Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 33

. ..

..


..

2006


, ,
, , . ,
, ,
.
, , .




.
,
.
, - , , ( -) ( -
).
, . ( )
() .
NH3 (KOH NaOH)
, NH4+. NH4+,
NH3.
( ) : Ni2+, Co2+, Fe2+,
Pd2+.
, ,
, , , , ,
,
. () , , ,
3


.
.
e
. , .
HCl, H2SO4, NH3
NaOH ( ),
6 . - . .
,
HCl, H2S (NH4)2CO3. 5
, :
I :

K+, Na+, NH4+, Mg2+ , .

II :

Ba2+, Ca2+, Sr2+ (NH4)2CO3


.

III :

Al3+, Cr3+, Fe3+, Fe2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Mn2+, Zn2+


(NH4)2S Al3+ Cr3+ .

IV :

Cu2+, Cd2+ Hg2+, Bi3+ (I ) As3+, Sn2+, Sn4+, Sb3+,


AsO43, SbO43 (II ) H2S
.

V :

Ag+, Pb2+ Hg22+ HCl


.
! 5+ -
/, As Sb
+5
ASO43-Sb43 . Mn +7 MnO4.




( !)
, ,



,


.
( , ).
.
.
1- 2
. . ,
. ,
.
- , . , .
. !
, , , .
. ,
. .

,
.
,
, , ,
. , , . ,
K+ K+ + NaHC4H4O6
1 , 1.
.



, .
6

10

5
9

13

11
12
14

1. ;
2. ;
3. ;
4. ;
5. ;
6. NH4+;
7. ;
8. ;
9. ;
10. ;
11. , ,
CO32- ;
12. ;
13. ;
14. .

;
-;
;
( !)
;
;
.

! 2 4!

.


: 1-3 , ,
.
.
,
.
.
: 1 , 1 , .
1-2
,
.
:1

, .
.
.
1 . , .
, :
.
( ):
.
l (1:1), (
).
, HCl, . - (. ).
7


, , .
.



!
.
. .
.
.
,
.

(. ), ( pH, ) . , .
. .
02.03.04
I

+
K

KCl + NaHC4H4O6
,

KHC4H4O6
NaHC4H4O6,
,
+NaCl
pH 4-5,
NH4+
K+ + HC4H4O6
KHC4H4O6


I
I ( K+, Na+, Li+)
NH4+. 2- 8-
, () .
1 , () +1. 8

, ( , ). (, NaCl, KNO3)
, I .
,
. , .
(
) . 108 ( ).
- (Li+), (Na+) - (K+).
- Mg2+, , Mg II Mg2+ . , .
K+
1. , NaHC4H4O6, + 446, Cl, ,
3. NH4+,
.
KCl + NaHC4H4O6 KHC4H4O6 + NaCl
K+ + HC4H4O6 KHC4H4O6

: 5 l, 5
.
. ,
.
4 , 3
3 ,
1- 5
?
.
2- 5 2 l ?
HCl , H2C4H4O6. ,
KHC4H4O6 + HCl H2C4H4O6 + KCl

- H2C4H4O6
.
3- 5 2 CH3COOH ?
CH3COOH , H2C4H4O6.
4- 5 2 K ?

KHC4H4O6 + KOH K2C4H4O6 + H2O
H2O .
+: (pH 4- 5)
, , NH4+.
2. , Na2PbCu(NO2)6 , - ,
+ .
NaNO2.
2 KCl + Na2PbCu(NO2)6 K2PbCu(NO2)6 + 2 NaCl

NH4+, .
: 1 KCl, 1
NH4Cl, . 1
. , , .
+: NH4+.
NH4+
NH4+ K+ , ,
, K+ .
NH4+ . , .

, 2-3 HNO3 (1:1) .
,
NH4NO3 N2O + 2 H2O
NH4NO3
N2O H2O.
10

.
, ,
NH4+ (. ). , , c HNO3 NH4+.
3. . l ( , ). .
Na+, ,
(- ), Na+ .
Na+
1. , Ni(CH3COO)2 + UO2(CH3COO)2 + CH3COOH,
Na+ .
: 1 NaCl, 1 , 1- 2 .
2. .
NaCl . ,
.
NH4+
1. ( ), NaOH (KOH) NH4+ NH3. .
NH4Cl + NaOH NH3 + H2O + NaCl
! NH4+.

: (. 6 . 6), 2 NH4Cl, 2 2
KOH .
. NH3 .
11

2. , K2HgI4 + KOH , NH4+ - ( NH4+ , ). ,


. ,
, , Fe3+ .
: 2 NH4Cl 2 .
- .
Mg2+
1. , NH3, (KOH, NaOH) Mg2+
Mg(OH)2.
MgCl2 +2 NH3 + 2 H2O Mg(OH)2 + 2 NH4Cl
Mg2+ +2 NH3 +2 H2O Mg(OH)2 +2 NH4+

Mg(OH)2 NH4Cl
Mg(OH)2 + 2 HCl MgCl2 + 2 H2O
Mg(OH)2 + 2 NH4Cl MgCl2 + 2 NH3 + 2 H2O
: 2 2 MgCl2, 2 2 NH3, 4 2 NH4Cl 2 2 M NH3.
, NH4Cl Mg(OH)2 ,
.
1. , Na2CO3,
Mg2+ (MgOH)2CO3:
2 MgCl2 + 2 Na2CO3 + H2O (MgOH)2CO3 + 4 NaCl + CO2
2 Mg2+ + 2 CO32- +H2O (MgOH)2CO3 + CO2

(MgOH)2CO3 NH4Cl, NH4+ * (MgOH)2CO3 HCO3 H2O.


(MgOH)2CO3 + 4 NH4Cl NH4HCO3 + 2 H2O + 3 NH3 + 2 MgCl2
! - ( HCl, CH3COOH ., - NH4+,HCO3 .), . , NH4 + H+ + NH3.
, ( NaOH, NH3 .,
CO32 .) .
: 2 2 MgCl2, 2 2 M (NH4)2CO3, 5 2 M NH4Cl 2 2 M
(NH4)2CO3.
12

, NH4Cl .
.

II
II II
(Ba2+, Ca2+ Sr2+). - 8- 2
,
(+2). I , II - . II , .
II , ( ),
.

. Ba , Ca -, Sr -.
II , I ,
, I -
(SO42-,CO32-,C2O42-, PO43-) * , , , . , , I II .
Ba2+
1. , K2Cr2O7, Ba2+
BaCrO4, HCl CH3COOH.
K2Cr2O7 c Cr2O72-, CrO42-

Cr2O72 + H2O 2 CrO42 + 2 H+

, KS ,
. AmBn KS = [A] m[B] n.
KS .
, , CaCO3 BaCO3, As2S3 Sb2S3, KS,,
, (S) KS
KS
.
mmnn
,
( ,
S = m+ n

pH) [A] m[B] n > KS , [A] m[B] n < KS.

13

Cr2O72 ,
CrO42.
BaCrO4 BaCr2O7,
.
2 BaCl2 + K2Cr2O7 + H2O 2 BaCrO4 + 2 HCl
2 Ba2+ + Cr2O72 + H2O 2 BaCrO4 + 2 H+

pH 4-5,
CrO42- . ,
+. CH3COONa, CH3COO + CH3COOH.
CH3COOH + CH3COONa,
pH 4,75.
: 2 BaCl2, 4
CH3COONa, 3 K2Cr2O7, .
.
2. .
BaCl2 . .
3. , (NH4)2CO3, Ba2+
BaCO3, (MgOH)2CO3 NH4Cl (,
!).
Ca2+
1. , H2SO4, Ca2+
CaSO4.2H2O (). Ba2+.
: 1
CaCl2, 1 H2SO4 (1:4), 1 .
Ca2+ ,
. ,
, .
2. .
CaCl2 Ca(NO3)2 . - .
3. , (NH4)2CO3, Ca2+
CaCO3 , (MgOH)2CO3 NH4Cl ( ,
!).
14

II
I
II , . I
,
. .
- ,
CH3COOH, . K+, Na+, NH4+ , (MgOH)2CO3 , NH4Cl
( ), II , NH4Cl . , I II (NH4)2CO3
NH4Cl, II (BaCO3, CaCO3), I (K+, Na+, NH4+ Mg2+) .
II pH 9, II (NH4)2CO3 + (1:1) NH4Cl NH3 (
pH 9).

III
III II (Zn2+), III (Al3+), VI ( Cr3+), VII ( Mn2+) VIII ( Fe3+, Fe2+, Ni2+, Co2+).
Zn Al 18 8
: +2
Zn +3 Al.
18 , .

,

Cr (+3, +6)
Mn (+2, +7)
Fe (+2, +3)
Ni (+2, +3*)
Co (+2, +3*)

Cr3+, CrO42, Cr2O72


Mn2+, MnO4
Fe2+, Fe3+
Ni2+
Co2+

.
15

18 - , III
-,
.*
III ,
M(H2O)mn+. : Cr3+ -, Mn2+
-, Fe3+ , Ni2+ , Co2+ .
Al3+ Zn2+ .
III , . .
(NH4)2S, H2S .
III : FeS, Fe2S3, CoS NiS
, MnS ZnS .
Al3+
Cr3+. , Al2S3 Cr2S3 . [Al(OH)3* ,
Cr(OH)3* -] .
! Al2O3.nH2O, Cr2O3.nH2O, Fe2O3.nH2O,
.

Zn2+
1. ,
(NH4)2Hg(SCN)4, NH4+

ZnCl2 + (NH4)2Hg(SCN)4 ZnHg(SCN)4 + 2 NH4Cl


Zn2+ + Hg(SCN)42 ZnHg(SCN)4
,

, () ( ). - , .
, ( ), (
). ( ) O
(H2O, OH), N (NH3). , Cl, I
. ,
.
16

: 1
ZnCl2 1 .
1-2
.
Zn2+: , , Zn2+.
Al3+
1. 8-,
pH 4,5-10 Al3+ ,
N
-.
OH

: 1
AlCl3, 1 H 6,5-9,5 1 . - (!) .
Cr3+
1. , H2O2, Cr3+ - CrO42-,
+3
+6
Cr 3e Cr

OH
-1
-2
O+ 1e O

-
( ) , , .
, .
- : ()
(). ,
* .
, ( ) , , ,

O H H2O OH, H2O H+, .


*

17

2 Cr3+ + 8 OH 3 e CrO42 + 4 H2O


3 H2O2 + 2 e 2 OH
2 Cr3+ + 3 H2O2 + 10 OH 2 CrO42 + 8 H2O


2 CrCl3 + 3 H2O2 + 10 KOH 2 K2CrO4 + 8 H2O + 6 KCl
: 2 CrCl3,
2 M KOH Cr(OH)3
Cr(OH)4. 5 3 %- H2O2 . .
Cr3+ . CrO42 .
2. , H2O2, CrO42 CrO5 ( H2CrO6) - .
, CrO42 Cr2O72 ,
H2O2 Cr2O72,
H2O.
Cr2O72 + 3 H2O 8 e 2 CrO5 + 6 H+
4 H2O2 + 2 H+ + 2 e 2 H2O
Cr2O72 + 4 H2O2 + 2 H+ 2 CrO5 + 5 H2O

K2Cr2O7 + 4 H2O2 + H2SO4 2 CrO5 + 5 H2O + K2SO4


CrO5 , ,
CrO5 ,
, , - -C5H11OH.
: 3 K2CrO4, 5 3 % H2O2, 5 - . 2 H2SO4 (1:1). . , . .
Mn2+
1. Pb(IV), PbO2, Mn2+ MnO4 (-) . .
+2
+7
Mn 5e Mn
+4
+2
Pb 2e Pb

18

-
2 Mn2+ + 4 H2O 5 e MnO4 + 8 H+
5 PbO2 + 4 H+ + 2 e Pb2+ + 2 H2O
2 Mn2+ + 5 PbO2 + 4 H+ 2 MnO4 + 5 Pb2+ + 2 H2O
.-
-.
2 Mn(NO3)2 + 5 PbO2 + 6 HNO3 2 HMnO4 + 5 Pb(NO3)2 + 2 H2O
, MnO4
MnO4, , Cl,
MnO4 + 3 e + 4 H+ MnO2 + 2 H2O
2 Cl 2 e Cl2
2 MnO4 + 6 Cl + 8 H+ 2 MnO2 + 3 Cl2 + 4 H2O

2+
Mn
2 MnO4 + 3 Mn2+ +7 H2O 5 MnO(OH)2 + 4 H+

Cl Mn2+.
: 1 2 Mn(NO3)2, 1
. HNO3, 4 , PbO2 ,
. -
. PbO2 () MnO4 , .
Fe2+
1. (III) , K3Fe(CN)6, Fe2+ KFeFe(CN)6 ( ).
FeSO4 + K3Fe(CN)6 KFeFe(CN)6 + K2SO4
Fe2+ + Fe(CN)63 + K+ KFeFe(CN)6

: 2 FeSO4, 2
. .
Fe3+
1. (II) , K4Fe(CN)6, Fe3+
KFeFe(CN)6 ( ).
FeCl3 + K4Fe(CN)6 KFeFe(CN)6 + 3 KCl
Fe3+ + Fe(CN)64 + K+ KFeFe(CN)6

19

: 2 FeCl3 2
. . .
2. , KSCN, Fe3+ Fe(SCN)4 - .
FeCl3 + 4 KSCN KFe(SCN)4 + 3 KCl
Fe3+ + 4 SCN Fe(SCN)4
-
, , F, PO43, C2O42, Fe3+ FeF52,
FeHPO42+ Fe(C2O4)33 .
: 2 FeCl3, 2
. - .
Ni2+
1. ,

5-10 Ni2+ C
. Fe3+,
H3C
NOH
-
Fe2O3.nH2O,
3+
Fe ,
FeF52 NaF NH4F.
H3C

NOH

: 2 NiCl2, 2
2 2 M NH3. . -
.
Co2+
1. , HCl (), Co2+
CoCl42 .
CoCl2 + 2 HCl H2CoCl4
Co2+ + 4 Cl CoCl42

Fe3+. HCl FeCl42 - , -


. Fe3+ ,
FeF52 NaF NH4F.

20

: 1 CoCl2 HCl, HCl. .


III
II I
I II III (NH4)2S.
Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ Al3+
Cr3+ pH > 8,7 III (NH4)2S H2S 0,1 M NH4Cl
0,1 M NH3 (1:1) pH 9,25, pH
. , ,
Zn2+ + H2S ZnS + 2 H+, H+
.

IV
IV Cu2+, Cd2+, Bi3+, Hg2+,
As3+, Sb3+, Sn2+, Sn4+ , As Sb
+5, AsO43 SbO43.
18-
(Cd2+, Hg2+, Sb As +5),
18+2 (Bi3+, Sn2+, As3+, Sb3+). Cu2+ 18- . ,
,
(pH ~ 0,5),
S2. IV ,
CdS, ,
S2 H2S
. HNO3 ,
HgS,
S2.
S2( S SO42),
Hg2+. HNO3 HCl, HgS

3 HgS +2 HNO3 + 12 HCl 3 H2HgCl4 + 3 S+ 2 NO2 + 4 H2O

21

Hg2+ HgI42,
S2 , HgS
H2S:
HgS + 4 KI + 2 HCl K2HgI4 + H2S + 2 KCl
As, Sb Sn ,
Na2S, (NH4)2S2 (NH4)2S, ,
, SnS2 + Na2S Na2SnS3 (, , , H2SnS3 H2SnO3).
IV NH3, I, Cl , , ,
, .

2+
Cu Cd2+.
Cu2+
1. , NH3 (25 %- ) , Cu2+
Cu(NH3)42+ - .
CuSO4 + 4 NH3 Cu(NH3)4SO4
Cu2+ + 4 NH3 Cu(NH3)42+

: 2 CuSO4, 1-2 25 % () NH3 . .


1. (II) , K4Fe(CN)6, Cu2+ Cu2Fe(CN)6 - .
2 CuSO4 + K4Fe(CN)6 Cu2Fe(CN)6 + 2 K2SO4
2 Cu2+ + Fe(CN)64 Cu2Fe(CN)6
-
: 2 CuSO4 2
. . - .
Cd2+
1. , Na2S ( H2S )
Cd2+ CdS .
CdCl2 + Na2S CdS + 2 NaCl
Cd2+ + S2 CdS

22

. 2 CdCl2 2
Na2S. . .
Cu2+,
CuS, CdS , CuS, , CuS, HNO3, HCl,
CdS + 4 HCl H2CdCl4 + H2S
Cd2+, S2 CdCl42 H2S. Cd2+ Cu2+. CdS CuS HCl, CuS ,
Cd2+.
IV
III I
III I IV ,
H2S pH 0,5. , I III . ,
H2S ,
.
V
V Ag+ ( 18 ), Pb2+ ( 18 + 2 ) Hg22+.
.
, V
, . V PbCl2 ( ) ,
, Pb2+
V .
Ag+
1. , H2S ( ) Na2S Ag+
Ag2S .
2 AgCH3COO + Na2S Ag2S + 2 CH3COONa
2 Ag+ + S2 Ag2S

Ag2S , HNO3
S2 S.
23

3
2

Ag2S 2 e 2 Ag+ + S
NO3 + 3 e + 4 H + NO + 2 H2O
3 Ag2S + 8 HNO3 6 AgNO3 + 2 NO + 3 S + 4 H2O

2. Cl, Br I Ag+ AgCl, AgBr AgI. AgCl > AgBr > AgI, AgCl NH3
(NH4)2CO3 Ag(NH3)2+,
AgBr AgI . , , Ag+ , , S2O32
CN .
: 2 AgNO3 2
KI, . AgI, NH3, Na2S2O3. , 2 .
Pb2+
1. , KI, Pb2+
PbI2.
Pb(NO3)2 + 2 KI PbI2 + 2 KNO3
Pb2+ + 2 I PbI2

: 2 Pb(NO3)2 2 KI, . PbI2.



, 3 2 CH3COOH
. .
PbI2, - .
V
IV-I
IV I V ,
HCl. 2 M HCl,
Cl Pb2+ PbCl42.

24


.
, V ( 1 AgCl,
PbCl2), IV ( 3 CuS, CdS) , I , .
I
K , Na+
NH4+, Mg2+

II
Ba , Ca2+

III
Al , Cr , Zn2+, Mn2+
Fe3+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+
+HCl ( 2 M )

2+

3+

1
AgCl, PbCl2
+ H2O, t0
2
AgCl
+ 2 NH3

2+

3
CuS, CdS
+HNO3
5
Cu2+, Cd2+

2+

+ NH3 ( pH 9), H2S

4
ZnS, MnS, FeS, CoS, NiS, Cr(OH)3, Al(OH)3
2 M HCl, t0

6
Ca , Ba , K+, Na+, Mg2+, NH4+
+ (NH4)2CO3
2+

5
BaCO3, CaCO3
+ 2 M CH3COOH
7
Zn , Al , Mn , Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cr3
2+

3+

V
Ag , Pb2+
+

1
Zn , Mn , Fe3+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+
Al3+, Cr3+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Ag+, Pb2+
+ H2S, pH 0,5
4
2+
2+
2+
3+
Zn , Mn , Fe , Al , Cr3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Ba2+, Ca2+, K+2+, Na+, Mg2+, NH4+
2+

2
Pb2+

3
Ag+

IV
Cu , Cd2+

3+

2+

9
Ba2+, Ca2+

2+

8
K , Na+, Mg2+, NH4+
NH4+
+ H2O
+

10
K+, Na+, Mg2+


3
I :

CO32, SO42, PO43 BaCl2


SO32

II :

Cl , I Br

HNO3

III :

NO3, CH3COO NO2

AgNO3

BaCl2 I BaSO3, BaCO3, Ba3(PO4)2, BaSO4. HCl CH3COOH, , HCl CH3COOH, BaSO4 HCl (H2SO4 !).
CO32
1. , H3COOH,
2
CO3 CO2.
MCO3 + n CH3COOH M(CH3COO)n + CO2 + n H2O,
M . SO32, , H2O2 KMnO4 SO42,
.
CO2 Ba(OH)2.
: (.11 . 6) 5
, 5 2M CH3COOH*. Ba(OH)2 .
- BaCO3.
PO43-
1. , (NH4)2MoO4 + HNO3, PO43
(NH4)3P(Mo3O10)4.
: 1-2 PO43, 3-5 .
.
*

SO32 5 H2O2.

26

SO42-
1. , BaCl2, SO42 BaSO4 ,
BaCO3 Ba3(PO4)2, HCl.
BaCl2 + H2SO4 BaSO4 + 2 HCl
Ba2+ + SO42 BaSO4

: 2 Na2SO4 2 .
. , HCl.
! BaSO4, . BaSO4 Na2CO3, ,
1-2 . , . Na2CO3
, . 3-5-
Na2CO3 BaSO4
BaCO3,
BaSO4 + Na2CO3 BaCO3 + Na2SO4
HCl CH3COOH.
AgNO3 II
( Ag+) AgNO3
HNO3 Cl, I, Br I , Ag+ HNO3.
l-
1. , AgNO3, Cl---
AgCl
NaCl + AgNO3 AgCl + NaNO3
Cl + Ag+ AgCl

AgI AgBr, HNO3, , NH3 (NH4)2CO3.


: 2-3 NaCl, 2 AgNO3 . .
I
1. ( Cl2) I I2
2 KI + Cl2 I 2 + 2 KCl

27

, . I2 .
: 2-3 KI , 2 1 M H2SO4,
1-2 1 . .
, .
2. (), KNO2 (HCl, H2SO4, CH3COOH)
I I2
2 KI + 2 KNO2 + 4 CH3COOH I2 + 2 NO + 4 CH3COOK + 2 H2O

I2 C6H6, - .
: 2-3 KI, 1-2 2 M
CH3COOH, 2-3 KNO3 3-5 . . - .
1
, 1 2 CH3COOH, 1 KI 1 KNO2. .
CH3COO -
1. (), KHSO4,
CH3COONa
CH3COONa + NaHSO4 CH3COOH+ Na2SO4
, H2SO4, CH3COOH,
.
: (. 7 . 6) CH3COONa
NaHSO4. . .
NO3-
1. , (C6H5)2NH, NO3 (, ,
) ,
.

28

: 1 H2SO4 1-2 KNO3.


.
I-V
( )

I
II
III
IV
+
+
2+
2+
3+
3+
3+
2+
Ba Ca
K Na
Al Cr Fe Fe
Cu2+ Cd2+
Mn2+ Zn2+ Co2+
NH4+ Mg2+
Ni2+

2
2
CO3 SO4 PO43 Cl I NO3 CH3COO

V
Ag+ Pb2+

1.

? I, II, IV(Cd2+)
III (Mn2+,Zn2+, Al3+), V

? III, IV (Cu2+)

2.
+ .HCl


? Na+ K+Ba2+

? Na+

-.
? K+

-
? Ba2+

3. CO32.
( )
Ba(OH)2
+ 2 M HCl
? Ba(OH)2
4. CH3COO
( )

+ NaHSO4,
? CH3COOH
5.

H2O
, :
29

pH CO32

H2O
9 , Ag+ Pb2+
9 Na+,K+,NH4+, Mg2+, III IV
9
9
9 Na+,K+, NH4+
9
Na+, K+, NH4+
2 M CH3COOH
CH3COOH
Mg, Ca, Ba, Co, Ni, Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd CO2
Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Fe2+, Cu2+,Cd2+
2 M HCl
HCl
Fe3+, Al3+, Cr3+
6.
(BaCl2 I - AgNO3 + HNO3 II ) ,
I II

NO3-
7.

( HCl , Na2S , (NH4)2S , (NH4)2CO3)


, (VI) . .
.

30


I-V
.
Ni2+, Co2+, Cr3+, Cu2+, Fe3+.

.HCl, - - ? Na+

( K +
)
0
,
- 1
- H2O, t
(. ) pH ~ 7
- 1
CO32, PO43
BaCl2

- 1
SO42

HNO3, AgNO3
- 1
Cl
I II Zn2+, Mn2+,
Cd2+, pH ~ 7.
Na2S
, Cd2+, Zn2+,
- 1

Mn2+, Mg2+
(NH4)2CO3

II
NH3, NH4Cl

,
Na+
- 1
()
K+ NH4+ , ( K+ ), pH ~ 7 (
NH4Cl pH < 7).
- 1

NaCl.

31

.. . M.: . 1973.
.., .., .., .. . .: . 2001.

( ).
. .. . .: - . -. 1984.
. . . .. . .: . 2003.

32


.....
......

...
......
I ...
II .

II

I
....
III ....
III II I ..
IV ....
IV III I .....
V .....
V IV I .
..

I V
I-V ....
.....

3
5
6
7
8
8
13
15
15
21
21
23
23
24
25
26
29
31
46

33

Оценить