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Министерство здравоохранения Российской Федерации

Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования


«Северо-Западный государственный медицинский университет имени И. И. Мечникова»
Министерства здравоохранения Российской Федерации

Кафедра иностранных языков

Е. Г. Липатова, Н. Г. Ольховик, Е. В. Мушенко,


К. И. Кубачева, Н. А. Лебедева

ENGLISH FOR HEALTHCARE


PROFESSIONALS

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ


МЕДИЦИНСКИХ СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТЕЙ

Учебно-методическое пособие

Часть III

Санкт-Петербург
Издательство СЗГМУ им. И. И. Мечникова
2017
УДК 811.111
ББК 81.432.1
Е56

English for healthcare professionals. Английский язык для студентов медицин-


ских специальностей: учебно-методическое пособие. Часть III / Е.Г. Липатова,
Н.Г. Ольховик, Е.В. Мушенко, К.И. Кубачева, Н.А. Лебедева. — СПб.: Изд-во
СЗГМУ им. И.И. Мечникова, 2017. — 76 с.

Авторы разделов:
Unit 11. Hygiene — Кубачева К.И., Липатова Е.Г.
Unit 12. Mental illnesses — Лебедева Н.А.
Unit 13. Monitoring the patient — Мушенко Е.В., Липатова Е.Г.
Unit 14. Medication — Ольховик Н.Г.
Unit 15. Alternative medicine — Липатова Е.Г.

Рецензент:
канд. пед. наук, доцент Гуманитарного института Санкт-Петербургского госу-
дарственного политехнического университета Т.А. Баранова.

Целью учебно-методического пособия является развитие навыков устной и


письменной коммуникации, аудирования, интерпретации и изложения текстов на
английском языке в медицинской сфере профессионального общения.
Данное пособие является частью учебно-методического комплекса, разрабо-
танного на кафедре иностранных языков СЗГМУ им. И.И. Мечникова, и предна-
значено для обучающихся по специальностям 31.05.01 «Лечебное дело» и 32.05.01
«Медико-профилактическое дело».

Утверждено
в качестве учебно-методического пособия
Методическим советом ФГ БОУ ВО
СЗГМУ им. И. И. Мечникова
Минздрава России,
протокол № 3 от 5 октября 2017 г.

© Коллектив авторов, 2017


© Издательство СЗГМУ им. И. И. Мечникова, 2017

Редактор: Т.В. Руксина


Технический редактор: Е.Ю. Паллей

Подписано в печать 28.11.2017 г.


Формат бумаги 60×84/8. Уч.-изд. л. 3,58. Усл. печ. л. .
Тираж 000 экз. Заказ № 000

Санкт-Петербург, Издательство СЗГМУ им. И. И. Мечникова


191015, Санкт-Петербург, Кирочная ул., д. 41.

Отпечатано в типографии СЗГМУ им. И. И. Мечникова


191015, Санкт-Петербург, Кирочная ул., д. 41.
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
page
Методическая записка 5
Unit 11. Hygiene 7
Vocabulary
■ Hygiene equipment 7
Grammar
■ Talking about obligation 11
Reading
■ Hospital hygiene 8
■ Antibiotic resistance 12
Listening
■ Hospital-acquired infections 10
Speaking
■ What is hygiene? 7
■ Hospital hygiene 8
■ Antibiotic resistance 12
Writing
■ A travel guidance 16
Translation
■ The girl who changed nutrition in the Netherlands 15
Video task: The story of typhoid Mary 17
Wordlist 19
Unit 12. Mental illnesses
Vocabulary
■ Mental illnesses 23
■ Schizophrenia 26
■ Tourette syndrome 28
Grammar
■ Present Perfect 24
Reading
■ Can schizophrenia disappear? 27
Speaking
■ Can schizophrenia disappear? 27
Writing
■ Email job application 28
Translation
■ Tourette syndrome 29
Video task: Depression 30
Wordlist 32
Unit 13. Monitoring the patient
Vocabulary
■ Types of investigations 34

3
Grammar
■ The Passive 41
Reading
■ Telemedicine 40
Listening
■ Telemedicine 38
Speaking
■ Describing procedures 36
■ Describing lab results 37
Video task: The future health-monitoring devices 43
Wordlist 45
Unit 14. Medication
Vocabulary
■ Types of medication 48
■ Forms of medication 51
Grammar
■ be going to vs Present Continuous for future 54
Reading
■ What are medicines? 47
■ Seven drugs that changed the world 49
Listening
■ Different ways to take a drug 53
Speaking
■ What are medicines? 47
■ Exchanging details about patient's medication 53
Writing
■ Medication orders 55
Video task: The placebo effect 56
Wordlist 58
Unit 15. Alternative medicine
Vocabulary
■ Types of alternative medicine 61
Grammar
■ Giving reasons 67
Reading
■ Acupuncture 63
Listening
■ Acupuncture 63
Speaking
■ What is alternative medicine? 61
■ Looking for an alternative medicine therapist 69
Translation
■ Shiatsu 67
Video task: Homeopathy 71
Wordlist 72
Appendix 73
Reference 75

4
МЕТОДИЧЕСКАЯ ЗАПИСКА
Целью учебно-методического пособия «English for Healthcare Professionals» яв-
ляется формирование готовности к решению профессиональных задач на англий-
ском языке у будущих специалистов в области медицинской деятельности.
Настоящее пособие включает пять коммуникативных ситуаций: «Hygiene»,
«Mental illnesses», «Monitoring the patient», «Medication», «Alternative medicine»,
представляющих заключительный этап курса английского языка для студентов
медицинского вуза и создающих преемственные связи в тематическом и содержа-
тельном планах с дисциплиной «Иностранный язык» в аспирантуре.
Содержательное наполнение коммуникативных ситуаций пособия позволяет
расширить культурологический и лингвистический кругозор учащихся, сформи-
ровать основы деонтологической компетенции, создать установку на непрерыв-
ное самосовершенствование собственных речевых умений и навыков на англий-
ском языке.
Система заданий и упражнений пособия представляет собой профессиональ-
но-ориентированную методическую модель развития речевых способностей, ос-
нованную на коммуникативном, деятельностном и компетентностном подходах
к обучению, учитывающую этапы процесса речевосприятия и речепорождения и
реализованную в активных методах обучения иностранному языку.
Каждая коммуникативная ситуация презентована в пособии через блоки зада-
ний, которые актуализируют все виды речевой деятельности (аудирование, говоре-
ние, чтение и письмо), взаимосвязаны на лексическом и грамматическом уровнях,
выполняют единые задачи пошагового развития и закрепления речевых умений и
навыков, а также создания установки на изучение нового материала.
Блок заданий «Vocabulary» вводит ключевую лексику коммуникативной ситуа-
ции через такие активные методы обучения, как соотнесение лексемы и дефини-
ции, поиск соответствий концептов в родном и изучаемом языке, множественный
выбор, ассоциирование словарного значения слова и его контекстуальных ассоци-
аций, вербализация концепта и т.д.
Целью упражнений в блоке «Grammar» является установление связи между
словом, ситуацией общения и грамматической конструкцией, что автоматизирует
процесс создания речевого высказывания на иностранном языке. Преподавателю
рекомендуется акцентировать внимание учащихся при выполнении граммати-
ческих заданий на устойчивых словосочетаниях, лексико-грамматических кон-
струкциях, функциональных фразах, актуальных для рассматриваемой темы про-
фессионального общения.
Изученные лексико-грамматические единицы синтезируются в блоке заданий
«Translation», который представлен в пособии как особый вид речевой деятельно-
сти на занятии по дисциплине «Иностранный язык» в медицинском вузе и ори-
ентирован на оптимизирование процесса усвоения нового речевого материала.

5
Данный вид деятельности позволяет зафиксировать в речевом сознании учаще-
гося эквивалентные соответствия языковых единиц изучаемого и родного языка,
что значительно повышает эффективность процесса формирования готовности
к профессиональной коммуникации на иностранном языке.
Задания блока «Reading» расширяют культурологический кругозор учащихся,
формируя фонд фоновых знаний о специфики медицинской сферы англоговоря-
щих национальностей. Тексты содержат актуальные и современные проблемные
ситуации, представляющие интерес для будущего специалиста-медика и, соот-
ветственно, стимулирующие его познавательную деятельность. Сопровождающие
текстовый материал упражнения основаны на активных методах работы с пись-
менным высказыванием разных стилей и развивают способность к самостоятель-
ному корректному восприятию, пониманию и интерпретации речевого произве-
дения на английском языке.
В разделе «Writing» формируется умение создавать письменное высказывание,
соответствующее целям и задачам профессиональной коммуникативной ситуации
с точки зрения формы, содержания, лексической презентации и грамматического
оформления.
Задания «Video task» может рассматриваться как самостоятельный вид учебной
деятельности, так как актуализирует навыки, умения и способности учащихся
в области аудирования, чтения и говорения. Система упражнений к видеоролику
четко структурирована с учетом процессов речевосприятия и речепорождения и
включает следующие этапы работы с речевым материалом: создание установки на
просмотр видео на эмоциональном и содержательном уровнях, лексическая рабо-
та над ключевыми словами высказывания, понимание содержания речевой ситу-
ации, интерпретация высказывание и инициирование и развитие коммуникатив-
ной ситуации на английском языке в соответствии с заданными целями. Активная
речевая деятельность учащихся стимулируется посредством ролевой игры в устной
или письменной форме в зависимости от задач изучаемой коммуникативной си-
туации.
Ключевые лексико-грамматические конструкции объединяются в конце каж-
дого раздела в глоссарий с примерами на фразовом уровне и ориентируют студен-
тов на самостоятельное закрепление изученного речевого материала.
Лексические и грамматические упражнения, задания к видео роликам обла-
дают универсальным характером и могут быть интегрированы в СДО Moodle для
использования в качестве мониторинга и контроля самостоятельной деятельно-
сти студентов, изучающих профессионально-ориентированный английский язык
в медицинском вузе.

6
UNIT 6. HYGIENE

SPEAKING What is hygiene?


1. Work in groups. Discuss the questions.
1. What is hygiene?
2. Do you agree with the proverb “Hygiene is two thirds of health”? Why/Why not?
3. What does personal hygiene include? How did people keep personal hygiene in
the past (e.g. in Ancient Rome)? What did the lack of personal hygiene in the past
lead to?
4. Why is it important to keep hygiene in hospitals? What was Florence Nightingale's
contribution to hospital hygiene?

2. Match the types of hygiene with their definitions.

Food Hospital Occupational health Community Military

1.______________ hygiene means preventative measures to reduce the spreading


of disease in hospitals. 2. __________ hygiene means daily medical checkup of
the quality of the diet of soldiers and officers. 3. ____________ hygiene is a way of
preserving and preparing qualitative food for humans to eat. 4. _______________ deals
with the prevention and treatment of job-related injuries and illnesses of the people.
5. __________ hygiene studies the influence on the human organism of the natural and
social factors in the environment of populated places.

3. Work in groups. Discuss the questions.


1. What are the duties of occupational hygienists?
2. Does military hygiene differ from the other ones?
3. Why is food hygiene important?
4. What are the rules of community hygiene in schools and universities?

VOCABULARY Hygiene equipment


4. Match photos A-J to the hygiene equipment.

soap dispenser disposable gloves mop bucket sink


bin paper towels detergent clinical waste disposal bag cloth

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5. Underline the correct options in bold.
1. The nurse cleaned the trolley using disinfectant and a mop/cloth/clinical waste
disposal bag. 2. Cloth towels/paper towels/mops are disposable paper and intended to be
used only once. 3. Soap dispensers/disposable gloves/swabs are often used by people to
wash hands in public toilets. 4. One of the main steps in cleaning metal instruments is
immersing them into a water bath with cleaning mop/paper towel/detergent. 5. Sinks/
clinical waste disposal bags /bins must be used for the storage of soft clinical waste
contaminated with infectious or potential infectious blood or bodily fluids. 6. Doctors
and nurses have to wear disposable gloves/bins/mold when handling a bleeding patient.
7. Nowadays string mops and buckets/paper towels and cloths are still the most common
tools used to clean floors in many hospitals. 8. The results of the study say that paper
towels/sinks are associated with multiple outbreaks of serious infections in hospitals
worldwide. 9. The clinical waste mops/bins are constructed from an anti-bacterial plastic
that helps to reduce the risk of cross infection.

READING AND SPEAKING Hospital hygiene


6. Work in pairs. Answer the questions.
How can hospital infections be prevented?
Can you guess how bacteria may enter the body?
What types of healthcare-acquired infections do you know?

7. Match the words with their Russian equivalents.


1. transmit a) катетеры
2. maintain hygiene b) носовые трубочки
3. transfer c) поражать
4. disposal d) дыхательная трубка
5. be susceptible to e) обработка рук (перед операцией)
6. drug resistant f) подвергаться
7. be exposed to g) передавать по наследству
8. contagious h) поддерживать/соблюдать гигиену
9. air tube i) удаление/уничтожение
10. nasal pipes j) внутрибольничная/нозокомиальная

8
11. catheters k) лекарственно-устойчивый
12. scrubbing-up l) переходить
13. affect m) быть чувствительным/восприимчивым
14. cross-infection n) заразный

8. Read the text and check your ideas in Ex. 7.

Hospital hygiene and HCAIs (healthcare-acquired infections)


Hygiene is very important in hospitals. Hospitals are filled with contagious viruses and
drug resistant bacteria. If these are transmitted, they can cause many infections. And the
only way to prevent hospital infections is to maintain hygiene.
The human skin is quite a good barrier to microorganisms. If the skin is punctured in
some way, the body organs are exposed to bacteria. Wounds (including operation sites)
can thus easily become infected. Anything which enters the body in an unusual way (air
tubes in ventilators, nasal pipes, IV drips, catheters, endoscopes and etc.) can also be a
source of infection. Patients are more often susceptible to microorganisms to which they
are exposed in hospital than in home environment.
Operating theatre staff must go through a very thorough cleaning process: scrubbing-up,
wearing latex gloves and special protective clothing before a surgical procedure. Operating
theatres and all parts of hospitals must be kept clean.
The transfer of infectious microorganisms from one person to another is called cross-
infection which can also be transferred from medical supplies. Surgical instruments
(scissors, scalpels, forceps, and all sorts of equipment) must be sterilized after use. In
many cases, such as syringes and especially needles must be stored safely in special sharps
containers before disposal.
One of the hospital acquired infections — sometimes called nosocomial infection —
is a result of treatment in a hospital occurring within 48 hours of hospital admission, 3
days of discharge or 30 days of an operation. Nosocomial infections affect 1 in 10 patients
admitted to hospital.
When a patient is infected outside of a health care setting or an infection present on
admission it is called community-acquired infection. So patients should be checked on the
presence of infections and resistance to antibiotics before being operated.

9. Read the text again. Answer the questions below.


What can be a source of infection on the human body?
What does cleaning process for operating theatre staff include?
What is cross-infection?
What is the difference between nosocomial infections and community-acquired
infections?

10. Find a word or phrase in the text which means...


1. microorganisms spread by coughing and sneezing,
close personal contact or direct contact with infected nasal or throat secretions;
2. being sensitive to bacteria and viruses;

9
3. a procedure when a doctor washes the hands and arms
very carefully before performing a medical operation;
4. any item that is essential for treating illness or injury.
5. a drug inability to effectively control or kill bacterial
growth.

11. Complete the chart.


Verbs Nouns Adjectives
transmit
maintain
transfer
infect
disposal
susceptible
resistant
expose
contagious
affect
sterilize

12. Complete the questions with the words from Ex. 11. The first letters have been given.
Then answer the questions.

What can antibiotic r___________ lead to?


What groups of patients are more s_________ to the flu?
Do you believe that mouth bacteria can a_______ the heart?
What are possible sources of disease t_________ in the hospital?
What do you think is the most important way to reduce the spread of i____________s?
Can you name any c___________ childhood disease?
Which vitamin do you get when your skin is e________ to the sunlight?

LISTENING Hospital-acquired infections


13. Work in groups. Discuss the questions.
Do you think that hospital-acquired infections are very common?
Are hospital-acquired infections life-threatening?
Which antibiotic resistant bacteria do you know?

14. Watch the video (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-FfMCv8FUXI) and check your


ideas in Ex. 11.

15. Watch the video again. Correct the statements below.


1. There are two places where patients are most likely to get infections: the urinary tract
and the site of surgery.
2. Only elderly patients can have an infection caused by their medical care.

10
3. Healthcare associated infections are caused only by C. difficile, or deadly diarrhea
and Pseudomonas.
4. Staphilococci include the drug-resistant type known as CRE the "nightmare bacteria,"
Enterococcus.
5. Bloodstream infections in patients have not been reduced in the last 5 years.

16. Work in pairs. Follow the chart below. Prepare a short presentation on Hygiene.

What is hygiene?

Hygiene in the Hospital hygiene Hospital-acquired


past. infections

Types of hygiene.

GRAMMAR Talking about obligation


We use must/mustn't and have to/don't have to to talk about obligations.

must
We use must in rules, and to say when things are necessary.
All surfaces must be cleaned with disinfectant.

have to
We use have to to talk about things that other people oblige us to do.
The patient has to take medicine at certain hours.

mustn’t
We use mustn’t to say it is necessary that you do NOT do something.
A nurse mustn’t wear her hair loose.

don’t have to
We use don’t have to to say something is not necessary.
Receptionists don’t have to move patients around the hospital. That is the porter’s job.

need to
We use need to to say it is necessary to do something.
All visitors need to wear shoe covers in hospitals.

need + ing
We use need + ing to say what job it is necessary to do.
This patient’s linen needs changing.

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17. Match the halves of the sentences.
1. This solution must be a) a hygiene report every week.
2. This bedridden patient’s hair b) an antimicrobial agent in hand washing.
3. You don’t have to feed this patient c) needs cutting.
4. The Ward Matron must make d) kept in the fridge.
5. All nurses must use e) because he can do it himself.

18. Underline the correct modal verbs.


1. All doctors and nurses need/have to/must wash their hands before and after coming
in contact with the patient (or the instruments used). It is an imperative. 2. Dental nurses
have to/need/need to keep their hair away from the face. 3. The instruments need/need to/
have to sterilizing separately. 4. Dentists have to/need to/need wear double gloves for pa-
tients with HIV, HBV and HCV infection. 5. During the examination or any dental work,
dentists have to/need/need to wear an appropriate mask and eye protectors if necessary.
6. Nurses must/have to/need change their uniform daily. 7. After sterilization, the instru-
ments need/need to/must storing safely. 8. All dental staff have to/must/need get vaccinated
against hepatitis B — It is an rule. 9. Dental staff must/have to/need to always wear latex
gloves during any dental work that involves contact with blood or saliva containing blood
or mucus.

19. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English.


Медицинский работник должен быть образцом чистоты (cleanliness) и аккурат-
ности (neatness) и соблюдать правила гигиены в больнице. Его халат должен быть
чистым, а шапочка полностью должна закрывать волосы. Медперсонал должен
снимать униформу перед посещением туалета, мыть тщательно руки до и после
посещения пациента, чтобы предотвратить распространение инфекции МРС. Пе-
ред каждой процедурой медработники должны тщательно мыть руки с антисепти-
ком в течении 15-20 секунд, а затем надевать одноразовые перчатки. Они должны
выполнять свою работу в одноразовых перчатках, чтобы защитить себя от СПИДа
(ВИЧ) и вирусного гепатита.
Медсестры должны соблюдать гигиену в палатах: ежедневно проводить влаж-
ную уборку больничных помещений; протирать влажной тряпкой мебель, подо-
конники, двери и дверные ручки и пол. Влажную уборку необходимо делать дваж-
ды в течение дня и один раз вечером.

READING AND SPEAKING Antibiotic resistance


20. Work in pairs. Answer the questions.
1. What infections do antibiotics treat: bacterial or viral? What diseases do they treat?
2. Can you name any bacterial diseases?
3. Do you take antibiotics when you catch a cold?
4. Do you know what antibiotic resistance is?

12
21. Match the words with their Russian equivalents.
1. medical costs a) период времени/протяжение
2. prolonged b) распространяться
3. mortality c) целенаправленный антибиотик
4. emergence d) вид/образец
5. spread e) держать/брать курс на что-либо
6. misuse f) смертность
7. urgent actions g) возникновение/появление
8. head for h) длительный
9. viral infection i) вирусная инфекция
10. duration j) злоупотребление
11. species k) стоимость медицинского обслуживания
12. targeted antibiotic l) срочные /экстренные меры

22. Read the article and match the headings to the correct paragraphs.
A. What are the possible consequences of antibiotic resistance?
B. What can be done to limit this increasing resistance to antibiotics?
C. What is the origin of resistance to antibiotics?
D. How do bacteria become resistant to antibiotics?

Over the last century, antibiotics have radically changed the way we treat infections.
They are an important tool for modern medicine, but unfortunately their misuse has led to
the emergence of bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics.
1. _________________________________
The main origin of resistance to antibiotics is their misuse. As underlined by the
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) they are three main
types of misuse:
The unnecessary prescription of antibiotics for viral infections, against which
they have no effect;
The too frequent prescription of “broad-spectrum antibiotics”, in place of a
better targeted antibiotic, through more precise diagnosis;
The inadequate use by the patient, not respecting either dosage or duration of the
treatment, which means that some of the bacteria may survive and become resis-tant.
2. _________________________________
Some bacteria are naturally resistant to certain antibiotics, others can acquire resistance
through mutations in some of their genes when they are exposed to an antibiotic. This
resistance, natural or acquired, can spread to other bacterial species since bacteria can easily
exchange genetic material from one to another, even if they are from different species.
3. _________________________________
Many of the available treatment options for common bacterial infections are becoming
more and more ineffective. As a result, a growing number of infections — such as

13
pneumonia, tuberculosis and cystitis — are becoming harder to treat as the antibiotics used
to treat them become less effective and it leads to higher medical costs, prolonged hospital
stays, and increased mortality.
4. _______________________________
Today antibiotic resistance is one of the major global problems. Without urgent
actions, we are heading for a post-antibiotic era, in which common infections and routine
operations could become fatal.
Health experts from the World Health organization are calling to take steps at all levels
of society to limit the spread of resistance. Most of them are quite easy to follow: we all are
able to prevent infections by washing hands regularly, preparing food hygienically, avoiding
close contact with sick people and keeping vaccinations up to date. Take antibiotics only
when prescribed by a doctor. If you take it, always complete the full prescription, even if
you feel better, because stopping treatment early promotes the growth of drug-resistant
bacteria.

23. Read the text again and answer the questions below.
What can antibiotic resistance lead to?
What are the main causes of antibiotic resistance?
What can individuals do to reduce antibiotic resistance?
24. Find a word or phrase in the text which means...
1. ___________ means death rate;
2. ___________ means the process of coming into existence;
3. ___________ means using something in the wrong way or for the wrong purpose;
4. ___________ means requiring immediate action or attention;
5. ___________ means caused by a virus.

25. Complete the sentences with the words from the box.

mortality emergence transmitted viral fatal susceptible species precise

The ___________ (1) of Ebola was first medically recorded in 1976 near the Ebola
River in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Ebola virus causes an acute, serious illness which is often ______ (2) if untreated.
It belongs to the (3) ______ family Filoviridae. Ebola is caused by (3) _________. These
virus (4) _______ cause hemorrhagic fever or heavy bleeding inside the body, and dam-
ages almost every organ.
The Ebola virus may be (5) __________ through blood, diarrhea, breast milk, saliva,
sweat, urine, vomit and other contaminated body fluids. Unprotected health care work-
ers are especially (6) _________ to the infection because they often deal with blood and
bodily fluids. According to the WHO, the average (7) ________ rate for a person infected
with Ebola is 50 percent.
Over the years Ebola has killed 11,315 in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea and Nigeria.
But the WHO admits the figures are not (8) _________ due to the difficulty collecting the
data.

14
26. Complete the charts.

Nouns Adjectives Verbs Nouns


gene resist
virus emerge
fate treat
bacterium prescribe
effect mutate
precision vaccinate

27. Fill in the gaps with the correct particles and prepositions.

1. Pregnant women are more susceptible ____ Zika virus than others. 2. Zika virus may
lead ___ serious birth defects in the baby. 3. Zika virus is a mosquito-borne disease. Sci-
entists released out some insecticides, but the mosquitoes got resistant __ them very fast.
4. Resistance ____ insecticides was caused by a variety of physiological changes within
the insect. 5. California health officials warned winter travelers headed ____ Mexico to
take precautions against the Zika virus. 6. Pregnancy should be avoided for 6 months if the
male partner has also been exposed __ the Zika virus.

TRANSLATION The girl who changed nutrition in the Netherlands


28. Translate the passage from Russian into English.

Фермеры по всему миру дают животным антибиотики для поддержания их в


здоровом состоянии и уменьшения стоимости мяса. Несмотря на то, что Все-
мирная организация здравоохранения постоянно говорит о проблеме резистент-
ности к антибиотикам, их применение не снижается. Подсчитано, что к 2050
году, если ситуация не изменится, 10 миллионов человек по всему миру будут
умирать ежегодно из-за заражения инфекциями, устойчивыми к антибиотикам.
В Нидерландах изменили подход к выращиванию животных, благодаря болезни
одной девочки.
Эрик ван ден Хювела — голландский фермер, занимающийся разведением сви-
ней. Его дочь Эвелин родилась с пороком сердца, и ей требовалась срочная опера-
ция. В больнице им сообщили, что не могут госпитализировать девочку, т.к. она
заражена супербактерией — метициллин-резистентным золотистым стафилокок-
ком. Фермер был шокирован, узнав, что причиной заражения стали свиньи, жив-
шие в его хозяйстве. Этот случай изменил жизнь семьи, а затем и всей страны —
Эрик перестал давать животным антибиотики и разработал другую систему предо-
хранения их от болезней. Вместе с единомышленниками он создал инициативную
группу из фермеров и ветеринаров, благодаря работе которой употребление анти-
биотиков сократилось на фермах на 65%. Как отметил Йаап Вагенаар, эксперт по
антибиотикам, это могло значительно повлиять на здоровье жителей страны. Идеи
Эрика ван ден Хювела теперь продвигает правительство Нидерландов, а дочь фер-
мера выжила и не является носителем супербактерии.

15
29. Imagine that you are a public health educator and you are going to make a presentation
about the consequences of antibiotic resistance. Prepare a plan of your presentation. Work in
small groups. Make your presentation.

WRITING A travel guidance


30. Write a travel guidance related to the Zika virus to the travelers who are going to Cen-
tral and South America.

16
UNIT 11. VIDEO TASK

THE STORY OF TYPHOID MARY


Before you watch

1. Work in pairs. Answer the questions.

1. What do you know about typhoid? What are the main sources of this disease? What
are its main symptoms?
2. Do you think it is possible to be a healthy carrier of typhoid?

While you watch

2. Watch the video (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gLbJznLoo80) and check your


ideas in ex.1.

3. Read the summary of the story. Try to find the mistakes there.
Mary Mallon was a Scottish immigrant who came to New York City in 1885. She started
working as a cook for rich families. Every time the families she worked for got sick after she
started cooking for them.
Once in 1908 when she was working for a family in Long Island, the family unexpectedly
came down to typhoid fever. So, the house’s landlord hired a sanitary inspector, to find
the cause of the outbreak. All the water sources turned up to be clean, and he started
checking Mary’s employment history. He found out that six families she had worked
for — 22 people in total — had reported cases of typhoid fever. He understood that it
was Mary who spread typhoid. She didn’t feel sick, but the bacteria were in her feces
and urine. So, in case she didn’t wash her hands properly, she could spread the disease
easily. Typhoid bacteria usually die from the high temperature involving in cooking.
But Mary often prepared apricot ice-cream which was packed with raw fruit. After the
investigation, Mary was forced to have her tests for typhoid. The test was positive, so she
was quarantined in a small shack on North Sister Island.
Four years later, she was released from quarantine with the promise not to go back to
cooking. However, Mary did not keep it, changed her name into Mary Black and went
back to the kitchen again.

17
Five years later typhoid fever broke out at Sloane Maternity Hospital in Manhattan,
infecting 24 workers and killing three people. Health officials came to the hospital and
found Mary working there. So, she was taken back into North Sister Island where she was
quarantined for more than 22 years until she died in 1939.

4. Watch the video again and check.


After you watch
5. Work in pairs. Tell each other the story of Mary Mellon.
6. Work in pairs. Answer the questions.
Mary Mallon is often called “the most dangerous woman in the American history”. Do
you agree with it?
Do you think it was the right decision of the New York health officials to quarantine
Mary Mallon for the rest of her life?
Do people still suffer from typhoid nowadays? How is this disease diagnosed and treated?

7. Work in pairs. Student A is a journalist who is going to take an interview. Student B is a


public health inspector. Look at the information on the cards below and spend a few minutes
preparing what you are going to say. Roleplay the conversation.

STUDENT A: a journalist STUDENT B: a public health


Think about what questions you are go- inspector
ing to ask the public health inspector. You Think about how you are going to ans-
may ask about: wer the questions. Prepare your answers
• what infectious diseases there are; about:
• what typhoid is; • what infectious diseases there are;
• what the main sources and • what typhoid is;
symptoms of this disease are; • what the main sources and
• being a healthy carrier of typhoid; symptoms of this disease are;
• a list of precautions to the people • being a healthy carrier of typhoid;
who are going to travel to the ter- • a list of precautions to the people
ritories infected with typhoid. who are going to travel to the ter-
ritories infected with typhoid.

GLOSSARY

outbreak — вспышка (эпидемии) force — вынуждать


quarantine — карантин shack — лачуга (помещение)
investigation — исследование release — освобождать
break out — вспыхнуть

18
UNIT 11. WORDLIST

Study the list of useful words from Unit 11. Insert your translation after reading the
corresponding sentences.
adj = djective conj = onjunction phr v = phrasalverb phr = phrase pron = ronoun
adv = adverb n = noun pl = plural prep = reposition v = verb

Smoking tobacco can adversely affect your


affect (v)
lungs and blood flow.
An anesthesiologist inserted an air tube into
air tubes (phr)
the patient’s trachea to deliver oxygen or
anesthesia to the lungs.
These antimicrobial agents helped
antimicrobial agent (phr) the patient slow the growth of microbes in
the wound.
Some studies show that people who are
be exposed to (phr) exposed to high levels of aluminum may
develop Alzheimer's disease.
A cholera plague may break out again in Af-
break out (phr v)
rica because of poor sanitary conditions.
Bin is a container for waste or a box that is
bin (n)
used for storing garbage.
The cleaner used a bucket to carry warm
bucket (n)
water.
A catheter is a tube that is used to introduce
catheter (n) liquids into a human body or to withdraw
liquids from it.
Сlinical waste disposal bag contains the
clinical waste disposal bag
used gloves, masks, syringes and other
(phr)
medical supplies.
cloth (n) Clean the window with a damp cloth.
Hygiene education helps people understand
and develop community hygiene practices
community hygiene (phr)
to prevent disease and death in their
community.
This major achievement will reduce cross
cross-infection (phr)
infections in hospitals and prevent large-scale
outbreaks in the future.
A contagious virus generally attacks your
contagious (adj)
body over 10 days.

19
Use a detergent to remove dirt from clothes,
detergent (n)
dishes, etc.
The disposal of hazardous waste is a serious
disposal (n )
problem in all hospitals of our city.
Wearing disposable gloves in the hospital
disposable gloves (phr)
helps prevent the spread of germs.
Drug resistant bacteria can spread from
drug resistant (phr) person to person in the community or from
patient to patient in hospital.
A research suggests that a common cold will
duration (n) delay a child's growth for the duration of the
illness.
Over the past few decades, scientists have
emergence (n) observed an emergence growth of dangerous
infectious diseases and an outbreak of
epidemics in different parts of the world.
Food hygiene procedures are the conditions
food hygiene (phr)
and measures necessary to ensure the safety
of food from production to consumption.
Hospitals are being forced to close
force (v )
departments because of quarantine.
The scientists headed for developing a new
head for (phr v)
vaccine against Coxsackie virus.
Hospital hygiene deals with the control and
hospital hygiene (phr)
prevention of hospital infections.
hospital-acquired infection Hospital-acquired infections are the most
(phr) serious infections acquired by patients in the
intensive care unit.
inherit (v ) Mike inherited this incurable disease from his
father and was unable to walk.
Further investigation is required to develop a
investigation (n)
new drug against this viral disease.
maintain hygiene Maintaining good hygiene is one of the keys
(phr v) to a healthy lifestyle.
A great amount of medical costs are spent
medical costs (phr)
annually on the treatment of infected
patients with dangerous diseases.
Military hygiene means the care of troops
military hygiene (phr) and it concerns officers who control the daily
lives of soldiers: their food, clothing and
habits.
misuse ((n) The misuse and treatment of hormonal drugs
can cause side effects.
In some cases, mold in your home can make
mold (n)
you sick and irritate your eyes, skin, nose,
throat, and lungs.
mop (n) Use a mop for wiping floors or other surfaces.

20
A decline in infectious diseases mortality
mortality (n) preceded the introduction of penicillin;
antibiotics have made possible further
reductions in deaths.
MRSA (methicillin- MRSA is a form of bacterial infection that is
resistant staphylococcus resistant to numerous antibiotics including
aureus) (phr) methicillin.
Occupational health deals with the health of
occupational health (phr) people in their workplace or in relation to
their job.
There was no outbreak of small pox because
outbreak (n)
of vaccination.
Paper towels should be used in hospitals for
paper towel (phr)
drying hands, cleaning up spills, etc.
prolonged (adj) Prolonged exposure therapy is a treatment for
chronic post-traumatic stress disorders.
Isolation and quarantine help protect the
quarantine (n) public by preventing exposure to people who
have or may have a contagious disease.
Antimicrobial resistance threatens the
effective prevention and treatment of
resistance (n)
infections caused by bacteria, parasites,
viruses and fungi.
The doctor thought that was possible to
release (v) release him from the hospital of infectious
diseases.
Scrubbing-up is a very important procedure
scrubbing-up (n) for the surgeon to perform effective disinfec-
tion of hands.
In low-income countries many dangerous
shack (n) infections are quickly wide spread among
people living in shacks.
Sink is a water basin fixed to a wall or floor
sink (n)
and having a drainpipe.
A soap dispenser is a device that dispenses
soap dispenser (phr)
soap usually in small, single-use quantities.
Every bacterial cell in a species in most cases
species (n)
appears equally capable of performing all the
physiological functions of these ones.
A sister of the department must control the
spillage (n) cleaning of patients’ spillages of bodily fluids
on time.
Nowadays, an infection outbreak rapidly
spread (v)
spreads among a large number of people
within a short period of time.
Older people are more susceptible to
susceptible to (phr)
infections.

21
Targeted antibiotic includes a range of
resources that can each be used to support
targeted antibiotic (phr)
prescribers’ and patients’ responsible
antibiotic use.
transfer (v) This disease is rarely transferred from mother
to baby.
transmit (v) Some diseases are transmitted from one
generation to the next.
Urgent action is needed to prevent future
urgent actions (phr)
most threatening disease outbreak.
Influenza B is a viral illness that causes the
viral (adj)
flu and mutates each year.

22
UNIT 12. MENTAL HEALTH

VOCABULARY Mental illness


1. Match the expressions with their Russian equivalents.
1. irrational a. осанка
2. disoriented b. депрессия
3. unemotional c. галлюцинации
4. uncommunicative d. бредовые идеи
5. manic e. паранойя
6. posture f. потерянный
7. depression g. маниакальный
8. paranoia h. нелогичный
9. hallucinations i. равнодушный
10. delusions j. необщительный

2. Match the words with the situations.

irrational disoriented unemotional uncommunicative manic


posture depression paranoia hallucinations delusions

1. He never reacts to anything funny or scary.


2. His behaviour is overly active.
3. Tim is constantly unhappy and he has said a few times that life is not worth living.
4. He thinks that strangers hate seeing him.
5. Mrs. Thompson’s husband died two years ago, but she says she sometimes hears him
talk to her.
6. She does not want to talk to people.
7. His behaviour is absolutely illogical.
8. There is a new patient who feels lost and does not recognize her relatives.
9. Ann believes that somebody wants to kill her.
10. He always sits with stooped shoulders.

3. Complete the sentences with the wo rds from Ex. 1.


Individuals with schizophrenia often experience auditory ________________. People
with bad ________________ are more likely to feel sad, scared, and depressed. Symptoms
of ________________ include mistrust or suspicion, which can bring on sense of fear,
anger, and betrayal. During a ________________ episode, a person might impulsively
quit a job or feel rested after sleeping for only two hours. Feelings of guilt and helplessness
can be signs of ________________. Patients with conduct disorder are usually callous and
________________. Patients suffering from delirium often feel ________________.

23
________________ are false beliefs that a person firmly holds to be true. Patients with
bipolar disorder can do ________________ and impulsive things, for example, buy
expensive things that they do not really need. People diagnosed with social anxiety are
often described as ________________.

4. Translate the sentences from Russian into English using the words from Ex. 1.
1. Окружающие обычно считают людей, страдающих социофобией, замкнуты-
ми и необщительными. 2. Во время депрессии человек может стать равнодушным
и безразличным ко всему. 3. Пациенты с диагнозом “шизофрения” часто страдают
от галлюцинаций и бредовых идей. 4. Нелогичное мышление может быть призна-
ком психического заболевания. 5. Пациенты с делирием часто потеряны во вре-
мени и пространстве. 6. Маниакальные эпизоды характеризуются повышенной
активностью пациента. 7. Чрезмерная подозрительность может быть признаком
паранойи. 8. Для пациентов, страдающих депрессией, характерна плохая осанка.

GRAMMAR Present Perfect


5. Complete the table with the forms of the verbs.
Infinitive Past Past Infinitive Past Past
Simple Participle Simple Participle
talk speak
hid replied
eaten told
check finish
become heard
drank study
needed broke
swore attend
write started
graduated throw

6. Read the sentences and underline the correct verb forms.


1. Did you check/Have you checked her blood pressure yet? 2. I told/have told you so
many times to clean the floor. 3. Yesterday he forgot/has forgotten to take his medication.
4. She was/has been in hospital for two months. 5. They moved / have moved him to this
ward three days ago. 6. She had/ has had delusions since October. 7. I saw/have seen the
doctor two times this week. 8. She didn’t change/haven’t changed patients’ dressings yet. 9.
He was/has been diagnosed with schizophrenia in 2014. 10. When has she started/did she
start to suffer from hallucinations?

7. Complete the conversation putting the verbs into the Past Simple or the Present Perfect.
Doctor: When ________________ (you / start) feeling depressed?
Patient: About a week ago.
Doctor: ________________ (something / happen)? ________________ (there /
be) anything that ________________ (make) you sad?
Patient: Well, I ________________ (give) birth to a baby boy 3 weeks ago. I think
I’m a terrible mother.
Doctor: Believe me, you are not the only mother who feels that way. There are a lot
of mothers out there who go through this kind of depression after giving birth

24
and we try to help them. Now, ________________ (you / have) similar epi-
sodes before?
Patient: You mean feeling depressed after giving birth?
Doctor: Yes.
Patient: No. He is my first baby.
Doctor: Ok. ________________ (there / be) complications during pregnancy and
after delivery?
Patient: No, I ________________ (have) a normal delivery and the baby is in good
health.
Doctor: Good to hear that. Mrs. Drew, do you think this depression is affecting your
life now? ________________ (you / experience) appetite loss?
Patient: Yes. I don’t like to eat and I ________________ (lose) some weight.
Doctor: ________________ (you / have) any sleeping problems?
Patient: Yes. I can’t make myself sleep sometimes. Last night I ________________
(not / sleep) at all.
Doctor: And ________________ (you / be) depressed before?
Patient: Actually, when I ________________ (be) in college, I ________________
(be) diagnosed with depression. My dad ________________ (pass away) and
I ________________ (feel) really sad.
Doctor: I’m sorry. But I’m glad you were able to overcome that situation. And one more
question. Do you know of anybody in your family who ________________
(be) also diagnosed with depression?
Patient: Yes, my aunt. She ________________ (be) depressed when her husband
________________ (die).
Doctor: I see. Thank you for answering all my questions, Mrs. Drew.

8. Read the story of a psychiatric patient and fill in the gaps putting the verbs into the Past
Simple or the Present Perfect.
I ________________ (1. be) hospitalized twice due to depression. The first time
________________ (2. be) in 2005. In the two years leading up to my hospitalization,
four of my close relatives ________________ (3. die) violently or by their own hand.
While in the hospital, I ________________ (4. be) diagnosed with Major Depres-
sive Disorder with psychotic features, and a personality disorder that ________________
(5. be) not specified. My stay in the hospital ________________ (6. be) very short, and I
________________ (7. not / gain) anything from it, because I ________________ (8. not /
think) anything ________________ (9. be) wrong with me.
In 2010, I ________________ (10. get) married and ________________ (11. have) two
beautiful children. Unfortunately, we ________________ (12. divorce) in 2013. Last April,
I ________________ (13. start) having psychotic features again, and I ________________
(14. believe) I might hurt my children, which ________________ (15. scare) me to death.
So, again I ________________ (16. check) myself into the hospital.
I ________________ (17. be) eventually diagnosed with bipolar disorder with psychotic fea-
tures. My stay in the hospital ________________ (18. be) much longer and I got more out of it
the second time around. The main problem I ________________ (19. have) was accepting the
reality that I ________________ (20. have) a problem. The second part ________________
(21. be) accepting the fact that I ________________ (22. need) to stay on medication to keep

25
myself better. I ________________ (23. be involved) with a support group through the mental
health clinic here for almost a year, and it ________________ (24. be) beneficial to me. In
addition, I am with three on-line support groups discussing bipolar disorder.
Right now, I am trying different ways to express myself. I ________________ (25. take
up) writing poetry, which I ________________ (26. never / do) before, so that is a new
beginning for me. I am actually quite surprised at the words and feelings that come out when
I write. Now I feel much better that I ________________ (27. do) a couple of years ago.

9. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.


1. У вас когда-нибудь были галлюцинации? 2. Ему диагностировали шизоф-
рению два года назад. 3. Сколько раз вы были у врача? 4. Он до сих пор не при-
нял лекарство. 5. Когда у вас в последний раз был маниакальный эпизод? 6. Ее
уже дважды госпитализировали с нервным расстройством. 7. Вчера он ходил на
консультацию к психотерапевту. 8. Вас ранее лечили от депрессии? 9. Она уже год
страдает от приступов паранойи. 10. Как долго вы испытываете проблемы со сном?

VOCABULARY Schizophrenia
10. Match the expressions with their Russian equivalents.
1. think logically a) изменения в поведении
2. recover completely b) начало болезни
3. facial expressions c) вести относительно нормальную жизнь
4. reduce the symptoms d) длительное лечение
5. the onset of the illness e) мыслить логически
6. changes in behaviour f) серьезные побочные действия
7. commit suicide g) мимика
8. lead a relatively normal life h) совершить самоубийство
9. long-term treatment i) полностью поправиться
10. have bad side effects j) уменьшить симптомы

11. Use the expressions from Ex. 10 to fill in the gaps.


1. Acute periods are followed by periods of remission during which a patient
may ________________. 2. Many medications for serious diseases or illnesses
________________. 3. Psychotherapy often can be successfully completed in a few months,
but in some cases, ________________ may be needed. 4. During the acute or psychotic
phase, people with schizophrenia cannot ________________and may lose all sense of who
they are. 5. Treatment aims to help the person ________________of mental illness to an
acceptable level so that they do not interfere with day-to-day living. 6. ________________
often occurs at about age 30, and the illness persists over a long period.7. Studies show
that people with mental health problems get better and many ________________.
8. ________________may mean a person is developing a mental illness. 9. Facial tics, such
as those that occur in Tourette syndrome, are one form of abnormal ________________.
10. 80 — 90% of people who ________________have a mental illness.

12. Translate the following sentences into English using the expressions from Ex. 10.
1. Люди с некоторыми психическими заболеваниями не могут мыслить логи-
чески. 2. Правильно подобранные медикаменты помогают уменьшить симптомы
заболевания. 3. Депрессия — это распространенное психическое расстройство, ко-

26
торое может потребовать длительного лечения. 4. При грамотном лечении паци-
енты с депрессией имеют хорошие шансы полностью поправиться. 5. Изменения
мимики могут быть симптомом психического заболевания. 6. Значительные изме-
нения в поведении — одна из характеристик биполярного расстройства. 7. Боль-
ные шизофренией часто пытаются совершить самоубийство. 8. Около половины
больных паническим расстройством выздоравливают, а остальные ведут относи-
тельно нормальную жизнь. 9. Начало заболевания может быть острым или посте-
пенным. 10. Психотропные препараты могут иметь серьезные побочные действия.

READING AND SPEAKING Can Schizophrenia Disappear?


13. Work in pairs and discuss the questions.
1. How many people in your country suffer from schizophrenia?
2. What causes schizophrenia?
2. What are the main symptoms of schizophrenia?
3. How can the symptoms be alleviated?

14. Read the text about schizophrenia and answer the questions below.
Mathematician John Nash, who died in 2015 in a car accident, was known for his de-
cades-long battle with schizophrenia — a struggle famously depicted in the 2001 Oscar-
winning film "A Beautiful Mind." Nash had apparently recovered from the disease later in
life, which he said was done without medication. But how often do people recover from
schizophrenia, and how does such a destructive disease disappear?
Nash developed symptoms of schizophrenia in the late 1950s, when he was around age
30, after he made groundbreaking contributions to the field of mathematics. He began to
exhibit bizarre behavior and experience paranoia and delusions. Over the next several de-
cades, he was hospitalized several times, and was on and off anti-psychotic medications.
But in the 1980s, when Nash was in his 50s, his condition began to improve.
Studies done in the 1930s, before medications for schizophrenia were available, found
that about 20 percent of patients recovered on their own, while 80 percent did not. More re-
cent studies have found that, with treatment, up to 60 percent of schizophrenia patients can
achieve remission.
It is not clear why only some schizophrenia patients get better, but researchers do know
that a number of factors are linked with better outcomes. It looks like Nash had many of
these factors in his favour.
People who have a later onset of the disease tend to do better than those who experi-
ence their first episode of psychosis in their teens. Nash was 30 years old when he started
to experience symptoms of schizophrenia.
In addition, social factors — such as having a job, a supportive community and a family
that is able to help with everyday tasks — are also linked with better outcomes for schizo-
phrenia patients. Nash had supportive colleagues who helped him find jobs where people
were protective of him, and a wife who cared for him.
Moreover, some researchers have noted that patients with schizophrenia tend to get
better as they age. However, many patients will get worse over time if they do not have ac-
cess to proper medical care and are not in a supportive environment.
Still, there is no guarantee that someone will recover from schizophrenia — a patient
may have all the protective factors but not recover. Most patients cope with their symp-
toms for their entire lives, but many are also able to live rewarding lives. Future research
into the causes of the disease may lead to better ways to prevent and treat the illness.

27
1. When did Nash develop symptoms of schizophrenia?
2. What kind of symptoms did he have?
3. Did he have to go to hospital because of his disease?
4. Did he take any medications?
5. When did his condition begin to improve?
6. According to some recent studies, how often do schizophrenia patients achieve
remission?
7. What are the factors that are linked with remission?

WRITING Email job application


15. Read this advertisement for a job and write a reply.
Maudsley Hospital
Job title: mental health nurse
As part of our nursing team you will assist and support the assessment, treatment and
rehabilitation of our patients.
A successful candidate will need:
A relevant nursing qualification and registration
Excellent team working skills, a high level of self-motivation and a flexible approach —
our units operate 24 hours 7 days a week, and our nursing staff work shift patterns
including weekends, bank holidays and nights.
In return for your expertise and hard work, we offer a wide range of benefits:
• Competitive salary
• Career development
• Personal health insurance
• An employee assistance programme
• Free meals/refreshments when on duty
• Free car parking (at most sites)

Apply to Chief Nursing Officer Elizabeth Wayne.

VOCABULARY Tourette syndrome


16. Match the pictures with the words from the box.

clap chew clothes scratch smell things


blink throw things swear stick the tongue out

28
17. Match the words with their Russian equivalents.
1. shiver a) бормотать
2. stutter b) гримасничать
3. spit c) фыркать
4. sniff d) лягаться
5. mutter e) кричать
6. belch f) икать
7. shout g) дрожать
8. make faces h) рыгать
9. hiccup i) заикаться
10. kick j) плеваться

18. Complete the sentences with the words from Ex. 16 and 17.
1. If you ________________, you speak very quietly so that you cannot easily be heard.
2. When you ________________, you make repeated sharp sounds in your throat. 3. When
you ________________, you hit your hands together. 4. If you ________________,
you say something very loudly. 5. If you ________________ yourself, you rub your fin-
gernails against your skin. 6. If you ________________, you have difficulty speaking be-
cause you find it hard to say the first sound of a word. 7. If you ________________, you
use offensive language. 8. When you ________________ your eyes, you shut your eyes
and very quickly open them again. 9. If you ________________, you put your nose near
them and breathe in, so that you can discover their smell. 10. If you ________________,
you force an amount of liquid out of your mouth.

TRANSLATION
19. Translate the text from Russian into English.
Синдром Туретта — это генетически обусловленное расстройство центральной
нервной системы, которое проявляется в детском возрасте и характеризуется мо-
торными и вокальными тиками. Тики возникают внезапно в виде повторяющих-
ся, однообразных движений (моторные тики) и высказываний (звуковые тики)
с участием отдельных групп мышц. К наиболее распространенным симптомам
синдрома Туррета относятся заикание, высовывание языка, гримасничание, не-
контролируемое выкрикивание непристойностей.
Лечение синдрома Туретта направлено на оказание помощи пациентам в управ-
лении наиболее проблемными симптомами. В большинстве случаев синдром Ту-
ретта протекает в лёгкой форме и не требует фармакологического лечения. Меди-
каментозное лечение назначается в том случае, если симптомы заболевания ухуд-
шают качество жизни человека.
Проявления заболевания обычно уменьшаются после окончания подростково-
го возраста. У взрослого человека могут оставаться некоторые проявления син-
дрома (например, тики), а также различные психические расстройства (депрессия,
панические атаки, перепады настроения, антисоциальное поведение).

29
UNIT 12. VIDEO TASK

DEPRESSION — UNDERSTAND THE CAUSES, RECOGNISE THE


SIGNS
Before you watch

1. Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.


1. How widespread is depression?
2. What are the main symptoms of depression?
3. What are the main causes of depression?

While you watch

2. Watch the video (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gp_EFelilZw) and check your


answers in Ex.1.

3. Watch the video again and divide the causes and the symptoms mentioned in the video
into the three groups.

Causes

divorce having few interests bereavement drugs war


alcohol hormonal changes lack of support poverty

Physical Psychological Social

Symptoms

changes in the sleep pattern lack of energy changes in appetite and weight
feelings of guilt or worry low self-esteem irritability towards others
reduced social interactions constipation unexplained aches and pains
slowed movement or speech lack of motivation poor performance at work
difficulties with family life prolonged sadness changes in the menstrual cycle

Physical Psychological Social

30
After you watch

4. Work in pairs. Student A is a mental health specialist. Student B is a teenager who


lost his/her grandmother a month ago and this loss has affected him/her deeply. Look at the
information on the cards below and spend a few minutes preparing what you are going to say.

STUDENT A: MENTAL HEALTH STUDENT B: TEENAGER


SPECIALIST
Use the following prompts and add some
Ask your patient the following questions: details in order to answer the specialist’s ques-
cHow often have you felt depressed over tions.
the past month? 1. You have been feeling depressed almost
2. How is your energy? every day since your grandmother died.
3. How often have you felt that you have 2. You don’t seem to have enough energy
little interest or pleasure in doing things? to do anything.
4. How often have you had trouble 3. You don’t feel like going out with
concentrating on things like school, friends. 4. You have stopped going to your
work, reading, or watching TV? interest group.
5. How is your sleep? 5. It is very difficult for you to be attentive
6. How is your appetite? in class or to concentrate on your
7. Have you had any thoughts of suicide? homework.
6. Your mind goes somewhere else.
7. It has become difficult to fall asleep.
8. Sometimes you get only a couple of
hours of sleep per night.
9. You have to remind yourself to eat.
10. It feels like you have lost touch with
the world around you, but you definitely
don’t want to kill yourself.

5. Search the Internet. Decide whether these statements are facts or myths about depression.

1. Suicides peak during holidays 7. Your family affects risk


2. Suicide rates climb with altitude 8. Poor countries have higher suicide rates
3. Teens are at greatest risk 9. Most suicide attempts fail
4. Whites attempt suicide more often than 10. Suicide is more common than in the past
other races 11. Suicides are more common on weekends
12. Men are at greater risk
5. Writing style is linked to suicide risk
6. Depression is always the cause of suicide

GLOSSARY

bereavement — тяжелая утрата suspicion — подозрение


poverty — бедность spot a symptom — определить симптом
low self-esteem — низкая самооценка

31
UNIT 12. WORDLIST

Study the list of useful words from Unit 12. Insert your translation after reading the
corresponding sentences.
adj = adjective conj = conjunction phr v = phrasal verb phr = phrase
adv = adverb n = noun pl = plural prep = preposition
pron = pronoun v = verb

She was admitted to hospital with a soaring


admit (v)
temperature.
He suffers from auditory hallucinations. He
auditory (adj)
says he often hears voices in his head.
This patient never looks me in the eye. He
avoid eye contact (phr)
avoids eye contact.
People on the autism spectrum may exhibit
behavior (n)
unusual behavior.
People suffering from bipolar disorder
bipolar disorder (n) experience much more complicated
symptoms than extreme mood swings.
All people feel some degree of stress in their
breakdown (n) life at one time or another, but an emotional
breakdown is different.
commit suicide (phr) Many mental health patients commit suicide.
Some patients with mental health problems
confused (adj)
may feel lost or confused.
Patients with delusions of grandeur believe
delusion (n) that they have special powers (e.g. they can
fly), rare abilities, or hidden talents.
Anxiety disorders are the most common
disorder (n)
mental illness in the U.S.
A person who is disoriented may not know their
disoriented (adj)
location and identity or the time and date.
Psychological trauma is a type of damage to
distressing (adj) the mind that occurs as a result of a severely
distressing event.
Those who suffer from anxiety experience
disturbing (adj) frightening or disturbing symptoms almost
every day.
Patients with a number of psychiatric condi-
facial expression (n) tions may display abnormal facial expres-
sions.

32
People in a manic state are irritable and eas-
frustrated (adj)
ily frustrated.
Irrational spending sprees are classic bipolar
irrational (adj)
behavior.
People with Tourette’s syndrome often have
muscular (adj)
muscular spasms.
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a
obsessive compulsive
mental disorder where people feel the need
disorder (n)
to do things repeatedly.
Copropraxia means making offensive or
offensive (adj) otherwise unacceptable movements or
gestures.
She had the onset of the illness at a younger
onset of the illness (n)
age.
Some patients who have Tourette’s syn-
outburst (n) drome experience sudden outbursts of ob-
scenities.
I was on placement in an elderly mental
placement (n) health ward, mainly for people with demen-
tia.
Walking with a slouched body posture can
posture (n)
lead to feelings of depression.
A few months ago, he was forcefully admit-
psychiatric ward (n)
ted to a psychiatric ward.
Yoga can reduce symptoms of anxiety and
reduce symptoms (phr)
depression.
Motor tics are sudden, brief, repetitive
repetitive (adj) movements, such as eye blinking, shoulder
shrugging, or head jerking.
Some of the side effects of mental health
side effects (n) medication include nausea, headache, and
changes in appetite.
Many mental disorders go undiagnosed
sufferer (n) because the sufferer is simply unaware their
symptoms are not normal.
He was admitted to a psychiatric ward after
suicide attempt (n)
a suicide attempt.
Coprolalia is the involuntary utterance of
swear words (n)
swear words.
Patients with mental illnesses may make
threat (n, v)
threats to kill themselves.
In this book you can learn about the dif-
ferent kinds of treatments and services that
treatment (n)
are effective in helping people with mental
disorders.
Working with uncommunicative patients is
uncommunicative (adj)
challenging for a clinician.
The vast majority of people with mental ill-
violent (adj)
ness are not violent.
Throat clearing, grunting, and coughing are
vocal (adj)
all common vocal tics.

33
UNIT 13. MONITORING THE PATIENT

VOCABULARY Types of investigations


1. Match photos A-E to the types of investigations.

ultrasound scanning CT MRI endoscopy X-ray ECG laboratory tests

2. Complete the sentences with the words from Ex. 1.


1. ____________ is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period
of time using electrodes placed on the skin. 2. _____________ is a type of scan that uses
strong magnetic fields and radio waves to produce detailed images of the inside of the body.
3. _______ uses high-frequency sound waves to view organs and structures inside the body.
4. ___________ is a procedure used to visually examine your upper digestive system with a
tiny camera on the end of a long, flexible tube. 5. __________ include certain blood tests,
urinalysis, tests on tissue specimens, and some screening tests. 6. __________ uses an X-ray
source which rotates around the body to produce cross-sectional images. 7. ______________
uses an electrical device to put out x-rays and digital technology to create two-dimensional
pictures of internal body structures.
3. Complete the passages with the words from the boxes.
Diagnostic imaging lets doctors look inside the patient’s body for clues about a medical
condition. A variety of machines and techniques can produce pictures of the structures
and activities inside the body. They include X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans and ultrasound.

radiation non-invasive exposing a lead apron fractured

An x-ray (radiograph) is a (1) __________ medical test that helps physicians diagnose and
treat medical conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves (2) _____________ a part of the body
to a small dose of (3) _________________ to produce pictures of the inside of the body.

34
The most familiar use of x-rays is checking for (4) ____________ bones, but they are
also used to diagnose pneumonia, heart problems, lung and breast cancer.
When you have an x-ray, you may wear (5) _______________to protect certain parts
of your body. No special preparation is needed for this exam.

still detailed a contrast dye bleeding clots

Computed Tomography, or CT scan, combines x-rays with computer technology to make


(1) _____________ images of the body. A CT scan shows details of the bones, muscles,
fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than general X-rays.
Doctors use CT scans to look for broken bones, cancers, blood (2) __________, signs
of heart disease and internal (3) __________.
During a CT scan, the patient lies (4) ___________ on a table. The table slowly passes
through the center of a large X-ray machine. During some tests the patient may receive (5)
___________, which makes parts of the body show up better in the image.

side effects contraindications a heart pacemaker tunnel-shaped tissues

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at
organs and (1) _______________ inside your body. Health care professionals use MRI
scans to (2) evaluate the head, spine and joints. The exam is totally painless and has no
known (3) _______________.
During the test, the patient lies on a bed that moves into a (4) __________ machine. It
takes a series of pictures of the inside of the body using a magnetic field and radio waves.
The computer enhances the pictures produced.
However, there are some (5) ____________ for undergoing an MRI scan. They include
patients with (6) ________________ and those who have a metallic foreign body.

fetus air pockets a transducer gel high-frequency

Ultrasound is a diagnostic imaging technique that uses (1) ______________ sound


waves to view blood vessels, tissues, and organs. During pregnancy, doctors use ultrasound
to view the (2) ______________. The waves are generated and received by a hand-held
device called (3) ________________. The reflected waves are processed by a computer
that produces detailed images for display on a monitor. A special (4) ___________ is
applied to the patient’s skin to ensure there are no (5) _______________________
between the transducer and the body.

4. Read the doctor’s instructions and guess the type of diagnostic test he/she is going to do.
A. I’m going to put some B. Stand sideways to the C. Can you lie flat on your
gel on your abdomen. plate and raise your arms. back on the table, please?

D. Now, take a deep E. Don’t forget to sign the in- F. Please, remove all the
breath and hold it. formed consent here, please. metallic objects.

G. Move to your left side H. I’ll inject some contrast


and I’ll screen your kidneys. dye now.

35
5. Dr. Anderson is talking to a patient about one of the procedures from Ex. 2. Read his
words and guess which procedure he is going to do.
“First of all, I will ask you to complete a safety questionnaire and write an informed
consent form. It is very important because we need to make sure you don’t have any
contraindications. Prior to the procedure you can eat and drink normally. Make sure you
don’t have any metallic objects and credit cards. You will be asked to lie on the table and
make yourself comfortable. During the procedure, you will not feel anything but you will
be required to stay still. The whole examination process takes approximately 45 minutes.
No injections will be required.”

6. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.


1. Ультразвуковая диагностика широко применяется в различных направлениях
медицины, является безвредным для пациента методом диагностики по сравне-
нию с другими методами. 2. Эндоскопия является незаменимым методом при диа-
гностике новообразований желудочно-кишечного тракта, пищеводе, в желудке
или двенадцатиперстной кишке. 3. Результаты флюорографического исследова-
ния применяются для диагностики заболеваний легких. 4. Электрокардиография
применяется как при плановых медицинских осмотрах, так и для диагностики па-
тологий и вторичных изменений в сердце при заболеваниях других систем и орга-
нов. 5. При поступлении в больницу, пациенту назначаются лабораторные иссле-
дования. 6. Основное отличие КТ и МРТ состоит в разных физических явлениях,
которые используются в аппаратах. В случае КТ — это рентгеновское излучение, а
при МРТ — постоянное и пульсирующее магнитные поля, а также радиочастотное
излучение.

SPEAKING Describing procedures


Describing procedures to a patient with be going to

• “be going to” is usually used to explain a procedure or doctors often use fixed
expressions with “What”:

What we’re going to do is apply special gel with local anaesthetic.


What happens next is that we insert the needle.
What we need to do after is to have a look at your stomach.

• Doctors also use reassuring phrases such as:

It is a very simple procedure.


It only takes a few minutes.
You’ll hardly feel anything.
You’ll just feel slightly sore after the procedure.
Don’t worry, it won’t take long.
The procedure rarely goes wrong.
There’s no need to worry.

36
7. Match the halves of the sentences.
1. Have you had any a) up your sleeve above your elbow, please?
2. Could you raise b) hold your breath.
3. You may feel c) just turn over onto your tummy.
4. Could you roll d) a bit uncomfortable.
5. Could you remove e) take long.
6. Would you pop f) your arm above your head for me?
7. Breathe in and g) your top clothing, please?
8. It won’t h) other investigations recently?
9. Now, I want you i) and say ‘ah’.
10. Could you bend j) up on the couch for me?
11. Please, open wide k) other investigations recently?

8. Rearrange the words to make complete sentences.


1. just/ mouth/ to/ examine/ going/ your/ I’m.
2. strip/ please?/ to/ the/ Could/ you/ waist,
3. your/ just/ blood/ check/ I’ll/ pressure.
4. I’m/ lubricate/ to/ special/ the/ tube/ with/ a/ going/ jelly.
5. just/ procedure/ feel/ after/ slightly/ You’ll /sore/ the.
6. won’t /worry/, long/ it/ Don’t / take.
7. hardly/ You’ll/ anything/ feel.
8. it’s/ procedure/ about –/ worry/ nothing/ to/ It’s/ a/ routine.
9. may/ bit/ uncomfortable/ feel/ a/ You.
10. you/ back/ little/ lean/ Could/ a?

9. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.


Разденьтесь по пояс, пожалуйста. 2. Не могли бы вы повернуть голову направо?
3. Садитесь на кушетку, пожалуйста. 4. Не волнуйтесь, это не займёт много вре-
мени. 5. Закатайте рукав, пожалуйста. 6. Вдохните и задержите дыхание. 7. Я сей-
час осмотрю Вас. 8. Вы не почувствуете никакого дискомфорта. 9. Вы проходили
какие-нибудь обследования в последнее время? 10. Вы почувствуете небольшое
давление. 11. Не волнуйтесь, это рутинная процедура. 12. Откройте широко рот и
скажите ‘ааа’.

SPEAKING Describing lab results


10. Match the abbreviations used for describing laboratory tests results with their meanings.
1. Hb a) White cell count 1. Na a) Sodium
2. HCT b) Haemoglobin 2. FBC b) Potassium
3. MCV c) Haemotocrit 3. K c) Full blood count
4. WCC d) Mean cell volume

37
11. Match the unit abbreviations with their full form.
1.L/L a) millimols per litre 1. U/L a) grams per litre
2. 109/L b) micromoles per litre 2. fL b) units per litre
3. mmol/L c) litres per litre 3. g/L c) femtolitres
d) times ten to the power
4. umol/L e) nine per litre

12. Work in pairs. Read the Biochemistry and Haemotology lab report. Patient A — for
Student A, Patient B — for Student B. Look at the prompts to help you:
The patient’s name is…She is…
The Full blood count was taken…(date)
Potassium is within normal limits/normal/unremarkable.
Hemoglobin is up/elevated/high/raised.
Mean cell volume is down/low/reduced.

Patient A: Emma Richards


Age: 28
Date: 12nd June 2016
Value Range Unit
FBC
Hb 157 120-150 g/L
HCT 0,39 0,35-0,45 (35-45%) L/L (%)
MCV 91 81-100 fL
WCC 7,4 4.0-11.0 109/L
K 4,9 3,6-5 mmol/L
Na 123 135-145 mmol/L

Patient B: Peter Sinfield


Age: 56
Date: 9th September 2017
Value Range Unit
FBC
Hb 115 130-170 g/L
HCT 0,39 0,4-0,5 (40-50%) L/L (%)
MCV 91 80-99 fL
WCC 12,5 4.0-11.0 109/L
K 2,1 3,6-5 mmol/L
Na 156 135-145 mmol/L

LISTENING AND READING Telemedicine


13. Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.
1. Do you have any ideas what telemedicine is?
2. Can you guess what the possible benefits of telemedicine are?

38
14. Watch the video about telemedicine (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y02nSCYl2ZE)
and check your ideas in Ex. 13.

15. Watch the video again. Answer the questions below.


What is Jennifer’s story? What medical problems does she have? How does she benefit
from telemedicine?
Do you think telemedicine is a useful idea? Can it replace traditional medicine?

16. Read the article about telemedicine and fill in the gaps with the words from the
boxes.

access device remote interactive

Telemedicine is the ability to provide (1) ____________ healthcare using modern


technology and telecommunications.
In simple terms, telemedicine allows health care providers to examine, diagnose, and
treat patients using technology like a phone, computer, or other (2) __________.
Telemedicine isn't new — it's been in practice since the 1950s. Back then, doctors used
radio signals to reach patients in (3) __________ areas of the world who didn't have (4)
___________ to care. But an explosion of technology has broadened the scope of what
we can do with telemedicine.
This includes:

MRI scans are lacking a video-chat appointment be relayed keep track share

1. Reaching a health care provider, day or night, via your device. In many areas, parents
can schedule (5) _________________ with a doctor for a face-to-face visit. During
the virtual visit a doctor can diagnose common viruses like colds and flu, infections,
pinkeye, rashes, allergies, and mental health problems, do routine follow-up visits for
things like surgery or illnesses, review lab results, (6) ____________, or other test
results, provide education, such as explaining how to use an inhaler or how to toilet
teach a toddler

2. Sharing health data via digital devices. Phone apps, digital watches, and other wearable
devices now record health data, such as blood-glucose readings for kids with diabetes. This
information can (7) _____________ to a computer monitoring system in your doctor's
office or hospital so that health care professionals can (8) ____________ of your child's
health.

3. Sending X-rays, ultrasound images, or photos from one location to another. This
practice lets doctors securely (9) ___________ the actual pictures, rather than just reading
a radiologist's report or a description of a rash.

4. Improved access to specialists and specialized technologies. Many areas (10)


__________ in specialist care. By using telemedicine, doctors in remote areas or small
hospitals can reach a specialist at a larger hospital and have access to that hospital's
technology.

39
Limitations

cover supplement opt for a physical exam

Telemedicine isn't meant to replace traditional health care, but to (11) __________ it.
And it does have its limitations.
Some critics worry that families will stop seeing their regular doctors if the doctors don't
provide virtual visits, and (12) ________ whoever is available. That doctor may be less
informed about a patient's medical history.
Others worry that many health problems can't be diagnosed through telemedicine.
Anything requiring (13) __________— like pressing on the belly to feel for a mass in a
patient complaining of belly pain — would need to be done in person.
Finally, while many health insurances (14) _______ telemedicine services, others
don't.

17. Work in groups. Discuss the questions.


What opportunities does telemedicine provide?
What limitations does it have?
What health-monitoring devices do you know?
Is telemedicine officially used in your country?
Do you think virtual appointments are as effective as real ones?
Do you think you will schedule a video-chat appointment with your doctor in the
future?

18. Make a short presentation on telemedicine following the chart below.

What is
When is it used? Its benefits. Limitations.
telemedicine?

19. Work in pairs. Student A is a journalist who is going to take an interview. Student B is
a healthcare provider. Look at the information on the cards below and spend a few minutes
preparing what you are going to say.

STUDENT A: a journalist STUDENT B: a healthcare provider


Think about what questions you are going Think about how you are going to answer
to ask the healthcare provider. You may the questions. Prepare your answers:
ask about: • what telemedicine is;
• what telemedicine is; • when telemedicine is used;
• when telemedicine is used; • what opportunities telemedicine
• what opportunities telemedicine provides;
provides; • what benefits telemedicine has;
• what benefits telemedicine has; • what limitations telemedicine has;
• what limitations telemedicine has; • your opinion about telemedicine.
• the opinion about telemedicine.

40
GRAMMAR The Passive
The Passive

• We make the passive of the present and past simple with is/are/was/were + the past
participle. The object of an active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence:
The medical staff constantly monitors the patient’s condition.
The patient’s condition is constantly monitored by the medical staff.
• We don’t make passives from verbs that don’t have objects (e.g. come, arrive, happen,
wait etc.)
• The Passive form focuses on the action, not on the person or thing that does the action.
If you want to say who does the action, use by. We usually use an active verb when we
are interested in the person who does the action.
The blood pressure was taken by a nurse.
The appointments are made by a receptionist.

• We also use a passive verb:


— when we don’t know the person
The pulse oximeter was attached in the morning.
— when the action is a law or a rule.
The informed consent is always obtained before any procedure.

19. Complete the sentences using the Present Passive.

1. The beds _________________ (change) between the patients. 2. Patients


_________________ (given) general anaesthesia during operations. 3. The pulse
_________________ (monitor) every hour by pulse oximeter. 4. The pads of the
AED _________________ (place) on the patient’s chest. 5. Operations like this
_______ rarely____________ (perform) under general anaesthetic. 6. The trolley
_________________ before the procedure. 7. A patient _________________ by a
nurse first. 8. The tube of the endoscope_________________ (insert) very carefully.
9. Normally patients _________________ (give) a leaflet about the procedure. 10. People
with traumatic brain injuries_________________ (treat) in this department.

20. Rewrite the sentences in the Active voice using the Past Passive.
1. Paramedics gave the patient CPR.
_________________________________________________________________
2. The nurse made an injection.
_________________________________________________________________
3. Paramedics took the patient to hospital.
_________________________________________________________________
4. A receptionist made an appointment for the patient.
_________________________________________________________________
5. We tested her blood yesterday.
_________________________________________________________________
6. An anaesthetist gave general anaesthesia to the patient.
_________________________________________________________________

41
7. The surgeon didn’t finish the operation.
_________________________________________________________________
8.The nurse explained the procedure to the patient.
_________________________________________________________________
9. An electrocardiogram recorded the heartbeat.
_________________________________________________________________
10. We constantly measured the patient’s body temperature and blood pressure.
_________________________________________________________________

21. Complete the text using correct Passive forms of the verbs in brackets.
Diagnostic endoscopy report
Informed consent (1) _____________ (obtain) from the patient after discussing risks
and benefits of the procedure. The patient (2) _____________ (connect) to the pulse
oximeter and placed in the left lateral position. Oxygen (3) _____________ (provide)
through a nasal cannula and the premedication (4) _____________ (administer) as stat-
ed. The endoscope (5) _____________ (introduce) into oesophagus. At the end of the
examination the patient (6) _____________ (transfer) to the recovery area to recuperate.

22. Read the text and fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verbs in brackets (Active
or Passive).
Computed tomography
A new GE LightSpeed 16 Computed Tomography (CT) Scanner (1) _____________
(install) by the Western General Hospital. CT (2) _____________ (use) an X-ray source
which (3) _____________ (rotate) around the body to produce cross-sectional images.
The new scanner (4) _____________ (take) up to 16 simultaneous cross-sectional im-
ages and more data (5) _____________ (transmit) in less time. Each slice can be less
than one millimeter thick, making it possible to find very small abnormalities. The scanner
(6) _____________ (use) for diagnosing muscle and bone disorders; locating tumours;
monitoring the progress of malignant diseases and the response to therapy.

23. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.


1. Состояние пациента постоянно контролируется медицинским персоналом.
2. Анализ крови был проведен вчера вечером. 3. Информированное согласие было
получено перед процедурой. 4. Пациент был переведен в палату интенсивной те-
рапии. 5. Пациенту объясняют все риски и преимущества процедуры перед ее про-
ведением. 6. КТ используется для диагностики заболеваний скелетной системы. 7.
Операция была закончена вовремя. 8. Ультразвуковая диагностика широко при-
меняется в различных направлениях медицины в целях диагностики. 9. Подобные
процедуры не проводятся без анестезии. 10. Для подтверждения диагноза пациен-
ту были назначены лабораторные исследования.

42
UNIT 13. VIDEO TASK

THE FUTURE HEALTH-MONITORING DEVICES


Before you watch
1. Work in pairs. Answer the questions.
Do you have any ideas what the wearable health revolution might be?
Do you use any health-monitoring gadgets, mobile apps or fitness trackers? Do you find
them useful?
Can you guess what types of health-monitoring devices will be popular in the future?

2. Match the pictures to the words from the box. What do you think the functions of these
devices are?

insideables smart clothes digestables smart shoes digital tattoos

While you watch

Watch the video (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_2-csvrh8UM) and check your


answers in Ex. 1 and 2.

4. Watch the video again and answer the questions below.


1. What does the HexaSkin electronic shirt track?
2. Who are the most frequent users of smart clothes?
3. How do smart clothes work?
4. What is the main function of the smart bra?
5. What are smart shoes used for?
6. What do call caps do?
7. What do electronic tattoos measure?
8. What do electronic tattoos look like?
9. What is the idea of digestables?
10. What do insideables do?

43
After you watch

5. Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.


1. Which device do you find the most/least useful?
2. Do you think you will use one of these devices in the future?

6. Work in pairs. Student A is one of the inventors of an electronic tattoo. Student B is a


journalist who is going to take an interview. Look at the information on the cards below and
spend a few minutes preparing what you are going to say.

STUDENT A: an inventor STUDENT B: a journalist


Think about what questions you are Think about how you are going to
going to ask the inventor of an electronic answer the questions. Prepare your
tattoo. You may ask about: answers:
• what an electronic tattoo is; • what an electronic tattoo is;
• how it works; • how it works;
• how it is attached to the body; • how it is attached to the body;
• how it is used in medicine; • how it is used in medicine;
• how the inventors came up with the • how you came up with the idea of
idea of an electronic tattoo; an electronic tattoo;
• what the future plans about using • what the future plans about using
electronic tattoos are. electronic tattoos are.

7. Search the Internet. Find out some information about an interesting health-monitoring
device. Present this information to the group.

8. Imagine that you are a faithful user of one of the health-monitoring devices. Write an
e-mail to your friend and tell him/her what its main functions are, what it looks like, how
much it is and how it has changed your life. Try to persuade your friend to buy and use it, too.

GLOSSARY

correlation — взаимосвязь plug in — включать в розетку


breast tissue — ткань молочной железы display — отображать
sustain — испытывать upload — загружать
vital signs — показатели жизненно-важ-
ных функций online account — учетная запись
generate — выдавать, вырабатывать notify — извещать

44
UNIT 13. WORDLIST

Study the list of useful words from Unit 13. Insert your translation after reading the
corresponding sentences.

adj = adjective adv = adverb n = noun pl = plural


abb = abbreviation conj = conjunction phr v = phrasal verb phr = phrase
prep = preposition pron = pronoun v = verb

In the middle-aged population,


blood pressure (phr) increased blood pressure is more common
among the lower social groups.
The number of contraindications of
contraindication (n) vaccination in accordance with the WHO
recommendations has fallen since 1996.
CT shows a depressed skull fracture and
CT (computed
temporal epidural hematoma.
tomography) (abb)
ECG Leonard's last ECG had an abnormal
(electrocardiography) rhythm, so we've changed his medication.
(abb)
Modern endoscopy plays a specific role in
identification of many diseases at the early
endoscopy (n)
stages, particularly of oncologic diseases
(cancer) of various organs.
A heart pacemaker uses electrical impulses,
delivered by electrodes contracting
heart pacemaker
the heart muscles, to regulate the beating
of the heart.
Fully informed consent and accurate
informed consent (phr) representation are crucial to decision-
making and sound judgement.
Insideables are considered as a next step
insideable (n) in our ever-going revolution of computing
devices.
Screening includes general check-ups and
laboratory tests (phr)
simple laboratory tests.
MRI (magnetic MRI uses magnetic fields and radio
resonance imaging) frequencies to scanthe brain, or any part of
(abb) the body.
Nasal cannulas and face masks are used
nasal cannula (phr) to deliver oxygen to people who don't
otherwise get enough of it.

45
Many procedures require the
premedication (n)
administration of premedication.
A pulse oximeter monitors a person's
pulse oximeter (phr)
oxygen saturation.
After the surgery patients stay in the
recovery area (phr)
recovery area.
After general anaesthesia patients need to
recuperate (v)
recuperate.
safety questionnaire A safety questionnaire must be filled in
(phr) before the procedure.
This procedure is performed under
sedation (n)
sedation.
State-of-the-art equipment enables quicker
state-of-the-art (adj)
and more accurate diagnosis.
When you undergo a chest X-ray
stay still (phr) examination you need to hold your breath
and stay still.
Telemedicine uses telecommunication and
telemedicine (n) information technology to provide clinical
health care from a distance.
Ultrasound scanning involves the use of a
transducer (n) small transducer and ultrasound gel placed
directly on the skin.
An ultrasound scanning uses high-
ultrasound scanning
frequency sound waves to create an image
(phr)
of the inside of the body in real-time.

46
UNIT 14. MEDICATION

SPEAKING AND READING What are medicines?


1. Work in groups. Discuss the questions.
1. What are medicines?
2. What types of medications do you know?
3. What forms of medications do you know?
4. How did people treat illnesses in the past?

2. Read the passage and fill in the gaps with the words from the box. Then check your ideas
in Ex. 1.

a) side effects b) cosmetics c) prescription d) prevent


e) ointments f) painkillers g) oral h) brand

WHAT ARE MEDICINES?


Medicines are chemicals or compounds used to cure, halt, or _________ (1)
disease; ease symptoms or help in the diagnosis of certain illnesses.
Medicines can be of various types (e.g. antibiotics, anti-inflammatories,
____________ (2), sedatives, antihistamines, etc.) and forms (e.g. suppositories,
_________ (3), tablets, capsules, drops, etc.)
There are a few routes of administering medicines: _________ (4), topical, inhaled,
rectal, and others.
In many countries, patients need a ________ (5) to buy a medicine in a pharmacy
(prescription drugs). Some medicines (e.g. _________ (6), vitamin supplements,
etc.) can be bought without a doctor’s prescription (over-the-counter medicines).
A few medicines are available only in hospitals.
Most countries have a national formulary that contains a list of medicines
approved for prescription throughout the country. It includes key information on the
composition, indications, possible ___________ (7), contraindications, and doses.
The same drug may have a generic name, and a (8) __________ name. Commonly,
it is an official body that assigns a generic name to a drug. The brand name is selected
by its manufacturer or distributor. E.g. Loratadine and Claritin are the generic and
brand names for the same drug.

47
VOCABULARY Types of medication
3. Complete the sentences using the types of medication from the box.

an emetic a supplement a stimulant a painkiller an anti-inflammatory


a beta-blocker an antibiotic an antihistamine a sedative a laxative

1. ________________ increases activity of the body. 2. _______________ is used


to reduce inflammation. 3. ______________ relieves pain. 4. _________________
decreases the rate and force of heart contractions and lower high blood pressure by
blocking the activity of beta-receptors. 5. ______________ is a medicine that destroys
microorganisms. 6. _______________ causes vomiting. 7. ________________
calms a person or makes him/her sleep. 8. __________________ produces bowel
movements and relieves constipation. 9. ________________ is used to treat allergies. 10.
______________ is added to a food or a diet to increase its nutritional value.

4. Discuss which types of medicine you may use to treat these disorders.
1. allergy a) a stimulant
2. vitamin-deficiency b) an anti-inflammatory
3. headache c) a beta-blocker
4. food poisoning d) an antibiotic
5. constipation e) a painkiller
6. swelling and inflammation f) an emetic
7. heart conditions g) a laxative
8. pneumonia h) a supplement
9. irritability and excitement i) an antihistamine
10. depression j) a sedative

5. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.


1. Этот стимулирующий препарат помогает восстановить память и ког-
нитивные способности после депрессии. 2. Противовоспалительные препа-
раты часто используются для борьбы с простудой. 3. Болеутоляющие сред-
ства устраняют болевые ощущения. Они показаны при головной боли, зуб-
ной боль, артрите, травмах и ожогах. 4. Бета-блокаторы помогают замедлить
ритм сердца и снизить артериальное давление. 5. Врач должен назначать
антибиотики, если есть определенные показания. 6. Волаген — противо-
рвотное средство, которое предотвращает тошноту и рвоту. 7. Седативные
препараты снимают напряжение и улучшают засыпание. 8. У этого антиги-
стаминного препарата есть несколько побочных эффектов. 9. Сегодня мно-
гие считают, что витаминные добавки — это пустая трата денег. 10. Следует
помнить, что у этого препарата есть несколько противопоказаний. 11. Гене-
рики — это лекарственные препараты, которые имеют такую же фармацев-
тическую, биологическую и терапевтическую эквивалентность, как и ориги-

48
нальный препарат, но не обладают патентной защитой. 12. Слабительные —
лекарственные средства, которые применяются для лечения запоров.

READING AND SPEAKING Seven drugs that changed the world


6. Work in groups. Answer the questions.
1. The invention of what types of drugs do you think has become a real breakthrough in
the history of medicine?
2. The article tells about insulin, aspirin, thorazine, chemotherapy, AZT, the
contraceptive pill and penicillin. Do you know what these drugs are for and how they were
discovered?

7. Match the words with their definitions.


1. breakthrough a) stop doing something
2. isolate b) extend the duration of
3. administer c) a point at which a decisive change takes place
4. large-scale d) do what is necessary before an event or process can begin
5. rheumatic e) to separate from another substance
6. launch f) be attributable to
7. a turning point g) give remedially
8. lay the groundwork h) a sudden, dramatic and important discovery
9. prolong i) start or promote
10. owe to j) relating to or caused by rheumatism
11. purify k) clear from material defilement
12. halt l) very extensive or encompassing

8. Read the article and fill in the chart below.


People have swallowed elixirs, inhaled vapors, and applied ointments in the name of healing
for millennia. But only a small number of substances have fundamentally revolutionized
medicine. Seven of those drugs are listed here, along with some facts that may surprise you.
The discovery of insulin was no doubt a major breakthrough in medicine. Before its
discovery, diabetes sufferers often died at a young age. Many researchers had tried to
isolate insulin from animal pancreas, but in 1921 Frederick G. Banting, a young Canadian
surgeon, and John Macleod, Professor from the University of Toronto, were the first to
succeed in it. In January 1922, they successfully administered this hormone to Leonard
Thomson, a young diabetic patient. Later that year the medical firm Eli Lilly started large-
scale production of the extract.
Today aspirin is the most commonly used painkiller in the world that was invented by
Felix Hoffmann, a Bayer chemist, in 1897. His research was encouraged by his rheumatic
father whom Hoffman tried to help. One day in 1897, the chemist mostly by chance mixed
salicylic acid with acetic acid and created acetyl salisylic acid or aspirin. The clinical trials
turned to be successful and soon after that, the Bayer Company launched the production
of aspirin. Nowadays it is used to treat heart attacks, strokes, colon cancer, and even
dementia.
The introduction of the tranquilizer chlorpromazine (also known as thorazine) in
the 1950s became a turning point in psychiatry and led to the “psychopharmacological

49
revolution.” The development of the drug also laid the groundwork for the later generation
of agents used in the treatment of anxiety and depression.
Nitrogen mustards were developed in the 1920s and ’30s as agents of chemical warfare.
During World War II, it was discovered that people exposed to nitrogen mustard had
significantly low white blood cell counts. This finding led researchers to investigate
whether mustard agents could be used to halt the growth of rapidly dividing cells such as
cancer cells.
In the 1940s, two prominent Yale pharmacologists, Alfred Gilman and Louis Goodman
examined the therapeutic effects of mustard agents in treating lymphoma. During their
research they found that the patients’ tumour masses were significantly reduced for a few
weeks after treatment. Although the patients had to return to receive more chemotherapy,
this marked the beginning of the use of cytotoxic agents for the treatment of cancer.
AZT, also called Zidovudine (ZVD) and Retrovir, was the first HIV/AIDS drug approved
by the FDA on March 19, 1987. While not able to cure the disease, it was found to prolong
the lives of AIDS patients. Owing to these drugs, the annual number of deaths from AIDS
declined in the early 21st century.
The contraceptive pill is often described as one of the most significant medical advances
of the 20th century. The pill is a combination of the hormones oestrogen and progestin
that was developed in the US in the 1950s by the American biologist Dr Gregory Pincus.
It was approved for release in 1960 and within two years it was being used by 1.2 million
American women.
In 1928 Scottish bacteriologist Alexander Fleming was in the process of sterilizing
bacterial culture plates that had become contaminated with mold when he noticed clear
zones circling mold colonies. The mold toxin responsible for killing the bacteria turned out
to be penicillin, which Australian pathologist Howard Walter Florey and British biochemist
Ernst Boris Chain later successfully isolated and purified to produce the world’s most
effective live-saving antibiotic.

The name of the drug The year The names of the inventors

9. Read the article again and answer the questions.


Who was the main Felix Hoffman’s motivation to invent aspirin?
Why did the invention of thorazine become a turning point in psychiatry?
What were nitrogen mustards initially developed for?
What are the main components of the contraceptive pill?

10. Complete the sentences with the words from the article.
1. Frederick G. Banting and John Macleod managed to _________ insulin from animal
pancreas in 1921. 2. The Bayer Company launched a ____________ production of aspirin

50
in 1899. 3. The usage of ether for anaesthetic purposes became a ________________ in
the history of medicine. 4. Scientists believe that it is possible to __________ people’s
lives and help them live in good health well until 120. 5. The Telegraph announced that a
group of British scientists was close to creation of the first drug to _________ Alzheimer's
disease.

11. Fill in the sentences using the base word given in bold at the end:
1. Penicillin is one of the main medical _____________ of the 20th breakthrough
century.
2. _________ to insulin diabetes sufferers do not die at a young age. owe
3. Felix Hoffmann’ father was rheumatism ______________. suffer

4. Yale __________ have introduced countless medical and health research


advances over the last century.
5. Eli Lilly started large-scale ___________ of insulin in 1922. produce
6. Howard Walter Florey and Ernst Boris Chain ___________ isolated success
and purified penicillin in the late 1930s.

12. Translate the passage from Russian into English.


До середины XIX века хирурги не могли справиться с болью во время операции,
что значительно тормозило развитие хирургии. Однако, в середине и конце XIX
века произошел ряд переломных событий, которые способствовали бурному раз-
витию анестезиологии.
В 1844 г. американский зубной врач Гораций Хорас Уэллс успешно применил
закись азота для обезболивания при удалении зуба.
В 1846 г. американский химик Джексон и зубной врач Мортон показали,
что вдыхание паров эфира приводит к отключению сознания и потере боле-
вой чувствительности. Ими было предложено использовать эфир при удале-
нии зубов. 16 октября 1846 г. в Бостонской больнице Джон Уоррен, профес-
сор Гарвардского университета, удалил под наркозом (!) опухоль подчелюст-
ной области (excise a neck tumour). Уильям Мортон наркотизировал больного
во время операции. Сегодня 16 октября считается днем начала современной
анестезии.
Ровно через 4 месяца спустя, в феврале 1847 года, великий русский хирург Н.И.
Пирогов провел две операции под эфирным наркозом в Петербурге.

13. Work in groups. Answer the questions.


1. Do you know who of the scientists mentioned in the article got the Noble prize in
Physiology or Medicine?
2. What drugs are still necessary to invent today?
3. Do you believe that it will be possible to invent an anti-aging drug?

VOCABULARY Forms of medication


14. Match the pictures with the forms of medicines.

1) ointment 2) suppository 3) tinctures 4) nasal spray 5) capsules


6) drops 7) injection 8) inhaler 9) tablets 10) lozenges

51
15. Complete the following instructions to a patient on how to use each item illustrated.
1. Glycerin ____________ are rectal laxatives for relieving mild to moderate
constipation. 2. Herbal ___________ are a great way to preserve and concentrate the
benefits of the herbs. 3. Apply antibiotic ____________ and cover with a bandage. 4.
You should take 2 ______ 2 times daily with meals, drinking water. 5. About 40 percent
of Americans have trouble swallowing pills or ________. 6. First, warm the medicine in
your hands for a few minutes, then tilt your child’s head to one side and put ear _____ in
the ear. 7. How do I choose the best place for an intramuscular _____________? 8. An
___________ is a medical device used for delivering medication into the body via the
lungs. 9. — Can you tell me how to take Strepsils? — Dissolve one ________ slowly in the
mouth every 2 to 3 hours. 10. Blow your nose gently before using the ___________.

16. Make collocations. Sometimes more than one answer is possible.


1. rub/apply a) a suppository
2. dissolve b) a nasal spray
3. make/give c) a few drops
4. swallow d) capsules
5. insert e) lozenges
6. put/instill f) an injection
7. administer g) some ointment

17. Read the step-by-step instructions on how to give ear drops to a child and put them into
the correct order.
a) Remove the top of the bottle or spray and throw away the plastic seal.
b) Gently pull your child’s earlobe backwards to open up the ear canal.
c) Keep your child in this position for a few minutes so the drops or spray can spread
inside the ear.
d) Put the top back on the bottle or spray.
e) Put the prescribed amount of drops or spray into the ear canal.
f) Wash your hands.
g) Warm the drops by holding the bottle in your hands for a few minutes.
h) Tilt your child’s head back and to one side.
i) Shake the bottle or spray.

52
Make a similar list of instructions on how to give eye drops to a child, how to administer
nasal spray to a child and how to make an intramuscular injection.

LISTENING Different ways to take a drug


18. Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.

1. Do you know the routes by which drugs can be administered or taken into the body?
2. Can you guess what these abbreviations stand for: PO, SQ, IV, IM?

19. Watch the video (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K1LV7KNI2lA) and check your


ideas in Ex. 17.

20. Watch the video again and do the tasks below.

a) Watch the video up to 0:53 and answer the questions.


1. Which factors does the route of drug administration depend on?
2. What is the difference between the route and the site of drug administration?

b) Watch the video up to the end and complete the table below.
IM IV SQ PO

What does it
stand for?

How is drug
administrated?

The principal
sites

21. Work in pairs. Use the table in Ex. 19 and tell your partner about the principal routes
and sites of drug administration.

SPEAKING Exchanging details about patient’s medication


22. Match the halves of the sentences.
1. What dosage does a) tablets twice a day.
2. What dosage should I b) in each eye every four hours.
3. What medication is c) with water at mealtimes.
4. How often does she d) Mrs Brown need?
5. He needs to take two e) Mr Fitzgerald on?
6. Give Mrs Ruben 0.5 mil eye drop f) need her medicine?
7. He’s on two tablets three times a day g) give Mrs Richards?

53
23. Work in pairs. You are going to exchange details about patients’ medication. Student A
looks at this page. Student B goes to page 75. Use the phrases from Ex. 22.

Student A
Ask Student B questions to complete this information about patients’ medication.
Name of Type of medi- Route of ad-
Patient Quantity Frequency
medication cation ministration
1 Senokot laxative 2 tablets oral nightly
1000 units
anticoagu- continuous
2 Heparin per hour IV
lant

3
4

GRAMMAR be going to vs Present Continuous for future


We can use be going to:
● to make a prediction about the future, based on signs we can see now.
He looks so tired! He isn't going to get up now.

● to talk about your next action.


Don’t panic! I am just going to see your throat.

● to talk about general intentions and plans, something you have decided to do.
The nurse is going to set up an IV.

We use the Present Continuous:


● to talk about future arrangements and to things we have scheduled in the future.
We are meeting at the conference tomorrow.

! to avoid confusion it is common to use future time expressions, such as tomorrow,


next week, in two hours, at three o’clock, later today.

24. Complete these sentences using be going to or the Present Continuous and verbs in
brackets.
1. The sonogram is clear. You __________ (have) a boy! 2. We _______________
(leave) for a conference on lasers and optoelectronics tonight. 3. Everything is fine with
your stomach. You _____________ (not need) an operation. 4. I am busy with the slides
now. I ___________ (make) a presentation next Thursday. 5. I ___________ (finish)
the ward-round in a minute. 6. My dad is well now. His doctor ___________ (discharge)
him tomorrow. 7. It’s just a stethoscope. I ______________ (not hurt) you. 8. They
__________ (launch) a new antihistamine next month. 9. Next, I ________ (put) some
gel on your abdomen. 10. Dr. Brown ___________ (work) night shift tomorrow. 11. The
eye test shows that you have myopia. I ___________ (prescribe) you glasses.

54
25. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.
1. Я собираюсь поступать в Кингстон колледж в следующем году. 2. Не волнуй-
тесь! Я просто измерю температуру. 3. Вертолет медицины катастроф прибудет че-
рез несколько минут. 4. Завтра утром я иду на прием к неврологу 5. У Вас баналь-
ная простуда, поэтому я не собираюсь прописывать антибиотики. 6. Я собираюсь
сделать ему укол, чтобы помочь заснуть. 7. Мы летим на конференцию в Берлин на
следующей неделе. 8. Поздравляю! У Вас будет ребенок!

WRITING Medication orders


26. Study the following abbreviations that doctors use when writing Medication orders for
nurses and match them with their English meanings.
1. qh (quaque hora) a) four times a day
2. q4h (quaque 4 hora) b) three times a day
3. stat (statum) c) before meals
4. TID (ter in die) d) after meals
5. ac (ante cibum) e) once a day
6. QD (quaque die) f) as needed
7. hs (hora somni) g) every 4 hours
8. pc (post cibum) h) every hour
9. QID (quater in die) i) at bedtime
10. p.o. (per os) j) immediately
11. prn (pro re nata) k) by mouth

27. Explain the following medication orders and write them in full.
1. Codeine p.c. q4h codeine after meals every 4 hours
2. meperidine 50 mg and promethazine
25 mg IM q4-6h prn pain
3. Lanoxin 0.25 mg tab po qam if P 60 or ↑
4. Phenergan 25 mg po q4-6h prn
5. 100 mg IM a.m.
6. 3 tab. p.o. q6h prn. severe pain
7. Zithromax 250 mg tab ii po stat, then
tab i po daily on days 2-5
8. 500 mg IV q4h T 38C

55
UNIT 14. VIDEO TASK

THE PLACEBO EFFECT


Before you watch

1. You are going to watch a video about the placebo effect. Look at the screenshots and
answer the questions below.

1. Do you know what placebo is? And what is the placebo effect?
2. When do you think doctors started to use it?
3. Do you know how researchers explain this effect?
4. What are its possible advantages and disadvantages?

While you watch

2. Watch the video (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z03FQGlGgo0) and check your ideas Ex 1.

3. Watch the video again and complete the summary with the words from the box.

test trigger stress hormones please miss out injections symptoms therapies

The placebo effect is a mysterious phenomenon when fake drugs, treatments and 1)
______________ miraculously make people feel better. Doctors have used the term
“placebo” since the 1700s when they realized the power of fake drugs to improve people’s
2) ___________.
The word “placebo” comes from the Latin phrase “I shall 3) _________”. Placeboes
can take a few forms: sugar pills, water-filled 4) ___________ and even sham surgeries.
By the 1950s, researchers started to use placebos as a standard tool to 5) ___________
new treatments. To evaluate a new drug, they divided a group of patients into 2 parts. The
first half received the real drug, the other got a placebo that looked the same. In case the
new drug became more beneficial than the placebo, it was proved effective.
Today scientists can’t explain the placebo effect. Some of them believe that this effect is
merely confused with other factors, like patients trying to please doctors by falsely reporting

56
improvements. On the other hand, they believe that if a person thinks that a fake drug is
real their expectations of recovery actually do 6) ___________ physiological factors that
improve their symptoms. Placebos seem to be capable of causing measurable change in
blood pressure, heart rate, and the release of pain-reducing chemicals, like endorphins.
Placebos can even reduce 7) ___________, like adrenaline. So, is the placebo effect so
beneficial? No, not at all! If patients believe that a fake treatment has cured them, they may
8) __________ on drugs or therapies that are proven to work. Additionally, the positive
effect may fade over time.

After you watch

4. Work in pairs. Follow the chart below. Prepare a short presentation on Placebo effect.

The history of
placebo.
What is placebo How do researchers
effect? explain this effect?
How is it used
today?

5. Search the Internet and find the answers to the questions below.
1. Can the placebo effect occur in animals?
2. Can the placebo have the external influence on patients?
3. Are placebos geographically sensitive?
4. What is “nocebo”?

GLOSSARY
sham surgery — имитация операции
trigger — вызывать
fake treatment —

57
UNIT 14. WORDLIST

Study the list of useful words from Unit 14. Insert your translation after reading the
corresponding sentences.
adj = adjective conj = conjunction phr v = phrasal verb phr = phrase
adv = adverb n = noun pl = plural prep = preposition
pron = pronoun v = verb

anti-inflammatory Anti-inflammatory medicine reduces


(adj) inflammation or swelling.
Paramedics are trained to administer certain
administer (v)
drugs.
A brand-name drug is a drug that has a trade
brand-name (phr)
name and is protected by a patent
A bionic eye became a real breakthrough in
breakthrough
medicine in 2014.
If you dissolve the medication in the mouth,
dissolve (v)
it enters the bloodstream directly.
Emetic is a medicine or other substance that
emetic (n)
causes vomiting.
A generic does not have a particular brand
generic (adj)
name.
Congress voted additional funds in an effort
halt (v)
to halt the spread of the disease.
An example of herbal medicine is the cap-
herbal (adj)
sules filled with a plant-based remedy.
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is
IM (intramuscular)
the injection of a substance directly into
(adj)
muscle.
An inhaler is a portable device for
inhaler (n) administering a drug which is to be breathed
in.
In 1828 Johann Büchner isolated a yellow
substance from the tannins of willow trees
isolate (v)
that he named salicin, the Latin word for
willow.

58
Intravenous (IV) medications are a solutions
IV (intravenous) administered directly into the venous
(adj) circulation via a syringe or intravenous
catheter (tube).
Our pharmaceutical company is launching a
large-scale (phr)
large-scale research next month.
The Bayer Company launched the
launch (v)
production of aspirin in 1899.
Laxatives can help relieve constipation and
laxative (n)
promote regular bowel movements.
lay the groundwork We are busy laying the groundwork for
(phr) another campaign.
A lozenge is a small medicinal tablet, taken
lozenge (n)
for sore throats and dissolved in the mouth.
Ointment is a smooth oily substance that is
ointment (n)
rubbed on the skin for medicinal purposes.
Over-the-counter (OTC) medications
OTC (over-the-
are drugs you can buy without a doctor’s
counter) (phr)
prescription.
In the late 1840s surgery greatly advanced
owe to owing largely to the invention of anaesthe-
sia.
The pill is an informal word for an oral
pill (n)
contraceptive.
Reading books regularly can prolong your
prolong
life by up to two years.
purify We purified the water by boiling it.
A remedy is a medicine, application, or
remedy (n)
treatment that relieves or cures a disease.
Rheumatic diseases are characterized by
rheumatic (adj) inflammation that affects the connecting or
supporting structures of the body.
A route of administration is the path by
route of drug ad-
which a drug, fluid, poison, or other sub-
ministration (phr)
stance is taken into the body.
A topical anesthetic affects a localized area
topical (adj)
of the body.
The discovery of DNA was a turning point
turning point (phr)
in medicine.

59
UNIT 15. ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE

SPEAKING What is alternative medicine?


1. Work in small groups. Answer the questions.
1. Why is alternative medicine called "alternative"?
2. What types of alternative medicine do you know? Have you tried any alternative
medicine?
3. Do you think alternative medicine is just a trend that goes in and out of fashion?
4. What kind of people use alternative medicine?
5. Why do people turn to alternative medicine?
6. Do you think doctors should study and be experts in alternative medicine?

2. Read the statements and decide whether they refer to alternative medicine (AM) or
conventional medicine (CM).
1. It is based on anecdotal evidence, belief or magical thinking.
2. It is recognised by the medical profession and taught in medical school.
3. It is not scientifically proven.
4. It dates back longer than conventional medicine.
5. It is scientifically proven to work.
6. It is administered by practitioners.
7. It is not recognised by the medical profession.
8. It is administered by doctors and nurses.
9. It is based on scientific knowledge and evidence.

VOCABULARY Types of alternative medicine


3. Match photos A-E to the types of alternative medicine.

crystal healing acupuncture magnet therapy yoga


hypnotherapy massage therapy herbal medicine aromatherapy

60
4. Match the types of alternative therapy (1-8) to the definitions (a-h).

1. acupuncture a) use of fragrant oils for well-being


2. crystal healing b) the therapist talks to the patient when he or she is “asleep” to
influence their feelings about pain
3. aromatherapy c) use of magnets to help relieve muscular aches and pains,
insomnia, headaches, and poor bladder control
d) use a plant's seeds, berries, roots, leaves, bark, or flowers for
4. massage therapy medicinal purposes
e) use of crystals, gemstones and minerals in several ways to
5. herbal medicine amplify and accelerate the self-healing processes.
f) the scientific manipulation of the soft tissues of the body for
6. hypnotherapy the purpose of normalizing those tissues
g) therapy, based on the theory that Qi energy flows along
7. magnet therapy meridians in the body and can be stimulated by inserting fine
needles at specific points
8. yoga h) a system of exercises for mental and physical health

5. Complete the passages with the words from the boxes.

Crystal healing

stimulates chakras properties healing heart energy source

Crystal healing is an alternative medicine practice that uses crystals and gemstones for
a wide variety of healing and therapeutic ___________ (1). Crystal healers believe that
amethyst, for example, is beneficial for the intestines; green aventurine helps the _______
(2); quartz is a powerful ____________ (3) and it _________ (4) brain function.
During a treatment session, the patient lies down and practitioner places crystals on
different energy points, or _______ (5), of the body. This process can last anywhere from
minutes to hours. It is believed that the crystals will give the patient their ________ (6)
energy to help him/her feel better or even recover from a disease.

Homoeopathy

placebo effect allergies solutions cure

Homeopathy a system of alternative medicine based on the idea that "like cures like."
That is, if a substance causes a symptom in a healthy person, giving the person a very
small amount of the same substance may (1) _______ the illness. A homeopathic health
practitioner uses pills or (2) _________ containing only a little of an active ingredient
(usually a plant or mineral) for treatment of disease.
Homeopathy was founded in the late 1700s in Germany and has been widely practiced
throughout Europe. Nowadays it is used to treat (3) ________________, atopic
dermatitis, rheumatoid arthritis and others disease.

61
However, some critics of homeopathy believe that there is so little active substance
in a solution that any benefits from treatment are likely not because of the substance but
because you are thinking it is effective ((4) ________________).

Reiki

balance emotional relaxation alive facilitate

Reiki is a Japanese technique for stress reduction and (1) __________. This therapy is
often described as palm healing or hands-on-body healing because during the session the
practitioner places hands lightly on or over the patient's body to (2) ______________ the
patient's process of healing.
Reiki is based on the idea that an unseen "life force energy" flows through us and is what
causes us to be (3) _________. If one's "life force energy" is low, then we are more likely
to get sick or feel stress, and if it is high, we are more capable of being happy and healthy.
A Reiki practitioner aims to change and (4) ____________ the energy fields in and around
your body to help on a physical, psychological, (5) ____________ and spiritual level.

6. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.


1. Альтернативная медицина представляет собой набор методов, которые пред-
упреждают и даже лечат различные заболевания. 2. Гипноз используется для того,
чтобы избавить человека от бессонницы, помочь ему бросить курить и справиться с
лишним весом. Также он помогает при снятии стресса, различного рода болей, в том
числе зубной, головной и родовой. 3. Регулярные занятия йогой помогают умень-
шить уровень стресса, облегчают симптомы депрессии, контролируют высокое кро-
вяное давление и диабет. 4. На протяжении тысяч лет жители Индии полагаются на
аюрведу для профилактики и лечения заболеваний. Практики аюрведы используют
травы, диеты, дыхательные системы, массаж и медитацию для лечения себя и вос-
становления баланса в организме. 5. Практикующие специалисты по иглоукалыва-
нию используют небольшие тонкие иглы для того, чтобы продуцировать природную
энергию тела или ци. Путем размещения этих игл на 400 определенных частях тела
иглотерапевт может перенаправить ци на определенное лечение. На сегодняшний
день Всемирная организация здоровья признает иглоукалывание эффективным при
лечении 28 заболеваний, включая боль, респираторные болезни и болезни желудоч-
но-кишечного тракта. 6. Фитотерапия благоприятно влияет на работу отдельных
органов. Она применяется для очистки крови от токсинов, повышения иммуните-
та и других целей. При этом нет никаких побочных эффектов, которые часто по-
являются при приеме искусственных медикаментов. 7. Мануальная терапия — это
комплекс упражнений, выполняемый специалистом. Эта альтернативная медицина
направлена на снятие болей в суставах, в том числе и позвоночнике.

READING AND LISTENING Acupuncture


7. Work in pairs. Answer the questions.
1. What do you know about acupuncture? What country does this therapy come from?
2. Do you know how acupuncture works? What conditions does it treat?
3. Do you know anyone who has tried acupuncture?

62
8. Match the words with their definitions.
1. meridian a) a sports team or a group of players
2. blockage b) doubting that something is true or useful
3. insert c) exhausted
4. restore d) a wonder
5. deaden e) to put or introduce into the body
6. sceptical f) put back into a former or original state
7. established g) being accepted or recognized
8. squad h) unwilling to do something
9. worn-out i) any of the pathways along which the body's vital energy flows
10. reluctant j) to make something less painful or less strong
11. miracle k) an act or instance of obstructing

9. Read the text. Match the headings with the correct paragraphs.
a) Who uses acupuncture? d) What can acupuncture be used to treat?
b) What are the risks? e) What is the history of acupuncture?
c) What is acupuncture?
1. _________________________________
Acupuncture is based on the idea that energy flows through the human body along
12 lines or meridians. These meridians end up at organs in the body, and illness is the result
of a blockage of the energy flow to these organs. To remove the blockage, an acupuncturist
inserts very fine needles into the body at points along the meridians. This stimulates the
flow of energy, and restores the patient’s health.
2. __________________________________
Traditional Chinese medicine has been practised for around 3000 years in the Far East,
but is relatively recent in the West, and acupuncture only really became well-known in the
West in the 1970s as people began to travel more frequently between the two areas of the
world.
A significant event in the history of acupuncture came in 1971, when a journalist from
the New York Times had his appendix removed in China, when on a trip to the country
with Henry Kissinger, the Secretary of State for the USA. Surgeons used acupuncture to
deaden the pain of the operation, which greatly impressed Kissinger.
Although at first doctors in the West were often sceptical of the medical value of
acupuncture, in the last few years it has become more established as an alternative to
Western medical treatments, since clinical tests have shown that acupuncture is effective
for a number of conditions.
3. ____________________________
In the Far East acupuncture is used to treat a wide range of complaints, and is also used
as a preventative medicine, since it is thought to increase the body’s resistance to infection.
In the West, the treatment is often used to relieve headaches, dental pain, back pain, and
arthritis, and to treat depression, asthma, stress, high blood pressure and anxiety.

63
4. ____________________________
Since acupuncture is known to be effective against pain, it is not surprising that
many sportspeople have experimented with acupuncture when fighting injury. Martina
Hingis, the famous tennis player, had a wrist injury cured through treatment, and
English Premier Division football club Bolton Wanderers employ an acupuncturist to
keep their squad in good physical condition. While in Korea for the World Cup in 2002,
soojichim, a Korean form of acupuncture, was very popular with the German football
team.
Cherie Blair, a well-known human rights lawyer, and the wife of the British Prime
Minister, was recently spotted wearing an acupuncture needle in her ear, suggesting
that she uses the treatment to cope with stress. The Queen of England is also interested
in acupuncture, although she doesn’t use the treatment herself — she and many of
her family rely on another alternative medical treatment, homeopathy, to keep them
healthy.

5. ________________________
Finally, if you do decide to visit an acupuncturist, it is important that you check that
they are qualified and registered to practise acupuncture. In the past some people have
experienced allergic reactions, broken needles and even punctured lungs while being
treated, although this is very uncommon.

10. Read the text again. Decide if the statements are True (T) or False (F). Correct the
false ones.
1. An acupuncturist inserts needles in body organs.
2. Henry Kissinger had his appendix removed in China.
3. A lot of doctors believed that acupuncture doesn't work.
4. Acupuncture does work for some medical problems.
5. Acupuncture is only used to treat people who are ill.
6. Tony Blair uses acupuncture to relieve stress.
7. The Queen of England uses alternative medicine.

11. Rearrange the letters in italics to complete the sentences.


1. In recent years, acupuncture has become more widely _________ by all of
America as a way to treat sports injuries as well as more serious health concerns.
heeaisdblst
2. The U.S. Army has started using ____________ to help care for wounded combat
vets in Afghanistan and Iraq. ccreupatuun
3. There are currently 16,000 _____________ in the U.S. ristscunptuacu

64
4. Energy flows through the body in a system of 12 ___________, or lines that connect
acupuncture points, and all 12 vital organs. anismdier
5. Acupuncturists _________ needles into specific acupuncture points. ensrti
6. A lot of doctors are _______ about acupuncture. epcaltisk

12. Listen to the girl telling about her experience with acupuncture. Correct the statements
below.
1. Today people trust alternative medicine less than before.
2. The girl had problems with sleeping for a few weeks.
3. It was her brother’s idea to visit an acupuncturist.
4. When she was in college, she was scared of needles.
5. During her visit the acupuncturist took her temperature and blood pressure.
6. The practitioner inserted a needle in the girl’s left arm.

13. Listen to the story again and complete the summary with the words from the box.

exhausted inserted an appointment side effects reluctant insomnia worn-out


miracle

Nowadays alternative medicine is getting more and more popular due to the fact that
people are becoming increasingly worried about the (1) _________ of drugs.
Three or four years ago I was suffering from (2) ________ and was mentally and
physically (3) _________. A visit to my GP didn’t help a lot. Then my friend recommended
me to visit an acupuncturist. First I was (4) ________ to follow his advice, but then I
decided to try.
Soon I made (5) ________ with the acupuncturist in the local alternative health centre.
The examination was rather short: just taking my pulse, looking at my tongue, and asking
a few questions about my diet and lifestyle. The acupuncturist diagnosed that I was (6)
___________.
Then he (7) __________ a needle in my right foot and a (8) _________ happened: I
fell asleep immediately!

14. Fill in the gaps with the correct particles or prepositions.


1. Today more and more people are turning ____ alternative medical treatments.
2. I turned up ___ the acupuncturist's office after another sleepless night. 3. I had been
suffering ____ insomnia for months. 4. Acupuncture is based ___ the idea that energy
flows through the human body. 5. He took my pulse and looked ____ my tongue.
6. He then inserted a needle ___ my right foot. 7. Many of the royal family rely ____ homeopathy
to keep them healthy. 8. My friend Sam was studying acupuncture ___ a college at the time.

65
15. Make a short presentation on acupuncture following the chart below.

What can
What is The history of
acupuncture be Its risks
acupuncture? acupuncture
used to treat?

TRANSLATION Shiatsu
16. Translate the passage from Russian into English.
Шиацу терапия была разработана японцем Токудзиро Намикоси (1905–2000 гг.)
в начале ХХ-го века.
Свою уникальную технику он начал разрабатывать с раннего детства. В 7 лет
Токудзиро пытался облегчить дискомфорт своей матери, которая страдала от
ревматоидного артрита. Мальчик заметил, что после надавливаний большим
пальцем ей становилось лучше. В итоге боли матери исчезли, и она дожила до
88 лет.
Намикоси назвал свою методику «шиацу», что переводе с японского обо-
значает «давление пальцами». То есть во время сеанса шиацу-терапевт нада-
вливает пальцами или ладонью на определенные точки на теле для того, чтобы
разбудить внутренние силы организма и направить их действие в нужном на-
правлении. Токудзиро Намикоси считает, что данная терапия помогает вос-
становить трудоспособность служащих, которые весь день вынуждены сидеть
на одном месте. Кроме того, он уверен, что шиацу предотвращает от простуд,
желудочно-кишечных заболеваний и мозговых кровоизлияний.
В 1919 году доктор Намикоси опубликовал книгу «Метод шиацу» где изложил
все основные принципы и техники применения данного массажа. Через шесть лет
(1925 г.) он открыл первую специализированную клинику Шиацу, а в 1940-м году —
учебное заведение, которое специализируется на подготовке специалистов по
шиацу-терапии. В 1964 году Министерство здравоохранения Японии официаль-
но включило шиацу в перечень медицинских дисциплин как самостоятельную
лечебную терапевтическую методику.
Своей популярностью на Западе метод шиацу во много обязан… Мэрилин
Монро! В 1956 году во время визита в Японию известная американская актриса
серьезно заболела. Медикаментозное лечение не помогло, и тогда она пригла-
сила доктора Намикоси. После нескольких сеансов шиацу актрисе стало значи-
тельно лучше. И хотя к тому времени этот метод уже был достаточно известным,
но после выздоровления Мэрилин в США начался настоящий шиацу-бум.

66
GRAMMAR Giving reasons
We can give reasons for things in a number of ways.
● for + noun
Doctors recommend acupuncture for pain relief.
● for + ing
Recent research has found shiatsu to be effective for relieving lower back pain.
to + infinitive
An acupuncturist inserts very fine needles into the body to remove the blockage of the
energy flow.
●… so that …
During a crystal therapy session an array of beautiful crystals will be placed on and around
your body so that the balance between you mind, body and spirit can be restored.
●… because …
Many people choose shiatsu because they enjoy it and it helps them to stay well.
●… so …
Aromatherapy involves a holistic approach, so it aims to treat the whole person.
● That’s why …
I have cut down on sugar — that’s why I have lost some weight.

17. Match the beginnings and the endings of the sentences.


1. Jogging is a very cheap way of keeping fit, a) not for competitions.
b) so that your arms are at 90-degree
2. People go jogging for exercise,
angles.
3. It was rather hard for me to start jogging c) because all you need is a good pair of
on my own - running shoes.
4. Jogging is good for d) to improve your health and fitness.
5. Keep your elbows bent while jogging e) strengthening your heart and lungs.
6. Regular running and jogging is a good f) that’s why I joined a local jogging
way group.
7. There is a number of reasons to avoid g) so consult your doctor before you
jogging, start this activity.

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18. Complete the passage using for (2), to, so that, because, so, and That’s why.

SOME INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT LEECHES


Leeches are a type of earthworm, and their use in medicine dates back 2,500 years ago.
Leeches were popular during medieval times (1) ____ they were known to cure infections,
and remained a great option (2) ____ treating infections until antibiotics were discovered.
In Europe surgeons widely used leeches (3) ____ remove blood during operations until
the 19th century.
Nowadays leeches are used (4) _____ microsurgery, grafting and constructive sur-
gery. Doctors apply leeches medicinally, (5) __________ they suck blood from the pa-
tient. Besides, they release the proteins and peptides that thin blood and prevent clotting,
(6) ______ this improves circulation and prevents tissue death.
Leeches also have anti-inflammatory, bacteriostatic and anesthetic effects —
(7) ____________ they can be used to treat a variety of diseases and conditions, such as
eczema, psoriasis and others.

19. Translate the passage from Russian into English.


1. Гирудотерапия используется для лечения экземы, угревой сыпи, бородавок и
других кожных заболеваний. 2. Мне нравиться йога, потому что она помогает мне
восстановить душевное равновесие и расслабиться. 3. Сегодня метод иглоукалыва-
ния используется для похудения. 4. Гирудотерапию нужно использовать строго по
определенным показаниям, с учетом возможных ограничений и побочных эффек-
тов, поэтому ее могут проводить только врачи и только в лечебном учреждении.
5. Ароматерапия рекомендуется для снятия стресса. 6. Я занимаюсь йогой по утрам
для того, чтобы быть бодрым и работоспособным в течение дня.

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UNIT 15. VIDEO TASK

HOMEOPATHY
Before you watch

1. Work in pairs. Answer the questions.

1. Do you know what homeopathy is? What are its main principles?
2. What are homeopathic remedies made of?
3. What does science say about this type of alternative medicine?
4. Is homeopathy popular in your country?

2. Here are the three main homeopathy principles. Match them with their descriptions.
A. The chosen substance is repeatedly diluted in alcohol or
distilled water until very little or none of the original substance
1. “Like cures like”
is left. Homeopaths believe that it makes the original substance
more powerful and potent.
B. It describes the method of vigorous shaking the substance
each time it is diluted. Homeopaths believe that this helps
2. Dilution
the water to retain the memory or vibrations of the original
substance during the dilution process.
C. It is based on the idea that the substance taken in small doses
3. Succussion will cure the same symptoms it causes if it were taken in larger
amounts.

While you watch

3. Watch the video (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ZvgeuD6nFs) and check your


answers in Ex. 1 and 2.

4. Watch the video again. Answer the questions.


1. Who created homeopathy? When and where was it invented?
2. What example does the speaker provide to support the first principle of homeopathy?
3. Is there a scientific evidence to support the first principle?

69
4. What is a typical homeopathic dilution? What does it mean? What is it equivalent to?
5. Why is the third principle so problematic?
6. Why is homeopathy so popular today? What are the main reasons?
7. What does the science say about homeopathy?
8. After you watch

5. Make a short presentation on acupuncture following the chart below.

The history of What do scientists


Its main principles
homeopathy think about it?

6. Divide the class into 2 groups. Group A is the alternative medicine therapists. Group B
is the patients. The therapists choose one of the adverts on page 74 (Appendix) and prepare to
answer the patients’ questions. The patients choose one of the cards on page 75 (Appendix) and
make a list of questions to the therapist.
Then work in pairs, one therapist with one patient. Sit on chairs that are placed back to
back. Instead of a face-to-face consultation with the therapist, this time the patients are
telephoning the therapist for advice. Patients should gather all the information they need
in order to decide whether or not they think the therapy will help them.
The therapists don’t have many clients at the moment. They really need to get more
clients in order to keep their businesses going, so when potential clients contact them they
will need to really try and convince them to try their therapies.

7. Write an essay of at least 250 words on the following task:

Currently there is a trend towards the use of alternative forms of medicine. However, at
best these methods are ineffective, and at worst they may be dangerous.
To what extent do you agree with this statement?
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experi-
ence or knowledge.

GLOSSARY
dilution — разбавление
succussion — встряхивание
potency — активность
vigorous shaking — интенсивное встряхивание
retain the memory — сохранять в памяти

70
UNIT 15. WORDLIST

Study the list of useful words from Unit 15. Insert your translation after reading the
corresponding sentences.
adj = djective conj = onjunction phr v = phrasalverb phr = phrase
adv = adverb n = noun pl = plural prep = reposition
pron = ronoun v = verb

Alternative medicine is not scientifically


alternative medicine (phr)
proven.
One of the basic tenets of acupuncture is,
blockage (n)
“Where there is blockage, there is pain.”
chakra (n) A chakra is a center of energy.
Blood clotting, or coagulation, is an
clotting (n) important process that prevents excessive
bleeding when a blood vessel is injured.
conventional medicine Conventional medicine is taught in medical
(phr) schools.
Acupuncture has been used in Asia for
deaden (v)
centuries to treat many conditions and
deaden pain.
Dilution is the process of decreasing the
dilution (n)
concentration of a solute in solution.
Eczema is the name for a group of conditions
eczema (n) that cause the skin to become red, rashy,
itchy and inflamed.
Chinese medicine has a long and established
established history of improving fertility, going back
more than 700 years.
Music therapy uses music to facilitate
facilitate (v)
healing.
Leeches help in skin grafting by removing the
grafting (n) pooled blood under the graft and restoring
blood supply in the blocked veins.
healing (n) Acupuncture promotes natural healing.
Herbal medicine is the oldest and still the
herbal medicine (phr) most widely used system of medicine in the
world today.
Leeches are used in microsurgery, grafting,
leeches (pl)
and reconstructive surgery.
Magnet therapy is an alternative medicine
magnet therapy (phr) practice involving the use of static magnetic
fields.

71
Acupuncturists believe that energy flows
meridian (n) through the human body along 12 lines or
meridians.
I think that acupuncture is a miracle because
miracle (n) it helped me with my unbearable pain that
lasted for years.
Crystal healing is an alternative medicine
practice that uses crystals and gemstones
property (n)
for a wide variety of healing and therapeutic
properties.
A reluctant patient is a patient who is
reluctant (adj)
unwilling to follow the treatment.
First, I am going to restore your energy
restore (v)
balance.
First, I was rather sceptical about
sceptical (adj)
acupuncture.
A solution is a liquid in which a medication is
solution (n)
dissolved.
Some essential oils can stimulate your brain
stimulate (v)
activity.
Succussion is the vigorous shaking of a
succussion (n) diluted homeopathic preparation in order to
activate the medicinal substance
worn-out (adj) She felt worn-out and exhausted.

72
APPENDIX

1. Unit 15. Alternative medicine. Ex. 6, p. 71.


Therapy adverts
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Centre
Aches and pains? Discover the healing
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Headaches? Back pain? of natural plant oils. emotional or spiritual
Arthritis? problems with colour therapy.
Try acupuncture and Colour energy is a fantastic
you will immediately A relaxing aromatherapy healer and encourages
feel the benefits. massage is just what you normal and healthy
Acupuncture need to relieve the stress workings of the body. Most
balances the body’s and people don’t
natural energy. aches and pains of a busy appreciate the importance
To book a free trial week at work. of colour in their lives
appointment phone For more information look until they discover Colour
02076412973 or e-mail at our website: Therapy.
freetrial@acupuncture. www.aromatherapyforlife. So, book a consultation
co.uk com or phone Rose on with one of our qualified
02028 therapists by calling Isabel
7769654 for a free trial on 0208 9765432 or have a
session. look at our website for more
information:
www.rainbowcolour.co.uk

Hypnotherapy Centre Happy Feet Reflexology The London Tai-Chi Centre


Centre
• Overcome a phobia, Discover the ancient Practising the martial art of
fear or addiction. Chinese art of foot Tai-Chi will help you to
• Reduce stress and massage to really relax your mind and body.
anxiety. connect with your body.
• Lose weight or cure
sleep disorders.

We can help you to cure It will relieve stress, improve


For more information back pain, migraines, your co-ordination and
e-mail: infertility, sleep disorders, posture. After just two
jwarren@ digestive problems and sessions you will become
hypnotherapy.com all stress-related revitalized, more tolerant,
Or phone: 0208 conditions. more self-confident,
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our website: For a free trial class
www.happyfeet.co.uk call Barry Yeung on
Or phone 0207 2247853 02088769894 or e-mail:
taichicentre@taichi.com

73
Patients’ cards
A — You’ve been suffering from insomnia for months. You regularly spend three or
four hours awake every night. You’re exhausted and your work is beginning to suffer.
B — You are recovering from a sports accident and you’ve had your leg in plaster for a
month. You’ve put on weight and you feel like you need to get back in shape. Your leg
isn’t as strong as it used to be.
C — You really want to give up smoking. You’ve tried several times but haven’t
managed to kick the habit.
D — You are really stressed out. You’re working fourteen-hour days and you just don’t
have time to see your friends or relax. You have a pain in your wrist that you believe
is caused by working all day on the computer. You have also recently started getting
headaches and backache.
E — You have been on a diet for a year but don’t seem to be able to lose much weight.
You really want to reach your ideal weight before the summer as you’re getting married
and want to look really good on your wedding day.
F — You have just moved to a new house in a new area and are feeling quite depressed.
Following the move you have terrible backache from moving boxes. You work from
home and your new house needs to be completely redecorated.

2. Unit 14. Medication. Ex. 23, p. 55.

Student B
Ask Student A questions to complete this information about patients’ medication.
Patient Name of Type of medi- Quantity Route of Frequency
medication cation administration
1
2
3 Benzyl antibiotic 600,000 IM every 6
Penicillin units hours
4 Pilocarpine miotic 1 drop ophthalmic once a day

74
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