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БАКАЛАВР.

АКАДЕМИЧЕСКИЙ КУРС

Л.С. Чикилева, Е.В. Ливская

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
В УПРАВЛЕНИИ ПЕРСОНАЛОМ

ENGLISH
FOR HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGERS

УЧЕБНИК И ПРАКТИКУМ
Л.С. Чикилева, Е.В. Ливская

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
В УПРАВЛЕНИИ ПЕРСОНАЛОМ

ENGLISH
FOR HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGERS

УЧЕБНИК И ПРАКТИКУМ ДЛЯ АКАДЕМИЧЕСКОГО


БАКАЛАВРИАТА

Москва 2017
УДК 811.111-26 (075.8)
ББК 81.2 Англ.яз 923
Ч60

Авторы:

Чикилева Людмила Сергеевна – доктор филологических наук, доцент,


профессор Департамента языковой подготовки Финансового университета при
Правительстве Российской Федерации, Москва
Ливская Евгения Валентиновна – кандидат филологических наук, доцент
кафедры «Иностранные языки» Финансового университета при Правительстве
Российской Федерации, Калужский филиал

Рецензенты:
Никулина Е.А. - доктор филологических наук, профессор, заведующая кафедрой
фонетики и лексики английского языка Московского педагогического
государственного университета;
Левина Т.В. - доктор филологических наук, профессор кафедры философии,
истории, права и межкультурной коммуникации Владимирского филиала Финансового
университета при Правительстве Российской Федерации.

Чикилева, Л.С., Ливская, Е.В. Английский язык в управлении персоналом. English for
Human Resource Managers: учебник и практикум для академического бакалавриата /
Л.С. Чикилева, Е.В. Ливская. – М., Издательство Юрайт, 2017. – 150 с. (Серия:
Бакалавр. Академический курс)

Учебник содержит аутентичные тексты, взятые из средств массовой информации.


Представленные в текстах сведения (прохождение и проведение собеседований, ведение
переговоров и деловой переписки, выступление с презентациями и докладами и т. д.) будут
полезны для профессиональной подготовки студентов.
Учебник может применяться на практических занятиях и в самостоятельной работе, в
том числе в рамках курса иностранного языка в профессиональной сфере. Материалы этой
книги способствуют формированию у учащихся общекультурных и профессиональных
компетенций.
Соответствует актуальным требованиям Федерального государственного
образовательного стандарта высшего образования.
Учебник предназначен для студентов академического бакалавриата, изучающих
менеджмент по направлению подготовки «Управление персоналом», для специалистов по
работе с кадрами, а также для всех, кто стремится повысить свой уровень владения английским
языком с целью профессионального роста.

УДК 811.111-26 (075.8)


ББК 81.2 Англ.яз 923
Оглавление
Предисловие

Part 1
Unit 1. Globalization and Competition Trends in HR Management

Unit 2. The Effectiveness of Recruiting

Unit 3. Recruiting Diverse Workforce

Unit 4. Employee Selection

Unit 5. Interviewing Candidates

Unit 6. Motivation and Incentives

Unit 7. Business Letters

Unit 8. Equal Opportunity and the Law

Unit 9. Discriminatory Employment Practices

Unit 10. Sexual Harassment in the Workplace

Unit 11. Ethics and Employee Rights

Unit 12. Managing Dismissals

Unit 13. Employee Safety and Health

Unit 14. Workplace Health Risks: Problems and Solutions

Unit 15. Insurance Benefits

Part 2
Reader
Glossary
Bibliography
Web Sources
References
Keys
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Данный учебник предназначен для студентов бакалавриата


управленческих специальностей (менеджмент, управление персоналом) с
уровнем владения английским языком B1 и выше по шкале CEFR, или 5,0
и выше по шкале IELTS. Учебник может быть использован на
практических занятиях по английскому языку, в том числе — в рамках
курса иностранного языка в профессиональной сфере. Кроме того,
материалы книги вносят вклад в формирование общекультурных и
профессиональных компетенций учащихся. Работа с учебником основана
на принципах личностно-ориентированного подхода.
Учебник состоит из 15 разделов (Units) и сборника лексических и
лексико-грамматических тестов (Tests), а также сборника текстов для
дополнительного чтения (Reader); имеет глоссариий (Glossary), список
использованной литературы (Bibliography), список интернет-источников
(Web Sources) и ключи к заданиям (Keys). Первая часть учебника
включает 15 разделов (юнитов), которые составлены на материале
аутентичных текстов и содержат профессиональную лексику. Тексты
учебника посвящены таким вопросам, как трудоустройство, роль
финансового поощрения сотрудников, профессиональная этика,
привлечение на работу представителей национальных меньшинств,
разрешение конфликтов различных уровней, соблюдение безопасности на
рабочем месте и т.п. Разделы учебника имеют следующую структуру:
подготовительные упражнения (Warm-up Аctivities), лексико-
грамматические задания (Vocabulary), задания на чтение и понимание
(Reading, Comprehension), обсуждение (Discussion), задания для
самостоятельной работы или работы в группах (Individual Activity и Group
Activity) и задания на аудирование (Listening).
Каждый юнит открывается цитатой, связанной с его основной
темой. Занятие начинается с группового обсуждения приведенной 5
цитаты и выполнения подготовительных упражнений (Warm-Up Activities),
цель которых — ознакомление учащихся с темой урока. Выполнение этих
упражнений является своего рода разминкой, создающей нужную
семантическую обстановку на занятии. Далее студентам предлагается
ответить на вопросы, связанные с основной темой урока. В разделе
Vocabulary дается перевод лексических единиц, которые встречаются в
тексте юнита. В этом разделе представлены как лексика для активного
пользования, отобранная по принципу частотности употребления
лексических единиц и их тематической значимости, так и лексические
единицы пассивного словаря, предназначенные для однократного
применения. В учебнике предусмотрена повторяемость новых лексических
единиц в рамках уроков. Эпизодическое включение в тексты незнакомых
слов направлено на развитие языковой догадки и умения понять смысл
высказывания в целом.
Раздел Reading содержит аутентичные тексты, представляющие
профессиональный интерес для специалистов в области менеджмента и
управления персоналом. Тексты взяты из англо-американских средств
массовой информации и отражают ключевые моменты современной
общественно-экономической жизни. Содержащиеся в текстах сведения
(например, рекомендации по прохождению и проведению собеседований,
ведению переговоров и деловой переписки, выступлению с презентацией
или речью и т.д.) будут полезны учащимся в дальнейшей
профессиональной деятельности. Кроме приобретения переводческих
навыков, в процессе работы с текстами студенты развивают такие
коммуникативные и аналитические навыки и умения, как умение
рассуждать на профессиональные темы на английском языке, излагать и
аргументировать собственную точку зрения, реферировать тексты
профессиональной направленности. В раздел Reading входят упражнения
следующих типов:
— проверяющие понимание основного содержания текста (тип
задания — установление соответствия между текстом и заголовком);
— оценивающие понимание структурно-смысловых связей текста
(тип задания - установление соответствий: заполнение пропусков в тексте
предлагаемыми после текста предложениями; заполнение пропусков в
предложении предлагаемыми словами и словосочетаниями);
— оценивающие умение полностью или детально понять смысл
текста (тип задания — выбор ответа из представленных вариантов).
Далее следуют разделы Discussion и Individual Activity и (или) Group
Activity. Упражнения, содержащиеся в этих разделах, направлены на
развитие навыков неподготовленной ситуативно-обусловленной речи.
Последний раздел урока, Listening, включает задания на развитие и
совершенствование навыков аудирования. Ядром данного раздела является
аутентичный звучащий текст. Прослушивание происходит с
предварительной коммуникативной установкой на полное детальное
понимание (listening for detailed comprehension). Уровень
сформированности данного умения проверяется с помощью заданий
тестового типа, где учащиеся должны выбрать правильный вариант ответа
из трех предложенных. После выполнения заданий проводится их
автоматическая проверка, предоставляется возможность узнать результаты
теста и посмотреть правильные ответы.
Аудиоматериалы представлены как ситуациями повседневного
общения, связанными с учебой и бытом студентов, так и ситуациями,
связанными с их будущей профессиональной деятельностью. Очевидно,
что использование таких ситуаций способствует повышению
заинтересованности студентов.
В сборник текстов Reader, открывающий вторую часть учебника,
вошли 20 текстов для дополнительного чтения, которые представляют
профессиональный интерес для учащихся; их можно предложить
студентам для самостоятельной работы. После каждого текста даются
вопросы на проверку понимания прочитанного.
В глоссарии собрана лексика из всех разделов учебника. Наличие
глоссария облегчает самостоятельную работу студентов.
Все использованные материалы и рекомендуемые для
самостоятельной работы источники приведены в списке литературы и
списке веб-сайтов.
В конце учебника даны ключи к заданиям для самопроверки.
По освоении материала данного учебника учащиеся будут:
знать
• английский язык в объеме, необходимом для получения
профессиональной информации из зарубежных источников и для делового
общения, а также межличностного общения в профессиональной
деятельности;
• общую, деловую и профессиональную лексику английского языка в
объеме, необходимом для общения, чтения и перевода (со словарем);
• основные грамматические явления и структуры английского языка,
используемые в устном и письменном общении;
• межкультурные различия, культурные традиции и реалии,
культурное наследие своей страны и стран изучаемого языка;
• основные нормы социального поведения и речевой этикет,
принятый в странах изучаемого языка;
Уметь
• использовать английский язык в межличностном общении и
профессиональной деятельности;
• адекватно выражать свои мысли и понимать речь собеседника на
иностранном языке;
• сообщать информацию на основе прочитанного текста в формате
подготовленного монологического высказывания;
• соблюдать речевой этикет в ситуациях повседневного и делового
общения (уметь устанавливать и поддерживать контакты, завершать
беседу, запрашивать и сообщать информацию); владеть перечисленными
ниже навыками и умениями в основных видах речевой деятельности:
• Говорение и аудирование
Студенты должны владеть следующими умениями:
— понимать звучащие аутентичные тексты и выполнять задания,
связанные с проверкой понимания на слух;
— использовать формы речевого этикета.
Содержание обучения монологической речи состоит в овладении
разными видами монолога, включая высказывания по поводу 8
прочитанного. Для этого предусматривается развитие следующих умений:
— делать сообщения, содержащие наиболее важную информацию
по теме/проблеме;
— кратко передавать основное содержание/основную мысль
прочитанного или услышанного.
• Чтение
В результате обучения у студентов должно сформироваться умение
читать со словарем и без словаря тексты по специальности. При обучении
поисковому чтению с выборочным извлечением информации развивается
способность быстро находить нужную информацию, опуская
несущественные детали. Основные умения при данном виде чтения
следующие:
— определять тему, выделять основную мысль; — выбирать из
текста основные факты, опуская второстепенные;
— прогнозировать содержание текста по заголовку, началу текста;
— догадываться о значении ключевых слов и обходить незнакомые
слова, которые не препятствуют пониманию основного содержания.
• Письмо Письмо как продуктивное умение включает следующие
частные умения:
— уметь написать текст в соответствии с поставленной задачей;
— соответствовать заданию с точки зрения структуры и объема
текста. Материалы, представленные в данном учебнике, призваны
развить творческое мышление и критический подход к изучаемым
явлениям, научить извлекать из текстов необходимую информацию,
самостоятельно делать обобщения и выводы из положений, содержащихся
в тексте.
Интегрированным результатом работы с учебником является
формирование и развитие базовых компетенций (языковой, речевой,
компенсаторной, познавательной, социокультурной,
лингвокультурологической, предметной, информационной и
самообразовательной), составляющих иноязычную профессиональную
компетентность. Работа с учебником также ориентирована на
формирование общекультурных и профессиональных компетенций (ОК и
ПК). По освоении материала данного учебника учащийся должен обладать
следующими компетенциями:
• общекультурными:
— владеть культурой мышления, быть способным к обобщению,
анализу, восприятию информации, постановке цели и выбору путей ее
достижения;
— логически верно строить устную и письменную речь;
— использовать навыки публичной речи, ведения дискуссии и
полемики; • общепрофессиональными:
— владеть английским языком на уровне, достаточном для
профессионального общения;
— быть способными к подготовке и редактированию текстов
профессионального и социально-значимого содержания;
• специальными:
— владеть навыками восприятия, понимания, а также
многоаспектного анализа устной и письменной речи на английском языке;
— уметь использовать языковые средства для достижения
коммуникативных целей в конкретной ситуации общения на английском
языке;
— уметь выстраивать стратегию устного и письменного общения на
английском языке в соответствии с социокультурными особенностями
этого языка.
Авторы выражают глубокую признательность рецензентам:
заведующей кафедрой фонетики и лексики английского языка МПГУ
доктору филологических наук профессору Е. А. Никулиной, а также
профессору кафедры философии, истории, права и межкультурной
коммуникации Владимирского филиала Финансового университета при
Правительстве Российской Федерации доктору филологических наук
профессору Т. В. Левиной за полезные замечания и высокую оценку.
Хочется выразить глубокую признательность руководителю Департамента
языковой подготовки Финансового университета при Правительстве
Российской Федерации кандидату филологических наук профессору И. И.
Климовой и доктору экономических наук профессору Департамента
языковой подготовки Финансового университета при Правительстве
Российской Федерации М. В. Мельничук за профессиональную и
моральную поддержку. Авторы выражают искреннюю благодарность
кандидату экономических наук директору Калужского филиала
Финансового университета при Правительстве РФ Т.Э. Пироговой и
кандидату педагогических наук заведующему кафедрой «Иностранные
языки» Калужского филиала Финансового университета при
Правительстве РФ Е.В. Клименко, а также коллегам за интерес к этому
учебному пособию и желание его использовать в учебном процессе.
Выражаем искреннюю признательность и благодарность своим
родным и близким за постоянную заботу, внимание и понимание,
стремление вдохновить и поддержать авторов в процессе работы, что
позволило довести до завершения создание данного ученого пособия.
Надеемся, что данное пособие будет полезно всем, кто изучает
английский язык для профессиональных целей и интересуется вопросами
менеджмента, управления персоналом, эффективной организацией труда.
Part 1
Unit 1. Globalization and Competition Trends
in Human Resource Management

“Your work is going to fill a large part of your life,


and the only way to be truly satisfied is to do
what you believe is great work.
And the only way to do great work is to love what you do. “
Steve Jobs

Warm-up Activities

1. Discuss the following with your partner:

The shortest correspondence in history is said to have been between Hugo and
his publisher Hurst and Blackett in 1862. Hugo was vacationing when the novel
was released and he wanted to know the reaction his work had got. He sent a
single character to his publisher “?” and they sent a single character response
back, “!” 

Answer the questions in teams of two:

What does business writing really mean for you and your company?

Is it necessary to develop and improve your writing skills?

There are no body language signals in writing. How do you engage interest and
involve people in what you want them to do?

Vocabulary

Organization – организация, устройство, объединение, структура

manager – менеджер, управляющий, руководитель, директор

Human Resource Management (HRM) – управление персоналом

authority - власть, полномочие, орган власти, авторитет, закон

globalization – глобализация, всемирное распространение

human capital - человеческий капитал


employee – работник, сотрудник, служащий

employer - работодатель, наниматель

workforce – рабочая сила

competition – зд. конкуренция

productivity – производительность, продуктивность, выработка

costs - затраты

2. Match the words with their definitions:


1. tendency to become larger in size and fill more space

2. free trade a system of international trade in which companies do not


have to pay high taxes on the goods bought from or sold in
3. prospect other countries

4. labour costs to suggest that someone does something that you believe
would be good
5. agreement
to continue for a particular distance or in a particular
6. tariff direction
7. to encourage a strong chance that something will happen in a particular
way
8. to extend
the sum of all wages paid to employees, as well as the cost of
9. to expand employee benefits paid by an employer
10. apparel a tax that a government charges on goods that enter or leave
their country

something that you expect or know is going to happen in the


future

a word for the clothes, used especially in stores or other


businesses

an arrangement or decision about what to do, made by two or


more people, groups, organizations
Text: Globalization and Competition Trends in Human Resource
Management

1. A changing environment today is influencing what human


resource managers do and how they do it. Globalization refers to the tendency
of firms to extend their sales, ownership, and manufacturing to new markets
abroad. Examples surround us. Toyota produces the Camry in Kentucky, while
Dell produces PCs in China. Free trade areas agreements that reduce tariffs and
barriers among trading partners then encourage international trade. NAFTA (the
North American Free Trade Agreement) and the EU (European Union) are
examples.

2. Companies expand abroad for several reasons. Sales expansion is one of


them. Walmart is opening new stores in South America. Dell, knowing that
China will soon be the world’s biggest market for PCs, is aggressively selling
there.

3. Firms go abroad for other reasons as well. Some manufacturers seek new
foreign products and services to sell, and to cut labour costs. Thus, some apparel
manufacturers design and cut fabrics in Miami, and then assemble the actual
products in Central America, where labour costs are relatively low.

4. For business people, or employers, globalization means more competition,


and more competition means more pressure to be world-class: to lower costs, to
make employees more productive and to do things better and less expensively.
Both workers and companies have to work harder and smarter than they did
without globalization.

5. Globalization therefore brings both benefits and threats. For consumers it


means lower prices and higher quality on products from computers to cars but
for labour force it means the prospect of working harder and perhaps less secure
jobs. Technology has also had a huge impact on how people work and therefore
on the skills and training today’s workers need.

3. Decide whether the following statements are true, false or information is


not available in the text:

3.1. Globalization means more competition, and more competition means less
pressure to make the staff more productive and quality conscious.

3.2. Technology requires more employees to be technologically well informed


and apply new technological tools.

3.3. Labour force and demographic changes mean that the labor force is
becoming older and more diverse.
3.4. Today’s changing world has a great impact on what human resource
managers do and how they do it.

3.5. While globalization brings benefits to consumers, for business people and
employees it brings challenges.

3.6. ‘Human capital’ is built on a base of education, training, skills and the
knowledge of the staff.

3.7. While globalization brings benefits to consumers, business people and firms
have a tendency to reduce their sales and manufacturing to new markets.

4. The following sentence can be added to the text:

For business owners globalization means potentially millions of new consumers


but also the threat of facing new and powerful global competitors.

Where would it fit best in the text?

5. Which of the following statements best expresses the main idea of the
text?

(A) Trends in HRM are examined in the paper.

(B) Globalization brings both benefits and threats.

(C) The text is about globalization, and its advantages for different types of
market participants.

(D) The analysis of the benefits of globalization shows that the companies have
a tendency to extend their sales to new markets abroad.

6. Complete each sentence with the following words:

refers, cut, threats, among, agreements, extend, both, without, seek

6.1. Globalization … to the tendency of firms to … their sales, ownership,


and/or manufacturing to new markets abroad.

6.2. Some manufacturers … new foreign products and services to sell, and to …


labor costs.

6.3. Free trade areas … that reduce tariffs and barriers … trading partners then
encourage international trade

6.4. … workers and companies have to work harder and smarter than they did …
globalization.
6.5. Globalization therefore brings both benefits and … .

7. Discuss the following questions with your partner:

Explain what globalization trend in HR management is. How does it affect


business writing?

What are benefits and threats of globalization for consumers and labour force?

Use the following phrases:


Generally…
To my mind…
In my opinion…
The main problem is…

8. Individual Activities

Access several business publications such as Bloomberg Business Week and


The Wall Street Journal via the Web and bring them to class. Based on their
contents, compile a list titled ‘What Do HR Managers and Departments Do
Today?’

Based on your personal experience, list 3-5 examples showing how you used (or
could use) HR management techniques at work or university.

Group Activities

Comment on the following statements relating to business writing. Prove


your point of view if opposed.

Writing English for business differs from writing you were taught at school.
Apart from getting your punctuation and grammar right, the similarities often
end there.

As you start your career, you need to understand how to get the basics right.
You need to understand how to write correctly, how spelling, punctuation and
grammar matter. You will not get to the next phase in your career without
getting the basics right.

Good business English writing will generate ideas that capture readers’ attention
and take your career forward. Powerful writing can sell your proposals so well –
weak writing can do the opposite.

English business writing needs at the height of your career: mastery of written
word power required for leadership, to be a good manager.
Read the following tips for effective business writing. Rank the tips below.
Discuss them with your partner. Explain why you think some of them are
on the top of the list.

Recognizing writing as a fundamental skill is vital for you as an individual and


for your business. 

Develop and improve your writing at every opportunity throughout your career. 

Remember that English business writing in its many forms is your most
common route to market. Be the best. 

Listening

9. Listen to the text A University Degree using the link: http://esl-


lab.com/universitydegree/universitydegreerd1.htm

Choose the right answer:

1. What will happen if the woman doesn't pay her tuition by the due date?
A. She' ll have to pay a significant late fee.
B. She'll be required to register again for school.
C. She'll need to wait a semester to take classes.

2. What is the woman planning to take with her to school from home?
A. some food
B. warm clothing
C. her game system

Based on her major, where will she most likely work?


A. at a bank
B. for a school
C. in a national park

The father suggests a specific major based on the possibility of


A. earning a decent living
B. traveling to different countries 
C. moving up in the company

5. The man is surprised by the fact that his daughter


A. already has a part-time job at school
B. has earned a scholarship for the first year
C. is involved in a serious relationship

Unit 2. The Effectiveness of Recruiting


“Whenever it is possible, a boy should choose some William Lyon
occupation Phelps
which he should do even if he did not need the money”

Warm-up Activities

1. Discuss the following with your partner:

What do you know about recruiting practices? Does it make sense to use your
current employees to fill open positions?

Vocabulary

to recruit – вербовать, нанимать, комплектовать

recruiting – рекрутинг, набор, вербовка, подбор

an applicant – претендент, кандидат

to emphasize – придавать особое значение, подчеркивать

to overemphasize – преувеличивать, переоценивать

to screen out – отсеивать

unemployment – безработица
internal – внутренний

strength – сила, сильная сторона

weakness – слабость, слабое место, недостаток

discontented – недовольный, неудовлетворенный

crucial – решающий, ключевой, важнейший

booth – стенд, павильон

setup – устройство, система, организация

live – зд. прямой

to participate– участвовать

2. Match the words with their definitions:


1. classified ad loyal to a belief, organization, or a group, and willing to work
hard for it
2. backfire
a short advertisement that you put in a newspaper
3. to apply for
to treat someone in an unfair or cruel way
4. opening
to have the reverse of the desired or expected effect
5. committed to
to make an official request for a job or a place in a college or
6. job fair university

7. to reject a job that needs a person to do it

8. adverse to refuse to accept someone for a job or a course of study

9. to mistreat negative, unpleasant, or harmful

10. credit an event where employers offer information about their


companies to people who are looking for jobs

praise for something you have done or achieved


Text: The Need for Effective Recruiting

Employee recruiting means finding applicants for the employer’s open


positions. It’s hard to overemphasize the importance of effective recruiting.
If only two candidates apply for two openings, you may have little choice
but to hire them. If 10 or 20 applicants appear, you can use techniques like
interviews and tests to screen out all but the best. Even high unemployment
doesn’t necessarily mean that it is easy to find good candidates.

Recruiting typically brings to mind employment agencies and classified


ads, but internal sources such as current employees or ‘hiring from
within’  are often the best source of candidates.

Filling open positions with inside candidates has several advantages. There
is really no substitute for knowing a candidate’s strengths and weaknesses,
as you should after working with them for some time. Current employees
may also be more committed to the company. And inside candidates
should require less orientation and (perhaps) training than outsiders.

However, hiring from within can also have some disadvantages.


Employees who apply for jobs and don’t get them may become
discontented; telling them why you rejected them and what actions they
might take is crucial.

Should you rehire someone who left your employ? It depends. On the plus
side, former employees are already familiar with how you do things. On
the other hand, employees who you let go may return with negative
attitudes. In any event, you can reduce the chance of adverse reactions.
After employees have been back on the job for a while, credit them with
the years of service they had accumulated before they left. In addition,
inquire (before rehiring them) about what they did during the layoff and
how they feel about returning: ‘You don’t want someone coming back who
feels they’ve been mistreated’, said one manager.

Firms can’t always get all the employees they need from their current staff,
and sometimes they just don’t want to. We’ll look at the sources firms use
to find outside candidates next.

For most employers and for most jobs, Internet-based recruiting is by far
the recruiting source of choice. Most employers recruit through their own
websites, or use job boards.
Virtual (fully online) job fairs are another option. At a virtual job fair,
online visitors see a very similar setup to a regular job fair. They can listen
to presentations, visit booths, leave résumés and business cards, participate
in live chats, and get contact information from recruiters, HR managers,
and even hiring managers.

3. Decide whether the following statements are true, false or information is


not available in the text:

3.1. Filling the open position with inside candidates is always the best decision.

3.2. For most employers Internet-based recruiting is the most popular source of
choice.

3.3. It is definitely bad idea to rehire someone who left your company.

3.4. Web-based recruiting generates more responses quicker and for a longer
time at less cost.

3.5. Knowing your current candidates' strengths and weaknesses is one of


advantages of using internal sources of candidates.

3.6. Employment law prescribes what you can and cannot do when recruiting.

4. The following sentence can be added to the text:

The database may reveal persons who have potential for further training or
the right background for the open job.

Where would it fit best in the text?

5. Which of the following statements expresses the main idea of the text?

(A) The purpose of the text is to improve your effectiveness in recruiting


candidates.

(B) The text is about recruiting job candidates, about pros and cons of internal
and external sources of candidates.

(C) The purpose of the text is to show the effectiveness and popularity of


Internet-based recruiting.

(D) The text shows how a manager can improve the effectiveness of recruiting
candidates.
6. Complete each sentence with one of the following words:

leave, to, but, have been back, to screen out, open, ads, inside, to, credit

6.1. Filling … positions with … candidates has several advantages.

6.2. After employees … on the job for a while, … them with the years of
service they had accumulated before they left.

6.3. Recruiting typically brings … mind LinkedIn, employment agencies,


and classified …, but internal sources are often the best source of
candidates.

6.4. But if 10 or 20 applicants appear, you can use techniques like


interviews and tests to … … all … the best. 

6.5. They can listen to presentations, visit booths, … résumés and business


cards.

7. Discuss the following questions with your partner:

What are main sources of candidates?

What should employers keep in mind when using Internet sites to find job
candidates?

Use the following phrases:


To my mind…
In my opinion…
Speaking of …

8. Group activity

Bring to class several classified ads from the help wanted ads. Analyze the
effectiveness of these ads.

Listening

9. Listen to the text Career Search

using the link: http://esl-lab.com/careersearch/careersearchrd1.htm

Choose the right answer:


1. What kind of career does the woman want to pursue?
A. She wants to become a sales associate for an auto company.
B. She is interested in repairing and maintaining cars and other vehicles.
C. The woman wants to major in mechanical engineering. 

2. Right now, the woman's boyfriend is ___________________.


A. majoring in secondary education
B. pursuing a career in auto mechanics
C. getting a degree in a medical field

3. What does Ryan think about James' future career? 


A. He thinks that there is no money in that profession.
B. He believes that James isn't qualified for the job.
C. He feels that James is pursuing a job designed for women.

4. Ryan suggests that women are more suited for jobs in _____________.
A. education and office work 
B. farming and house cleaning
C. nursing and child care

At the end of the conversation, the man ends up ___________. 


A. making his own dinner
B. taking care of his own car
C. apologizing to James

Unit 3. Recruiting Diverse Workforce


“For many people a job is more than an income,
it's an important part of who we are.
So a career transition of any sort
is one of the most unsettling experiences you can face in your life“
Paul Clitheroe

Warm-up Activities

1. Discuss the following with your partner:

What possible problems can employer face when recruiting diverse workforce?

Vocabulary

to maintain – поддерживать, сохранять, удерживать

to face – сталкиваться, встретиться, испытать

survey – опрос, анкетирование

flextime – гибкий график, скользящий график

flexibility – гибкость, универсальность

window – зд. перерыв

impediment – препятствие, помеха, преграда

to institute – учреждать, устанавливать, вводить

minority – меньшинство

absenteeism – прогул, невыход на работу

rapid –  быстрый, стремительный

rate – темп, ритм, скорость, степень, процент

habit – привычка, склонность, навык

therefore – поэтому, следовательно

prescription– рецепт, предписание, рекомендация

schedule – расписание, график, распорядок


welfare – социальная программа, материальная помощь, пособие

the disabled - инвалид

impaired – поврежденный, ослабленный

2. Match the words with their definitions:


1. exhausted to help someone feel that they are part of a community or
culture
2. sick time
the number of days per year for which an employer agrees to
3. excused day off pay workers who are unable to work because they are sick

4. extensive the scheduled or unscheduled time off from work that occurs
when an employee is not present at work during a normally
5. to tend to scheduled work period
6. to assimilate all the people who work in a particular industry or country
7. reliable able to be trusted, likely to be true or correct
8. undergraduate very large in amount or degree
9. to shorten extremely tired and without energy to do anything else
10. labour force to become shorter, or to make something shorter

a student at a college or university who has not yet earned a


degree

to usually do a particular thing

Text: Recruiting Diverse Workforce

Recruiting a diverse workforce isn’t just socially responsible. Given the rapid
increase in minority, older worker and women candidates, it is a necessity. The
recruiting tools are certainly useful for minority and other applicants, too.
However, recruiting a more diverse workforce requires several special steps, to
which we now turn.
Single Parents. Being a single parent isn’t easy. Recruiting and keeping them
requires understanding the problems they face in balancing work and family life.
In one survey, many described falling into bed exhausted at midnight without
even minimal time for themselves. They often needed personal sick time or
excused days off to care for sick children. As one mother noted, ‘I don’t have
enough sick days to get sick.’

The first step in attracting and keeping single parents is to make the workplace
as user friendly for them as practical. Many firms have family friendly programs
but these may not be extensive enough for single parents. For example, flextime
programs provide employees some flexibility (such as 1-hour windows at the
beginning or end of the day) around which to build their work-days. Flexible
work schedules and child-care benefits are thus just two big single-parent
magnets.

Older Workers. When it comes to hiring older workers, employers don’t have


much choice. Over the next few years, the fastest-growing labor force segment
will be those from 45 to 64 years old. On the positive side, a survey concluded
that older workers tend to have lower absenteeism rates, more reliability, and
better work habits than younger workers. It therefore makes sense for employers
to encourage older workers to stay (or to come to work at the company). At one
company, workers over 65 can progressively shorten their work schedules.

Recruiting Minorities. The same prescriptions that apply to recruiting older


workers apply to recruiting minorities. In practice, this requires a three-part
effort: Understand the recruitment barriers, formulate the required recruitment
plans, and institute the specific day-to-day programs. First, understand the
barriers that prevent minorities from applying. For example, many minority
applicants don’t meet the educational or experience standards for the job, so
many companies offer training in basic arithmetic and writing.

After recognizing the potential impediments, you can turn to formulating plans
for attracting minorities and women. This may include, for instance, developing
flexible work options, redesigning jobs, and offering flexible benefits plans.

Finally, translate these personnel plans into recruitment programs. Specifically,


decide what the ads will say, and what recruiting sources you will use.

Welfare-to-Work. Some companies report difficulty in hiring and assimilating


people previously on welfare. Applicants sometimes lack basic work skills, such
as reporting for work on time, working in teams, and taking orders.

The Disabled. Nearly 70% of the disabled are jobless, but it certainly doesn’t
have to be that way. Employers can do several things to attract this huge
potential workforce. The U.S. Department of Labor s Office of Disability
Employment Policy offers several programs, including one that helps link
disabled college undergraduates who are looking for summer internships with
potential employers. Employers also must use common sense. For example,
employers who only post job openings online may miss potential employees
who are visually impaired

3. Decide whether these statements are true, false or information is not


available in the text:

3.1. The employer should pay attention to classified ads and recruiting sources
he / she uses to attract minorities.

3.2. Flexible hours and child-care benefits will attract single parents for sure.

3.3. Employers think how to attract the disabled, but about 80% of them are still
jobless.

3.4. Older workers are more reliable and have better work habits in comparison
to younger workers.

3.5. It is reasonable to offer training in basic arithmetic and writing to single


parents.

3.6. One of the challenges single parents have to face is an effort to find a
reasonable balance between work and family life.

3.7. The number of younger workers is growing rapidly, so in near future they'll
almost replace the older ones.

4. The following sentence can be added to the text:

Not just single parents, but also their children may need some extra
support.

Where would it fit best in the text?

5. Which of the following statements expresses the main idea of the text?

(A) The purpose of the article is to analyze the pros and cons of recruiting a
more diverse workforce.

(B) The topic the author explores in the article touches specific features of
recruiting a more diverse workforce.

(C) The purpose of the article is to give a brief analysis of diverse workforce


and offer possible solutions how to attract them.
(D) The author analyzes if recruiting a more diverse workforce is social
necessity or an employer's responsibility.

6. Complete each sentence with one of the following words:

require, on, rapid, over, experience, meet, lack, segment, necessity, face

6.1. … the next few years, the fastest-growing labor force … will be those
from 45 to 64 years old.

6.2. Given the … increase in minority, older worker, and women


candidates, it is a …. .

6.3. For example, many minority applicants don’t … the educational or …


standards for the job, so many companies offer training in basic arithmetic
and writing.

6.4. Applicants sometimes … basic work skills, such as reporting for work


… time, working in teams, and taking orders.

6.5. Being a single parent isn’t easy, and recruiting and keeping them …
understanding the problems they … in balancing work and family life

7. Discuss with your partner:

What are the main things you would do to recruit and retain a more diverse
workforce?

Use the following phrases:


To my mind…
In my opinion…
Speaking of …

8. Group activity

Working individually or in groups, find employment ads, either on the Internet


or in a local newspaper, that suggest that the company is family friendly and
should appeal to women, minorities, older workers, and single parents. Discuss
what they’re doing to be family friendly.

Listening
9. Listen to the text Job Hunting using the link: http://esl-
lab.com/jobhunting/jobhuntingrd1.htm

Choose the right answer:

1. In which field is the man looking for a job? 


A. education
B. medicine
C. technology

2. Which statement best describes the pay for the job?


A. Employees can receive periodic pay increases based on their work.
B. The salary for the position is above the industry average.
C. Workers are paid on a commission basis depending their sales.

3. What are some of the benefits that the company provides?


A. insurance, paid vacation, and a company vehicle
B. paid vacation, opportunities for promotion, and insurance
C. opportunities for advancement, insurance, and a free bus pass

4. What does the future hold for the industry that he is considering?
A. growing, yet uncertain
B. expanding and secure 
C. contracting, yet stable
5. From the conversation, what do we know about the man's educational
background?
A. He dropped out of high school.
B. He has some post-secondary education.
C. He has a college degree.

Unit 4. Employee Selection


“A certificate does not make you certified.
Attitude, performance, commitment to self and team —
these and a certificate make you certified”.
Author Unknown

Warm-up Activities

1. Discuss the following with your partner:

Why do you think hiring the right employees is important? Explain your answer
choice.

HR manager's performance depends on his/her subordinates

It's always costly to recruit and hire employees

Mismanaging hiring has legal consequences

Vocabulary

reliability – зд. достоверность, надежность теста

test validity – степень эффективности и пригодности теста для измерения


нужной характеристики

job experience – стаж, опыт работы

experienced – опытный, квалифицированный

require – требовать

required abilities – требуемые, необходимые характеристики/способности

cost – зд. издержки, расходы

costly – дорогой, затратный

competence – способность, умение

trait – характерная черта, зд. характеристика, способность

dexterity – ловкость, сноровка

reference – зд. лицо, дающее рекомендацию; рекомендация с предыдущего


места работы
measure abilities – измерять, оценивать характеристики, способности
соискателя

2. Match the words with their definitions:


1. hiring practice personnel tests designed to receive an applicant’s judgment
regarding a situation in the workplace
2. employee
tests predicting job performance by requiring job candidates
3. motivation to perform one or more actual job’s tasks

4. job performance tests designed to predict job applicants’ ability to dishonesty


and other forms of non-productivity
5. applicant
a feeling of enthusiasm or interest that makes you determined
6. work samples to do something
7. situational test tests designed to measure how good someone is at
understanding problems and thinking about them in a
8. honesty testing controlled way
9. intelligence testing the process of doing a job or action
10. screening someone who applies for something, such as a job or a loan
technique of money

checking methods an employer uses to be sure that an


applicant is suitable for a particular job

someone who is paid regularly to work for a person or an


organization

the practice of finding, evaluating, and establishing a working


relationship with future employees

Text: Employee Testing and Selection


The main aim of employee selection is to achieve person-job fit. Person-job fit
refers to matching the knowledge, skills, abilities (KSAs), and competencies that
are central to performing the job with the prospective employee’s knowledge,
skills, abilities, and competencies. The aim is to achieve a match. However, a
candidate might be right for a job, but wrong for the organization.

A test is a popular selection tool. A test is basically a sample of a person’s


behavior. It must be both reliable and valid. Reliability is very important. If a
person scores 90 on an intelligence test on a Monday and 130 when retested on
Tuesday, you probably wouldn’t have much faith in the test. Validity tells you
whether the test is measuring what you think it’s supposed to be measuring.

About 41% of companies that the American Management Association surveyed


tested applicants for basic skills (defined as the ability to read instructions, write
reports, and do arithmetic). About 67% of the respondents required employees to
take job skills tests, and 29% required some form of psychological
measurement.

We can classify tests according to whether they measure cognitive (mental)


abilities, motor and physical abilities, personality and interests, or achievement.

Intelligence (IQ) tests are tests of general intellectual abilities. They measure not
a single trait but rather a range of abilities, including memory, vocabulary,
verbal fluency, and numerical ability.

Employer might also want to measure motor abilities, such as finger dexterity,
manual dexterity, and (if hiring pilots) reaction time.

A person’s cognitive and physical abilities alone seldom explain his or her job
performance. Other factors, like motivation and interpersonal skills, are very
important.

Computerized and/or online testing is increasingly replacing paper-and-pencil


tests. Google recently changed its employee screening process. Candidates used
to have a dozen or more interviews. But, with Google hiring thousands of people
annually, this selection process proved too slow. Now Google uses just four to
five interviews, but lets all its employees express opinions on each candidate by
e-mail, using a screening technique called ‘crowd sourcing’. The changes bring
the firms hiring practices in line with its fast-growth strategy.

It’s very important to remember testing is only part of an employer’s selection


process. Other tools may include background investigations and reference
checks, pre-employment information services, honesty testing, graphology, and
etc.
3. Decide whether the following statements are true, false or information is
not available in the text:

3.1. The employer needs to consider several things before deciding to use
particular test, which include the test's reliability and validity.

3.2. Test takers have the right to the confidentiality of test results.

3.3. We can classify the tests according to whether they are paper-and-pencil
tests or computerized ones.

3.4. Cognitive tests include tests of general reasoning ability (intelligence) and
tests of specific mental abilities like memory.

3.5. Intelligence tests are tests which measure a single trait, like intellectual
ability, or vocabulary, or memory.

3.6. Personality tests measure basic aspects of an applicant's personality, such as


stability, memory and temperament.

3.7.Testing is the key part of an employer's selection process, and for the
employer it's enough to know an applicant's test results to decide if he / she fits
the job or not.

4. The following sentence can be added to the text: One of the easiest ways to
avoid hiring mistakes is to check the candidate's background carefully.

Where would it fit best in the text?

5. Which of the following statements best expresses the main idea of the
text?

(A) Computerized and/or online tests have almost replaced traditional paper-


and-pencil tests.

(B) Careful employee selection is important, and testing is one of the part of this
process.

(C) The employer uses tests to screen out applicants who don't fit their
company.

(D) If an applicant fits a job, it doesn't mean he / she will fit the organization, its
culture and values for sure.
6. Complete each sentence with one of the following words:

behavior, replace, measure abilities, skills, achieve

6.1. The main aim of employee selection is to … person-job fit.

6.2. A test is basically a sample of a person’s … .

6.3. We can classify tests according to whether they … cognitive (mental)


abilities, motor and physical …, personality and interests, or achievement.

6.4. Other factors, like motivation and interpersonal … , are very important.

6.5. Computerized and online tests increasingly … paper-and-pencil tests.

7. Discuss the following questions with your partner:

Why is it important to conduct pre-employment background investigations?

Do you think a certified psychologist who is specifically trained in test


construction should (or should not) be used by a small business that needs a test
system for its applicants?

Use the following phrases:


Generally…
To my mind…
In my opinion…
The main problem of testing is…

Listening

8. Listen to the text Where are you from? using the link http://www.esl-


lab.com/intro2/intro2.htm

Choose the right answer:

1. What is the woman's name?


A. Julie
B. Jenny
C. Jane

2. Where is the woman from originally?


A. Argentina
B. the United States
C. Chile

3. About how old was the man when he returned to the United States?
A. 7 years old
B. 10 years old
C. 17 years old

4. What is the man studying?


A. physics
B. biology
C. psychology

5. What is the woman's job?


A. a sales representative
B. a computer programmer
C. a receptionist

Discuss with your partner:

What do students speak about when they meet each other for the first time?

Introduce yourself to your group-mate using the conversation Where are you


from? as a model

Discuss with your partner where he / she is from.

Unit 5. Interviewing Candidates


“Everything will be okay in the end.
If it’s not okay, it’s not the end.”
Ed Sheeran
Warm-up Activities

1. Discuss the following with your partner:

Give examples of three common interviewing mistakes. What recommendations


would you give for avoiding them?

What can an interviewer do to improve his or her performance?

Do you think computerized interview should completely replace a traditional


one? Why or why not?

Vocabulary

to compile – зд. составлять, собирать

to confront – ставить перед, предъявлять требования

to spot – определить, узнать, опознать

strength – сильная сторона, преимущество

weakness – слабая сторона, недостаток

to obtain – достигать, приобретать, добиваться

to draw conclusion – высказывать суждение после рассмотрения всех


фактов

background – зд. истоки, происхождение, биографические данные

mild – зд. умеренный

insight into – проницательность, способность проникнуть в сущность

suitable – подходящий, соответствующий, годный

appropriate – подходящий, соответствующий

unorthodox method – зд. нетрадиционные, неортодоксальные приемы и


техники отбора кандидатов

2. Match the words with their definitions:


1. work attitude someone’s opinions or feelings about their occupation,
position, work in general
2. hypothetical
situation an interview designed to determine how a candidate reacts
under pressure
3. situational interview
a situation based on events that seem possible
4. to conduct an
interview a situation in which an applicant answers a series of questions
regarding his or her background, experience, education,
5. stress tolerance skills, work attitudes in a multiple choice format, one at a
time
6. selection interview
to carry out an official meeting with an applicant
7. stress interview
a formal meeting in which someone asks you questions to
8. computerized find out if you are suitable for a job, course or study
interview
a job interview where a candidate is asked specific questions
9. behavioral interview about what may happen on a job and how he or she would
solve the problem
10. job-related
interview a series of job-related questions that focus on relevant past
job-related behaviors

a job interview where a candidate is asked questions


discovering how he or she acted in specific employment-
related situations

a person’s ability to do the task appropriately with minimal


anxiety level in stressful conditions

Text: Interviewing Candidates

An interview is more than a discussion. An interview is a procedure designed to


obtain information from a person through oral responses to oral inquiries.
Employers use several interviews at work, and we can classify selection
interviews according to:
how structured they are,
their ‘content’ - the types of questions they contain, 
how the firm administers the interviews. 

We can also classify interviews based on the content or the types of questions
you ask. Many (probably most) interviewers tend to ask relatively unfocused
questions. These might include ‘What are your main strengths and weaknesses?’
and ‘What do you want to be doing 5 years from now?’ Generally, questions
like these don’t provide much insight into how the person will do on the job. At
work, situational, behavioral, and job-related questions are most important.

In a situational interview, you ask the candidate what his or her behavior would
be in a given situation. For example, you might ask a supervisory candidate how
he or she would act in response to a subordinate coming to work late 3 days in a
row.

Whereas situational interviews ask applicants to describe how they would react
to a hypothetical situation today or tomorrow, behavioral interviews ask
applicants to describe how they reacted to actual situations in the past. In
summary, situational questions start with phrases such as, ‘Suppose you were
faced with the following situation . . . What would you do?’ Behavioral
questions start with phrases like, ‘Can you think of a time when... What did you
do?’ More employers today are using (or planning to use) behavioral interviews.

In a job-related interview, the interviewer asks applicants questions about


relevant past experiences. The questions here don’t touch hypothetical or actual
situations or scenarios. Instead, the interviewer asks job-related questions such
as, ‘Which courses did you like best in business school?’ The aim is to draw
conclusions about the candidate’s ability to handle the financial aspects of the
job the employer seeks to fill.

There are other, lesser-used types of questions. In a stress interview, the


interviewer seeks to make the applicant uncomfortable with occasionally rude
questions. The aim is supposedly to spot sensitive applicants and those with low
(or high) stress tolerance.

Computerized selection interview is one in which a job candidate s oral and/or


computerized replies are obtained in response to computerized oral, visual, or
written questions and/or situations. Most computerized interviews present the
applicant with a series of questions regarding his or her background, experience,
education, skills, knowledge, and work attitudes that relate to the job for which
the person has applied. Some (video-based) computerized interviews also
confront candidates with realistic scenarios (such as problem customers) to
which they must respond. Such interviews are most often taken online.

Several employers such as Microsoft and Hewlett-Packard use the online virtual
community Second Life to conduct job interviews. Job seekers create avatars to
represent themselves in the interviews.

For better or worse, some employers are using a speed dating approach to
interviewing applicants. One employer sent e-mails to all applicants for an
advertised position. Four hundred (of 800 applicants) showed up. Over the next
few hours, applicants had one-to-one contacts with employees for a few
minutes. Based on this, the recruiting team chose 68 candidates for follow-up
interviews.

3. Decide whether the following statements are true, false or information is


not available in the text:

3.1. Job interviews are divided into several types according to their structure,
content and administrating method.

3.2. The aim of behavioral interviews is to find out an applicant's behavior in a


hypothetical situation.

3.3. Stress interview help to spot hypersensitive applicants who might overreact
to mild criticism with anger.

3.4. It is good to ask all the candidates for a position the same questions.

3.5. Second Life community gives applicants who didn't pass a second chance.

3.6.In a computerized selection interview the function of employer is performed


by a computer.

3.7. A speed dating approach might be useful for firms interviewing a large
number of applicants.

4. The following sentence can be added to the text:

If you do interviews properly, then it is generally a good predictor of


performance and is comparable with many other selection techniques.

Where would it fit best in the text?

5. Which of the following statements expresses the main idea of the text?

(A) The paper focuses on important tools managers use to select employees, and
one of them is interviewing candidates.

(B) Most people aren't very good interviewers, so preparation might help.

(C) One reason selection interviews are less useful than they should be is that
managers make errors.
(D) There are several types of selection interviews which can be classified based
on a specific criteria.

6. Complete each sentence with one of the following words:

content, situational, obtain, behavioral, attitudes, describe, computerized

6.1. An interview is a procedure designed to … information from a person


through oral responses to oral inquiries.

6.2. We can also classify interviews based on the … or the types of


questions you ask.

In a … interview, you ask the candidate what his or her behavior would
6.3. 

be in a given situation.

6.4. … interviews ask applicants to … how they reacted to actual situations


in the past.

6.5. Most … interviews present the applicant with a series of questions


regarding his or her background, experience, education, skills, knowledge,
and work … that relate to the job for which the person has applied.

7. Discuss these questions with your partner:

For what sorts of jobs do you think computerized interviews are most
appropriate? Why?

What can you say about 'headhunters'? Why are they dangerous for small
companies?

What do you think are pros and cons of unorthodox interview methods? Would
you recommend a procedure like this?

Use the following phrases:


To my mind…
In my opinion…
Speaking of strengths and weaknesses…

Listening

8. Listen to the text Job Interview using the link: http://esl-


lab.com/jobinterview/jobinterviewrd1.htm
1. The man studied English and ___________ at the university.
A. biology
B. psychology 
C. sociology

2. He found his first job in Japan at a ____________. 


A. community college
B. university
C. private language school

The man's cooking students wanted to _____________.


A. open their own restaurants
B. practice English with tourists
C. create new food items

Now, the man works at a Japanese restaurant and at a ____________.


A. language training center
B. modern fitness center
C. mental health treatment center

5. The man should be a good candidate for the job because he _________.
A. has taught in many different countries
B. has experience in psychological advising
C. specializes in grammar instruction
Unit 6. Motivation and Incentives
“Motivation is the art of getting people to do
what you want them to do
because they want to do it”
Dwight D.Eisenhower

Warm-up Activities

1. Discuss the following with your partner:

Does the pay-for-performance plan seem like a good idea? Why or why not?

Vocabulary

incentive – стимулирование, поощрение, стимул, мотивация

lower-order – низшего порядка

hierarchy – иерархия, иерархичность

self-esteem –  самоуважение, чувство собственного достоинства

Samaritan – самаритянин, самаритянка

accident – авария, несчастный случай

victim – жертва, пострадавший, потерпевший

to insult – оскорбить, обидеть

overall – общий, суммарный, итоговый, всесторонний

appreciation –  признательность, благодарность

approval – утверждение, одобрение

merit pay – единовременная или регулярно выплачиваемая премия за


высокие результаты работы

piecework pay – сдельная оплата

application – применение, использование

praise – похвала
unit – единица, часть, группа

variable – изменяемый, изменяющийся

2. Match the words with their definitions:


1. accomplishment an amount of money that an employee is paid every year

2. recognition the degree to which something is profitable

3. bonus extra money that you are paid in addition to your usual salary

4. profitability a feeling of liking or wanting something more than something


else
5. to tie
something difficult that you succeed in doing, especially after
6. to highlight working hard over a period of time

7. salary money or another kind of payment that is given or received


for something that has been done or that is offered for
8. reward something that might be done
9. white-collar to say that something causes something else
10. preference praise, respect, or admiration

workers who work in offices rather than doing physical work

to describe something in a way that makes people notice it


and think about it

Text: Motivation Theories and Incentive Plans

Abraham Maslow put forward widely quoted observation on what


motivates people. Although lacking much scientific support, his theory is
widely quoted. He said that people have a hierarchy of five types of needs:
physiological (food, water, warmth), security (a secure income, knowing
one has a job), social (friendship), self-esteem (respect), and self-
actualization (becoming the person you believe you can become).
According to Maslow, people are motivated first to satisfy each lower-
order need and then, in sequence, each of the higher-level needs.

Frederick Herzberg said the best way to motivate someone is to organize


the job so that doing it provides the feedback and challenge that helps
satisfy the person’s higher-level needs for things like accomplishment and
recognition.

Psychologist Edward Deci’s work highlights another potential downside to


relying too much on rewards: they may backfire. For example, a Samaritan
who risks danger by rushing to an accident victim might be insulted if the
victim said, ‘Thanks, here’s some money for your trouble’.

Vroom’s theory has three implications for how managers design incentive
plans.  If employees don’t expect that effort will produce performance, no
motivation will occur. The reward itself must be of value to the employee.
Ideally, the manager should take into account individual employee
preferences.

Managers often use two terms synonymously with incentive


plans. Traditionally, all incentive plans are pay-for-performance plans.
They all tie employees pay to the employees’ performance. Variable pay is
more specific: it is usually an incentive plan that ties a group or team’s pay
to some measure of the firm’s overall profitability;  profit-sharing plans are
one example.

Piecework is the oldest and still most popular individual incentive plan.
Here you pay the worker a sum (called a piece rate) for each unit he or she
produces.

Merit pay or a merit raise is any salary increase the firm awards to an
individual employee based on his or her individual performance. It is
different from a bonus in that it usually becomes part of the employee’s
salary, whereas a bonus is a one-time payment. The term is more often
used for white-collar employees and particularly professional, office
employees.

Professional employees are those whose work involves the application of


learned knowledge to the solution of the employer’s problems. They
include lawyers, doctors, economists and engineers. Making incentive pay
decisions for professional employees can be challenging. For one thing,
firms usually pay professionals well. For another, they’re already driven by
the desire to produce high-caliber work and receive recognition from
colleagues.

Recognition programs are one of several types of nonfinancial rewards.


The term recognition program usually refers to formal programs, such as
employee-of-the-month programs. Social recognition program generally
refers to informal manager employee exchanges such as praise, approval,
or expressions of appreciation for a job well done.

3. Decide whether the following statements are true, false or information is


not available in the text:

3.1. Financial reward is the oldest and most popular means to motivate an
employee.

3.2. There are several motivation theories that highlight potential downside of
financial rewards.

3.3. According to Edward Deci, the best way to motivate someone is to organize
the job so that satisfy the person's needs for recognition.

3.4. Victor Vroom's expectancy motivation theory proves the person's


motivation depends on three things.

3.5.Though piecework is the oldest individual incentive plan it has its


downsides.

3.6. Making incentive pay decisions for professional employees is easy because
of their desire to produce high-quality work.

3.7. In some way merit pay is similar to a bonus.

4. The following sentence can be added to the text:

Managers play a crucial role in company-wide profitability, and most firms


therefore put considerable thought into how to reward them.

Where would it fit best in the text?

5. Which of the following statements expresses the main idea of the text?

(A) The article focuses on developing the overall pay plan.


(B) The main purpose of the paper is to explain how managers use performance-
based incentives to motivate employees.

(C) The article includes a brief overview of motivation theories and analysis of


incentive plans for individual employees, for professional employees and
managers.

(D) Nonfinancial benefits are important part of an employee's compensation


package.

6. Complete each sentence with one of the following words:

are driven, based, to satisfy, increase, tie …to, nonfinancial, needs, to


receive

6.1. According to Maslow, people are motivated first … each lower-order


need and then, in sequence, each of the higher-level … .

6.2. Merit pay or a merit raise is any salary … the firm awards to an


individual employee … on his or her individual performance.

6.3 They all … employees pay … the employees’ performance.

4. Recognition programs are one of several types of … rewards.


6.

6.5. For another, they … already … by the desire to produce high-caliber


work and … recognition from colleagues.

7. Discuss with your partner:

Compare and contrast incentive plans discussed in the article. What are pros and
cons of each type of incentive plans?

Use the following phrases:


To my mind…
In my opinion…
Speaking of …

Group activity

Working in groups, create an incentive plan for the following positions:


accountant, manager, salesperson. What factors did you have to consider in
reaching your conclusions?
Listening

8. Listen to the text A Student Credit Card using the link: http://esl-


lab.com/credit/creditcardrd1.htm

1. According to the conversation, which item did the woman NOT purchase with
her credit card?
A. a digital camera
B. a TV
C. a stereo

2. What is one reason to explain why the woman obtained a student credit card?
A. She wants to buy things at a discount using the card.
B. She hopes to establish a good credit rating.
C. She doesn't want to borrow from her parents.

What is one problem NOT mentioned in the conversation?


A. People generally have a difficult time getting out of debt.
B. Students often apply for more credit cards than they need.
C. The interest rates on student cards are very high.

What does the woman imply about how she plans on resolving her credit card
problems?
A. She hopes that someone will give her the money.
B. She plans on getting rid of her student credit cards.
C. She is going to return the items she purchased on the card.

5. What is the man going to do for the woman to help her manage her money?
A. help her find a better paying job to cover her expenses
B. teach her how to prepare a financial management plan
C. show her how she can apply for low-interest student credit cards
Unit 7. Business Letters
I have only made this letter longer
because I have not had the time to make it shorter.
Blaise Pascal

Warm-up Activities

1. Discuss the following with your partner:

What does effective letter writing consist of?

- Planning and researching the facts


- Analyzing the subject and reader
- Knowing your objectives
- Keeping positive tone

Vocabulary

clarity – зд. ясность

length – длина

to convince – убеждать, уверять, доводить до сознания

means – средство, способ

to mean – думать, подразумевать

direct – зд. непосредственный, личный

to direct – направлять, адресовать

to convey – сообщать, передавать (мысль, идею, отношение)

ambiguous – двусмысленный, неопределенный, неясный

unambiguous – недвусмысленный, прозрачный, ясный

genuinely – искренне, неподдельно

to insist – настойчиво утверждать, настаивать


2. Match the words with their definitions:
1. to beat around the to continue communicate with someone and not allow a
bush relationship to end

2. walk of life the job someone does or the position they have in society

3. to maintain to spend a long time getting to the main point of what you are
saying
4. 'you' attitude
a written request for a job or a place at a college, university
5. to come out etc.

6. employment to stop talking about unimportant details and say what is most
application important

7. an opening the way that someone or something looks

8. appearance an important business letter concept which insists that the


focus of attention in your letters be directed toward the reader
9. appreciation program
a job that needs a person to do it, a vacancy
10. come to the point
to say something in an open, honest way

a customer loyalty program which motivates customers to


return often, make purchases often

Text: Components of an Effective Letter

Planning by itself is not enough to assure you of a positive response from your
reader. There are, however, essential components of any letter that can multiply
the chances of its effectiveness.

Before you begin to worry about the basic mechanics of a letter (structure,
appearance and grammar), think seriously about the attitude you wish to convey.
Your attitude is conveyed through your choice of language, tone, and focus of
attention.
Language is a means of communication. If language is not used clearly and
accurately, the communication process cannot be successfully completed.

A simple rule to remember is that the English you use in your everyday business
should be the same good English used by people in all walks of life. Be as direct
as possible in your letter writing. If you can convey your message in five words
instead of ten, do so.

The tone or personality of a letter can help you get a positive reaction from
a reader. The tone of any business letter should be polite and friendly, and
written as if you were talking with the reader.

You don’t want to get too technical in a letter. Write in language that the
reader will understand. The tone should help to show that someone with a
personality is writing the letter.

An important concept in letter writing is something called the “you


attitude.” The “you attitude” insists that the focus of attention in your
letters be directed toward the reader, the “you” to whom you are writing.
The reader of your letter must be convinced that what you are trying to get
him or her to do or react to is something of some personal value.

The length of any letter or email affects its appearance. Come right to the
point in your letters and emails. They should be limited to one page if
possible.

3. Decide whether these statements are true, false or information is not


available in the text:

3.1. Planning your ideas and clarity in your writing will help to limit the length
of your letter.

3.2. Planning is an essential and most important component of any letter.

3.3. Remember as you write your letters that you are addressing a specific
reader.

3.4. There isn't a special type of 'business English' to be learned and used when
writing business letters.

3.5. Come right out and say what you mean instead of beating around the bush.

3.6. People who receive a lot of correspondence every day are not going to react
favorably to three-page letters that could have been written in one page.
3.7. Your attitude is very important as the receiver should not only receive, but
also understand your message.

4. The following sentence can be added to the text:

If you choose the language and tone for your letter to convey an attitude of
commitment to and interest in your reader, you will find that your letters will be
more successful in grasping your reader’s attention and encouraging them to
respond favorably.

Where would it fit best in the text?

5. Which of the following statements expresses the main idea of the text?

(A) Using ‘you’ attitude in your letter increases the likelihood of a positive


response.

(B) Your choice of language, tone, and focus of attention go into making up a


successful letter.

(C) Unsuccessful letters are waste of time and money.

(D) Proper planning and using of clear language are essential elements of a


successful letters.

6. Complete each sentence with one of the following words. Put the verbs
into correct form:

convey, insists, clarity, assure affect, directed, toward

6.1. Planning your ideas and … in your writing will help to limit the length
of your letter.

6.2. The length of any letter or email … its appearance.

6.3. Planning by itself is not enough to … you of a positive response from


your reader.

6.4. If you can … your message in five words instead of ten, do so.

6.5. The “you attitude” … that the focus of attention in your letters be …
the reader, the “you” to whom you are writing.
7. Discuss the following questions with your partner:

Why is it important to answer the question 'What will convince your reader that
what you're writing is important for him or her?'

Do you agree that using passive voice would take the personality out of your
letter? Prove your point of view.

How would you respond to someone about the lack of job openings at your bank
if you don't want to scare a potential employee?

Use the following phrases:


Normally…
To my mind…
In my opinion…
The key concept of an effective letter is…

Listening

8. Listen to the text College Textbooks using the link: http://esl-


lab.com/textbooks/textbooksrd1.htm

1. The man is selling his science book, Today's World for ___________.


A. $13
B. $30
C. $33

2. Why is the woman surprised by the price of the science book?


A. She thinks that the book is in pretty bad condition.
B. She feels that she can find the book cheaper on the Internet.
C. She says that the textbook is an old copy.

3. Which book does the woman NOT buy?


A. an English writing textbook
B. a math textbook
C. a novel
4. The man's textbook on marriage is called, Finding the Perfect
A. Friend
B. Partner
C. Someone

Why does the man want to study cooking?


A. He wants to learn to cook because he lives on his own.
B. He wants to major in hotel management in the future.
C. He has a friend who's taking the same class.

Unit 8. Equal Opportunity and the Law


Of all the various delusions, the sense of discrimination between oneself
and others is the worst form,
as it creates nothing but unpleasant.
Dalai Lama

“The law prohibits discrimination


on the basis of race, gender, marital status,
political beliefs, disability, or age,
and the government effectively enforced these prohibitions”
U.S. State Department Report, 2010

Warm-up Activities

1. Discuss the following with your partner:

Do you know any employment laws? Explain the importance of laws for making
discrimination against minorities illegal.

Vocabulary

to defend against – зд. защищаться, возражать (против обвинений)

defense – зд. защита (в судеlegal)

legal – правовой, юридический, судебный

to distinguish – различать, распознавать, отличать

approach – принцип, метод

intention – намерение, стремление, замысел

intentional – преднамеренный, умышленный

to treat – обращаться, обходиться, вести себя (по отношению к кому-л.)

male – мужчина

female – женщина

court – суд, судебное заседание

to justify – оправдать, находить оправдание, объяснять

a proof – подтверждение, доказательство

a college degree – диплом о высшем образовании

to predict – предсказывать, прогнозировать

predictor – прогнозист, предсказывающее устройство, предиктор

2. Match the words with their definitions:


1. disparity legal demand for compensation, payment, etc.

2. regardless defense of a job requirements related decision that they are


necessary for the success of a company
3. business necessity
difference in selection for hiring or promotion that
4. bona fide occupational disadvantages individuals of a particular group
qualification
a difference between things
5. disparate treatment
practice that is neutral and non-discriminatory in its
6. adverse impact intention but affects individuals having a disability or
belonging to a particular group
7. disparate impact
a group of people who are available to work
8. labour pool
a part of population that is different in race, religion, or
9. minority group culture from most of the population
10. claim intentional discriminatory dealing with individuals who
has a disability or belongs to a particular minority group

defense of an employment related decision that it is based


on the requirements of the firms

without being affected by someone or something

Text: Defenses Against Discrimination Claims

To understand how employers defend themselves against employment


discrimination claims, we should first briefly review some basic legal
terminology. Discrimination law distinguishes between disparate treatment and
disparate impact. Disparate treatment means intentional discrimination. It
requires no more than a finding that women (or protected minority group
members) were intentionally treated differently because of their gender or
minority status. Disparate treatment exists where an employer treats an
individual differently because that individual is a member of a particular race,
religion, gender, or ethnic group. Having a rule that says ‘we do not hire bus
drivers over 60 years of age’ demonstrates this.

Disparate impact means that an employer engages in an employment practice or


policy that has a greater adverse effect on the members of a protected group than
on other employees, regardless of intentions. A rule that says employees must
have college degrees to do this particular job explores this because more white
males than some minorities earn college degrees.

Disparate impact claims do not require proof of discriminatory intent. Instead,


an individual must show that neutral employment practice (such as requiring a
college degree) creates an adverse impact - a significant disparity - between the
proportion of minorities in the available labor pool and the proportion you hire.
The key here is to show that the employment practice caused an adverse impact.
If it has, then the employer will probably have to defend itself.

If a minority applicant feels he or she was a victim of discrimination, the person


needs only to show that the employer’s selection process resulted in an adverse
impact on his or her group. For example, if 80% of the white applicants passed
the test, but only 20% of the black applicants passed, a black applicant can prove
adverse impact. Then it becomes the employer’s task to prove that its test is a
valid predictor of performance on the job.

The law says that once your applicant has made his or her case (showing adverse
impact), you or your company must defend use of the procedure. There are then
two basic defenses employers use to justify an employment practice that has an
adverse impact on members of a minority group: the bona fide occupational
qualification (BFOQ) defense and the business necessity defense. An employer
can say that the employment practice is a bona fide occupational qualification
(BFOQ) for performing the job, in other words, it is reasonably necessary to
normal business operations (for instance, the bus line arguing its age
requirement is necessary for safety).

Business necessity is a defense created by the courts. It requires showing that


there is a certain business purpose for the discriminatory practice and that the
practice is then acceptable. Attempts by employers to show that their selection
tests or other employment practices are valid are examples of the business
necessity defense.

3. Decide whether these statements are true, false or information is not


available in the text:

3.1. Disparate treatment occurs if an employer treats an individual differently


because of their gender, race, religion, or ethnic group.

3.2. Disparate treatment is one of the approaches employers can use to defend
themselves or their company against discrimination claims.

3.3. Adverse impact plays a central role in discriminatory practice.


3.4. Once an individual shows one of an employer's procedures has an adverse
impact the company should prove the validity of their selection tools.

3.5. There are more than two basic defenses employers use to justify their
employment practice.

3.6. Employers' attempts to show that their selection practice is valid is an


example of bona fide occupational qualification.

3.7. If a neutral employment practice creates an adverse impact, an applicant of


a minority group can become a victim of disparate impact.

4. The following sentence can be added to the text:

There are three other points to remember about discrimination charges.

Where would it fit best in the text?

5. Which of the following statements expresses the main idea of the text?

(A) The main topics we cover in the article are defenses against discrimination
claims.

(B) The purpose of the article is to provide with the knowledge to deal


effectively with employment questions on the job.

(C) Employers use various defenses against discrimination claims.

(D) Employers need to distinguish between disparate impact and disparate


treatment in defending themselves.

6. Complete each sentence with one of the following words:

treatment, impact, distinguishes, defend, treat, defense, employment practice

6.1. Disparate … exists where an employer … an individual differently


because that individual is a member of a particular race, religion, gender,
or ethnic group.

6.2. So, the key here is to show that the … ... caused an adverse impact.

6.3. Discrimination law … between disparate treatment and disparate


impact.
6.4. The law says that once your applicant has made his or her case
(showing adverse …), you (or your company) must … use of the
procedure.

6.5. Business necessity is a … created by the courts.

7. Discuss with your partner:

Define adverse impact and explain how it is proved.

What is the difference between disparate treatment and disparate impact? Can
you give several examples?

Use the following phrases:

To my mind…
In my opinion…
Speaking of equal job opportunities…

8. Group activity

Assume you are HR manager in a bank; you are responsible for hiring
employees, supervising them, and recommending them for promotion.

Working in groups, make a list of potential employment discrimination claims


you can face with. How can they be avoided?

Listening

9. Listen to the text Leisure Activities using the link http://www.esl-


lab.com/nightlife/nightliferd1.htm

Choose the right answer:


1. What is Stuart planning to do with his friends?
A. go for a drive and have a picnic
B. watch a football game
C. see a movie and have dinner

2. Why does Amy say she can't go with them?


A. She has to study for an exam. 
B. She doesn't have any spending money.
C. She already has plans to attend a party.
3. What are they planning to do at the end of the evening?
A. watch a video
B. have a party
C. play some games

4. How is Amy getting to the activity?


A. She's driving her car.
B. Stuart is giving her a ride. 
C. She's taking the bus.

5. What time does Amy want to be home?


A. at 10:30 p.m.
B. at 11:30 p.m.
C. at midnight

10. Discuss with your partner:

Imagine that you want to get together with a few new friends from your
University group next weekend. What two or three leisure activities would you
like to do? Use the Internet to plan your day and look up the cost, operating
hours and location of each activity you plan. Discuss your results.

Unit 9. Discriminatory Employment Practices


If you want to see the true measure of a man,
watch how he treats his inferiors, not his equals.
J. K. Rowling

Warm-up Activities
1. Discuss the following with your partner:

What do you know about discriminatory employment practices? Do you think


it's legal to ask an applicant about his / her race, color, religion, national origin,
marital status?

Vocabulary

adversely – неблагоприятно, отрицательно

to complain – выражать недовольство, подавать жалобу

attire – наряд, платье

complainant – жалобщик, истец

marital status – семейное положение

unlawful – незаконный, противозаконный

violation – нарушение

to seem – казаться, представляться

a sin – грех

per se –  как таковой

jail – тюрьма, тюремное заключение

to prove – доказать, удостоверить, представить

proven – доказанный

to prevent from – мешать, препятствовать, не допускать

a degree – зд. звание, ученая степень

to favor – благоволить

to side with – быть на чьей-либо стороне

2. Match the words with their definitions:


a principle that requires the government to prove
1. educational qualifications the guilt of a criminal defendant
2. suggestive making you think or remember a particular thing
3. to ban form or paper which indicates interest in particular
place of employment or position within a company
4. bias
a problem that needs to be considered
5. a suit
authorization that allows access to information that
6. presumption of innocence would otherwise be forbidden
7. issue to refuse to accept someone who is not suitable for
a job
8. employment application
degrees, diplomas, certificates, and so forth that an
9. security clearance individual has received by full-time study, part-
time study, or private study
10. to screen out
an attitude that you have that makes you treat
someone in a way that is unfair or different from
the way you treat other people

to say officially that someone is not allowed to do


something

a case that a court of law is asked to decide


involving a disagreement between two people or
organizations

Text: Discriminatory Employment Practices

Federal laws usually don’t expressly ban pre-employment questions about


an applicant’s race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. For example, it
isn’t illegal to ask a job candidate about her marital status (although such a
question might seem discriminatory). You can ask. But, in practice, there
are two reasons to avoid such questions. First, although federal law may
not ban such questions, many state and local laws do.

Second, such questions may identify and affect an applicant as a member


of a protected group. They become illegal if a complainant can show you
use them to screen out a greater proportion of his or her protected group’s
applicants, and you can’t prove the practice is required as a business
necessity or BFOQ.

MISLEADING INFORMATION. It is unlawful to give false or misleading


information to members of any group, or to refuse to advise them of work
opportunities.

HELP WANTED ADS. ‘Help wanted – male’ and ‘help wanted – female’
ads are violations unless gender is a bona fide occupational qualification
for the job. The same applies to ads that suggest age discrimination.

EDUCATIONAL REQUIREMENTS. Courts have found educational


qualifications to be illegal when (1) minority groups are less likely to
possess the educational qualifications (such as a high school degree) and
(2) such qualifications are also not job related. However, there may be jobs
for which educational requirements (such as college degrees for pilot
candidates) are a necessity.

PREFERENCE TO RELATIVES. Don’t give preference to relatives of


current employees with respect to employment opportunities if your
current employees are non-minority.

HEIGHT, WEIGHT, AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS. Physical


requirements such as minimum height are unlawful unless the employer
can show they’re job related.

ARREST RECORDS. Unless the job requires security clearance, do not


ask an applicant whether he or she has been arrested or spent time in jail,
or use an arrest record to disqualify a person automatically. There are
several reasons for this. Various racial minorities are more likely than
whites to have arrest records. There is always a presumption of innocence
until proven guilty. Employment applications generally shouldn't contain
questions about applicants' disabilities, age, or U.S. citizenship.

Fair employment laws protect not just job applicants but also current
employees. For example, the Equal Pay Act requires that equal wages must
be paid for similar work performed by men and women. Therefore, courts
may hold that any employment practices regarding pay, promotion,
termination, discipline, or benefits that:
are applied differently to different classes of persons;
adversely impact members of a protected group;
cannot be shown to be required as a BFOQ or business necessity are
illegally discriminatory.

Employees sometimes file suits against employers’ dress and appearance


codes. They usually claim sex discrimination, but sometimes claim racial
or even religious discrimination. The samples are the following:

Dress. For example, Alamo Rent-A-Car lost a case when they tried to
prevent a Muslim woman employee from wearing a head scarf.

Hair. Here, courts usually favor employers. For example, employer rules
against facial hair discriminate only between clean-shaven and bearded
men, discrimination not qualified as sex bias.

Uniforms. When it comes to discriminatory uniforms, courts frequently


side with employees. For example, requiring female employees (such as
waitresses) to wear sexually suggestive clothes as a condition of
employment has been ruled as violating in many cases.

Tattoos and body piercings. Tattoos and body piercings are an issue at
work. One case involved a waiter with religious tattoos on his wrists at a
Red Robin Gourmet Burgers store. The company insisted he cover his
tattoos at work; he refused and claimed that covering the tattoos would be
a sin based on his religion.

3. Decide whether the following statements are true, false or information is


not available in the text:

3.1. Federal laws usually don't forbid provocative questions about an applicant's
race, color, religion, etc.

3.2. Courts usually favor employers when it comes to discriminatory hair

3.3. Requiring an applicant's arrest records can be discriminatory practice unless


the job requires security clearance.
3.4. Employment applications generally should contain questions about
applicants' disabilities, age, or U.S. citizenship.

3.5. There are more than two basic defenses employers use to justify their
employment practice.

3.6. Employers' attempts to show that their selection practice is valid is an


example of bona fide occupational qualification.

3.7. If a neutral employment practice creates an adverse impact, an applicant of


a minority group can become a victim of disparate impact.

4. The following sentence can be added to the text:

Before proceeding, we should review what federal fair employment laws


allow you to say and do.

Where would it fit best in the text?

5. Which of the following statements expresses the main idea of the text?

(A) The HR manager plays a great role in helping the company to avoid


discriminatory practices.

(B) It is useful to know discriminatory employment practices.

(C) There are specific discriminatory employment practices in recruitment,


selection, promotion and benefits.

(D) The HR manager should know what federal fair employment laws allow
(and do not allow) you to say and do.

6. Complete each sentence with one of the following words:

violations, unlawful, requirements, side with, gender, candidate, related

6.1. Physical requirements such as minimum height are … unless the


employer can show they’re job … .

6.2. When it comes to discriminatory uniforms, courts frequently …


employees.
6.3. However, there may be jobs of course for which educational … (such
as college degrees for pilot candidates) are a necessity.

6.4. ‘Help wanted – male’ and ‘help wanted – female’ ads are … unless …


is a bona fide occupational qualification for the job.

6.5. For example, it isn’t illegal to ask a job … about her marital status
(although such a question might seem discriminatory).

7. Discuss with your partner:

Discriminatory employment practices an employer can / can’t use in recruiting,


selection, promotion.

When can educational and physical requirements be job related and legal? Give
several examples.

Use the following phrases:

To my mind…
In my opinion…
Speaking of equal job opportunities…

Group activity

8. Look at the examples and match them with the correct types of
discrimination.

Nondiscrimination is the legal side of fairness. Illegal discrimination comes in


many forms, some obvious and some hard to spot. Here's what to avoid:

Overt discrimination (I don't like Xs)

Stereotyping (Xs can’t do smth)

Patronizing (Xs shouldn’t do smth)

‘Avoidance’ Discrimination

Playing favourites

Women aren’t strong enough.


If I can get in trouble talking to X, no problem. I’ll never talk to X.

My customers don’t like to work with women, ( old people, Asian people,
disabled people).

I’m comfortable to work with X, we’ve already done several prospective


projects.

Men aren’t compassionate enough.

I’m not promoting anyone over 40 – they don’t have enough energy.

Listening

9. Listen to the text College Majors using the link: http://esl-


lab.com/collegemajor/collegemajorrd1.htm

Choose the right answer:

1. Where does the conversation most likely take place?


A. in a college dormitory
B. in a university classroom
C. at the school's library

2. What year is the woman in college?


A. second year
B. third year
C. fourth year

Which statement is NOT true about her paying for college?


A. She is currently repaying student loans.
B. She has worked to earn college tuition.
C. She received a scholarship.

4. What is her future job situation?


A. She will work in her father's business after she graduates.
B. She wants to go on to graduate school the following month.
C. She hopes to have interviews with different companies soon.

5. What surprising information do we find out at the end of the conversation?


A. The woman is dating the man's business teacher.
B. Paul Jones, a college teacher, is the woman's father.
C. The man and woman are actually long-lost relatives.

Unit 10. Sexual Harassment in the Workplace


“Beauty provokes harassment, the law says,
but it looks through men's eyes
when deciding what provokes it.”
Naomi Wolf

Warm-up Activities

1. Discuss the following with your partner:

What behavior is harassing? Why do people sexually harass others? How can
they be identified?

Vocabulary

sexual harassment – сексуальные домогательства

demotion – понижение по должности

to refer to – зд. иметь отношение, относиться к

conduct– поведение, образ действий

purpose – намерение, цель

violence – жестокость, насилие

to interfere with – служить препятствием, мешать, быть помехой

hostile – враждебный, неприязненный

intimidating – пугающий, устрашающий, запугивающий

explicit – ясный, определенный, явный

overall – полностью, в общем и целом

to be liable – быть ответственным

advance – зд. предложение

party – зд. человек, субъект

to grant – уступать, разрешать, давать согласие


2. Match the words with their definitions:
1. demotion to give someone a less important job / position

2. cease to leave a job permanently

3. quid pro quo important and noticeable

4. rejection to stop happening or continuing; an order issued by a court or


a government agency which prohibits anenterprise from
5. tangible engaging in a certain venture or from continuing an existing
one
6. to quit a job
to do something illegal or morally wrong
7. to commit a crime
something for something
8. attorney
a lawyer
9. submission
to make sure that something stays at the same level, rate, or
10. to maintain standard
workplace
something such as a proposal or a form that has been given to
someone to process or to consider further

a refusal to accept, approve, or support something

Text: Sexual Harassment in the Workplace: Identify. Stop. Prevent

Under Title VII of 1964 Civil Rights Act, sexual harassment generally
refers to harassment on the basis of sex when such conduct has the purpose
or effect of interfering with a person’s work performance or creating an
intimidating, hostile or offensive work environment. The law’s guidelines
emphasize that employers have a duty to maintain workplaces free of
sexual harassment and intimidation.

Minority women are most at risk. One study found women experienced
more sexual harassment than men, minorities experienced more ethnic
harassment than whites, and minority women experience more harassment
than majority women.
The law defines sexual harassment as unwelcome sexual advances,
requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual
nature that takes place under any of the following conditions:

Submission to such conduct is made either explicitly or implicitly a


condition of an individual’s employment. 

Submission to or rejection of such conduct by an individual is used as the


basis for employment decisions affecting such individual. 

Such conduct has the purpose or effect of unreasonably interfering with an


individual’s work performance or creating an intimidating, hostile, or
offensive work environment. 

There are three main ways someone can prove sexual harassment.

Quid Pro Quo. The most direct is to prove that rejecting a supervisor’s
advances affected such employment actions as hiring, firing, promotion,
demotion, and work assignment. In one case, the employee showed that her
job success was dependent on her agreeing to the sexual demands of her
supervisors.

Hostile Environment Created by Supervisors. One need not show that the
harassment had tangible consequences such as demotion. For example, in
one case the court found that a male supervisor’s sexual harassment had
affected a female employee’s emotional and psychological ability to the
point that she felt she had to quit her job. That was enough to prove sexual
harassment. Courts generally do not interpret as sexual harassment sexual
relationships that arise during the course of employment but that do not
have a substantial effect on that employment. The U.S. Supreme Court also
held that sexual harassment law doesn’t cover ordinary intersexual
flirtation.

Hostile Environment Created by Coworkers or Nonemployees. The


questionable behavior doesn’t have to come from the person’s supervisor.
For example, one court held that a sexually provocative uniform attracted
customers. When the employee said she would no longer wear the uniform,
they fired her. The employer couldn’t show there was a job-related
necessity for requiring the uniform, and only female employees had to
wear it. The court thus ruled that the employer, in effect, was responsible
for the sexually harassing behavior.
What can the employee do? In this context, steps an employee can take
include:

1. File a verbal complaint with the harasser and the harasser’s boss, stating
that the unwanted overtures should cease because the conduct is
unwelcome.

2. If the unwelcome conduct does not cease, file verbal and written reports
regarding the unwelcome conduct and unsuccessful efforts to get it to stop
with the harasser’s manager and / or the human resource director. 

3. If the letters to the employer do not help, the accuser should turn to the
court to file the necessary claim. In very serious cases, the employee can
also consult an attorney. 

3. Decide whether the following statements are true, false or information is


not available in the text:

3.1. Three main ways to prove sexual harassment include quid pro quo, hostile
environment created by supervisors, and hostile environment created by
coworkers who are not employees.

3.2. One study found women experienced more sexual harassment than
men, no matter what ethnic group they belonged to.

3.3. In this context an employee should start with filing a necessary claim at the
court and if necessary consulting an attorney.

3.4. If supervisor’s sexual advances make a female employee quit her job
affecting her psychological and emotional abilities, the court finds it an example
of sexual harassment.

3.5. Hostile environment sexual harassment occurs when employment


decisions or expectations - hiring decisions, promotions, salary increases,
work assignments, or performance evaluations - are based on an
employee’s willingness to grant or deny sexual favors.

3.6. If an individual’s submission to sexual advances isn’t used as the basis for
employment decisions the court doesn’t define it as sexual harassment.

3.7. Courts must carefully distinguish between simple teasing and truly
abusive behavior.
4. The following sentence can be added to the text:

Hostile environment sexual harassment generally means that the


intimidation, and insults were sufficiently severe to alter the working
conditions.

Where would it fit best in the text?

5. Which of the following statements expresses the main idea of the text?

(A) Although sexual harassment has been declared illegal, several problems


concerning the prevention and handling of sexual harassment continue to bother
workers and employers, both men and women.

(B) The purpose of the article is to define sexual harassment and offensive


behaviors that can be considered harassment, identify each type of harassment
and stop it if it does happen.

(C) It is each and every person’s responsibility to prevent sexual harassment in


the workplace.

(D) Sexual harassment is a sensitive topic few people can address without


embarrassment.

6. Complete each sentence with one of the following words: conduct, affect,
rejecting, ethnic, ability, experienced, employment actions, complaint

6.1. The most direct is to prove that … a supervisor’s advances affected


such … as hiring, firing, promotion, demotion, and/or work assignment.

6.2. One study found women … more sexual harassment than men,


minorities experienced more ethnic harassment than whites.

6.3. Submission to or rejection of such … by an individual is used as the


basis for employment decisions … such individual.

For example, in one case the court found that a male supervisor’s sexual
6.4. 

harassment had affected a female employee’s emotional and psychological


… to the point that she felt she had to quit her job.

6.5. File a verbal … with the harasser and the harasser’s boss, stating that
the unwanted overtures should cease because the conduct is unwelcome.

7. Discuss with your partner:


Everyone loses when sexual harassment occurs. It affects productivity and
lowers morale at all levels of an organization. Most importantly, it can even
result in a lawsuit. Everyone has the right to work in an environment free from
sexual harassment and to be evaluated on his or her work performance.

What is the difference between sexual attraction and sexual harassment?

Who is the most frequent victim of sexual harassment?

Use the following phrases:


To my mind…
In my opinion…
Speaking of equal job opportunities…

8. Group activity

Identifying sexual harassment

8.1. Connie has known for some time about the affairs between some women
and their bosses. Furthermore, these women have received perfect reviews while
other, more-deserving employees have not. When Connie comes up for a
promotion, it is made clear that “socializing” will be part of the new job. She
rejects the offer, receives a poor performance appraisal and loses an opportunity
for an increase in salary. Is Connie sexually harassed?

8.2. Clare and Mark work for a company. They are often together on special
projects and spend a considerable amount of time together. Mark is attracted to
Clare and has asked her out on several occasions. Clare repeatedly rejects his
offer, but Mark believes in the theory that persistence will win out, so he keeps
asking. Is Mark sexually harassing Clare?

8.3. Max’s boss, Shirley, invites him to a bar after work to celebrate his record-
breaking production rate. However, when he arrives, he discovers that she is
sitting there all alone. After a brief discussion of his job performance and
chances for advancement, Shirley asks Max back to her house. Is Shirley
sexually harassing Max?

8.4. Linda is very attracted to her boss, Dan. Since they’re both single, she asks
him over to her house for dinner. After a very pleasant evening and a few too
many drinks, they wind up spending the night together. Can it be considered
sexual harassment?
Listening

9. Listen to the text Party Time using the link: http://www.esl-


lab.com/party/partrd1.htm

Choose the right answer:

1. Who is visiting Jori for the weekend?


A. her best friend
B. her brother Bob
C. her sister

2. What is Carol wearing?


A. a sweater
B. a red sweat shirt
C. a black blouse

3. What is Carol like?


A. She's sociable.
B. She's timid
C. She's very reserved.

4. What is Bob wearing?


A. a flashy suit jacket
B. a green tie
C. blue jeans

5. Jori knows Bob because:


A. they work together in the same office.
B. she is taking karate lessons from him.
C. they met at a party two months ago.
Unit 11. Ethics and Employee Rights
“It is not our differences that divide us.
It is our inabilities to recognize,
accept and celebrate those differences”

Warm-up Activities

1. Discuss the following with your partner:

What factors determine ethical behavior at work? Can you list the key ones?

Vocabulary

ethics – этика

to be inclined – зд. быть склонным, расположенным к чему-либо

finding – находка, обнаружение, полученные данные

to foster – зд. поощрять, благоприятствовать

to determine – определять, устанавливать

'smoking gun' – увольнение, отставка

to avoid – избегать, сторониться

punishment– наказание

to prompt – побуждать, толкать, внушать

to generalize – обобщать, сводить к общим законам

to resist – зд. сопротивляться, противостоять

judgement – зд. мнение, взгляд

to obey – подчиняться, повиноваться

strict – зд. Строгий

acceptable – зд. Приемлемый
2. Match the words with their definitions:

1. environment demonstrating respect for key moral principles that include


honesty, fairness, dignity and individual rights
2. wrongdoing
the place in which people live and work, including all the
3. 'bad case' physical conditions

4. a staffer ethical situation happened because of unethical choices

5. ‘bad barrels’ the negative values and behaviors that contribute to the
social and psychological environment of an organization
6. astray
behavior which is illegal or not moral
7. to conclude
a person who makes unethical choices
8. ethical behavior
to go wrong or do something wrong
9. 'bad apple'
to decide that something is true after looking at all the facts
10. to overload you have

to give someone too much work to do

a member of an organization

Text: What Shapes Ethical Behavior at Work

For many managers recruitment, placement, training, development, and


compensation are the heart of human resource management but employees
expect something more. They expect their employers to treat them fairly, and to
have a safe work environment.

A recent review of over 30 years of ethics research concluded that three factors
combine to determine the ethical choices a person makes. The authors titled their
paper bad apples, bad cases, and bad barrels. They concluded that no single
smoking gun determines ethical behavior. Instead, bad apples (people who make
unethical choices), bad cases (ethical situations happened because of unethical
choices), and bad barrels (environments which influence unethical choices)
combine to determine what a person’s ethical choices will be. The following
summarizes their overall findings:

Individual characteristics: Who are the bad apples? Some people just more tend
to make unethical choices. The most principled people, with the highest level of
cognitive moral development, apply ethical principles everywhere. However,
most adults don’t operate at this high level. Instead, most base their judgment
about what is right on the expectations of their colleagues and other important
people with whom they interact, or on company policies and what the law says.
People at the lowest level make their ethical choices based on obeying what
they’re told and on avoiding punishment.

Which ethical situations make for bad (ethically dangerous) cases or situations?
Some ethical dilemmas are more likely to be followed by unethical choices.
Surprisingly, apparently smaller dilemmas prompt more bad choices. In less
serious situations, it’s more likely that someone might say, in effect, ‘It’s okay
to do this, even though I know it’s wrong’.

What are the bad barrels? What outside factors shape ethical choices? These
researchers also concluded that employers create bad and good cultures (barrels)
that shape ethical behavior, for good or for ill. A strong ethical culture that
clearly shows the difference between acceptable and unacceptable behavior is
associated with fewer unethical decisions in the workplace.

The problem is it’s hard to generalize about the characteristics of ethical or


unethical people. Some studies suggest that age is a factor. Older workers
generally had stricter interpretations of ethical standards and made more ethical
decisions than did younger ones.

It’s hard to resist pressure from your boss. Examples of how supervisors
knowingly (or unknowingly) make subordinates behave unethically:
Tell staff members to do whatever is necessary to achieve results.
Overload top performers to ensure that work gets done.
Look the other way when wrong doing happens
Be dishonest.

3. Decide whether the following statements are true, false or information is


not available in the text:

3.1. People at the lowest level's choices depend on their fear of punishment.

3.2.There are more than three factors that determine employees' ethical choices.
3.3. People who do not make ethical choices are often called ‘bad apples’.

3.4. It's not easy to say 'not' to your boss' unethical suggestion.

3.5. Older employees make ethical choices more often than the younger ones

3.6. There's connection between small ethical dilemmas and serious bad choices.

3.7. Individual characteristics of employees determine their ethical choices.

4. The following sentence can be added to the text:

An ethics policy and code is a good way to signal that the firm is serious about
ethics.

Where would it fit best in the text?

5. Which of the following statements expresses the main idea of the text?

(A) Moral awareness, morality, goals and rewards influence ethical behavior.

(B) It's a vital part of manager's duties to support ethical behavior.

(C) The boss and how he / she shapes the organizational culture has a major
effect on ethical behavior.

(D) Training and ethics codes could help an employer to support ethical


behavior at work.

6. Complete each sentence with one of the following words: concluded,


suggest, apply, judgment, barrels, determine, development

6.1. The most principled people, with the highest level of cognitive moral …, …
ethical principles everywhere (development, apply).

6.2. A recent review of over 30 years of ethics research … that three factors
combine to … the ethical choices a person makes (concluded, determine).

6.3. Some studies … that age is a factor.

6.4. These researchers also concluded that employers create bad and good
cultures … that shape ethical behavior, for good or for ill.

6.5. Instead, most base their … about what is right on the expectations of their
colleagues.

7. Discuss the following questions with your partner:


You believe your employee is making unethical choices. How would you check
this and what would you do about it if it's true?

You believe your employer is making unethical choices. What would you do
about it if it's true?

Use the following phrases:

To my mind…
In my opinion…
Speaking of fairness and discipline at work…

8. Group discussion

Work in groups of 3 or 4. List five things done at your University to encourage


ethical behavior. Discuss it with other groups and compare your results.

Listening

9. Listen to the text College Life using the link: http://www.esl-


lab.com/intro2/intro2.htm

Choose the right answer:


1. What does the man want to do after he graduates?
A. He wants to become a teacher.
B. He hopes to go on to graduate school.
C. He’d like to work at a hotel.
What is the woman majoring in?
A. history
B. French
C. computer science

3. How does the woman pay for college?


A. She has a part-time job.
B. She received a scholarship.
C. Her parents are paying for it.
4. Where does the man work part-time?
A. at a bakery
B. in a library
C. at a restaurant

5. What thing did the man NOT say about his job?
A. His co-workers are friendly.
B. He works long hours.
C. The pay is okay.

10. Discuss with your partner:

When you choose the University, there are a number of things you have to
consider including location, cost and the reputation of the University. What
factor is the most important to you?

Finding the right University is a long process, and advertisements often make
the process less difficult. What advertising techniques do universities use to get
the attention of prospective students? What factors are important to you when
choosing a University? Compare the Web sites of two Universities that provide
the types of education you are looking for. Evaluate them based on the cost of
tuition, the reputation and experience of the instructional staff.

Interview another student about the topics below:

online education programs

entrance requirements and exams

classroom environment

teacher-student relationship

part-time employment

Unit 12. Managing Dismissals


“The key to being a good manager
is keeping the people who hate you
away from those who are still undecided”
Casey Stengal
Warm-up Activities

1. Discuss the following with your partner:

Explain what is meant by ethical behavior at work.

Give at least four important factors in managing dismissals effectively.

Vocabulary

fair– зд. справедливый, беспристрастный

fairness – зд. справедливость, беспристрастность

sufficient – достаточный, удовлетворительный

dismissal – зд. увольнение, отставка

to dismiss – зд. увольнять, распускать

termination of employment – увольнение, отставка

to take to court – вызвать кого-либо в суд

misconduct – плохое исполнение своих обязанностей, должностное


преступление

background – зд. истоки, происхождение, биографические данные

ability – зд. способность, возможность

inability – неспособность, невозможность

to reduce – сокращать; понижать в должности

ethics – этика, мораль

to enhance – зд. усилить, увеличить

2. Match the words with their definitions:


1. assessment test for survey conducted with an individual who is leaving an
employment organization

2. unsatisfactory an examination made to determine whether an applicant is a


performance
3. organizational good fit for a position or not
culture
to obey written rules, limits, approved and monitored by an
4. exit interview organization

5. duties the values and behaviors that contribute to the social and
psychological environment of an organization
6. termination at will
behavior in which you refuse to obey or show respect for
7. insubordination someone who has authority over you

8. layoff behavior connected with inability to complete work


assignments or correct mistakes in a reasonable amount of
9. downsizing time
10. to meet standards means an employer can fire an employee for a good or a bad
reason, or for no reason at all

a situation in which an employer ends a worker’s


employment, especially temporarily, because there is not
enough work for them

things that you have to do as part of your job

making a company or organization smaller by reducing the


number of workers

Text: Managing Dismissals

Dismissal or termination is the most traumatic disciplinary step the employer


can take. Because of this, it requires special care. There should be sufficient
cause for the dismissal, and you should only dismiss someone after taking
reasonable steps to rehabilitate the employee. However, there will be times
when dismissal is required, perhaps at once.

The best way to handle a dismissal is to avoid it in the first place. Many
dismissals start with bad hiring decisions. Using effective selection practices
including assessment tests, reference and background checks, drug testing, and
clearly defined job descriptions can reduce the need for many dismissals.
Dismissals are never pleasant. However, there are three things to do to make
them fair. First, individuals who said that they were given full explanations of
why and how termination decisions were made were more likely to perceive
their layoff as fair and indicate that they did not wish to take the past employer
to court. Second, institute a formal multistep procedure (including warning) and
a neutral appeal process. Third, who actually does the dismissing is important.
Employees in one study whose managers informed them of an impending layoff
viewed the dismissal procedure as much fairer than did those told by, say, a
human resource manager.

There are four bases for dismissal: unsatisfactory performance, misconduct, lack
of qualifications for the job, and changed requirements of the job.

Unsatisfactory performance means persistent failure to perform assigned duties


or to meet prescribed job standards. Specific grounds include a persistent failure
to meet normal job requirements, or an adverse attitude toward the company,
supervisor, or fellow employees.

Misconduct is willful violation of the employer’s rules and may include stealing,
rowdy behavior, and insubordination. Sometimes the misconduct is more
serious, as when it causes someone else harm.

Lack of qualifications for the job is an employee’s inability to do the assigned


work although he or she is diligent. If the employee may be trying to do the job,
it is reasonable to assign the person to another job.

Changed requirements of the job refers to an employee’s inability to do the job


after the employer changed the nature of the job.

Many employers conduct exit interviews with employees who are leaving the
firm for any reason. These are interviews, usually conducted by a human
resource professional just prior to the employee leaving; they elicit information
about the job or employer with the aim of giving employers insights into what is
right or wrong about their companies. Exit interview questions include, ‘Why
did you join the company?’, ‘Was the job presented correctly and honestly?’

Were there any special problem areas? Women and minorities are more likely to
quit early in their employment, so this might be one specific issue for which to
watch.

3. Decide whether the following statements are true, false or information is


not available in the text:
3.1. Exit interviews are determined to get information about a company from
employees who are leaving for any reason.

3.2. There are so many bases for dismissal that it's almost impossible to name all
of them.

3.3. Bad hiring decisions may cause a dismissal.

3.4. Changed requirements of the job refers to an employee's lack of


qualifications for the job.

3.5. Women and elder people are likely to quit early in their employment.

3.6. Misconduct includes stealing, rude behavior, and even causes someone else
harm.

3.7. Insubordination is an example of misconduct.

4. The following sentence can be added to the text:

Fairness in dismissals is enhanced when employees get explanations of


why and how determination decisions were made.

Where would it fit best in the text?

5. Which of the following statements expresses the main idea of the text?

(A) The main purpose of the text is to explain the manager’s role for employees’
discipline and dismissals.

(B) Managers should take special care in solving problems connected with


women and minorities employment.

(C) Managers should always take special care in managing dismissals as


dismissals may be traumatic for both the manager and the employee.

(D) Managing employee discipline is an important managing skill.

6. Complete each sentence with one of the following words:


termination, duties, handle, layoff, conduct, failure, requirements
6.1. The best way to … a dismissal is to avoid it in the first place.

6.2. Unsatisfactory performance means persistent … to perform assigned


… or to meet prescribed job standards.

3. Individuals who were given full explanations of why and how …


6.

decisions were made were more likely to perceive their … as fair.

4. Specific grounds include a persistent failure to meet normal job … .


6.

6.5. Many employers … exit interviews with employees who are leaving


the firm for any reason.

7. Discuss with your partner:

How would you ensure fairness in disciplining, without punishment approach?

Provide examples of behavior that would probably be unethical but legal, and
examples of behaviour that would probably be illegal but ethical.

Use the following phrases:


To my mind…
In my opinion…
Speaking of fairness and discipline at work…

Listening

8. Listen to the text Apartments for Rent using the link: http://www.esl-
lab.com/live/liverd1.htm

Choose the right answer:


1. What is the main topic of the conversation?
A. problems with living in an apartment
B. a search for a new apartment
C. the cost of rent near universities
2. Why doesn't Ann like her current apartment?

A. It's too expensive.

B. The neighborhood is noisy.

C. It's located some distance from school.


3. How much money does Ann want to pay for rent?

A. no more than $200

B. around $200

C. a little more than $200

4. What kind of place is she looking for?

A. somewhere that is within a short driving distance of campus

B. an apartment with furniture already in it

C. a place where she can live alone

5. How is Roger going to help her?

A. He is planning on calling a friend who owns an apartment building.

B. He will check the newspapers to see if he can find an apartment for rent.

C. He is going to visit an apartment building near his place.

Speaking
9. Discuss with your partner:

Some students look for cheap flats to rent but this isn't always possible. Others
choose to stay with their parents. What are the main things you look for in
selecting a place to live? Put them in order of importance to you and discuss
them with a partner.

Discuss the ideal living situation for students going to college or University.
Compare living with your parents and renting a flat. What are advantages and
disadvantages in terms of money, price, privacy and space?

Unit13. Employee Safety and Health


“Chance takers are accidents makers”

Warm-up Activities
1. Discuss the following with your partner:

Explain the difference between unsafe conditions and unsafe acts at workplace.

Explain what causes unsafe acts.

Vocabulary

to occur – случаться, происходить

proper – зд. правильный, должный, подходящий

improper – неподходящий, неуместный, неправильный, неисправный

to guard – охранять, защищать

safe – безопасный, надежный

unsafe – ненадежный, опасный

hazard – риск, опасность

hazardous – рискованный, опасный

truck – грузовой автомобиль, вагонетка, открытая товарная платформа

wheelbarrow – тачка

saw – пила

gear – механизм, аппарат, шестерня

ladder – лестница (приставная, веревочная)

scaffold – леса, подмостки

storage – склад, хранилище, хранение

congestion – куча, скопление, перегруженность

2. Match the words with their definitions:


1. chance occurrence not thinking about possible bad affects of your actions

2. to prevent to try to find something such as an answer or a reason


3. to seek to stop something from happening

4. insufficient a number of things arranged in a line

5. reckless something that worries you

6. trait something that happens, especially something unexpected

7. rank likely to do something or be affected by something,


especially something bad
8. prone
a reason for behaving in a particular way or for feeling a
9. cause particular emotion

10. concern a particular quality in someone’s character

not enough

Text: What Causes Accidents?

There are three basic causes of workplace accidents: chance occurrences,


unsafe conditions, and employees unsafe acts. Chance occurrences (such as
walking past a window just as someone hits a ball through it) are more or
less beyond management’s control. We will therefore focus on unsafe
conditions and unsafe acts.
What causes unsafe conditions and other work-related safety problems?
Unsafe conditions are a main cause of accidents. They include:
- Improperly guarded equipment 
-  Defective equipment 
- Risky procedures in, on, or around machines or equipment 
- Unsafe storage - congestion, overloading 
- Insufficient light 
- Improper ventilation, insufficient air change

The solution here is to identify and eliminate the unsafe conditions. The
main aim is to address these mechanical and physical accident-causing
conditions.

DANGER ZONES. While accidents can happen anywhere, there are some
high-danger zones. About one-third of industrial accidents occur around
trucks, wheelbarrows, and other handling and lifting areas. The most
serious accidents usually occur by metal and woodworking machines and
saws, or around transmission machinery like gears. Falls on stairs, ladders,
and scaffolds are the third most common cause of industrial accidents.
Hand tools and electrical equipment are other major causes of accidents. 
Certain jobs are more dangerous. For example, the job of crane operator
results in about three times more hospital visits than does the job of
supervisor.

Some of the most important working-condition related causes of accidents


involve workplace climate or psychology. A strong pressure to complete
the work as quickly as possible, employees who are under stress, and a
poor safety climate are some of the psychological conditions leading to
accidents.

Unsafe employee acts can undo even the best attempts to reduce unsafe
conditions. The problem is that there are no easy answers to the question of
what causes people to act recklessly. It may seem obvious that some
people are simply accident prone, but the research isn’t clear.  On closer
inspection it turns out some accident repeaters were just unlucky.  However,
there is growing evidence that people with specific traits may indeed be
accident prone. For example, people who are impulsive, sensation seeking,
extremely extroverted, are more likely to have accidents.

In practice, accident prevention refers to two basic activities: (1) reducing


unsafe conditions and (2) reducing unsafe acts. In large firms, the chief
safety officer is responsible for this. In smaller firms, managers, including
those from human resources, share these responsibilities.

3. Decide whether these statements are true, false or information is not


available in the text:

3.1. Reducing unsafe conditions is always an employer's first line of defense in


accident prevention.

3.2. Safety training reduces unsafe acts, especially for new employees.

3.3. Although reducing unsafe conditions is the best line of defense, human
misbehavior can destroy even the best safety efforts.

3.4. Sometimes human misbehavior is intentional, but sometimes it is not.

3.5. There are four basic courses of workplace accidents.


3.6. Unsafe conditions include things like walking past a window just as
someone hits a ball through it.

3.7. Typical hazards include chemicals, biohazards, and improperly designed


equipment, especially in lifting and handling areas.

4. The following sentence can be added to the text:

Safety and accident prevention concerns managers for several reasons, one
of which is the growing number of workplace accidents.

Where would it fit best in the text?

5. Which of the following statements expresses the main idea of the text?

(A) Safety, as are ethics are labor relations, is an important factor in the quality
of employees’ work lives.

(B) The main purpose of the topic is to explain three causes of accidents, as well
as techniques for preventing accidents.

(C) Safety and accident prevention concern managers for several reasons.

(D) More than 80% of the workers in the survey ranked workplace safety as
more important than minimum wages and sick days.

6. Complete each sentence with one of the following words:

acts, machines, unsafe, undo, most, eliminate, occur, complete, prevention

6.1. The solution here is to identify and … the unsafe conditions.

6.2. … employee acts can … even the best attempts to reduce …


conditions.

6.3. The … serious accidents usually … by metal and woodworking … and


saws, or around transmission machinery like gears, pulleys, and flywheels.

6.4. A strong pressure … the work as quickly as possible is one of the


psychological conditions leading to accidents.

6.5. In practice, accident … refers to two basic activities: (1) reducing


unsafe conditions and (2) reducing unsafe acts.
7. Discuss with your partner:

How can an employer reduce the occurrence of unsafe acts on the part of his/her
employees?

Describe at least five techniques for reducing accidents.

Use the following phrases:


To my mind…
In my opinion…
Speaking of equal job opportunities…

Listening

8. Listen to the text Airline Safety using the link: http://www.esl-


lab.com/airline/airlinerd1.htm

Choose the right answer:

1. What is the first item that the man has in his carry-on bag?
A. water
B. medication
C. a large bottle of shampoo 

2. The man is carrying a lighter because he _______.


A. enjoys smoking cigarettes
B. is worried about his safety
C. he forgot to take it out of his bag

3. The next illegal item the man has with him is __________. 
A. a live snake
B. firecrackers
C. a huge knife

4. The man received this item from ________.


A. a close friend
B. a relative
C. a stranger

5. The man doesn't know the airline's rules because ________. 


A. the sign was written in Chinese
B. he didn't see the sign
C. he wasn't paying careful attention

9. Discuss with your partner:

What items are not allowed for passengers to take on board the plane in your
country? What are the reasons for these rules? Describe some experience, good
or bad, that you have had at an airport or on board the plane. What happened?
What did you learn from the experience? Can it help you the next time you
travel?

Unit 14. Workplace Health Risks:


Problems and Solutions
Learn from others mistakes,
don’t have others learn from you
Warm-up Activities

1. Discuss the following with your partner:

Make a list of possible factors that create workplace stress.

Are workplace factors important? Explain your point of view.

Vocabulary

slippery – скользкий, ненадежный

mold – плесень, грибок

anthrax – сибирская язва

ergonomic – эргономичный, приспособленный

emission – выделение (тепла), излучение (света)

carbon dioxide – углекислый газ

entry – вход, проход, вступление (в организацию), занесение (в список)

emphasize – придавать особое значение, подчеркивать

fever – жар, лихорадка

to stagger – зд. потрясать, поражать

itchy – зудящий

downside – недостаток, минус

homicide – убийство, домашнее насилие

depletion – истощение, исчерпывание

remedy – средство от болезни, лекарство

2. Match the words with their definitions:


1. substance abuse a medical condition in which a person is so unhappy that they
cannot live a normal life
2. drug abuse
The use of physical force to harm someone, to damage
3. violence property, etc.

4. depression the practice of drinking too much alcohol or of taking illegal


drugs
5. infectious
the place in which people live and work, including all the
6. burnout physical conditions that affect them
7. issue the mental and physical condition of having no energy left, or
becoming sick after a period of very hard work
8. environment
one that can spread from one person to another
9. exposure hazard
any biological, chemical, mechanical, environmental agent
10. respiratory that is likely to cause harm or damage to humans

the use of illegal or dangerous drugs

a disease relating to the process of breathing air in and out

a subject that people discuss or argue about

Text: Workplace Health Risks

Most workplace risks aren’t as obvious as unguarded equipment


or slippery floors. Many are unseen hazards (such as mold) that the
company produces as part of its production processes. Other problems,
such as drug abuse, employees may create for themselves. Typical
workplace exposure hazards include chemicals and other hazardous
materials, temperature extremes, biohazards (including those that are
naturally occurring, such as mold, and man-made), and ergonomic hazards
(such as uncomfortable equipment).

With many employees travelling to and from international destinations,


monitoring and controlling infectious diseases has become an important
safety issue. Employers can take steps to prevent the entry or spread of
infectious diseases into their workplaces.
One of the downsides of opting for environmentally ‘green’ office
buildings is that the buildings can produce illnesses such as itchy eyes and
trouble breathing, a phenomenon called sick building syndrome. The
problem is that emissions from printers and photocopiers, left
unmonitored, can dramatically reduce air quality. The solution is to
institute continuous monitoring systems.

About two-thirds of people with an alcohol disorder work full-time.


Recognizing the alcoholic on the job is a problem. Early symptoms are
hard to classify. The supervisor is not a psychiatrist, and without
specialized training, identifying and dealing with the alcoholic is difficult.
For many employers, dealing with alcohol begins with substance abuse
testing.  Pre-employment tests pick up only about half the workplace drug
users, so ongoing random testing is important.

Problems such as alcoholism and drug abuse sometimes reflect underlying


psychological causes such as stress and depression. In turn, a variety of
workplace factors can lead to stress. These include work schedule, pace of
work, job security, route to and from work, workplace noise, poor
supervision, and the number and nature of customers or clients. Personal
factors also influence stress. Add to job stress the stress caused by non-job
problems like divorce, and many workers are problems waiting to happen.

Burnout is a phenomenon closely associated with job stress. Experts define


burnout as the total depletion of physical and mental resources caused by
excessive striving to reach an unrealistic work-related goal.

Smoking is a serious health and cost problem for both employees and
employers. In general, you can probably deny a job to a smoker as long as
you don’t use smoking as a surrogate for some other kind of
discrimination. Most employers these days ban indoor smoking, often
arranging small outdoor areas where smoking is permitted.
Violence against employees is an enormous problem at work. Homicide is
the second biggest cause of fatal workplace injuries. Jobs with a high
likelihood for violence include those jobs that involve physical care of
others or decisions that influence other people’s lives, handling guns,
security functions, physical control over others. Although men have more
fatal occupational injuries than women, the proportion of women who are
victims of assault is much higher. Testing can screen out workplace
aggressors. What do you do when confronted by an angry employee? Here
are some suggestions: make eye contact, stop what you are doing and give
your full attention, speak in a calm voice, let the person have his or her say;
ask for specific examples of what the person is upset about; listen.

3. Decide whether the following statements are true, false or information is


not available in the text:

3.1. Violence is hardly associated with jobs that involve physical care of others,
handling guns, security functions.

3.2. An employer can deny a job to a smoker.

3.3. Depression is a serious problem at work as depressed people tend to have


worse safety records.

3.4. Problems such as alcoholism and drug abuse sometimes reflect


underlying physiological causes.

3.5. As many employees travel to and from international destinations it is almost


impossible to monitor and control infectious disease they can have.

3.6. Burnout is a phenomenon closely associated with job stress.

3.7. Unseen hazards such as mold are the most dangerous types of hazards.

4. The following sentence can be added to the text:

Employee depression is a serious problem at work.

Where would it fit best in the text?

5. Which of the following statements expresses the main idea of the text?

(A) Managers need to be familiar with alcoholism, substance abuse, and their


manifestations at work and particularly be familiar with signs of such problems
and know how to deal with them.

(B) We explain important employee health problems such as workplace


violence, alcoholism and drug abuse, smoking, depression.

(C) Typical workplace exposure hazards can be very dangerous to workers'


health and safety.
(D) The major sources of workplace exposure hazards are explained in the
article.

6. Complete each sentence with one of the following words:

reflect, associated, downsides, hazards, production, stress, against, produce,


causes

6.1. Problems such as alcoholism and drug abuse sometimes … underlying


psychological … such as stress and depression.

6.2. One of the … of opting for environmentally ‘green’ office buildings is


that the buildings can … illnesses such as itchy eyes and trouble breathing,
a phenomenon some call sick building syndrome.

6.3. Many are unseen … (such as mold) that the company produces as part
of its … processes.

6.4. Burnout is a phenomenon closely … with job … .

6.5. Violence … employees is an enormous problem at work.

7. Discuss with your partner:

Read Appendix 1 and get familiar with background facts that can refer to a
potential aggressive employee. Describe the steps employers can take to reduce
workplace violence.

Explain how you would reduce stress at work. Look at Appendix 2 for more
ideas.

Use the following phrases:

To my mind…
In my opinion…
Speaking of equal job opportunities…

Appendix 1. A list of background facts suggested the need for a more in-
depth investigation

An unexplained gap in employment. 

Incomplete or false information in CV.


A negative, unfavorable or false reference.

Violent behavior on the job. 

A criminal history involving violent behavior.

Drug or alcohol abuse. 

Indications of instability in the individual’s work or personal life, for example,


frequent job changes or geographic moves. 

Lost licenses or accreditations.

Appendix 2. Ways to reduce job stress

Build rewarding, pleasant, cooperative relationships with colleagues and


employees.

Build an especially effective and supportive relationship with your boss.

Negotiate with your boss for realistic deadlines on important projects.

Find time every day for relaxation. 

 Find ways to reduce unnecessary noise.

Get more and better quality sleep.

Meditation is another option. Choose a quiet place with soft light and sit
comfortably. Meditate by focusing your thoughts (for example, count breaths or
visualize a beach). When your mind wanders, bring it back to focusing your
thoughts on your breathing.

8. Listening

Listen to the text Medical Advice using the link: http://www.esl-


lab.com/office/offrd1.htm

Choose the right answer:


1. What is the man's name?
A. Russell
B. Randall
C. Ronald
2. From the conversation, how did the man probably find out about Dr. Carter?

A. He saw the office on his way home from work.

B. A friend referred him to Dr. Carter's office.

C. He found Dr. Carter's number in the phone book.

3. What time does he schedule an appointment to see Dr. Carter?

A. Tuesday

B. Wednesday

C. Thursday

4. Why does the man want to see the doctor?

A. He hurt his knee when a tall ladder fell on him.

B. He injured his ankle when he fell from a ladder.

C. He sprain his hand when he fell off the roof of his house.

5. What does the receptionist suggest at the end of the conversation?

A. The man should put some ice on his injury.

B. The man needs to come into the office right away.

C. The man ought to take it easy for a few days.

Speaking

9. Group Activity

Working in groups, make a list of the factors at work or in school that create
stress for you. What methods do you use for dealing with the stress?
10. Debate Activity

A crane collapsed on a construction site in Moscow region killing two


workers. Do you think catastrophic failures like this are avoidable? If so,
what measures should be taken to avoid disasters like this?

11. Role Play. How safe is my University?

Purpose: The purpose of this exercise is to give you practice in identifying


unsafe conditions.

Work in groups. Assume that each group is a safety committee retained by


your University's safety engineer to identify and report on any possible unsafe
conditions in and around the University building. A spokesperson for each
group should list the unsafe conditions you have identified.

Unit 15. Insurance Benefits


“You don't need miracles in the west. You have insurance”

Warm-up Activities

1. Discuss the following with your partner:

Describe main insurance benefits. What types of insurance do you know?

Vocabulary

monetary – денежный, валютный, финансовый

injury – травма, повреждение, рана, ушиб

to depend on – зависеть от, полагаться на кого-либо, что-либо

dependent –  зд. иждивенец

medical – медицинский, врачебный, лекарственный

surgical – хирургический, операционный

to furnish – предоставлять, снабжать

eligible – подходящий, приемлемый
surgery – хирургия, операция, хирург

goggle –  защитные очки

to arise – возникать, происходить, вытекать

to entitle – давать право

to obtain – получать, достигать, обретать, добиваться

hospitalization – госпитализация

life insurance – страхование жизни

disablement – инвалидность, утрата трудоспособности

voluntary– добровольный

required – необходимый, обязательный

2. Match the words with their definitions:


1. premium a level that is typical of a group, class, or series: a middle
point between extremes
2. accident-prone
the amount of money that is needed to pay for something
3. cost
tending to have many accidents
4. trigger
something such as a building, that is built for a specific
5. charges purpose

6. expense an amount of money that someone asks for in return for


providing or doing something
7. average
the amount paid for insurance
8. facility
the amount or equivalent paid or charged for something
9. insurance
something that is done or given to make up for damage,
10. compensation trouble

an agreement in which a person makes regular payments to a


company and the company promises to pay money if the
person is injured or dies, or to pay money equal to the value
of something (such as a house or car) if it is damaged, lost, or
stolen

something that causes something else to happen

Text: Insurance Benefits

Most employers provide a number of required or voluntary insurance


benefits, such as workers’ compensation and health insurance. Workers’
compensation can be monetary or medical. In the event of a worker’s death
or disablement, the person’s dependents receive a cash benefit based on
prior earnings, usually one-half to two-thirds the worker’s average weekly
wage, per week of employment. Most states have a time limit, such as 500
weeks for which benefits can be paid. If the injury causes a specific loss
(such as an arm), the employee may receive additional benefits based on a
list of losses, even though he or she may return to work. In addition to
these cash benefits, employers must furnish medical, surgical, and hospital
services as required for the employee.

For workers’ compensation to cover an injury or work-related illness, one


must only prove that it arose while the worker was on the job. It does not
matter that he or she may have been at fault; if the person was on the job
when the injury occurred, he or she is entitled to workers’ compensation.
For example, suppose you instruct all employees to wear safety goggles
when at their machines. One worker does not and experiences an eye
injury on the job. The company must still provide workers’ compensation
benefits.

It is important to control workers compensation claims (and therefore


costs). The employer’s insurance company usually pays the claim, but the
costs of the employer s premiums reflect the amount of claims.

There are several ways to reduce workers compensation claims. Screen out
accident-prone workers. Reduce accident-causing conditions in your
facilities. Reduce the accidents and health problems that trigger these
claims, for instance, by instituting effective safety and health programs.

Most employer health plans provide at least basic hospitalization and


surgical and medical insurance for all eligible employees at group rates.
Insurance is generally available to all employees, including new ones,
regardless of health or physical condition. Most basic plans pay for
hospital room and board, surgery charges, and medical expenses.

Mental health costs are rising. Reasons include widespread drug and
alcohol problems, an increase in states that require employers to offer
minimum mental health benefits, and the fact that mental health claims
tend to trigger other health care claims.

In addition to hospitalization and medical benefits, most employers provide


group life insurance plans. Employees can usually obtain lower rates in a
group plan and group plans usually accept all employees, regardless of
health or physical condition.

3. Decide whether the following statements are true, false or information is


not available in the text:

3.1. Insurance benefits can be divided into required and voluntary ones.

3.2. Insurance is generally unavailable to new employees.

3.3. Health and physical condition of an employee is an important factor when it


comes to a health plan an employer can provide to him or her.

3.4. Most employers' health plans cover hospitalization, surgery charges and
medical expenses, such as doctors' visits to the hospital.

3.5. Many employers offer membership in a health maintenance organization as


a medical insurance option.

3.6. There is a connection between the amount of workers' compensation claims


and the costs of employer's premiums.

3.7. If an employee's injury is her or his fault, it is not covered by workers'


compensation program.

4. The following sentence can be added to the text:

In any case, most firms provide holiday, sick leave, and vacation benefits
to part-timers, and more than 70% offer some form of health care benefits
to them.

Where would it fit best in the text?


5. Which of the following statements expresses the main idea of the text?

(A) The article focuses on describing each of the main insurance benefits.

(B) The main purpose of the author is to discuss employees’ benefits.

(C) The author of the article discusses one of four main types of incentives plans
– insurance benefits (such as workers' compensation).

(D) The text presents a discussion of employees’ compensation.

6. Complete each sentence with one of the following words:

premium, benefits, to cover, on, average, prior, life, regardless, dependents,


claim

6.1.In addition to hospitalization and medical … most employers provide


group … insurance plans.

6.2. For workers’ compensation … an injury or work-related illness, one


must only prove that it arose while the worker was … the job.

6.3 Insurance is generally available to all employees, including new ones,


… of health or physical condition.

6.4. The employer’s insurance company usually pays the … but the costs
of the employer’s … reflect the amount of claims.

6.5. In the event of a worker’s death or disablement, the person’s …


receive a cash benefit based on … earnings, usually one-half to two-thirds
the worker’s … weekly wage, per week of employment.

7. Discuss with your partner:

Discuss the ways of controlling workers’ compensation costs and reducing


workers’ compensation claims.

Use the following phrases:


To my mind…
In my opinion…
Speaking of …

8. Group activity

You are applying for a job as a manager and are at the point of negotiating
salary and benefits. What questions concerning benefits would you ask your
prospective employer? Describe the benefits package you would like to get.

Listening

9. Listen to the text Home Security using the link: http://www.esl-


lab.com/homesecurity/homesecurityrd1.htm

Choose the right answer:


1. Based on the recording, where might the homeowner have been when the
theft occurred?
A. at school
B. at the supermarket
C. in the shower
2. What evidence do we have that a burglar entered the house?

A. a broken window in the bedroom

B. an unlocked door to the house

C. a mark of a person's shoe

3. According to the announcer, you should never leave a house key:

A. with a neighbor you don't know well.

B. in places a burglar might suspect.

C. inside your unlocked car.

4. Which of the following safeguards was NOT mentioned in protecting your


home?

A. putting in good lights around the house


B. setting up a neighborhood watch group

C. installing security cameras in your house

5. If you encounter an intruder in your house, what should you do according to


the commercial?

A. You should avoid the intruder if possible.

B. You should call the police after you find the burglar.

C. You should hide under your bed until the intruder leaves.

10. Discuss with your partner:


Home owners should always take precautions to protect their places from
burglars and theft. In addition to home alarm systems, what are other ways that
you can do to protect your home from crime?
Use the Internet to find other ideas on how to make your place safer. Are
there certain crime-prevention methods that you might see in one culture, but
you wouldn't see them in other countries?

PART 2
READER
“The highest reward for work for a person’s toil

is not what they get for it

but what they become by it”

1. The Foundations of Human Resource Management


Human Resource management (HRM) is the set of organizational activities
directed at attracting, developing and maintaining an effective workforce. It is
recognized for its strategic importance because human resources are critical for
effective organizational functioning. HRM (or personnel, as it is sometimes
called) used to have second-class status in many organizations but its
importance has grown in the last few years because of the recognition that
human resources are a valuable means for improving productivity, and the
awareness of the costs associated with poor human resource management.
Poor human resource planning can result in hiring followed by layoffs - costly in
terms of unemployment compensation payments and training expenses.
Outmoded recruitment practices can expose a firm to expensive and
embarassing legal action. Consequently, many firms are developing strategic
HR plans that are integrated with other strategic planning activities. Human
resource planning involves and forecasting the demand for, and supply of
labour.

Answer the following questions:


- What is HRM?
- What is HRM recognized for?
- Why has importance of HRM grown?
- What can poor resource planning result in?
- What are strategic HR plans integrated with?

2. Job Analysis
Job analysis is a systematic analysis of jobs within an organisation. A job
analysis results in two things:
- the job description lists including the duties and responsibilities of a job,
its working conditions; and the tools, materials, equipment, and information
used to perform it;
- the job specification lists including the skills, abilities, and other cre-
dentials and qualifications needed to perform the job effectively.
Job analysis information is used in many HR activities. For instance, knowing
about job content and job requirements is necessary to develop appropriate
selection methods and job relevant performance appraisal systems and to set
equitable compensation rates.
Human resource planning also means matching HR supply and demand. After
comparing the expected demand for human resources and internal supply,
managers can make plans to manage predicted shortfalls or overstaffing. If a
shortfall is predicted, new employees can be hired, present employees can be
retrained and transferred into understaffed areas. Individuals approaching
retirement can be convinced to stay on, or labour-saving or productivity-
enhancing systems can be installed.
If the organization needs to hire, the external labour-supply forecast helps
managers plan how to recruit according to whether the type of person needed is
readily available or scarce in the labour market. The use of temporary workers
(temps) also helps managers in staffing by giving them extra flexibility. If
overstaffing is expected to be a problem, the main options are transferring the
extra employees, not replacing individuals who quit, encouraging early
retirement, and laying off people.

Answer the following questions:

- What does job analysis result in?


- What do the job description lists include?
- What do the job specification lists include?
- What does human resource planning mean?
- How can the use of temporary workers help managers?

3. Importance of Human Resource Management


An organization cannot build a good team of working professionals without
good Human Resources. The key functions of the Human Resources
Management (HRM) team include recruiting people, training them, performance
appraisals, motivating employees as well as workplace communication,
workplace safety, and much more. The beneficial effects of these functions are
discussed recruitment and training
This is one of the major responsibilities of the human resource team. The HR
managers come up with plans and strategies for hiring the right kind of people.
They design the criteria which is best suited for a specific job description. Their
other tasks related to recruitment include formulating the obligations of an
employee and the scope of tasks assigned to him or her. Based on these two
factors, the contract of an employee with the company is prepared. When
needed, they also provide training to the employees according to the
requirements of the organization. Thus, the staff members get the opportunity to
sharpen their existing skills or develop specialized skills, which in turn will help
them to take up some new roles.

Answer the following questions:


- What are the key functions of the HRM team?
- What do HR managers design?
- What do tasks related to recruitment include?
- What do HR managers provide?
- How will specialized skills help the staff members?

4. Performance Appraisals
HRM encourages the people working in an organization, to work according
to their potential and gives them suggestions that can help them to bring about
improvement in it. The team communicates with the staff individually from time
to time and provides all the necessary information regarding their performances
and defines their respective roles. This is beneficial as it enables them to form an
outline of their anticipated goals in much clearer terms and thereby, helps them
execute the goals with best possible efforts. Performance appraisals, when taken
on a regular basis, motivate the employees.
Maintaining work atmosphere is a vital aspect of HRM because the
performance of an individual in an organization is largely driven by the work
atmosphere or work culture that prevails at the workplace. A good working
condition is one of the benefits that the employees can expect from an efficient
human resource team. A safe, clean and healthy environment can bring out the
best in an employee. A friendly atmosphere gives the staff members job
satisfaction as well.

Answer the following questions:

- How does HRM encourage people to work?


- What motivates the employees?
- Why is it important to maintain work atmosphere?
- What benefits can employees expect from a resource team?
- Why is a friendly atmosphere important for the staff?

5. Managing Disputes. Developing Public Relations

Disputes may arise between the employees and the employers. You can say
conflicts are almost inevitable. In such a scenario, it is the human resource
department which acts as a consultant and mediator to sort out those issues in an
effective manner. They first hear the grievances of the employees. Then they
come up with suitable solutions to sort them out. In other words, they take
timely action and prevent things from going out of hands.
The responsibility of establishing good public relations lies with the
HRM. They organize business meetings, seminars and various official
gatherings on behalf of the company in order to build up relationships with other
business sectors. Sometimes, the HR department plays an active role in
preparing the business and marketing plans for the organization too. Any
organization, without a proper setup for HRM is bound to suffer from serious
problems while managing its regular activities. For this reason, today,
companies must put a lot of effort and energy into setting up a strong and
effective HRM.  Aristotle told us that ‘the whole is more than the sum of its
parts’. This is certainly true when it comes to having all managers fully
understanding the organization’s documented Business Plan and ensuring the
alignment of management thinking… simply the process of ensuring that all
managers are working and driving the organization in the same direction.

Answer the following questions:

- Conflicts are inevitable, aren’t they?


- Why does the human resource department act as a consultant and
mediator?
- What action does HR department take to prevent things from going out
of hands?
- Is it important for all managers to drive in the same direction?

6. Human Resource Excellence


Human Resource Excellence is about "Improving the performance of
organizations through the performance of people”. Human Resource Excellence
is an International Standard, which allows Multinational Organizations to adapt
and implement the ethos and spirit of a common standard across its global
organization while appropriately reflecting localized cultures and practices. Any
organization of any size, public or private sector, commercial or not-for-profit,
can significantly benefit from the implementation of the Human Resource
Excellence Standard. The common dominator is that specially trained people are
employed to manage, develop and optimize the performance of organizations to
achieve goals and objectives. Human Recourse Excellence is a formal
international world Class HR development Standard with a strong focus on the
performance of the organization as its primary objective. It benefits from the
principles of the world’s best HR standards and frameworks together with the
thinking and experience of many leading academics and management
practitioners internationally. The Standard is governed by an independent expert
panel of leading academic, business management and HR experts to ensure the
highest levels in professionalism and best practice in operations.
Answer the following questions:

- What is Human Resource Excellence?


- What does Human Resource Excellence allow Multinational
Organizations to adapt and implement?
- What can any organization benefit from?
- What is the Standard governed and advised by?

7. Sections of the Standard


Human Resource Excellence is divided into six sections and each section is
developed into a series of statements against which the Standard is assessed:
- The Organization and the Business Plan
- Analysis of Peoples Training and Development Needs
- Planning Training and Development
- Delivery and Implementation of Training and Development Plans
- Converting Training and Development into Action and Habits
- The Work Environment
Virtually all training is about ‘Change Management’ and the big challenge is
not the delivery of good quality training, converting the knowledge into actions
and then to practicing these actions until they become habit. The main thing is
creating an environment in which new learning and resulting actions simply
‘become the way we do things around here’. The success of organizations is
dependent on the performance of its people. In this light, the optimization of
peoples’ knowledge, skills, attitude and behaviour together with cultivating the
best possible work environment must logically be our top priority as managers.

01Answer the following questions:

- How many sections is Human Resource Excellence divided into and


what are they?
- What does success of organization depend on?
- Why is it important to create new learning environment?
- What is top priority of managers?

8. Why is a Human Resources Department Important?

The question of whether a company needs a Human Resources (HR)


department is not a simple one to answer. Ask the question to a variety of
entrepreneurs, CEOs, and HR professionals and you’re likely to get a variety of
answers. For instance, many experts will tell you that the number of employees
in a company is the determining factor. A lot of companies with total employees
under 20 assume that they don’t need an HR department. Size isn’t the only
issue to think about. In reality, HR functions must be conducted for every
company, no matter how small or large.
Whether or not a company needs an HR department also depends on its
business category and the competitive challenges it faces. If you are a
manufacturing firm with a primarily blue-collar workforce or a company
employing unskilled workers, a small, in-house transactional-focused HR
department may satisfy your needs. Today many entrepreneurs realize that a
peak-performing, strategically focused HR operation can generate both savings
and profits for the businesses they serve.
The question of why a human resources department is important does not
have a simple answer. However, understanding the benefits of strategic HR will
help guide you in determining whether in-house HR, outsourced HR, or a
combination of the two best suits your business’ human resources needs.

Answer the following questions:

- Are HR functions conducted for every company?


- What challenges does the company face?
- Can strategically focused HR operation generate savings or profits?
- Why is HR department important?

9. Ways of Recruiting Personnel


There are many ways of recruiting personnel. Posting a list of vacancies on
the company noticeboard or publishing it in employee magazines is fairly
common and gives current employees the opportunity of applying for a position.
Similarly, a subordinate may be referred for a position by his or her superior.
Another means of recruiting internally is to search in the organization's
existing files. Some companies have a data base of their employees' skills and
special interests. Reviewing these files periodically may reveal employees who
are well-suited to a particular position. Although recruiting people within the
organization can have many advantages, it does have its limitations. If
companies wish to be dynamic it is essential to inject new blood from time to
time. Similarly, existing employees may not have the necessary skills that the
position requires. Consequently, it is often necessary to recruit people from out-
side the organization.
Radio and television advertising of vacancies is relatively underdeveloped in
most countries. Employment agencies may be another source of recruitment.
State-backed agencies compete with private agencies in many countries. In
general, private agencies charge a fee whereas public sector agencies offer
their services free of charge. Another difference is that private agencies tend to
offer more specific services. For example, they may specialize in a particular
area of recruitment such as temporary secretaries, middle managers or senior
executives. They may also include search services, otherwise known as
headhunting, or provide management consulting. Current employees are
sometimes encouraged to refer friends, family and ex-colleagues to fill a
particular vacancy. This is particularly true in occupations such as nursing where
there is a shortage of trained people. Other valuable sources of recruitment may
be university campuses, trade unions and professional organizations.

Answer the following questions:

- What forms of internal recruitment are mentioned in the text?


- Why do companies often recruit from outside the organization?
- What are disadvantages of internal recruitment?
- Which kinds of organizations are most likely to recruit through
referrals by existing employees?

10. Selection Process


Once you have a job opening, your first thoughts are likely to be internal
applicants. If you don't offer opportunities to existing employees, they're likely
to become demotivated and start looking elsewhere. But if you do need to recruit
externally, then you can use a variety of electronic and print media such as an
online posting on a jobs website, or a classified ad in a newspaper. You can also
use the services of a specialist employment agency, including headhunting firms
for senior managers.
Another source of new recruits is referrals, i.e. suggestions made by
colleagues, existing employees, etc. A workplace with too many friends results
in a group that resists supervision, socializes too much and causes problems if
conflicts arise.
Begin selection process by asking for and looking through CVs (or resumes),
then draw up a shortlist of candidates and call these people for interview. There
are a number of stages at the interview to go through:
- Begin by establishing rapport with the candidate. They will be nervous, and
you want to put them at their ease so that they can answer questions properly.
You can also check their ability to socialize and be friendly.
- Outline the company background and where the job fits.
- Encourage the candidate to talk about how their skills and experience are
relevant. Ask open-ended questions and keep the interview moving.
- Close the interview, and indicate to the candidate the next step and the
timeframe.
- Rate the candidate while they are fresh in your mind. Keep a record.
After the interview and depending on the job, there may be further tests.
These can include practical tests (of manual skills or computing skills) and
psychometric tests (e.g. problem-solving, decision-making, interpersonal skills).
Some large companies have special assessment centers to do these tests. Finally,
before selecting the best candidate and making a job offer, you may want to do
some background checks. At a minimum this involves calling former employers
who were listed by the candidate as references.

Answer the following questions:

- Why can employees become demotivated?


- What media and services can be used in external recruitment?
- What are the main stages of selection process?
- What tests are used in selection process?
- Why are background checks important for selecting the best candidate?

11. HRM (Human Resource Management) - HCM (Human Capital


Management)
First, there was «personnel» department. The people who worked there
made sure workers were paid on time and looked after recruitment. Then, in the
late 1980s and early 1990s, plain personnel re-branded itself as «human
resources». The people who worked there said they wanted to
ensure people management strategy was aligned with business strategy. In
January 2003, the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) asked deputy chair
of the Competition Commission «to look at ways in which organizations can
measure the quality and effectiveness of human capital management» (HCM).
The reason is productivity. The DTI believes the way people are managed is one
of the keys to the future of the UK's competitive position. In order to get more
companies to stop treating their employees as a cost and more as an important
ingredient in value creation, they needed to know how to measure «human
assets». Human capital management (HCM) is a strategic approach to people
management that focuses on the issues that are critical to success. According to
Richard Finn of Penna, an HR consultancy, the words «HRM» and «HCM» may
be used interchangeably, but with one important distinction. «HR» is usually
attached to the HR function. With HCM, it is clear you are referring to
something far bigger than the function.

Answer the following questions:

- When did personnel department rebrand itself as “human resources”?


- What happened in 2003?
- What is HCM?
- What is the difference between HRM and HCM?

12. Developing a Quality Workforce

Socialization is the process of influencing the expectations, behaviour,


and attributes of a new employee in a way considered desirable by the
organization. The aim of socialization in the HRM process is to help achieve the
best possible fit between the individual, the job, and the organization.
Socialization of newcomers begins with orientation - a set of activities designed
to familiarize new employees with their jobs, co-workers, and key aspects of the
organization as a whole. This includes clarifying the organizational mission and
culture, explaining operating objectives and job expectations, communicating
policies and procedures, and identifying key personnel.
The first six months of employment are often crucial in determining how
well someone is going to perform over the long run. It is a time when the
original expectations are tested, and patterns are set for future relationships
between an individual and employer. If orientation is neglected, newcomers are
left to fend for themselves during this critical period. On their own or through
casual interactions with co-workers, otherwise well-intentioned and capable
persons may learn inappropriate attitudes and behaviour.
Good orientation, by contrast, enhances a person's understanding of the
organization and adds a sense of common purpose as a member.

Answer the following questions:

- What is socialization?
- What is the aim of socialization?
- What is orientation?
- What does orientation include?
- Why are the first six months of employment crucial?

13. Training and Development

Training is a set of activities that provides the opportunity to acquire and


improve job-related skills. This applies to both initial training of employees and
to upgrading or improving their skills to meet changing job requirements.
On-the-job training occurs while an employee is at work. It takes place in
the work setting while someone is doing a job so much of this training is
informal. Off-the-job training takes place at locations away from a work site. It
is conducted in a controlled environment and allows focused study without
interruptions. Many organizations today are increasingly using computerized
and Web-based training.
Job rotation allows people to spend time working in different
jobs. Coaching occurs when an experienced person gives technical advice to
someone else. This can be done on a formal basis by supervisors or co-workers.
It can also occur more informally in the form of help spontaneously offered in
teams. Apprenticeship is a work assignment as understudy or assistant to
someone who already has the desired job skills.
Training also occurs through modelling, where someone demonstrates
through personal behaviour what is expected of others. One way to learn
managerial skills, for example, is to observe and practise the techniques of good
managers. Mentoring occurs when new or early-career employees are formally
assigned as to senior persons who then coach, model, and otherwise assist them
to develop job skills and get a good start in their careers.
Management development is a special form of off-the job training
designed to improve a person's knowledge and skill in management and
leadership. Managers learn by participating in the simulation that models the
pressures of daily work. The simulation is followed by discussion in which
participants give feedback to one another.

Answer the following questions:

- What is training?
- What does training apply to?
- When does on-the-job training take place?
- What environment is off-the-job training conducted in?
- What does job rotation allow people to do?
- What is modelling?

14. Flexibility and Inflexibility. Job Protection. Benefits


Many organizations are looking for ways of having more flexible
working. For example, temporary workers only work for short periods when
they are needed, either on a temporary contract with a company or through an
agency. Part-time workers work less than a full working week, and with job-
sharing two people share a particular job, each of them working part-time. This
kind of job flexibility can be encouraged so companies can hire and fire
employees easily. When letting people go companies only have to give them
two weeks' notice and relatively small redundancy payments: one week's salary
for every year worked. The government has reduced unemployment benefits, the
money paid to people without jobs. They say that all these measures make for a
flexible job market and encourage job creation. Critics say that this approach
leads to job insecurity, with employers able to get rid of employees too easily.
There are advanced industrialized countries with a very different
approach. Companies in trouble are only allowed to make employees redundant
after a long period of consultation. If employees are made redundant, they
receive generous redundancy payments and then unemployment benefits. People
need this sort of job protection, and trade unions are fighting hard to keep it.
Payments to employees such as sick pay, and parental leave when they have
time off following the birth of children, are also very generous.

Answer the following questions:

- Are many organizations looking for ways of having flexible working?


- Why is job flexibility encouraged?
- What do employees get when they are made redundant?
- What other payments do employees get?

15. Work-Life Balance

Some people are workaholics - they think about very little except work.
Others are looking for quality of life: less commuting, more time with their
families, etc. Journalists write about people rebalancing their lives. They may
work part-time, work from home, move to the country and so on. In a recent
survey 95 per cent of homeworkers said they have a better work – life balance or
home – work balance than when they were in-company because they can spend
more time with their families and on leisure activities. The survey also found out
that 82 per cent of homeworkers / or telecommuters / had more autonomy and
independence. They are able to organize their work and their time how they
want. Telecommuters complain that there is no boundary between work on the
one hand and personal life on the other because the two overlap. They also have
to admit that they feel lonely and isolated because they are out of contact with
others and there are no colleagues around them.

Answer the following questions:


- What sort of people are workaholics?
- What does quality of life involve for most people?
- How can people improve their quality of life?
- What did the recent survey show?

16. Issues in the Workplace


HR managers have to deal with many workplace issues. Small firms often
sort these things out informally. Most of these areas have legal requirements that
HR has to monitor, and the paperwork required for this may be a large part of
the work of the HR department.
Working hours and overtime
What about a situation where there is too much unpaid, unofficial
overtime? Is it always clear whether training and travel count as part of the job,
and whether working lunches count as «working hours»? HR could become very
unpopular with other managers if it tries to enforce the rules in these areas too
strictly.
Leave and absence
Again, the principles are clear but what happens when a sick child should
be looked after for several days? What happens if someone is missing work
because of serious personal problems? What happens if everyone wants to take
their holidays at the same time in the summer and there is no-one left in the
office? What happens if it has become the norm for people to leave work early
on Friday afternoon - but now the new CEO doesn't like it and wants HR to do
something about it?

Answer the following questions:

- What does the word ‘leave’ refer to?


- Can you expect to get a discount if you buy products produced by
your company?
- What is the difference between maternity leave and paternity leave?
- When can you take time off?

17. Health and safety. Disciplinary and dismissal procedures


There are statutory rules in this area, and every company has to maintain
minimum levels of hygiene and comfort. There are issues that HR might have
to deal with. Do all factory workers know the health and safety regulations? Are
all the procedures being followed? The answer to the last question is probably
«по» in most factories. Remember that if there is a serious workplace accident,
then the employee affected might have a major claim against the company.
An employee may have concerns or complaints about their work,
employment terms, working conditions or relationships with colleagues. If so,
they may want to discuss them or bring them formally to the attention of HR.
They will expect HR to address and resolve these grievances.
Some types of behavior called «gross misconduct» are so serious that they
are likely to lead to dismissal without notice. These might include fighting,
fraud, theft, etc. What happens if an employee wants to appeal against the dis-
cussion? What is the appeals procedure? For other less serious types of
behaviour, there may be a series of warnings given to the employee before
dismissal.
Answer the following questions:

- What issues do HR managers have to deal with?


- Why is it necessary for HR manager to make workers learn health and
safety regulations?
- What kind of employees’ grievances should HR manager be ready to
deal with?
- What does gross misconduct’ behaviour lead to?

18. Travel. Money. Time away from work

Commute to work means «travel regularly to and from work». The person


is a commuter. Staff and visitors use parking spaces in the office car park. A
company subsidizes you if it pays part of the cost of travel to work, meals, etc.
You get travel, food, entertainment, etc. on expenses if your company pays you
back for what you have spent. You get a staff discount if you can buy things
produced / provided by your company at a reduced price.

Time away from work


You use leave to talk about time that you are allowed to be away from
work. You can use a range of words before leave: annual leave / sick leave /
maternity leave. Annual leave is the holiday you get each year. You book and
then take annual leave.
Sick leave is time that you can be away from work because of illness.
Maternity leave is the time that a woman is away from work after having a baby.
Some companies also offer paternity leave to men who become fathers. You
also use time off to talk about time when you are allowed not to be at work. You
can sometimes take time off if you have worked more than your normal hours.

Answer the following questions:

- What does it mean to commute to work ?


- Can you expect to get a discount if you buy products produced by your
company?
- What does the word leave refer to?
- What is the difference between maternity leave and paternity leave?
- When can you take time off?

19. Safe Working Environment

The need to live in a safe and secure environment is one of the basic


needs. Security can be threatened (or guaranteed) in many different ways at
work. For example, individuals working in organizations with low accident rates
are more likely to feel secure about their safety on the job. People working on
relatively dangerous jobs can feel more secure if the organization is concerned
about their safety. On the other hand, announcements about coming or actual
layoffs are likely to increase feelings of insecurity concerning employment.
Stress is a person's adaptive response to a stimulus that places excessive
psychological or physical demands on him or her. The stimuli that cause stress
are called stressors. Organizational stressors are various factors in the workplace
that can cause stress. Some occupations are by nature more stressful than others.
Task demands are stressors associated with the specific job a person performs.
Security is another task demand that can cause stress. Someone in a relatively
secure job is not likely to worry too much about losing that position. If job
security is threatened, stress can increase dramatically.
Another reason for stress is overload. It occurs when a person has more
work to do than he or she can handle. The overload can be either quantitative,
when the individual has too many tasks to perform or too little time in which to
perform them, or qualitative, when the person may believe she or he lacks the
ability to do the job. The opposite of overload may also be undesirable - low
task demands can result in boredom and apathy just as overload can cause
tension and anxiety. Stress can lead to several positive and negative con-
sequences. If stress is positive, the result may be more energy, enthusiasm, and
motivation. When people experience too much stress at work, they may become
depressed or may find themselves sleeping too much or not enough. Stress may
also lead to family problems. The medical consequences of stress affect a
person's physical well-being.

Answer the following questions:

- When do people feel secure in their jobs?

- What factors can increase feelings of insecurity?

- What is stress? What causes stress?


- Does stress lead only to negative consequences?
- What is overload? What are the types of overload?
- Why can the opposite to overload be also stressful?

20. Compensation and Benefits


Сompensation system is a set of rewards that organizations provide to
individuals in return for their willingness to perform various jobs and tasks
within the organization. People who work for a business expect to be paid for
their time and their contributions. A major factor in retaining skilled workers is
a company's compensation system - the total package of rewards that it offers
employees in return for their labour.
Wages are paid for the time worked, it is compensation paid for worker's
labour. Workers who are paid by the hour receive wages. Salary is paid for
discharging the responsibilities of a job, it is compensation paid for performing
job responsibilities. Salaries are usually expressed as an amount paid per year or
per month.
Compensation and benefit systems help to attract qualified people to the
organization and retain them. In setting wage and salary levels, a company may
start by looking at its competitors' levels. A firm that pays less than its rivals
knows that it runs the risk of losing valuable personnel. Base compensation in
the form of salary or hourly wages can make the organization a desirable place
of employment. It can help get the right people into jobs to begin with. By
making outside opportunities less attractive, it can also help keep them there.
Unless an organization's prevailing wage and salary structure is competitive, it
will be difficult to attract and retain a staff of highly competent workers. A basic
rule is to study the labour market carefully and pay at least as much as and
perhaps a bit more than what competitors are offering.
The organization's employee-benefit programme also plays a role in
attracting and retaining capable workers: fringe benefits_are nonmonetary forms
of compensation (e.g. health plans; retirement plans). The additional nonwage or
nonsalary forms of compensation are also called perks and constitute some 30%
or more of a typical employee's earnings.

Answer the following questions:

- What does a compensation system usually include?


- What are the benefits of a properly designed and implemented
compensation system?
- Are nonsalary forms of compensation attractive to employees?
- What helps an organization to attract and keep capable workers?

GLOSSARY
A

ability – зд. способность, возможность

absenteeism – прогул, невыход на работу

acceptable – зд. приемлемый

accident – авария, несчастный случай


accomplish – выполнять, совершать, осуществлять, достигать, добиваться

achieving (ad) - достигающий, достигший, добивающийся

achieving (n) – достижение, получение

adaptable – адаптируемый, приспосабливаемый, адаптирующийся

advance – зд. предложение

adverse – неблагоприятный, негативный, побочный, отрицательный

adversely – неблагоприятно, отрицательно

aggressive – агрессивный, воинственный; энергичный, напористый,


настойчивый

agreement – соглашение, договор, контракт, согласие

ambiguous – двусмысленный, неопределенный, неясный

anthrax – сибирская язва

anxiety – тревога, обеспокоенность, страх, опасение, боязнь, волнение

apparel – одежда, наряд, одеяние

applicant – кандидат, претендент, соискатель, кандидатура

application – применение, использование

application form – заявка, анкета, форма заявки; форма заявления, бланк


заявления

apply for – претендовать

appointment – назначение; прием; свидание, встреча

appreciation –  признательность, благодарность

approach – принцип, метод

approachable – доступный, достижимый

appropriate – подходящий, соответствующий

approval – утверждение, одобрение


arise – возникать, происходить, вытекать

articulate (ad) – красноречивый; ясный, четкий

articulate (v) – ясно сформулировать, изложить

asbestos – асбест

assertive – напористый, настойчивый, самоуверенный

assimilate – уподоблять(ся), приравнивать, уподобить; освоить, впитать,


поглотить

assist – помогать, содействовать, способствовать

attire – наряд, платье

authoritive – авторитетный, весомый

authority (ad) – авторитетный

authority (n) – власть, авторитет; полномочия

avoid – избегать, сторониться

backfire – побочный эффект, обратный эффект

background – зд. истоки, происхождение, биографические данные

behavioral interview - поведенческое интервью (интервью, в котором


выясняются примеры из прошлого опыта кандидата, имеющие отношение
к должности, на которую он претендует; интервьюеры руководствуются
принципом: будущее поведение предсказывается по поведению в
прошлом; например, чтобы выяснить умение кандидата работать в
команде, его просят рассказать о самом лучшем по его мнению опыте
коллективной работы, а также, почему он считает этот опыт самым
успешным)
be inclined – зд. быть склонным, расположенным к чему-либо

be liable – быть ответственным

benefit – пособие, прибыль

board interview – собеседование с руководством (беседа кандидата на


должность с несколькими представителями руководства организации)

booth – киоск, стенд, павильон

carbon dioxide – углекислый газ

career-oriented – делающий карьеру, профессионально-ориентированный;


направленный на освоение определенной профессии;
профориентационный

clarity – зд. ясность

classified ad – тематическое объявление

clock-watcher – человек, не желающий пойти навстречу другому; человек,


который не любит работать и постоянно посматривает на часы (сленг)

cold calling – общение с неизвестным человеком с целью заинтересовать


его в продукте или услуге; продажи по телефону

college degree – диплом о высшем образовании

comitted to – преданный, приверженный

commercial bank – коммерческий банк

common – общий, единый, совместный; распространенный; простой,


обыкновенный, типичный

commute – смягчить

competence – компетентность, правомочность; квалификация;


способность, умение

competent – компетентный, сведущий, квалифицированный


competition – конкуренция; конкурс, соревнование

compile – зд. составлять, собирать

complain – выражать недовольство, подавать жалобу

complainant – жалобщик, истец

compress – сжать, сжаться; заархивировать

computer-aided interview - интервью, осуществляемое с помощью


компьютера (техника, позволяющая интервьюеру считывать вопросы с
монитора компьютера)

conduct– поведение, образ действий

confront – ставить перед, предъявлять требования

congestion – куча, груда, скопление, перегруженность

conscientious – добросовестный, совестливый, честный

consistent – последовательный, постоянный, стабильный

contribute – способствовать, содействовать; вносить вклад

convey – сообщать, передавать (мысль, идею, отношение)

convince – убеждать, уверять, доводить до сознания

cooperative – совместный, коллективный; сотрудничающий

coordinate – координировать, согласовывать

cost – стоимость

costly – дорогой, затратный

costs – затраты, издержки, расходы

court – суд, судебное заседание

coworker – коллега, сослуживец

creative – изобретательный, творческий

credit (n) – заслуга, честь; доверие, уважение


credit (v) – доверять, верить

crucial – решающий, ключевой, важный, принципиальный

culture-biased – с культурным уклоном

curriculum vitae (CV) – краткая биография

decision maker – лицо, принимающее решение; ответственное лицо;


директивный орган

deep – глубокий; серьезный, сильный

defend against – зд. защищаться, возражать (против обвинений)

defense – зд. защита (в суде legal)

degree – зд. звание, ученая степень

depend on – зависеть от, полагаться на кого-либо, что-либо

dependent –  зд. иждивенец

depletion – истощение, исчерпывание

design – проектировать, конструировать, предназначать

determine – определять, устанавливать

develop – развивать(ся), совершенствовать; разработать, создать

dexterity – ловкость, сноровка

direct (ad) – зд. непосредственный, личный

direct (v) – направлять, адресовать

disabled, the – инвалид

disablement – инвалидность, утрата трудоспособности

disagree – не соглашаться, спорить, расходиться во мнениях


discontented – недовольный, неудовлетворенный

discreet – сдержанный, осторожный, благоразумный, осмотрительный

dismiss – зд. увольнять, распускать

dismissal – зд. увольнение, отставка

distinguish – различать, распознавать, отличать

downgrade – принизить

downside – недостаток, минус

downsizing – сокращение, снижение

draw conclusion – высказывать суждение после рассмотрения всех фактов

dynamic – активный, энергичный

easy-going – спокойный

eligible – подходящий, приемлемый

emphasize – придавать особое значение, подчеркивать

employee – служащий, сотрудник

employer – работодатель, наниматель

employment agency – агентство по трудоустройству, кадровое агентство,


служба занятости

encourage – поощрять, стимулировать, подбадривать

energetic – энергичный, напористый, бодрый, активный

enhance – зд. усилить, увеличить

enterprising – предприимчивый, инициативный

enthusiastic – увлеченный, воодушевленный


entitle – давать право

entry – вход, проход, вступление (в организацию), занесение (в список)

ergonomic – эргономичный, приспособленный

establish – установить; создавать, учреждать, налаживать

ethics – этика, мораль

evaluate – оценить, дать оценку

even-tempered – уравновешенный

excused day off – отсутствие по уважительной причине

exhausted – измученный, обессиленный, изнуренный, вымотанный

expand – расширять, распространяться, растягивать

experienced – опытный, квалифицированный

explicit – ясный, определенный, явный

explore – исследовать, изучать, выяснять, узнать

extend – расширять, расширяться

extensive – обширный, большой; всесторонний, подробный

face (v) – сталкиваться, встретиться с кем-либо, чем-либо

fair – зд. справедливый, беспристрастный

fairness – зд. справедливость, беспристрастность

familiarize – знакомить(ся)

fault-finder – придирчивый человек; придира, критикан (сленг)

favor – благоволить
feedback – обратная связь, отзыв, комментарий

female – женщина

fever – жар, лихорадка

finding – находка, обнаружение, полученные данные

flexibility – гибкий подход, маневренность

flexible – уступчивый

flextime – гибкий, скользящий график

foster – зд. поощрять, благоприятствовать

free trade – cвободная торговля, беспошлинная торговля

functionary – чиновник, должностное лицо, функционер

furnish – предоставлять, снабжать

gear – механизм, аппарат, шестерня

generalize – обобщать, сводить к общим законам

genuinely – искренне, неподдельно

give order – отдать приказ, дать задание

globalization – глобализация

go-getter – хваткий и удачливый человек; предприимчивый делец (разг.)

goal – цель, задача

goggle –  защитные очки

grant – уступать, разрешать, давать согласие

group interview – групповое интервью, групповая беседа, ситуация, когда


кандидата на работу интервьюируют два или более человека
guard – охранять, защищать

habit – склонность, навык

hard-working – трудолюбивый, прилежный

hazard – риск, опасность

hazardous – рискованный, опасный

hierarchy – иерархия, иерархичность

hiring practice – практика найма персонала

homicide – убийство, домашнее насилие

hospitalization – госпитализация

hostile – враждебный, неприязненный

human capital – человеческий капитал (здоровье, образование,


способности и трудовые навыки, приложение которых приносит доход;
концепция человеческого капитала была предложена Гэри Беккером в
1960-х гг. для обоснования существенных различий в оплате примерно
одинаковых работ)

Human Resource Management (HRM) – управление трудовыми ресурсами


(направление менеджмента, базовой идеей которого является повышение
производительности посредством создания благоприятных условий для
деятельности сотрудников организации)

hurdle – препятствие, барьер, затруднение

identify – определять, устанавливать, идентифицировать; отождествлять;


устанавливать тождество
imaginative – зд. изобретательный

impaired – поврежденный, ослабленный, нарушенный

impediment – препятствие, помеха, преграда

impinge – посягать, вторгаться; ущемлять

implement – осуществлять, выполнять, реализовать, применять

improper – неподходящий, неуместный, неправильный, неисправный

improve – улучшать, совершенствовать; повысить, увеличить

inability – неспособность, невозможность

incentive – стимулирование, поощрение, стимул, мотивация

increase (n) – увеличение, повышение, расширение

increase (v) – увеличиваться, расти, повышаться; увеличивать, повышать

initiative – инициативный

injury – травма, повреждение, рана, ушиб

innovative – новаторский, передовой, прогрессивный

insight into – проницательность, способность проникнуть в сущность

insist – настойчиво утверждать, настаивать

institute – устанавливать, учреждать, вводить

insult – оскорбить, обидеть

intelligence testing – интеллектуальный тест

intelligent – умный, смышленый, сообразительный (прил.); образованный


(прич.)

intention – намерение, стремление, замысел

intentional – преднамеренный, умышленный

interfere with – служить препятствием, мешать, быть помехой

internal – внутренний
intimidated – запуганный

intimidating – пугающий, устрашающий, запугивающий

introduce – вводить, представлять, внедрять, знакомить

intuitive – интуитивно понятный; обладающий интуицией

invent – создавать, разрабатывать, изобретать

investigate – исследовать, изучать, расследовать, выяснять

itchy – зудящий

J
jail – тюрьма, тюремное заключение

job duty – служебные обязанности

job experience – стаж, опыт работы

job fair – ярмарка вакансий

job performance – качество выполнения работы (степень соответствия


результатов работы отдельного работника нормативам или результатам
других работников)

job satisfaction – удовлетворенность работой, удовлетворения от труда


(отражает степень удовлетворенности работника на данном рабочем месте,
в т. ч. от условий труда, от характера и содержания самого труда и т. п.;
высокий уровень удовлетворенности способствует росту
мотивированности работников и их производительности труда; низкий
уровень удовлетворенности может приводить к чрезмерной текучести
кадров и другим негативным последствиям)

job security – гарантия занятости, обеспеченность работой

joint venture – совместное предприятие

jointly – совместно, вместе, сообща

judgement – суждение, оценка; мнение, взгляд, заключение

justify – оправдать, находить оправдание, объяснять


L

labor costs – затраты на оплату труда

laborforce – рабочая сила (совокупность лиц трудоспособного возраста,


работающих по найму, занятых индивидуальной деятельностью,
приносящей доход, или активно ищущих работу)

ladder – лестница (приставная, веревочная)

launch – запускать, начинать, выпускать

layout – план, макет, схема

lead – вести, руководить, управлять; лидировать

leadership ability – способность к руководству, способность вести за собой

legal – правовой, юридический, судебный

length – длина

life insurance – страхование жизни

live – зд. прямой, живой

lower-order – низшего порядка

loyal – лояльный, верный, преданный

maintain – поддерживать, обслуживать; сохранять, удерживать

male – мужчина

manager – руководитель, управляющий, директор

marital status – семейное положение

mean – думать, подразумевать


means – средство, способ

measure abilities – измерять, оценивать характеристики, способности


соискателя

medical – медицинский, врачебный, лекарственный

merit pay – единовременная или регулярно выплачиваемая премия за


высокие результаты работы

mild – зд. умеренный

minority – меньшинство, меньшая часть

misconduct – плохое исполнение своих обязанностей, должностное


преступление

mistreat – плохо обращаться, издеваться

modernize – осовременивать, модернизировать

modest – зд. скромный

mold – плесень, грибок

monetary – денежный, валютный, финансовый

monitor – контролировать, отслеживать, мониторить

motivation – мотивация, стимул, стимулирование

multinational company – многонациональная компания,


транснациональная компания, международная компания

N
neat – аккуратный, опрятный; точный, четкий, ясный

negotiate – договариваться, вести переговоры, согласовывать

networking – установление деловых контактов, налаживание связей

O
obey – подчиняться, повиноваться

obtain – достигать, приобретать, добиваться


obtain – получать, достигать, обретать, добиваться

occur – случаться, происходить

opening – зд. вакансия

opportunity – перспектива, возможность, шанс

optimistic – оптимистичный, жизнерадостный

organization – организация, структура; устройство

over-achiever – человек, который добивается успеха в жизни

overall – общий, суммарный, итоговый, всесторонний

overall – полностью, в общем и целом

overemphasize – преувеличивать, переоценивать, абсолютизировать

overstay – засидеться

pace-setter – лидер, задающий тон

panel interview – групповое интервью, несколько участников со стороны


компании

participate – участвовать, принимать участие

party – сторона, участник

patronizing – покровительственный

people-oriented leader – руководитель, ориентированный на людей (на


поддержание отношений); руководитель, который наиболее важным
аспектом считает потребности сотрудников и поддержание командного
духа, а выполнению поставленных целей уделяет меньше внимания;
преимущество таких руководителей - в заботе о сотрудниках и
поддержании атмосферы в коллективе, недостаток - в том, что часто
выполнению поставленных задач уделяется слишком мало внимания)

per se –  как таковой


perceptive – проницательный, восприимчивый, чуткий

perfectionist – перфекционист, взыскательный человек

persevering – настойчивый, упорный

personable – представительный; красивый

personality – личность, индивидуальность, особенности характера

piecework pay – сдельная оплата

praise – похвала

predict – предсказывать, прогнозировать

predictor – прогнозист, предсказывающее устройство, предиктор

prescription – предписание, распоряжение; рекомендация

prevent from – мешать, препятствовать, не допускать

probe – исследовать, прощупывать

produce – производить, создавать, выпускать

productivity – производительность, результативность

promote – способствовать, содействовать, продвигать

promoted – выдвинутый; продвигаемый, поддерживаемый

prompt – побуждать, толкать, внушать

proof – подтверждение, доказательство

proper – зд. правильный, должный, подходящий

prospect – перспектива; потенциальный клиент

prove – доказать, удостоверить, представить

proven – доказанный

publish – публиковать, издавать, обнародовать

punctual – пунктуальный, точный


punishment– наказание

purpose – намерение, цель

rapid – быстрый, стремительный, оперативный

rate – ставка, тариф, курс, норма, коэффициент

rational – здравомыслящий, рассудительный

recreation facility – база отдыха

recruit – нанимать, набирать, привлекать

recruiting – набор, вербовка, наем, рекрутирование

reduce – сокращать; понижать в должности

reduce – уменьшать, сокращать, понижать

refer to – зд. иметь отношение, относиться к

reference – зд. лицо, дающее рекомендацию; рекомендация с предыдущего


места работы

reject – отклонять, отказывать

reliability – зд. достоверность, надежность теста

reliable – надежный, достоверный

remedy – средство от болезни, лекарство

reminisce – вспоминать, предаваться воспоминаниям

reorganize – преобразовывать, перестраивать

require – требовать

required – необходимый, обязательный

required abilities – требуемые, необходимые характеристики/способности


resentment – негодование, возмущение; обида

resist – зд. сопротивляться, противостоять

resourceful – находчивый, изобретательный

resume – зд. резюме

reveal – открыть, обнаружить, вскрыть

revise – пересматривать; перерабатывать; изменять

run a business – руководить делом, вести дело

safe – безопасный, надежный

salary – жалованье, заработная плата

Samaritan – самаритянин, самаритянка

scaffold – леса, подмости

schedule – режим, расписание, график

screen out – отводить кандидата на должность

screening interview – предварительное собеседование, отсеивающее


собеседование

screening technique – техника просмотра, техника отсева кандидатов на


должность

seem – казаться, представляться

selection interview – отборочное собеседование

self-esteem –  самоуважение, чувство собственного достоинства

self-motivated – инициативный, самостоятельный, целеустремленный

self-reliant – уверенный в себе, полагающийся на себя


self-starter – инициативный человек (разг.)

set up– устанавливать, настраивать, учредить

setup – установка, настройка; система

sexual harassment – сексуальные домогательства

short-listed – находящийся в списке после отсева, в коротком списке

shorten – сокращать, укорачивать

shy – застенчивый, робкий; осторожный

sick time – отсутствие по болезни

side with – быть на чьей-либо стороне

silica – кварц

sin – грех

skill – умение, мастерство, навык, способность

slippery – скользкий, ненадежный

small business – малый бизнес, малое предприятие

smoking gun – явная улика, неоспоримое доказательство вины

sociable – общительный, коммуникабельный

socialization – общение, социализация

solve – решать, разгадывать, раскрывать

spot – определить, узнать, опознать

stabilize – стабилизировать(ся)

stagger – зд. потрясать, поражать

stimulate – поощрять, способствовать, побуждать

storage – склад, хранилище, хранение

strength – сильная сторона, преимущество


strengthen – укреплять(ся), усиливать(ся)

strict – зд. строгий

succeed in – преуспевать, иметь успех, добиться успеха, добиваться цели

sufficient – достаточный, удовлетворительный

suit (v) – подходить, соответствовать

suitable – подходящий, соответствующий, годный

supervise – контролировать, руководить, курировать

supervision – надзор, контроль, наблюдение

supplier – поставщик, провайдер

supportive – зд. поддерживающий, благосклонный

surgery – хирургия, операция, хирург

surgical – хирургический, операционный

survey – опрос, анкетирование; обзор

tactful – деликатный, чуткий

take order – зд. принимать заказ

take to court – вызвать кого-либо в суд

target – цель, мишень, задача

tariff – зд. пошлина

task – задача, задание

team-building – формирование группы с учетом специфики выполняемой


работы

team-player – умение работать в коллективе

tend to – тяготеть, склоняться


tendency – тенденция, склонность, стремление

tense – зд. напряженный

tension – зд. напряжение, давление, накал

termination of employment – увольнение, отставка

test validity – степень эффективности и пригодности теста для измерения


нужной характеристики

therefore – поэтому, следовательно

think-tank – коллектив учёных (разных специальностей) для разработки


определённой проблемы

top-performer – рекордсмен; занимающий лидирующее положение

trait – характерная черта, зд. характеристика, способность

travel arrangement – зд. туристические услуги

treat – обращаться, обходиться, вести себя (по отношению к кому-либо)

troubleshooter – зд. специалист по улаживанию конфликтов

truck – грузовой автомобиль, вагонетка, открытая товарная платформа

U
unambiguous – недвусмысленный, прозрачный, ясный

undergraduate –студент, старшекурсник, магистрант

unemployment – безработица

unit – единица, часть, группа

unlawful – незаконный, противозаконный

unorthodox method – зд. нетрадиционные, неортодоксальные приемы и


техники отбора кандидатов

unsafe – ненадежный, опасный

update – обновление, модернизация; корректировка


upgrade – подъем, усовершенствование, улучшение

V
variable – изменяемый, изменяющийся

versatile –универсальный; разносторонний, разноплановый

victim – жертва, пострадавший, потерпевший

violation – нарушение

violence – жестокость, насилие

voluntary– добровольный

wages – оклад

weakness – слабая сторона, недостаток

weed out – отсеять

welfare – зд. пособие

well-groomed – холеный, элегантный, следящий за собой

well-organized – хорошо организованный; благоустроенный

wheelbarrow – тачка

window – зд. промежуток, интервал

work sample – часть деятельности, наиболее типичная для данной


профессии

workaholic – трудоголик, трудяга

workforce – рабочая сила, трудовые ресурсы; кадры


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KEYS
UNIT I

Ex. 2: 1 – E, 2 – B, 3 – H, 4 – F, 5 – J, 6 – G, 7 – C, 8 – D, 9 – A, 10 – I;
Ex. 3: 3.1. – F, 3.2. – T, 3.3. – N / A, 3.4. – T, 3.5. – T, 3.6. – N / A, 3.7. – F;

Ex. 4: Paragraph # 5, after sentence # 3;

Ex. 5: C;

Ex. 6: 6.1. – refers, extend, 6.2. – seek, cut, 6.3. – agreements, among, 6.4. –
both, without, 6.5. – threats

UNIT II

Ex. 2: 1 – B, 2 – H, 3 – E, 4 – F, 5 – A, 6 – I, 7 – G, 8 – D, 9 – C, 10 – J;

Ex. 3: 3.1. – T, 3.2. – F, 3.3. – T, 3.4. – F, 3.5. – N / A, 3.6. – T, 3.7. – N / A;

Ex. 4: Paragraph # 3, after sentence # 4;

Ex. 5: B;

Ex. 6: 6.1. – open, inside, 6.2. –have been back, credit, 6.3. – to, ads, 6.4. – to
screen out, but, 6.5. – leave

UNIT III

Ex. 2: 1 – G, 2 – B, 3 – C, 4 – F, 5 – J, 6 – A, 7 – E, 8 – I, 9 – H, 10 – D;

Ex. 3: 3.1. – T, 3.2. – T, 3.3. – T, 3.4. – T, 3.5. – F, 3.6. – T, 3.7. – F;

Ex. 4: Paragraph # 3, before sentence # 4;

Ex. 5: C;

Ex. 6: 6.1. – over, segment, 6.2. – rapid, necessity, 6.3. – meet, experience, 6.4.
– lack, on, 6.5. – requires, face

UNIT IV

Ex. 2: 1 – J, 2 – I, 3 – D, 4 – F, 5 – G, 6 – A, 7 – B, 8 – C, 9 – E, 10 – H;
Ex. 3: 3.1. – T, 3.2. – N / A, 3.3. – F, 3.4. – N / A, 3.5. – F, 3.6. – N / A, 3.7. –
F;

Ex. 4: Paragraph # 9, after sentence # 2;

Ex. 5: B;

Ex. 6: 6.1. – achieve, 6.2. – behavior, 6.3. – measure, abilities, 6.4. – skills, 6.5.
– replace

Same test analysis: According to John Kamp, an industrial psychologist,


applicants who answered no, yes, no, no to questions 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 are
statistically likely to be absent less often, to have fewer on-the-job in juries, and,
if the job involves driving, to have fewer on-the-job driving accidents.

UNIT V

Ex. 2: 1 – A, 2 – C, 3 – G, 4 – E, 5 – J, 6 – F, 7 – B, 8 – D, 9 – I, 10 – H;

Ex. 3: 3.1. – T, 3.2. – F, 3.3. – T, 3.4. – N / A, 3.5. – F, 3.6. – T, 3.7. – T;

Ex. 4: Paragraph # 1, after sentence # 2;

Ex. 5: A;

Ex. 6: 6.1. – obtain, 6.2. – content, 6.3. – situational, 6.4. – behavioral, describe,
6.5. – computerized, attitudes

UNIT VI

Ex. 2: 1 – E, 2 – H, 3 – C, 4 – B, 5 – G, 6 – J, 7 – A, 8 – F, 9 – I, 10 – D;

Ex. 3: 3.1. – F, 3.2. – T, 3.3. – F, 3.4. – N / A, 3.5. – T, 3.6. – F, 3.7. – F;

Ex. 4: Paragraph # 8, after sentence # 5;

Ex. 5: B;

Ex. 6: 6.1. – to satisfy, needs, 6.2. – increase, based, 6.3. – tie … to, 6.4. –
nonfinancial, 6.5. – are driven, to receive

UNIT VII
Ex. 2: 1 – A, 2 – B, 3 – C, 4 – G, 5 – I, 6 – D, 7 – H, 8 – F, 9 – J, 10 – E;

Ex. 3: 3.1. – T, 3.2. – F, 3.3. – T, 3.4. – N / A, 3.5. – T, 3.6. – T, 3.7. – T;

Ex. 4: Paragraph # 7, after sentence # 3;

Ex. 5: D;

Ex. 6: 6.1. – clarity, 6.2. – affect, 6.3. – assure, 6.4. – convey, 6.5. – insists,
directed toward

UNIT VIII

Ex. 2: 1 – D, 2 – J, 3 – I, 4 – B, 5 – H, 6 – C, 7 – E, 8 – F, 9 – G, 10 – A;

Ex. 3: 3.1. – T, 3.2. – F, 3.3. – T, 3.4. – T, 3.5. – F, 3.6. – F, 3.7. – T;

Ex. 4: Paragraph # 6, after sentence # 3;

Ex. 5: A;

Ex. 6: 6.1. – treatment, treats, 6.2. – employment practice, 6.3. – distinguishes,


6.4. – impact, defend, 6.5. – defense

UNIT IX

Ex. 2: 1 – G, 2 – B, 3 – I, 4 – H, 5 – J, 6 – A, 7 – D, 8 – C, 9 – E, 10 – F;

Ex. 3: 3.1. – T, 3.2. – T, 3.3. – T, 3.4. – F, 3.5. – F, 3.6. – F, 3.7. – T;

Ex. 4: Paragraph # 1, before sentence # 1;

Ex. 5: C;

Ex. 6: 6.1. – unlawful, related, 6.2. – side with, 6.3. – requirements, 6.4. –
violations, gender, 6.5. – candidate;

Ex. 8: 8.1. – C, F, 8.2. – A, E, 8.3. – G, 8.4. – B, 8.5. – D

UNIT X
Ex. 2: 1 – A, 2 – D, 3 – F, 4 – J, 5 – C, 6 – B, 7 – E, 8 – G, 9 – I, 10 – H;

Ex. 3: 3.1. – T, 3.2. – T, 3.3. – F, 3.4. – T, 3.5. – F, 3.6. – T, 3.7. – T;

Ex. 4: Paragraph # 2, before sentence # 1;

Ex. 5: B;

Ex. 6: 6.1. – rejecting, employment actions, 6.2. – experienced, ethnic, 6.3. –


conduct, affecting, 6.4. – ability, 6.5. – complaint

8.1. Yes, on two accounts. First, because some women in Connie’s office have
in the past received a promotion or financial gain in return for sexual favors,
Connie is a victim of environmental sexual harassment. Even though Connie
was not at first being harassed directly, she was forced to work under
intimidating conditions. And second, Connie is denied a promotion and salary
increase because she will not give in to sexual demands.

8.2. Yes. Clare has told Mark on several occasions that she is not interested in
going out with him. Mark’s repeated request for a date is considered sexual
harassment.

8.3. Yes. Shirley implies that Max’s career potential and chance at a possible
promotion are depending on his sexual cooperation—coming back to her house.
In this case, Max is the victim of sexual harassment.

8.4. It would appear that this situation is mutually desired by two adults.
However, in cases like this, there is no black-and-white answer. Because Dan is
Linda’s boss, the organization could be open to a future sexual harassment suit.
At some point, Linda could sue her employer, saying that she felt compelled to
sleep with Dan for a variety of job- related reasons. Because suits like this are
becoming more common, managers, supervisors, and team leaders should be
aware of how their sexual relations with a subordinate could have negative
effects on the organization.

UNIT XI

Ex. 2: 1 – B, 2 – E, 3 – C, 4 – J, 5 – D, 6 – G, 7 – H, 8 – A, 9 – F, 10 – I;

Ex. 3: 3.1. – T, 3.2. – F, 3.3. – T, 3.4. – F, 3.5. – T, 3.6. – T, 3.7. – T;

Ex. 4: Paragraph # 5, after sentence # 4;

Ex. 5: A;
Ex. 6: 6.1. – development, apply, 6.2. – concluded, determine, 6.3. – suggest,
6.4. – barrels, 6.5. – judgement

UNIT XII

Ex. 2: 1 – B, 2 – F, 3 – D, 4 – A, 5 – I, 6 – G, 7 – E, 8 – H, 9 – J, 10 – C;

Ex. 3: 3.1. – T, 3.2. – F, 3.3. – T, 3.4. – F, 3.5. – F, 3.6. – T, 3.7. – T;

Ex. 4: Paragraph # 3, after sentence # 5;

Ex. 5: A;

Ex. 6: 6.1. – handle, 6.2. – failure, duties, 6.3. – termination, lay off, 6.4. –
requirements, 6.5. – conduct

UNIT XIII

Ex. 2: 1 – F, 2 – C, 3 – B, 4 – J, 5 – A, 6 – I, 7 – D, 8 – G, 9 – H, 10 – E;

Ex. 3: 3.1. – T, 3.2. – N / A, 3.3. – T, 3.4. – T, 3.5. – F, 3.6. – F, 3.7. – T;

Ex. 4: Paragraph # 1, before sentence # 1;

Ex. 5: B;

Ex. 6: 6.1. – eliminate, 6.2. – acts, undo, unsafe, 6.3. –most, occur, machines,
6.4. – complete, 6.5. – prevention

UNIT XIV

Ex. 2: 1 – C, 2 – H, 3 – B, 4 – A, 5 – F, 6 – E, 7 – J, 8 – D, 9 – G, 10 – I;

Ex. 3: 3.1. – F, 3.2. – T, 3.3. – N / A, 3.4. – T, 3.5. – F, 3.6. – T, 3.7. – N / A;

Ex. 4: Paragraph # 7, after sentence # 2;

Ex. 5: B;
Ex. 6: 6.1. – reflect, causes, 6.2. – downsides, produce, 6.3. – hazards,
production, 6.4. – associated, stress, 6.5. – against

UNIT XV

Ex. 2: 1 – F, 2 – C, 3 – G, 4 – J, 5 – E, 6 – B, 7 – A, 8 – D, 9 – I, 10 – H;

Ex. 3: 3.1. – T, 3.2. – F, 3.3. – F, 3.4. – T, 3.5. – N / A, 3.6. – T, 3.7. – F;

Ex. 4: Paragraph # 9, after sentence # 3;

Ex. 5: C;

Ex. 6: 6.1. – benefits, life, 6.2. – to cover, on, 6.3. – regardless, 6.4. – claim,
premiums, 6.5. – dependents, prior, average