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СЛОВАРЬ ТЕРМИНОВ ПО СТИЛИСТИКЕ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА

3-я редакция: карточек - 200, заголовков – 265.


Авторы: В.А.Кухаренко, И.Р.Гальперин, И.В.Арнольд и др.
Составитель: Аркадий Куракин {ark # mksat. net}, 2003-2004
г. Николаев, апрель, июнь 2003, май 2004
Версию словаря, конвертированную для Лингво 8.0, см.:
{http://www.lingvoda.ru/LingvoDict/Stylistics.zip}

Словарь будет полезным студентам при подготовке к экзамену по стилистике, а также всем, кто
интересуется вопросами стилистики, стилистического анализа текста и вообще – красотой
языка, не только английского.

Выписки из:
- монографии В.А.Кухаренко (V.A.К.) – основа: терминология и примеры (см. graphon);
- монографии И.Р.Гальперина (I.R.G.) – особенности функциональных стилей (см. features of …
style), дополнены основные (см. simile) и добавлены отсутствующие определения (gap-sentence
link, question-in-the-narrative, rhyme, epigram, allusion, enumeration, etc.), несколько примеров;
- монографии И.В.Арнольд (I.V.A.) - особенности научного и газетного стилей (на русском
языке, см.), классификация эпитетов по А.Н.Веселовскому (см. epithet), определения на русском
языке (см. ), отсутствующая терминология (см. transposition, convergence, coupling,
полуотмеченная структура, zoomorphism, elative, reprise и др.), много примеров.

Пересылки составлены мной (АК).

Значительное внимание уделялось иллюстрации объяснений терминов примерами из


современной оригинальной литературы, с указанием автора.
См., например, metaphor, antonomasia, zeugma, antithesis, climax, periphrasis, transposition

==================================================
СПИСОК ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННЫХ ИСТОЧНИКОВ:

V.A.K.
a) V.A.Kukharenko. A book of practice in Stylistics. 2nd rev. and suppl. ed. A manual for
students of Foreign Languages Departments of Higher Educational Institutions. Vinnytsia: Nova
Knyga, 2000. – 160 p. – engl.
b) Кухаренко В.А. Практикум з стилістики англійської мови: Підручник для студ. фак.-тів
ін. мов вузів. 2-е вид, перегл. та пош. – Вінниця: Нова книга, 2000. – 160 с. – англ.
c) Кухаренко Валерия Андреевна
Практикум по стилистике английского языка. Учебник для студ. фак.-тов ин.яз. вузов. 2-е
изд., пересм. та расш. – Винница: Нова книга, 2000. – 160 с. – англ.
Цель пособия – помочь студентам старших курсов факультетов иностранных языков,
педагогических и академических университетов овладеть практикой стилистического анализа
текста на базе прослушанного теоретического курса стилистики английского языка. Для этого в
учебнике приводятся короткие теоретические выводы из каждого раздела, вопроса для
самоконтроля и широкий иллюстративный материал.

I.R.G.
a) I.R.Galperin. Stylistics. 2nd ed., rev., ed. by L.R.Todd. M.: Higher School, 1977
b) Гальперин Илья Романович
Стилистика английского языка. Учебник. Изд. 2-е, испр. и доп. Под ред. Л.Р.Тодд. М.:
Высш. школа, 1977. – 332 с. – англ.

I.V.A.
Арнольд Ирина Владимировна
Стилистика. Современный английский язык: учебник для вузов. – 4-е изд., испр. и доп. –
М.: Флинта, Наука, 2002, - 384 с.
{{==============================================}}

Stylistics
style of language
стилистика
- is a system of co-ordinated, interrelated and inter-conditioned language means intended to
fulfil a specific function of communication and aiming at a definite effect; (I.R.G.)
- наука о подсистемах литературного языка (стилях языка) и о средствах языкового
выражения, применением которых обусловлен требуемый эффект (цель) высказывания
(I.R.G.:6);
- отрасль лингвистики, исследующая принципы и эффект выбора и использования
лексических, грамматических, фонетических и вообще языковых средств для передачи мысли и
эмоции в разных условиях общения (I.V.A.);
- это раздел языкознания, изучающий систему стилей языка, языковых норм, способы
употребления литературного языка в различных условиях языкового общения, в разных видах и
жанрах письменности, в различных сферах общественной жизни;
- is primarily the study of synonymic language resources (Charles Bally);
See: <practical stylistics>, <functional stylistics>, <functional style>; <stylistic device>,
<expressive means>, <stylistic norm>; <phono-graphical level>, <morphological level>, <lexical
level>, <syntactical level>

expressive means
EMs
выразительные средства
are those phonetic, morphological, word-building, lexical, phraseological and syntactical forms
which exist in language-as-a-system for the purpose of logical and/or emotional intensification of the
utterance (I.R.G.:27)
See: <alliteration>; use of diminutive suffixes, use of words with <emotional meaning>,
<special colloquial words>, <barbarisms>, <archaisms>, acronyms, idioms etc.
See: <stylistic device>, <phono-graphical level>; <Stylistics>

stylistic device
SD
стилистический приём
is a conscious and intentional intensification of some typical structural and/or semantic property
of a language unit (neutral or expressive) promoted to a generalised status and thus becoming a
generative model (I.R.G.:29) – намеренное и сознательное усиление какой-либо типической
структурной и/или семантической черты языковой единицы (нейтральной или экспрессивной),
достигшее обобщения и типизации и ставшее таким образом порождающей моделью. (перевод
<I.V.A.>)
Types: <lexical SDs>, <cluster SDs>, <syntactical SDs>; <lexico-syntactical SDs>
See: <expressive means>, <convergence>, <foregrounding>, <autology>

practical stylistics
практическая стилистика
the stylistics, proceeding form the norms of language usage at a given period and teaching these
norms to language speakers, especially the ones, dealing with the language professionally (editors,
publishers, writers, journalists, teachers, etc.). (V.A.K.:10)
See: <functional stylistics>, <Stylistics>,

stylistic norm
стилистическая норма
the invariant of the phonemic, morphological. lexical and syntactical patterns circulating in
language-in-action at a given period of time (I.R.G.)
See: <individual style>, <Stylistics>
individual style
1) a unique combination of language units, <expressive means> and <stylistic device>s peculiar
to a given writer, which makes that writer’s works or even utterances easily recognisable (I.R.G.:17);
2) deals with problems, concerning the choice of the most appropriate language means and their
organisation into a message, from the viewpoint of the addresser (V.A.K.:10);
See: <stylistic norm>, <Stylistics>

sign
a material, sensuously perceived object (phenomenon, action) appearing in the process of
cognition and communication in the capacity of a representative (substitute) of another object (or
objects) and used for receiving, storing, recasting and transforming information about this object
(Резников:1965) (I.R.G.:61)
See: <word>, <lexical SDs>, <Stylistics>

word
- a unit of language functioning within the sentence or within a part of it which by its sound or
graphical form expresses a concrete or abstract notion or a grammatical notion through one of its
<meaning>s and which is capable of enriching its semantic structure by acquiring new meanings and
losing old ones;
- possesses an enormous potentiality for generating new meanings;
Source: <I.R.G.>:62,66
••
a speech unit used for the purposes of human communication, materially representing a group
of sounds, possessing a meaning, susceptible to grammatical employment and characterised by formal
and semantic unity (Antrushina:10)
See: <sign>, <lexical SDs>, <Stylistics>

foregrounding
выдвижение
the ability of a verbal element to obtain extra significance, to say more in a definite context
(Prague linguists) (I.V.A.:11)
••
способ формальной организации текста, фокусирующий внимание читателя на
определённых элементах сообщения и устанавливающий семантически релевантные отношения
между элементами одного или чаще разных уровней (I.V.A.)
See: <irony>, <epithet>, <stylistic device>

functional style
FS
функциональный стиль, стиль речи
a) a system of interrelated language means which serves a definite aim of communication
b) includes: <official style>, <scientific style>, <publicist style>, <newspaper style>, <belles-
lettres style>
c) the co-ordination of the language means and <stylistic device>s which shapes the distinctive
features of each style, and not the language means or SD themselves
d) a patterned variety of literary text characterised by the greater or lesser typification of its
constituents, supra-phrasal units, in which the choice and arrangement of interdependent and
interwoven language media are calculated to secure the purport of the communication
Source: <I.R.G.>: 32
••
– научный, разговорный, деловой, поэтический, ораторский, публицистический –
являются подсистемами языка, каждая из которых обладает своими специфическими
особенностями в лексике и фразеологии, в синтаксических конструкциям, а иногда и в фонетике.
Стили различаются между собой не столько наличием специфических элементов, сколько
специфическим их распределением. Поэтому наиболее показательной характеристикой
функционального стиля является характеристика статистическая.
Source: <I.V.A.>, 320
See: <stylistic device>, <individual style>, <Stylistics>

official style
(the) style of official documents
официально-деловой стиль
represented in all kinds of official documents and papers (V.A.K.)
••
The main aim is to state the conditions binding two parties in an undertaking (the state and the
citizen, citizen and citizen, the society and its members, two or more enterprises or bodies, a person and
subordinates)
- the aim is to reach agreement between two contracting parties.
- <features of official style>
[u]Substyles:[/u] the language of business documents, the language of legal documents, the
language of diplomacy, the language of military documents
- each of subdivisions of this style has its own peculiar terms, phrases and expressions;
Syn.: official style, the style of official documents, officialese
Source: <I.R.G.>
See: <functional style>, <stylistic device>

officialese
канцелярский слог
Source: <I.R.G.>
See: <official style>

features of official style


- conventionality of expression;
e.g. preamble, central clauses, opening addresses, closing sentences, signatures, seals, dates,
names of addresSees
- special system of clichés, set expressions \[and highly literary formal words\];
e.g. I beg to inform you, on behalf of, Dear Sir, The High Contracting Parties hereby agree as
follows, hereby, hereto, herein, hereinafter (referred to as), the undersigned, excepted otherwise herein
provided, whatsoever, to authorise, bona fide
- terms;
e.g. immovable property, designated depository, deputy judge, depositions de bene esse,
territorial waters
- the encoded character of language; symbols: special terminological nomenclature,
abbreviations, conventional symbols and contractions;
e.g. MP, IMF, UN, RU, NGO, PLC, LLC, Inc, Gvt, Dept, EXW, $, EUR, VAT, e.o.h.p.
- use of words in their logical <dictionary meaning>. There is no room for words with
<contextual meaning> or for any kind of simultaneous realisation of two meanings;
- word with <emotive meaning> are also not to be found, except those which are used in
business letters as conventional phrases of greeting or close (as Dear Sir);
- absence of any emotiveness: (commercial correspondence) emotional words and phrases;
- compositional patterns, compositional design; infinitive object clauses;
- a general syntactical mode of combining several pronouncement into one sentence, the whole
document in one sentence \[according to\] its formal syntactical structure.
Source: <I.R.G.> (the examples excluding)
See: <official style >

scientific style
научный стиль
found in articles, brochures, monographs and other scientific and academic publications
(V.A.K.)
••
The aim is to prove a hypothesis, to create new concepts, to disclose the internal laws of
existence, development, relations between different phenomena, etc. (I.R.G.)
- <features of scientific style>
••
имеет своей основной функцией только передачу интеллектуального содержания
- <общие особенности научного стиля>
- <лексические особенности научного стиля>
- <морфологические особенности научного стиля>
- <синтаксические особенности научного стиля>
Source: <I.V.A.>, 321

features of scientific style


- logical sequence of utterances with clear indication of their interrelations and interdependence;
logical coherence of ideas expressed;
- objective, precise, unemotional, devoid of any individuality, striving for the most generalised
form of expression;
- developed and varied system of connectives;
- use of terms specific to each given branch of science;
- direct referential (and primary logical) <meaning> of the general vocabulary; self-explanatory
terms; neutral and common literary words; the possibility of ambiguity is avoided;
- hardly a single word will be found here which is used in more than one <meaning>, nor will
be any words with <contextual meaning>;
- sentence-patterns (postulatory, argumentative, formulative);
- based on facts already known, on facts systematised and defined;
- quotations and references;
- foot-notes, digressive in character;
- impersonality: frequent use of passive constructions;
- impersonal passive constructions are frequently used with the verbs suppose, assume, point
out;
- far greater amount of preliminary knowledge;
- there may be hypotheses, pronouncements and conclusions, (backed up by strong belief);
Source: <I.R.G.>
See: <scientific style>

publicist style
публицистический стиль
covering such genres as essay, feature article, most writing of “new journalism”, public
speeches, etc. (V.A.K.)
••
The general aim is to exert a constant and deep influence on public opinion, to convince the
reader or the listener that the interpretation given by the writer of the speaker is the only correct one
and to cause him to accept the point of view … not merely by logical argumentation, but by emotional
appeal as well (brain-washing function).
[u]Substyles:[/u] oratorical (direct contact with the listeners); radio commentary; essay (moral,
philosophical, literary; book review in journals and magazines, pamphlets); articles (political, social,
economic).
- <features of publicist style>
Source: <I.R.G.>
See: <publicist style>
••
имеет своей основной функцией воздействие на волю, сознание и чувства слушателя или
читателя (I.V.A.)
See: <functional style>, <stylistic device>
features of publicist style
- combination of logical argumentation and emotional appeal;
- features, common with the style of scientific prose and emotive prose;
- coherent and logical syntactical structure, expanded system of connectives and careful
paragraphing;
- use of words with <emotive meaning>, the use of other SD as in emotive prose, but the SD are
not fresh or genuine;
- individual element is little in evidence here, generally toned down and limited;
- brevity of expression (sometimes epigrammatic) – leading feature;
Source: <I.R.G.>
See: <publicist style>

newspaper style
газетный стиль
1) observed in the majority of information materials printed in newspapers;
- is often regarded as part of the publicist domain and is not always treated individually;
Source: <V.A.K.>:118,8
••
2) a system of interrelated lexical, phraseological and grammatical means which is perceived by
the community speaking the language as a separate unity that basically serves the purpose of informing
and instructing the reader.
- primary function is to impart information, Seeks to influence public opinion on political and
other matters (brief news items and communiqués, press reports, purely informational, advertisement
and announcements, editorials)
- <features of newspaper style>
Source: <I.R.G.>
- <особенности газетного стиля>
See: <functional style>, <stylistic device>

features of newspaper style


- alleges and claims, restrictions of time and space
- special political and economic terms, non-term political vocabulary, newspaper clichés,
abbreviations, neologisms;
- syntactic constructions, indicating a lack of assurance of the reporter as to the correctness of
the facts reported or his desire to avoid responsibility;
- complex sentences with a developed system of clauses;
- syntactical complexes: verbal constructions (infinitive, participial, gerundial) and verbal noun
constructions;
- specific word order – five-w-and-h-pattern rule: (who-what-why-how-where-when);
- attributive noun groups (e.g. leap into space age);
- headlines are the most concise;
- considerable amount of appraisal (the size and arrangement, the use of emotionally coloured
words and elements of emotive syntax).
Source: <I.R.G.>
e.g. A column 185 feet high with a statue of Admiral Nelson on top was created in Trafalgar
Square in 1876. – В 1867 году на Трафальгарской площади была сооружена колонна 185 футов
высотой, на верхушке которой была установлена статуя адмирала Нельсона.
See: <особенности газетного стиля>, <newspaper style>

belles-lettres style
(the) style of imaginative literature
стиль художественной литературы
embracing numerous and versatile genres of imaginative writing
The unlimited possibilities of creative writing, which covers the whole of the universe and
makes use of all language resources, led some scholars to the conviction that because of the liability of
its contours, it can be hardly qualified as a functional style.
Source: <V.A.K.>:118,8
••
The purpose (the cognitive function) is not to prove but only to suggest a possible
*interpretation of the phenomena of life by forcing the reader to See the viewpoint of the writer.
[u]Substyles:[/u] the language of poetry (verse), emotive prose (fiction), the language of drama.
- <features of belles-lettres style>
Syn.: belles-lettres style, style of imaginative literature
Source: <I.R.G.>
See: <poetic style>, <supra-phrasal unit>, <functional style>, <stylistic device>, , <stylistic
analysis of poetry>, <stylistic analysis of prose>

features of belles-lettres style


- use of words in contextual and very often in more than one <dictionary meaning>, or at least
greatly influenced by the lexical environment.
- a vocabulary which will reflect to a greater or lesser degree of author's personal evaluation of
things or phenomena;
- a peculiar individual selection of vocabulary and syntax, a kind of lexical and syntactical
idiosyncrasy;
- the introduction of the typical features of colloquial language to a full degree (in plays) or a
lesser one (in emotive prose) or a slight degree, if any (in poems)
- individual, distinctive properties, aesthetic-cognitive effect.
Source: <I.R.G.>
See: <belles-lettres style>,

poetic style
- dealt with verbal forms specific for poetry
But poetry, within the last decades, lost its isolated linguistic position; it makes use of all the
vocabulary and grammar offered by the language at large and there is hardly sense in singling out a
special poetic style for contemporary linguistic situation, though its relevance for the language of the
17th, 18th and even the biggest part of the 19th centuries cannot be argued.
Source: <V.A.K.>:9
See: <belles-lettres style>, <literary words>

colloquial type of language


- is characterised by the unofficiality, spontaneity, informality of the communicative situation
- manifests a conscious, mindful effort in choosing and preferring certain means of expression
for the given communicative circumstances,
- is shaped by the immediacy, spontaneity, unpremeditativeness of the communicative situation
Source: <V.A.K.>:9
See: <colloquial words>, <group genitive>; <official style>

functional stylistics
- deals with sets, “paradigms” (known as <functional style>s) of language units of all levels of
language hierarchy serving to accommodate the needs of certain typified communicative situations
(Prague School);
- dealing in fact with all the subdivisions of the language and all its possible usages, is the most
all-embracing “global” trend in style study
- at large and its specified directions proceed from the situationally stipulated language
“paradigms” and concentrate primarily on the analysis of the latter.
Source: <V.A.K.>:7,9
See: <functional style>, <Stylistics>

{{==============================================}}
phono-graphical level
includes: <onomatopoeia>, <alliteration>, <assonance>, <graphon>
See: <morphological level>, <Stylistics>

morphological level
includes: <onomatopoeia>, <morphemic repetition>, <stylistic use of articles>, <negation>,
<tense of verbs>, <perfect continuous passive>, <continuous participle>, <continuous infinitive
passive>, <perfect infinitive passive>
See: <phono-graphical level>, <syntactical level>, <Stylistics>

(direct) onomatopoeia
звукоподражание
the use of words whose sounds imitate those of the signified object of action (V.A.K.)
e.g. babble, chatter, giggle, grumble, murmur, mutter, titter, whisper; buzz, cackle, croak, crow,
hiss, howl, moo, mew, roar; bubble, splash; clink, tinkle; clash, crash, whack, whip, whisk
••
a combination of speech-sounds which aims at imitating sounds produced in nature (wind, sea,
thunder, etc.), by things (machines or tools, etc.) by people (sighing, laughter, patter of feet, etc.) and
by animals (I.R.G.)
e.g. hiss, powwow, murmur, bump, grumble, sizzle, ding-dong, buzz, bang, cuckoo,
tintinnabulation, mew, ping-pong, roar
e.g. Then with enormous, shattering rumble, sludge-puff, sludge-puff, the train came into the
station. (A.Saxton)
••
использование слов, фонетический состав которых напоминает называемые в этих словах
предметы и явления – звуки природы, крики животных, движения, сопровождающиеся каким-
нибудь шумом, речь и различные звуки, которыми люди выражают своё настроение, волю и т.д.
(I.V.A.)
e.g. bubble, splash, rustle, purr, flop, babble, giggle, whistle
e.g. ... where white horses and black horses and brown horses and white and black horses and
brown and white horses trotted tap-tap-tap tap-tap-tappety-tap over cobble stones ...(Ш.О’Кейси)
See: <indirect onomatopoeia>, <phono-graphical level>, <morphological level>

alliteration
аллитерация
the repetition of consonants, usually in the beginning of words
e.g. ... silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain (E.A.Poe)
e.g. The furrow followed free. (S.T.Coleridge)
e.g. The Italian trio tut-tuted their tongues at me. (T.Capote)
e.g. Nothing so exciting, so scandalous, so savouring of the black arts had startled Aberlaw
since Trevor Day, the solicitor was suspected of killing his wife with arsenic. (A. Cronin – Citadel)
Source: <V.A.K.>
e.g. Deep into the darkness peering, long I stood there wondering. (E.A.Poe)
••
a) a phonetic <stylistic device>, which aims at imparting a melodic effect to the utterance;
b) repetition of similar sounds, in particular consonant sounds, in close succession, particularly
at the beginning of successive words;
e.g. “Gaunt as the ghastliest of glimpses that gleam through the gloom of the gloaming when
ghosts go aghast”poet parodies his own style. (Swinburne  Nephelidia)
e.g. The possessive instinct never stands still. Through florescence and fend, frosts and fires it
follows the laws of progression”. (Galsworthy)
e.g. Deep into the darkness peering, long I stood there wondering, fearing, // Doubting,
dreaming dreams no mortals ever dared to dream before”. (E.A.Poe)
Source: <I.R.G.>
••
1) повтор согласных или гласных звуков в начале близко расположенных ударных слогов
e.g. Doom is dark and deeper than any sea dingle. (W.Auden)
2) повтор начальных букв
e.g. Apt Alliteration’s artful aid. (W.Auden)
Source: <I.V.A.>
e.g. ”Dead Dufton,” I muttered to myself. “Dirty Dufton”, Dreart Dufton, Dispicable Dufton” –
then stopped. (J.Braine) – «Душный Дафтон, – бормотал я себе под нос. – Допотопный Дафтон,
Дрянной Дафтон, Дохлый Дафтон …» – и умолк.
See: <repetition>, <phono-graphical level>, <assonance>

assonance
ассонанс или вокалическая аллитерация
the repetition of similar vowels, usually in stressed syllables (V.A.K.)
e.g. Nor soul helps flesh now // more than flesh helps soul (R.Browning)
e.g. Dreadful young creatures – squealing and squawking. (D.Carter)
••
повторение ударных гласных внутри строки или фразы или на конце её в виде неполной
рифмы (I.V.A.)
e.g. Tell this soul, with sorrow laden, if within the distant Aiden, // I shall clasp a sainted
maiden, whom the angels name Lenore -- // Clasp a rare and radiant maiden, whom the angels name
Lenore? (E.Poe - Raven)
See: <repetition>, <phono-graphical level>, <alliteration>

euphony
эвфония
a sense of ease and comfort in pronouncing or hearing (V.A.K.)
e.g. … silken sad uncertain // rustling of each purple curtain … (E.A.Poe)
See: <alliteration>, <assonance>, < rhythm>, <rhyme>

cacophony
a sense of strain and discomfort in pronouncing or hearing (V.A.K.)
e.g. Nor soul helps flesh now // more than flesh helps soul. (R.Browning)
See: <alliteration>, <assonance>

graphon
графон
1) intentional violation of the graphical shape of a word (or word combination) used to reflect
its authentic pronunciation, to recreate the individual and social peculiarities of the speaker, the
atmosphere of the communication act (V.A.K.) (– стилистически релевантное искажение
орфографической нормы, отражающее индивидуальные или диалектные нарушения нормы
фонетической.) (I.V.A.)
e.g. I had a coach with a little seat in fwont with an iwon wail for the dwiver. (Dickens) – с
гашеткой впегеди для кучега.
e.g. You don’t mean to thay that thith ith your firth time. (D. Cusack)
2) all changes of the type (italics, CapiTaliSation), s p a c i n g of graphemes, (hy-phe-na-ti-
on, m-m-multiplication) and of lines (V.A.K.)
e.g. ”Alllll aboarrrrrrrd”.
e.g. “Help. Help. HELP” (A.Huxley)
e.g. ”grinning like a chim-pan-zee” (O’Connor)
e.g. Kiddies and grown-ups too-oo-oo // We haven’t enough to do-oo-oo. (R. Kipling)
••
Имена нарицательные пишутся с Заглавной буквы при обращении или олицетворении,
что придаёт тексту особую значительность и торжественно-приподнятую окраску.
Приподнятость может быть иронической, пародийной.
e.g. O Music! Sphere –descended maid, // Friend of Pleasure, Wisdom’s aid! (W. Collins)
e.g. If way to the Better there be, it exacts a full look at the Worst. (Th. Hardy)
Целые слова могут быть набраны большими буквами и выделяются как произносимые с
особой эмфазой или особенно громко.
e.g. I didn’t kill Henry. No, NO! (D. Lawrence – The Lovely Lady)
e.g. ”WILL YOU BE QUIET!” he bawled (A. Sillitoe – The key to the door)
Курсивом выделяются эпиграфы, поэтические вставки, прозаический текст, цитаты, слова
другого языка, названия упоминаемых произведений (необязательно) и вообще всё, что по
отношению к данному тексту является инородным или требует необычного усиления
(эмфатический курсив).
e.g. ”You mean you’d like it best.” Little Jon considered. “No, they would, to please me.”
(Galsworthy - Awakening)
e.g. Olwen (smiling at him affectionately): You are a baby. … Gordon (furious, rising and
taking step forward): You are a rotter, Stanton. (J.B. Pristley)
Source: <I.V.A.>
See: <phono-graphical level>

morphemic repetition
repetition of a morpheme, both root and affixational, to emphasise and promote it (V.A.K.)
e.g. They unchained, unbolted and unlocked the door. (A. Bennett)
e.g. Laughing, crying, cheering, chaffing, singing, David Rossi’s people brought him home in
triumph. (H. Caine)
e.g. Young Blight made another great show of changing the volume, taking up a pen, sucking it,
sipping it, and running over previous entries before he wrote. As, “Mr. Alley, Mr. Balley, Mr. Calley,
Mr. Dalley, Mr. Falley, Mr. Galley, Mr. Halley, Mr. Lalley, Mr. Malley. And Mr. Boffin. (Dickens)
See: <repetition>, <occasional words>, <morphological level>

occasional words
nonce-words
extension of the normative valency which results in the formation of new words
An effective way of using a morpheme for the creation of additional information. They are not
neologisms in the true sense for they are created for special communicative situations only, and are not
used beyond these occasions.
e.g. I am an undersecretary of an underbureau. (I.Shaw)
e.g. Parritt turns startledly. (E.O’Neill)
e.g. That was masterly. Or should one say mistressly. (A.Huxley)
Source: <I.V.A.>
e.g. mother-in-lowed, not-thereness
Syn.:occasional words, nonce-words
See: <morphemic repetition>

lexical level
word-stock
stratum of words
includes: <literary words>, <neutral words>, <colloquial words>
See: <trope>; <phono-graphical level>, <syntactical level>; <Stylistics>

literary words
learned words
bookish words
high-flown words
- serve to satisfy communicative demands of official, scientific, high poetry and poetic
messages, authorial speech of creative prose;
- mainly observed in the written form;
- contribute to the message the tone of solemnity, sophistication, seriousness, gravity,
learnedness.
e.g. I must decline to pursue this painful discussion, It is not pleasant to my feelings; it is
repugnant to my feelings. (Dickens)
See: <neutral words>, <colloquial words>; <special literary words>; <lexical level>
Source: <V.A.K.>
Syn.: literary words, learned words, bookish words, high-flown words

colloquial words
- employed in non-official everyday communication;
- mark the message as informal, non-official, conversational;
- their use is associated with the oral form of communication;
e.g. ”dad”, “kid”, “crony”, “fan”, “to pop”, “folks”
d) include <special colloquial words>;
e.g. She’s engaged. Nice guy, too. Though there’s a slight difference in height. I’d say a foot,
her favor. (T. Capote)
Source: <V.A.K.>
See: <special colloquial words>, <stratum of words>, <colloquial type of language>

special colloquial words


<slang>, <jargonisms>, <vulgarisms>, <dialectical words>

neutral words
the overwhelming majority of lexis (V.A.K.)
See: <literary words>, <colloquial words>

special literary words


such <literary words> as <terms> and <archaisms> (V.A.K.)

terms
<special literary words>, denoting objects, processes, phenomena of science, humanities,
technique (V.A.K.)

archaisms
архаизмы
such <special literary words> as
a) historical words – denoting historical phenomena which are no more in use
e.g. ”yeoman”, “vassal”, “falconet”
b) poetic words and highly literary words – used in poetry in the 17 – 19 cc.
e.g. ”steed” - horse, “quoth” - said, “woe” - sorrow, “eftsoons” - again, soon after, “rondure” -
roundness
c) archaic words proper – in the course of language history ousted by newer synonymous
words or forms;
e.g. “to deem” = to think, “repast” = meal, - for “horse”, “quoth” for “said”, “woe” for
“sorrow”; “maketh” = makes, “thou wilt” = you will, “brethren” = brothers, whereof, aforesaid, hereby,
therewith, hereinafternamed
e.g. If manners maketh man, then manner and grooming maketh poodle. (J.Steinbeck)
Source: <V.A.K.>

(general) slang
such <special colloquial words> which
- used by most speakers in very and highly informal, substandard communication
- are highly emotive and expressive and as such
- lose their originality rather fast and
- are replaced by newer formations, unstable, fluctuating, tending to expanded synonymity
within certain lexico-semantic groups
e.g. Now take fried, crocked, squiffed, loaded plastered, blotto, tiddled, soaked, boiled, stinko,
viled, polluted”(K. Kesey)
e.g. ”Do you talk?” asked Bundle. “or are you just strong and silent?” “Talk?” said Anthony. “I
burble. I murmur. I gurgle – like a running brook, you know. Sometimes I even ask questions.” (A.
Christie)
Source: <V.A.K.>
e.g. pot, grass, groovy, honkie, cool, chick, dough, bread
See: <special slang>

jargonisms
special slang
such <special colloquial words> which
- stand close to <slang>, also being substandard, expressive and emotive, but, unlike slang
- are used by limited groups of people, united either professionally (<professional jargonisms>
or <professionalisms>) or socially (<jargonisms proper>)
- cover a narrow semantic field, function and sphere of application
- tending to expanded synonymity within certain lexico-semantic groups
Source: <V.A.K.>
Syn.: jargonisms, special slang

professional jargonisms
professionalisms
профессионализмы
such <jargonisms> which
- connected with the technical side of some profession
e.g. ”driller” = borer, digger, wrencher, hogger, brake weight
e.g. ”pipeliner” = swabber, bender, cat, old cat, collar-pecker, hammerman
- are formed according to the existing word-building patterns of present existing words in new
<meaning>s, and,
- covering the field of special professional knowledge, which is semantically limited, offer a
vast variety of synonymic choices for naming one and the same professional item
See: <special colloquial words>
Source: <V.A.K.>
Syn.: professional jargonisms, professionalism

jargonisms proper
such <jargonisms> which
- served to conceal the actual significance of the utterance from the uninitiated;
- originated from the thieves’ jargon (l’argo, cant);
- was to be cryptic, secretive (major function);
See: <jargonisms>, <special colloquial words>
Source: <V.A.K.>

vulgarisms
вульгаризмы
coarse <special colloquial words> with a strong <emotive meaning>, mostly derogatory,
normally avoided in polite conversation (V.A.K.)
e.g. There is so much bad shit between the two gangs that I bet there will be more killings this
year.
Source: <V.A.K.>

dialectical words
диалектизмы
such <special colloquial words> which
- are normative and devoid of any <stylistic meaning> in regional dialects, but used outside of
them, carry a strong flavour of the locality where they belong;
- markedly differ on the phonemic level: one and the same phoneme is differently pronounced
in each of them;
- differ also on the lexical level, having their own names for locally existing phenomena and
also supplying locally circulating <synonyms> for the words, accepted by the language in general.
e.g. ”son of a bitch”, “whore”, “whorehound”
e.g. A hut was all the (= the only) home he ever had.
e.g. Mary sits aside (= beside) of her sister on the bus.
Source: <V.A.K.>

barbarisms
варваризмы
foreign words of phrases, sometimes perverted
иностранные слова или обороты, противоречащие нормам данного языка
e.g. chic, bonmot, en passant, delicatessen, matador, reprimand, helicopter, hippopotamus,
marauder, Midi, guerre des baguettes, boulangers, croissants

neologisms
неологизмы
new words or expressions
e.g. take-away, high-rise, hang-glider, palmcorder, wristphone, cellular phone,

lexical stylistic devices


lexical SDs
include: <metaphor>, <personification>; <metonymy>, <synecdoche>; <cluster SDs>; play on
words, <irony>, <epithet>, <hyperbole>, <understatement>, <oxymoron>
See: <set expressions>, <cluster SDs>, <tropes>, <syntactical SDs>, <lexico-syntactical SDs>,
<stylistic device>

transference
перенос
act of name-exchange, of substitution of the existing names approved by long usage and fixed
in dictionaries by new, occasional, individual ones, prompted by the speaker’s subjective original view
and evaluation of things, for the name of one object is transferred onto another, proceeding from their
similarity (of shape, colour, function, etc.), or closeness (of material existence, cause/effect,
instrument/result, part/whole, etc.) (V.A.K.)
See: <metaphor>, <metonymy>

metaphor
метафора
<transference> of names based on the associated likeness between two objects, on the similarity
of one feature common to two different entities, on possessing one common characteristic, on linguistic
semantic nearness, on a common component in their semantic structures.
e.g. ”pancake” for the “sun” (round, hot, yellow)
e.g. ”silver dust” and “sequins” for “stars”
The expressiveness is promoted by the implicit simultaneous presence of images of both objects
– the one which is actually named and the one which supplies its own “legal” name, while each one
enters a phrase in the complexity of its other characteristics.
The wider is the gap between the associated objects the more striking and unexpected – the
more expressive – is the metaphor.
e.g. His voice was a dagger of corroded brass. (S. Lewis)
e.g. They walked alone, two continents of experience and feeling, unable to communicate.
(W.S.Gilbert)
Source: <V.A.K.>
••
a) the power of realising two <lexical meaning>s simultaneously
b) a <SD> when two different phenomena (things, events, ideas, actions) are simultaneously
brought to mind by the imposition of some or all of the inherent properties of one object on the other
which by nature is deprived of these properties
Source: <I.R.G.>
••
скрытое сравнение, основанное на ассоциации по сходству, осуществляемое путём
применения названия одного предмета к другому и выявляющее таким образом какую-нибудь
важную черту второго (I.V.A.)
e.g. … beams that streamed through the open window.
e.g. floods of tears; a storm of indignation; the apple of the eye, a leg of the table.
See: <personification>, <simile>, <lexical SDs>

personification
олицетворение или персонификация
a <metaphor> that involves likeness between inanimate and animate objects (V.A.K.)
e.g. ”the face of London”, “the pain of ocean”
e.g. Geneva, mother of the Red Cross, hostess of humanitarian congresses for the civilizing of
warfare. (J.Reed)
e.g. Notre Dame squats in the dusk. (E. Hemingway)
••
1) <троп>, который состоит в перенесении свойств человека на отвлечённые понятия и
неодушевлённые предметы, что проявляется в валентности, характерной для существительных –
названий лица (I.V.A.)
2) транспозиция, при которой явления природы, предметы или животные наделяются
человеческими чувствами, мыслями, речью (антропоморфизм) (I.V.A.)
e.g. Roll on, thou dark and deep blue Ocean – roll! (G. Byron)
See: <transposition>, <synecdoche>, <lexical SDs>

sustained metaphor
prolonged metaphor
a group (cluster) of <metaphor>s, each supplying another feature of the described phenomenon
to present an elaborated image (V.A.K.)
Syn.: <sustained metaphor>, <prolonged metaphor>

metonymy
метонИмия
<transference> of names based on contiguity (nearness), on extralinguistic, actually existing
relations between the phenomena (objects), denoted by the words, on common grounds of existence in
reality but different semantic (V.A.K.)
e.g. ”cup” and “tea” in “Will you have another cup?”
e.g. ”My brass will call your brass” (A. Heiley)
e.g. Dinah, a slim, fresh, pale eighteen, was pliant and yet fragile. (C.Holmes)
••
is based on a different type of relation between the dictionary and <contextual meaning>s, a
relation based not on identification, but on some kind of association connecting the two concepts which
these meanings represent (I.R.G.)
••
- <троп>, основанный на ассоциации по смежности: вместо названия одного предмета
употребляется название другого, связанного с первым постоянной внутренней или внешний
связью (I.V.A.)
e.g. Give everyman thy ear and few thy voice. (W.Shakespeare)
e.g. the Crown (The Queen), cup (a drink), hand (a worker), cars full of moustaches (men), a
beard (a man with beard), the Kremlin (the RF government)
See: <synecdoche>, <lexical SDs>

synecdoche
синекдоха
a <metonymy> based on the relations between the part and the whole (V.A.K.)
e.g. He made his way through perfume and conversation. (I.Shaw)
e.g. His mind was alert and people asked him to dinner not for old times’ sake, but because he
was worth his salt. (Maugham)
••
- разновидность метонимии, состоящая в замене одного названия другим по признаку
партитивного количественного отношения между ними. Например, название целого заменяется
названием его части, общее – названием частного, множественное число – единственным и
наоборот. (I.V.A.)
See: <personification>, <lexical SDs>

{{==============================================}}

cluster SDs
a small group (cluster) of SDs, which
- operate on the same linguistic mechanism: namely, one word-form is deliberately used in two
<meaning>s;
- have humorous effect, and
- include: <pun> or <paronomasia> or <play on words>, <zeugma>, <violation of
phraseological units>, <semantically false chains>, <nonsense of non-sequence>;
Source: <V.A.K.>, 48
See: <lexical SDs>, <syntactical SDs>, <lexico-syntactical SDs>, <stylistic device>

pun
paronomasia
play on words
парономасия, игра слов
simultaneous realisation of two <meaning>s through
a) misinterpretation of one speaker’s utterance by the other, which results in his remark dealing
with a different meaning of the misinterpreted word or its homonym
e.g. ”Have you been Seeing any spirits?” “Or taking any?” – added Bob Allen. (Dickens) (The
first “spirit” refers to supernatural forces the second one – to strong drinks)
b) speaker’s intended violation of the listener’s expectation
e.g. There comes a period in every man’s life, but she is just a semicolon in his. (B.Evans) (a
punctuation mark instead of an interval of time)
e.g. There are two things I look for in a man. A sympathetic character and full lips. (I.Shaw)
Source: <V.A.K.>, 48
e.g. The Importance of being Earnest (Wilde)
e.g. ”Bow to the board,” said Bumble. Oliver brushed away tow or three tears that were
lingering in his eyes; and Seeing no board but the table. fortunately bowed to that” (Dickens)
••
близость звучания контекстуально связанных слов. (I.V.A.)
e.g. But still he strummed on, and his mind wandered in and out of poultry and politics, ...
(Galsworthy)
Syn.: pun, paronomasia, play on words
See: <cluster SDs>

zeugma
зевгма
a cluster SD, when a polysemantic verb that can be combined with nouns of most varying
semantic groups is deliberately used with two of more homogeneous members, which are not
connected semantically
Source: <V.A.K.>, 49
e.g. He took his hat and his leave. (Dickens)
e.g. He lost his hat and his temper. (Dickens)
e.g. She went home, in a flood of tears and a sedan chair. (Dickens)
e.g. The Rich arrived in pairs and also in Rolls Royces. (Dickens)
e.g. She plunged into privileged intimacy and into the middle of the room.
••
a) the use of a word in the same grammatical but different semantic relations to two adjacent
words in the context, the semantic relations being, on the one hand, literal, and, on the other, transferred
b) the realisation of two <meaning>s with the help of a verb which is made to refer to different
subjects or objects (direct or indirect)
e.g. Dora, plunging at once into privileged intimacy and into the middle of the room. (B.Shaw)
e.g. … Whether the Nymph // Shall stain her Honour or her new Brocade // Or lose her Heart
or necklace at a Ball (Pope – The rape of the Lock)
Source: <I.R.G.>
••
Английские авторы часто используют этот приём для создания определённого
юмористического или иронического эффекта.
e.g. And now must come swift action, for we have here some four thousand words and not a
tear shed and never a [u]pistol, joke safe, nor bottle cracked[/u]. (O.Henry)
e.g. Michael … suggested to the camera that it would miss the train. It at once took a final
photograph of Michael in front of the hut, two cups of tea at the manor, and its departure. (Galsworthy)
e.g. Шли три студента, один – в кино, другой – в сером костюме, третий – в хорошем
настроении.
Source: Комиссаров В.Н. – Слово о переводе. М., 1973
See: <semantically false chains>, <cluster SDs>

semantically false chains


a variation of <zeugma> when the number of homogeneous members, semantically
disconnected, but attached to the same verb, increases (V.A.K.)
e.g. A Governess wanted. Must possess knowledge of Romanian, Russian, Italian, Spanish,
German, Music and Mining Engineering. (S. Leacock)
e.g. Men, pals, red plush seats, white marble tables, waiters in white aprons. Miss Moss walked
through them all. (A.Milne)
See: <cluster SDs>

violation of phraseological units


restoring the literal original <meaning> of the word, which lost some of its semantic
independence and strength in a phraseological unit or cliché. (A.V.K.)
e.g. Little John was born with a silver spoon in his mouth which was rather curly and large.
(Galsworthy)
e.g. After a while and a cake he crept nervously to the door of the parlour. (A.Tolkien)
See: <cluster SDs>

nonsense of non-sequence
joining two semantically disconnected clauses into one sentence (A.V.K.)
e.g. Emperor Nero played the fiddle, so they burnt Rome. (Y.Esar)
See: <cluster SDs>

{{==============================================}}
irony
ирония
- is a <stylistic device> in which the contextual <evaluative meaning> of a word is directly
opposite to its <dictionary meaning>
- is the <foregrounding> not of the logical but of the <evaluative meaning>;
- is the contradiction between the said and implied;
- is subdivided into <verbal irony> and <sustained irony>;
The context is arranged so that the qualifying word in irony reverses the direction of the
evaluation, and the word positively charged is understood as a negative qualification and (much-much
rarer) vice versa. The context varies from the minimal – a word combination to the context of a whole
book.
e.g. The lift held two people and rose slowly, groaning with diffidence. (I.Murdoch)
e.g. Apart from splits based on politics, racial, religious and ethic backgrounds and specific
personality differences, we’re just one cohesive team. (D.Uhnak)
Source: <V.A.K.>
e.g. It must be delightful to find oneself in a foreign country without a penny in one’s pocket.
See: <lexical SDs>

verbal irony
a type of <irony> when it is possible to indicate the exact word whose <contextual meaning>
diametrically opposes its <dictionary meaning>, in whose meaning we can trace the contradiction
between the said and implied
e.g. She turned with the sweet smile of an alligator. (J.Steinbeck)
e.g. With all the expressiveness of a stone Welsh stared at him another twenty seconds
apparently hoping to See him gag. (R.Chandler)
e.g. She’s a charming middle-aged lady with a face like a bucket of mud and if she has washed
her hair since Coolridge’s second term, I’ll eat my spare tire, rim and all. (R.Chandler)
e.g. Last time it was a nice, simple, European-style war. (I.Shaw)
Source: <V.A.K.>
Ant.: <sustained irony>
See: <lexical SDs>

sustained irony
a) a type of <irony>, intuitively feeling the reversal of the evaluation, formed by the
contradiction of the speaker’s (writer’s) considerations and the generally accepted moral and ethical
codes;
b) a number of statements, the whole of the text, in whose meaning we can trace the
contradiction between the said and implied.
e.g. Many examples are supplied by D.Defoe, J.Swift of by such twentieth c. writers as
S.Lewis, K.Vonnegut, E.Waugh and others.
e.g. When the war broke out she took down the signed photograph of the Kaiser and, with some
solemnity, hung it in the men-servants’ lavatory; it was her one combative action. (E.Waugh)
Source: <V.A.K.>
Ant.: <verbal irony>
See: <lexical SDs>

antonomasia
антономасИя
type 1: a lexical SD in which a proper name is used instead of a common noun, i.e. a lexical SD
in which the <nominal meaning> of a proper name is suppressed by its <logical meaning> or the
logical meaning acquires the new – nominal – component
e.g. He took little satisfaction in telling each Mary \[=any female\], shortly after she arrived,
something ... (Th. Dreiser)
e.g. ”Your fur and his Caddy are a perfect match”. I respect history: “Don’t you know that
Detroit was founded by Sir Antoine de la Mothe Caddilac, French fur trader”. (J.O’Hara)
type 2: (vice versa) a common noun serves as an individualising name
e.g. There are three doctors in an illness like yours. I don’t mean only my self, my partner and
the radiologist who does your X-rays, the three I’m referring to are Dr. Rest, Dr. Diet and Dr. Fresh Air.
(D. Cusack)
type 3: “speaking names” whose origin from common nouns is still clearly perceived
e.g. The next speaker was a tall gloomy man. Sir Something Somebody. (Priestley)
e.g. Miss Languish – Мисс Томней, Mr. Backbite – М-р Клевентаун, Mr. Credulous – М-р
Доверч, Mr. Snake – М-р Гад (Sheridan)
e.g. Lord Chatterino – Лорд Балаболо, John Jaw – Джон Брех, Island Leap-High - Остров
Высокопрыгия (F.Cooper)
e.g. Mr. What’s-his-name, Mr. Owl Eyes, Colonel Slidebottom, Lady Teazle, Mr. Surface, Miss
Tomboy, Miss Sarcastic, Miss Sneerface, Lady Bracknell
Source: <V.A.K.>, 55
••
- особое использование собственных имён: переход собственных имён в нарицательные
(Дон Жуан), или превращение слова, раскрывающего суть характера, в собственное имя
персонажа, как в комедиях Р.Шеридана, или замена собственного имени названием связанного с
данным лицом события или предмета.
Source: <I.V.A.>
See: <lexical SDs>

epithet
эпитет
<foregrounding> the <emotive meaning> of the word to suppress its <denotational meaning>
- is the most widely used lexical SD;
- expresses characteristics of an object, both existing and imaginary;
- semantically there should be differentiated two main groups:
- <affective epithet>s
- <figurative epithet>s
- <transferred epithet>s;
- structurally there should be differentiated: single epithets, pair epithets, chains or strings, two-
step structures, inverted constructions, phrase-attributes
- <chains of epithets> or <strings of epithets>
- <phrase-epithets>
- <inverted epithets> or <reversed epithets>
Source: <V.A.K.>, 58
••
a <stylistic device> based on the interplay of emotive and <logical meaning> in an attributive
word, phrase or even sentence, used to characterise and object and pointing out to the reader, and
frequently imposing on him, some of the properties or features of the object with the aim of giving an
individual perception and evaluation of these features or properties
e.g. ”wild wind”, “loud ocean”, “remorseless dash of billows”, “formidable waves”, “heart-
burning smile”; “destructive charms”, “glorious sight”, “encouraging smile”
Source: <I.R.G.>
••
1) экспрессивная оценочная характеристика какого-либо явления, лица или предмета,
иногда, но необязательно, образная;
2) лексико-синтаксический <троп>, отличается необязательно переносным характером
выражающего его слова и обязательным наличием в нём эмотивных или экспрессивных или
других коннотаций, благодаря которым выражается отношения автора к предмету
Различают:
- постоянные эпитеты (conventional/standing epithet): lady gay, fair lady, fair England, salt
seas, salt tears, true love;
a) тавтологические эпитеты: soft pillow, green wood;
b) оценочные эпитеты: bonny boy, bonnie young page, bonnie ship, bonnie isle; false steward,
proud porter;
c) описательные эпитеты: silk napkin, silver cups, long tables;
- эпитеты частного характера выделяют в предметах и явлениях те качества, которые
имею значение для данного мышления и не образуют постоянных пар
А.Н.Веселовский семантически делит эпитеты на:
a) тавтологические эпитеты – семантически согласованные эпитеты, подчёркивающие
какое-нибудь основное свойство необходимое определяемого: fair sun, the sable night, wide sea,
т.е. повторяющие в своём составе сему, обозначающую неотъемлемое свойство
b) пояснительные эпитеты указывают на какую-нибудь важную черту определяемого, не
обязательно присущую всему классу предметов, к которым он принадлежит, т.е. действительно
характеризующую именного его: a grand Style, unvalued jewels, vast and trunkless legs of stone
c) метафорические эпитеты – эпитет с обязательной двуплановостью, указанием сходства
и несходства, семантическим рассогласованием, нарушением отмеченности:
[m3]- анимистические, когда неодушевлённому предмету приписывается свойство
живого существа: and angry sky, the howling storm;
[m3]- антропоморфные, приписывающие человеческие свойства и действия животному
или предмету: : laughing valleys, surly sullen bells;
Source: <I.V.A.>
e.g. Her umbrella blocked the sun’s rays but nothing blocked the heat - the sort of raw, wild heat
that crushes you with its energy. (St.Lord – The Chapel)
See: <lexical SDs>

strings of epithets
chains of epithets
цепочки эпитетов
present a group of homogeneous attributes varying in number from three up to sometimes
twenty and even more
e.g. You’re a scolding, unjust, abusive, aggravating, bad old creature. (Dickens)
e.g. He’s a proud, haughty, consequential, turned-nosed peacock. (Dickens)
e.g. And then in a nice, old-fashioned, lady-like, maiden-lady way, she blushed. (A.Christie)
e.g. And the eyes watchful, waiting, perceiving, indifferent. (T.S.Eliot)
See: <epithet>
Syn.: strings of epithets, chains of epithets

phrase-epithets
фразовые эпитеты, голофрaзисы
окказиональное функционирование словосочетания или предложения как
цельнооформленного образования, графически, интонационно и синтаксически уподобленного
слову (I.V.A.)
e.g. I-am-not-that-kind-of girl look; Shoots’em-down type; To produce facts in a Would-you-
believe-it kind of way (I.V.A)
e.g. ”the sunshine-in-the-breakfast-room smell” (J. Baldwin)
e.g. ”a move-if-you-dare expression”(J. Greenwood)
e.g. There was none of the Old-fashioned Five-Four-Three-Two-One-Zero business, so tough
on the human nervous system. (A. Clarke)
See: <epithet>

inverted epithets
reversed epithets
[p]colloq.[/p]
инвертированные эпитеты
based on the contradiction between the logical and the syntactical: logically defining becomes
syntactically defined and vice versa. The article with the second noun will help in doubtful cases
e.g. ”this devil of a woman” instead of “this devilish woman”, “the giant man” (a gigantic man);
“the prude of a woman” (a prudish woman), “the toy of a girl” (a small, toylike girl), “the kitten of a
woman” (a kittenlike woman)
e.g. She was a faded white rabbit of a woman. (A.Cronin)
e.g. a doll of a wife (the wife is like a doll), an angel of a girl (the girls is an angel), a hell of a
mess, a devil of a sea, a dwarf of a fellow, a horse of a girl, a fool of a policeman, a hook of a nose, a
vow of a hat, a jewel of a film (I.V.A.)
e.g. a two-legged ski-rocket of a kid, a forty-pound skunk of a freckled wild cat (I.V.A.)
See: <epithet>
Syn.: inverted epithets, reversed epithets

conventional epithet
standing epithet
постоянный эпитет
See: <epithet>
Syn.: conventional epithet, standing epithet
affective epithet
serves to convey the emotional evaluation of the object by the speaker (V.A.K.)
e.g. “gorgeous”, “nasty”, “magnificent”, “atrocious”
See: <figurative epithet> or <transferred epithet>, <epithet>, <lexical SDs>

figurative epithet
transferred epithet
an <epithet> that is formed of <metaphor>, <metonymy>, <simile>, expressed by adjectives
(V.A.K.)
e.g. ”the smiling sun”, “the frowning cloud”, “the sleepless pillow”, “the tobacco-stained
smile”, a “ghost-like face”, “a dreamlike experience”, “triumphant look”
See: <affective epithet>, <epithet>, <lexical SDs>
Syn.: figurative epithet, transferred epithet

hyperbole
гипербола
a <stylistic device> in which emphasis is achieved through deliberate exaggeration
It does not signify the actual state of affairs in reality, but presents the latter through the
emotionally coloured perception and rendering of the speaker.
e.g. My vegetable love should grow faster than empires. (A. Marvell)
e.g. The man was like the Rock of Gibraltar.
e.g. Calpurnia was all angles and bones.
e.g. I was scared to death when he entered the room. (J.D.Salinger)
Source: <V.A.K.>
••
a deliberate overstatement or exaggeration of a feature essential (unlike <periphrasis>) to the
object or phenomenon
- is a device which sharpens the reader’s ability to make a logical assessment of the utterance
e.g. He was so tall that I was not sure he had a face. (O.Henry)
Source: <I.R.G.>
••
заведомое преувеличение, повышающее экспрессивность высказывания и сообщающее
ему эмфатичность (I.V.A.)
Ant.: <understatement>
See: <lexical SDs>

understatement
преуменьшение
a <stylistic device> in which emphasis is achieved through intentional underestimation
(underrating)
e.g. ”The wind is rather strong” instead of “There’s a gale blowing outside”
••
is dealt with when the size, shape, dimensions, characteristic features of the object are
intentionally underrated
It does not signify the actual state of affairs in reality, but presents the latter through the
emotionally coloured perception and rendering of the speaker.
e.g. She wore a pink hat, the size of a button. (J.Reed)
e.g. About a very small man in the Navy: this new sailor stood five feet nothing in sea boots.
(Th. Pynchon)
Source: <V.A.K.>
Ant.: <hyperbole>
See: <lexical SDs>

oxymoron
оксюморон
a combination of two semantically contradictory notions, that help to emphasise contradictory
qualities simultaneously existing in the described phenomenon as a dialectical unity (V.A.K.)
e.g. ”low skyscraper”, “sweet sorrow”, “nice rascal”, “pleasantly ugly face”, “horribly
beautiful”, “a deafening silence from Whitehall” (The Morning Star)
e.g. ”The Beauty of the Dead”, “to shout mutely”, “to cry silently”, “the street damaged by
improvements” (O.Henry), “silence was louder than thunder” (J.Updike)
e.g. O brawling love! O loving hate! O heavy lightness! Serious vanity! Feather of lead, bright
smoke, cold fire, sick heath! (W.Shakespeare)
e.g. You have two beautiful bad examples for parents. (Sc.Fitzgerald)
••
a combination of two words (mostly an adjective and a noun or an adverb with an adjective) in
which the meanings of the two clash, being opposite in sense (I.R.G.)
••
<троп>, состоящий в соединении двух контрастных по значению слов (обычно
содержащих антонимичные семы), раскрывающий противоречивость описываемого.(I.V.A.)
e.g. And faith unfaithful kept him falsely true. (A.Tennyson)
e.g. He had a face like a plateful of mortal sins. (B.Behan)
See: <lexical SDs>

{{==============================================}}

syntactical level
include <syntactical stylistic devices>, <repetition>, <sentence structure>, <types of
connection>, arrangement of sentence members, <completeness of sentence structure>
The most conspicuous places in the sentence are considered to be the first and the last: the first
place because the full force of the stress can be felt at the beginning of an utterance and the last place
because there is a pause after it. (I.R.G.)
See: <phono-graphical level>, <morphological level>, <lexical level>, <Stylistics>

syntactical stylistic devices


syntactical SDs
include: sentence length, <one-word sentences>, <punctuation>, <rhetorical question>,
<parallel construction>, <chiasmus>, <stylistic inversion>, <suspense>, <detachment>, <ellipsis>, one-
member sentences, <apokoinu constructions>, <break-in-the-narrative>, <polysyndeton>,
<asyndeton>, <attachment>, <secondary predication constructions>
See: <repetition>, <enumeration>; <lexical SDs>, <cluster SDs>, <lexico-syntactical SDs>,
<stylistic device>

one-word sentences
possess a very strong emphatic impact, for their only word obtains both the word- and the
sentence-stress. The word constituting a sentence also obtains its own sentence-intonation which, too,
helps to foreground the content. (V.A.K.)
e.g. I like people. Not just empty streets and dead buildings. People. People. (P.Abrahams)
See: <punctuation>, <syntactical SDs>

sentence structure
структура предложения
Not only the clarity and understandability of the sentence but also its expressiveness depend on
the position of clauses, constituting it.
@ loose structure
- opens with the main clause, which is followed by dependent units;
- less emphatic and is highly characteristic of informal writing and conversation;
@ periodic sentences
- open with subordinate clauses, absolute and participial constructions, the main clause being
withheld until the end
- are known for their emphasis and are used mainly in creative prose
e.g. Such being at bottom the fact, I think it is well to leave it at that. (S.Maugham)
@ balanced sentences
- subordinate-main-subordinate similar structuring of the beginning of the sentence and its end;
- known for stressing the logic and reasoning of the content and thus preferred in publicist
writing;
@
See: <punctuation>, <syntactical SDs>
Source: <V.A.K.>

order of words
порядок слов
and <punctuation> are used to convey the corresponding pausation and intonation in the written
form of speech (V.A.K.)
See: <punctuation>, <stylistic inversion>, <syntactical SDs>

punctuation
пунктуация
Points of exclamation, points of interrogation, dots, dashes; commas, semicolons and full stops
serve as an additional source of information and help to specify the <meaning> of the written sentence
which in oral speech would be conveyed by the intonation. (V.A.K.)
e.g. ”What’s your name?” “John Lewis.” “Mine’s Liza. Watkin.” (K.Kesey)
e.g. ”You know so much. Where is she?” “Dead. Or in a crazy house.” Or married. I think she’s
married and quieted down.” (T.Capote)
e.g. The neon lights in the heart of the city flashed on and off. On and off. On. Off. On. Off.
Continuously. (P.Abrahams)
e.g. ... a truth, a faith, a generation of men goes – and is forgotten, and it does not matter!
(J.Conrad)
See: <order of words>, <one-word sentences>, <syntactical SDs>

rhetorical question
риторический вопрос
peculiar interrogative construction which semantically remains a statement;
- does not demand any information but
- serves to express the emotions of the speaker and also
- serves to call the attention of listeners;
- makes an indispensable part of oratoric speech for they very successfully emphasise the
orator’s ideas.
Source: <V.A.K.>
••
a) a special syntactical stylistic device the essence of which consists in reshaping the
<grammatical meaning> of the interrogative sentence;
e.g. Are these the remedies for a starving and desperate populace?
b) a statement expressed in the form of an interrogative sentence;
c) an utterance in the form of a question which pronounces judgement and also expresses
various kind of modal shades of meanings, as doubt, challenge, scorn, irony and so on;
e.g. Who is here so vile that will not love his country? (W.Shakespeare)
- is generally structurally embodied in complex sentences with the subordinate clause
containing the pronouncement;
- may be looked upon as a <transference> of <grammatical meaning>;
Source: <I.R.G.>
••
вопрос, который не предполагает ответа, ставится не для того, чтобы побудить слушателя
сообщить нечто неизвестное говорящему, а чтобы привлечь внимание, усилить впечатление,
повысить эмоциональный тон, создать приподнятость
e.g. Being your slave, what should I do but tend // Upon the hours and times of your desire?
(W.Shakespeare – Sonnet LVII) – Для верных слуг нет ничего другого // Как ожидать у двери
госпожу. (пер. С.Я.Маршака)
Source: <I.V.A.>
••
- contains a statement disguised as a question;
- usually a positive question hiding a negative statement. No answer is expected.
e.g. Can any one say what truth is?
e.g. Do we always act as we ought to?
e.g. What else could I do?
e.g. Who would have thought to meet you here?
Source: Кобрина Н.А. и др. Грамм. англ. яз. СПб., 2001. C. 307
See: <order of words>, negative-interrogative sentences, <transposition>, <question-in-the-
narrative>, <syntactical SDs>

{{==============================================}}

repetition
types: <anaphora>, <epiphora>, <framing>, <catch repetition> or <anadiplosis>, <chain
repetition>, <ordinary repetition>, <successive repetition>; <synonymical repetition>;
- is a powerful mean of emphasis;
- adds <rhythm> and balance to the utterance;
e.g. … there lived a little man named Nathaniel Pipkin, … , and lived in a little house in the
little High Street, within ten minutes' walk of the little church; and who was to be found every day from
nine till four, teaching a little learning to the little boys. (Dickens)
See: <syntactical SDs>, <stylistic device>; <reprise>

anaphora
анафора
(a . . . , a . . . , a . . . ,)
the beginning of two or more sentences (clauses) is repeated
The main stylistic function is not so much to emphasise the repeated unit as to create the
background for the non-repeated unit, which, through its novelty, becomes foregrounded. (V.A.K.)
e.g. I might as well face facts: good-bye, Susan, good-bye a big car, good-bye a big house,
good-bye power, good-bye the silly handsome dreams. (J.Braine)
e.g. And everywhere were people. People going into gates and coming out of gates. People
staggering and falling. People fighting and cursing. (P.Abrahams)
e.g. So long as men can breathe or eyes can See
e.g. So long lives this and this gives life to thee. (W.Shakespeare – XVIII)
Ant.: <epiphora>
See: <repetition>

epiphora
эпифора
(. . . a, . . . a, . . . a,)
the end of successive sentences (clauses) is repeated
The main stylistic function is to add stress to the final words of the sentence. (V.A.K.)
e.g. I wake up and I’m alone and I walk round Warley and I’m alone; and I talk with people and
I’m alone and I look at his face when I’m home and it’s dead. (J.Braine)
Ant.: <anaphora>
See: <repetition>

framing
рамка, кольцевой повтор
(a . . . a)
the beginning of the sentence is repeated in the end, thus forming the “frame” for the non-
repeated part of the sentence (utterance)
The stylistic function is to elucidate the notion mentioned in the beginning of the sentence, to
concretise and to specify its semantics. (V.A.K.)
e.g. Obviously – this is a streptococcal infection. Obviously. (W.Deeping)
e.g. Then there was something between them. There was. There was. (Dreiser)
See: <catch repetition> or <anadiplosis>, <repetition>, <syntactical SDs>

anadiplosis
catch repetition
reduplication
linking
epanalepsis
анадиплозис, подхват, эпаналепсис, стык
(. . . a, a . . .)
the end of one clause (sentence) is repeated in the beginning of the following one
The stylistic function is to elucidate the notion, to concretise and to specify its semantics on a
more modest level. (V.A.K.)
e.g. Now he understood. he understood many things. One can be a person first. A man first and
then a black man or a white man. (P.Abrahams)
e.g. And a great desire for peace, peace of no matter what kind, swept through her. (A.Bennet)
e.g. So long as men can breathe or eyes can See
e.g. So long lives [u]this and this[/u] gives life to thee. (W.Shakespeare – XVIII)
See: <framing>, <repetition>, <syntactical SDs>
Syn.: anadiplosis, catch repetition, reduplication, linking, epanalepsis

chain repetition
chain-repetition
(. . . a, a . . . b, b. . .)
several successive repetitions
The effect is that of the smoothly developing logical reasoning. (V.A.K.)
e.g. ”To think better of it,” returned the gallant Blandois, “would be to slight a lady, to slight a
lady would be to be deficient in chivalry towards the sex, and chivalry towards the sex is a part of my
character.” (Dickens)
e.g. Failure meant poverty, poverty meant squalor, squalor led, in the final stages, to the smells
and stagnation of B. Inn Alley. (D. du Maurier)
See: <repetition>

ordinary repetition
(. . . a, . . . a . . ., a . . .)
(. . a . ., . . a . ., . . a . .)
no definite place in the sentence, the repeated unit occurs in various positions
The stylistic function is to emphasise both the logical and the <emotional meaning> of the
reiterated word (phrase). (V.A.K.)
e.g. Halfway along the right-hand side of the dark brown hall was a dark brown door with a
dark brown settie beside it. (W.S.Gilbert)
e.g. I really don’t See anything romantic in proposing. It is very romantic to be in love. But
there is nothing romantic about a definite proposal. (Wilde)
See: <repetition>

successive repetition
(. . . a, a, a . . .)
a string of closely following each other reiterated units
The most emphatic type of repetition which signifies the peak of emotions of the speaker.
(V.A.K.)
e.g. Of her father’s being groundlessly suspected, she felt sure. Sure. Sure. (Dickens)
See: <repetition>

synonymical repetition
синонимический повтор
the repetition of the same idea by using synonymous words and phrases which by adding a
slightly different nuance of <meaning> intensify the impact of the utterance (I.R.G.)
e.g. ... are there not capital punishment sufficient in your statutes? Is there not blood enough
upon your penal code? (Byron)
e.g. The poetry of earth is never dead … // The poetry of earth is ceasing never... (Keats)
See: <repetition>

{{==============================================}}

parallel construction
параллельная конструкция
reiteration of the structure of several sentences (clauses), and not of their lexical “flesh”
almost always includes some type of lexical <repetition>, and such a convergence produces a
very strong effect, <foregrounding> at one go logical, <rhythm>ic, emotive and expressive aspects of
the utterance. (V.A.K.)
e.g. When a man wants to kill a tiger he calls it sport; when a tiger wants to kill a man it is
ferocity. (I.V.A.)
••
- identical. or similar, syntactical structure in two or more sentences or parts of a sentence in
close succession;
- is often backed up by repetition of words (lexical repetition) and conjunctions and prepositions
(<polysyndeton>);
- may be partial or complete (balance);
- is most frequently used in <enumeration>, <antithesis> and in <climax>, thus consolidating
the general effect achieved by these stylistic devices;
- is used in different styles of writing with slightly different functions;
- carries, in the main, the idea of semantic equality of the parts (matter-of-fact styles), an
emotive function (<belles-lettres style>),
Source: <I.R.G.>:208
e.g. Speaking without thinking is shooting without aiming. (Cronin)
e.g. A court is only as sound as its jury, and a jury is only as sound as the men who make it up.
(Harper Lee) – Суд совершенен лишь настолько, насколько совершенны присяжные, а
присяжные совершенны лишь настолько, насколько совершенен каждый из них. (пер. Норы Галь
и Р.Облонской)
e.g. I notice that father’s is a large hand, but never a heavy one when it touches me, and that
father’s is a rough voice but never an angry one when it speaks to me. (Dreiser)
e.g. From room to room they went, hand in hand, lifting here, opening there, making sure -- a
ghostly couple. (V.Woolf)
e.g. So long as [u]men can breathe[/u] or [u]eyes can See[/u]
e.g. So long lives this and this gives life to thee. (W.Shakespeare – XVIII)
See: <chiasmus>, <coupling>, <repetition>, <syntactical SDs>

chiasmus
reversed parallel construction
хиазм
a) reversed parallelism of the structure of several sentences (clauses)
b) <inversion> of the first construction in the second part (V.A.K.)
e.g. If the first sentence (clause) has a direct word order – SPO, the second one will have it
inverted – OPS.
e.g. So long as men can breathe or eyes can See
e.g. So long [u]lives this and this gives[/u] life to thee. (W.Shakespeare – XVIII)
••
- a group of stylistic devices based on repetition of a syntactical pattern, but it has a cross order
of words and phrases;
- reversed parallel construction, the word-order of one of the sentences being inverted as
compared with that of the other;
- sometimes achieved by a sudden change from active voice to passive or vice versa;
- is effective in that it helps to lay stress on the second part of the utterence, which is opposite in
structure;
- can appear only when there are two successive sentences or coordinate parts of a sentence;
- is sometimes used to break the monotony of parallel constructioins;
- always bring in some new <shade of meaning> or additional emphasis on some portion of the
second part;
One cannot help noticing that the first part is somewhat incomplete, it calls for continuation,
and the anticipation is rewarded by the second part of the construction, which is, as it were, the
completion of the idea.
- contributes to the rhythmical quality of the utterance, and the pause caused by the change in
the syntactical pattern may be likened to a caesura in prosody;
Source: <I.R.G.>:209-211
e.g. Down dropped the breeze, // The sails dropped down. (Coleridge)
e.g. As high as we have mounted in delight // In our dejection do we ink as low. (Wordsworth)
See: <parallel construction>, <inversion>, <repetition>, <syntactical SDs>
Syn.: chiasmus, reversed parallel construction

(stylistic) inversion
Inversion
(стилистическая) инверсия
a syntactical <stylistic device> in which the direct word order is changed either completely so
that the predicate precedes the subject (complete inversion), or partially so that the object precedes the
subject-predicate pair (partial inversion) (V.A.K.)
e.g. Of all my old association, of all my old pursuits and hopes, of all the living and the dead
world, this one poor soul alone comes natural to me. (Dickens)
e.g. Women are not made for attack. Wait they must. (J.Conrad)
••
aims at attaching logical stress or additional emotional colouring to the surface <meaning> of
the utterance (I.R.G.:204)
e.g. Talent Mr. Micawber has; capital Mr. Micawber has not. (Dickens)
e.g. Down dropped the breeze … (Coleridge)
••
нарушение обычного порядка следования членов предложения, в результате которого
какой-нибудь элемент отказывается выделенным и получает специальные коннотации
эмоциональности и экспрессивности (I.V.A.)
••
- full inversion
e.g. Love he did her surely. (Th. Dreiser)
e.g. On the terrace stood a knot of distinguished visitors. (Huxley)
e.g. In one corner sat the band … (Huxley)
e.g. On the corner, waiting for a bus, had stood a young woman. (Buechner)
e.g. And only then will you truly joined the common European home … (David Atkinson)
e.g. Strange is the heart of woman. (S. Leacock)
- partial inversion
e.g. To a medical student the final examinations are something like death ... (R.Gordon) – Для
студента-медика выпускные экзамены – смерти подобны ...
e.g. Money he had none.. (E. Gaskell) – Денег у него не было ни гроша.
e.g. Misty mountains they saw. (L. Sinclair)
e.g. This he knew very well. A pretty paradise did we build for ourselves. (Thackeray)
e.g. Terrible it had been! (K. Mansfield)
See: <chiasmus>, <ellipsis>, <syntactical SDs>
suspense
a deliberate postponement of the completion of the sentence with the help of embedded clauses
(homogeneous members) separating the predicate from the subject and introducing less important facts
and details first, while the expected information of major importance is reserved till the end of the
sentence (utterance) (V.A.K.)
••
a compositional device which consists in arranging the matter of a communication in such a
way that the less important, descriptive, subordinate parts are amassed at the beginning, the main idea
being withheld till the end of the sentence (I.R.G.:218)
e.g. Mankind, says a Chinese manuscript, which my friend M. was obliging enough to read and
explain to me, for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. (Ch.Lamb)
e.g. Only when, after a few minutes, he \[the monkey\] ceased spinning and simply crouched in
the pale light, bouncing softly up and down, his fingers digging into the carpet, his tail curled out stiff,
did he start to speak to them. (Buechner).
See: <periodic sentences>, <syntactical SDs>

detachment
detached construction
a <stylistic device> based on singling out a secondary member of the sentence with the help of
punctuation (intonation) (V.A.K.)
e.g. I have to beg you nearly killed, ingloriously, in a jeep accident. (I.Shaw)
e.g. I have to beg you for money. Daily. (S.Lewis)
e.g. She was crazy about you. In the beginning. (R.P.Warren)
••
placing one of the secondary parts of a sentence by some specific consideration of the writer so
that it Seems formally independent of the word it logically refers to.
The detached part, being torn away from its referent, assumes a greater degree of significance
and is given prominence by intonation.
Source: <I.R.G.>: 205
e.g. Daylight was dying, the moon rising, gold behind the poplars. (Galsworthy)
e.g. ‘I want to go’ he said, miserable. (Galsworthy)
See: <attachment>, <parenthesis>, <syntactical SDs>
Syn.: detachment, detached construction

completeness of sentence structure


includes: <ellipsis>, <apokoinu constructions>, <break-in-the-narrative> or <aposiopesis>
See: <types of connection>, <syntactical SDs>

ellipsis
эллипсис
a deliberate omission of at least one member of the sentence
e.g. What! all my pretty chickens and their dam at one fell swoop? (W.Shakespeare)
e.g. In manner, close and dry. In voice, husky and low. In face, watchful behind a blind.
(Dickens)
e.g. His forehead was narrow, his face wide, his head large, and his nose all one side. (Dickens)
••
omission of certain members of the sentence
- is typical phenomenon in conversation
- always imitates the common features of colloquial language
e.g. So Justice Oberwaltzer – solemnly and didactically from his high seat to the jury. (Dreiser)
Source: <I.R.G.>
See: <inversion>, <completeness of sentence structure>

apokoinu constructions
apo-koinu constructions
Greek "with a common element"
the omission of the pronominal (adverbial) connective
- create a blend of the main and the subordinate clauses so that;
- the predicative or the object of the first one is simultaneously used as the subject of the second
one;
Source: <V.A.K.>
••
the peculiar introducer or demonstrative construction whose attributive semi-clause has a finite
verb predicate
- specific semi-complex sentence;
- formed much on the pattern of common subject overlapping;
- should be classed as a familiar colloquialism of occasional use; Source: (Blokh)
e.g. There was a door led into the kitchen. (Sh. Anderson)
e.g. He was the man killed that deer. (R. Warren)
e.g. There was no breeze came through the door. (E.Hemingway)
e.g. I bring him news will raise his dropping spirits. (O. Jespersen)
e.g. … or like the snow falls in the river. (O. Jespersen)
e.g. … when at her door arose a clatter might awake the dead. (O. Jespersen)
e.g. It was you insisted on coming, because you didn't like restaurants. (S. O'Casey)
e.g. He's the one makes the noise at night. (E. Hemingway)
e.g. And there's nothing more can be done. (A. Christie)
See: <ellipsis>, <completeness of sentence structure>

break-in-the-narrative
aposiopesis
апОзиопезис
“a stopping short for rhetorical effect” (I.R.G.)
- used mainly in the dialogue or in the other forms of narrative imitating spontaneous oral
speech because the speaker’s emotions prevent him from finishing the sentence (V.A.K.)
e.g. You just come home or I’ll ...
e.g. Good intentions, but ...
e.g. If you continue your intemperate way of living, in six months’ time ...
e.g. What I had Seen of Patti didn’t really contradict Kitty’s view of her: a girl who means well,
but. (D.Uhnak)
See: <completeness of sentence structure>
Syn.: break-in-the-narrative, aposiopesis

types of connection
include: <polysyndeton>, <asyndeton>, <attachment>, <gap-sentence link>
See: <enumeration>, <completeness of sentence structure>

polysyndeton
многосоюзие, полисиндетон
repeated use of conjunctions
- is to strengthen the idea of equal logical/emotive importance of connected sentences
e.g. By the time he had got all the bottles and dishes and knives and forks and glasses and plates
and spoons and things piled up on big trays, he was getting very hot, and red in the face, and annoyed.
(A.Tolkien)
e.g. Bella soaped his face and rubbed his face, and soaped his hands and rubbed his hands, and
splashed him, and rinsed him, and towelled him, until he was as red as beetroot. (Dickens)
Source: <V.A.K.>
••
the <SD> of connecting sentences, or phrases, or syntagms, or words by using connectives
(mostly conjunctions and prepositions) before each component part
- makes an utterance more <rhythm>ical; so much so that prose may even Seem like verse
- has a disintegrating function (generally combines homogeneous elements of thought into one
whole resembling enumeration);
- causes each member of a string of facts to stand out conspicuously unlike <enumeration>,
which integrates both homogeneous and heterogeneous elements into one whole
e.g. The heaviest rain, and snow, and hail, and sleet, could boast of the advantage over him in
only one respect. (Dickens)
Source: <I.R.G.>
Ant.: <asyndeton>
See: <attachment>, <enumeration>, <repetition>, <types of connection>

asyndeton
асИндетон
deliberate omission of conjunctions, cutting off connecting words
- helps to create the effect of terse, energetic, active prose. (V.A.K.)
e.g. With these hurried words Mr. Bob Sawyer pushed the postboy on one side, jerked his friend
into the vehicle, slammed the door, put up the steps, wafered the bill on the street-door, locked it, put
the key into his pocket, jumped into the dickey, gave the word for starting. (Dickens)
e.g. It \[a provincial city\] is full of dirty blank spaces, high black walls, a gas holder, a tall
chimney, a main road that shakes with dust and lorries. (J.Osborne - Entertainer)
••
connection between parts of a sentence or between sentences without any formal sign, becomes
a <SD>, if there is deliberate omission of the connective where it is generally expected to be according
to the norms of the literary language (I.R.G.)
e.g. Soames turned away; he had an utter disinclination for talk, like one standing before an
open grave, watching a coffin slowly lowered. (Galsworthy)
Ant.: <polysyndeton>
See: <attachment>, <types of connection>

attachment
separating the second part of the utterance from the first one by full stop though their semantic
and grammatical ties remain very strong (V.A.K.)
e.g. It wasn’t his fault. It was yours. And mine. I now humbly beg you to give me the money
with which to buy meals for you to eat. And hereafter do remember it: the next time I shan’t beg. I shall
simply starve. (S.Lewis)
e.g. Prison is where she belongs. And my husband agrees one thousand per cent. (T.Capote)
e.g. He is a very deliberate, careful guy and we trust each other completely. With a few
reservations. (D.Uhnak)
See: <detachment>, <types of connection>, <punctuation>, <syntactical SDs>

{{==============================================}}

lexico-syntactical stylistic devices


lexico-syntactical SDs
certain structures, whose emphasis depends not only on the arrangement of sentence members
but also on the lexico-semantic aspect of the utterance (V.A.K.)
- include: <antithesis>, <climax>, <anticlimax>, <simile>, <litotes>, <periphrasis>
See: <lexical SDs>, <cluster SDs>, <syntactical SDs>, <stylistic device>

antithesis
антитеза
a semantically complicated <parallel construction>, the two parts of which are semantically
opposite to each other
- is to stress the heterogenity of the described phenomenon, to show that the latter is a
dialectical unity of two (or more) opposing features. (V.A.K.)
e.g. Some people have much to live on, and little to live for. (Wilde)
e.g. If we don’t know who gains by his death we do know who loses by it. (A.Christie)
e.g. Mrs. Nork had a large home and a small husband. (S.Lewis)
e.g. In marriage the upkeep of woman is often the downfall of man. (S.Evans)
e.g. Don’t use big words. They mean so little. (Wilde)
••
- stylistic opposition, based on relative opposition which arises out of the context through the
expansion of objectively contrasting pairs
e.g. saint – devil, reign – serve, hell – heaven, youth – age, fiery – frosty
The words involved in the opposition do not display any additional nuance of <meaning>
caused by being opposed one to another.
- is generally moulded in <parallel construction>;
- is often signalled by the introductory connective but, when so, the other structural signal, the
parallel arrangement, may not be evident, it may be unnecessary;
- a device, bordering between stylistics and logic;
It is essential to distinguish between antithesis and what is termed contrast. Contrast is a literary
(not a linguistic) device based on logical opposition between the phenomena set one against another.
- has the following basic functions: rhythm-forming (because of the parallel arrangement on
which it is founded); copulative; dissevering; comparative
Source: <I.R.G.>:222-224
••
стилистическая фигура, усиливающая выразительность за счёт столкновения
(противопоставления) в одном контексте прямо противоположных понятий и образов (I.V.A.)
See: <oxymoron>, <parallel construction>, <lexico-syntactical SDs>

climax
gradation
нарастание
a semantically complicated <parallel construction>, in which each next word combination
(clause, sentence) is logically more important or emotionally stronger and more explicit (V.A.K.)
Three types:
@ logical climax
a three-step <climax> (the most widely spread model), in which intensification of logical
importance, of emotion or quantity (size, dimensions) is gradually rising step by step (V.A.K.)
••
is based on the relative importance of the component parts looked at from the point of view of
the concepts embodied in them (I.R.G.)
e.g. Better to borrow, better to beg, better to die! (Dickens)
e.g. Like a well, like a vault, like a tomb, the prison had no knowledge of the brightness outside.
(Dickens)
e.g. For that one instant there was no one else in the room, in the house, in the world, besides
themselves. (M.Wilson)
@ emotive climax
a two-step <climax>, in which the second part repeats the first one and is further strengthened
by an intensifier (V.A.K.)
••
is based on the relative emotional tension produced by words with <emotive meaning> (I.R.G.)
e.g. He was so helpless, so very helpless. (W.Deeping)
e.g. She felt better, immensely better. (W.Deeping)
e.g. I have been so unhappy here, so very very unhappy. (Dickens)
@ quantitative climax
an evident increase in the volume of the corresponding concepts (I.R.G.)
e.g. They looked at hundreds of houses; they climbed thousands of stairs; they inspected
innumerable kitchens. (S.Maugham)
e.g. Little by little, bit by bit, and day by day, and year by year the baron got the worst of some
disputed question. (Dickens)
@
e.g. We were all in all to one another, it was the morning of life, it was bliss, it was frenzy, it
was everything else of that sort in the highest degree. (Dickens)
e.g. I am firm, thou art obstinate, he is pig-headed. (B.Charlestone)
e.g. No tree, no shrub, no blade of grass that was not owned. (J. Galsworthy)
••
an arrangement of sentences (or of the homogeneous parts of one sentence) which secures a
gradual increase in significance importance, or emotional tension in the utterance (I.R.G.:219)
••
расположение слов и выражений в порядке возрастающего их значения (I.V.A.)
Syn.: climax, gradation
Ant.: <anticlimax>
See: <parallel construction>, <repetition>, <lexico-syntactical SDs>

anticlimax
антиклимакс, спад
a <climax> suddenly interrupted by an unexpected turn of the thought which defeats
expectations of the reader (listener) and ends in complete semantic reversal of the emphasised idea
(V.A.K.)
e.g. It was appalling – and soon forgotten. (Galsworthy)
e.g. He was unconsolable – for an afternoon. (Galsworthy)
e.g. Women have a wonderful instinct about things. They can discover everything except the
obvious. (Wilde)
Ant.: <climax>
See: <lexico-syntactical SDs>

simile
сравнение
an imaginative comparison of two unlike objects belonging to two different classes on the
grounds of similarity of some quality
The one which is compared is called the tenor, the one with which it is compared, is called the
vehicle. The tenor and the vehicle form the two semantic poles of the simile, which are connected by
one of the following link words: “like”, “as”, “as though”, “as if”, “as like”, “such as”, “as ... as”, etc.
e.g. She is like a rose.
e.g. He stood immovable like a rock in a torrent. (J.Reed)
e.g. His muscles are hard as rock. (T.Capote)
e.g. The conversation she began behaved like green logs: they fumed but would not fire.
(T.Capote)
Source: <V.A.K.>
••
characterisation of one object by bringing it into contact with another object belonging to an
entirely different class of things
- excludes all the properties of the two objects except one which is made common to them;
- forcibly set one object against another regardless of the fact that they may be completely alien
to each other;
e.g. Maidens, like moths, are ever caught by glare. (Byron)
e.g. Other words live but a short time and are like bubbles on the surface of water – they
disappear leaving no trace of their existence. (I.R.G.)
e.g. His mind was restless, but it worked perversely and thoughts jerked through his brain like
the misfirings of a defective carburettor. (S.Maugham)
e.g. It was that moment of the year when the countryside Seems to faint from its own loveliness,
from the intoxication of tis scents and sounds. (Galsworthy)
Source: <I.R.G.>
Compare: <logical comparison>
See: <metaphor>, <epic simile> or <Homeric simile>, <lexico-syntactical SDs>

(logical) comparison
(логическое) сопоставление
a) an ordinary comparison of two objects belonging to the same classes (V.A.K.)
e.g. She is like her mother.
b) weighing two objects belonging to one class of things with the purpose of establishing the
degree of their sameness or difference
- takes into consideration all the properties of the two objects, stressing the one that is compared
e.g. The boy Seems to be as clever as his mother.
Source: <I.R.G.>
Compare: <simile>
See: <lexico-syntactical SDs>

(the) tenor
(the) vehicle
See: <simile>

epic simile
Homeric simile
extended <simile>, sustained expression of likeness
See: <simile>
Syn.: epic simile, Homeric simile

litotes
литота
a two-component structure in which two negations are joined to give a possessive evaluation
- the first component is always the negative particle “not”, while the second, always negative in
semantics, varies in form from a negatively affixed word (as above) to a negative phrase
e.g. Her face was not unpretty. (K.Kesey)
e.g. It was not unnatural if Gilbert felt a certain embarrassment. (E.Waugh)
e.g. The idea was not totally erroneous. The thought did not displease me. (I.Murdoch)
Source: <V.A.K.>
••
a) is a <stylistic device> consisting of a peculiar use of negative constructions: the negation plus
noun or adjective serves to establish a positive feature in a person or thing
- is a deliberate <understatement> used to produce stylistic effect: it is a negation that includes
affirmation;
- is a means by which the natural logical and linguistic property of negation can be
strengthened;
e.g. He found that this was no easy task.
- is used in different styles of speech, excluding those which may be called the matter-of-fact
styles, like official style and scientific prose
b) a construction with two negations
e.g. not unlike, not unpromising, not displeased
e.g. Soames, with his lips and his squared chin was not unlike a bull dog. (Galsworthy)
Source: <I.R.G.>
••
фигура речи, состоящая в употреблении частицы с антонимом, уже содержащий
отрицательный префикс
e.g. it is not unlikely = it is very likely; he was not unaware of = he was quite aware of
- в разговорном стиле передаёт преимущественно воспитанную сдержанность или
иронию;
- в научном стиле сообщает высказыванию большую строгость и осторожность:
e.g. it is not difficult to See = it easy to See
- интересна свей национальной специфичностью; Её принято объяснять английским
национальным характером, отражённым в речевом этикете англичан: английской
сдержанностью в проявлении оценок и эмоций, стремлением избежать крайностей и сохранить
самообладание в любых ситуациях:
e.g. It is rather an unusual story, isn’t it? = You lie. It would not suit be all that well. = It is
impossible.
Source: <I.V.A.>, 236
See: <understatement>, <transference>, <lexico-syntactical SDs>

periphrasis
circumlocution
перифраз
a) using a roundabout form of expression instead of a simpler one
b) using a more or less complicated syntactical structure instead of a word
They are classified into <figurative periphrasis> (<metaphoric periphrasis> or <metonymic
periphrasis>) and <logical periphrasis> (<euphemistic periphrasis>)
Source: <V.A.K.>
••
a device which, according to Webster’s dictionary, denotes the use of a longer phrasing in place
of a possible shorter and plainer form of expression
- aims at pointing to one of the Seemingly insignificant or barely noticeable features or
properties of the given object, and intensifies this property by naming the object by the property;
- makes the reader perceive the new appellation against the background of the one existing in
the language code and the twofold simultaneous perception secures the stylistic effect;
- like <simile>, has a certain cognitive function inasmuch as in deepens our knowledge of the
phenomenon described;
e.g. I understand you are poor, and wish to earn money by nursing the little boy, my son, who
has so prematurely deprived of what can never be replaced. \[= mother\] (Dickens)
e.g. The lamp-lighter made his nightly failure in attempting to brighten up the street with gas. \
[= lit the street lamps\] (Dickens)
If a periphrastic locution is understandable outside the context, it is not a stylistic device but
merely a synonymous expression.
e.g. the cap and gown (student body); a gentleman of the long robe (a lawyer); the fair sex
(women); my better half (my wife)
Source: <I.R.G.>
••
<троп>, состоящий в замене названия предмета описательным оборотом с указанием его
существенных, характерных признаков (I.V.A.)
e.g. The beast that bears me. (horse) (W.Shakespeare - L)
See: <euphemism>, <lexico-syntactical SDs>
Syn.: periphrasis, circumlocution

figurative periphrasis
metaphoric periphrasis
metonymic periphrasis
перифраз фигуральный (метафорический, метонимический)
a <periphrasis> that is made of phrase-metonymies or phrase-metaphors (V.A.K.)
- is to convey a purely individual perception of the described object
e.g. The hospital was crowded with the surgically interesting products of the fighting in Africa. \
[=wounded\] (I.Shaw)
e.g. His huge leather chairs were kind to the femurs. (R.P.Warren)
e.g. I took my obedient feet away from him. (W.S.Gilbert)
See: <metaphor>, <metonymy>, <periphrasis>
Syn.: figurative periphrasis, metaphoric periphrasis, metonymic periphrasis

logical periphrasis
euphemistic periphrasis
euphemism
перифраз логический (эвфемистический)
a phrase synonymic with the words which were substituted by <periphrasis> because the direct
nomination of the not too elegant feature of appearance was substituted by a roundabout description
- offers more polite (euphemistic) qualification instead of a coarser one
e.g. Mr. Du Pont was dressed in the conventional disguise \[the suit \] with which Brooks
Brothers cover the shame of American millionaires \[the paunch (belly)\]. (The Morning Star)
e.g. I am thinking an unmentionable thing about your mother. (I.Shaw)
Source: <V.A.K.>
••
эвфемизм
a) a word or phrase used to replace an unpleasant word or expression by a conventionally more
acceptable one
b) a synonym which aims at producing a deliberately mild effect
e.g. to die = to pass away, to expire, to be no more, to depart, to join the majority, to be gone; to
kick the bucket, to give up the ghost, to go west
e.g. to lie = to possess a vivid imagination, to tell stories; speak with a forked tongue, throw a
curve
e.g. They think we have come by this horse in some dishonest manner. \[= have stolen it\]
(Dickens)
Source: <I.R.G.>
See: <periphrasis>
Syn.: logical periphrasis, euphemistic periphrasis, euphemism

{{======================================================}}
{{ Арнольд И.В. }}

convergence
конвергенция
схождение в одном месте пучка стилистических приёмов, участвующих в единой
стилистической функции
e.g. And heaved and heaved, still unrestingly heaved the black sea, as if its vast tides were a
conscience. (H. Melville – Moby-Dick)
e.g. Sara was a menace and a tonic, my best enemy; Rozzie was a disease, my worst friend.
(J.Gary – The Horse’s Mouth)
e.g. The rank and file of doctors are no more scientific than their tailors; or their tailors are no
less scientific than they. (B.Shaw) (<parallel construction>, <anadiplosis>, <antithesis>, <negation>)
Source: <I.V.A.>
e.g. The more you study, the more you know, the more you know the more you forget. (proverb)
(<parallel construction>, <anaphora>, <anticlimax>)
e.g. Live hundred years, learn hundred years, and die a fool! (proverb) (<parallel construction>,
<epiphora>, <anticlimax>
See: <syntactical convergence>, <repetition>, <syntactical SDs>

superfluity
избыточность
величина, характеризующая представление сообщения большим числом знаков, чем это
было бы необходимо при отсутствии помех (I.V.A.)

coupling
сцепление
появление сходных элементов в сходных позициях (I.V.A.)
e.g. Hedges have eyes and walls have ears. (proverb)
e.g. I kissed thee ere I killed thee. (Shakespeare)
e.g. A Soul as full of Worth as void of Pride, // Which nothing Seeks to show, or needs to hide, //
Which nor to guilt nor fear its Caution owes, // And boasts a Warmth that from no passion flows.
(A.Popa to J.Kregs)
See: <parallel construction>
allegory
аллегория
выражение отвлечённой идеи в развёрнутом художественном образе с развитием
ситуации и сюжета (I.V.A.)
e.g. See: Sonnet LX by W.Shakespeare, Дж. Бэньяна «Путь паломника», «Божественная
комедия» Данте ()

trope
троп
троп
лексическое изобразительно-выразительное средство, в котором слово или
словосочетание употребляется в преобразованном значении (I.V.A.)
See: <tropes>; <lexical SDs>

tropes
include: <epithet>, <metaphor>, <metonymy>, <oxymoron>, <periphrasis>, <personification>,
<simile>
See: <trope>; <lexical SDs>

semi-marked structure
полуотмеченная структура
структура с нарушением лексической (once bellow a time) или грамматической (chips of
when) сочетаемости (Н.Хомский)
e.g. Colourless green ideas sleep furiously (Н.Хомский)
e.g. a grief ago, a farmyard away, all the sun long, a white noise, the shadow of a sound, a pretty
how town, little whos, he danced his did, for as long as forever is e.g. He is dreadfully married. He is
the most married man I ever saw. (A.Ward)
Source: <I.V.A.>

autology
автология
особый стилистический приём (минус-приём) преднамеренной простоты описания
посредством слов, употреблённых только в прямых значениях (I.V.A.)
See: <stylistic device>

synonyms
синонимы
слова, принадлежащие к одной части речи, близкие или тождественные по предметно-
логическому значению хотя бы в одном из своих лексико-семантических вариантов и такие, что
для них можно указать контексты, в которых они взаимозаменяемы (I.V.A.)
See: <synonymical repetition>; <logical periphrasis>; <lexical SDs>

transposition
grammatical metaphor
транспозиция
1a) расхождение между традиционно обозначающим и ситуативно обозначающим на
уровне морфологии
1b) стилистический эффект употребления слов разных частей речи и их форм в
необычных лексико-грамматических и грамматических значениях и/или с необычной
референтной отнесённостью
See: <personification>
2) употребление синтаксических структур в несвойственных им денотативных значениях
и с дополнительными коннотациями
Например:
e.g. Риторические вопросы служат эмфатическим утверждением, а повелительные
предложения могут иногда передавать не побуждение к действию, а угрозу или насмешку.
Эмфатическое отрицание выражается предложениями, в которых нет отрицательных слов.
e.g. Catch you taking liberties with a gentleman! (B.Shaw)
- выражается в нарушении валентностных связей, что создаёт дополнительные
коннотации оценочности, эмоциональности, экспрессивности или стилистической
отнесённости, а также в семантическом осложнении лексического значения
See: <rhetorical question>
Syn.: transposition, grammatical metaphor

zoonymic metaphor
zoomorphism
зоонимическая метафора, зооморфизм
применение к людям слов второго разряда, т.е. названий животных, птиц и
фантастических существ (метафорическое, эмоционально окрашенное и нередко обидное)
(I.V.A.)
e.g. ass, bear, beast, bitch, bookworm, donkey, duck, kid, monkey, mule, pig, shark, snake,
swine, tabby, toad, wolf, worm, angel, devil, imp, sphinx, witch (I.V.A.)
e.g. I was not going to have all the [u]old tabbies[/u] bossing her around just because she is not
what they call “our class”. (A.Wilson - The Middle Age)
e.g. What were you talking about to that old mare downstairs? (S.Delaney)
e.g. Don’t be such a donkey, dear. (C.P.Snow)
Syn.: zoonymic metaphor, zoomorphism

group genitive
group possessive
групповой генитив
Падежный суффикс генитива ('s) может присоединяться не к основе, как обычно,
а к целому словосочетанию или предложению
e.g. She's the boy I used to go with's mother. // She's the man that bought my wheelbarrow's
wife. // It's the young fellow in the backroom's car. // He is the niece, I told you about's husband.
(J.Bailey)
Морфема - показатель генитива - присоединяется во всех этих примерах не к
основе, а к целому определительному комплексу - существительному с определяющим
его придаточным предложением.
Source: <I.V.A.>
••
is the construction by which the ending -'s of the possessive case can be added to the last word
of a noun phrase, which is regarded as a single unit:
e.g. The king of Spain's daughter.
e.g. John and Mary's baby.
e.g. Somebody else's umbrella.
e.g. A quarter of an hour's drive.
Expressions like these are natural and acceptable.
Informal language, however, permits the extension of the construction to long and complicated
phrases:
e.g. The people in the house opposite's geraniums.
e.g. The woman I told you about on the phone yesterday's name is Thompson.
e.g. The man who called last week's umbrella is still in the hall.
In these, the connection between the words forming the group possessive is much looser and
more complicated than in the earlier examples. The effect is often somewhat ludicrous.
Expressions of this sort should not be used in serious prose.
e.g. [u]Substitute:[/u]
e.g. The geraniums of the people in the house opposite
e.g. The name of the woman I told you about on the phone yesterday is Thompson.
e.g. The umbrella of the man who called last week is still in the hall.
Source: The Oxford Guide to English Usage
[m5][url]http://www.englspace.com/dl/files/oxfrd_gu.zip[/url]
See: <morphological level>, <colloquial type of language>

elative
элятив
безотносительно большая степень признака (I.V.A.)
e.g. a most valuable idea, the sweetest baby, the newest fashion of all, a most foolish wife; the
orangemostest drink in the world(I.V.A.)
e.g. You cannot be deader then the dead. (E.Hemingway)
e.g. Oh, Josie, you are a naughty girl, you really are. I was hoping you’d have everything nice
and clean and tidy when I came in. (J.Osborne and A.Creighton)
See: <morphological level>

reprise
реприза
фигура речи, которая состоит в повторении звуков, слов, морфем, синонимов или
синтаксических конструкций в условиях достаточной тесноты ряда, т.е. достаточно близко друг
от друга, чтобы их можно было заметить. (I.V.A.)
e.g. Beat! beat! drums! – blow! bugles! blow! (W.Whitman)
e.g. Tiger, tiger, burning bright. (W.Blake)
e.g. ... where white horses and black horses and brown horses and white and black horses and
brown and white horses trotted tap-tap-tap tap-tap-tappety-tap over cobble stones ...(Ш.О’Кейси)
See: <repetition>, <morphemic repetition>, <alliteration>, <assonance>, <synonymical
repetition>

syntactical convergence
синтаксическая конвергенция
группа из нескольких совпадающих по функции элементов, объединённых одинаковым
синтаксическим отношением и подчиняющему их слову или предложению
e.g. Группа однородных членов предложения (предложных дополнений): To make a
separate peace with poverty, filth, immorality or ignorance is treason to the rest of the human race. (S.
Levenson. – Everything but Money)
e.g. Однотипные определения, обстоятельства, приложения, подлежащие или сказуемые.
Они могут без изменения грамматического смысла соединяться союзами или просто следовать
друг за другом.
e.g. Перечислительные предложения, т.е. бессоюзные сложные предложения, состоящие
из ряда однородных сочинённых предложений.
- может быть основана на семантической неоднородности синтаксически однородных
членов.
Комический или сатирический эффект создаётся так называемым хаотическим
перечислением, при котором в один ряд ставятся предметы мелкие, прозаические и
возвышенные, живые люди и абстрактные понятия, далёкое и близкое.
e.g. A disorderly rush begins – my parents, my wives, my girls, my children, my farm, my
animals, my habits, my money, my music lessons, my face, my soul! I have to cry. (S.Bellow)
Source: <I.V.A.>, 256
See: <convergence>, <repetition>, <syntactical SDs>

syllepsis
силлепсис
объединение двух или более однородных членов, так или иначе различающихся в
грамматическом отношении
e.g. Силлепсис числа – одни элементы ряда стоят во множ. числе, другие – в ед.
Source: <I.V.A.>, 258
See: <zeugma>
negation
отрицание
- в целом более экспрессивно, чем утверждение;
- встречается в среднем во много раз реже, чем утверждение, появление его оказывается
особо информативным;
- экспрессивность зависит от функции указывать на то, что связи между названными
элементами реально не существует;
- подразумевает контраст между возможным и действительным, что создаёт
экспрессивный и оценочный материал;
e.g. The rank and file of doctors are no more scientific than their tailors; or their tailors are no
less scientific than they. (B.Shaw)
- позволяет сделать фразу предельно лаконичной и усилить выражение необратимости:
e.g. There is a point of no return unremarked at the time in most men lives. (Gr. Green – The
Comedians)
- передаёт компрессию информации:
e.g. All the perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this little hand. (Macbeth)
- может передавать волнение, нерешительность, колебание:
e.g. I’m wondering if I oughtn’t to ring him up. (B.Shaw)
- накопление может свидетельствовать о взволнованности, возбуждении, оживлении:
e.g. Isn’t that lovely? … I shouldn’t be a bit surprised if Robin doesn’t do awfully well in some
business quite soon. … Gerald, it isn’t so very long ago that … . If it hadn’t been for the children, I
wouldn’t have wanted to go on living. (J.Pristley)
- средство усиления иронии:
e.g. insupportable plagues, effect of that incurable distemper, inexpressible, incurable fools,
inconceivable plagues (J.Swift) (подчёркивается безнадёжность «неизлечимых»)
Source: <I.V.A.>, 233
See: <litotes>, <irony>, <double negative>
••
- может употребляться, а может и нет;
- говоря строго логически, в повествовании не нужно (если чего-либо нет, то зачем об
этом говорить?), поэтому несёт дополнительные смыслы;
- присутствует в создании экспрессивности языкового выражения;
- имеет широкие выразительные возможности;
- выражает слабое утверждение (<understatement>);
- выражает литоту (<litotes>);
- выражает иронию (<irony>);
- выражает отталкивание от какого-то стандарта, от того, что ожидает читатель;
(включение текста в общий поток литературного процесса, активное воздействие автора
на вкусы и взгляды читателя)
e.g. «он не беден» <-> «он богат»
e.g. … he had never been handsome.
e.g. … he was not in the last addicted to ..
- ответ на невысказанное предположение;
e.g. «Её отец не был богат» (хотя все считали его богатым), или
e.g. «Её отец не был богат» (а отец такой девушки, скажем, избалованной, непременно
должен быть богат)
- само по себе не может выразить сложные оттенки смысла, но лишь участвует в
создании стилистико-смыслового эффекта. Основную роль играет содержание высказываний.
e.g. No one who ever Seen Catherine Morland in her infancy would have supposed her born to
be an heroine. (J.Austen – Northanger Abbey)
Source: <N.F.P.>
See: <litotes>, <double negative>, <morphological level>

особенности газетного стиля


- большой процент собственных имён: топонимов, антропонимов, названий учреждений
и организаций и т.д.;
- высокий процент числительных, и вообще слов, относящихся к лексико-
грамматическому полю множественности;
- обилие дат;
- обилие интернациональных слов и склонность к инновациям, которые, однако, весьма
быстро превращаются в штампы;
e.g. vital issue, tree world, pillar of society, bulwark of liberty, escalation of war
- большой процент абстрактных слов, хотя информация, как правило, конкретна;
- обилие не столько эмоциональной, сколько оценочной или экспрессивной лексики;
e.g. When the last Labour Government was kicked out (Daily Mail)
- специфическое построение газетных заголовков: краткость, аббревиатуры,
атрибутивные цепочки (левых определений), предикатный характер, вспомогательный глагол
часто опущен, именные группы, почти не встречается предлог of;
e.g. Back to work – to kill the bill.
e.g. Convict sentenced to life for coffin girl kidnap.
e.g. 28 days strike notice now given.(Daily Worker)
- множество цитат и прямой речи, развитая система различных способов передачи чужой
речи;
- замена простого глагола устойчивым сочетанием, часто в пассивной форме;
e.g. render imperative, militate against, make contact with, be subjected to, have the effect of,
play a leading part (role) in, take effect, exhibit a tendency to, serve the purpose of; greatly to be
desired, a development to be expected, brought to a satisfactory conclusion
- предложным оборотам всегда отдаётся предпочтение перед герундием;
e.g. by examination of <-- by examining
- простые короткие слова заменяются оборотами с союзами и предлогами;
e.g. with respect to, having regard to, in view of, on the hypothesis that
- клише и литоты придают тексту глубокомысленное звучание, даже если содержание
совершенно банально;
e.g. In my opinion it is not an unjustifiable assumption that = I think that ...
- высокий удельный вес неличных форм, сложных атрибутивных образований;
- особенности порядка слов: положение обстоятельств определённого времени между
подлежащим и сказуемым, что концентрирует своей необычностью внимание на сказуемом;
e.g. A group of Tory backbenchers yesterday called for severe restrictions of the CND Easter
peace demonstration (Morning Star)
Source: <I.V.A.>, 342
••
- объединение в одном предложении разнородных, относительно независимых мыслей:
e.g. A police Advisory Board composed of twelve representatives from police authorities, nine
from the Federation, three representing superintendents, and eight representing Chief Officers with the
Home Secretary or Home Office representative in the chair, has a general consultative and advisory
function on police matters but the Home Secretary need not accept its advice.
[lang id =2]Это предложение включает, по крайней мере, три самостоятельные мысли: (1)
состав консультативного бюро, (2) роль министра внутренних дел в работе бюро, (3) функции и
права бюро.
Source:Комиссаров В.Н. Теория перевода. С. 77
See: <features of newspaper style>, <newspaper style>

общие особенности научного стиля


- характерен для текстов, предназначенных для сообщения точных сведений из какой-
либо специально области и для закрепления процесса познания;
- стилеобразующий фактор: необходимость доходчивости и логической
последовательности изложения сложного материала, большая традиционность;
- единственная функция: интеллектуально-коммуникативная;
- каждый абзац начинается с ключевого предложения, излагающего основную мысль;
- удовлетворяет требованиям логического построения и максимальной объективности
изложения;
- отражает работу разума и адресован разуму;
- отсутствие или ограниченность контакта с получателем;
Source: <I.V.A.>
See: <scientific style>

лексические особенности научного стиля


- бросающаяся в глаза особенность: использование специальной терминологии;
- слова употребляются либо в основных прямых, либо в терминологических значениях,
но не в экспрессивно-образных;
- специальные устойчивые выражения и наречия;
e.g. to sum up, as we have Seen, so far we have been considering; finally, again, thus
- помимо нейтральных слов и терминологии употребляются т.н. книжные слова;
e.g. automata, perform, cardinal, comprise, susceptible, analogous, approximate, calculation,
circular, heterogeneous, initial, internal, maximum, minimum, phenomenon – phenomena, respectively,
simultaneous, automation – automata
- логическое подчёркивание м.б. выражено лексически;
e.g. note that…, I wish to emphasise…, another point of considerable interest is …, an
interesting problem is that of …, one of the most remarkable of …, phenomena is …, it is by no means
trivial …
- преобладание количественной экспрессивности;
e.g. very far from conservative, much less limited, almost all of which, much the same, most
essential, very diverse sorts, long before
Source: <I.V.A.>
See: <scientific style>

морфологические особенности научного стиля


- авторская речь построена в первом лице множ. ч. «мы»: 1) наука создана содружеством
большого кол-ва учёных, 2) вовлечение читателей в процесс рассуждения и доказательства;
e.g. we are coming to realise, we have taken in to be, the tube has shown us, we are beginning
to See, we deal with, we are now speaking
- множественное скромности;
e.g. As an illustration let us take the language of Euclidean geometry and algebra. (A.Einstein)
- широко употребляются безличные формы c it и конструкции с one;
e.g. It should be borne in mind, it may be Seen; one may write, one may show, one may assume,
one can readily See
- заметное предпочтение отдаётся пассиву и неличным формам глагола;
e.g. I use the same notation as previously --> The notation is the same as previously used.
- преобладание именных, а не глагольных конструкций даёт возможность большего
обобщения, устраняя необходимость указывать время действия;
e.g. when we arrived --> at the time of our arrival
- термины, обозначающие вещество или отвечённое понятие, употребляются в обеих
числовых формах без сдвига лексического значения и могут определяться числительными;
e.g. Normally two horizontal permeabilities are measured.
- сравнительно частое употребление настоящего продолженного и будущего вместо
простого настоящего;
e.g. Today we are coming to realize that … . We are beginning to See that … . Finally, as long
as the automaton is running, … .
e.g. The information fed into this central control system will very often contain information
concerning the functioning of the effectors themselves. (N.Wiener – Cybernetics …)
Source: <I.V.A.>
See: <scientific style>

синтаксические особенности научного стиля


- синтаксическая структура: стройная, полная и, по возможности, стереотипная;
преобладают сложноподчинённые предложения, простые – развёрнуты за счёт однородных
членов;
- преимущественно прямой порядок слов;
- широкое использование различных типов определений; почти каждое существительное
имеет постпозитивное или препозитивное определение, предложный, причастный,
герундиальный или инфинитивный оборот
e.g. To cover this aspect of communication engineering we had to develop a statistical theory of
the amount of information, in which the unit of the amount of information was that transmitted as a
single decision between equally probable alternatives. (N.Wiener – Cybernetics …)
- специфичны: препозитивные определительные группы;
e.g. automatic gyrocompass ship-steering systems, anti-aircraft fire-control systems,
automatically-controlled oil-cracking stills, ultra rapid computer machines, very old steam-engine
governor. (N.Wiener – Cybernetics …)
- обилие и разнообразие союзов и союзных слов, двойных союзов, (эксплицитно
выраженные связи между элементами);
e.g. that, and that, than, if, as, or, nor; not merely ... but also, whether ... or, both ... and, as ...
as ...; thereby, therewith, hereby
Source: <I.V.A.>
See: <scientific style>

{{======================================================}}
{{И.Р.Гальперин}}

seme
shade of meaning
nuance of meaning
сема, оттенок/элемент значения
- a component part of meaning;
Source: <I.R.G.>:58
Syn.: seme, shade of meaning, nuance of meaning
See: <meaning>, <word>, <sign>

meaning
значение
- representation of a concept;
- takes one of the properties, by which a concept is characterised and makes it represent the
concept as a whole;
- in reference to concept becomes, as it were, a kind of <metonymy>;
Source: <I.R.G.>:59
- a component (the inner form) of the word through which a concept is communicated
(Antrushina)
- presents a structure which is called the semantic structure of the word
••
- <grammatical meaning> or <structural meaning>
- <lexical meaning> or <dictionary meaning>
- <logical meaning> or <referential meaning> or <direct meaning> or <denotational meaning>
- <nominal meaning>
- <stylistic meaning> or <connotative meaning>
- <emotive meaning> or <emotional meaning> or <evaluative meaning>
- <contextual meaning>
See: <word>, <sign>, <lexical SDs>

contextual meaning
a meaning imposed by and depends on the context;
Source: <I.R.G.>:58,64
See: <meaning>

lexical meaning
dictionary meaning
лексическое значение
- refers the mind to some concrete concept, phenomenon, or thing of objective reality, whether
real or imaginary;
- a means by which a word-form is made to express a definite concept;
- are closely related to a concept;
- are sometimes identified with a concept;
Source: <I.R.G.>:58-59
See: <meaning>

grammatical meaning
structural meaning
грамматическое значение
- refers our mind to relations between words or to some forms of words or constructions bearing
upon their structural functions in the language-as-a-system
Source: <I.R.G.>:58
See: <meaning>

denotational meaning
See: <referential meaning>

logical meaning
referential meaning
direct meaning
логическое значение
- the precise naming of a feature of the idea, phenomenon or object;
- the name by which we recognise the whole of the concept;
- is liable to change;
- of one <word> may denote different concepts;
- has reference not directly to things or phenomena of objective reality
Syn.: logical meaning, referential meaning, direct meaning
Source: <I.R.G.>:64,66
Ant.: <emotive meaning>, <emotional meaning>
See: <nominal meaning>, <meaning>

emotional meaning
evaluative meaning
stylistic meaning
connotative meaning
See: <emotive meaning>

emotive meaning
- also materialises a concept in the word, but, unlike logical meaning, it has reference not
directly to things or phenomena of objective reality, but to the feelings and emotions of the speaker
towards these thighs or to his emotions as such;
- bears reference to things, phenomena or ideas through a kind of evaluation of them;
e.g. I feel so darned lonely. (Gr.Green)
- has function to reveal the subjective, evaluating attitude of the writer to the things or events
spoken of;
e.g. She has not a flirt, not even a coquette. (Galsworthy)
Source: <I.R.G.>:66
Ant.: <logical meaning>, referential meaning, direct meaning
See: <contextual emotive meaning>, <meaning>

contextual emotive meaning


- an <emotive meaning>, acquired by a word only in a definite context
e.g. liberty, justice, stunning, smart
Source: <I.R.G.>:66
See: <emotive meaning>, <meaning>

nominal meaning
- indicates a particular object out of a class;
- serves the purpose of singling out one definite and singular object out of a whole class of
similar objects;
e.g. Hope, Browning, Taylor, Scotland, Black, Chandler, Chester
Source: <I.R.G.>:68
See: <logical meaning>, <meaning>

SPU
supra-phrasal unit
сверхфразовое единство
- a combination of sentences presenting a structural and semantic unity backed up by rhythmic
and melodic unity;
- is used to denote a larger unit than a sentence;
- generally comprises a number of sentences interdependent structurally (usually by means of
pronouns, connectives, tense-forms) and semantically (one definite thought is dealt with);
- can be extracted from the context without losing its relative semantic independence;
- can be embodied in a sentence if the sentence meets the requirements of this compositional
unit;
- though usually a component part of the paragraph, may occupy the whole of the paragraph;
- This structural unit, in its particular way of arranging ideas, belongs almost exclusively to the
<belles-lettres style>, though it may be met with to some extent in the <publicist style>. Other styles,
judging by their recognised leading features, don not require this mode of arranging the parts of an
utterance except in rare cases which may be neglected.
Source: <I.R.G.>:194-196
See: <paragraph>, <belles-lettres style>, <syntactical SDs>

paragraph
абзац
- a graphical term used to name a group of sentences marked off by indentation at the beginning
and a break in the line at the end;
- a distinct portion of a written discourse showing an integral unity;
- (as a linguistic category) a unit of utterance marked off by purely linguistic means: intonation,
pauses of various lengths, semantic ties which can be disclosed by scrupulous analysis of the
morphological aspect and <meaning> of the component parts, etc.
- a linguistic expression of a logical, pragmatic and aesthetic arrangement of thought;
- the length normally varies from eight to twelve sentences (in <newspaper style> - one or two);
Source: <I.R.G.>:198-199
See: <supra-phrasal unit>, <newspaper style>, <syntactical SDs>
{{пропущены принципы деления на абзацы в разн. стилях}}

indirect onomatopoeia
a combination of sounds the aim of which is to make the sound of the utterance an echo of its
sense (“echo – writing”) (I.R.G.)
e.g. “And the silken, sad, uncertain, rustling of each purple curtain“(E.Poe)
- is very effectively used by repeating word which themselves are not onomatopoeic
e.g. Silver bells … how they tinkle, tinkle, tinkle … // To the tintinnabulation that so musically
wells // From the bells, bells, bells, bells, // Bells, bells, bells, – // From the jingling and the tinkling of
the bells. (E.Poe - The Bells)

rhyme
рифма
the repetition of identical or similar terminal sound combination of words
@ full rhyme
identity of the vowel sound and the following consonant sounds in a stressed syllable (might –
right, needless – heedless)
See: <rhyme>
@
- incomplete rhymes:
[m3]@ vowel rhymes
the vowels of the syllable in corresponding words are identical, but the consonants may be
different (flesh -–fresh – press)
See: <rhyme>
[m3]@ consonant rhymes
show concordance in consonants and disparity in vowels (worth – forth, tale – tool – Treble –
trouble; flung – long)
See: <rhyme>
@
Source: <I.R.G.>
See: < rhythm>, <euphony>,

rhythm
1) a flow, movement, procedure, etc. characterised by basically regular recurrence of elements
or features, as beat, or accent, in alternation with opposite or different elements or features (Webster’s
New World Dictionary)
2) a combination of the ideal metrical scheme and the variations of it, variations which are
governed by the standard (I.R.G.)
See: <rhyme> , <euphony>,

whitewashing device
See: <euphemism>

set expressions
include: clichés, proverbs and sayings, <epigram>s, quotations, <allusion>s

epigram
эпиграмма
a) a <SD> akin to a proverb, the only difference being that epigrams are coined by individuals
whose names we know, while proverbs are the coinage of the people
b) terse, witty, pointed statement, showing the ingenious turn of mind of the originator
e.g. A God that can be understood is no God. (S.Maugham)
e.g. A thing of beauty is a joy forever. (Keats)
e.g. He that bends shall be made straight. (S.Maugham)
e.g. Art is triumphant when it can use convention as an instrument of its own purpose.
(S.Maugham – The Razor’s Edge)
Source: <I.R.G.>
See: <set expressions>, <lexical SDs>

allusion
аллюзия
an indirect reference, by word or phrase, to a historical, literary, mythological, biblical fact or to
a fact of everyday life made in the course of speaking or writing
e.g. No little Grandgrind had ever associated a cow in a field with that famous cow with the
crumpled horn that tossed the dog that worried the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt, or with that
yet more famous cow swallowed Tom Thumb; it had never heard of those celebrities (Dickens – Hard
Times)
(The <meaning> that can be derived from the two allusions, one to the nursery <rhyme> “The
House that Jack build” and the other to the old tale “The history of Tom Thumb”)
Source: <I.R.G.>
e.g. "Don't count your boobies until they are hatched"(J.Thurber)
See: <set expressions>, <lexical SDs>

parenthesis
парентеза
a qualifying, explanatory or appositive word, phrase, clause, sentence, or other sequence which
interrupts a syntactic construction without otherwise affecting it, having often a characteristic
intonation and indicated in writing by commas, brackets or dashes. (Random House Dict. of the Engl.
Lang.)
- a variant of <detached construction>
See: <detached construction>, <syntactical SDs>

enumeration
перечисление
a <SD> by which separate things, objects, phenomena, properties, actions are named one by
one so that they produce a chain, the links of which, being syntactically in the same position
(homogeneous parts of speech), are forced to display some kind of semantic homogeneity, remote
through it may Seem. (I.R.G.:216)
- integrates both homogeneous and heterogeneous elements into one whole, unlike
<polysyndeton>
e.g. The principal production of these towns … appear to be soldiers, sailors, Jews, chalk,
shrimps, officers and dock-yard men. (Dickens – Pickwick Papers)
See: <polysyndeton>, <parallel construction>, <syntactical SDs>

gap-sentence link
a way of connecting two sentences Seemingly unconnected and leaving it to the reader’s
perspicacity to grasp the idea implied, but not worded
e.g. She and that fellow ought to be the sufferers, and they were in Italy. (Galsworthy)
(the second part, which is hooked on to the first by the conjunction and, Seems to be
unmotivated or, in other words, the whole sentence Seems to be logically incoherent. But this is only
the first impression. After a more careful supralinear semantic analysis it becomes clear that the exact
logical variant of the utterance would be: ‘Those who ought to suffer were enjoining themselves in
Italy’)
- is generally indicated by and or but
- the omissions are justified because the situation easily prompts what has not been said;
- is based on the peculiarities of the spoken language and is therefore most frequently used in
represented speech;
- has various functions: it may serve to signal the introduction of inner represented speech, it
nay be used to indicate a subjective evaluation of the facts; it may introduce an effect resulting from a
cause which has already had verbal expression;
- displays and unexpected coupling of ideas;
- aims at stirring up in the reader’s mind the suppositions, associations and conditions under
which the sentence uttered can really exist
e.g. She says nothing, but it is clear that she is harping on this engagement, and – goodness
know what. (Galsworthy)
e.g. It was an afternoon to dream. And she took out Jon’s letters. (Galsworthy)
Source: <I.R.G.>
See: <types of connection>

question-in-the-narrative
is asked and answered by one and the same person, usually the author
e.g. ’For what is left the poet here? // For Greeks a blush – for Greece a tear. (Byron – Don
Juan)
- does not contain statement unlike a <rhetorical question>;
- assume a semi-exclamatory nature;
- is very often used in oratory;
- sometimes gives the impression of an intimate talk between the writer and the reader;
e.g. Scrooge knew he was dead? Of course he did. How could it be otherwise? Scrooge and he
were partners for I don’t know how many years. (Dickens)
- may also remain unanswered (there are only hints of the possible answers)
e.g. How long must it go on? Now long must we suffer? Where is the end? What is the end?
(Norris)
- \[presumes that the questioner does not know the answer\]
Source: <I.R.G.>
See: <rhetorical question>, <syntactical SDs>

{{======================================================}}

there is/are the


••
В большинстве случаев существительное в конструкции с вводящим there употребляется
с неопределённым артиклем или без артикля. Употребление определённого артикля, однако, не
исключается.
e.g. [u]There was[/u] harmony between father and son again and [u]the old understanding[/u].
(P.Abrahams)
Часто употребление определённого артикля в таких случаях обусловлено стилистически,
что находит отражение в переводе.
e.g. There was the long drive home; the long drive and the warm dark and the pleasant
closeness of the hansom cab. (Galsworthy) – Всё тот же длинный путь, всё та же дорога и знакомая
приятная теснота кеба.
Source:Бархударов Л.С., Штелинг Д.А. Грамматика английского языка. М., 1965. С. 297
See: <stylistic use of articles>, <morphological level>

stylistic analysis of poetry


стилистический анализ поэзии
- звуковая сторона поэтической речи (ритмика, рифма, эвфония и звукопись);
[m3]See: <rhythm>, <rhyme> , <euphony>, <phono-graphical level>
- использование лексики (синонимия, антонимия);
[m3]See: <synonymy>, <antonymy>, <lexical level>
- тропы (метафора, метонимия)
[m3]See: <trope>, <tropes>, <lexical SDs>
- использование экспрессивных возможностей морфологии (грамматические архаизмы,
глагольные формы, артикль);
[m3]See: <stylistic use of articles>, <negation>, <morphological level>
- использование экспрессивных возможностей синтаксиса;
[m3]See: <syntactical level>
Source: <N.F.P.>
See: <expressive means>, <stylistic device>

stylistic analysis of prose


стилистический анализ прозы
- использование функциональных стилей, архаизация;
[m3]See: <functional style>, <archaisms>
- фонетический аспект речи;
[m3]See: <euphony>, <phono-graphical level>
- использование системной организации лексики (синонимия, антонимия);
[m3]See: <synonymy> , <antonymy>, <lexical level>
- тропеические средства (метафора, метафорическое сравнение, сюжетная метафора,
метонимия)
[m3]See: <trope>, <tropes>, <lexical SDs>
- стилистические возможности морфологии (грамматическое и художественное время,
употребление артиклей, употребление отрицания);
[m3]See: <tense of verbs>, <stylistic use of articles>, <negation>, <morphological level>
- выразительные возможности синтаксиса;
[m3]See: <syntactical level>
- построение содержания текста:
[m3]- образ рассказчика;
[m3]- динамика и статика текста;
[m3]- трансформация реальности (фантастические объяснения, впоследствии
получающие более или менее реалистическое объяснение);
[m3]- позиция наблюдателя;
See: <expressive means>, <stylistic device>
Source: <N.F.P.>

conversion
e.g. I have a must. A win in this match is a must.
e.g. Green waters flowers every day.
e.g. Running exercises leg muscles.
e.g. She madams everybody.
e.g. Turn your oughts into shalls.
e.g. How-do-you-do's were exchanged. (Sweet)
e.g. Warmed by the hot tea, he warmed to the argument.
e.g. Sharp ups and downs marked 1999 for the European Union.
e.g. She came dressed up to the nines.
e.g. Finally, to quiet him, she said uneekly, she hadn't really meant it.
e.g. The differences are now being narrowed.
e.g. Her face, heated with his own exertions, chilled suddenly.
e.g. When he saw who it was, he condescended a sarcastic Thank you, but no Madam. He did
not madam anybody, even good customers like Mrs Moore. (Dickens)
e.g. ... the bounding vitality which had carried her through what had been a life of quite sharp
ups and downs. (McCrone)
e.g. Don't bustle me," said Eeyore, getting up slowly. "Don't now-then me." (Milne)

gender markers
linguistic features of “female” and “male” languages
- men and women Seem to differ in terms of their communicative competence or, in other
words, in their knowledge of how to use language in society;
- women and men typically employ different linguistic “styles” of speech;
- men and women use certain linguistic patterns which are typical of “powerful” and
“powerless” (the “men’s” and “women’s” styles of) language;
- Male and female speakers tend to use different kinds of expressions when the make a request.
This reflects the different ideas between male and female speakers about gender and intimacy.
- <gender markers of male language>
- <gender markers of female language>

gender markers of male language


- tend to change their expressions depending on the degree of their intimacy with the listeners
- use polite forms of making a request when the listeners are not intimate.
- if those who do them a favour are close friends, they will ask them in a more casual way, even
bluntly without showing any politeness.
- generally use more polite expressions when they speak to female friends than to males
- choose from different expressions, depending on whom they are talking to
Ant.: <gender markers of female language>
See: <gender markers>

gender markers of female language


- are found not to change their expressions as much depending on the sex of the persons they
speak to
- generally use more polite expressions both to the male and female listeners alike.
- tend not to change their way of speaking, depending on whom they are talking to.
••
1. The use of ‘hedges’ of ‘<parenthesis>’.
e.g. sort of, I guess, kind of, you know, well, you See, just
e.g. [u]Well[/u], we were, [u]uh[/u], very close friends. [u]Uh[/u], she was even [u]sort of
like[/u] a mother to me. (Lady Diana Spencer)
2. Excessive use of super-polite forms of expression.
e.g. would you please; I’d really appreciate it if you would do smth; would you be so kind and
do something, I awfully ask you to do smth …
3. The use of ‘tag questions’.
e.g. The crisis in Kosovo is terrible, isn’t it? But you can switch on the light, can you?
4. Speaking ‘in italics’, i.e. the use of emphatic so and very which is equivalent to
[u]underlining[/u] words in written language, often followed by the sudden rise in intonation pitch:
e.g. This is a very important subject. This problem is of so much importance. It is a very very
serious.
e.g. It took a long time to understand why people were so interested in me.(Lady Diana
Spencer)
5. The use of the ‘empty’ adjectives or adverbs.
e.g. divine, daunting, charming, sweet, adorable, tremendous, significant, phenomenal,
desperate, desperately
6. Hypercorrect grammar and pronunciation.
7. Lack of sense of humour which means that women are usually poor at telling jokes
comparing to men.
8. Direct quotations.
e.g. I asked him: ‘Why did you come home so late?’ and he said: ‘I was in the pub having some
beer with my friends’
e.g. ’It was a long way off’, I thought. ... I said to my husband: ‘What do I do now?’ and he
said: ‘Go to the other side and speak to them’. (Lady Diana Spencer)
9. Special vocabulary, e.g. the use of diminutive forms of specialise colour terms.
e.g. piglet, kitty, chubby, sweetheart, honey
e.g. The Queen wore a yellow dress and a green hat. He was in a dark blue suit.
10. Question intonation in declarative contexts, which may cause a problem for interpreters
desperately trying to figure out whether may cause what was said should be regarded as a statement or
as a question.
Source: (Coats 1986, O’Barr 1982, Lakoff 1975) cit. by Максимов С.Є., Радченко Т.О.
Перекладацький аналіз тексту. – К.: КНЛУ, 2001. – 105 с.
Ant.: <gender markers of male language>
See: <gender markers>

mixed metaphor
two or more metaphors that sound strange or funny when you use them together
e.g. This is a great headache lifted off my shoulders. – С моих плеч свалилась ужасная
головная боль.
Source: <MacMillan>, 895
e.g. Для того чтобы поставить детей на ноги, надо снять их со своей шеи.
e.g. Ни что так не ограничивает свободу слова, как набитый рот.
See: <metaphor>, <convergence>

double predicate
двойное сказуемое, глагольно-именное сказуемое
a special type of predicate which presents a crossing of two predicates – a verbal predicate and
a nominal predicate
e.g. The moon rose red. (= The moon was red when it rose)
e.g. She went away quite a child; she returned a grown-up woman.
e.g. In that part of Africa the natives go naked all the year round.
e.g. At this idea he went mad.
Source: Ганшина М.А. Василевская Н.М. Практ. грамм. англ. яз. М., 1964. C. 350
••
combines the features of two different types of predicate: the simple verbal predicate, expressed
by a notional verb denoting an action or process performed by the person/non-person expressed by the
subject, and the compound nominal predicate, expressed by a noun or an adjective which denotes the
properties of the subject in the same way as the predicative of the compound nominal predicate proper
does.
e.g. The moon was shining cold and bright.
e.g. My daughter sat silent.
e.g. He died a hero.
e.g. She married young.
e.g. The light came grey and pale.
e.g. The men stood silent and motionless.
e.g. They met friends and parted enemies.
e.g. The moon rose round and yellow.
There are a number of verbs that often occur in this type of predicate, performing the double
function of denoting a process and serving as link verbs at the same time. They are: to die, to leave, to
lie, to marry, to return, to rise, to sit, to stand, to shine, etc.. As in Modern English is a growing
tendency to use this type of predicate, the verbs occuring in it are not limited by any particular lexical
class.
Source: Кобрина Н.А. и др. Грамм. англ. яз. СПб., 2001. C. 342
••
В роли первого компонента выступает предикативная форма глаголов, имеющих
значение: движения (to go, to come, to run, to fly, to ride, to rise, to fall, to return, etc.), положения в
пространстве (to stand, to lie, to sit, to hang, etc.), состояния (to live, to die, etc.), проявления
физических свойств, воздействия на органы чувств (to feel, to look, to ring, to smell, to taste, etc.),
кажимости, видимости (to Seem, to appear), неожиданности, случайности (to prove, to turn out)
Source:Бархударов Л.С., Штелинг Д.А. Грамматика английского языка. М., 1965. С. 305
••
e.g. This will taste bad. (J. Steinbeck)
e.g. The sky shone pale... (Mansfield)
e.g. The sun rose brightly. (London)
e.g. The sun was shining bright and cold. (London)
e.g. The snow fell soft on his face and hair. (A. Maltz)
e.g. The moon shone peacefully. (Brontë).
e.g. She flushed crimson... (Galsworthy)
e.g. He looked stained and worried. (Galsworthy)
e.g. Dusk had gathered thick. (Galsworthy)
e.g. ...Soames stood invisible at the top of the stairs... (Galsworthy)
e.g. ... the poplar tops showed sharp and dense against the sky. (Galsworthy)
e.g. The sun shone out bright and warm... (Dickens)
e.g. Around and around the house the leaves fall thick. (Dickens)
e.g. He resigned his office and died an old man. (Daily Worker)
e.g. They \[carnations\] arrived perfectly fresh. (Mazo de la Roche)
e.g. Catherine's blood ran cold with the horrid suggestions which naturally sprang from these
words. (J. Austen)
e.g. You've come home such a beautiful lady. (Taylor)
e.g. I sat down hungry, I was hungry while I ate, and I got up from the table hungry. (Saroyan)
e.g. She had set her feet upon that road a spoiled, selfish and untried girl, full of youth, warm of
emotion, easily bewildered by life. (Dreiser)
See: <double passive>, <secondary predication constructions>

double passive
двойной пассив
the construction whereby a passive infinitive directly follows a passive verb
Double passives are more acceptable when used in a reporting context. It is better to avoid the
passive form of the verb as much as possible as it tends to convey a weak approach by the individual
writing it.
e.g. The building is scheduled to be demolished next week.
e.g. The contract is proposed to be withdrawn.
e.g. Their budget was expected to be reduced.
e.g. The mountain was attempted to be climbed.
e.g. A cheerful atmosphere was endeavoured to be created.
e.g. The piece was originally intended to be played on the harpsichord.
e.g. This topic was claimed to have been studied to death.
e.g. Three people are reported to have been drowned.
e.g. The building was expected to have been completed by then.
e.g. The manufacture of your goods is hoped to be resumed shortly.
Sources:
[url]http://www.oltuk.com/courses/communication/w-communication15.htm[/url]
The American Heritage Book of English Usage. A Practical and Authoritative Guide to
Contemporary English. 1996.
[m4][url]http://www.bartleby.com/64/C001/024.html[/url]
The Columbia Guide to Standard American English by Kenneth G. Wilson.
[m4][url]http://www.bartleby.com/68/5/2005.html[/url]
The Oxford Guide to English Usage.
[m4][url]http://koapp.narod.ru/english/diction/book6.htm[/url]
[m4][url]http://www.englspace.com/dl/files/oxfrd_gu.zip[/url]
See: <complex subject>, <secondary predication constructions>, <double predicate>

double possessive
double genitive
двойной генитив
the ’s construction after the of-construction
e.g. a friend of my father’s (= one of my father’s friends)
e.g. a play of Shakespeare’s (= one of Shakespeare’s plays)
This can happen because we usually put only one determiner in front of a noun.
e.g. this son of mine, a friend of yours, a cousin of hers,
e.g. Isn’t Frank Byers a friend of yours?
e.g. He’s no friend of mine. (= I don’t know him.) or (= He’s my enemy.)
The use of demonstratives often suggests criticism:
e.g. That silly uncle of yours has told me the same joke five times.
Source: Longman English Grammar by L.G.Alexander. L., 1988. P. 54
See: <morphological level>

double negative
двойное отрицание
two negative words in a sentence
- can be used to express an affirmative, but this is rare or sometimes heard in joking;
e.g. Nobody did nothing. (=Everybody did something)
- is acceptable when there is co-ordination;
e.g. I’ve never had and never wanted a television set.
- is also possible in different clauses:
e.g. I can never get in touch with Thomas, as he has no telephone.
[m3]Note: the not in the if-clause does not make a true negative:
e.g. I wouldn’t be surprised if he didn’t try to blackmail you. (i.e. if he tried to blackmail you.)
Source: Longman English Grammar by L.G.Alexander. L., 1988. P. 254, 277
••
- is possible in standard English, but then both words normally have their full <meaning>
e.g. Compare:
e.g. Say nothing. (=Be silent.)
e.g. Don’t just say nothing. Tell us what the problem is. (=Don’t be silent...)
- is sometimes used instead of simple positive structures for special stylistic effects
- is rather literary
- can Seem unnatural or old-fashioned in spoken English
e.g. Not a day passes when I don’t regret not having studied music in my youth. (More natural:
Every day I regret not having studied music when I was younger. OR: I wish I had studied music when
I was younger.)
Source: Practical English Usage by Michael Swan. L., 1996. P. 357
e.g. Nobody never went and hinted no such thing, said Peggotty; I can’t do nothing without my
staff. (Hardy)
See: <negation>, <morphological level>

continuous infinitive
in
e.g. I can recollect yet how I loved him; and can dimly imagine I could still [u]be loving[/u] him
if - No, no! (E.Bronte)
gives more prominence to the idea of the continuity of her love, and this is obviously much
stronger than the mere statement that love might still be there now. The stylistic difference is thus
unquestionable, but there would Seem to be also a grammatical difference. The <meaning> of the
continuous aspect is well brought out here, though the lexical meaning of the verb love would Seem to
go against it.
Source: Ильиш Б.О. Строй современного английского языка. 2-е изд. Л., 1971. – С. 130
See: <morphological level>

continuous participle
is occasionally found, but this use appears to be obsolete:
e.g. The younger Miss Thorpes [u]being[/u] also [u]dancing[/u], Catherine was left to the mercy
of Mrs Thorpe and Mrs Allen, between whom she now remained. (J.Austin)
e.g. Catherine had no leisure for speech, [u]being[/u] at once [u]blushing[/u], [u]tying[/u] her
gown, and [u]forming[/u] wise resolutions with the most violent dispatch. (J.Austin)
The use of the continuous participles Seems to be a means of giving prominence to the fact that
the actions indicated were actually happening at that very moment.
Source:Ильиш Б.О. Строй современного английского языка. 2-е изд. Л., 1971. – С. 131
See: <morphological level>

continuous infinitive passive


can only be used occasionally, with a strong stylistic colouring
Source: Blokh M.Y. A Course of Theoretical English Grammar. 4th ed. M., 2003. p. 118
e.g. Despite initial concerns, the MyParty virus Seems to be being contained with only a few
thousand reports so far. (BBC)
e.g. Little has been heard of Saddam Hussein since he was captured at the end of last year but
he is believed to be being held at an undisclosed location in Iraq. (BBC)
See: <morphological level>

perfect continuous infinitive passive


can only be used occasionally, with a strong stylistic colouring
Source: Blokh M.Y. A Course of Theoretical English Grammar. 4th ed. M., 2003. p. 118
e.g. Around a quarter (23.0%) \[of separate houses in Queensland\] were being rented. Flats and
townhouses were far more likely to have been being rented (71.5% and 63.0% respectively) than
houses. (Queensland Govt)
[url]http://www.oesr.qld.gov.au/data/briefs/c01/tenure_type_c01.pdf[/url]
e.g. Now we know from the documents that we have in Exhibit 37-A, that \[ventilation\]
surveys Seem to have been being done about once a month up until … February.
[url]http://libmain.stfx.ca/newlib/collections/westray/transcripts/jul11.pdf[/url]
See: <morphological level>

perfect continuous passive


To imagine this ungainly verbal predicate in a sentence, consider:
e.g. That song has been being sung for hours, and I’m sick of it.
which implies either the singing of one extremely long song or repetitious performances of the
same song.
Source: Gerald. P. Delahunty, James J. Garvey. Language, grammar and Communication. A
Course for Teachers of English. Colorado, 1994. p. 194
See: <morphological level>

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