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Составил: Аркадий Куракин, г. Николаев, апрель 2003 г.

Выписки из монографии В.А.Кухаренко (терминология и примеры).
В некоторых случаях добавлены фундаментальные определения из монографии И.Р.Гальперина
(помечены I.R.G.) (более десятка).
Существует электронная версия в виде словаря терминов для Лингво 8.0.
(статьи не расположены по алфавиту, а предназначены для изучения по порядку,
предложенному автором пособия. Для поиска используйте Ctrl+F или эл. версию словаря)

a) V.A.Kuckharenko. A book of practice in Stylistics. 2nd rev. and suppl. ed. A manual for
students of Foreign Languages Departments of Higher Educational Institutions. Vinnytsia: Nova
Knyga, 2000
b) Кухаренко В.А. Практикум з стилістики англійської мови: Підручник для студ.
фак.-тів ін. мов вузів. 2-е вид, перегл. та пош. – Вінниця: Нова книга, 2000. – 160 с. – англ.
c) Кухаренко В.А. Практикум по стилистике английского языка. Учебник для студ.
фак.-тов ин.яз. вузов. 2-е изд., пересм. та расш. – Винница: Нова книга, 2000. – 160 с. –
Цель пособия – помочь студентам старших курсов факультетов иностранных
языков, педагогических и академических университетов овладеть практикой
стилистического анализа текста на базе прослушанного теоретического курса стилистики
английского языка. Для этого в учебнике приводятся короткие теоретические выводы из
каждого раздела, вопроса для самоконтроля и широкий иллюстративный материал.

a) I.R.Galperin. Stylistics. 2nd ed., rev., ed. by L.R.Todd. M.: Higher School, 1977
b) Гальперин И.Р. Стилистика английского языка. Учебник. Изд. 2-у, испр. и доп.
Под ред. Л.Р.Тодд. М.: Высш. школа, 1977. – 332 с. – англ.


style of language
is a system of co-ordinated, interrelated and inter-conditioned language means intended to
fulfil a specific function of communication and aiming at a definite effect (I.R.G)
See: <practical stylistic>, <stylistic device>, <expressive means>, <functional style>,
<stylistic norm>, <phono-graphical level>, <morphological level>, <lexical level>, <syntactical

stylistic device
is a conscious and intentional intensification of some typical structural and/or semantic
property of a language unit (neutral or expressive) promoted to a generalised status and thus
becoming a generative model (I.R.G.)
See: <lexical SDs>, <cluster SDs>, <syntactical SDs>; <lexico-syntactical SDs>,
<expressive means>, <foregrounding>; <Stylistics>

expressive means
are those phonetic, morphological, word-building, lexical, phraseological and syntactical
forms which exist in language-as-a-system for the purpose of logical and/or emotional
intensification of the utterance (I.R.G.)
See: <stylistic device>; <Stylistics>

practical stylistic
the stylistics, proceeding form the norms of language usage at a given period and teaching
these norms to language speakers, especially the ones, dealing with the language professionally
(editors, publishers, writers, journalists, teachers, etc.). (V.A.K.)
See: <Stylistics>

stylistic norm
the invariant of the phonemic, morphological. lexical and syntactical patterns circulating
in language-in-action at a given period of time (I.R.G.)
See: <individual style>, <Stylistics>

individual style
a unique combination of language units, <expressive means> and <stylistic device>s
peculiar to a given writer, which makes that writer’s works or even utterances easily recognisable
See: <stylistic norm>, <Stylistics>

a material, sensuously perceived object (phenomenon, action) appearing in the process of
cognition and communication in the capacity of a representative (substitute) of another object (or
objects) and used for receiving, storing, recasting and transforming information about this object
See: <word>, <lexical SDs>, <Stylistics>

a unit of language functioning within the sentence or within a part of it which by its sound
or graphical form expresses a concrete or abstract notion or a grammatical notion through one of
its meanings and which is capable of enriching its semantic structure by acquiring new meanings
and losing old ones (I.R.G.)
See: <sign>, <lexical SDs>, <Stylistics>

the ability of a verbal element to obtain extra significance, to say more in a definite
context (Prague linguists)
See: <irony>, <epithet>, <stylistic device>


functional style
a) a system of interrelated language means which serves a definite aim of communication
b) includes: <official style>, <scientific style>, <publicist style>, <newspaper style>,
<belles-lettres style>
c) the co-ordination of the language means and <stylistic device>s which shapes the
distinctive features of each style, and not the language means or SD themselves
d) a patterned variety of literary text characterised by the greater or lesser typification of
its constituents, supra-phrasal units, in which the choice and arrangement of interdependent and
interwoven language media are calculated to secure the purport of the communication
See: <stylistic device>, <individual style>, <Stylistics>
Source: (I.R.G.)

official style
(the) style of official documents
represented in all kinds of official documents and papers (V.A.K.)
The main aim is to state the conditions binding two parties in an undertaking (the state
and the citizen, citizen and citizen, the society and its members, two or more enterprises or bodies,
a person and subordinates) (I.R.G.)
Substyles: the language of business documents, the language of legal documents, the
language of diplomacy, the language of military documents
See: <functional style>, <stylistic device>

scientific style
found in articles, brochures, monographs and other scientific and academic publications
The aim is to prove a hypothesis, to create new concepts, to disclose the internal laws of
existence, development, relations between different phenomena, etc. (I.R.G)
See: <functional style>, <stylistic device>

publicist style
covering such genres as essay, feature article, most writing of “new journalism”, public
speeches, etc. (V.A.K.)
The general aim is to exert a constant and deep influence on public opinion, to convince
the reader or the listener that the interpretation given by the writer of the speaker is the only
correct one and to cause him to accept the point of view … not merely by logical argumentation,
but by emotional appeal as well (brain-washing function). (I.R.G.)
Substyles: oratorical (direct contact with the listeners); radio commentary; essay (moral,
philosophical, literary; book review in journals and magazines, pamphlets); articles (political,
social, economic).
See: <functional style>, <stylistic device>

newspaper style
1) observed in the majority of information materials printed in newspapers (V.A.K.)
2) a system of interrelated lexical, phraseological and grammatical means which is
perceived by the community speaking the language as a separate unity that basically serves the
purpose of informing and instructing the reader. (I.R.G.)
See: <functional style>, <stylistic device>

belles-lettres style
(the) style of imaginative literature
embracing numerous and versatile genres of imaginative writing (V.A.K.)
The purpose is not to prove but only to suggest a possible interpretation of the phenomena
of life by forcing the reader to see the viewpoint of the writer. (I.R.G.)
Substyles: the language of poetry (verse), emotive prose (fiction), the language of drama.
See: <functional style>, <stylistic device>


phono-graphical level
includes: <onomatopoeia>, <alliteration>, <assonance>, <graphon>
See: <morphological level>, <Stylistics>

morphological level
includes: <onomatopoeia>, <morphemic repetition>
See: <phono-graphical level>, <Stylistics>

(direct) onomatopoeia
1) the use of words whose sounds imitate those of the signified object of action (V.A.K.)
2) a combination of speech-sounds which aims at imitating sounds produced in nature
(wind, sea, thunder, etc.), by things (machines or tools, etc.) by people (sighing, laughter, patter of
feet, etc.) and by animals (I.R.G.)
e.g.: ”hiss”, “powwow”, “murmur”, “bump”, “grumble”, “sizzle”, “ding-dong”, “buzz”,
“bang”, “cuckoo”, “tintinnabulation”, “mew”, “ping-pong”, “roar”
e.g.: Then with enormous, shattering rumble, sludge-puff, sludge-puff, the train came into
the station. (A.Saxton)
See: <phono-graphical level>, <morphological level>

the repetition of consonants, usually in the beginning of words (V.A.K.)
e.g.: ... silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain (E.A.Poe)
e.g.: The furrow followed free. (S.T.Coleridge)
e.g.: The Italian trio tut-tuted their tongues at me. (T.Capote)
See: <phono-graphical level>

the repetition of similar vowels, usually in stressed syllables (V.A.K.)
e.g.: Nor soul helps flesh now // more than flesh helps soul (R.Browning)
e.g.: Dreadful young creatures – squealing and squawking.(D.Carter)
See: <phono-graphical level>

a sense of ease and comfort in pronouncing or hearing (V.A.K.)
See: <onomatopoeia>, <alliteration>, <assonance>

a sense of strain and discomfort in pronouncing or hearing (V.A.K.)
See: <onomatopoeia>, <alliteration>, <assonance>

1. Intentional violation of the graphical shape of a word (or word combination) used to
reflect its authentic pronunciation, to recreate the individual and social peculiarities of the speaker,
the atmosphere of the communication act. (V.A.K.)
e.g.: I had a coach with a little seat in fwont with an iwon wail for the dwiver. (Ch.
Dickens ) – [lang id=2]с гашеткой впегеди для кучега.[/lang]
e.g.: You don’t mean to thay that thith ith your firth time. (D.Cusack)
2. All changes of the type (italics, CapiTaliSation), s p a c i n g of graphemes, (hy-phe-
na-ti-on, m-m-multiplication) and of lines. (V.A.K.)
e.g.: ”Alllll aboarrrrrrrd”.
e.g.: “Help. Help. HELP” (A.Huxley)
e.g.: ”grinning like a chim-pan-zee” (O’Connor)
e.g.: ”Kiddies and grown-ups too-oo-oo // We haven’t enough to do-oo-oo. (R.Kipling)
See: <phono-graphical level>

morphemic repetition
repetition of a morpheme, both root and affixational, to emphasise and promote it
e.g.: They unchained, unbolted and unlocked the door. (A.Bennett)
e.g.: Laughing, crying, cheering, chaffing, singing, David Rossi’s people brought him
home in triumph. (H.Caine)
e.g.: Young Blight made another great show of changing the volume, taking up a pen,
sucking it, sipping it, and running over previous entries before he wrote. As, “Mr. Alley, Mr.
Balley, Mr. Calley, Mr. Dalley, Mr. Falley, Mr. Galley, Mr. Halley, Mr. Lalley, Mr. Malley. And
Mr. Boffin. (Ch.Dickens)
See: <occasional words>, <morphological level>

occasional words
extension of the normative valency which results in the formation of new words. An
effective way of using a morpheme for the creation of additional information. They are not
neologisms in the true sense for they are created for special communicative situations only , and
are not used beyond these occasions.(V.A.K.)
e.g.: I am an undersecretary of an underbureau. (I.Show)
e.g.: Parritt turns startledly. (E.O’Neill)
e.g.: That was masterly. Or should one say mistressly. (A.Huxley)
See: <morphemic repetition>


lexical level
stratum of words
includes: <literary words>, <neutral words>, <colloquial words>
See: <phono-graphical level>, <syntactical level>; <Stylistics>

literary words
learned words
bookish words
high-flown words
a) serve to satisfy communicative demands of official, scientific, high poetry and poetic
messages, authorial speech of creative prose;
b) mainly observed in the written form;
c) contribute to the message the tone of solemnity, sophistication, seriousness, gravity,
e.g.: I must decline to pursue this painful discussion, It is not pleasant to my feelings; it is
repugnant to my feelings. (Ch.Dickens)
See: <neutral words>, <colloquial words>; <special literary words>; <lexical level>
Source: (V.A.K.)

colloquial words
a) employed in non-official everyday communication
b) their use is associated with the oral form of communication
c) mark the message as informal, non-official, conversational
e.g.: ”dad”, “kid”, “crony”, “fan”, “to pop”, “folks”
d) include <special colloquial words>
e.g.: She’s engaged. Nice guy, too. Though there’s a slight difference in height. I’d say a
foot, her favor. (T.Capote)
See: <literary words>, <neutral words>,
Source: (V.A.K.)

special colloquial words

<slang>, <jargonisms>, <vulgarisms>, <dialectical words>

neutral words
the overwhelming majority of lexis (V.A.K)
See: <literary words>, <colloquial words>

special literary words

such <literary words> as <terms> and <archaisms> (V.A.K)

<special literary words>, denoting objects, processes, phenomena of science, humanities,
technique (V.A.K)

such <special literary words> as
a) historical words – denoting historical phenomena which are no more in use
e.g.: ”yeoman”, “vassal”, “falconet”
b) poetic words and highly literary words – used in poetry in the 17 – 19 cc.
e.g.: ”steed” - horse”, “quoth” - said, “woe” - sorrow, “eftsoons” - again, soon after,
“rondure” - roundness
c) archaic words proper – in the course of language history ousted by newer
synonymous words or forms;
e.g.: “to deem” = to think, “repast” = meal, - for “horse”, “quoth” for “said”, “woe” for
“sorrow”; “maketh” = makes, “thou wilt” = you will, “brethren” = brothers, whereof, aforesaid,
hereby, therewith, hereinafternamed
e.g.: If manners maketh man, then manner and grooming maketh poodle.(J.Steinbeck)
Source: (V.A.K.)

(general) slang
such <special colloquial words> which
a) used by most speakers in very and highly informal, substandard communication
b) are highly emotive and expressive and as such
d) lose their originality rather fast and
c) are replaced by newer formations, unstable, fluctuating, tending to expanded
synonymity within certain lexico-semantic groups
e.g.: Now take fried, crocked, squiffed, loaded plastered, blotto, tiddled, soaked, boiled,
stinko, viled, polluted”(K.Kesey)
e.g.: ”Do you talk?” asked Bundle. “or are you just strong and silent?” “Talk?” said
Anthony. “I burble. I murmur. I gurgle – like a running brook, you know. Sometimes I even ask
questions.” (A.Christie)
See: <jargonisms>, <vulgarisms>, <dialectical words>
Source: (V.A.K.)

special slang
such <special colloquial words> which
a) stand close to <slang>, also being substandard, expressive and emotive, but, unlike
b) are used by limited groups of people, united either professionally (<professional
jargonisms> or <professionalisms>) or socially (<jargonisms proper>)
c) cover a narrow semantic field, function and sphere of application
d) tending to expanded synonymity within certain lexico-semantic groups
See: <slang>, <vulgarisms>, <dialectical words>
Source: (V.A.K.)

professional jargonisms
such <jargonisms> which
a) connected with the technical side of some profession
e.g.: ”driller” = borer, digger, wrencher, hogger, brake weight
e.g.: ”pipeliner” = swabber, bender, cat, old cat, collar-pecker, hammerman
b) are formed according to the existing word-building patterns of present existing words
in new meanings, and,
c) covering the field of special professional knowledge, which is semantically limited,
offer a vast variety of synonymic choices for naming one and the same professional item
See: <slang>, <vulgarisms>, <dialectical words>
Source: (V.A.K.)

jargonisms proper
such <jargonisms> which
a) served to conceal the actual significance of the utterance from the uninitiated;
c) originated from the thieves’ jargon (l’argo, cant);
b) was to be cryptic, secretive (major function);
See: <slang>, <vulgarisms>, <dialectical words>
Source: (V.A.K.)

coarse <special colloquial words> with a strong emotive meaning, mostly derogatory,
normally avoided in polite conversation (V.A.K.)
e.g.: There is so much bad shit between the two gangs that I bet there will be more killings
this year.
See: <slang>, <jargonisms>, <dialectical words>
Source: (V.A.K.)

dialectical words
such <special colloquial words> which
a) are normative and devoid of any stylistic meaning in regional dialects, but used outside
of them, carry a strong flavour of the locality where they belong;
b) markedly differ on the phonemic level: one and the same phoneme is differently
pronounced in each of them;
c) differ also on the lexical level, having their own names for locally existing phenomena
and also supplying locally circulating synonyms for the words, accepted by the language in
e.g.: ”son of a bitch”, “whore”, “whorehound”
e.g.: A hut was all the (= the only) home he ever had.
e.g.: Mary sits aside (= beside) of her sister on the bus.
See: <slang>, <jargonisms>, <vulgarisms>
Source: (V.A.K.)

lexical stylistic devices

lexical SDs
include: <metaphor>, <personification>; <metonymy>, <synecdoche>; <cluster SDs>;
play on words, <irony>, <epithet>, <hyperbole>, <understatement>, <oxymoron>
See: <cluster SDs>, <syntactical SDs>, <lexico-syntactical SDs>, <stylistic device>

act of name-exchange, of substitution of the existing names approved by long usage and
fixed in dictionaries by new, occasional, individual ones, prompted by the speaker’s subjective
original view and evaluation of things, for the name of one object is transferred onto another,
proceeding from their similarity (of shape, colour, function, etc.), or closeness (of material
existence, cause/effect, instrument/result, part/whole, etc.) (V.A.K.)
See: <metaphor>, <metonymy>

<transference> of names based on the associated likeness between two objects, on the
similarity of one feature common to two different entities, on possessing one common
characteristic, on linguistic semantic nearness, on a common component in their semantic
e.g.: ”pancake” for the “sun” (round, hot, yellow)
e.g.: ”silver dust” and “sequins” for “stars”
The expressiveness is promoted by the implicit simultaneous presence of images of both
objects – the one which is actually named and the one which supplies its own “legal” name, while
each one enters a phrase in the complexity of its other characteristics.
The wider is the gap between the associated objects the more striking and unexpected –
the more expressive – is the metaphor.
e.g.: His voice was a dagger of corroded brass. (S.Lewis)
e.g.: They walked alone, two continents of experience and feeling, unable to
communicate. (W.S.Gilbert)
See: <personification>, <simile>, <lexical SDs>
Source: (V.A.K.)

a <metaphor> that involves likeness between inanimate and animate objects (V.A.K)
e.g.: ”the face of London”, “the pain of ocean”
e.g.: Geneva, mother of the Red Cross, hostess of humanitarian congresses for the
civilizing of warfare. (J.Reed)
e.g.: Notre Dame squats in the dusk.(E.Hemingway)
See: <synecdoche>, <lexical SDs>

sustained metaphor
prolonged metaphor
a group (cluster) of <metaphor>s, each supplying another feature of the described
phenomenon to present an elaborated image (V.A.K.)

<transference> of names based on contiguity (nearness), on extralinguistic, actually
existing relations between the phenomena (objects), denoted by the words, on common grounds of
existence in reality but different semantic (V.A.K.)
e.g.: ”cup” and “tea” in “Will you have another cup?”
e.g.: ”My brass will call your brass” (A.Heiley)
e.g.: Dinah, a slim, fresh, pale eighteen, was pliant and yet fragile.(C.Holmes)
See: <synecdoche>, <lexical SDs>

a <metonymy> based on the relations between the part and the whole (V.A.K.)
e.g.: He made his way through perfume and conversation. (I.Shaw)
e.g.: His mind was alert and people asked him to dinner not for old times’ sake, but
because he was worth his salt.(S.Maugham)
See: <personification>, <lexical SDs>


cluster SDs
a small group (cluster) of SDs, which
a) operate on the same linguistic mechanism: namely, one word-form is deliberately used
in two meanings;
b) have humorous effect, and
c) include: <pun> or <paronomasia>, <zeugma>, <violation of phraseological units>,
<semantically false chains>, <nonsense of non-sequence>;
See: <lexical SDs>, <syntactical SDs>, <lexico-syntactical SDs>, <stylistic device>
Source: (V.A.K.)

simultaneous realisation of two meanings through
a) misinterpretation of one speaker’s utterance by the other, which results in his remark
dealing with a different meaning of the misinterpreted word or its homonym
e.g.: ”Have you been seeing any spirits?” “Or taking any?” – added Bob Allen.
(Ch.Dickens) [com](The first “spirit” refers to supernatural forces the second one – to strong
b) speaker’s intended violation of the listener’s expectation
e.g.: There comes a period in every man’s life, but she is just a semicolon in his.
(B.Evans) [com](a punctuation mark instead of an interval of time)[/com]
e.g.: There are two things I look for in a man. A sympathetic character and full lips.
Source: (V.A.K.)
See: <cluster SDs>

a cluster SD, when a polysemantic verb that can be combined with nouns of most varying
semantic groups is deliberately used with two of more homogeneous members, which are not
connected semantically (V.A.K.)
e.g.: He took his hat and his leave. (Ch.Dickens)
e.g.: She went home, in a flood of tears and a sedan chair. (Ch.Dickens)
See: <semantically false chains>, <cluster SDs>

semantically false chains

a variation of <zeugma> when the number of homogeneous members, semantically
disconnected, but attached to the same verb, increases (V.A.K.)
e.g.: A Governess wanted. Must possess knowledge of Roumanian, Russian, Italian,
Spanish, German, Music and Mining Engineering. (S.Leacock)
e.g.: Men, pals, red plush seats, white marble tables, waiters in white aprons. Miss Moss
walked through them all. (A.Milne)
See: <cluster SDs>

violation of phraseological units

restoring the literal original meaning of the word, which lost some of its semantic
independence and strength in a phraseological unit or cliché. (A.V.K.)
e.g.: Little John was born with a silver spoon in his mouth which was rather curly and
e.g.: After a while and a cake he crept nervously to the door of the parlour.(A.Tolkien)
See: <cluster SDs>

nonsense of non-sequence
joining two semantically disconnected clauses into one sentence (A.V.K.)
e.g.: Emperor Nero played the fiddle, so they burnt Rome.(Y.Esar)
See: <cluster SDs>

a) is a <stylistic device> in which the contextual evaluative meaning of a word is directly
opposite to its dictionary meaning
b) is the <foregrounding> not of the logical but of the evaluative meaning
c) is the contradiction between the said and implied
c) is subdivided into <verbal irony> and <sustained irony>
The context is arranged so that the qualifying word in irony reverses the direction of the
evaluation, and the word positively charged is understood as a negative qualification and (much-
much rarer) vice versa. The context varies from the minimal – a word combination to the context
of a whole book.
e.g.: The lift held two people and rose slowly, groaning with diffidence.(I.Murdoch)
e.g.: Apart from splits based on politics, racial, religious and ethic backgrounds and
specific personality differences, we’re just one cohesive team.(D.Uhnak)
See: <lexical SDs>
Source: (V.A.K.)

verbal irony
a type of <irony> when it is possible to indicate the exact word whose contextual meaning
diametrically opposes its dictionary meaning, in whose meaning we can trace the contradiction
between the said and implied (V.A.K.)
e.g.: She turned with the sweet smile of an alligator. (J.Steinbeck)
e.g.: With all the expressiveness of a stone Welsh stared at him another twenty seconds
apparently hoping to see him gag.(R.Chandler)
e.g.: She’s a charming middle-aged lady with a face like a bucket of mud and if she has
washed her hair since Coolridge’s second term, I’ll eat my spare tire, rim and all. (R.Chandler)
e.g.: Last time it was a nice, simple, European-style war.(I.Shaw)
Ant.: <sustained irony>
See: <lexical SDs>

sustained irony
a) a type of <irony>, intuitively feeling the reversal of the evaluation, formed by the
contradiction of the speaker’s (writer’s) considerations and the generally accepted moral and
ethical codes;
b) a number of statements, the whole of the text, in whose meaning we can trace the
contradiction between the said and implied.
e.g.: Many examples are supplied by D.Defoe, J.Swift of by such twentieth c. writers as
S.Lewis, K.Vonnegut, E.Waugh and others.
e.g.: When the war broke out she took down the signed photograph of the Kaiser and, with
some solemnity, hung it in the men-servants’ lavatory; it was her one combative action.
Ant.: <verbal irony>
See: <lexical SDs>
Source: (V.A.K.)

[c]type 1[/c]: a lexical SD in which a proper name is used instead of a common noun or
vice versa, i.e. a lexical SD in which the nominal meaning of a proper name is suppressed by its
logical meaning or the logical meaning acquires the new – nominal – component. (V.A.K.)
e.g.: He took little satisfaction in telling each Mary \[=any female\], shortly after she
arrived, something ... (Th. Dreiser)
e.g.: ”Your fur and his Caddy are a perfect match”. I respect history: “Don’t you know
that Detroit was founded by Sir Antoine de la Mothe Caddilac, French fur trader”.(J.O’Hara)
[c]type 2[/c]: a lexical SD in which a common noun serves as an individualising name
e.g.: There are three doctors in an illness like yours. I don’t mean only my self, my partner
and the radiologist who does your X-rays, the three I’m referring to are Dr. Rest, Dr. Diet and Dr.
Fresh Air. (D.Cusack)
[c]type 3[/c]: “speaking names” whose origin from common nouns is still clearly
perceived (V.A.K.)
e.g.: Miss Languish – Мисс Томней, Mr. Backbite – М-р Клевентаун, Mr. Credulous –
М-р Доверч, Mr. Snake – М-р Гад (Sheridan)
e.g.: Lord Chatterino – Лорд Балаболо, John Jaw – Джон Брех, Island Leap-High -
Остров Высокопрыгия (F.Cooper)
e.g.: Mr. What’s-his-name, Mr. Owl Eyes, Colonel Slidebottom, Lady Teazle, Mr.
Surface, Miss Tomboy, Miss Sarcastic, Miss Sneerface, Lady Bracknell
e.g.: The next speaker was a tall gloomy man. Sir Something Somebody. (J.B.Priestley)
See: <lexical SDs>

a <stylistic device> based on the interplay of emotive and logical meaning in an
attributive word, phrase or even sentence, used to characterise and object and pointing out to the
reader, and frequently imposing on him, some of the properties or features of the object with the
aim of giving an individual perception and evaluation of these features or properties
e.g.: ”wild wind”, “loud ocean”, “remorseless dash of billows”, “formidable waves”,
“heart-burning smile”; “destructive charms”, “glorious sight”, “encouraging smile”
- is markedly subjective and evaluative;
Source: (I.R.G.)
- expresses characteristics of an object, both existing and imaginary;
- <foregrounding> the emotive meaning of the word to suppress its denotational meaning
- semantically there should be differentiated two main groups: <affective epithet>s and
<figurative epithet>s or <transferred epithet>s;
- structurally there should be differentiated: single epithets, pair epithets, chains or strings,
two-step structures, inverted constructions, phrase-attributes
- is the most widely used lexical SD;
Chains or strings of epithets present a group of homogeneous attributes varying in
number from three up to sometimes twenty and even more.
e.g.: You’re a scolding, unjust, abusive, aggravating, bad old creature.(Ch.Dickens)
e.g.: He’s a proud, haughty, consequential, turned-nosed peacock. (Ch.Dickens)
Phrase-epithets always produce an original impression.
e.g.: ”the sunshine-in-the-breakfast-room smell” (J.Baldwin)
e.g.: ”a move-if-you-dare expression”(J.Greenwood)
e.g.: There was none of the Old-fashioned Five-Four-Three-Two-One-Zero business, so
tough on the human nervous system. (A.Clarke)
Inverted epithets based on the contradiction between the logical and the syntactical:
logically defining becomes syntactically defined and vice versa. The article with the second noun
will help in doubtful cases.
e.g.: ”this devil of a woman” instead of “this devilish woman”, “the giant man” (a gigantic
man); “the prude of a woman” (a prudish woman), “the toy of a girl” (a small, toylike girl), “the
kitten of a woman” (a kittenlike woman)
e.g.: She was a faded white rabbit of a woman. (A.Cronin)
See: <lexical SDs>
Source: (V.A.K.)

affective epithet
serves to convey the emotional evaluation of the object by the speaker (V.A.K.)
e.g.: “gorgeous”, “nasty”, “magnificent”, “atrocious”
See: <figurative epithet> or <transferred epithet>, <epithet>, <lexical SDs>

figurative epithet
transferred epithet
an <epithet> that is formed of <metaphor>, <metonymy>, <simile>, expressed by
adjectives (V.A.K.)
e.g.: ”the smiling sun”, “the frowning cloud”, “the sleepless pillow”, “the tobacco-stained
smile”, a “ghost-like face”, “a dreamlike experience”, “triumphant look”
See: <affective epithet>, <epithet>, <lexical SDs>

a <stylistic device> in which emphasis is achieved through deliberate exaggeration
It does not signify the actual state of affairs in reality, but presents the latter through the
emotionally coloured perception and rendering of the speaker.
e.g.: My vegetable love should grow faster than empires. (A.Marvell)
e.g.: The man was like the Rock of Gibraltar.
e.g.: Calpurnia was all angles and bones.
e.g.: I was scared to death when he entered the room.(J.D.Salinger)
Ant.: <understatement>
See: <lexical SDs>

a <stylistic device> in which emphasis is achieved through intentional underestimation
It does not signify the actual state of affairs in reality, but presents the latter through the
emotionally coloured perception and rendering of the speaker.
e.g.: ”The wind is rather strong” instead of “There’s a gale blowing outside”
e.g.: She wore a pink hat, the size of a button. (J.Reed)
e.g.: About a very small man in the Navy: this new sailor stood five feet nothing in sea
boots. (Th. Pynchon)
Ant.: <hyperbole>
See: <lexical SDs>

1) a combination of two words (mostly an adjective and a noun or an adverb with an
adjective) in which the meanings of the two clash, being opposite in sense (I.R.G.)
2) a combination of two semantically contradictory notions, that help to emphasise
contradictory qualities simultaneously existing in the described phenomenon as a dialectical unity
e.g.: ”low skyscraper”, “sweet sorrow”, “nice rascal”, “pleasantly ugly face”, “horribly
beautiful”, “a deafening silence from Whitehall” (The Morning Star)
e.g.: ”The Beauty of the Dead”, “to shout mutely”, “to cry silently”, “the street damaged
by improvements” (O.Henry), “silence was louder than thunder” (J.Updike)
e.g.: O brawling love! O loving hate! O heavy lightness! Serious vanity! Feather of lead,
bright smoke, cold fire, sick heath! (W.Shakespeare)
e.g.: You have two beautiful bad examples for parents. (Sc.Fitzgerald)
See: <lexical SDs>


syntactical level
include <syntactical stylistic devices>, <types of repetition>, <sentence structure>, <types
of connection>, arrangement of sentence members, <completeness of sentence structure>,
See: <phono-graphical level>, <morphological level>, <lexical level>, <Stylistics>

syntactical stylistic devices

syntactical SDs
include: sentence length, <one-word sentences>, <punctuation>, <rhetorical question>,
<parallel construction>, <chiasmus>, <inversion>, <suspense>, <detachment>, <ellipsis>, one-
member sentences, <apokoinu constructions>, <break-in-the-narrative>, <polysyndeton>,
<asyndeton>, <attachment>
See: <types of repetition>; <lexical SDs>, <cluster SDs>, <lexico-syntactical SDs>,
<stylistic device>

one-word sentences
possess a very strong emphatic impact, for their only word obtains both the word- and the
sentence-stress. The word constituting a sentence also obtains its own sentence-intonation which,
too, helps to foreground the content. (V.A.K.)
e.g.: I like people. Not just empty streets and dead buildings. People. People.
See: <punctuation>, <syntactical SDs>
sentence structure
Not only the clarity and understandability of the sentence but also its expressiveness
depend on the position of clauses, constituting it.
@ loose structure
- opens with the main clause, which is followed by dependent units
- less emphatic and is highly characteristic of informal writing and conversation
@ periodic sentences
- open with subordinate clauses, absolute and participial constructions, the main clause
being withheld until the end
- are known for their emphasis and are used mainly in creative prose
e.g.: Such being at bottom the fact, I think it is well to leave it at that. (S.Maugham)
@ balanced sentences
- subordinate-main-subordinate similar structuring of the beginning of the sentence and its
- known for stressing the logic and reasoning of the content and thus preferred in publicist
See: <punctuation>, <syntactical SDs>
Source: (V.A.K.)

order of words
and <punctuation> are used to convey the corresponding pausation and intonation in the
written form of speech (V.A.K.)
See: <punctuation>, <syntactical SDs>

Points of exclamation, points of interrogation, dots, dashes; commas, semicolons and full
stops serve as an additional source of information and help to specify the meaning of the written
sentence which in oral speech would be conveyed by the intonation. (V.A.K.)
e.g.: ”What’s your name?” “John Lewis.” “Mine’s Liza. Watkin.” (K.Kesey)
e.g.: ”You know so much. Where is she?” “Dead. Or in a crazy house.” Or married. I
think she’s married and quieted down.” (T.Capote)
e.g.: The neon lights in the heart of the city flashed on and off. On and off. On. Off. On.
Off. Continuiously. (P.Abrahams)
See: <order of words>, <one-word sentences>, <syntactical SDs>

rhetorical question
1) peculiar interrogative construction which semantically remains a statement;
- does not demand any information but
- serves to express the emotions of the speaker and also
- serves to call the attention of listeners;
- makes an indispensable part of oratoric speech for they very successfully emphasise the
orator’s ideas. (V.A.K.)
2) a special syntactical stylistic device the essence of which consists in reshaping the
grammatical meaning of the interrogative sentence (I.R.G.)
e.g.: Are these the remedies for a starving and desperate populace?
See: <order of words>, <punctuation>, <syntactical SDs>


types of repetition
include: <anaphora>, <epiphora>, <framing>, <catch repetition> or <anadiplosis>, <chain
repetition>, <ordinary repetition>, <successive repetition>; <synonymical repetition>
- is a powerful meand of emphasis
- adds rhythm and balance to the utterance
See: <syntactical SDs>, <stylistic device>

a..., a..., a...,
the beginning of two or more sentences (clauses) is repeated
The main stylistic function is not so much to emphasise the repeated unit as to create the
background for the non-repeated unit, which, through its novelty, becomes foregrounded.
e.g.: I might as well face facts: good-bye, Susan, good-bye a big car, good-bye a big
house, good-bye power, good-bye the silly handsome dreams. (J.Braine)
e.g.: And everywhere were people. People going into gates and coming out of gates.
People staggering and falling. People fighting and cursing.(P.Abrahams)
Ant.: <epiphora>
See: <types of repetition>

. . . a, . . . a, . . . a,
the end of successive sentences (clauses) is repeated
The main stylistic function is to add stress to the final words of the sentence.(V.A.K.)
e.g.: I wake up and I’m alone and I walk round Warley and I’m alone; and I talk with
people and I’m alone and I look at his face when I’m home and it’s dead. (J.Braine)
Ant.: <anaphora>
See: <types of repetition>

the beginning of the sentence is repeated in the end, thus forming the “frame” for the non-
repeated part of the sentence (utterance)
The stylistic function is to elucidate the notion mentioned in the beginning of the
sentence, to concretise and to specify its semantics. (V.A.K.)
e.g.: Obviously – this is a streptococcal infection. Obviously. (W.Deeping)
e.g.: Then there was something between them. There was. There was. (T.Dreiser)
See: <catch repetition> or <anadiplosis>, <types of repetition>, <syntactical SDs>

catch repetition
. . . a, a . . .
the end of one clause (sentence) is repeated in the beginning of the following one
The stylistic function is to elucidate the notion, to concretise and to specify its semantics
on a more modest level. (V.A.K.)
e.g.: Now he understood. he understood many things. One can be a person first. A man
first and then a black man or a white man. (P.Abrahams)
e.g.: And a great desire for peace, peace of no matter what kind, swept through her.
See: <framing>, <types of repetition>, <syntactical SDs>

chain repetition
. . . a, a . . . b, b. . .
several successive repetitions
The effect is that of the smoothly developing logical reasoning. (V.A.K.)
e.g.: ”To think better of it,” returned the gallant Blandois, “would be to slight a lady, to
slight a lady would be to be deficient in chivalry towards the sex, and chivalry towards the sex is a
part of my character.” (Ch.Dickens)
e.g.: Failure meant poverty, poverty meant squalor, squalor led, in the final stages, to the
smells and stagnation of B. Inn Alley. (D. du Maurier)
See: <types of repetition>

ordinary repetition
. . . a, . . . a . . ., a . . .
. . a . ., . . a . ., . . a . .
no definite place in the sentence, the repeated unit occurs in various positions
The stylistic function is to emphasise both the logical and the emotional meaning of the
reiterated word (phrase). (V.A.K.)
e.g.: Halfway along the right-hand side of the dark brown hall was a dark brown door with
a dark brown settie beside it. (W.S.Gilbert)
e.g.: I really don’t see anything romantic in proposing. It is very romantic to be in love.
But there is nothing romantic about a definite proposal. (O.Wilde)
See: <types of repetition>

successive repetition
. . . a, a, a . . .
a string of closely following each other reiterated units
The most emphatic type of repetition which signifies the peak of emotions of the speaker.
e.g.: Of her father’s being groundlessly suspected, she felt sure. Sure. Sure. (Ch.Dickens)
See: <types of repetition>

synonymical repetition
the repetition of the same idea by using synonymous words and phrases which by adding
a slightly different nuance of meaning intensify the impact of the utterance (I.R.G.)
e.g.: ... are there not capital punishment sufficient in your statutes? Is there not blood
enough upon your penal code? (Byron)
See: <types of repetition>


parallel construction
reiteration of the structure of several sentences (clauses), and not of their lexical “flesh”
almost always includes some type of lexical repetition, and such a convergence produces
a very strong effect, <foregrounding> at one go logical, rhythmic, emotive and expressive aspects
of the utterance. (V.A.K.)
e.g.: I notice that father’s is a large hand, but never a heavy one when it touches me, and
that father’s is a rough voice but never an angry one when it speaks to me. (T.Dreiser)
See: <chiasmus>, <types of repetition>, <syntactical SDs>

reversed parallel construction
a) reversed parallelism of the structure of several sentences (clauses)
b) <inversion> of the first construction in the second part (V.A.K.)
e.g.: If the first sentence (clause) has a direct word order – SPO, the second one will have
it inverted – OPS.
e.g.: Down dropped the breeze, // The sails dropped down. (Coleridge)
See: <parallel construction>, <inversion>, <types of repetition>, <syntactical SDs>

a syntactical <stylistic device> in which the direct word order is changed either
completely so that the predicate precedes the subject (complete inversion), or partially so that the
object precedes the subjectp-predicate pair (partial inversion) (V.A.K.)
e.g.: To a medical student the final examinations are something like death ... (R.Gordon) –
[lang id=2]Для студента-медика выпускные экзамены – смерти подобны ... [/lang]
e.g.: Of all my old association. of all my old pursuits and hopes, of all the living and the
dead world, this one poor soul alone comes natural to me. (Ch.Dickens)
e.g.: Women are not made for attack. Wait they must. (J.Conrad)
See: <chiasmus>, <syntactical SDs>

1) a deliberate postponement of the completion of the sentence with the help of embedded
clauses (homogeneous members) separating the predicate from the subject and introducing less
important facts and details first, while the expected information of major importance is reserved
till the end of the sentence (utterance) (V.A.K.)
2) a compositional device which consists in arranging the matter of a communication in
such a way that the less important, descriptive, subordinate parts are amassed at the beginning, the
main idea being withheld till the end of the sentence (I.R.G)
e.g.: Mankind, says a Chinese manuscript, which my friend M. was obliging enough to
read and explain to me, for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw. (Ch.Lamb)
See: <periodic sentences>, <syntactical SDs>

detached construction
a <stylistic device> based on singling out a secondary member of the sentence with the
help of punctuation (intonation) (V.A.K.)
e.g.: I have to beg you nearly killed, ingloriously, in a jeep accident. (I.Shaw)
e.g.: I have to beg you for money. Daily. (S.Lewis)
e.g.: She was crazy about you. In the beginning. (R.P.Warren)
See: <attachment>, <syntactical SDs>

completeness of sentence structure

includes: <ellipsis>, <apokoinu constructions>, <break-in-the-narrative> or <aposiopesis>
See: <types of connection>, <syntactical SDs>

a deliberate omission of at least one member of the sentence
e.g.: What! all my pretty chickens and their dam at one fell swoop? (W.Shakespeare)
e.g.: In manner, close and dry. In voice, husky and low. In face, watchful behind a blind.
e.g.: His forehead was narrow, his face wide, his head large, and his nose all one side.
See: <completeness of sentence structure>

apokoinu constructions
the omission of the pronominal (adverbial) connective
- create a blend of the main and the subordinate clauses so that
- the predicative or the object of the first one is simultaneously used as the subject of the
second one (V.A.K.)
e.g.: There was a door led into the kitchen. (Sh.Anderson)
e.g.: He was the man killed that deer. (R.P.Warren)
e.g.: There was no breeze came through the door. (E.Hemingway)
See: <completeness of sentence structure>

“a stopping short for rhetorical effect” (I.R.G.)
- used mainly in the dialogue or in the other forms of narrative imitating spontaneous oral
speech because the speaker’s emotions prevent him from finishing the sentence (V.A.K.)
e.g.: You just come home or I’ll ...
e.g.: Good intentions, but ...
e.g.: If you continue your intemperate way of living, in six months’ time ...
e.g.: What I had seen of Patti didn’t really contradict Kitty’s view of her: a girl who means
well, but. (D.Uhnak)
See: <completeness of sentence structure>

types of connection
include: <polysyndeton>, <asyndeton>, <attachment>
See: <completeness of sentence structure>

repeated use of conjunctions
- is to strengthen the idea of equal logical/emotive importance of connected sentences.
e.g.: By the time he had got all the bottles and dishes and knives and forks and glasses and
plates and spoons and things piled up on big trays, he was getting very hot, and red in the face,
and annoyed.(A.Tolkien)
e.g.: Bella soaped his face and rubbed his face, and soaped his hands and rubbed his
hands, and splashed him, and rinsed him, and towelled him, until he was as red as beetroot.
Ant.: <asyndeton>
See: <attachment>, <types of connection>

deliberate omission of conjunctions, cutting off connecting words
- helps to create the effect of terse, energetic, active prose. (V.A.K.)
e.g.: With these hurried words Mr. Bob Sawyer pushed the postboy on one side, jerked his
friend into the vehicle, slammed the door, put up the steps, wafered the bill on the street-door,
locked it, put the key into his pocket, jumped into the dickey, gave the word for starting.
Ant.: <polysyndeton>
See: <attachment>, <types of connection>

separating the second part of the utterance from the first one by full stop though their
semantic and grammatical ties remain very strong (V.A.K.)
e.g.: It wasn’t his fault. It was yours. And mine. I now humbly beg you to give me the
money with which to buy meals for you to eat. And hereafter do remember it: the next time I
shan’t beg. I shall simply starve. (S.Lewis)
e.g.: Prison is where she belongs. And my husband agrees one thousand per cent.
e.g.: He is a very deliberate, careful guy and we trust each other completely. With a few
reservations. (D.Uhnak)
See: <detachment>, <types of connection>, <punctuation>, <syntactical SDs>


lexico-syntactical stylistic devices

lexico-syntactical SDs
certain structures, whose emphasis depends not only on the arrangement of sentence
members but also on the lexico-semantic aspect of the utterance (V.A.K.)
- include: <antithesis>, <climax>, <anticlimax>, <simile>, <litotes>, <periphrasis>
See: <lexical SDs>, <cluster SDs>, <syntactical SDs>, <stylistic device>

a semantically complicated <parallel construction>, the two parts of which are
semantically opposite to each other
- is to stress the heterogenity of the described phenomenon, to show that the latter is a
dialectical unity of two (or more) opposing features. (V.A.K.)
e.g.: Some people have much to live on, and little to live for. (O.Wilde)
e.g.: If we don’t know who gains by his death we do know who loses by it. (A.Christie)
e.g.: Mrs. Nork had a large home and a small husband. (S.Lewis)
e.g.: In marriage the upkeep of woman is often the downfall of man. (S.Evans)
e.g.: Don’t use big words. They mean so little. (O.Wilde)
See: <lexico-syntactical SDs>

a semantically complicated <parallel construction>, in which each next word combination
(clause, sentence) is logically more important or emotionally stronger and more explicit (V.A.K.)
Three types:
@ logical climax
a three-step <climax> (the most widely spread model), in which intensification of logical
importance, of emotion or quantity (size, dimensions) is gradually rising step by step (V.A.K.)
- is based on the relative importance of the component parts looked at from the point of
view of the concepts embodied in them (I.R.G.)
e.g.: Better to borrow, better to beg, better to die! (Ch.Dickens)
e.g.: Like a well, like a vault, like a tomb, the prison had no knowledge of the brightness
outside. (Ch.Dickens)
e.g.: For that one instant there was no one else in the room, in the house, in the world,
besides themselves.(M.Wilson)
@ emotive climax
a two-step <climax>, in which the second part repeats the first one and is further
strengthened by an intensifier (V.A.K.)
- is based on the relative emotional tension produced by words with emotive meaning
e.g.: He was so helpless, so very helpless. (W.Deeping)
e.g.: She felt better, immensely better. (W.Deeping)
e.g.: I have been so unhappy here, so very very unhappy. (Ch.Dickens)
@ quantitative climax
an evident increase in the volume of the corresponding concepts (I.R.G.)
e.g.: They looked at hundreds of houses; they climbed thousands of stairs; they inspected
innumerable kitchens.(S.Maugham)
e.g.: Little by little, bit by bit, and day by day, and year by year the baron got the worst of
some disputed question. (Ch.Dickens)
e.g.: We were all in all to one another, it was the morning of life, it was bliss, it was
frenzy, it was everything else of that sort in the highest degree. (Ch.Dickens)
e.g.: I am firm, thou art obstinate, he is pig-headed. (B.Charlestone)
e.g.: No tree, no shrub, no blade of grass that was not owned. (J. Galsworthy)
Ant.: <anticlimax>
Syn.: <climax>, <gradation>
See: <lexico-syntactical SDs>

a <climax> suddenly interrupted by an unexpected turn of the thought which defeats
expectations of the reader (listener) and ends in complete semantic reversal of the emphasised idea
e.g.: It was appalling – and soon forgotten. (J.Galsworthy)
e.g.: He was unconsolable – for an afternoon. (J.Galsworthy)
e.g.: Women have a wonderful instinct about things. They can discover everything except
the obvious. (O.Wilde)
Ant.: <climax>
See: <lexico-syntactical SDs>

an imaginative comparison of two unlike objects belonging to two different classes on the
grounds of similarity of some quality
The one which is compared is called the tenor, the one with which it is compared, is called
the vehicle. The tenor and the vehicle form the two semantic poles of the simile, which are
connected by one of the following link words: “like”, “as”, “as though”, “as like”, “such as”, as ...
as”, etc. (V.A.K.)
e.g.: She is like a rose.
e.g.: He stood immovable like a rock in a torrent. (J.Reed)
e.g.: His muscles are hard as rock. (T.Capote)
e.g.: The conversation she began behaved like green logs: they fumed but would not fire.
Compare: <comparison>
See: <metaphor>, <epic simile> or <Homeric simile>, <lexico-syntactical SDs>

(logical) comparison
an ordinary comparison of two objects belonging to the same classes (V.A.K.)
e.g.: She is like her mother.
Compare: <simile>
See: <lexico-syntactical SDs>

the tenor
the vehicle
See: <simile>

epic simile
Homeric simile
extended <simile>, sustained expression of likeness
See: <simile>

a two-component structure in which two negations are joined to give a possessive
- the first component is always the negative particle “not”, while the second, always
negative in semantics, varies in form from a negatively affixed word (as above) to a negative
phrase (V.A.K.)
e.g.: Her face was not unpretty. (K.Kesey)
e.g.: It was not unnatural if Gilbert felt a certain embarrassment. (E.Waugh)
e.g.: The idea was not totally erroneous. The thought did not displease me. (I.Murdoch)
See: <understatement>, <lexico-syntactical SDs>

a) using a roundabout form of expression instead of a simpler one
b) using a more or less complicated syntactical structure instead of a word
They are classified into:
- <figurative periphrasis> or <metaphoric periphrasis> or <metonymic periphrasis>
- <logical periphrasis> or <euphemistic periphrasis>
See: <lexico-syntactical SDs>
Source: (V.A.K.)

figurative periphrasis
a <periphrasis> that is made of phrase-metonymies or phrase-metaphors (V.A.K.)
- is to convey a purely individual perception of the described object
e.g.: The hospital was crowded with the surgically interesting products of the fighting in
Africa. \[=wounded\] (I.Shaw)
e.g.: His huge leather chairs were kind to the femurs. (R.P.Warren)
e.g.: I took my obedient feet away from him. (W.S.Gilbert)
See: <metaphor>, <metonymy>, <periphrasis>

metaphoric periphrasis
metonymic periphrasis
See: <figurative periphrasis>

logical periphrasis
euphemistic periphrasis
a phrase synonymic with the words which were substituted by <periphrasis> (V.A.K.)
- offers more polite qualification instead of a coarser one (euphemistic)
e.g.: Mr. Du Pont was dressed in the conventional disguise \[the suit \] with which Brooks
Brothers cover the shame of American millionaires \[the paunch (belly)\]. (The Morning Star)
e.g.: I am thinking an unmentionable thing about your mother. (I.Shaw)