which one-third oI the C is elected every two
years. A must be m 30 years old and must have been an American citien Ior no m
nine years.
The H H has 435 members. Each state is divided into congressional districts oI roughly
population, and the oI each district elect one n to K. A member
must be m 25 years oI age and must have been an American citien Ior at least seven years.
Both n oI K must bills beIore they become law. The C alone x the
President's Ior high-level oIIicial positions and n treaties with other nations.
TASK Q. Read te te!t.
4-2 W/2&,32)' 0)3 L232/0+ E2[0/'62)'&
The President oI the United States is elected every Iour years to a Iour-year term oI oIIice, with no more than two
Iull terms allowed. As is true with Senators and Representatives, the President is elected directly by the voters
through state electors. In other words, the political party with the most Senators and Representatives does not
choose the President. This means that the President can be Irom one party, and the maority oI those in the House oI
Representatives or Senate or both Irom another. This is not uncommon.
Thus, although one oI the parties may win a maority in the midterm elections those held every two years, the
President remains President, even though his party may not have a maority in either house. Such a result could
easily hurt his ability to get legislation through Congress, which must pass all laws, but this is not necessarily so. In
any case, the President's policies must be approved by the House oI Representatives and the Senate beIore they can
become law. In domestic as well as in Ioreign policy, the President can seldom
count upon the automatic support oI Congress, even when his own party has a maority in both the Senate and the
House. ThereIore, he must be able to convince Congressmen, the Representatives and Senators, oI his point oI view.
He must bargain and compromise. This is a maor diIIerence between the American system and those in which the
nation's leader represents the maority party or parties, that is parliamentary systems.
Within the Eecutive Branch, there are a number oI eecutive departments. Currently these are the departments oI
State, Treasury, DeIence, Justice, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Labour, Health and Human Resources, Housing
and Urban Development, Transportation, Energy, and Education. Each department is established by law, and, as
their names indicate, each is responsible Ior a speciIic area. The head oI each department is appointed by the
President. These appointments, however, must be approved by the Senate. None oI these Secretaries, as the
department heads are usually called, can also be serving in Congress or in another part oI the government. Each is
directly responsible to the President and only serves as long as the President wants him or her to. They can best be
seen, thereIore, as Presidential assistants and advisers. When they meet together, they are termed "the President's
Cabinet." Some Presidents have relied uite a bit on their Cabinets Ior advice, and some very little.
TASK R. E!0la)# te 3ea#)#+$ *2 te 2*l)*,%)#+ %*&d$ a#d e!0&e$$)*#$ 2&*3 te te!t. 1a/e $e#te#7e$ %)t ea7 *2
, midterm elections; -term oI oIIice;
- Senator;
- Representative;
- Congressman;
- parliamentary system oI government;
- eecutive department;
- Secretary oI an eecutive department;
- the President's Cabinet.
TASK S. 5*30lete te 2*ll*%)#+ text 8; t&ta#$lat)#+ te %*&d$ a#d e!0&e$$)*#$ )# 8&a7/et$.
The President oI the United States is chosen in a national election Ior a Iour-year n , and may
be n Ior a second . H must be a native-born citien at least 35 years old. His salary is 200,000 a
year, and he also gets an etra 50,000 Ior epenses; but he must pay n on the whole amount.
He receives up to 100,000
ta-Iree Ior travel and 20,000 Ior oIIicial entertainment, and is provided with a home and etensive oIIice space at
the White House.
As head oI the Eecutive Branch, the President must n the government programmes n by
Congress. He recommends programmes and laws to Congress and reuests money Ior Iederal government
operations. II a President "vetoes" or reIuses to sign a bill passed by the Congress, his may be by
a two-thirds vote oI both houses oI Congress. The President u Iederal , n and hundreds oI
government u, and assigns duties to the elected Vice President. II a President dies,
or becomes permanently disabled, the Vice President n until the net election.
Under the US Constitution a sitting President may be x beIore his term epires only by an
impeachment process that begins with the House oI Representatives. II upon suIIicient evidence, the House draIts a
"bill oI impeachment," which must be by two-thirds oI its XC nn in the
Senate, with the ChieI Justice oI the United States acting as the udge and the Senators as the ury, Iollows. Only one
American President has ever been impeached: Andrew Johnson, who was n in 1868. But 1974
saw an eually historic conIrontation arising out oI the "Watergate" aIIair, which centered on illegal campaign
contributions and involved n u, including President Richard
Nion. BeIore a trial could take place, however, President Nion n , and Gerald R. Ford, then Vice
President, him. The transition was uick and orderly as the business oI the nation went on.
TASK 9T A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$ .
1. How many terms may a Senator or a Representative serve?
2. Which house oI Congress has the power to introduce laws?
3. Name at least three Iunctions oI Congress.
4. Does the President always belong to the party which has the maority in Congress?
5. What is the maor diIIerence oI the American system oI government Irom parliamentary ones?
6. Name at least three Iunctions oI the President.
7. Who succeeds the President iI he dies or resigns?
8. Under what circumstances can the President be removed Irom oIIice beIore his term epires?
9. Who does the President's Cabinet consist oI?
TASK 99.. Read te te!t a#d $tate 8&)e2l; te 2(#7t)*#$ *2 ea7 de0a&t3e#t. >)Fe R($$)a# e'()Fale#t$ 2*& te #a3e$
*2 te de0a&t3e#t$
L232/0+ E2[0/'62)'&
The Department oI State, headed by the Secretary oI State, advises the President on Ioreign relations. This
department handles all peaceIul dealings with other countries, and issues passports to American citiens who wish to
travel abroad, and visas to visitors to the United States.
The Treasury Department manages government Iinances, collects taes, mints coins and prints paper money. The
Secret Service, which protects the President and the Vice President, their Iamilies and some other dignitaries, is also
part oI the Treasury Department. So are the Bureau oI Customs and the Internal Revenue Service.
The Department oI DeIence is responsible Ior the nation's security. The Secretary oI DeIence is assisted by the
Secretaries oI the Army, Navy and Air Force.
The Department oI Justice, headed by the Attorney General, acts Ior the government in legal matters and moves
against violators oI Iederal laws. The FBI and Iederal prisons are under his urisdiction.
The Department oI the Interior protects and develops the nation's natural resources and manages the national parks.
It also enIorces Iederal hunting and Iishing laws, checks on the saIety oI mines and is responsible Ior the welIare oI
the Indian tribes.
The Department oI the Agriculture aids Iood production and looks aIter the interests oI Iarmers. It issues numerous
reports on the supply and prices oI Iarm products, conducts scientiIic studies oI agriculture and lends money to build
rural electric systems. Most Iarms today are served by electricity.
The Department oI Labour is concerned with the working conditions, saIety and welIare oI the nation's nonIarm
workers. It enIorces, among others, the laws on minimum wages and maimum hours Ior workers. The department's
mediation and conciliation service helps employers and workers to settle labour disputes.
The Department oI Commerce helps develop domestic commerce as well as trade with other countries, particularly
in the mining, manuIacturing and transportation industries. One oI its important branches issues patents Ior new
inventions; other test products to be sure they meet high standards and report on weather conditions.
In 1979 the Department oI Health, Education and WelIare was reorganied into two separate agencies: the
Department oI Health and Human Services HHS and the Department oI Education. HHS administers many oI the
nation's social services programmes on a Iederal level. The Department oI
lucation administers and co-ordinates more than 150 Iederal aid-to-education ogrammes.
The Cabinet-level Department oI Housing and Urban Development was created in 1965 to help provide adeuate
housing, particularly Ior low-income groups, and to Ioster large-scale urban renewal programmes.
In 1966 President Lyndon Johnson proposed, and Congress approved, the establishment oI a Department oI
Transportation to co-ordinate transportation activities previously carried on by several government agencies.
The Department oI Energy, created in 1977 to address the nation's growing energy problems, consolidated the maor
Iederal energy Iunctions into single Cabinet-level department. It is responsible Ior research, development and
demonstration oI energy technology; energy conservation; the nuclear weapons programme; regulation oI energy
production and use; pricing and allocation; and a central energy data collection and analysis programme.
In addition to the eecutive departments, there are numerous independent agencies charged with special Iunctions.
Largest oI these is the Postal Service, directed by an 11 -member board oI governors, which was created in 1979 to
replace the Post OIIice Department. It operates post oIIices, is responsible Ior handling and delivery oI mail and
issues stamps.
Other independent regulatory agencies set rules and standards in such Iields as rail and air transportation, domestic
trade practices, broadcasting licenses and telephone and telegraph rates, investment trading, some banking practices,
and eual employment opportunities.
ASK 9". Read te te!t.
4-2 L232/0+ $%3,:,0/5
The third branch oI government, in addition to the legislative Congress and eecutive President branches, is the
Iederal udiciary. Its main instrument is the Supreme Court, which watches over the other two branches. It
determines whether or not their laws and acts are in accordance with the Constitution. Congress has the power to Ii
the number oI udges sitting on the Court, but it cannot change the powers given to the Supreme Court by the
Constitution itselI. The Supreme Court consists oI a chieI ustice and eight associate ustices. They are nominated by
the President but must be approved by the Senate. Once approved, they hold oIIice as Supreme Court Justices Ior
liIe. A decision oI the Supreme Court cannot be appealed to any other court. Neither the President nor Congress can
change their decisions. In addition to the Supreme Court, Congress has established 11 Iederal courts oI appeal and,
below them, 91 Iederal district courts.
The Supreme Court has direct urisdiction in only two kinds oI cases: those involving Ioreign diplomats and those in
which a state is a party. All other cases which reach the Court are appeals Irom lower courts. The Supreme Court
chooses which oI these it will hear. Most oI the cases involve the interpretation oI the Constitution. The Supreme
Court also has the "power oI udicial review," that is, it has the right to declare laws and actions oI the Iederal, state,
and local governments unconstitutional. While not stated in the Constitution, this power was established over time.
TASK 9-. E!0la)# te 3ea#)#+$ *2 te 2*ll*%)#+ e!0&e$$)*#$ 2&*3 te te!t a#d 3a/e $e#te#7e$ %)t ea7 *2 te3.
ChieI Justice; Associate Justice; Iederal court; district court; direct urisdiction; lower court; to be unconstitutional.
TASK 94. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
1. What are the Iunctions oI the Supreme Court oI the USA?
2. Who does the Supreme Court consist oI?
3. How long do the Supreme Court Justices serve?
4. Are the Supreme Court Justices elected?
5. Who can change the decisions oI the Supreme Court?
6. What lower courts, besides the Supreme Court, are there in the USA ?
7. In what kinds oI cases does the Supreme Court have direct urisdiction?
8. What is the "power oI udicial review"? TASK 9V. Read te te!t.
8;&' ;< F;92/)62)'
The average cost oI all governments - Iederal, state and local - to each man, woman and child in the United States is
4,539 a year. About two-thirds oI all taes collected go to the Iederal government.
The individual income ta provides the Iederal government slightly less than halI its revenues. A person with an
average income pays about 11 per cent oI it to the government; those with very large incomes must pay up to 50 per
cent. Many states also have their own income taes. Many other taes - on property, entertainments, automobiles,
etc. - are levied to provide Iunds Ior national, state and local governments.
Federal government spending Ior deIence purposes, including military help to other nations, has Iallen as a portion
oI total government ependitures Irom 58.7 per cent in 1958 to 25.7 per cent in Iiscal year 1981. The remaining
74.3 per cent oI the Iederal budget has gone into public welIare programmes, development oI water and land
resources, public health and education. As a result oI the epansion and increased costs oI government services, the
national debt has increased greatly since World War II.
TASK 9M. :)#d )# te te!t te E#+l)$ e'()Fale#t$ 2*& te e!0&e$$)*#$ 8el*%.
, ;
- ;
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- n .
TASK 9Q. @$)#+ te )#2*&3at)*# )# te (#)t a8*Fe, d)$7($$ te 2*l)*,%)#+ '(e$t)*#$.
1. What diIIerences are there between: the government oI the USA and Congress; the Iederal and
state governments?
2. Which oI the two houses oI Congress has more power?
3. Which oI these people are not elected: the Vice President, the Secretary oI State, a Senator, the
Supreme Justice, the Attorney General.
4. Which areas oI government do these people deal with: the President, the Secretary oI DeIence, the
Secretary oI State, the Associate Justices, Representatives in Congress.
5. II the President wants to introduce a new law, what are the Iunctions oI the Iollowing: the President
himselI, the House oI Representatives, members oI the Cabinet?
6. List some similarities and diIIerences between the US system oI government and that oI your
own country.
7. Who has the right oI Legislative Initiative?
TASK 9. Read te te!t a#d l**/ at te 7a&t.
8-2:Z& 0)3 .0+0):2&
The Constitution provides Ior three main branches oI government which are separate and distinct Irom one another.
The powers given to each are careIully balanced by the powers oI the other two. Each branch serves as a check on
the others. This is to keep any branch Irom gaining too much power or Irom misusing its powers. The chart below
illustrates how the eual branches oI government are connected and how each is dependent on the other two.
Congress has the power to make laws, but the President may veto any act oI Congress. Congress, in its rum, can
override a veto by a two-thirds vote in each house. Congress can also reIuse to provide Iunds reuested by the
President. The President can appoint important oIIicials oI his administration, but they must be approved by the
Senate. The President also has the power to name all Iederal udges; they, too, must be approved by the Senate. The
courts have the power to determine the constitutionality oI all acts oI Congress and oI presidential actions, and to
strike down those they Iind unconstitutional.
The system oI checks and balances makes compromise and consensus necessary. Compromise is also a vital aspect
oI other levels oI government in the United States. This system protects against etremes. It means, Ior eample,
that new presidents cannot radically change governmental policies ust as they wish. In the US, thereIore, when
people think oI "the government", they usually mean the entire system, that is, the Eecutive Branch and the
President, Congress, and the courts. In Iact and in practice, thereIore, the President i.e. "the Administration" is not
as powerIul as many people outside the US seem to think he is. In comparison with other leaders in systems where
the maority party Iorms "the government", he is much less so.
4-2 Separation oI Powers Checks and Balances
Congress can pass
laws over the
President's veto
by a two-thirds
The Court can declare laws unconstitutional
The Senate must conIirm the
President's udicial
TASK ". E!0la)# te 3ea#)#+$ *2 te 2*ll*%)#+ %*&d$ a#d e!0&e$$)*#$.
a constitutionality;
b to strike down an act oI Congress;
c consensus;
d the Administration.
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, ;
- nu m mm ;
- ;
- n n;
- n m;
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TASK 4. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
A. How are the powers oI
a the President;
b Congress;
c the Supreme Court limited by the system oI checks and balances?
2. What is the role oI compromise in the American system oI running the country?
3. Why do people abroad tend to eaggerate the power oI the US President?
TASK 9. Read te te!t.
L232/0+,&6d >'0'2 0)3 @;:0+ F;92/)62)'&
The IiIty states are uite diverse in sie, population, climate, economy, history, and interests. The IiIty state
governments oIten diIIer Irom one another, too. Because they oIten approach political, social, or economic uestions
diIIerently, the states have been called "laboratories oI democracy". However, they do share certain basic structures.
The individual states all have republican Iorms oI government with a senate and a house. There is one eception,
Nebraska, which has only one legislative body oI 49 "senators". All have eecutive branches headed by state
governors and independent court systems. Each state has also its own constitution. But all must respect the Iederal
laws and not make laws that interIere with those oI the other states e.g., someone who is divorced under the laws oI
one state is legally divorced in all. Likewise, cities and local authorities must make their laws and regulations so
that they Iit their own state's constitution.
The Constitution limits the Iederal government to speciIic powers, but modern udicial interpretations oI the
Constitution have epanded Iederal responsibilities. All others automatically belong to the states and to the local
communities. This has meant that there has always been a battle between Iederal and state's rights. The traditional
American distrust oI a too powerIul central government has kept the battle Iairly even over the years. The states and
local communities in the US have rights that in other countries generally belong to the central government.
All education at any level, Ior eample, is the concern oI the states. The local communities have the real control at
the public school level. They control administration oI the schools. They elect the school board oIIicials, and their
local community taes largely support the schools. Each individual school system, thereIore, hires and Iires and
pays its own teachers. It sets its own policies within broad state guidelines. Similarly, there is no national police
Iorce, the FBI inIluence being limited to a very Iew Iederal crimes, such as kidnapping. Each state has its own state
police and its own criminal laws. The same is true with, Ior eample, marriage and divorce laws, driving laws and
licenses, drinking laws, and voting procedures. In turn, each city has its own police Iorce that it hires, trains,
controls, and organies. Neither the President nor the governor oI a state has direct power over it. By the way, police
departments oI counties are oIten called "sheriIIs departments". SheriIIs are usually elected, but state and city police
oIIicials are not.
There are many other areas which are also the concern oI cities, towns, and villages. Among these are opening and
closing hours Ior stores, street and road repair, or architectural laws and other regulations. Also, one local
community might decide that a certain magaine is pornographic and Iorbid its sale, or local school board might
determine that a certain novel should not be in their school library. A court, however, may later tell the community
or school board that they have unIairly attempted to eercise censorship. But another village, a Iew miles down the
road, might accept both. The same is true oI Iilms.
Most states and some cities have their own income taes. Many cities and counties also have their own laws saying
who may and may not own a gun. Many airports, some oI them international, are owned and controlled by cities or
counties and have their own airport police. Finally, a great many oI the most hotly debated uestions, which in other
countries are decided at the national level, are in America settled by the individual states and communities. Among
these are, Ior eample, laws about drug use, capital punishment, abortion, and homoseuality.
A connecting thread that runs all the way through governments in the US is the " accountability" oI politicians,
oIIicials, agencies, and governmental groups. This means that inIormation and records on crimes, Iires, marriages
and divorces, court cases, property taes, etc. are public inIormation. It means, Ior eample, that when a small town
needs to build a school or buy a new police car, how much it will cost and which company oIIered what at what
cost will be in the local newspaper. In some cities, meetings oI the city council are carried live on the radio. As a
rule, politicians in the US at any level pay considerable attention to public opinion. Ordinary citiens participate
actively and directly in decisions that concern them. In some states, such as CaliIornia, in Iact, citiens can petition
to have uestions i.e., "propositions" put on the ballot in state elections. II the proposition is approved by the
voters, it then
becomes a law. This "grass roots" character oI American democracy can also be seen in New England town
meetings or at the public hearings oI local school boards.
Adding this up, America has an enormous variety in its governmental bodies. Its system tries to satisIy the needs
and wishes oI people at the local level, while at the same time the Constitution guarantees basic rights to anyone,
anywhere in America. This has been very important, Ior instance, to the Civil Rights Movement and its struggle to
secure eual rights Ior all Americans, regardless oI race, place oI residence, or state voting laws. ThereIore, although
the states control their own elections as well as the registration procedures Ior national elections, they cannot make
laws that would go against an indiv' ual's constitutional rights.
TASK ". :)#d )# te te!t te E#+l)$ e'()Fale#t$ 2*& te 2*ll*%)#+ e!0&e$$)*#$ 8el*%.
, n ;
- m ;
- ;
- n n +;
- n nx u-;
- ;
- ;
- nu n.
TASK - A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
1. What are the common principles in the structures oI governments oI individual states?
2. Who is the head oI the eecutive branch oI power in each state?
3. How must laws and constitutions oI diIIerent states correlate?
4. What is meant by the "battle" between Iederal and states' rights?
5. Give at least 5 eamples oI the areas oI public liIe that the states are responsible Ior.
6. What is a "sheriII department" and who is a sheriII?
7. Are income taes and prices oI goods the same in diIIerent states?
8. What is meant by the "accountability" oI politicians and oIIicials?
TASK 9. Read te te!t.
W;+,',:0+ W0/',2&
The Constitution says nothing about political parties, but over time the US has in Iact developed a two-party system.
The two leading parties are the Democrats and the Republicans. There are other parties besides these two, and
Ioreign observers are oIten surprised to learn that among these are also a Communist party and several Socialist
parties. Minor parties have occasionally won oIIices at lower levels oI government, but they do not play a role in
national politics. In Iact, one does not need to be a member oI a political party to run in any election at any level oI
government. Also, people can simply declare themselves to be members oI one oI the two maor parties when they
register to vote in a district
Sometimes, the Democrats are thought oI as associated with labour, and the Republicans with business and industry.
Republicans also tend to oppose the greater involvement oI the Iederal government in some areas oI public liIe
which they consider to be the responsibility oI the states and communities. Democrats, on the other hand, tend to
Iavour a more active role oI the central government in social matters.
To distinguish between the parties is oIten diIIicult, however. Furthermore, the traditional European terms oI "right"
and "leIt", or "conservative" and "liberal" do not uite Iit the American system. Someone Irom the "conservative
right", Ior instance, would be against a strong central government. Or a Democrat Irom one part oI the country could
be very "liberal", and one Irom another part, uite "conservative". Even iI they have been elected as Democrats or
Republicans. Representatives or Senators are not bound to a party programme, nor are they subect to any discipline
when they disagree with their party.
While some voters will vote a "straight ticket", in other words, Ior all oI the Republican or Democratic candidates in
an election, many do not. They vote Ior one party's candidate Ior one oIIice, and another's Ior another. As a result,
the political parties have much less actual power than they do in other nations.
In the US, parties cannot win seats which they are then Iree to Iill with party members they have chosen. Rather,
both Representatives and Senators are elected to serve the interests oI the people and the areas they represent, that is,
their "constituencies". In about 70 per cent oI legislative decisions,
Congressmen will vote with the speciIic wishes oI their constituencies in mind, even iI this goes against what their
own parties might want as national policy. It is uite common, in Iact, to Iind Democrats in Congress voting Ior a
Republican President's legislation, uite a Iew Republicans voting against it, and so on.
TASK ". E!0la)# te d)22e&e#7e 8et%ee# te t%* 3aa*& 0a&t)e$ )# te @S.
TASK - E!0la)# te 3ea#)#+$ *2 te 2*ll*%)#+ e!0&e$$)*#$ a#d +)Fe R($$)a# e'()Fale#t$ 2*& te3.
, to vote a "straight ticket";
- a maor party;
- a minor party;
- liberal;
- conservative.
TASK 4. Read te te!t.
Anyone who is an American citien, at least 18 years oI age, and is registered to vote may vote. Each state has the
right to determine registration procedures. A number oI civic groups, such as the League oI Women Voters, are
actively trying to get more people involved in the electoral process and have drives to register as many people as
possible. Voter registration and voting among minorities has dramatically increased during the last twenty years,
especially as a result oI the Civil Rights Movement.
There is some concern, however, about the number oI citiens who could vote in national elections but do not. In the
national election oI 1984, Ior instance, only 53.3 per cent oI all those who have voted actually did. But then,
Americans who want to vote must register, that is put down their names in register beIore the actual elections take
place. There are 50 diIIerent registration laws in the US - one set Ior each state. In the South, voters oIten have to
register not only locally but also at the county seat. In European countries, on the other hand, "permanent
registration" oI voters is most common. OI those voters in the United States who did register in the 1984 presidential
elections, 73 per cent cast their ballots.
Another important Iactor is that there are many more elections in the US at the state and local levels than there are in
most countries. II the number oI those who vote in these elections deciding, Ior eample, iI they should pay more
taes so a new main street bridge can be built were included, the percentage in Iact would not be that much
diIIerent Irom other countries.
Certainly, Americans are much more interested in local politics than in those at the Iederal level. Many oI the most
important decisions, such as those concerning education, housing, taes, and so on, are made close to home, in the
state or county.
The national presidential elections really consist oI two separate campaigns: one ,& Ior the nomination oI candidates
at national party conventions. The other is to win the actual election. The nominating race is a competition between
members oI the same party. They run in a succession oI state primaries and caucuses which take place between
March and June. They hope to gain a maority oI delegate votes Ior their national party conventions in July or
August. The party convention then votes to select the party's oIIicial candidate Ior the presidency. Then Iollow
several months oI presidential campaigns by the candidates.
In November oI the election year years divisible by Iour, e.g. 1988, 1992, 1996, etc., the voters across the nation
go to the polls. II the maority oI the popular votes in a state go to the Presidential and vice-presidential candidate
oI one party, then that person is supposed to get all oI that state's "electoral votes." These electoral votes are eual to
the number oI Senators and Representatives each state has in Congress. The candidate with the largest number oI
these electoral votes wins the election. Each state's electoral votes are Iormally reported by the "Electoral College."
In January oI the Iollowing year, in a oint session oI Congress, the new President and Vice-President are oIIicially
TASK V :)#d te te!t te E#+l)$ e'()Fale#t$ 2*& te %*&d$ a#d e!0&e$$)*#$ 8el*%.
, ;
- n ;
- ;
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- n;
- n;
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- nu n n;
- nu n ;
- n ;
- u.
TASK M. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
1. Which American citiens mavvole
2. Why do you think many people who could vote in the national election don't do it?
3. Why are most Americans more interested in local politics than in those at the Iederal level?
4. What parts does the national presidential election consist oI?
5. Describe the process oI electing the President.
TASK Q. Ele7t)*# 5a30a)+#. R*le 0la;.
Imagine you are a candidate oI one oI the maor parties: you have already been elected your party's oIIicial
candidate Ior the presidency. Write your programme and organie your election campaign. Persuade as many people
in the group as possible to vote Ior you. Use the vocabulary oI the unit.
TASK R. Read te te!t a#d 7*30a&e 0*l)t)7al att)t(de$ )# te @S a#d )# ;*(& 7*(#t&;. :)#d te $tate3e#t$ ;*( a+&ee
a#d d)$a+&ee %)t.
W;+,',:0+ D'','%32&
It's oIten been said and does seem to be true: Americans seem almost instinctively to dislike government and
politicians. They especially tend to dislike "those Iools in Washington" who spend their ta money and are always
trying to "interIere" in their local and private concerns. Many would no doubt agree with the statement that the best
government is the one that governs least. In a 1984 poll, Ior eample, only a Iourth oI those asked wanted the Iederal
government to do more to solve the country's problems. Neighbourhoods, communities, and states have a strong
pride in their ability to deal with their problems themselves, and this Ieeling is especially strong in the West.
Americans are seldom impressed by government oIIicials they do like royalty, as long as it's not theirs. They
distrust people who call themselves eperts. They don't like being ordered to do anything. For eample, in the
Revolutionary War 1776-83 and in the Civil War 1861-65, American soldiers oIten elected their own oIIicers. In
their Iilms and Iiction as well as in television series, Americans oIten portray corrupt politicians and incompetent
oIIicials. Anyone who wants to be President, they say with a smile, isn't ualiIied. Their newsmen and ournalists
and television reporters are known the world over Ior "not showing proper respect" to governmental leaders,
whether their own or others. As thousands oI Ioreign observers have remarked, Americans simply do not like
Many visitors to the US are still surprised by the strong egalitarian tendencies they meet in daily liIe. Americans
Irom diIIerent walks oI liIe,
people with diIIerent educational and social backgrounds, will oIten start talking with one another "ust as iI they
were all eual." Is everybody eual in the land that stated - in the eyes oI God and the law - that "all men are created
eual?" No, oI course not. Some have advantages oI birth, wealth, or talent. Some have been to better schools. Some
have skins or accents or belieIs that their neighbours don't especially like. Yet the ideal is ever-present in a land
where so many diIIerent races, language groups, cultural and religious belieIs, hopes, dreams, traditional hates and
dislikes have come together.
All in all, what do Americans think oI their system oI government? What would "We the People" decide today? One
American, a Nobel Prie winner in literature, gave this opinion: "We are able to believe that our government is
weak, stupid, overbearing, dishonest, and ineIIicient, and at the same time we are deeply convinced that it is the best
government in the world, and we would like to impose it upon everyone else."
OI course, many oI today's 240 million Americans would disagree in part or with all. "Who is this one American,"
they might ask, "to speak Ior all oI us?"
Unit V
LANGUAGE ACTVTES Glimpses of American History
TASK 9 P)$te# t* te ta0e a#d 2)ll )# te +a0$ %)t te %*&d$ a#d e!0&e$$)*#$ tat ;*( %)ll ea&. Retell te te!t$.
D. L+0* E05
Flag Day, June 14, is the birthday oI the American Flag. On this day in
1777 the Continental Congress astating that the Ilag oI the new
nation should contain b7 red ones and 6 white ones to symbolie
the thirteen colonies and thirteen white stars, arranged cto symbolie
the d
and eoI these colonies.
In 1776, aIter the colonies had Itheir gIrom Great
Britain, George Washington and two other revolutionary leaders were
hIor task oI designing a national Ilag. The colours they chose were red
Ior i, white Ior and blue Ior k .
According to American legend, they brought their design to Betsy Ross, a young widow who was an ecellent
seamstress. She Iollowed their sketch
eactly ecept Ior suggesting that the stars be 1 rather than
m. Because she made the Iirst American Ilag, Betsy Ross's name is
still well-known to Americans. Her little home in Philadelphia has been n, and tens oI thousands oI tourists
visit it each year.
The American Ilag has been o
many times since Betsy Ross
made the original. Today the Ilag still p, in honour oI the original
colonies, but now there are IiIty stars. Because oI its design, the American Ilag has been nicknamed "".
.. A)32[2)32):2 E05
Independence Day is one oI the most important patriotic holidays celebrated in the United States oI America. In
1776 the thirteen American colonies were in the midst oI the revolutionary war against Great Britain. On the
4th oI July oI that year the Continental Congress a, the document
which bthe colonies Iree and independent states. It is the c
and the d
oI this document that Americans remember on July, 4.
The Declaration oI Independence was written by Thomas JeIIerson who
later became the young nation's epresident. Since Independence Day
is a summer holiday and a day-oII Irom work Ior almost everyone, many
Iamilies enoy I or g on the 4th. The occasion is also
h by colourIul and noisy i, and
communities k. The Ilag is Ilown, and red, white and blue ribbons
are used Ior decoration at 1. The army m, Iiring a thirteen
gun salute. Throughout the nation church bells ring n the
Philadelphian Liberty Bell that Iirst o
American Independence.
8. 7-5 A& '-2 7-,'2 M;%&2 7-,'2w
We have all heard oI the Iamous White House in Washington, USA, home oI the President oI America. But how
many oI us know why it is white? It
is known that the original building was aby the British during the
British-American war, when the Americans b.Some time later the
building was painted white, to hide the con the walls. And it has
been dthat colour since that time, as e oI American
TASK 9. 5*30lete te 2*ll*%)#+ te!t %)t te %*&d$ a#d 0&a$e$ 2&*3 te 8*!, ($)#+ te3 )# te a00&*0&)ate 2*&3.
constitution; structure; voter; national; to name;
Iederal; government; to vote; responsibility; violation;
to govern;
to be elected 2;
to be appointed;
to be removed Irom oIIice.
The United States is a aunion oI 50 states, with District oI
Columbia as the seat oI the bgovernment. The Constitution outlines
coI the. national government and speciIies its powers and activities.
Other government activities are the d oI the individual states, which
have their own e
and I
. Within each state there are counties,
townships, cities and villages, each oI which has its own elective g.
All government in the United States is "oI, by and Ior the people".
Members oI Congress, the President, state oIIicials and those who h
counties and cities iby popular vote. The President the
heads oI Iederal departments while udges are either kdirectly by the
people or 1by elected oIIicials, mmark unsigned ballots in
private booths, so that no one else can Iind out Ior whom a citien n.
Public oIIicials may oIor Iailing to perIorm their duties properly, as
well as Ior serious poI law.
TASK ". 5*30lete te 2*ll*%)#+ $tate3e#t$ %)t te a00&*0&)ate a#d e!0&e$$)*#$ 2&*3 te @#)t.
The US Constitution sets the basic Iorm oI government:
ultimate power under the Constitution, in Iact, belongs to
oI Rights declares such Iundamental rights oI any American as
The Bill
The Supreme Court oI the USA consists oI , and must be approved by
. They are appointed
A decision oI the Supreme
Courtto any other court. The Supreme Court has direct urisdiction in
the Iollowing kinds oI cases:. All other cases are. The only
power oI the Supreme Court which is not stated in the Constitution is the power oI
All the IiIty states oI America haveIorm oI government. The
eecutive branch oI the government in each state is headed by, and the
udicial branch is represented by. Each state has its own' which
must not interIere with.
There is a two-party system in the USA. The Democratic Party is
usually associated with, and the Republicans, with. Anyone

V vote in the presidential election in the US. Those who want to

vote mustbeIore tiie election takes place. The national presidential
elections consist oI two separate campaigns: one is ; the other is
TASK -. Ue2)#e te 2*ll*%)#+ %*&d,7*38)#at)*#$. Dll($t&ate ;*(& de2)#)t)*#$ %)t e!a30le$.
a Judicial Review;
b Eecutive Power;
c Separation oI Powers;
d bicameral legislature;
e maority party.
TASK 4 >)Fe te %*&d$ %)t te *00*$)te 3ea#)#+$ t*6
a to approve;
b maority;
c consent;
d to win;
e to allow.
Glossary to chapters and
0:' n - statute, a Iormal record oI sth done oI transacted.
- a7t *2 Ba&l)a3e#t.
062)3 v - to change or modiIy Ior the better, improve.
- a3e#d3e#t <#= 0[[;,)' \9] O &22 8-. A
0[[/;92 v - to give Iormal or oIIicial sanction, ratiIy.
- d)$a00&*Fe n- see 8e#7 Ch. I
Y0++;' n - a sheet oI paper, or orig. a small ball, used in secret voting. 8all*t,8*! n -a locked bo wherein ballots
are deposited.
Y2):- \)] O &22 8-. A. Y,++ \)] O &22 8-. A.
Y/0):- n \;< F;92/)62)'] O &22 8-. A.
:0)90&& n - the act oI eamining and counting the returns oI votes cast at a public election to determine
- 7a#Fa$$)#+.
:0%:%& n - a meeting oI the legal voters oI any political party
assembled Ior the purpose oI choosing delegates or Ior the nomination
oI candidates Ior oIIice. :-0):2++;/ n - the name given in some states '; '-2 udge or the
presiding udge oI a court oI chancery.
*2 te E!7e'(e& , head oI the department oI the English
government which has charge oI the collection oI the national
*2 te @#)Fe&$)t; , a university president, or chieI eecutive oIIicer
oI higher education system in certain states. :-2:Z& 0)3 Y0+0):2& n the system oI -- arrangement oI
governmental powers where powers oI one governmental branch
check or balance those oI other branches. :,9,+ ad list, servant - see Ch. I. 8;)<232/0',;) n \D/',:+2& ;< -
the compact among the thirteen
original states that established the Iirst government oI the United
States. :;)&','%2):5 n - the inhabitants oI an electoral district.
:;)&','%2)' n - a person who gives authority to another to act Ior
him. m :;)92)',;) n 1.- an assembly oI delegates chosen by a political party,
or by the party organiation in a larger or smaller territory, to
nominate candidates Ior an approaching election.
2. a treaty, an agreement, a commercial agreement, a contract. :;%)'5 n 1. GB - division oI GB, the largest unit oI
local government
2. US - the largest territorial division Ior local government in state.
- 7*(&t. :;)&2)&%& \)] O &22 8-. A.
32Y0'2 n - Iormal discussion, e.g. at a public meeting or in Parliament.
- de8ate v.
32[0/'62)' n US - the largest unit oI the eecutive branch, covering a broad area oI government responsibility.
The heads oI the departments secretaries Iorm the president's cabinet.
3,&&;+92 \9] \^ W0/+,062)'] - to terminate, cancel, annul.
2+2:',;) n - a Iormal procedure Ior voting.
- 0&e$)de#t)al d.
- t* *ld, $7ed(le a# -.
- t* %)#Xl*$e a# .
- ele7t <F=.
, ele7t*& n.
- ele7t*&al ad.
2+2:';/0+ :06[0,*) n - an organied eIIort to persuade voters to choose one candidate over others competing Ior
the same oIIice. 2+2:';/0+ :;++2*2 n - a body oI electors who are chosen by voters to cast ballots Ior president and
vice president. 2X2:%'2 v a law - to give eIIect to; to make legally binding.
- e!e7(t)*# n.
2X2:%',92 ad - as distinguished Irom the legislative and udicial departments branches oI government, the
eecutive department is that which is charged with the detail oI carrying the laws into eIIect and securing their due
- de0a&t3e#t n.
- *22)7e& n.
- ,0*%e&$ n.
<232/0+ ad - 1. belonging to the Iederal government or union oI states. 2. Iounded on ,or organied under, the
Constitution oI the United States.
7*(&t$ n - the courts oI the US as distinguished Irom state, county or city courts created either by Art III oI the
US Constitution or Congress.
- +*Fe&#3e#t n.
<232/0+,&6 n - the division oI power among a central government
and regional governments. </;)' Y2):- \)] O &22 8-. A.
,6[0/',0+ ad - treating all alike; unbiased; euitable, Iair and ust. ,6[20:- v - to proceed against a public
oIIicer e.g. President Ior
crime or misIeasance, beIore a proper court, by the presentation oI a
written accusation "articles oI impeachment".
,6[20:-62)' n - the Iormal charging oI a government oIIicial with
any high crimes and misdemeanors. c%3,:,0+ ad \Y/0):-] - the branch oI government that interprets laws.
- ,0*%e&.
, &eF)e%.
$%3,:,0/5 n - 1. the branch oI government invested with the udicial power.
2. the system oI courts in a country also J(d)7)al $;$te3=.
3. the body oI Judges.
c%&',:2 n - 1. proper administration oI laws.
2. title given to udge, particularly to udges oI US and state supreme courts, and as well to udges oI appellate
A$$*7)ate d$ , udges oI courts, other than the presiding or chieI ustice.
S(0&e3e , also 5)e2 - the presiding, most senior, or principal ustice oI a court.
*2 te Bea7e GB - a lay magistrate empowered chieIly to administer summary ustice in minor cases.
Z),*-' n GB - in English law, the net personal dignity aIter the nobility, having several orders and degrees. -
/#)+t**d <#=.
+2*,&+0'2 v - to enact laws or pass resolutions via legislation, in contrast to court-made laws.
- le+)$lat*&<&)=
+2*,&+0',92 ad \Y/0):-] - the law-making branch oI government.
+2*,&+0',;) n - 1. the act oI giving or enacting laws.
2. the power to make laws.
3. laws enacted by lawmaking body e.g. by Congress. +2*,&+0'%/2 n- the department, assembly or
body oI persons that
makes statutory laws Ior a state or nation e.g. by Congress. 60c;/,'5 n - the number oI votes greater than halI
oI any total.
- leade& , the head oI the maority party in the Senate.
- ,0a&t;.
&(le , the principle that the decision oI a group must reIlect the preIerence oI more than halI oI those
- *2 $eat$.
F*te , vote by more than halI oI voters Ior candidate or other, matter on ballot.
60),<2&'; \)] \;< 0 [0/'5] - public declaration or proclamation oI
political or social principles. 6,);/,'5 n - the smaller number oI votes.
- ,0a&t;.
&)+t$ , the beneIits oI government that cannot be denied to any citiens by maority decisions.
6;)0/:-5 n - a government in which the supreme power is vested in a single person.
- 7*#$t)t(t)*#al <l)3)ted= ,.
O 6;)0/:- \)].
);6,)0'2 v as, Ior - to designate as an oIIicial candidate oI a political party.
- #*3)#at)*# n to.
- #*3)#ee n - a person who has been nominated.
;92//%+2 v also ;92//,32] - '; supersede, to annul; to reect by subseuent action or decision.
- a Fet*, de7)$)*#.
[22/ n GB - *2 te &eal3= , a person with the right to sit in the House oI Lords.
P)2e d , a person elected to the House oI Lords Ior liIe contrasted with a e&ed)ta&; .
O [22/0*2 n - 1. the whole body oI peers. 2. rank oI peer.
[;++ v - 1 .to vote at an election. 2. receive a certain number oI votes.
- ,)#+,8**t <,$tat)*#= , place where voters go to record votes.
- ,)#+ da; , day appointed Ior a poll. [;++ n -1. voting at an election.
2. list oI voters; counting oI the voters.
3. place where voting takes place.
<0(8l)7= *0)#)*# , , survey oI public opinion by putting uestions to a
representative selection oI persons. [/,60/5 \2+2:',;)] -a preliminary election conducted within a political
party to select candidates who will run Ior public oIIice in a
subseuent election. [/;[2/'5 n - 1. possessions, things owned.
2. the unrestricted and eclusive right to a thing.
- 0e&$*#al , , movable belongings.
- 0&)Fate d , property belonging absolutely to an individual oI which he has the eclusive right oI disposition.
- &eal , , land; buildings or whatever is erected or growing upon or aIIied to land.
O ^ law. [/;[;/',;)0+ /2[/2&2)'0',;) n -an electoral system that awards
legislative seats to political parties in proportion to the number oI
votes won in an election. /2<2/2)3%6 n - an election on a policy issue. /2[/2&2)'0',92 *;92/)62)' n O also
called ,)3,/2:' 326;:/0:5] O 0
system oI rule in which citiens participate by electing public oIIicials
to make government decisions Ior them. /2&,*) v Irom - to give up a post.
,&e$)+#at)*# <#= <2&*3=. /292)%2 n - income, esp. the total annual income oI the State.
- 0(8l)7 ,$ , the income which a government collects and receives into its treasury, and is appropriated Ior
the payment oI its epenses.
secretary n US - head oI an eecutive department, member oI the
President's Cabinet.e.g. oI State. seiure n oI property - the act oI taking possession oI property, e.g.
Ior a violation oI law or by virtue oI an eecution oI a udgement.
- $e)[e v.
Shadow Cabinet n GB - group Iormed Irom the leaders oI the Parliamentary Opposition, i.e. those who might
Iorm a new cabinet iI there is a change oI government aIter a general election.
sheriII n US - the chieI eecutive and administrative oIIice oI a county, being chosen by popular election.
sovereign n - 1. a chieI ruler with supreme power. 2. a king or other ruler in a monarchy.
- $*Fe&e)+#t; n.
ta n - a charge by the government on the income oI an individual, corporation, or on the value oI an estate or giIt
or property.
- la%.
, ,0a;e&.
, t* )30*$e, leF;, 0(t a <*#=.
, t* 7*lle7t a <2&*3=
, t* 7(t, l*%e&, &ed(7e d$ <F$ t* )#7&ea$e, &a)$e d$=.
, t* 0a; a <*#=.
taation n - the process oI taing or imposing a ta. term oI oIIice n - the period during which elected oIIicer or
is entitled to hold oIIice, perIorm its Iunctions and enoy its privileges. township n US - in some oI the states, the
name given to the civil and
political subdivisions oI a county. veto n oI, over US - the President's disapproval oI a bill that has
been passed by both houses oI Congress, which can be overridden by
a two-thirds vote in each house oI Congress.
- Fet* <F=.
, t* e!e&7)$e, )30*$e, ($e a .
- t* *Fe&&)de, *Fe&&(le a .
9,;+0'2 v - to break a law, a treaty, an oath, etc..
- F)*lat)*#.
, t* 7*33)t a F)*lat)*#.
, )# F)*lat)*# *2 <a la%=.
vote n - right to give an epression oI opinion or will by persons Ior or against sb or sth, esp. by ballot or by
putting up oI hands.
- <F= <2*&Xa+a)#$t=.
- * <
= <*#X(0*#, e.+. a &e$*l(t)*#=.
- F*te& <#=.
Chapter V
You - The Jury
Unit I. A Handbook on Jury Service.....................................................103
Unit II. Justice?.....................................................................................115
Unit III. Language Activities. Lady Wyatt Accused oI Shop-LiIting.. 118
Just Ior Fun...........................................................................................122
TASK 9. Te 2*ll*%)#+ te!t$ 7*3e 2&*3 a a#d8**/ *# a(&; $e&F)7e 2*& @S 7)t)[e#$ Read te te!t$ 7*#$(lt)#+ te
$%/5 >2/9,:2 O D) A6[;/'0)' $;Y 0)3 0 B2V0/3,)* (X[2/,2):2
The right to trial by a ury oI our Iellow citiens is one oI our most important rights and is guaranteed by the
Constitution oI the United States. By serving on a Jury, then, you are helping to guarantee one oI our most important
Your ob as a uror is to listen to all the evidence presented at trial and to "decide the Iacts" - that is, to decide what
really happened. The udge, on the other hand, "decides the law" - that is, makes decisions on legal issues that come
up during the trial. For eample, the udge may have to decide whether you and the other urors may hear certain
evidence or whether one lawyer may ask a witness a certain uestion. You should not try to decide these legal
issues, sometimes you will even be asked to leave the courtroom while they are being decided. Both your ob and
that oI the udge must be done well iI our system oI trial by ury is to work. In order to do your ob you do not need
any special knowledge or ability. It is enough that you keep an open mind, concentrate on the evidence being
presented, use your common sense, and be Iair and honest.
Finally, you should not be inIluenced by sympathy or preudice: it is vital that you be impartial with regard to all
people and all ideas.
Many urors Iind that it is eciting to learn about this most important system "Irom the inside", and challenging to
deal Iairly and thoroughly with the cases they hear. We hope that you, too, Iind your eperience as a uror to be
interesting and satisIying.
M;V G;% 72/2 8-;&2)
Your name was selected at random Irom voter registration records and placed on a list oI potential urors. Net, your
answers to the uestionnaire Ior Jurors were evaluated to make sure that you were eligible Ior ury service and were
not eempt Irom service. To be eligible, you must be over 18 years oI age, a citien oI the United States, a resident
oI the county in which you are to serve as a uror, able to communicate in the English language and iI you have been
convicted oI a Ielony, you must have had your civil rights restored. People who meet these reuirements may be
ecused Irom ury service iI they have illnesses that would interIere with their ability to do a good ob, would suIIer
great hardship iI reuired to serve, or are unable to serve Ior some other reason.
You are here because you were Iound to be eligible Ior ury duty and were able to serve. You are now part oI the
"ury pool", the group oI people Irom which trial uries are chosen.
>2+2:',;) ;< '-2 4/,0+ $%/5
The Iirst step in the selection oI the trial ury is the selection oI a "ury panel". When you are selected Ior a ury
panel you will be directed to report, along with other panel members, to a courtroom m which a case is to be heard
once a ury is selected. The udge assigned to that case will tell you about the case and will introduce the lawyers
and the people involved in the case. You will also take an oath, by which you promise to answer all uestions
truthIully. Following this eplanation oI the case and the taking oI the oath, the udge and the lawyers will uestion
you and the other members oI the panel to Iind out iI you have any personal interest in it, or any Ieelings that might
make it hard Ior you to be impartial. This process oI uestioning is called nlDR UDRE, a phrase meaning "to speak
the truth".
Many oI the uestions the udge and lawyers ask you during nlDR UDRE may seem very personal to you, but you
should answer them completely and honestly. Remember that the lawyers are not trying to embarrass you, but are
trying to make sure that members oI the ury do not have opinions or past eperiences which might prevent them
Irom making an impartial decision.
During nlDR UDRE the lawyers may ask the udge to ecuse you or another member oI panel Irom sitting on the
ury Ior this particular case. This is
called 5YAPPEC>DC> A J@RlR. There are two types oI challenges. The Iirst is called a 5YAPPEC>E :lR
5A@SE, which means that the lawyer has a speciIic reason Ior thinking that the uror would not be able to be
impartial. For eample, the case may involve the theIt oI a car. II one oI the urors has had a car stolen and still Ieels
angry or upset about it, the lawyer Ior the person accused oI the theIt could ask that the uror be ecused Ior that
reason. There is no limit on the number oI panel members that the lawyers may have ecused Ior cause.
The second type oI challenge is called a BERE1BTlRo 5YAPPEC>E, which means that the lawyer does not have
to state a reason Ior asking that the uror be ecused. Like challenges Ior cause, peremptory challenges are designed
to allow lawyers to do their best to assure that their clients will have a Iair trial. Unlike challenges Ior cause,
however, the number oI peremptory challenges is limited.
Please tr not to take oIIence iI you are ecused Irom serving on a particular ury. The lawyer who challenges you is
not suggesting that you lack ability or honesty, merely that there is some doubt about your impartiality because oI
the circumstances oI the particular case and your past eperiences. II you are ecused, you will either return to the
uror waiting area and wait to be called Ior another panel or will be ecused Irom service, depending on the local
procedures in the county in which you live.
Those urors who have not been challenged become the ury Ior the case. Depending on the kind oI case, there will
be either si or twelve urors. The udge may also allow selection oI one or more alternate urors, who will serve iI
one oI the urors is unable to do so because oI illness or some other reason.
G;%/ 7;/Z,)* E05
The number oI the days you work as a uror and your working hours depend on the ury selection system in the
county in which you live. Working hours may also be varied by the udge to accommodate witnesses coming Irom
out oI town or Ior other reasons.
Regardless oI the length oI your working day, one thing that may strike you is the amount oI waiting. For eample,
you may have to wait a long while beIore you are called Ior a ury panel. You also may be kept waiting in the ury
room during trial while the udge and the lawyers settle a uestion oI law that has come up.
This waiting may seem like a waste oI time to you and also may make it seem as iI the court system isn't working
very well. In reality, however, there are good reasons Ior the waiting you do both beIore and during trial.
Your having to wait beIore trial is important Ior the eIIicient operation oI the system. Because there are many cases
to be heard and because trials are epensive, udges encourage people to come to an agreement in their case beIore
trial. These agreements, called SETTPE1ECTS, can occur at any time, even a Iew minutes beIore the trial is
scheduled to begin. This means that it is impossible to know eactly how many trials there will be on a particular
day or when they will start. Jurors are kept waiting, thereIore, so that they are immediately available Ior the net
case that goes to trial.
Your waiting during trial helps assure the Iairness oI the proceedings. You will remember that the urors decide the
Iacts and that the udge decides the law. II you are sent out oI the courtroom during trial, it is probably because a
legal issue has come up that must be decided beIore more evidence can be presented to you. You are sent out
because the udge decides that you should not hear the discussion about the law, because it might interIere with your
ability to decide the Iacts in an impartial way. Sometimes the udge will eplain why you were sent out, but
sometimes he may not be able to do so. Please be assured, however, that these delays during trial, eplained or not,
are important to the Iairness oI the trial.
In any case, udges and personnel do whatever they can to minimie the waiting beIore and during trial. Your
understanding is appreciated.
TASK ". >)Fe R($$)a# e'()Fale#t$ J*& te 2*ll*%)#+ %*&d$ a#d t&a#$late te de2)#)t)*#$ )#2* R($$)a#
5ASE , any proceeding, action, cause, lawsuit or controversy initiated through the court system by Iiling a
complaint, petition or inIormation.
.DTCESS , person who testiIies under oath in court regarding what was seen, heard or otherwise observed.
TRDAP , the presentation oI evidence in court to a trier oI Iacts who applies the applicable law to those Iacts and then
decides the case.
EnDUEC5E , a Iorm oI prooI legally presented at a trial through witnesses, records, documents, etc.
TASK -, Ba&a0&a[e te 2*ll*%)#+ %*&d$ a#d e!0&e$$)*#$ a#d e!0la)# te)& 3ea#)#+$.
, Iellow citiens;
- courtroom;
- preudice;
- to deal thoroughly with the cases;
- to eempt Irom ury service;
- to meet some reuirements;
- impartial decision;
- to be available Ior case;
- legal issues;
- common sense;
- to select at random;
- eligible Ior service;
- to have one's civil rights restored;
- to be ecused Irom ury service;
- to accommodate a witness;
- delays during trial.
TASK 4. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
1. What is the ob oI a uror?
2. What is the ob oI a udge?
3. What ualities should a good uror have?
4. What reuirements should one meet to be eligible Ior ury service?
5. What are the reasons Ior a person to be ecused Irom ury service?
6. What is the aim oI nlPR UDRE]
9. What is 5YAPPEC>DC> A J@RlRZ
8. What are the types oI challenge?
9. What does a uror's working day depend on?
10. Who are alternative urors?
TASK V. Read te te!t.
K,)3& ;< 80&2&
As a uror, you may sit on a criminal case, a civil case, or both.
5)F)l 5a$e$. Civil cases are usually disputes between or among private citiens, corporations, governments,
government agencies, and other organiations. Most oIten, the party bringing the suit is asking Ior money damages
Ior some wrong that has been done. For eample, a tenant may sue a landlord Ior Iailure to Ii a leaky rooI, or a
landlord may sue a tenant Ior Iailure
to pay rent. People who have been inured may sue a person or a company they Ieel is responsible Ior the inury.
The party bringing the suit is called the BPADCTD::p the party being sued is called the UE:ECUACT. There may be
many plaintiIIs or many deIendants in the same case.
The plaintiII starts the lawsuit by Iiling a paper called a 5l1BPADCT, in which the case against the deIendant is
stated. The net paper Iiled is usually the ACS.ER, in which the deIendant disputes what the plaintiII has said in the
complaint. The deIendant may also Ieel that there has been a wrong committed by the plaintiII, in which case a
5l@CTER5PAD1 will be Iiled along with the answer. It is up to the plaintiII to prove the case against the
deIendant. In each civil case the udge tells the ury the etent to which the plaintiII must prove the case. This is
called the plaintiIIs ?@RUEC l: BRll:, a burden that the plaintiII must meet in order to win. In most civil cases
the plaintiIIs burden is to prove the case by a BREBlCUERAC5E l: EnDUEC5E, that is, that the plaintiIIs version
oI what happened in the case is more probably true than not true.
Jury verdicts do not need to be unanimous in civil cases. Only ten urors need to agree upon a verdict iI there are 12
urors: Iive must agree iI there are si urors.
5&)3)#al 5a$e$. A criminal case is brought by the state or by a city or county against a person or persons accused oI
having committed a crime. The state, city, or county is called the BPADCTD::p the accused person is called the
UE:ECUACT. The charge against the deIendant is called an DC:lR1ATDlC *& a 5l1BPADCT. The deIendant has
pleaded not guilty and you should presume the deIendant's innocence throughout the entire trial unless the plaintiII
proves the deIendant guilty. The plaintiIIs burden oI prooI is greater in a criminal case than in a civil case. In each
criminal case you hear the udge will tell you all the elements oI the crime that the plaintiII must prove; the plaintiII
must prove each oI these elements ?EolCU REASlCA?PE Ul@?T beIore the deIendant can be Iound guilty.
In criminal cases the verdict must be unanimous, that is, all urors must agree that the deIendant is guilty in order to
overcome the presumption oI innocence.
TASK M. >)Fe R($$)a# e'()Fale#t$ 2*& te 2*ll*%)#+ %*&d$ a#d t&a#$late te de2)#)t)*#$ )#t* R($$)a#.
UE:ECUACT , crim. person charged with a crime, civ. person or entity against whom a civil action is brought.
A5TDlC , proceeding taken in court synonymous to case, suit, lawsuit.
BREBlCUERAC5E l: EnDUEC5E means that the weight oI evidence presented by one side is more convincing to
the trier oI Iacts than the evidence presented by the opposing side.
BPADCTD:: , the party who begins an action, complains or sues.
5l@CTER5PAD1 , claim presented by a deIendant in opposition to the claim oI the plaintiII.
5l1BPADCT , crim. Iormal written charge that a person has committed a criminal oIIence.
civ. initial document Iiled by a plaintiII which starts the claim against the deIendant.
TASK Q. >)Fe E#+l)$ e'()Fale#t$ 2*& te 2*ll*%)#+ %*&d$ a#d e!0&e$$)*#$.
, n ;
- u ;
- ;
- n 2;
- nx;
- 3;
- n;
- m nn;
- n ;
- m n;
- mu nx;
- x n;
- m, m ;
- u n;
- ;
- n;
- ;
- u;
- n ;
- ;
- nn;
- ;
- m m nx;
- n n;
- ;
- n n.
TASK R. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
2. Who is a BPADCTD::Z
3. Who is a UE:ECUACT]
4. What is a 5l1BPADCT]
5. Whatisan`,W/??
6. What is a 5l@CTER5PAD1]
D. What is a ?@RUEC l: BRll:9
8. What is a 5RD1DCAP 5ASEQ
10. How many urors are necessary to agree upon the verdict in a criminal case?
I1. Who is the plaintiII in a criminal case?
TASK S. Read te te!t$.
8;%/'/;;6 W2/&;))2+
In addition to the lawyers and the udge, three other people will play an important role in the trial. The 5l@RT
REBlRTER, who sits close to the witnesses and the udge, puts down every word that is spoken during the trial and
also may record the proceedings on tape. The 5PERK, who sits right below the udge, keeps track oI all documents
and ehibits and notes down important events in the trial. The ?ADPD:: helps to keep the trial running smoothly.
The ury is in the custody oI the bailiII, who sees to the urors comIort and convenience and helps them iI they are
having any problems related to ury service.
7-0' M0[[2)& E%/,)* '-2 4/,0+
Events in a trial usually happen in a particular order, though the order may be changed by the udge. The usual order
oI events is set out below.
Ste0 96 Sele7t)*# *2 te J(&;.
Ste0 "6 l0e#)#+ State3e#t$. The lawyers Ior each side will discuss their views oI the case that you are to hear and
will also present a general picture oI what they intend to prove about the case. What the lawyers say in their opening
statements is not evidence and, thereIore, does not help prove their cases.
Ste0 -6 B&e$e#tat)*# *2 EF)de#7e. All parties are entitled to present evidence. The testimony oI witnesses who testiIy
at trial is evidence. Evidence may also take the Iorm oI physical ehibits, such as a gun or a photograph. On
occasion, the written testimony oI people not able to attend the trial may also be evidence in the cases you will hear.
Many things you will see and hear during the trial are not evidence. For eample, what the lawyers say in their
opening and closing statements is not evidence. Physical ehibits oIIered by the lawyers, but not admitted by the
udge, are also to be disregarded, as is testimony that the udge orders stricken oII the record.
Many times during the trial the lawyers may make l?JE5TDlCS to evidence presented by the other side or to
uestions asked by the other lawyer. Lawyers are allowed to obect to these things when they consider them
improper under the laws oI evidence. It is up to the udge to decide whether each obection was valid or invalid, and
whether, thereIore, the evidence can be admitted or the uestion allowed. II the obection was valid, the udge will
S@STADC TYE l?JE5TDlC. II the obection was not valid, the udge will lnERR@PE TYE l?JE5TDlC. These
rulings do not reIlect the udge's opinion oI the case or whether the udge Iavours or does not Iavour the evidence or
the uestion to which there has been an obection.
It is your duty as a uror to decide the weight or importance oI evidence or testimony allowed by the udge. You are
also the sole udge oI the 5REUD?DPDTo l: .DTCESSES, that is, oI whether their testimony is believable. In
considering credibility, you may take into account the witnesses* opportunity and ability to observe the events about
which they are testiIying, their memory and manner while testiIying, the reasonableness oI their testimony when
considered in the light oI all the other evidence in the case, their possible bias or preudice, and any other Iactors that
bear on the believability oI the testimony or on the importance to be given that testimony.
Ste0 46 Te D#$t&(7t)*#$. Following presentation oI all the evidence, the udge instructs the ury on the laws that are
to guide the ury in their deliberations on a verdict. A copy oI the instructions will be sent to the ury room Ior the
use oI urors during their deliberations. All documents or physical obects that have been received into evidence will
also be sent to the ury room.
Ste0 V6 5l*$)#+ A&+(3e#t$ The lawyers in the closing arguments summarie the case Irom their point oI view. They
may discuss the evidence that has been presented or comment on the credibility oI witnesses. The lawyers may also
discuss any oI the udge's instructions that they Ieel are oI special importance to their case. These arguments are not
Ste0 M6 J(&; Uel)8e&at)*#. The ury retires to the ury room to conduct the deliberations on the verdict in the case
they have ust heard. The ury Iirst elects a Ioreman who will see to it that discussion is conducted in a sensible and
orderly Iashion, that all issues are Iully and Iairly discussed, and that every uror is given a Iair chance to participate.
When a verdict has been reached, the Ioreman signs it and inIorms the bailiII. The ury returns to the courtroom,
where the Ioreman presents the verdict. The udge then discharges the ury Irom the case.
TASK 9T. Ba&a0&a$e te 2*ll*%)#+ %*&d$ a#d e!0&e$$)*#$ a#d e!0la)# te)& 3ea#)#+$.
, lawyers Ior each side;
- intend to prove;
- to testiIy:
- improper obections;
- it'sup to the udge;
- valid or invalid;
- to sustain the obection;
- to Iavour one oI the sides;
- to summarie the case;
- the ury retires;
- sensible and orderly Iashion.
TASK 99. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
1. What is the diIIerence between the court reporter and the clerk?
2. What are the bailiIIs duties?
3. What are the steps oI a trial?
4. How is ury selected?
5. DeIine the word EnDUEC5E. What can not be considered evidence?
6. Can you give eamples oI physical ehibits?
7. What can you tell about l?JE5TDlCSHZ
8. What can you tell about DCSTR@5TDlCS]
S. Who presents 5PlSDC> AR>@1ECTS]
10. What have you learned a8*(t J@Ro UEPD?ERATDlCS]
TASK 9". Read te te!t 7a&e2(ll; a#d 7*33e#t *# te adF)7e +)Fe# t* a(&*&$. ?e &ead; t* e!0la)# te &eleFa#7e *2
ea7 )te3.
E;`& 0)3 E;)`'& <;/ $%/;/&
During trial
1. DO arrive on time. The trial can not proceed until all urors are present. Do return to the
courtroom promptly aIter breaks and lunch.
2. DO pay close attention to witnesses. Concentrate both on what the witnesses say and on their
manner while testiIying. II you cannot hear what is being said, raise your hand and let the udge know.
3. DO keep an open mind all through the trial. DON'T Iorm an opinion on the case until you and the
other urors have conducted your deliberations. Remember that iI you make up your mind while listening to one
testimony, you may not be able to consider Iully and Iairly the testimony that comes later.
4. DO listen careIully to the instructions read by the udge immediately beIore the ury begins its
deliberations. Remember that it is your duty to accept what the udge says about the law to be applied to the case
you have heard. DON'T ignore the udge's instructions because you disagree about what the law is or ought to be.
5. DON'T try to guess what the udge thinks about the case. Remember that the udge's rulings do not
reIlect personal views.
6. DON'T talk about the case with anyone while the trial is going on, not even with other urors. It is
eually important that you do not allow other people to talk about the case in your presence, even a Iamily member.
7. DON' I talk to the lawyers, parties, or witnesses about anything. These people are not permitted to talk
to urors and may appear to ignore you outside the courtroom. Remember that they are not trying to be rude: they
are merely trying to avoid giving the impression that something unIair is going on.
8. DON'T try do discover evidence on your own. For eample, never go to the scene oI any event that is
part oI the case you are hearing. Remember that cases must be decided only on the basis oI evidence admitted in
9. DON'T let yourselI get any inIormation about the case Irom newspapers, television, radio,
or any other source. Remember that news reports do not always give accurate or complete inIormation. Even iI the
news about the trial is accurate, it cannot substitute Ior your own impressions about the case. II you should
accidentally hear outside inIormation about the case during trial, tell the bailiII about it in private.
10. DON'T take notes during the trial unless the udge gives you permission to do so.
11. DON'T attempt to ask witness any uestions. II you were to take part in asking uestions, it might be
hard Ior you to remain impartial. In addition, because you are not trained in the law, your uestions might not be
proper under the rules oI evidence. Most oI your uestions will be answered sooner or later in the course oI
uestioning by the lawyers.
12. DON'T epress your opinion about the case to other urors until deliberations begin. A person
who has epressed an opinion tends to pay attention only to evidence that supports it and to ignore evidence that
points the other way.
U(&)#+ del)8e&at)*#$
A. DO consult with the other urors beIore making up your mind about a verdict. Each uror must make up his or her
own mind, but only aIter impartial group consideration oI the evidence.
2. DO reason out diIIerences oI opinion between urors by means oI a complete and Iair discussion oI the evidence
and oI the udge's instructions.
DON'T lose your temper, try to bully other urors, or reIuse to listen to the opinions oI other urors.
3. DO reconsider your views in the light oI your deliberations, and change them iI you have become
convinced they are wrong. DON'T change your convictions about the importance or eIIect oI evidence, however,
ust because other urors disagree with you or so that the ury can decide on a
4. DON'T play cards, read, or engage in any other diversion.
5. DON'T mark or write on ehibits or otherwise change or inure them.
6. DON'T try to guess what might happen iI the case you have heard is appealed. Remember that courts oI
appeal deal only with legal uestions and will not change your verdict iI you decided the Iacts based on popular
and instructions.
7. DON'T cast lots or otherwise arrive at your verdict by chance, or the verdict will be illegal. It is also
illegal Ior a ury to determine the amounts decided on by each individual uror.
8. DON'T talk to anyone about your deliberations or about the verdict until the udge discharges the ury.
AIter discharge you may discuss the verdict and the deliberations with anyone to whom you wish to speak. DON'T
Ieel obligated to do so; no uror can be Iorced to talk without a court order DO be careIul about what you say to
others. You should not say or write anything that you would not be willing to state under oath.
TASK 9- .*&/ )# +&*(0$ 1a/e a l)$t *2 $eFe# 2al$e $tate3e#t$ *# %at a(&*&$ $*(ld a#d $*(ld# Ht d*. A&+(e ;*(&
*00*#e#t$H l)$t.
TASK D. P**/ at te$e $tate3e#t$ .at d* ;*( t)#/ *2 te3 a$ a 0*te#t)al a(&*&Z
KILL I 15 Jl>ST/F/f2>
m Nm
TASK " Read te te!t a#d d)$7($$ )t )# +&*(0
4-2 W%),&-62)' >-;%+3 L,' '-2 8/,62
National and local newspapers regularly print accounts oI legal cases, and uite oIten the stories they choose are
ones in which the punishment does not appear to Iit the crime. It is easy to read a paragraph about a criminal case
and to become outraged at the sentence passed by a udge. We have to remember that the short paragraph sums up a
complicated legal case which might have taken hours, days or even weeks oI court time, and that the udge knew a
lot more about the case than the casual newspaper reader. However, sentences and penalties vary widely Irom one
court to another. As every Iootball Ian knows, reIerees make mistakes, and the reIeree is much more likely to be
mistaken when his decision goes against one's own team.
TASK -. Read te te!t$ a#d d)$7($$ ea7 7a$e a00l;)#+ te '(e$t)*#$ 8el*%.
1. Was ustice done?
2. II you had been the udge, would you have given a diIIerent sentence?
3. Would you have chosen a lighter sentence, or a more
severe one?
4. How would you have Ielt iI you had been the victim oI the crime?
5. How would you have Ielt iI you had been the deIendant?
6. II you had been the udge, what other Iacts and circumstances would you have wanted to know?
In 1981 Marianne Bachmeir, Irom Lubeck, West Germany, was in court watching the trial oI laus Grabowski, who
had murdered her 7 year-old daughter. Grabowski had a history oI attacking children. During the trial, Frau
Bachmeir pulled a Beretta 22 pistol Irom her handbag and Iired eight bullets, si oI which hit Grabowski, killing
him. The deIence said she had bought the pistol with the intention oI committing suicide, but when she saw
Grabowski in court she drew the pistol and pulled the trigger. She was Iound not guilty oI murder, but was given si
years imprisonment Ior manslaughter. West German newspapers reIlected the opinion oI millions oI Germans that
she should have been Ireed, calling her "the avenging mother".
Bernard Lewis, a mirty-si-old man, while preparing dinner became involved in an argument with his drunken wiIe.
In a Iit oI a rage Lewis, using the kitchen kniIe with which he had been preparing the meal, stabbed and killed his
wiIe. He immediately called Ior assistance, and readily conIessed when the Iirst patrolman appeared on the scene
with the ambulance attendant. He pleaded guilty to manslaughter. The probation department's investigation
indicated that Lewis was a rigid individual who never drank, worked regularly, and had no previous criminal record.
His thirty-year-old deceased wiIe, and mother oI three children, was a "Iine girl" when sober but was Ireuently
drunk and on a number oI occasions when intoicated had leIt their small children unattended. AIter due
consideration oI the background oI the oIIence and especially oI the plight oI the three motherless youngsters, the
udge placed Lewis on probation so that he could work , support, and take care oI the children. On probation Lewis
adusted well, worked regularly, appeared to be devoted to the children, and a Iew years later was discharged as
"improved" Irom probation.
In 1952 two youths in Mitcham, London, decided to rob a dairy. They were Christopher Craig, aged 16, and Derek
William Bentley, 19. During the robbery they were disturbed by Sydney Miles, a policeman. Craig produced a gun a
killed the policeman. At that time Britain still had the death penalty Ior certain types oI-murder, including murder
during a robbery. Because Craig was under 18, he was sentenced to liIe imprisonment. Bently who had never
touched the gun, was over 18. He was hanged in 1953. The case was uoted by opponents oI capital punishment,
which was abolished in 1965.
In 1976 a drunk walked into a supermarket. When the manager asked him to leave, the drunk assaulted him,
knocking out a tooth. A policeman who arrived and tried to stop the Iight had his aw broken. The drunk was Iined
In June 1980 Lady Isabel Barnett, a well-known TV personality was convicted oI stealing a tin oI tuna Iish and a
carton oI cream, total value 87p, Irom a small shop. The case was given enormous publicity. She was Iined 75 and
had to pay 200 towards the cost oI the case. A Iew days later she killed herselI.
This is an eample oI a civil case rather than a criminal one. A man had taken out an insurance policy oI 100,000
on his liIe. The policy was due to epire at 3 o'clock on a certain day. The man was in serious Iinancial diIIiculties,
and at 2.30 on the epire day he consulted his solicitor. He then went out and called a tai. He asked the driver to
make a note oI the time, 2.50. He then shot himselI. Suicide used not to cancel an insurance policy automatically. It
does nowadays. The company reIused to pay the man's wiIe, and the courts supported them.
LANGUAGE ACTVTES Lady Wyatt Accused of Shop-Lifting
TASK 9. Read te l)$t *2 7a&a7te&$ )#F*lFed )# te 7a$e *2 $*0,l)2t)#+. 5**$e *#e 2*& ;*(&$el2.
Pad; .;att 1& ?ell
S)& UaF)d .)lt*# U& S*a3e$ 1& >&ee# 1)$$ T*ad
Te 0&*$e7(t*& Te de2e#7e
, the accused, a rich and unbalanced woman.
- the store detective, a real nosey parker.
- an old Iriend oI lady Wyatt, ust a gentlemen.
- lady Wyatt's Iamily doctor, a very secretive personality, -the store manager, very ineperienced.
- shop assistant, a dangerous miture oI chatterbo and scatterbrain.
TASK". Read Pad; .;attH$ %&)tte# a77*(#t a#d te $t*&e dete7t)FeH$ &e0*&t. B&e$e#t te3 ($)#+ te 7*l*(& )d)*3$.
Pad; .;att6 On Wednesday morning I went to Hall's Department Store to do some shopping and to meet a Iriend
Ior lunch. In the Ladies Fashion Department I bought a belt and a bag and paid Ior them. As I was waiting Ior the liIt
to go up to the RooItop CoIIee Lounge, I saw a silk scarI that I liked. I tried it on and decided to buy it. I looked
around Ior an assistant to pay but couldn't see anybody. The liIt came and as I was late Ior my appointment, I put the
scarI with my other purchases, intending to pay Ior it later on my way out. UnIortunately, I Iorgot to pay and was
stopped at the door by the store detective who asked me to go to the manager's oIIice where I was accused oI having
stolen the scarI. It's uite ridiculous. I simply Iorgot to pay.
1&.?ell6 I was on duty on the second Iloor when I observed Lady Wyatt trying on a scarI. She looked at herselI in
the mirror, looked round several times and then
put the scarI in her bag. She then went up in the liIt to the top Iloor caIe where she met a man. I kept up my
observation and when they leIt together, I Iollowed them to the door. She had made no attempt to pay so I stopped
her and asked her to accompany me to the manager's oIIice. She become abusive and reIused to go with me until a
policeman arrived on the scene.
Colour Idioms. 1at7 te )d)*3$ *# te le2t %)t te)& de2)#)t)*#$ *# te
a to catch sb. red-handed
b to see red
c to appear out oI the blue
d in the black and white
e in the red
1. broke, having no money
2. Irom nowhere, unepectedly
3. To catch sb. during his committing a crime
4. get terribly angry
5. in a very clear way
TASK -. P)$te# t* Pad; .;att 8e)#+ 7&*$$,e!a3)#ed, 2)&$t 8; te B&*$e7(t)*#, a#d te# 8; te Ue2e#7e. A#$%e& te
'(e$t)*#$. Prosecution's cross-eamination:
1. What did she say she had intended to do?
2. Why hadn't she done it?
3. Why didn't she spend more time looking Ior an assistant?
4. Is she usually punctual?
5. How long had she been taking the pills?
6. Had she ever suIIered Irom loss oI memory?
7. Had she ever stolen anything?
DeIence's cross-eamination:
1 .How wealthy is she?
2. Does she need to work?
3. Is she a regular customer?
4. How much does she spend there a year?
5. What would she have done iI she hadn't been caught?
TASK 4. Read te &e0*&t$ 8a$ed *# te eF)de#7e +)Fe# 8;6
UaF)d .)lt*#H$ eF)de#7e <&e0*&t=
David Wilton said that he was an old Iriend oI Lady Wyatt and that he had been the Wyatt Iamily's accountant Ior
Iourteen years. He had arranged to meet Lady Wyatt Ior lunch at 12 o'clock to discuss some Iamily business. He
said that he had not noticed anything unusual about Lady Wyatt's behaviour ecept that twice during lunch she had
taken a pill. He added that he did not know what the pill was Ior and had not asked. He stated that he was astonished
that anyone could think that Lady Wyatt might steal as she was a very wealthy woman who could aIIord to buy
anything she wanted.
Te d*7t*&H$ eF)de#7e <&e0*&t=
Soames, the Wyatt Iamily doctor, stated that he had been prescribing pills Ior Lady Wyatt Ior some time. She had
been suIIering Irom regular bouts oI depression. He said that a side-eIIect oI the pill could cause erratic or unusual
behaviour though he knew oI no case where moral udgement had been aIIected.
Te $t*&e 3a#a+e&H$ eF)de#7e <&e0*&t=
The store manager said that he did not know Lady Wyatt as a regular customer because he had only been in his
present ob Ior two weeks. He said that the store lost hundreds oI pounds worth oI goods every week which was why
he had appointed a store detective in whom he had the greatest conIidence. He added that it was not only the poorer
members oI the community who resorted to shop-liIting.
Te $*0 a$$)$ta#tH$ eF)de#7e <&e0*&t=
The shop assistant said that she had worked at HalFs Ior seven years and knew Lady Wyatt as a regular customer.
On Wednesday morning Lady Wyatt had bought a belt and handbag and had paid by cheue. She said that Lady
Wyatt had behaved uite normally. She said that she hadn't seen Lady Wyatt trying on the scarI as the scarI counter
was on the opposite side oI the store. She added that there had been two assistants on duty that morning and that
neither oI them had leIt the department.
TASK V. Read t&*(+ te 2*(& &e0*&t$ a+a)#. R*le,0la; B&*$e7(t)*#, UeXe#7e a#d .)t#e$$. T&; t* &e7&eate te
$7e#e *2 0&e$e#tat)*# *2 eF)de#7e a#d 7&*$$,e!a3 )#at)*#.
TASK M. .*&/ )# +&*(0$ o*( a&e te a(&;. A00*)#t a 7a)&3a# t* &e0*&t 8a7/ t* te a(d+e. o*( aFe t* 8&)#+ )# te
Fe&d)7t *2 L>()lt;L *& LC*t >()lt;L.
TASK D. :)ll )# te +a0$.
1. A uror should keep an open all through the trial. 2. You
become a potential uror aIter your name is selected Irom voters
registration .3. A crime oI graver nature than a misdemeanour is a
.4. Tosb. means to Iind a person not guilty in a trial. 5. Civil
cases are usually disputed between or among , corporations or other
organiations. 6. TheoI ury doesn't need to bein civil cases.
7.The keeps track oI all documents and ehibits in trial being the
udge's assistant. 8. The ob oI a uror is to listen to and to
decide. 9. One who is engaged in a lawsuit is called a. 10. Process
by which a lawyer uestions a witness called to testiIy by the other side is
. .11. "" is a phrase meaning "to speak the truth". 12. A uror
should not be inIluenced by sympathy or . 13. Amay sue a
Ior Iailure to pay rent. 14. A uror should not epress histo
other urors beIore
criminal oIIence is a and be
begin. 15. Formal accusation oI having committed a
. 16. To be a good uror you should use your
17. The third stage oI a trial is . 18. When a
has been reached the udge
the ury Irom the case. 19. A
member oI ury panel mustpromising to answer all uestions truthIully.
20. To be eligible, you must: 1. be , 2. , 3. able to
, 4. and iI you ever , you must have your
.21. Working hours oI the ury may be varied to
witnesses coming Irom out oI town. 22. Compromise agreement by opposing parties, eliminating the need Ior the
udge to resolve the controversy is called . 23. Trier oI Iacts is aor, in a non-ury trial - a. 24. People
who don't meet certain
may be
Irom ury service. 25. The
helps to keep the trial running smoothly. The ury is in his custody.
TASK ". :)ll )# te +a0$.
1. When hearing thethe uror must take into account the
oI a witness, i.e. his ability to . 2. Lawyers each side are
allowed towhen they consider sth. done improper under theoI
evidence. 3. Attorne who represents the deIendant is a.4. is
any statement made by a witness under
in legal proceedings. 5.
means that the lawyer doesn't have to state a
ecused. 6. The party bringing the suit is called a
disputes what thehas said in the paper called
testimony can be either oral, or. 9. The IiIth step oI a trial is
Ior asking the uror to be
. 7. The deIendant
. 8. The Iorms oI
, when the lawyers
10. The lawsuit is started by deIendant's innocence is
the case Irom their,
ing a paper called a
oI view. 11. The
unless he is proved. 12. It is
to udge to decide whether eachis valid or.13. Following the
oI all the evidence, the udgeto the urors on the laws that are to
guide them in theiron a. 14. Acase is brought by the
state or the city against a person or persons accused oIa crime. 15. In
cases people who have beenmay sue a person or a company
they Ieel is responsible Ior. 16. II the deIendant hasnot guilty,
the prosecution must prove his guilt to overcome the . 17. II the
obection was not valid, the udge will deIendant in opposition to that oI a
it. 18. Claim presented by a
is called
. 19. The
is conducted in
elected by the ury should provide that
20.is a reuest by a party to ecuse a speciIic uror Ior some reason.
21. Thein trial decides the law, i.e. makes decisions on legal.
22. Unlike challenges Ior cause the number oIchallenges is.
23. Most oIten in civil cases the party bringing theis asking Ior money
. 24. The plaintiIIsis greater in a criminal case than in a civil
case. 25. II the obection is valid, the udge will
way and my teacher is, I will get a/an
it. 26. II I work in a mark
Just for Fun
A ury consists oI twelve persons chosen to decide who has the better
"You seem to be in some distress," said the udge to the witness. "Is anything wrong?"
"Well, your Honour," said the witness, "I swore to tell the truth and
nothing but the truth, but every time I try, some lawyer obects"
A man had been convicted oI theIt on circumstantial evidence. When the case was sent Ior appeal, he revealed to his
lawyer that he had been in prison at the time oI the crime committed. "Good Heavens, man" said the lawyer. "Why
on earth didn't you reveal that Iact at the trial?"
"Well," said the man, "I thought it might preudice the ury against me."
A man accused oI stealing a watch was acuitted on insuIIicient evidence. Outside the courtroom he approached his
lawyer and said, "What does that mean - acuitted?"
"It means," said the lawyer, "that the court has Iound you innocent. You are Iree to go."
"Does it mean I can keep he watch?" asked the client.
First uror: "We shouldn't be here very long. One look at those two Iellows convinces me that they are guilty."
Second uror: "Not so loud, you Iool That's counsel Ior the prosecution and counsel Ior deIence"
acuit v - to Iind a deIendant not guilty in a criminal trial. action n - proceeding taken in a court oI law; also case,
suit, lawsuit, aIIidavit n - a written or printed declaration or statement under oath. answer n - a Iormal answer to a
complaint, in which the deIendant
admits or denies what is said in the complaint. bailiII n - a court employee who among other things maintains
order in
the courtroom and is responsible Ior custody oI the ury. burden oI prooI n - measure oI prooI reuired to prove a
Obligation oI a party to prove Iacts at issue in the trial oI a case. case n - any proceeding, action, cause, lawsuit or
controversy initiated
through the court system by Iiling a complaint, petition, indictment or
cause oI action n - a legal claim. challenge Ior cause n - a reuest by a party that the court ecuse a
speciIic uror on the basis that the uror is biased. chambers n - a udge's private oIIice.
charge n - Iormal accusation oI having committed a criminal oIIence. claim n - the assertion oI a right to money
or property. clerk oI court n - an oIIicer oI the court whose principal duty is to
maintain court records and preserve evidence presented during a trial. closing argument n - the closing statement,
by counsel, to the trier oI
Iacts aIter all parties have concluded their presentation oI evidence. complainant n - one who makes a complaint.
Same as "plaintiII. complaint n - 1. crim. Iormal written charge that a person has
committed a criminal oIIence. 2.civ. initial document entered by the
plaintiII which states the claim against the deIendant.
coiTvict v - to Iind a person guilty oI a charge. convict n - one who has been Iound guilty oI a crime or
misdemeanour; usually reIerred to convicted Ielons or prisoners in
- 7*#F)7t)*#. counterclaim n - claim presented by a deIendant in opposition to, or
deduction Irom, the claim oI the plaintiII. court reporter n - person who records and transcribes the verbatim
testimony and all other oral statements made during court sessions. cross-eamination n - process by which a
lawyer uestions a witness
called to testiIy by the other side in the case. damages n - compensation recovered in the courts by a person who
suIIered loss, detriment, or inury to his person, property oI rights,
through the unlawIul act or negligence oI another. deIendant n - 1. crim. person charged with a crime. 2.civ.
person or
entity against whom a civil action is brought. deIence attorney n - attorney who represents the deIendant.
deposition n - sworn testimony taken and recorded in an authoried
place outside the courtroom according to the rules oI the court. direct eamination n - process by which a lawyer
uestions a witness
called to testiIy by his side in the case. evidence n - any Iorm oI prooI legally presented at a trial through
witnesses, records, documents, etc. See epert evidence, eception n - a Iormal obection by one oI the lawyers to
said or done by the udge, such as reIusing to allow a uestion to be
asked. ehibit n - paper, document or other physical obect received by the
court as evidence during a trial or hearing. epert evidence n - testimony given by those ualiIied to speak with
authority regarding scientiIic, technical or proIessional matters. Ielony n - a crime oI graver nature than a
,2el*# n. hearsay n - evidence based on what the witness'has heard someone
else say rather than what the witness has personally eperienced or
observed. impeachment oI a witness n - an attack on the credibility oI a witness
by the testimony oI other witnesses inadmissible ad - that which, under the established rules oI evidence
cannot be admitted or received. indictment n - written accusation oI a grand ury, charging that a
person or business committed a crime.
inIormation n - an accusation Ior some criminal oIIence, in the nature
oI an indictment, but which is presented by a competent public oIIicer
instead oI a grand ury. instruction n - direction given by a udge to the ury regarding the
applicable law in a given case. uror n - member oI a ury. ury n - speciIic number oI people usually si or
twelve, selected as
prescribed by law to render a decision verdict in a trial. See trier oI
Iact, leading uestion n - one which suggests to a witness the answer
desired. Prohibited on direct eamination. litigant n - one who is engaged in a lawsuit. litigation n - contest in
court, a lawsuit. misdemeanour n - criminal oIIences less than Ielonies; generally those
punishable by Iine or imprisonment oI less than 90 days in a local
Iacility. A gross misdemeanour is a criminal oIIence Ior which an
adult could be sent to ail Ior up to one year, pay a Iine oI up to
1,000, or both. manslaughter n - See Ch. V motion n - oral or written reuest made by a party to an action
during or aIter a trial upon which a court issues a ruling or order. obection n - statement by an attorney taking
eception to testimony or
the attempted consideration as evidence.
overrule n - court's denial oI any motion or point raised to the court. parties n - persons, corporations, or
associations who have commenced
a law suit or who are deIendants. peremptory challenge n - procedure which parties in an action may
use to reect prospective urors without giving a reason. Each side is
allowed a limited number oI such challenges. perury n - making intentionally Ialse statements under oath. Perury
a criminal oIIence. plaintiII n - the party who begins an action, the party who complains or
sues in an action and is named as such in the court's records. Also
called a petitioner. plea n - a deIendant's oIIicial statement oI "guilty" or "not guilty" to
the charges made against him. pleadings n - Iormal written allegations by the parties oI their
respective claims. polling the ury n - a practice whereby urors are asked individually
whether they agreed, and still agree, with the verdict preponderance oI evidence n - the general standard oI prooI
in civil
cases. The weight oI evidence presented by one side is more
convincing to the trier oI Iacts than the evidence presented by the
opposing side. [/;Y0Y+2 :0%&2 n - reasonable cause: having more evidence Ior than
against, a reasonable belieI that a crime has or is being committed; the
basis Ior all lawIul searches, seiures and arrests. [/;&2:%',;) n - 1. act oI pursuing a lawsuit or criminal trial. 2.
party that initiates a criminal case. [/;&2:%';/ n - the public oIIicer in each county who is a lawyer and
who represents the interests oI the state in criminal trials and the
county in all legal matters involving the county in criminal cases; the
prosecutor has the responsibility oI deciding who and when to
prosecute. Also known as prosecuting attorney. /20&;)0Y+2 3;%Y' n - an accused person is entitled to acuittal iI,
in the
minds oI the ury, his guilt has not been proved beyond a "reasonable
doubt"; that state oI the minds oI urors in which they cannot say they
Ieel an abiding conviction as to the truth oI the charge. /2Y%''0+ n - the introduction oI contradicting or opposing
showing that what witnesses said occurred is not true; the stage oI a
trial at which such evidence may be introduced. /23,/2:' 2X06,)0',;) n - Iollows cross-eamination and is carried
by the party who produced and Iirst eamined the witness. /2[+5 n - pleading by the plaintiII in response to the
deIendant's written
answer. &20/:- 0)3 &2,U%/2H %)/20&;)0Y+2 n - in general, an eamination
without authority oI law oI one's premises or person Ior the purpose
oI guilt to be used in prosecuting a crime. &20/:- V0//0)' n - a written order, issued by a udge or magistrate in
the name oI the state, directing a law enIorcement oIIicer to search a
speciIic house or other place Ior speciIic things or persons. Usually
reuired as a condition Ior a legal search and seiure. settlement n - 1. conclusion oI a legal matter. 2. compromise
agreement by opposing parties in a civil suit beIore udgement is
made, eliminating the need Ior the udge to resolve the controversy. &%,' n - any court proceeding in which an
individual seeks a decision.
See :0&2H '2&',6;)5 n - any statement made by a witness under oath in a legal
proceeding. ';/' n - an inury or wrong committed, with or without Iorce, to the
person or property oI another, which gives rise to a claim Ior
damages. '/0)&:/,[' n - the oIIicial record oI proceedings in a trial oI hearing,
which is kept by the clerk.
'/,0+ n - the presentation oI evidence in court to a trier oI Iacts who applies the applicable law to those Iacts and
then decides the case.
'/,2/ ;< <0:'& n - the ury or, in a non-ury trial, the udge.
92/3,:' n - Iormal decision made by a trier oI Iacts.
V,')2&& n - person who testiIies under oath beIore a court or in a deposition regarding what was seen, heard or
otherwise observed.
Chapter V
Crime and Punishment
Unit I. Crime.........................................................................................128
Unit II. Punishment...............................................................................131
Unit III. A Policeman and the Criminal World..................................135
Unit IV. The World oI Crime...............................................................143
Unit V. Language Activities. Let's Do Justice.....................................151
Just Ior Fun...........................................................................................158
CRIME TASK 9. Read te te!t, 7*#$(lt)#+ te +l*$$a&; %e&e #e7e$$a&;.
The abolition oI capital punishment in England in November 1965 was welcomed by most people with humane and
progressive ideas. To them it seemed a departure Irom Ieudalism, Irom the cruel pre-Christian spirit oI revenge: an
eye Ior an eye and a tooth Ior a tooth
Many oI these people think diIIerently now. Three unarmed policemen have been killed in London by bandits who
shot them down in cold blood. This crime has drawn attention to the Iact that since the abolition oI capital
punishment crime - and especially murder - has been on increase throughout Britain. Today, thereIore, public
opinion in Britain has changed. People who beIore, also in Parliament, stated that capital punishment was not a
deterrent to murder - Ior there have always been murders in all countries with or without the law oI eecution - now
Ieel that killing the assassin is the lesser oI two evils. Capital punishment, they think, may not be the ideal answer,
but it is better than nothing, especially when, as in England, a sentence oI "liIelong" imprisonment a liIe sentence,
as it is called only lasts eight or nine years.
All this is very controversial. And all the arguments Ior and against can be reIuted in practice. The problem remains
- the problem oI how to prevent murders. Some murders are committed by criminals evading arrest, by insane or
mentally disturbed people, by cold-blooded sadists completely devoid oI all human Ieelings. The important thing in
the prevention oI murder is to eliminate as Iar as possible the weapons and instruments, the guns and knives, with
which these crimes are committed, and Iuthermore to stop the dangerous inIluence oI violence in books, Iilms,
television and other mass media, Irom which so many criminals derive their "inspiration".
TASK " .*&/ +&*(0$. 1a/e a l)$t *2 a&+(3e#t$ 2*& a#d a+a)#$t te 2*ll*%)#+ $tate3e#t$ q . Mild sentences are a
sign oI a civilied society.
2. Capital punishment is not a deterrent to murder.
3. Armed policemen can perIorm their duties better.
4. Scenes oI violence in Iilms encourage crime.
5. Legalied selling oI Iirearms stimulates murder.
6. Legalied selling oI Iirearms ensures security.
7. The instinct to kill is basic to human nature.
TASK -. Read te te!t
8/,62 ,) F/20' ./,'0,)

About 90 per cent oI all crimes are dealt with by Magistrates' courts. Sentences that is, the punishments decided by
the court vary a lot but most people who are Iound guilty have to pay'a Iine. Magistrates' courts can impose , Iines
oI up to 2,000 or prison sentences oI up to si months. II the punishment is to be more severe the case must go to a
Crown Court vThe most severe punishment is liIe imprisonment: there has been no death penalty in Britain since
1965. , `
The level oI recorded crime and the number oI people sent to prison both increased during the 1970s and 1980s. By
the end oI that period the average prison population was more than 50,000 and new prisons had to be built as
overcrowding had become a serious problem. By 1988 the cost oI keeping"` someone in prison was over 250 per
week, which was more than the national average wage. AO
TASK 4. :)#d )# te te!t te E#+l)$ e'()Fale#t$ 2*& te 2*ll*%)#+ e!0&e$$)*#$.
G V - nn; ` , - ;
b - x ; - nx mu; C - ; V - n ; ` -
x - m; ` - nn m ;
; - m; 1 - n;
4-2 >%/925 ;< 8/,62&
. 1at7 te %*&d$ 2&*3 te 8*! %)t te de2)#)t)*#$ 8el*%.
drug smuggling;
Iraud; arson; theIt.
a they broke the window oI his car and stole the radio;
b they sold paintings that they knew weren't genuine masterpieces;
c they illegally carried drugs into another country;
d they held a pistol at the pilot's head and he had to do what they said;
e they set Iire to the hotel;
I they took some things oII the shelves and leIt the supermarket without paying Ior them;
g they took away the rich man's son and asked him Ior a lot oI money; h they hit the man on the head as he
was walking along the street, and stole all his money and credit cards;
i they took her purse out oI her handbag as she was standing on the crowded platIorm waiting Ior the train.
TASK M. P**/ at t)$ l)$t *2 L7&)3e$ L. T&; a#d &ate ea7 7&)3e *# a $7ale 2&*3 9 t* 9T. <D )$ a 3)#*& 3)$de3ea#*(&,
9T )$ a Fe&; $e&)*($ 7&)3e=. Te; a&e )# #* *&de&.
, driving in ecess oI the speed limit;
- common assault e.g. a Iight in a disco-club; I - drinking and driving;
- malicious wounding e.g. stabbing someone in a Iight;
- murdering a policeman during a robbery;
- murdering a child;
- causing death by dangerous driving;
- smoking mariuanna;
- selling drugs such as heroin;
- stealing 1,000 Irom a bank, by Iraud;
- stealing 1,000 worth oI goods Irom someone's home;
- rape;
- grievous bodily harm almost killing someone;
- shop-liIting;
- stealing 1,000 Irom a bank, by threatening someone with a gun;
- possession oI a gun without a licence;
- homicide.
4-2 W%/[;&2 ;< >'0'2 W%),&-62)'
TASK 9. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
1. What does "The State Punishment" mean?
2. What kinds oI punishment do you know?
3. How do you understand the purpose oI State Punishment?
4. How should the punishment be organied?
TASK ". 1a/e a l)$t *2 )dea$ a#d 0&*0*$al$ *# te t*0)7 *2 State B(#)$3e#t. S(00le3e#t ;*(& l)$t %)t te )dea$
;*( ea& )# 7la$$.
TASK -. 5*30lete te 2*ll*%)#+ te!t %)t te %*&d$ *& 0&a$e$ 2&*3 te 8*!, ($)#+ te3 )# te a00&*0&)ate 2*&3.
wrongdoer; deterrent; law-abiding;
misdeeds; reIorm; crime doesn't pay;
barbaric; retribution; corporal punishment;
humane; rehabilitate; death penalty.
What is the purpose oI punishment? One purpose is obviously to
athe oIIender, to correct the oIIender's moral attitudes and anti-social
him or her, which means to assist the oIIender to
behaviour and to b
return to normal liIe as a useIul member oI the community. Punishment can also
be seen as a cbecause it warns other people oI what will happen iI
they are tempted to break the law and so prevetIs them ,Irom d*)#+2 so. , However, a third purpose oI punishment
ievperhaps` in sdciety s desire Ior ` d, which basically means revenge. In other words, don't we Ieel that
2Gt r, , 99
be cotisidere
punishmentdIit the crim I, . t cc`-. . / their own property ,to e.
For those who subect to the
/.*?1' ` e\OH
automatically receive .

IIer Ior his I

? The Iorm oI punishment should also 'n the one hand, some .believe ihat we should "make the
xH=. ,O Mfw`y .S. %
% ! "#$ z{
Those who siealatrom others should be deprived oI
IrevtW criminalsare leIt in no doub` that g.
lers hshould be used/MuraeIe*rsJ snould be
"an eye Ior an eye and a tooth Ior a tooth'r`and
i. On the other hand, it is said that such viewiP
d and that we should show a more
are unreasonable,
kattitude to punishment and try to understand why a person commits a
crime and how society has Iailed to enable him to live a respectable, 1
W2)0+',2& ,) ()*+0)3
TASK 4. Read te te!t a#d e!a3)#e te 7a&t.
In England there are no minimum sentences, ecept Ior murder, which carries a penalty oI liIe imprisonment. There
are maimum sentences Ior other crimes. Crimes are Iirst heard by a magistrate who can either pass sentence, or
reIer the crime to a Crown Court with a udge and ury. Here are maimum sentences Ior some crimes. Sentences
can be reduced Ior good behaviour, oIten by one-third or more. "LiIe sentences" are rarely more than 14 years, and
it would be possible to release prisoners aIter 7 years.
Crime Magistrates' Court Crown Court
Fine Prison Fine Prison
Burglary 1000 6 months unlimited 14 years
Grievous bodily harm 1000 6 months unlimited 5 years
Possession oI Iirearm 1000 6 months unlimited 5 years
Possession oI cannabis 500 3 months unlimited 5 years
Common assault 200 2 months
"Going euipped Ior
1000 6 months unlimited 3 years
Murder liIe imprisonment
TASK V. Te$e a&e te +e#e&al t;0e$ *2 0(#)$3e#t )# E#+la#d >)Fe a R($$)a# e'()Fale#t 2*& ea7 *2 te3. .)7
*2 te$e 0(#)$3e#t$ e!)$t )# ;*(& 7*(#t&;Z U)$7($$ t)$ )# ;*(& +&*(0.
Su%&en'e' %entence%( the oIIender does not go to prison unless he or she commits another oIIence;
)r*+ati*n$ normal liIe at home, but under supervision;
,*ut- cu%t*'. in %&ecial centre% f*r .*ung a'ult%/ S-*rt 'i%ci&linar. training in a 'etenti*n centre/ 0*mmunit.
%er1ice$ decorating old people's houses, etc.; 0*m&en%ati*n$ paying, or working Ior, one's victim; Fine%$ the
punishment in 80 per cent oI cases; Di%2ualificati*n fr*m 'ri1ing/ Fixe' &enalt. fine%$ especially Ior parking
TASK M .*&/ )# 0a)&$ a#d d)$7($$ te 2*ll*%)#+.
9. .)7 0(#)$3e#t d* ;*( t)#/ )$ a00&*0&)ate 2*& ea7 *2 te 2*ll*%)#+ 7&)3e$Z
a murder oI a policeman;
b vandaliing a'telephone bo;
c drinking and driving, without causing an accident;
d robbing a supermarket with a gun;
e stealing goods Irom a shop "shop-liIting";
I parking a car illegally.
". 1at7 te$e a7t(al $e#te#7e$ 2&*3 ?&)t)$ 7*(&t$ %)t te 7&)3e$ )# '(e$t)*# 9.
a Iive to ten years in prison;
b a small Iied penalty Iine;
c liIe imprisonmIint; `
d a 400 IineEb
e a 200 Iine amrclisualiIication Irom driving;
I 100 hours oI community service.
-. T(&# t* te l)$t *2 7&)3e$ <$ee Lte $(&Fe; *2 7&)3e$L Ta$/ M=. T&; t* 2)#d te 0&*0e& 0e#alt)e$ 2*&
t*$e 7&)3e$. U)$7($$ %)7 *2 ;*( )$ te a&$e&
R a(d+eZ
TASK Q. .*&/ )# +&*(0$ a#d 2)#d $)! a&+(3e#t$ 2*& a#d a+a)#$t te deat 0e#alt;. D# te d)$7($$)*#, ($e te
2*ll*%)#+ 2*&3$ *2 a+&ee3e#t a#d d)$a+&ee3e#t6
, Eactly
- That's it
- By no means -Nothing oI the kind
- Just so
- You don't say so
- You bet
I uite agree
That's right
I don't think it's uite right... I disagree. Absolutely wrong Rubbish
TASK R. Ce%$0a0e& d)$7($$)*#
a= Read t)$ a&t)7le a#d 2)#d $;#*#;3$ 2*& te 2*ll*%)#+ e!0&e$$)*#$ 2&*3 te te!t.
- burst into tears;
- respectable;
- shop-liIting;
- youngster;
,. Pt4
- IhghI -
8= Tell t)$ $t*&; a$ )2 ;*( %e&e6
, Samantha;
- store detective;
- police oIIicer.
!2ef off i3itli n caution
Fourteen year/old Samantha was lucky this time. Caught by a store detective with a bottle of hair
conditioner, eye-lash dye, and a copy of Young Generation hidden in her bag, she found herself in a van
being driven to the police station. |Even more upset than Samantha was her Mum. She was as white as a
sheet when she went to collect Samantha from police station, and burst into tears.
Samantha says, " was lucky. Two policemen came and looked at my home, which is very middle class
and respectable. think that's why they let me off. They even asked to see my school books."
After two years of regular shoplifting, Samantha has decided to go straight from now on She says she did
it mostly out of boredom, and not to impress her friends as a tot of youngsters do. But she feels she's
grown out of it after the fright she got the other day, and has decided to took for other interests.
sTe EFe#)#+ B*$tq
TASK S. T&a#$late t)$ a&t)7le )#t* R($$)a#. .&)te a l)$t *2 3ea$(&e$ tat a $t*&e *%#e& $*(ld ta/e t* 0&eFe#t $*0,
Big London stores do not like Discussing changing patterns in shoplifting, presumably for fear of alarming
their customers. One store says it never reveals information about customers or staff. Another says it
does not keep records of violent incidents relating to shop-lifting and is
unable to comment. However, security officers in some of the stores have revealed that violence has
become increasingly common when dealing with shop-lifters.
The security officer of one London branch stores has been assaulted six times by shop-lifters,
uffering a broken nose and a dislocated jaw in separate incidents. He says that if you go after the gangs,
they go after you. Sometimes, you can recover the goods, but usually the gangs are too welt-organized to
around until the police get to the scene. This kind of incident is definitely on the increase. An efficient
deterrent must be found. [The Daily Record]
TASK 9. Read te te!t a#d a#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$ 8el*%.
On tape that Iollows we speak to a Superintendent oI Police. That is a very high position. He is responsible Ior the
direction oI the police in a very large area. He tells us about his Ieelings towards various types oI criminals. He
describes his reactions to the terrible case in London in 1966 when three policemen were all shot dead at the same
time. British policemen are not normally armed. He tells us how he and other policemen Ieel about this and also
what happens when the police catch a man who has killed another policeman. Finally he describes what happened
when he had to Iace a violent dangerous man.
1. What is the Superintendent responsible Ior?
2. What does he describe?
TASK ". 1at7 ea7 %*&d a#d 0&a$e *# te le2t %)t te 7*&&e7t de2)#)t)*# *# te &)+t
a part and parcel oI
b aIIinity with
c a hard-core minority
d they have a sneaking regard Ior them
1. they almost like them even though they Ieel they shouldn't
2. a small number oI very "hard" cases
3. a basic part oI
4. a Ieeling oI very close sympathy
TASK -. P)$te# t* 0a&t 9 *2 te ta0e 1a/e #*te$ %)le ;*( a&e l)$te#)#+ t* 8e a8le t* a#$%e& te 2*ll*%)#+ '(e$t)*#$
*' The Superintendent mentions a criminal who "has become part and parcel" oI the station. How has this happened?
2. What do you think he means when he says this criminal is "always in"?
3. What does he Ieel towards this type oI criminal?
4. Who is "Old Fred". Say what he does, when, and why.
5. What does the Superintendent mean by "the other end oI the scale"?
6. How does he describe the second type oI criminal and how does he Ieel towards them?
TASK 4. T&a#$2*&3 te $e#te#7e$ a77*&d)#+ t* te 3*del
MODEL: There are criminals. Policemen have a sneaking regard Ior
There are criminals %* policemen have a sneaking regard Ior.
a Old Fred is a man. The Superintendent has an aIIinity with him.
b There are some criminals. The police get on well with them.
c There are others. The police have a special hatred Ior them.
d These are the children. You have to take care oI them.
e This is the man. You ought to pay the money to him.
MODEL: He's been caught many times. He's become part and parcel oI
the station.
He's been caught $* many times tat he's become part and parcel oI the
a He's been in many prisons. He knows them all.
b The police meet many people. They can tell when someone is lying.
c He's been beIore the Magistrates many times. They recognie him immediately.
d Old Fred has been in prison many times. He does not know how to live outside, aG
e He's lived in-many countries.-He has made Iriends all over the world.
TASKS .*&/ +&*(0$ B&e0a&e ;*(& a&+(3e#t$ 2*& te '(e$t)*#$ 8el*%.
1. Why do you think the Superintendent has an aIIinity with some types oI criminal and not
with others.
2. What makes "Old Fred" preIer to go to prison than stay outside?
TASK M. P)$te# te Ba&t " *2 te ta0e.
In 1967 three policemen were shot dead at the same time one aIternoon. The Superintendent describes his reactions
and also what happens when they catch the men who do such things.
TASK 7 1at7 ea7 %*&d *& 0&a$e *# te le2t %)t te 7*&&e7t de2)#)t)*# *# te &)+t.
a sheer anguish
b on this sale
c bend over backwards
d scrutiny
e Iair
I ordinary
1. non eceptional, commonplace
2. close inspection
3. Iree Irom selI-interest, honest
4. etreme mental pain and unhappiness
5. to be so careIul and considerate that it is almost ridiculous .
6. here, "so many"
TASK R. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$
1. Why was he shocked when the policemen were killed?
2. Had policemen ever been shot beIore? What eactly is said about this?
3. What do the police do when they catch a man who has killed a policeman?
4. Why do they do this?
TASK S T&a#$2*&3 te $e#te#7e$ a77*&d)#+ t* te 3*del.
MODEL: My Iirst reaction %a$ *#e o/sheer anguish, <2)&$t )30&e$$)*#X dee0 de$0a)&= My Iirst impression %a$ *#e
o/deep despair.
a Iirst reaction/proIound shock
b net Ieeling/complete amaement
c initial reaction/utter disbelieI
d main impression/deep bitterness
e Iinal reaction/sheer boredom
MODEL: This country had reached a stage... Its policemen could be
This country had reached a $ta+e %e&e its policemen could be shot.
a He reached a stage. He ust couldn't go on running.
b He didn't want to reach a stage. He might lose his temper.
c The world may reach a stage. There won't be enough Iood.
d Work hard and your English will reach a stage. It will be perIect.
e Britain may reach a stage. Its policemen will carry guns.
I Education in Britain has reached a stage. More money will have to be spent.
TASK 9T. .*&/ )# 0a)&$ a#d d)$7($$ te 2*ll*%)#+.
1. What do you think should be done with people who kill a
Discuss reasons Ior:
a putting them in prison, possibly Ior liIe;
b eecuting them.
2. How would you react iI you were the policeman who arrested a man who had killed another policeman? What
would you want to do? Why?
TASK 99. P)$te# t* Ba&t - *2 te ta0e.
British policemen are not normally armed. That is, they do not carry guns. The Superintendent describes how
policemen Ieel about this.
TASK 9". 1at7 ea7 %*&d *& e!0&e$$)*# *# te le2t %)t te 7*&&e7t de2)#)t)*# *# te &)+t.
a anus
1. marked by etreme Iorce or sudden intense
b honestly
2. to make use oI sth.
c average
3. weapons
d Ioreign to his nature 4. in a way that is Iree Iraud or deception
e resort to sth.
5. the setting oI diIIerences through consent reached
by mutual concessions
I violent
6. not out oI the ordinary, common
g compromise
7. something he would naturally never do
TASK 9-. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
1. At the very beginning the Superintendent says. "I honestly think the average policeman never thinks
about it." What does his phrase mean here?
2. What does he say the average policeman Ieels about the average Britisher?
3. What does he say about "certain elements in the criminal world"?
4. Who eactly are the "certain elements"?
V. What reason does he give Ior saying "We are not a violent nation"?
TASK 94. P)$te# t* te ta0e.
Ll2 7*(&$e, )t )$ t&(e t* $a; tat te&e a&e 7e&ta)# ele3e#t$ )# te 7&)3)#al %*&ld tat a&e &e$*&t)#+ t* 2)&ea&3$.L
9. U*e$ te 0&a$e LDtH$ t&(e t* $a; tatL 3ea#6 a You're stupid iI you cannot understand this.
b I'm not lying
c On the other hand.
2. B(t Ll2 7*(&$e, )tH$ t&(e t* $a; tat...L 8et%ee# te$e 0a)&$ *2 $e#te#7e$.
a Most British people trust the police. There are certain eceptions.
b On the whole the police don't like Iirearms. Some policemen want guns.
c He's a very good manager. He has made a Iew bad mistakes.
d Policemen in Britain rarely need guns. Every policeman knows how to use one.
e The police are pretty honest. There are always a Iew who are not.
P)$te# a+a)# t* te ta0e. LA$ a #at)*#, %e l*Fe 7*30&*3)$e, d*#Ht %eZ L
9. U*e$ te S(0e&)#te#de#t e!0e7t a+&ee3e#t *& )$ e a$/)#+ &eal '(e$t)*#$Z
". T&a#$2*&3 te 2*ll*%)#+ )# te $a3e %a; %)t te $a3e )#t*#at)*#6 MODEL: We are a nation. We
love compromise. LA$ a #at)*#, we love compromise, don't we?"
a "Manchester United" are a team. They are unbeatable.
b We are a company. We have to think oI our employees.
c The police are a public institution. They have to be beyond criticism.
d Policemen are a group. They have to accept danger.
e Britain is a country. It will have to eport more.
TASK 9V. U)$7($$ te 2*ll*%)#+.
1. What are the advantages and disadvantages oI policemen being armed?
2. Why are the police armed or not armed in your country?
TASK 9M P)$te# t* 0a&t 4 *2 te ta0e.
Te S(0e&)#te#de#t de$7&)8e$ %at e d)d *#7e %e# e 2a7ed a F)*le#t 3a#.
TASK 9Q. 1at7 te ,%*&d$ a#d e!0&e$$)*#$ *# te le2t ,%)t te a00&&*0&)ate de2)#)t)*#$ *# te &)+t.
a eventually
b threatening
c particular
d have a chat
e trust
I pompous
g common denominator
1. a sense oI understanding, oI having sth. in common with another person
2. selI-important, pretentious
3. aIter a while
4. conIident belieI in or reliance on
5. have a pleasant, inIormal, casual conversation
6. speciIic
7. indicating imminent danger or harm
TASK 9R. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
1. Why did the Superintendent have to go to the house?
2. What was the man doing when the Superintendent had to deal with him?
3. Describe at least three oI the things the Superintendent did.
4. What does he say you must try and do with such a man?
5. Why does the Superintendent say "I hope this doesn't sound pompous"? Think oI possible
6. What are his last comments here?
TASK 9S. T&a#$2*&3 te $e#te#7e$ a77*&d)#+ t* te 3*del.
MODEL: You ust +* and $)t te&e, <aFe a 7at= You ust aFe a 7at.
a hope Ior the best
b do what you can ctake a chance
d try to get his conIidence
e persuade them to listen
MODEL: Does this sound pompous? I hope #*t. D *0e t)$ d*e$#Ht sound pompous.
a Does this sound stupid? 1 hope not.
b Does this seem impossible? We hope not.
c Does this seem reasonable? We hope not.
d Does this sound a good idea? I hope so.
e Does this sound absurd? I hope not.
TASK "T. U)$7($$ te 2*ll*%)#+.
1. What diIIerence would it have made iI the Superintendent had had a gun?
2. What diIIerence would it have made iI the man had had a
TASK "9. Read te te!t a#d a#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$ 8el*%.
The British police oIIicer - sometimes called the "bobby" aIter Sir Robert Peel, the Iounder oI the police Iorce - is a
well-known Iigure to anyone who has visited Britain or who has seen British Iilms. Policemen are to be seen in
towns and cities keeping law and order, either walking in the streets "pounding the beai`or driving in cars known
as "panda cars" because oI their distinctive mamngs. Few people realie, however, that the police in Britain are
organied very diIIerently Irom many other countries.
Most countries, Ior eample, have a national police Iorce which is controlled by central Government. Britain has no
national police Iorce, although , ` police policy is governed by the central Government's Home OIIice. Instead, there
is a separate police Iorce Ior each oI 52 areas into which the country is divided. Each has a police authority - a
committee oI local county councillors and magistrates.
The Iorces co-operate with each other, but it is unusual Ior members oI one Iorce to operate in another's area unless
they are asked to give assistance. This sometimes happens when there has been a very serious crime. A ChieI
Constable the most senior police oIIicer oI a Iorce may sometimes ask Ior the assistance oI London's police Iorce,
based at New Scotland Yard - known simply as "the Yard".
In most countries the police carry guns. The British police generally do not carry Iirearms, ecept in Northern
Ireland. Only a Iew police are regularly armed - Ior instance, those who guard politicians and diplomats or who
patrol airports. In certain circumstances specially trained police oIIicers can be armed, but only with the signed
permission oI a magistrate.
All members oI the police must have gained a certain level oI academic ualiIications at school and undergone a
period oI intensive training. Like the army, there are a number oI ranks: aIter the ChieI Constable comes the
Assistant ChieI Constable, ChieI Superintendent, ChieI Inspector, Inspector, Sergeant and Constable. Women make
up about 10 per cent oI the police Iorce. The police are helped by a number oI Special Constables - members oI the
public who work Ior the police voluntarily Ior a Iew hours a week.
Each police Iorce has its own Criminal Investigation Department CID. Members oI CIDs are detectives, and they
do not wear uniIorms. The other uniIormed people you see in British towns are traIIic wardens, Their ob is to
make sure that drivers obey the parking regulations. They have no other powers - it is the police who are responsible
Ior controlling oIIences like speeding, careless driving and drunken driving.
The duties oI the police are varied, ranging Irom assisting at accidents to saIeguarding public order and dealing with
lost property. One oI their main Iunctions is, oI course, apprehending criminals and would-be criminals.
1. Who was the Iounder oI the British police?
2. Is there one police Iorce, organied by central Government?
3. In what situations can the policemen carry arms?
4. What are the ranks oI the policeman.
5. What are the duties oI traIIic wardens?
6. What is Scotland Yard and what does it do?
TASK "". Read te te!t a#d 2)ll te +a0$ ,%)t te a00&*0&)ate %*&d$ 2&*3 te 0&eF)*($ te!t.
In Britain diIIerent areas have diIIerent a
. For instance, the
Metropolitan police operate in London, but there are diIIerent police Iorces in the counties outside London.
The top man in each police Iorce is b. He is appointed by
the local Watch Committee which is a coI the local government.
The Watch Committee can dismiss him, too, iI the central government agrees. The ChieI Constable appoints all the
dbelow him in his Iorce.
Things are slightly diIIerent in London. The top man is known as the Metropolitan Police Commissioner and his
appointment is arranged through the central government.
British police are normally not e. In special cases, when their
work becomes dangerous, they can be given Ihowever.
As is well known, the goI the British policeman is blue,
with a tall helmet. These days, though, you can see a diIIerent uniIorm in the
streets. This is the uniIorm with the yellow hatband worn by h.
Their ob is simply to control traIIic and i.
The most Iamous name connected with the British police is
. It is the headuarters oI the London police Iorce. Besides dealing
with local police matters, the London police also help all over England and Wales with diIIicult crimes. They do this
at the reuest oI the local police.
TASK "-. @$)#+ te )#2*&3at)*# *2 te @#)t, $(33a&)[e te t*0)7 LB*l)7eL.
.0)Z B;YY2/5
TASK 9. P**/ at t)$ 0)7t(&e a#d &ead te te!t.
|x; 52)C Z);V '+%+&
Photofit of the suspect
Police are searching for a man who is wanted for questioning about a string of burglaries in the
Manchester area, which they suspect may be connected.
n the first of two recent incidents, a man tied up a woman in
her own house in the early hours of the morning and escaped with goods valued at around 2,000. They
included items of jewellery, a stereo, a video recorder and a colour TV set. She managed to free herself,
unhurt, after he fled. She described him as white, around 5'8", in his late twenties, well-built, clean-
shaven, with a pointed nose and straight dark hair.
Two days later a man wearing a stocking mask broke into a factory in the same area and got away with
cash of around 3,000. A man fitting the description above was later seen driving away from the scene in
an old blue Escort van.
Police warn that this man could be armed and therefore dangerous. They have issued the photofit picture
above and ask the public to contact; them immediately if they have any. information.
TASK ". :)#d )# te te!t te E#+l)$ e'()Fale#t$ 2*& te$e %*&d$ a#d e!0&e$$)*#$.
, u ;
- n;
- x , , n;
- n;
- x ;
- nn ;
- ;
- -u;
- ;
- u, m + nm;
- nn.
TASK -. :)#d 3 te te!t te de$7&)0t)*# *2 te 7&)3)#al a#d 7*30*$e a# *00*$)te *#e e +. LSe de$7&)8ed )3 a$
8la7/, Fe&; tall L
TASK 4 P)$te# t* te ta0e
There have been several bank and post oIIice robberies recently. The police are investigating the crimes and they
would like to interview two men and one woman who were seen near two oI the banks last week. The police oIIicer
is describing to ournalists at a press conIerence the three people they would like to interview. Use the inIormation
you hear to help you to complete these drawings oI the three people.
TASK V. P)$te# t* T*#; tal/)#+ a8*(t te e!0e&)e#7e e ad, a#d a#$%e& te 2*ll*%)#+ '(e$t)*#$ 1 Wh
kind I
robbery was it?
2. Was it a successIul robbery?
3. How did Tony Ieel a during it? b aIter it?
P)$te# a+a)# a#d 2)ll )# te 2*ll*%)#+ #*te$, %)7 te 0*l)7e t**/ d(&)#+ te)& )#te&F)e% %)t T*#; a 2e% da;$ late&
a What time oI day was it?
b Where was the bank?
c How many customers were in it?
d What was Tony doing when the robbers arrived?
e How many robbers were there?
I What were they wearing?
g What were they carrying? h What did the robbers say? i What did people do?
How did the robbers get the cash?
k What did they say when they were leaving?
1 When did the police arrive?
m What did Tony do net?
TASK M :)ll t)$ $t*&; a8*(t a 8a#/ &*88e&; %)t te a00&*0&)ate 0&a$al Fe&8$ )# te 7*&&e7t te#$e Te 3ea#)#+ *2
ea7 Fe&8 )$ +)Fe# 3 8&a7/et$ 5**$e te a00&*0&)ate 0&a$al Fe&8 2&*3 te 8*! 8el*%
4-2 Y0)Z /;YY2/5
`Yesterday, robbers a
Iorced an entry into the National
Midland Bank in the High Street soon aIter closing time`They b
threatened with guns the staII, and Iorced the manager tccgive
them 50,000 in cash. The robbers ran out oI the bank andd
escaped in a stolen car, and were last seenegoing in the direction
oI the London Road. Police have warned the public that these men are very dangerous, and are unlikely tcIIiI V
surrender without a Iight. Said ChieI Inspector Ralph Smith: "We're sure that we'll catch them soon. They won't I
gavoid punishment Ior it".
make oII; 3 get away with; V break into; give up; hold up; ` make Ior.
7 hand over;
TASK Q P**/ at te 2*ll*%)#+ e!0&e$$)*#$ ($ed 8; 7&)3)#al$ 1at7 ea7 e!0&e$$)*# %)t )t$ $;#*#;3 +)Fe# 8el*%.
1. Fred's been sent down Ior 10 years Ior armed robbery.
2. Now John's out oI prison, he's determined to go straight, i
3. Haven't you heard about Mary
Stye's been done Ior pinching a gold bracelet Irom a shop.
4. He came clean as soon as the police caught him. "
5. Uncle Fred has done his time and now he's a Iree man. 6
a admit committing the crime
b sent to prison
c prosecuted
d Iinish a prison sentence
e stealing
I stop breaking the law
TASK R. Retell te $t*&; a8*(t te 8a#/ &*88e&; a$ )2 ;*( ,%e&e6
- one oI the criminals
a detective investigating the case
- the clerk oI the bank
- one oI the bank guards
TASK S. .*&/ )# +&*(0$ a#d d)$7($$ te 2*ll*%)#+.
Have you ever been involved in any kind oI robbery?
TASK 9T :)#d )# R($$)a# *& ?&)t)$ #e%$0a0e&$ 7&)3)#al &e0*&t$ a8*(t &*88e&)e$. B&e$e#t te3 )# 7la$$
D 80&2 ;< I%/32/
TASK 99. Read te te!t.
At the age oI Iorty-two, urt HoImann, a German businessman, was given a very high position in a large company
in urich, Switerland. He took the ob as head oI the marketing department even though he had not had direct
eperience in this type oI work beIore. He was very ambitious and really wanted this well-paid ob. The company
gave him the ob even though they knew it was a "problem" position.
AIter about si month it was clear that Mr. HoImann was under a lot oI stress.
TASK 9". .*&/ %)t a 0a&t#e& a#d #(38e& te$e $t&e$$ 2a7t*&$ 9,9T, $ta&t)#+ %)t 9 a$ te 3*$t $e&)*($.
his ob was beyond him, he ust couldn't do it;
his colleagues, Iive men in particular, disliked him and told
everyone how bad he was at his ob;
his superior didn't help him at all;
his wiIe leIt him;
his girlIriend reIused to move to urich;
` he had to move away Irom the town where he had always lived;
he was living in a Ioreign country;
he worked at least twelve hours a day trying to do the ob;
` there was no one at work he could trust;
,he was living alone Ior the Iirst time in his liIe.
TASK 9-. Tell te +&*(0 1&. Y*23a##H$ $t*&; (0 t* te da; %e# e 7*33)tted a 7&)3e.
TASK 94. Read t)$ 0&e$$ &e0*&t 2&*3 a# te eFe#)#+ #e%$0a0e&.
%4546 inarltetii7i chief 8ill9 four
The head of the marketing department at REGNA, Kurt Hofmann, shot five employees, killing four and
seriously injuring one, this morning. He escaped from the REGNA head office and has not been
found yet. He is armed and may be dangerous.
He was arrested a couple of weeks later in a hotel a few hundred miles away. When his trial took place
month later, lots of comments were made about him.
TASK 9V. D3a+)#e ;*( a&e a %)t#e$$ 2*& 1&. Y*23a##H$ 7a$e UeFel*0 te$e )dea$ Be&$(ade te 7*(&t tat e )$
+()lt; <#*t +()lt;=
LDH3 a a#d%&)t)#+ a#al;$t. Sa30le$ *2 )$ a#d%&)t)#+ *Fe& te ;ea&$ $*% de2)#)te $)+#$ *2 )#$ta8)l)t;.L
LD %*&/ at RE>DCA. Ye $*(ld 8e 0(t )# 0&)$*# 2*& te &e$t *2 )$ l)2e , eFe&; da; *2 )t.L
LDH3 a 0$;7)at&)$t. DHFe e!a3)#ed 1&. Y*23a## a#d D 7a# de2)#)tel; $a; tat e )$ (#a8le t* 7*0e %)t $t&e$$. Ye )$
#*t a leade& a#d 0&*8a8l; #eFe& %a$.L
L1&. Y*23a## l)Fed )# te 2lat (0$ta)&$.
Ye $ee3ed $(7 a #)7e 3a#.
D 7a#Ht (#de&$ta#d )t all.
D 2eel Fe&; $*&&; 2*& )3.L
The conseuences oI that IateIul day were:
-Ior Mr. HoImann - seventeen years in prison;
-Ior his immediate superior - early retirement with a good pension;
-Ior Iour employees - death, leaving three widows and seven orphans;
-Ior one employee - disability Ior the rest oI his liIe.
TASK 9M. .*&/ )# +&*(0$ *2 2*(& t* de7)de6
a iI you think seventeen years was a Iair sentence.
b iI you think any other people were also partly responsible Ior what Mr. HoImann did.
Give reasons Ior your decisions. cWhat do you think will be the conseuences oI Mr. HoItnann's long stay in
#A`6 F;,)* >'/0,*-'}#
<te 0&*8le3 *2 l*#+,te&3 0&)$*#e&$=
TASK 9Q. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
1. Do you think imprisonment is the right method to help a criminal go straight? Prove your opinion.
2. What crimes should be punished by imprisonment?
3. What ualities can a person get rid oI in prison iI any?
TASK 9R. P)$te# t* te )#te&F)e% a#d e!0la)# $*3e *2 Ya&&;H$ %*&d$.
1.... we used to hang round there all day ...
2.... I ended up in Borstal...
3.... Ior beating up old ladies ...
4.... the worst thing is being shut up all the time...
5.... I can't stand setting up ... 6.... burglary mostly... 7.... I've admitted doing a lot oI things ... 8.... spending halI oI
my liIe behind bars ... 9.... I'm hoping to ualiIy as mechanic. 10... That's a bit oI a problem 11... employing
someone with a record like mine.
TASK 9S. P)$te# a+a)# a#d 7*33e#t *# te 3ea#)#+$ *2 te$e %*&d$.
a a "nipper" is
b "uke bo" is
c "Woolworth's" is
d "Borstal" is
TASK "T. Read Ya&&;H$ )#te&F)e%.
1. a pickpocket
2. a shop-liIter
3. a young guy
1. a bo oI chewing gum
2. a record player in a bar
3. the radio
1. a railway station
2. a department store
3. a police station
1. a special centre Ior young oIIenders
2. a Iamous theatre
3. sea resort
In tonight's edition oI ReIlections we are going to look at the problems oI long-term-prisoners. We took our cameras
into several prisons, and our Iirst interview is with a man we shall call "Harry", although that is not his real name.
He spoke to Chloe West about his career in crime.
5l*e6 Harry, you're serving a Iive year sentence Ior robbery with violence.
Ya&&;6 That's right.
5l*e6 Perhaps you could begin by telling us about your early liIe.
5l*e6 Ya&&;.
Yeah. Well, I grew up in South London. 1 was on my own a lot; see, my mother used to work down the Iish market,
and my dad - well, he ran oII when I was ust a nipper. Did you have any Iriends?
Oh, yeah. All the kids Irom our street used to meet up at the coIIee bar. There was one at the end oI the road. We
didn't have much money, so we used to hang round there all day. We never used to go to the cinema, or dancing, or
anything like that. We couldn't aIIord it. What did you use to do there?
Oh, we ust sat around listening to the uke bo. Nothing special. When did you start getting into trouble?
Ya&&; I suppose I was Iourteen, something like that. My Iriends used to go shopliIting at Woollies ...Woolworth's,
and one day we were caught. I ended up in Borstal. 5l*e. You mean, they sent you to Borstal
Ior... Ior shop-liIting? Ya&&;6 Well, yeah. AIter the Iourth time ...
and Ior beating-up old ladies. 5l*e You used to beat-up old ladies? Ya&&;6 Well, only when I was trying to rob
5l*e, You beat them up and then robbed them? Ya&&;6 Yeah. I used to do that. 5l*e6 Perhaps you'd tell me about
your liIe in prison.
Ya&&;6 I suppose the worst thing is being shut up all the time. Yeah, and I can't stand getting up at 5.30, either. I ust
can't get used to that, even though I've been here more than three years. You see, beIore I came here I liked staying
in bed all morning. I was on night work, you see. 5l*e. Night work? Ya&&;6 Mmm. Burglary, mostly. Hah-ha. I
caught you there. I can't get used to
going to bed at eight, either. 5l*e. Harry, iI you don't mind me saying so, a lot oI viewers will think oI you
as an enemy oI society.
Ya&&;, Well, that's Iair enough. But I've admitted doing a lot oI things. I've spent a lot oI time thinking. I could keep
on stealing things, but I'd end up spending halI my liIe behind bars. I'm going straight this time, don't you worry.
5l*e What do you intend doing when you get out?
Ya&&;. I'm very Iond oI working on motor-bikes. I've been studying while I've been inside, and I'm hoping to ualiIy
as a mechanic.
5l*e6 Do you think you'll be able to get a ob?
Harry: That's a bit oI a problem. People are scared oI employing someone with
a record like mine, you know, Ior Iear they begin stealing again. 5l*e6 How will you ge,t round that?
Ya&&;6 I'm planning on working Ior my brother. He's got a motor-bike shop. 5l*e6 So, you plan to work Ior your
brother? Ya&&;6 That's right. I tell you, I won't be back. I'm not going to risk wasting
another Iive years.
5l*e6 Well, I wish you luck, Harry. Ya&&;6 Thanks.
5l*e .e$t )$ a Tn &e0*&te& , $* $eH$ 3ade a Tn 0&*+&a33e a8*(t Ya&&;. D3a+)#e ;*( a&e a #e%$0a0e& &e0*&te&.
.&)te a $*&t a&t)7le 2*& ;*(& #e%$0a0e& a8*(t Ya&&;.
TASK "9. .*&/ )# 0a)&$ a#d d)$7($$ te 2*ll*%)#+ 0*)#t$.
1. Do you think Harry will really go straight? Prove your opinion.
2. II you were in prison what wouldn't you be able to get used to?
@0V ./20Z2/&
TASK D. 1at7 ea7 %*&d *# te le2t %)t te a00&*0&)ate de2)#)t)*# *# te
PK .'.O` I.n, arsonst , . attacks and robs people, oIten in the street
'." shop-lIIta - sets Iire to property illegally 3. a mugger`
2J`I *
anyone who breaks the law l l`an
iDIIender`tMi`b/eaks into houses or other buildings to steal
5. a vandal
- steals Irom shops while acting as an ordinary customer
6. a burglar
7. a murderer
8. a kidnapper mI MckpocieI `
10. ah accomplice
11. a drug dealer
12. a spy , ,
13. a terrorist
14. an assassin
15. a hooligan
16. a stowaway .b`'ii'vu I
17. a thieI
- kills someone
- deliberately causes damage to property
- steals things Irom people's pockets in crowded places
- gets secret inIormation Irom another country
- buys and sells drugs illegally
- takes away people by Iorce and demands money Ior their return
- helps a criminal in a criminal act
- uses violence Ior political reasons .eauses damage or disturbance in public places
- hides on a ship or plane to get a Iree ourney
esi control oI a plane by Iorce and makes the pilot cnrargeIpourse
- murders Ior political reasons or a reward
18. a hiackerl``A `Ii someone who steals p `I ` < G `/ ` `
19. a Iorger - makes counterIeit Ialse' money or signatures
20. arobbeAoAtIIiVo





- C `it`bblrtk*
21. a smuggler - steals money, etc. by Iorce IroIIt people oI places
" VP
22. a traitoryA` g``mar/ies illegally, being married already
23. a gangster`MsI is a soldier who runs away Irom the army
23. Fdeserterto`pl" brings goods into a country illegally without paying ta 2, a bigamisuT -' betrays his or her
country to another state
Cc @2'`& E; $%&',:2} \B;+2 [+05]
IX " .*&/ )# 0a)&$ Ea7 0a)& 7*#$)$t$ *2 a 7&)3)#al <7**$e ;*(& &*le 2&*3 te l)$t a8*Fe= a#d a de2e#7e la%;e&
STEB 9. The lawyer uestions his client the criminal and Iinds out all the circumstances oI the crime. STEB ". The
lawyer delivers a speech trying to prove his client non guilty.
STEB -. The rest oI the group - the urors - hold deliberations and bring in the verdict.
D I0:0Y/2 >';/5
TASK -. D# te 0a$$a+e 8el*%, Fe&8$ a&e 3a)#l; +)Fe# )# te )#2)#)t)Fe 2*&3p ;*(& ta$/ )$ t* 0(t te3 )#t* te
a00&*0&)ate te#$e *& 2*&3
The moment she to turn the corner, Jill to notice that her Iront door to stand open. She deIinitely to shut it
when she to go out, and her Ilatmate, Louis, not to say that she to come this evening. Jill to slacken her pace,
to think what she can do. II she to ask her neighbours to accompany her and it to turn out that there to be
no one there, then she to look a IooL
On the other hand, iI she to enter the Ilat alone, and to Iind an intruder there, it can end very badly.
"This never to happen to me beIore," Jill to think, "and I to hope it never to happen again."
TASK 4. 5*#t)#(e te $t*&; a$ )2 ;*( %e&e
, Jill
- her neighbour
- her Ilat-mate
- the person inside
.2 0 E2'2:',92
TASK V. Read te e#d *2 a dete7t)Fe $t*&;
So, one Ioggy November night, Mr. , wearing a long overcoat, walked along a back street in Liverpool with a bo
under his arm. He came to a house, put his bo down on the ground, and knocked at the door. When a man opened
the door, Mr. picked up the bo and gave it to him. The man in the house nodded, took the bo, and closed the
door. Mr. walked away.
Two days later, Mr. read in the newspaper that a dead body had been Iound in a Liverpool park with its leIt arm
missing and he was etremely shocked.
How did it all start? You can Iind out the whole previous story by asking your teacher yes/no uestions. In order to
get the right train oI thought Iind out the Iollowing.
1. Find out the relationship between the
two men.
2. Think about the sie ot the bo and what was in it.
3. Why did Mr. put the bo on the ground beIore knocking on the door?
4. What was signiIicant about the dead body?
TASK 9 S*lFe te 7&*$$%*&d

y C C v b2 b $ g
, 4
v f
R# y '< g y $ S
W h



# h

A. .S
TV ftfrXHfWE ^ PRftW.
you YOUR, !
"#fl$%, YOl&'( TO ")Y * ____
+OR ) ,,
TASK ". 5*30lete te 2*ll*%)#+ $e#te#7e$ %)t te %*&d$ a#d 0&a$e$ 2&*3 te 8*!.
, I`
arrested; I in custody; A* deIence; /sP
solicitor;` evidence;

/ barrister; IJ
verdict; J prooI; A -2 witness;`/
Ime;V charged ;/ 5 testimony; m
uvenile delinuent; 5 sentenced;` arson; / B G G
ball ; 2 Magistrate's Court; /" burglary; ? `
prosecution; * probation; <
imprisonment, /"
commit;*" embelement; '*
shop-liIting; 5 Crown Court; t2
crimes has"risen shaIp
1. The number oI young people who
in recent years.
". Another house was broken into last week. This is the third in
the area in the past month.
3. The udge h him to seven years' Iu Ior armed robbery.
4. AIter twelve hours, the Jury Iinally reached its . : the prisoner
3as guilty.
V. Although the police suspectedJhat he had been involved in the
robbery, since they had no aeIraite there was nothing they could do about it.
6. He parked his car in the wrong place and had to pay a 20 parking
7. This is the Iourth Iire in the area recently. The police suspe
by the police outside a pub in Soho and
- . 3 Ior minor
8. Theshop decided to install closed-circuit television in an eIIort to
cimbat the problem oI
9. He was
I with murder.
10. There are two criminal courts in Britain - the 1* oIIences and theiII Ior more serious ones.
11.A v
12. AM
13. The lawyer who prepares the case Ior his or her client prIo'r to
f+u rL#lL7.
appearing in court is called a l. The lawyer who
is a young person who breaks the law.
is someone who sees a crime being committed, x`*'
actually presents the case in court is called a
14. The sum oI money leIt with a court oI law so that a prisoner may be set Iree until his or her trial comes up is
called cP
15. The bank manager, aomitted taking 250,000 oI the bank's money
-`- r`l/C`A e
during the previews Iive years. He was Iound guilty oI

- e6
16. The witness held the Bible in her right hand and said: "I sweaTby Almighty God that the
HI shall give shall be the
truth, the wholeruth, and nothing but the truth." 9. The Iormal statement made by a witness in court i
17. The Iormal sMement made by a witness in court is called a
18. II a person is t?5 this means that he or she is put in
prison beIore his or her trial comes up.
19. Since it was his Iirst oIIence, he was not sent to prison but put on
' ` Ior 6 months.
20. At a trial, the barrister who speaks Ior the accused is called the Counsel Ior the , while
the barrister who speaks against him is called the Counsel Ior the/ ` .
TASK -. 5*30lete te 2*ll*%)#+ $e#te#7e$ %)t te %*&d$ a#d 0&a$e$ 2&*3 te 8*!.
5. )*lice
police Iorce;
plain clothes;
detective; uniIorm.
Alan is now old enough and tall enough to athe b
At Iirst, oI course, he'll be an ordinary c oI the
. He'll wear a e
with the police station with his I
in hinvestigating serious crimes.
6. Securit. 7*r8
and go out in the streets keeping in touch . Then he'd like to be a g
guards; tap;
armoured vehicles; bullet-prooI;
kidnappers; couriers bug; security Iirm; private detectives.
I run a awhich oIIers a complete range oI security services.
We have bwith special cwindows to transport money and
other valuable items. We can supply trained dto protect ehibits at art
shows and ewellery displays. We can advise you iI you think someone is trying
to eyour phone or Iyour private conversations at home or
in the oIIice with hidden microphones. We have e-policemen whom you can
hire as gand special hto deliver your valuable parcels
anywhere in the world. We can protect you or your children against possible i
0. 9ilitar. Ser1ice
oIIicer; volunteers; air Iorce.
In some countries military service is a. All young men and
sometimes young women must spend a year or two in the b. In
Britain they don't have to. All members oI the armed services are c.
To be a soldier you oin the d, to be a sailor you oin the e
and to be an airman you oin the I. II you are good at your ob and
can take responsibility, ybu might get gand become an h.
U. A&&e$t
theIt; pleaded; Iingerprints; Iound; cell
evidence; arrest; oath; investigate;
sentence; charge; detained; Iine;
court; magistrate; handcuII; witnesses;
A policeman was sent to a
the disappearance oI some
9a.Xaaaaaaaaa IA_ 9~, c',[[9:% 0,,_`' _$+ >1AAA8
property Irom a hotel. When he arrived, he Iound that the hotel staII had caught a boy in one oI the rooms with a
camera and some cash. When the policeman
tried to b the boy, he became violent and the policeman had to
chim. At the police station the boy could not give a satisIactory
eplanation Ior his actions and the police decided to dhim with the
eoI the camera and cash. They took his I, locked him in a
guilty. Two m staII, gave n o
and h
beIore the
him overnight. The net morning he appeared in . He took an kand 1not
, the owner oI the property and a member oI the hotel . AIter both sides oI the case had been heard the boy was
guilty. He had to pay a poI 50 and he was given a
oI three month in prison suspended Ior two years.
E. Pa% a#d B(#)$3e#t
plain clothes;
inuest; death
a II you want legal advice in Britain, you go to a.
b At the end oI the, the udge ordered the twelve men and women oI
theto retire and consider their, guilty or not guilty.
c Men or women who look aIter prisoners in prison are called prison oIIicers or
d II a person dies in unusual circumstances, an court, and the "udge" is called a.
is held at a special . He wears
e A policeman who investigates serious crime is called a , not uniIorm.
I In some countries murderers are eecuted but other countries have abolished the
F. Sentence%
beIore; in; to; oI; with.
a He's being kept
b He was sentenced
c She got a sentence
d He was accused
Iive years.
si months.
murder, theIt.
e She's been charged
I He appearedcourt
g They were broughtthe udge.
h The ury reached a verdictguilty.
Just for Fun
A beautiIul blonde walked into a Chicago police station and gave the desk sergeant a detailed description oI a man
who had dragged her by the hair down three Ilights oI stairs, threatened to choke her to death and Iinally beat her up.
"With this description we'll have him arrested in no time," said the desk sergeant.
"But I don't want him arrested", the young woman protested. "Just Iind
him Ior me. He promised to marry me."
A man sentenced to death was being taken to the eecution place in very nasty weather.
"What lousy weather", he remarked.
"You are not the one to grumble", commented one oI the escort.
"We've got yet to go back".
AIter an incident in Croydon involving a prison van and a concrete mier, police are looking Ior eighteen hardened
Te T%* R*#)e$, ??5 Tn
Thieves respect property; they merely wish the property to become their property that they may more perIectly
respect it.
l.K. 5e$te&t*#, Te 1a# .* %a$ T(&$da;, 9STR
Eth: A proIessional burglar Mr. Glum, you told me Ron's Uncle Charlie was a biologist.
Mr. Glum: All I said was, he studies cell structures.
:.1()&, U. C*& de#, Te >l(3$,
P*#d*# .ee/e#d Tn, 9SQR
Murder is always a mistake... One should never do anything that one cannot talk about aIter dinner.
l$7a& .)lde, Te B)7t(&e *2 U*&)a# >&a;, 9RS9
Eric: It was the corpse. He had a gun in his hand and a kniIe
in his back. Who d'you think poisoned him?
Erine: Who?
Eric: Nobody. He'd been strangled
E.1*&e7a38e, E. .)$e,
Te 1*&e7a38e a#d .)$e J*/e ?**/, 9SQS
Marriage is not a word. It is a sentence.
St*&&;H$ 0&)#7)0le *2 7&)3)#al )#d)7t3e#t
The degree oI guilt is directly proportional to the intensity oI the denial.
accident n -1. an unusual, unepected or unIoreseen event
2. calamity, casualty, catastrophe, disaster.
3. any unpleasant or unIortunate occurrence that causes inury, loss, suIIering or death.
accomplice n-one who helps a criminal in a criminal act. accuse v - see Ch.I. appoint v - see Ch.I.
arson n - the criminal act oI setting Iire to property in order to cause destruction.
- a&$*#)$t.
assassinate v -to murder sb. Ior political reasons or a reward.
assassin n - one who murders sb. Ior a reward or political reasons.
a$$a$$)#at)*# n. assault n -1. a violent physical or verbal attack.
2. an attempt to do or immediate threat oI doing unlawIul personal
,a$$a(lt v. bail n <8*#d= , money paid by the accused to be released Irom custody
until the trial.
burglar n - one who breaks into houses or other buildings to steal. capital punishment - See Ch.IV. cell n - a
small room in prison Ior one or more inmates. commit v - see Ch.I. community service n - unpaid work Ior the
beneIit oI the community
done by the oIIender as punishment. compulsory ad - obligatory, mandatory, enIorced. crime n - violation oI
law, a grave oIIence. criminal - see Ch. I. custody n - conIinement or imprisonment.
- 0*l)7e d.
, le+al .
- deta)# )# .
- /ee0 )# . 3060*2\&] n - see Ch.IV.
detain v - to hold or retain in custody.
- dete#t)*# n.
- 0&eFe#t)Fe dete#t)*#.
detainee n- a person held in custody, esp. Ior political reasons. detective n - a policeman or other person engaged
in investigating crimes or getting inIormation that is not readily accessible.
- 0&)Fate d.
deterrent n - anything which impedes or has a tendency to prevent
e.g. punishment is a deterrent to crime. embele v - to appropriate e.g. property entrusted to one's care
Iradulently to one's own use.
- e38e[[le3e#t<#=. enuiry n - see inuiry.
eecute v - 1. to put completely into eIIect.
2. to put to death legally as punishment.
eecution n - 1. putting into Iorce.
2. putting to death as punishment. Ielony n - see Ch. IV. Iine v - to sentence a person convicted oI an oIIense to
pay a penalty in
Iine n 1. a sum payable as punishment Ior an oIIense.
2. a IorIeiture or penalty paid to an inured party in a civil action. Iingerprints n - impression oI the lines oI a
Iingertip taken Ior
purposes oI identiIication. Iorge v - to Iabricate by Ialse imitation, to counterIeit.
a 7e'(e, d*7(3e#t, 3*#e;, $)+#at(&e.
,2*&+e& n`
Iorgery n - 1. act oI making a Ialse or counterIeit document, money,
2. Iorged document, banknote, etc. Iraud n - 1. sth. that is not what it seems to be.
2. anything intentionally calculated to deceive.
,2&a(d(le#t ad. guard v - 1. to protect Irom danger, to make secure.
2. to watch over so as to prevent escape, entry, theIt, etc.
guard n - a person or a body oI men whose duty is to protect a
place, people, etc.
- 8*d;+(a&d n.
- $a2e+(a&d n. guilty ad - see Ch.I.
handcuIIs n - a pair oI metal rings connected by a chain Ior locking
round criminal's wrists.
homicide n - the act oI killing a human being. illegal ad - not authoried by law. imprison v - to put into
)30&)$*#3e#t <#=, l)2e d. inuest n - udicial inuiry, esp. by a coroner, into the cause oI a
sudden, unnatural or unusual death. inuire v into also enuire - to reuest Ior inIormation, to
- )#'()&; n also enuiry.
* a+e#t n - private detective.
investigate v -1. to make a systematic eamination or study. 2. to conduct an oIIicial inuiry.
- a 7a$e, a 7&)3e.
, )#Fe$t)+at*& n.
- )#Fe$t)+at)*# n.
kidnap v - to seie or detain a person by Iorce and oIten Ior ransom.
- /)d#a00e& n.
- /)d#a00)#+ n.
+0VY/20Z2/ n - a person who violates the law.
60)&+0%*-'2/ n - the unlawIul killing oI a human without any malicious intent or deliberation, which may be
involuntary, in the commission oI a lawIul act without due caution.
6,&32620);/ n - see Ch.IV.
6%* v - to assault, esp. in the street with ,)32)' '; /;Y.
- 3(++e& n.
6%/32/ v - to kill sb. unlawIully and intentionally.
- t* 7*33)t .
- 3(&de&e& n.
- 3(&de& n.
;0'- n - a solemn promise to tell the truth.
- t* ad3)#)$te& a# d.
, t* ta/e a# .
- *#X(#de&
;<<2):2 n - US: oIIense - see Ch.I.
[2)0+'5 n - punishment legally imposed or incurred.
deat - capital punishment. [,:Z[;:Z2' n - one who steals Irom pockets or bags. [/;Y0',;) n - a method oI
dealing with young oIIenders by which a
sentence is suspended.
- 0(t *# .
- 0&*8at)*#e& , an oIIender on probation.
- *22)7e& , an oIIicer appointed to supervise the conduct oI oIIenders on probation.
[%),&- v - to impose a penalty on an oIIender or Ior an oIIense.
- 0(#)$3e#t
, 7a0)tal d
, 7*&0*&al d.
/0[2 n - the crime oI Iorcing sb., esp. a woman to have seual
intercourse against her/ his will.
/2+20&2 v - to set Iree Irom restraint, conIinement or servitude. rob v - to steal sth. Irom a person or place, esp.
by violence or threat.
- robber n.
- &*88e&; n.
&2)'2):2 n - the udgment Iormally pronounced by the court or udge upon the deIendant aIter his conviction in a
criminal prosecution, imposing the punishment to be inIlicted.
- l)2e .
- $($0e#ded . ,0a$$ a .
- &e7e)Fe .
- $e&Fe d.
- $($ta)# .
&-;[O+,<'2/ n - one who steals Irom the shops. &'0Y v - to pierce or wound with a pointed weapon. '-2<' n - the
act oI stealing.
'-,2< n - one who steals, esp. secretly and without violence. 90)30+ n - one who willIully or ignorantly destroys
or deIaces public property.
- Fa#dal)$3. 92/3,:' n - see Ch.IV. 9,;+2):2 \)] O &22 Ch.I.
V0/32) n - an oIIicial charged with special supervisory duties or with the enIorcement oI speciIied laws or
regulations. ,t&a22)7,
Part I. Famous Lives. Crime and Justice..............................................164
Part II. Law Stories...............................................................................181
Part III. Tom Sawyer TestiIies..............................................................192
Read te 2*ll*%)#+ $t*&)e$ a#d d* te e!e&7)$e$
S. .0/Z2/H D/,U;)0 8+0/2 #I0#H 3. STjR
"Ma" Barker's gang was mostly composed oI her own Iour sons, and she led them to criminal Iame She was never
arrested, but her sons oIten were. Ma would appear in court and protest their innocence or raise bail. By the time the
gang was cleared up by the FBI it had been responsible Ior the deaths oI Iour policemen, a civilian and one oI their
own number who talked too much. The Barkers hit the big time when they started kidnapping rich men Ior ransom,
but this increased the pressure by police and the FBI on the gang
len Arthur in Florida
and its members, had to split u Barker was caprurM Ma's hiebu was B/aOhe FBI's G-men the house and called on
Ma Barker and her son Fred to sW`ye`'To hell with all oI you", she replied and opened Iire. The FBI used tear gas,
but the gunIight continued until both Ma Barker and her son were dead.
:)#d %)7 *2 te %*&d$ )# te te!t 3ea#6
, to aIIirm strongly being not guilty;
- to pay a sum oI money demanded by a law court, paid by or Ior a person accused oI an oIIence, as
security that he will appear Ior his trial, until which time he is allowed to go Iree;
- to steal a person in order to demand payment Ior his return;
- money paid Ior the Ireeing oI a person who has been kidnapped;
- to come clean.
P)$te# t* te $*#+ L1a ?a&/e&L <L?*#e; 1L= U*e$ te te!t *2 te $*#+ 7*&&e$0*#d t* te $t*&; ;*( aFe a($t &ead
2. .20)H B;5H 3. STvj
In the days when the western part oI the USA was known as Wild West
aby very rough and ready men. "Judge" Bean, as he called himselI,
was one oI the most colourIul oI the lawmen. As a young man he had been a
slaver, driven an ammunition truck in the war against Meico, bcotton
and been c. He became Iamous as d in a town called
Vinegarroon. Here, in a saloon called the Jersey Lilly - so named aIter the
actress Lily Langtree oI whom he was a Ian - he e. His Iwas
as rough as the people he had g and he built up an enormous
reputation, so that many tales were told about him. One is that he decided on
one occasion that a man ha Chinaman might call on his tough Iriends
to make trouble Ior the udge. Looking through his law books he announced that he could not Iind anywhere that it
said that you must not kill a Chinaman
5*30lete te te!t %)t te %*&d$ a#d e!0&e$$)*#$ 2&*3 te 8*!, ($)#+ te3 )# te a00&*0&)ate 2*&3.
petty crook; to
smuggle sth.; to
uphold a law; to hold
the court;
to accuse sb. oI murdering; Justice oI
the Peace; to try a person; ustice
j. .,++5 '-2 K,3 \7,++,06 .;))5]H SQPvOSQQS
Billy the id was a legend in the Wild West as a cattle rustler and murderer. Slim and Iair, Billy was born in New
York but soon moved to New
Meico. He was apprenticed to a blacksmith but Iound this boring, so he shot the smith and became a cowboy. At
Iirst he worked Ior John Chisholm, who was Iighting a range war in the Pecos Valley. He uarrelled with Chisholm
and oined a band oI cattle rustlers, killing as many oI Chisholm's men as he could in the process. Pat Garrett was
elected sheriII to capture Billy the id. He did this, but Billy shot two deputies and escaped Irom his cell ust beIore
he was due to be hanged. He was caught by Garrett two months and Iive murders later and shot dead in a gunIight.
He was said to have shot twenty-one men, but in Iact he probably only killed three.
:)#d )# te te!t te E#+l)$ e'()Fale#t$ 2*& te %*&d$ a#d e!0&e$$)*#$ 8el*%.
- n n;
- m;
- m ;
- - n.
f. .+0Z2H F2;/*2H Y.STNN
Born in Holland, he was a Iamous traitor a and Russian spy. During the Second World War, he was a member oI
the Dutch resistance until he escaped to England, oined the Navy and changed his name to Blake. He oined the
intelligence services and was captured in orea while serving in the British Embassy in Seoul. Blake was released
b in 1953 but had been secretly converted to c communism while a prisoner. He then served as an agent Ior MI6
and as a double agent d Ior the Russians, Iirst in Berlin and later in Britain. In 1960 he was arrested and sentenced
e in 1961 to no less than Iorty-two years in prison. But in 1967, helped by a released Iellow-prisoner, he made I a
daring escape Irom Wormwood Scrubs prison and was smuggled out to Moscow g by the Russians.
1at7 ea7 %*&d *& e!0&e$$)*# *# te le2t %)t te 7*&&e7t de2)#)t)*# *# te &)+t.
a a traitor
b to release a man Irom prison
c to convert sb. to sth.
d a double agent
l.to Iind a way out oI prison
2.to state that a person has to have a certain
3.a person who is disloyal to his country
4.to allow a person to go Iree
e to sentence sb. to... years in 5.a spy who supplies inIormation to both prison
I to make an escape Irom 6.to get sb. secretly and illegally Irom a place
g to smuggle sb. out
7.to cause a person to change his belieIs
5. :ue%% t-e name *f t-e c-aracter.
He is the most Iamous special agent in Iiction, a kind oI superman. As Agent 007 he appears in a series oI thirteen
stories written by Ian Fleming 1908 - 1964. He is always given the most dangerous obs, and he succeeds in every
case, even when Iaced by enormous diIIiculties. To help him, his boss in MI5, known only as "M", provides him
with ingenious gadgets like a car which turns into a submarine. He enoys the high liIe, good Iood, beautiIul women
and the best hotels. He is so well described by Fleming that he has almost become a real person. Films have been
made oI almost all stories, and he has been played by Sean Connery, George Laonby and, most recently, by Roger
Moore. The Iirst book was 5a$)#* R*;ale, other well-known ones are :&*3 R($$)a %)t P*Fe, U&. C*, l# Ye&
1aae$t;H$ Se7&et Se&F)7e and >*ld2)#+e&.
P. .;)),2 0)3 8+532 \.;)),2 W0/Z2/ 0)3 8+532 .0//;V]H 3.STjf
In the days oI the Depression in America aIter 1929, these two young people made a great name Ior themselves
robbing stores and committing murders uite casually and oIten Ior the sheer Iun oI it. Bonnie Parker was a waitress
when she met Clyde Barrow, and she ended up a legendary Iigure known Ior her love oI red dresses, cigars and
Iirearms. Working in the southern states oI the USA they leIt behind a trail oI destruction . On several occasions
they were trapped by the police , but seemed to bear a charmed liIe and escaped even through a hail oI bullets. On
one occasion they held up a prison Iarm killing a guard and helping a Iriend to escape. Huge rewards were by then
oIIered Ior their capture. Following a tip-oII , the police Iinally ambushed Bonnie and Clyde at a crossroads and
killed them in the gunIight that Iollowed. In 1967 a Iilm was made oI their eploits, which resulted in the two
becoming almost cult Iigures, and a pop song was written about them, which became a best-selling record.
:)#d )# te te!t te E#+l)$ e'()Fale#t$ 2*& te e!0&e$$)*#$ 8el*%.
, - n;
- m;
- n, n u nnx;
- n nn;
- ;
- n;
- nx x nn;
- ;
- ;
- m ;
- ;
- +u ;
- x n n;
- u;
- - .
g. .;/32)H @,UU,2 D)3/2VH SQPv O STNg
Liie Borden is known worldwide through a poem which was written about her. It goes:
Liie Borden took an ae
And gave her Iather Iorty wacks.
When she saw what she had done,
She gave her mother Iorty-one.
This cruel verse reIers to the Iact that Liie Borden was accused oI having killed her Iather and stepmother by
chopping them to pieces with an ae at their home in Fall River, Massachusetts, in 1892. She was tried Ior the two
murders and acuitted, but the trial has become a legend, and many books have been written about it.
Fin' in te te!t te %*&d$ %)7 7*&&e$0*#d t* te 2*ll*%)#+ de2)#)t)*#$.
, to give a legal decision that a person is not guilty;
- the unlawIul killing oI a person on purpose;
- to eamine a person in a law court.
Q. ./;V)H L0'-2/
One oI the great Iigures oI detective Iiction is Father Brown, created by G..Chesterton 1874-1936 and largely
based on his Iriend Father John O'Connor. Father Brown is a plump, moon-Iaced Roman Catholic priest Irom Esse,
apparently vague a and harmless, never separated Irom his large black umbrella and several brown paper parcels
tied up with a string. In Iact Father Brown is a master oI detection b as Chesterton showed in Iorty-nine stories
published between 1911 and 1935. He Iinds himselI involved c. more or less by chance, in a crime dT which he
solves by using common sense and his vast
knowledge oI human nature. Father Brown appeared on Iilm in 1954, with Alec Guinness in the title role, and later
in a television series, starring enneth More.
5*30lete te 2*ll*%)#+ $e#te#7e$ %)t te (#de&l)#ed %*&d$ 2&*3 te te!t
1. He tried to escapeby disguising himselI as an old man.
2. It's the business oI the police to prevent.
3. He was a littlewhen I asked what had happened.
4. Don'tme in your uarrels.
;. :ue%% t-e name% *f t-e tw* c-aracter%.
These two Roman generals were the leaders oI conspiracy to murder Julius Caesar, the man who invaded Britain
and was one oI the greatest Roman generals. Both had distinguished careers, having been promised governorships
by Caesar. One was even a personal Iriend oI Caesar's but was convinced by the other that Caesar, who by then was
dictator oI Rome, was tyrant who must be got rid oI. On the Ides 15th oI March 44 B.C. Caesar was stabbed to
death on the steps oI the Capitol, the senate house oI Rome, both men talking part in the murder. UnIortunately, the
conspiracy then began to crumble and the two generals Iled to Macedonia to raise an army. They were deIeated at
the battle oI Philip by Caesar's nephew Octavian and Mark Anthony. AIter the battle one committed suicide, while
the other ordered his servant to kill him.
Sv. .%':- 80&&,35H SQPP O STSv 0)3 '-2 >%)30):2 K,3H 3.STSv
Butch Cassidy, whose real name was Robert Leroy Parker, was the leader oI a gang oI American outlaws called the
Wild Bunch who operated mainly Irom a secure hideout in Wyoming Territory called Hole in the Wall. Other
members oI the gang were the Sundance id real name Harry Longbaugh, Bill "News" Carver, Ben ilpatrick and
Harvey Logan. The Wild Bunch rustled cattle, held up banks and robbed trains, all with varied success. On one
occasion they stole 40,000 in notes that were so new that they had not been signed, and their clumsy attempts to
Iorge the signatures Iailed miserably. Having made things too hot Ior themselves by robbing the Union PaciIic
railway rather too Ireuently, in 1902 Butch Cassidy and the Sundance id moved to South America accompanied
by pretty schoolteacher Etta Place. This combination carried out a number oI robberies, beIore the two outlaws were
ambushed and killed in a gunIight with the Bolivian army in 1910. However, rumours persist that either one or both
men returned to the USA and lived on peaceIully to die oI old age. The Iilm oI their liIe and death, "Butch Cassidy
and the Sundance id", starring Paul Newman and Robert RedIord, managed to catch the Ilavour oI criminal
eploits almost perIectly.
1at7 ea7 %*&d *& e!0&e$$)*# ';) te le2t %)t te 7*&&e7t de2)#)t)*# *# te &)+t.
a to make it hot Ior sb.
b to Iorge a signature
c an eploit
l.a bold or adventurous act
2.to take property Irom a person unlawIully
3.a person punished by being placed outside the
protection oI the law
d outlaw
4.a secret place where one cannot be Iound
e a hideout
5.to attack sb. suddenly Irom a hidden place
I to hold up
6.to make a copy oI a signature in order to deceive
g to rob
7.to steal cattle h to ambush
8.to stop and rob
i to rustle cattle
9 to cause a situation to become dangerous
11. :ue%% t-e name *f t-e c-aracter.
According to the Bible, he was the Iirst murderer. The story is told in Genesis, Chapter Four He was a tiller oI the
soil and his brother Abel was a shepherd. They were both sons oI Adam and Eve. When the Lord accepted Abel's
oIIerings and reected those oI his, he was very "wroth and his countenance Iell". He tell upon his brother Abel and
killed him. When the Lord asked him where his brother was, he asked the Iamous uestion "am I my brother's
keeper?". For his crime, he was banished to be a wanderer over the earth, but to prevent him being killed, God put a
mark upon him to protect him. According to the Bible, he went to live in the land oI Nod, east oI Eden.
SN. 80*+,;&'/;H D+2&&0)3/;H Sgfj O SgTR
Count Cagliostro's real name was Guiseppe Balsamo, and he became Iamous as a charlatan or conIidence trickster,
as we would call him today. As a young man he learned a little about chemistry and medicine and then leIt Sicily in
1769. AIter getting some knowledge oI the supernatural, he appeared in Malta as the great Count Cagliostro,
specialist in medicine, magic and all kinds oI strange arts. He was soon Ileecing the rich oI Europe, selling them an
eliir oI youth and love potions. Finally he was condemned to death in Rome Ior setting up a secret society and died
in prison at San Leone.
:)#d )# te te!t te %*&d$ tat 7*&&e$0*#d t* te 2*ll*%)#+ de2)#)t)*#$.
, a person, who claims to have more skill, knowledge or ability than he really has;
- a person, who cheats sb. out oI his money by some Iraudulent scheme which seems to be honest;
- to cheat sb. and take his money;
- to sentence a criminal to death.
14. :ue%% t-e name *f t-e c-aracter<
This Roman Emperor will always be remembered Ior his great cruelty and love oI bloodshed. On one occasion, at
one oI the Iamous games, at which the gladiators perIormed, he is said to have remarked that he wished that the
Roman people had only one neck so that he could kill them all with one blow. There is little doubt this his etreme
cruelty was due to madness, as he started his reign in a very reasonable way. However, aIter a strange illness, he
began to act as though insane and declared himselI a god and even gave his horse a high public oIIice. In the end he
was murdered by a member oI his own bodyguard as he leIt the games on 24th January A.D. 41.
Sf. 80[;)2H D+[-;)&2H SQTT O STfg
"Al" Capone is possibly the best-known oI all American gangsters, though by no means the most important. His
home ground was Chicago. He was brought into the rackets by Johnny Torrio and Tome's uncle "Big Jim"
Colosimo. Capone seied his chance when prohibition was declared in 1920, which made the manuIacture and sale
oI alcohol illegal in America. He soon rose to control a large part oI the illegal liuor market in Chicago and the
Middle West. A Iierce and vicious man, he was responsible Ior many gangland killings, including the 1929 St.
Valentine's Day Massacre, in which seven rival "bootleggers" men selling illicit liuor were trapped by gunmen
dressed as police and machine-gunned to death. He was imprisoned in 1931 on income ta charges, became a model
prisoner and was released in 1939.
E!0la)# te 3ea#)#+$ *2 te 2*ll*%)#+ %*&d$ a#d e!0&e$$)*#$.
, gangster;
- racket;
- "prohibition law";
- "bootlegger".
SR. 8;&'2++;H L/0)ZH SQTS O STgj
nown by American newspapers as "the Prime Minister oI Crime", Costello was bora in Italy and came to America
in 1896. Though not well educated, he had a very good brain, and rose steadily through the ranks oI the MaIia until
in 1936 he took over "Lucky" Luciano's position as 7a0* d) 7a0* &e, or head oI all the Family heads. He avoided
violence whenever possible, but was not aIraid to use it where necessary. By 1943 he virtually owned New York,
appointing city oIIicials, udges and even mayors. He was ailed in 1954 on income ta charges and the resulting
publicity made him less valuable to
Meyer Lansky's National Crime Syndicate, and he lost much oI his power. An attempt was made on his liIe in 1957,
but he was then allowed to retire in peace.
:)#d )# te te!t te E#+l)$ e'()Fale#t$ 2*& te 2*ll*%)#+ e!0&e$$)*#$.
, ;
- n m n m n ;
- m nm -.
SP. 8/,[[2)H E/. M0V+25 M0/925H SQQN OSTSv
Crippen is Iamous as a murderer mainly because he was the Iirst one to be caught by the use oI wireless telegraphy.
He was an American-born doctor who settled in London in 1900 with his wiIe Cora who had theatrical ambitions
and used, the stagen Belle Elmore. In 1910 Crippen's wiIe vanished in susprcious cirtmimnces and whenthe
house was searched herdismembered body was d`cpvered buried in a cellar. She had been poIeonecC Meanwhile`
Crippen had Iled with his girlIriend Ethel Le Neve, who was aisguBea as boy. They thought that they were sare
once they B the liner 1*#t&*$e Ior America, but the authorities used the newly irrventecrwireless to`aaTon a
`aIrimgJE' the ship's captain. Shortly aIterwards "Mr Robinson" and his "son" were recognised and Crippen and
Le Neve were arrested in New York and
= E ` <57h/h
. ">>?". . H
... f
returned to Britain. Largely due to Crippen s insistence that she knew nothing oI the crime, Ethel Le Neve was
Ireed, but the miM, InoIIensive looking little man was nangra at Pentonville prison on 23rd November 1910. It was
Ior his evidence given at the Crippen trial that Sir Bernard Spilsbury, the Home OIIice pathologist, Iirst made a
:)#d )# te te!t te $;#*#;3$ 2*& te e!0&e$$)*#$ )# 8&a7/et$.
1. Those with a strong desire to be successIul usually work hard.
2. The house was eamined careIully in order to Iind the body.
3. He used a strange appearance in order to hide his looks, but he could not change his voice.
Sg. E/25<%&H 80['0,) D+</23H SQRT O STjR
The name oI DreyIus is one oI the most Iamous in the history oI espionage. He was a French army oIIicer oI Jewish
ancestry who in 1894 was * sentenced to liIe imprisonment Ior selling military secrets to the Germans. The high
command oI the French army was strongly anti-Jewish and DreyIus was a convenient scapegoat. His court martial
was carried out as iI he had already been Iound guilty. To serve his sentence he was sent to Devil's Island, the
French prison colony oII the coast oI Guiana. In 1896 an army intelligence
oIIicer Iound prooI that DreyIus was innocent, but the army chieI oI staII reIused to accept it. Support Ior DreyIus
grew and in 1898 the writer Emile ola published a Iamous open letter, "J'accuse", calling Ior his case to be
reopened. At last, the army brought DreyIus back Irom Devil's Island and retried him in 1899. To the amaement oI
everyone, this second court martial again Iound him guilty. Such was the public Iury that the President pardoned
DreyIus immediately, but it was not until 1906 that his name was Iully cleared, and the real traitor eposed.
:)#d )# te te!t te E#+l)$ e'()Fale#t$ 2*& te %*&d$ a#d e!0&e$$)*#$ 8el*%.
, mnx;
- n nx mum;
- e n;
- ;
- n ;
- ;
- u- ;
- m ;
- n;
- n.
SQ. (++2/5 n%22)
This was at the same time the name oI a Iictional detective a and also the pen-name b oI the two authors,
Frederick Dannay 1905-1071 and ManIred Lee b. 1905. The books written by "Ellery ueen" are about Ellery
ueen, an American playboy writer oI detective stories c. who keeps getting involved in mysteries d himselI. He
Iirst appeared in Te R*3a# Yat 1;$te&; in 1929, and in many later books. He was also the hero oI several Iilms
made between 1935 and 1943, and Peter LawIord starred in a television series based on the books in 1971. Ellery
ueen the author also Iounded a 1;$te&; 1a+a[)#e, which was a popular outlet Ior detective stories by other
1at7 ea7 %*&d a#d 0&a$e *# te le2t %)t te 7*&&e7t de2)#)t)*# *# te &)+t.
a a detective
1 .a name used by an author instead oI a real name
b a pen-name
2.a police oIIicer whose ob is to investigate a crime
c a detective story 3.sth. oI which the cause or origin is impossible to
eplain or understand
d a mystery and the 4.one in which the main interest is crime process oI solving it
ST. L0VZ2&H F%5H SRgv O SPvP
Guy Fawkes is the best known member oI the gang which planned Gunpowder plot oI 1605. The originators oI the
plot were Robert Catesby, Thomas Winter, Thomas Percy and John Wright. Fawkes was only brought in later by
Catesby, who knew oI his reputation Ior courage. All were Roman Catholics and their plan was to destroy James I
and his Protestant parliament by blowing them up. Percy rented a house net to parliament and later the cellar below
the House oI Lords. There Fawkes hid thirty-si barrels oI gunpowder, covering them with wood and coal. The plot
was discovered when one oI the conspirators sent a letter to Lord Monteagle in October 1605 asking him not to
attend the opening oI parliament on 5th November. Suspicions were aroused and on the night oI 4th November
Fawkes was arrested in the cellar. He had been given the task oI lighting the Iuse to set oII the eplosion. Tortured,
he reIused to give the names oI his Iellow conspirators until they had either been killed or captured. He was
eecuted by hanging on 31st January 1606.
:)#d )# te te!t te %*&d$ tat 3ea#6
, a group oI criminals;
- a secret plan to do sth.;
- destroying sth. using eplosives;
- a Ieeling oI doubt or mistrust;
- a group oI people involved in a secret operation;
- to cause intense suIIering to sb.
"T. :ue%% t-e name *f t-e c-aracter.
A doctor and member oI the French Legislative Assembly, he suggested the use oI the guillotine Ior eecutions in
1789. The guillotine consists oI a heavy blade with a diagonal edge, which Ialls between two upright posts to cut oII
the victim's head cleanly and uickly. Similar machines had been used in various other countries including Scotland
and Italy. His main idea was to make eecution as uick and painless as possible. The Iirst person eecuted by
guillotine was the highwayman Pelletier in 1792, but the machine came into its own in 1793, during the Reign oI
Terror Iollowing the French Revolution, when aristocrats were guillotined by the hundred. It is still the oIIicial
means oI eecution in France.
"9. :ue%% t-e name *f t-e c-aracter.
The most Iamous oI English outlaws, he was Iirst mentioned in the second edition oI William Langland's epic poem
B)e&$ Bl*%3a# in about 1377. His legend has grown steadily ever since. He is the great popular hero, robbing
the rich to help the poor, and deIying evil ing John and the SheriII oI Nottingham. He is supposed to have lived in
Sherwood Forest, dressed in Lincoln Green, with his Merry Men who included Friar Tuck, Will Scarlett, Alan a
Dale - and oI course, Maid Marion almost certainly a siteenth century invention and addition to the legend. While
there is probably some truth in the stories, it is impossible to decide iI he was a real person or how many oI his
adventures are true, or ust Iiction. Many versions oI this legend have been produced and he was a natural hero Ior
both Iilms and television.
22. $0:Z '-2 B,[[2/
"Jack the Ripper" a was a mysterious killer who terrorised b the East End oI London in the autumn oI 1888. His
victims c. all women, were killed by having their throats cut, and in many cases the bodies were savagely
mutilated as well. The number oI victims is said to be between Iour and Iourteen, though police authorities generally
thought that only Iive murders d were deIinitely the work oI the Ripper. The Ripper was never caught, and his
identity e remains a mystery. All kinds oI people have been suggested as possible Rippers, including the Duke oI
Clarence, a Russian barber/surgeon, a society doctor and even a barrister I.
1at7 ea7 (#de&l)#ed %*&d )# te te!t %)t te 7*&&e7t de2)#)t)*#.
, Iacts that describe who a person is;
- to Iill people with terror by threats or acts oI violence;
- a robber;
- the unlawIul killing oI a person on purpose;
- a person suIIering pain because oI circumstances;
- a lawyer who has the right to speak and argue in higher law courts.
23. E/.$2:Z5++ 0)3 I/.M532
In 1866 Robert Louis Stevenson wrote his Iamous thriller Te St&a#+e 5a$e *2 U&.Je7/;ll a#d 1&.Y;de. Dr.Jeckyll
is a kind man who wants to Iind out more about the evil side oI human nature. He invents a potion, which changes
him into the bestial Mr.Hyde, who looks uite diIIerent and who roams the Streets committing terrible crimes. By
taking an antidote Dr. Jeckyll is then able to revert to his Iormer selI. However, as time goes by, he Iinds it more and
more diIIicult to change back, until Iinally he remains in the Iorm oI Mr.Hyde. In desperation he
commits suicide, and as soon as he is dead he returns to the Iorm oI Dr.Jeckyll and as such is Iound by his Iriends.
Mr.Hyde is then hunted Ior the murder, never, oI course, to be Iound. Many Iilms have been made oI the story, and
the term "Jeckyll and Hyde" had entered the language to describe a person who has two personalities, one good and
one evil.
:)#d )# te te!t te %*&d$ tat 7*&&e$0*#d t* te 2*ll*%)#+ de2)#)t)*#$.
, a work oI Iiction, or drama in which ecitement and emotional appeal are the essential elements, esp. one
involving crime;
- an oIIence Ior which there is punishment by law;
- an act oI taking one's own liIe intentionally;
- an unlawIul killing oI a person on purpose;
- a remedy that counteracts the eIIects oI poison;
- utter loss oI hope and surrender to despair.
Nf. K,33H 80['0,) 7,++,06 H SPfR O SgvS
A privateer was a private person a civilian not in the navy who was given a commission to attack the ing's
enemies at sea and traditionally there was always a thin line dividing privateering Irom piracy . In 1695 William
idd, a Scotsman who had emigrated to Boston, Massachusetts, was given a commission by William III to arrest all
pirates and also a commission to act as a privateer against the French. He Iitted out the brig AdFe#t(&e and in 1697
sailed to Madagascar, the lair oI many pirates at that time But instead oI attacking the pirates, he oined Iorces with
them and began capturing merchant ships and plundering local trade. He deserted his ship and went to New York,
oIIering treasure to the governor and claiming to be able to eplain his actions. However, he was arrested and sent to
England Ior trial where he was hanged in 1701. About 14.000 oI treasure was recovered Irom his ship and Irom a
hiding place near Long Island, though there is still supposed to be a lot oI Captain idd's treasure waiting to be
E!0la)# te 3ea#)#+$ *2 te (#de&l)#ed %*&d$ a#d e!0&e$$)*#$
NR. @,)3Y2/*-H 8-0/+2& D%*%&'%&H STvN OSTgf
idnapping, which means the taking oI a person - sometimes a child - by Iorce and asking the Iamily, Iriends or
even employers oI the person Ior ransom
a money in return Ior his or her release, has always been regarded as a serious crime One oI the best known
kidnappings oI modern times took place in America in March 1932, when the nineteen-months old son oI American
aviator Colonel Charles Lindbergh was taken Irom his New Jersey home wItile he was asleep in the nursery.
Charles Lindbergh was the Iirst man to Ily
Atlantic non-stop singlehanded in 1927 and a great American hero. A

oI money - 50,000 - was demanded by the kidnapper and this was eventually paid over by Lindbergh in
April. However, the boy had already been murdered and his bod buried under leaves and twigs in a wood only Iour
miles Iir

Lindbergh home As a result oI the Lindbergh case the crime oI kidnapping was made a Federal instead
oI ust a State oIIence b with the passing *2 the "Lindbergh Act" Iederal idnapping Act in 1933. This allowed
the FBI to become involved in the search Ior kidnappers and their victims g, K'

arrest so much more likely.
The kidnapper oI Lindbergh's child, Bruno Hauptmann, a carpenter Irom New York, was Iinally arrested in
1934 aIter a massive search, and eecuted d in 1936. The publicity which Iollowed the kidnapping was
so great that the Lindberghs eventually `
` America to live in England and continued to do so until 1939.
5*30lete te 2*ll*%)#+ $e#te#7e$ ($)#+ te (#de&l)#ed %*&d$ 2&*3 te t
te a00&*0&)ate 2*&3
1. TheoI the earthuake were a young married couple.
2. The criminal was charged with a serious.
3 He was
Ior murdering his wiIe.
4. The Iamily had to pay a big had been kidnapped.
Ior the Ireeing oI the child who
NP. @;6Y/;&;H 82&0/2H SQjP O STvT
ProIessor Lombroso, an Italian, is regarded as the Iather oI the scientiIic study oI criminals, or criminology. In an
enormous book called Te 5&)3)#al, he set out the idea that there is a deIinite criminal type, who can be recognied
by his or her appearance. Some oI what he said is diIIicult to believe- F
eample, he said that leIt-handed persons
have a criminal instinct. Amon` th
things he considered important were the shape oI the head, colour oI the hair, the
eyes, the curve oI the chin and Iorehead and iI the ears stick out. His i were very new at the time and, although not
altogether correct, caused a interest and made other people look into the problem oI crime in a scientiIic way.
.)7 de&)Fat)Fe *2 te %*&d L7&)3e L 3at7e$ te 2*ll*%)#+ de2)#)t)*#$. 1 noun - the study oI crime;
2 noun - a person who commits crimes;
3 noun - delinuency.
Ng. @%:,0);H 8-0/+2& #@%:Z5# \>0+90';/2 @%:,0)0]H SQTg O STPN
"Lucky" Luciano, so called because he led a charmed liIe and avoided assassination, was one oI the most powerIul
leaders oI the MaIia in the USA. Having risen to be a trusted lieutenant oI Joe Masseria "Joe the Boss", he had him
killed in 1931. This was the Iirst step Luciano was to make in getting rid oI the old guard oI the MaIia, to make way
Ior younger men like himselI. In the reorganisation that Iollowed Luciano became 7a0* or head oI one oI the Iive
New York MaIia "Families". He became the most powerIul chieItain in the MaIia, and Iormed alliances with
gangsters oI other national groups such as the Jews and Irish-Americans. In 1936 he was sent to prison but paroled
in 1945 because oI his and the MaIia's secret work Ior the US government during the Second World War.
AIterwards he was deported to Italy, Irom where he ran the European end oI the MaIia's drugs operation.
1at7 ea7 %*&d *& e!0&e$$)*# *# te le2t %)t te 7*&&e7t de2)#)t)*# *# te &)+t.
a to lead a charmed liIe
b an assassination
c a gangster
d to send to prison
e to parole
1. to ail
2. a member oI a gang oI armed criminals
3. a murder Ior political reasons
4. to Iree a prisoner on a promise that he will not repeat a crime
5. to be lucky
2;. :ue%% t-e name *f t-e c-aracter.
He was a real live king oI Scotland, but he is best known through the Iamous tragedy written by Shakespeare and
based on his liIe. In the play, this king is encouraged by his wiIe to kill Duncan, ing oI Scotland, who is his guest
at Dunsinane, this king's castle, and take the throne. He does kill Duncan by stabbing him to death, but he is troubled
by dreams and Iears that Banuo, a Iellow general, will seie the throne Irom him. He, thereIore hires two assassins
to kill Banuo but lets his son escape, thereby IulIilling the prophecy that Irom Banuo "shall come a line oI kings".
AIter Banuo's death things go very wrong Ior the ing. His wiIe, stricken by remorse, goes mad,
sleepwalking and talking oI blood on her hands, and soon dies. Malcolm, Duncan's son, then sets out to avenge his
Iather's death, marching on Dunsinane with an army. The ing is deIeated and killed in single combat with
jv. I0'0 M0/, \Y;/) F2/30 |2++2]H SQgPOSTSg
Mata Hari, who was eecuted a by a Iiring suad in France in October 1917, is probably the most Iamous spy oI
all time. She is renown Ior her beauty, her numerous military lovers, her provocative Oriental dancing, and, above
all, her espionage. Yet in Iact, she was not Oriental, or even a spy b. Mata Hari was a stage name adopted by a
plump middle-aged Dutch divorcee, named Mrs. Margaretha MacLeod, who had leIt her alcoholic Scottish husband
in the Netherlands East Indies now Indonesia and opted to become a dancer in Europe.
The evidence c oI her alleged d espionage on behalI oI the German aiser is based merely on her being mistaken
Ior a well-known German agent Clara Benedi, by the British in November 1916. In that month Mrs. MacLeod was
arrested in Falmouth, Cornwall, on board oI the ship Y*lla#d)a
while she was on her way to Holland. The police released her when they realied the mistake. Later she was arrested
in France and charged with e having been in contact with German intelligence oIIicers in Madrid though she had
never even been there.
At her trial in Paris her lurid liIe-style was used to damning eIIect. It was only in 1963, when the secret Iiles relating
to her case were released, that the legend was reassessed. Most historians now think that, Iar Irom being a spy, Mata
Hari was simply an innocent scapegoat - shot because the French government wanted to cover up its military
ineptitude by Iabricating an all-powerIul ring oI German agents.
5*30lete te 2*ll*%)#+ $e#te#7e$ %)t te (#de&l)#ed %*&d$ 2&*3 te te!t.
1. There was not enoughto prove him guilty.
2. He wasIor murdering his wiIe.
3. In your statement, are you the scene oI the crime?
that the accused man was seen at
4. He was told to
5. The criminal was
on the enemy's movements, with murder.
41. :ue%% t-e name *f t-e c-aracter.
He was Chancellor to Henry VIII and a very great thinker whose writing has had a great eIIect on many people right
up to the present day. Among his important thoughts was that the reasons Ior crime were to be Iound in economic
and social conditions. He believed that iI people lived in a more ust and humane society they would behave better.
He also thought that punishment should be sensible and that people Iound guilty should be made to work Ior the
good oI the community. His views were Iar ahead oI the time, so that it was only in later centuries that his book
@t*0)a was really understood. As a strict Roman Catholic he disapproved oI Henry VIII's attempt to break away
Irom the church in Rome and set up his own Church oI England. For Iailing to accept Henry as the head oI the
English church he was tried Ior treason in 1535, being beheaded at the Tower oI London. In 1935 he was made a
saint by the Roman Catholic Church.
jN. ?&V0+3H @22 M0/925H STfv OSTPj
5*30lete te te!t %)t te %*&d$ tat 3ea# _
, to kill a person Ior political reasons;
- an oIIence Ior which there is punishment by law;
- an eamination in law court;
- to eamine careIully.
In 1963 the world was shaken by the news that President ennedy had been a in Dallas, Teas, while driving Irom
airport. The man arrested Ior this terrible b was Lee Harvey Oswald. AIter service in the US Marine Corps,
Oswald went to the Soviet Union Ior a time and married a Russian girl. On returning to the United States he was Ior
a time involved with Cuban revolutionary elements. On 22nd November 1963 he is said to have taken a riIle into the
Teas Book Depository in Dallas, where he worked, and shot President ennedy and Governor Conally oI Teas as
they drove past Conally survived, but the President died soon aIterwards. Oswald tried to escape, shooting a
policeman who tried to stop him. He was caught, but was later shot dead beIore he could be brought to c by the
night-club owner Jack Ruby, who had got into the police station. The Warren Commission, which d the
assassination, stated that Oswald had acted alone, but many people do not agree, and there are still a great many
uestions concerning the killing leIt unanswered.
44. :ue%% t-e name *f t-e c-aracter.
One oI the leaders oI French Revolution, he was the mastermind behind the Reign oI Terror, in which most oI the
opponents to the French Revolution were eecuted in an orgy oI blood A brilliant lawyer, he became a member oI
the Committee oI Public SaIety in 1793. Though not solely responsible Ior the Terror, he was its strongest advocate
and arranged Ior a change in the law, which made witnesses unnecessary at tribunal hearings. In the net seven
weeks nearly 1300 people were guillotined in Paris alone. On 27th July 1794, he went too Iar and was epelled Irom
the Convention. He was shot in the aw while being arrested, and aIter a night oI agony was taken beIore the
tribunal, condemned as an outlaw and sent immediately to the guillotine.
LAW STORIES S. 4-2 L,/&' @0V&
TASK 9. Read te te!t.
Rules and laws - and the conventions or customs Irom which they are descended - have been a part oI human liIe
ever since our ancestors Iirst began to live in large and settled groups. But our knowledge is vague oI laws that were
in eIIect beIore the invention oI writing in about 3500 B.C. The earliest known legal tet was written by Ur-Nammu,
a king oI the Mesopotamian city oI Ur, in about 2100 B.C. It dealt largely with compensation Ior bodily inuries,
and with the penalties Ior witchcraIt and runaway slaves.
TASK ". :)#d )# te te te!t te %*&d$ tat 7*&&e$0*#d t* te 2*ll*%)#+ de2)#)t)*#$.
, the use oI magic power, esp. with the aid oI evil spirits;
- punishment;
- an accepted social custom or practice;
- insubstantial, amorphous, indistinct,
- payment Ior damage or loss, restitution;
- discovery;
- urisprudential, deriving authority Irom law;
- one Irom whom a person is descended.
TASK -. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$ a#d 0&*Fe ;*(& 0*)#t *2 F)e%.
9. What is the diIIerence between a rule and a law? Give Iive eamples oI each.
2. Can a society develop without rules laws?
3. Which oI the statements do you think is true:
a All the laws are situational. They suit only the given place at a given time.
b There is some eternal law. It is good Ior all times and places.
TASK 4. .*&/ )# +&*(0$. 1a/e a l)$t *2 a$$*7)at)*#$ %)7 a&)$e %)t te %*&d ?a8;l*#. T&; t* *(t#(38e& ;*(&
*00*#e#t$. 5*30a&e ;*(& #*te$. .e&e d* ;*(& a$$*7)at)*#$ 7*3e 2&*3Z
2. @0V& ;< .0Y5+;)
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One oI the most detailed ancient legal codes was drawn up in about 1758 B.C. by Hammurabi, a king oI Babylonia.
The entire code, consisting oI 282 paragraphs, was carved into a great stone pillar, which was set up in a temple to
the Babylonian god Marduk so that it could be read by every citien.
The pillar, lost Ior centuries aIter the Iall oI Babylon in the 16th century B.C., was rediscovered by a French
archaeologist in 1901 amid the ruins oI the Persian city oI Susa. Hammurabi's words were still legible. The pillar is
now in the Louvre museum in Paris.
The laws laid down by Hammurabi were more etensive than any that had gone beIore. They covered crime, divorce
and marriage, the rights oI slave owners and slaves, the settlement oI debts, inheritance and property contracts; there
were even regulations about taes and the prices oI goods.
Punishments under the code were oIten harsh. Not only murderers but also thieves and Ialse accusers Iaced the death
penalty. And a child who hit his Iather could epect to lose the hand that struck the blow.
Nevertheless, Hammurabi's laws represented an advance on earlier tribal customs, because the penalty could not be
IorIeit Ior an eye.
The code outlawed private blood Ieuds and banned the tradition by which a man could kidnap and keep the woman
he wanted Ior his bride. In addition, the new laws took account oI the circumstances oI the oIIender as well as oI the
oIIence. So a lower-ranking citien who lost a civil case would be Iined less than an aristocrat in the same position -
though he would also be awarded less iI he won.
TASK ". A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$.
1. Why do you think Hammurabi decided to have his laws carved into a pillar?
2. List the spheres oI human liIe covered by Hammurabi's code. Eplain the choice.
3. Why do you think people oI diIIerent ranks were treated diIIerently by Hammurabi's code?
j. >%)305 .+%2&
TASK 9. Read te te!t.
The so-called blue laws in the United States might better be called Sunday laws, because their intent has been to
restrict or Iorbid business, trade, paid work, or other commercial activities on Sunday, the Sabbath oI maor
Christian sects. In the mid-1980s blue laws had been repealed or simply ignored in many parts oI the nation but
continued to be observed in certain religious communities.
Secular arguments against blue laws are that they violate the constitutional guarantee oI separation oI church and
state and Iavour one religion, Christianity. A secular argument supporting them is that everybody needs a day oI rest
each week. Proscribing work on Sundays goes back at least to 4th-century Rome under Constantine the Great, and
the practice was strictly supported in the religion-oriented American colonies. The term 8l(e la% is said to have
arisen Irom a list oI Sabbath rules printed on blue paper Ior residents oI New Haven, Connecticut, in 1781.
TASK ". :)#d )# te te!t te %*&d$ tat 3ea# te *00*$)te.
, to unite;
- pay attention to;
- minor;
- Ior;
- to allow.
TASK -. :)#d )# te te!t te %*&d$ tat 7*&&e$0*#d t* te 2*ll*%)#+ de2)#)t)*#$.
, to regulate, limit;
- to revoke a law;
- to maintain a condition, course or action without interruption;
- to comply with, inIringe;
- to put outside the protection oI the law;
- meaning, signiIicance.
f.#@2' '-2 .;35 .2 ./;%*-'...#
TASK 9. Read te te!t.
In the United States, Britain, and many other English-speaking countries, the law oI Habeas Corpus guarantees that
nobody can be held in prison without trial. Habeas Corpus became law because oI a wild party held in 1621 at the
London home oI a notoriously rowdy lady, Alice Robinson. When a constable appeared and asked her and her
guests to uiet down, Mrs. Robinson allegedly swore at him so violently that he arrested her, and a local ustice oI
the peace committed her to ail.
When she was Iinally brought to trial, Mrs. Robinson's story oI her treatment in prison caused an outcry. She had
been put on a punishment diet oI bread and water, Iorced to sleep on the bare earth, stripped, and given 50 lashes.
Such treatment was barbaric even by the harsh standards oI the time; what made it worse was that Mrs. Robinson
was pregnant.
Public anger was so great that she was acuitted, the constable who had arrested her without a warrant was himselI
sent to prison, and the ustice oI the peace was severely reprimanded. And the case, along with other similar cases,
led to the passing oI the Habeas Corpus Act in Britain in 1679. The law is still on the British statute books, and a
version oI it is used in the United States, where the law was regarded as such an important guarantee oI liberty that
Article 1 oI the Constitution declares that Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended ecept in cases oI "rebellion or
Habeas Corpus is part oI a Latin phrase - Ya8ea$ 7*&0($ ad $(8a)7)e#d(3 , that means "Let the body be brought
beIore the udge." In eIIect, a writ oI Habeas Corpus is an order in the name oI the people or, in Britain, oI the
sovereign to produce an imprisoned person in court at once.
TASK " :)#d )# te te!t te %*&d$ tat 7*&&e$0*#d t* te 2*ll*%)#+ de2)#)t)*#$.
, an order in writing issued under seal in the name oI the sovereign or oI a court or udicial oIIicer
commanding or Iorbidding an act speciIied in
- a place oI enIorced conIinement;
- the Iormal eamination and determination by a competent tribunal oI the matter at issue in a civil or
criminal cause;
- sanction; a document authoriing an oIIicer to make an arrest, a search, etc.;
- well-known, esp. Ior a speciIied unIavourable uality or trait;
- a public epression oI anger or disapproval;
- a law passed by a legislative body and recorded;
- ail, penitentiary;
- entering the country with hostile purposes;
- to compel by physical, moral or intellectual means;
- to declare not guilty.
R. >',<< >2)'2):2&
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ta# *#7e.
Iound guilty;
eecution; victim;
One oI the most biarre methods oIwasin ancient Rome
on peopleoI murdering their Iathers. Their punishment was to be put in
a sack with a rooster, a viper, and a dog, then drowned along with the three
animals. In ancient Greece the custom oI allowing aman to end his own
liIe by poison was etended only to Iull citiens. The philosopher Socrates died in this way. Condemned slaves were
beaten to death instead.
In medieval Europe some methods oIwere bbbbb drawn out
tomaimum suIIering. were tied to a heavy wheel and rolled
around the streets until they were crushed to death. Others were strangled, very slowly. One oI the most terrible
punishments was hanging, drawing, and
uartering. The
pieces. It remained a
The Iirst country to
abolished it Ior every crime ecept
was hanged, beheaded and the body cut into Iour
method oIin Britain until 1814.
capitalwas Austria in 1887. Russia
on the orders oI Car Nicholas 1 in
1826, but it was reintroduced aIter the Communist Revolution in 1917.
P. 8%/,;%& 7,++&
.e&e te&e )$ a %)ll, te&e )$ a %*#Ht.
TASK 9. Read te te!t.
When Margaret Montgomery oI Chicago died in 1959, she leIt her Iive cats and a 15,000 trust Iund Ior their care to
a Iormer employee, William Fields. The will stipulated that Fields was to use the trust income solely Ior the cats'
care and Ieeding, including such delicacies as pot roast meat. II, however, he outlived all the cats, Fields would
inherit the trust principal. Nine years later the last cat, Fat Nose, died at 20, and Fields, 79, was 15,000 richer.
Probably the largest single group oI pets to be named speciIically in a will were the 150 or so dogs given 4,3
million by Eleanor Ritchey, an oil company heiress who died in 1968. The dogs were mostly strays she had
collected at her 180-acre ranch in DeerIield Beach, Florida. When the last dog, Musketeer, died in June 1984, the
entire estate - by then grown to nearly 12 million - went under the will to the Auburn University School oI
Veterinary Medicine to support research on dog diseases.
Charles Vance Millar, a Canadian lawyer and Iinancier who died a bachelor in 1926, beueathed the bulk oI his
Iortune to whichever Toronto women gave birth to the largest number oI children in the 10 years aIter his death.
Four women eventually tied in the "stork derby" that Iollowed the publication oI his will. Each had 9 children, and
they shared between them 750,000. A IiIth woman who had 10 children was ruled out because 5 were illegitimate.
One oI the world's shortest wills was leIt by an Englishman named Dickens. Contested in 1906 but upheld by the
courts, it read simply: "All Ior mother".
A 19th-century London tavernkeeper leIt his property to his wiIe - on the condition that every year, on the
anniversary oI his death, she would walk bareIoot to the local market, hold up a lighted candle, and conIess aloud
how she had nagged him. The theme oI the conIession was that iI her tongue had been shorter, her husband's days
would have been longer. II she Iailed to keep the appointment, she was to receive no more than 20 a year, ust
enough to live on. Whether the wiIe decided to take the bigger beuest or spare herselI humiliation is not known.
TASK ". .*&/ )# 0a)&$. E!a3)#e te %)ll$. o*( a&e a la%;e& *2 *#e te$e 2)Fe ,,,,,,,, 7l)e#t$. U)$7($$ %)t ;*(&
7l)e#t te te&3$ *2 te %)ll.
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It is no legend that iI B man 0 three 4 to hang him, his 5 was automatically 6 to . In 1885 John Lee, a
19-year-old Iootman was 8 oI murdering his employer. 2 to death, Lee then 3J three 4 by a hangman John
Perry, to 9J him at Eeter Gaol in Devon, England.
The wooden B had warped in the rain, and three times the trapdoor reIused to B when Lee was placed on it - B
it worked perIectly when he was moved down to the ground. So Lee was 5J to 7 and spent 22 years in U2J. B m
1907, he emigrated to the United States, married there, and died oI natural 15 in 1933 at the age oI 67.
Q. J0[;+2;)`& @0V
TASK 9. 5*30lete te 2*ll*%)#+ te!t %)t te %*&d$ 2&*3 te 8*!.
Iorce; ordinary; civil; aIIected; adopted;
legal; dominated; studied; euals; draIted; emperor.
The laws oI much oI continental Europe particularly France, oI uebec in Canada, and oI much oI Latin America -
along with the a laws oI Louisiana - owe their modern Iorm largely to the work oI a man who never even b law.
Napoleon Bonaparte, the Corsican soldier who became c oI France aIter the French Revolution, established in
1800 Iive commissions to reIine and organise the disparate d systems oI France. The result, enacted in 1804, was
the Napoleon's Code.
Some oI its original 2,281 articles were e by Napoleon himselI, and all were I by his thinking, even though he
was completely selI-taught in legal matters. The code was a triumphant attempt to create a legal system that treated
all citiens as g without regard to their rank or previous privileges. It was also so clearly written that it could be
read and understood by h people at a time when only Latin scholars could make sense oI the earlier laws handed
down since Roman times. The code was i intact in most oI the areas oI Europe that Napoleon 0 and spread Irom
there across the Atlantic, taking root particularly in French-speaking American communities. Many oI its principles
are still in k today.
TASK ". 5**$e *#e *2 te t*0)7$ a#d 0&e0a&e a tal/.
1. The main points oI Napoleon's biography.
2. The great victories oI Napoleon Bonaparte.
3. One hundred days oI Napoleon Bonaparte.
4. Great emperor and romantic lover.
5. The legal system oI France at the time oI Napoleon.
6. The leaders oI the French Revolution.
7. World literature about the French Revolution.
8."... prince and butcher"- Nostradamus's prophetic verse about Napoleon.
T. .,/'- ;< '-2 $%/5
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a sole
1. to udge, consider
b ordeal
2. to take to or upon oneselI
c convene
3. to give support to, maintain
d medieval
4. to become maniIest or known, to rise Irom an obscure
or inIerior position
e deIendant 5. come together in a body
I assume
g reveal h emerge i uphold
k admonish 1 deem
6. the only one
7. oI the Middle Ages
8. to warn, advise against
9. sb. against whom a criminal charge or a civil claim is made
10. a method Iormerly used to determine guilt or innocence by submitting the accused to dangerous or
painIul tests whose outcome was believed to depend on divine or supernatural intervention
11. to make known
12. a belieI or practice resulting Irom ignorance, Iear oI the unknown, trust in magic or chance
Juries Iirst came into being in Norman Britain because oI the Church. In medieval Europe, trials were usually
decided by ordeals - in which it was believed God intervened, revealing the wrongdoer and upholding the righteous.
In the ordeal by water, Ior instance, a priest admonished the water not to accept a liar. The person whose oath was
being tested was then thrown in. II he Iloated, his oath was deemed to have been perured. II he was telling the truth,
he might drown but his innocence was clear.
In 1215, however, the Catholic Church decided that trial by ordeal was superstition, and priests were Iorbidden to
take part. As a result, a new method oI trial was needed, and the ury system emerged.
At Iirst the ury was made up oI local people who could be epected to know the deIendant. A ury was convened
only to "say the truth" on the basis oI its knowledge oI local aIIairs. The word Fe&d)7t reIlects this early Iunction; the
Latin world Irom which it is derived, Fe&ed)7t(3, means "truly said". It was not until centuries later that the ury
assumed its modern role oI deciding Iacts on the sole basis oI what is heard in court. Today the ury system has
spread to numerous other countries. Every year more than 100,000 ury trials are held in US courts - 90 per cent oI
the world total.
Sv. F;;3 I2) 0)3 4/%2
TASK 9. .*&/ )# +&*(0$. 1a/e a l)$t *2 2a3*($ E#+l)$ a#d A3e&)7a# dete7t)Fe $t*&; %&)te&$ a#d te)& 2a3*($
TASK ". 5*30lete te 2*ll*%)#+ te!t %)t te %*&d$ 2&*3 te 8*!.
really; detective; guilt; triIle; Ieaturing;
Iounder, trusted; virtues; ustly; catalogued;
value; common; uror.
G..Chesterton 1874-1936, the English author who created the a stories b a Roman Catholic priest named
Father Brown, was also a powerIul champion oI the c oI traditional d sense. AIter serving as a e himselI,
Chesterton wrote an essay in which he summed up the I oI the ury system in this way:"Our civilisation has
decided, and very g decided, that determining the h or innocence oI men is a thing too important to be to
trained men... When it wants a library , or the solar system discovered, or any k oI that kind, it uses its
specialists. But when it wishes anything done which is 0 serious, it collects 12 oI the ordinary men standing round.
The same thing was done, iI I remember right, by the m oI Christianity."
TASK - E!0la)# te all($)*# ($ed 8; >.K.5e$te&t*#. TASK 4. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#.
What does O.. Chesterton approve oI in the way the ury is selected?
TASK V. .*&/ )# +&*(0$ U)$7($$ te '(e$t)*#.
Is the institution oI ury useIul and important? Prove your point oI view.
SS. I;/0+,'5 B2[20+23
TASK D. Read te te!t.
RatiIied in January 1919, the 18th Amendment to the US Constitution prohibited "the manuIacture, sale, or
transportation oI intoicating liuors" within the United States. A little less than 15 years later, the 21st Amendment
repealed Prohibition. Viewed as a triumph oI morality by its backers, Prohibition Iorced a double standard on many
tippling politicians, among them the net US president, Warren G.Harding. As a senator in 1919, he had
spearheaded passage in the Senate oI some tough laws to enIorce the 18th Amendment. Two years later Harding
brought many oI his drinking buddies with him as advisers into the White House.
TASK ". :)#d )# te te!t te %*&d$ tat 7*&&e$0*#d t* te 2*ll*%)#+ de2)#)t)*#$.
, to end, cancel, revoke a law;
- supporters;
- severe or uncompromisingly determined;
- to cause a rule or law to be carried out eIIectively;
- persons who give recommendations, inIormation, warning;
- to approve or conIirm Iormally;
- to serve as leader or leading Iorce oI companions, partners;
- to Iorbid by authority;
- an action oI getting approval by legislature;
- being obsessed by alcoholic drinks;
- change or revision;
- a person eperienced or engaged in politics;
- the large-scale making oI wares by hand or by machinery.
SN. >,+2)' 7,')2&&
TASK 9. Read te te!t.
A slander case in Thailand was once settled by a witness who said nothing at all. According to the memoirs oI
Justice Gerald Sparrow, a 20th century British barrister who served as a udge in Bangkok, the case involved two
rival Chinese merchants, Pu Lin and Swee Ho. Pu Lin had stated sneeringly at a party that Swee Ho's new wiIe, Li
Bua, was merely a decoration to show how rich her husband was. Swee Ho, he said, could no longer "please the
Swee Ho sued Ior slander, claiming Li Bua was his wiIe in every sense -and he won his case, along with substantial
damages, without a word oI evidence being taken. Swee Ho's lawyer simply put the blushing bride in the witness
bo. She had decorative, gold-painted Iingernails, to be sure, but she was also uite obviously pregnant.
TASK ". :)#d )# te te!t te %*&d$ tat 7*&&e$0*#d t* te 2*ll*%)#+ de2)#)t)*#$.
, the utterance oI Ialse charges which do damage to another's reputation;
- a lawyer who has the right to plead as an advocate in an English superior court;
- sb. who tries to compete with and be superior to another;
- considerable in uantity; signiIicantly large;
- inIormation used by a tribunal to arrive at the truth;
- an enclosure in which a witness testiIies in court.
TASK -. .at d* ;*( t)#/ +*ld,0a)#ted 2)#+e&#a)l$ $;38*l)$e )# 5)#aZ
Sj. K,++2/ 4;/';,&2
TASK 9. 5*30lete te te!t ,%)t te E#+l)$ e'()Fale#t$ *2 te 2*ll*%)#+ R($$)a# %*&d$.
, n;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- n ;
- n ;
- ;
- ;
- n n;
- m n.
In July 1981 a tortoise was a Ior murder, b in yuasini, a village in enya, Iormally c the tortoise because they
d it oI causing the death oI si people, e through magic. However, because none oI the villagers was prepared to
risk the tortoise's I by g the h. it was i instead. The tortoise was later Ireed aIter the government promised an
oIIicial into the deaths.
TASKl. Read te te!t.
At last the sleepy atmosphere oI the village was stirred and vigorously: MuII Potter was being tried Ior the alleged
murder oI Dr. Robinson. It became the absorbing topic oI village talk immediately. Tom knew that he was not
suspected oI knowing anything about the murder, but every reIerence to it sent a shudder to his heart. His dreams at
night were Iull oI horrors. In the daytime he was drawn to the courtroom by an almost irresistible impulse to go in,
but he Iorced himselI to stay out. Tom kept his ears open, but invariably heard distressing news: Indian Joe's
evidence was unshaken and there was not the slightest doubt that MuII Potter would be-convicted.
On Friday morning all the village Ilocked to the courthouse Ior it was to be the last day oI the trial. AIter a long wait
the ury took their places; shortly aIterwards Potter, pale, timid and hopeless, was brought in, with chains upon him,
and seated where all the curious eyes could stare at him. Then the Judge arrived, and the opening oI the court was
Now a witness was called who testiIied that he had Iound MuII Potter washing in the brook at an early hour oI the
morning that the murder was discovered and that Potter immediately sneaked away. The net witness proved the
Iinding oI the kniIe near the corpse. A third witness swore that he had oIten seen the kniIe in Potter's possession.
Several witnesses testiIied to Potter's guilty behaviour when he had been brought to the scene oI the murder. But
were all allowed to leave the stand without being cross-eamined by Potter's
lawyer. The perpleity and dissatisIaction oI the house were epressed in
murmurs and provoked a reprooI Irom the Judge.
A groan escaped Irom poor Potter, and he put his Iace in his hands and
rocked his body to and Iro, while a painIul silence reigned in the courtroom.
Many men were moved, and many women's compassion testiIied itselI in tears.
Counsel Ior the deIence rose and asked the Judge Ior permission to call Thomas
Sawyer as a witness Ior the deIence.
Tom rose and took his place upon the stand. Every eye Iastened itselI on him as the oath was being administered.
"Thomas Sawyer, where were you on the seventeenth oI June, about the hour oI midnight?"
Tom glanced at Indian Joe's iron Iace and his tongue Iailed him. AIter a Iew moments, however, he managed to put
enough strength into his voice so that he could be heard by part oI the house. Tom was asked to speak up a little
louder and to tell the court about everything that occurred that night without skipping anything. Tom was also asked
not to mention his companion's name as the latter would be produced at the proper time.
Tom began - hesitatingly at Iirst, but as he warmed to his subect, his words Ilowed more easily; in a little while only
his voice was heard; every eye was Iied upon him; the audience hung upon his lips rapt in the ghastly Iascination oI
the tale. Tom said that he had been hidden behind the elms in the graveyard. He conIessed a triIle shyly that he had
taken a dead cat with him to the graveyard. Potter's lawyer added that the skeleton oI the cat would be produced as
evidence. There was a ripple oI laughter when the dead cat was mentioned, but it was checked by the Judge.
The strain oI the audience reached its clima when Tom began describing the Iight in the graveyard. The audience
heard that Dr. Robinson had
been killed by Indian Joe with MuII Potter's kniIe while Potter lay unconscious on the ground.
Crash uick as lightning, Indian Joe sprang Ior a window, tore his way through all opposers, and was gone
Tom was a glittering hero once more - the pet oI the old, the envy oI the young. His name was even immortalied in
print, Ior the village paper magniIied him. There were some that believed that he would be elected President yet, iI
he escaped hanging.
Tom's days were days oI splendour and eultation Ior him, but his nights were seasons oI horror. His dreams were
inIested by Indian Joe, and always with doom in his eyes. HalI the time Tom was aIraid that Indian Joe would never
be captured; the other halI he was aIraid he would be. Daily Tom was made happy by MuII Potter's gratitude, but
nightly he was sorry that he had not sealed up his tongue.
Rewards had been oIIered, the country had been scoured, but no Indian Joe was Iound. The slow days driIted on,
and each leIt behind it a slightly lightened weight oI apprehension.
AIter 1 T%a)#=
TASK ". :)#d )# te te!t te e'()Fale#t$ 2*& te 2*ll*%)#+ %*&d$ a#d e!0&e$$)*#$.
, ;
- ;
- n;
- n;
- nn;
- ;
- n n n;
- - nn;
- ;
- n - ;
- ;
- n ;
- u u-;
- - ;
- ;
- n -;
- ;
- ;
- n n.
195 TASK -. A#$%e& te '(e$t)*#$, 3a/)#+ ($e *a te a8*Fe , +)Fe# F*7a8(la&;.
A. What event stirred the monotonous liIe oI the village where Tom Sawyer lived?
2. Was Tom Sawyer suspected oI knowing anything about the murder? How did he Ieel about the
3. Who was likely to be convicted oI the murder? Was his guilt proved?
4. What testimony was given by the witnesses on the last day oI the trial?
5. Why were the people present at the trial dissatisIied?
6. What testimony did Tom Sawyer give? What was the reaction oI the audience to it?
7. How did Indian Joe manage to escape?
8. Was Tom Sawyer satisIied with what he had done? What was he terribly aIraid oI?
TASK 4. P**/ at te 0)7t(&e *2 a# A3e&)7a# 7*(&t 1at7 te #(38e&$ )# te 0)7t(&e %)t te %*&d$ 8el*%.
Jury;tH robe; court oIIicer; reporter; gavel; transcript; court; urybo;` deIendant;
witness; prosecuting attorney; bench; deIence attorney; udge;* witness stand,
TASK V R*le,0la;. In 7la$$, d)$t&)8(te te &*le$ a#d 0la; te $7e#e *2 7&*$$,e!a3)#)#+ te %)t#e$$e$ *# te la$t da;
*2 te t&)al.
accomplice s'komplis aIIidavit .aeII deivit assault s'sorlt bigamist 'bigamist caucus 'korkos councillor
'kaunsdld counterIeit 'kauntaIit delinuent dI hrkwsnt deterrent di'terant employee .emploi'i: enuire
m'kwais Iorger ' hiack impartial im'pa:J 1 inure 'ind`s indictment m'daitmgnt indict m'dait illegal i'li:gl
uvenile 'd`uivanail legal li:gl license 'laisans magistrate 'maed`istreit mariuanna 'msen'hwa:n9
misdemeanor `isdi'miina peremptory ps'remptsn perury 'p9:d5n personnel ,+:83'n1 plaintiII 'plemtiI
preudice 'predudis preponderance pn'pondarans rehabilitate ,ri:h9'biliteit sovereign 'sovrin stowaway
'stous.wei unanimous Ou: 'naemmas voir dire .vua'di r
John Chisholm 4 i am Sean Connery Jorn ' Roger Moore mua enneth More mo: Cassius 'kaeIas Julius
Caesar 'si a Cain kern Abel e ibl Eden idn
Cagliostro kae'lostrsu Caligula .kae'ligab Al Capone ka'pauni DreyIus 'draiIas ola au'la: Thomas More
Imo: Fawkes Io:ks Macbeth Duncan Banuo I'baerkwau Robespierre .raubes'pa
n P 066348 17.07.97.
nu 25.09.97. 6088/16. Hu =s. . . 12,5. Tx 10000 +. 3. 6858.
115407, , C ., 59.
Onu n I
O mn, T K 3
nn "H On n"
I P n n nu.
113114, , Bm ., 10.

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