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143.21-9 689

.. English for Teachers

2008

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CONTENTS

Lesson 1. Succeeding in college ........................................................... 4 Lesson 2. Higher Education in Russia ................................................ 15 Lesson 3. Higher Education in Great Britain ..................................... 26 Lesson 4. Higher Education in the USA ............................................. 36 Lesson 5. Personal and societal value of higher education ................ 47 Lesson 6. My study ............................................................................. 58 Lesson 7. My future profession .......................................................... 67 Lesson 8. Innovations in education .................................................... 75 Lesson 9. Distance education ............................................................. 82 Lesson 10. What does psychology study? .......................................... 88 Lesson 11. How does psychology study things? ................................ 98 Lesson 12. Does your memory serve you right? .............................. 107 Lesson 13. What kind of person are you? ........................................ 116 Lesson 14. What is effective communication? ................................. 126 Lesson 15. How to make up an effective presentation? ................... 138

LESSON 1. SUCCEEDING IN UNIVERSITY


Brainstorming activity Discuss the following question and give all the possible answers to it. How do you think what a student should have in mind to succeed in university? Example: To succeed in university a student needs to be hardworking. Active Vocabulary Listen and pronounce the active vocabulary of the lesson after the teacher. 1. advisor (n) 2. communicate with 3. concentration (n) 4. confidence (n) 5. consider (v) 6. deadline (n) 7. employment situation 8. experienced student 9. foreign student - 10. generate loyalty 11. good career foundation 12. hand in (v) 13. have personality problems 14. major subject 15. natural talent 16. pay attention to 17. pay the fee 18. prepare for (examinations) 19. requirement (n) 20. respect the Rules 21. self-discipline (n) 22. self-organization (n) 23. source for information 24. strong motivation 25. succeed in (v) 26. term paper 27. tremendous (a) Lead-in 1. Match the words to make job titles. 1. university a. tutor 2. personal b. teacher 3. driving c. trainer 4. volleyball d. instructor 5. private e. lecturer 6. primary school f. coach 4

2. The following data shows how a group of British students responded to the question: What are the most important factors for success in a university? natural talent 4% concentration 5% high IQ 9% confidence 14% being organized 17% being disciplined 22% motivation 29% Use the following phrases to express your agreement or disagreement. Agreement I quite agree with the survey. . Disagreement Im afraid I have to disagree with the survey. , . I agree with the survey in principle. I couldnt disagree more with it. . . I agree with the survey in a sense. . With all respect, I disagree. , .

I partly agree with the survey. I disagree with the survey on every point. . . Example: I agree with the survey whole-heartedly. Motivation is the most important factor of success as it is very difficult to teach a student if he doesnt want to study. 3. Look again at the factors enumerated in Task 2 and choose those you think you have: natural talent, concentration, high IQ, confidence, self-organization, selfdiscipline, strong motivation. 4. Can you give a clear answer to the question: Why did I enter the university? Look at the typical answers the students usually give and agree or disagree with them. 1. I entered the university because my parents want me to have a higher education. 2. To enter the university was my decision. I want to get a higher education to get a well-paid job. 3. Entering the university is a very good alternative to serving in the army. 4. I entered the university as I feel the inner desire to improve myself through study, to realize my talents and to enlarge my knowledge about the world I live in. 5. I entered the university, as I understand that nowadays it is impossible to make a career without higher education. 5

6. I entered the university because I want to become a scientist and devote my life to pure science. 7. I entered the university to acquire some practical skills that will help me to find my place in the world and to create something new in the sphere of my interests. Grammar: Verbs to be and to have. Word order. Simple Tenses. 1. Insert the right form of the verb to be. 1. She ____ a teacher. 2. Peter and Tom ____ absent today. 3. I ____ a primary school teacher. 4. The weather ____ very cold yesterday. 5. I ____ an engineer in five years. 6. What film ____ on in the cinema today? 7. My brothers ____ drivers. 8. Our teacher ____ from Great Britain. 9. Ann ____ 18 years old two years ago. 10. Where ____ you last Monday? 11. She ____ a student if she studies hard at school. 2. Insert the right form of the verb to have. 1. He ____ enough confidence to enter the university. 2. My mother ____ a well-paid job. 3. We ____ two lectures every day. 4. They ____ a tutorial last Wednesday. 5. Most of my classmates ____ higher education in five years. 6. Our grandmother ____ a house in the country. 7. She ____ a car next year. 8. We ____ laboratory classes yesterday. 9. Pete ____ a diploma of a Specialist in Engineering. 10. They ____ a lot of work to do. 3. Open the brackets and put the appropriate form of the verbs to be and to have. 1. Ann (to have) three exams to pass last term. 2. Dont pay attention to his rudeness he (to have) some personality problems and cant hold himself together. 3. Peter (to have) enough confidence in his abilities to enter the university. 4. Who has told you the results of the entrance exams? I (to have) some reliable sources of information. 5. Everybody (to have) his own personality traits and he must choose the course of study that corresponds his abilities. 6. I cant communicate with her. She (to be) such an arrogant person. 7. We (to be) very good at studying foreign languages. 8. What (to be) your college major? 6

9. Ron (to be) an experienced student. It (to be) his third year of studying at the university. 10. The right choice of the college major (to be) a good career foundation. 4. Put the words given below into the right order to make up a sentence. 1. Natural, is, talent, the, of, factor, critical, success. 2. In, universities, higher, Western, all, the, is, free, not, education. 3. A, pays, foreign, about, student, for, higher, education, 25, dollars, thousand, every year. 4. Do, college, you, know, the rules, this, has? 5. Motivation, role, process, an important, plays, into, the educational. 6. A, teacher, among, good, loyalty, the students, generates. 7. She, the survey, does, agree, with, not. 8. All, on time, be, the fees, must, paid. 5. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple Tense. Remember that some of them are irregular. Last year I _____ (to spend) my holidays in Great Britain. It _____ (to be) a wonderful time! I _____ (to meet) quite a number of new people and many of them _____ (to become) my friends. I _____ (to have) the opportunity to visit famous museums and art galleries such as British museum and National gallery. We _____ (to see) the glorious Buckingham Palace, _____ (to make) photos of the worldknown Big Ben, _____ (to eat) fish and chips in an English pub, _____ (to listen) to the story of the Tour of London, _____ (to see) a film in one of London cinemas. But England is famous not only for its historical places. It is a picturesque country. Our English friends _____ (to show) us another England the England of parks, gardens and moors with wild ponies. This _____ (to be) the most exciting and unforgettable trip in my life. I _____ (to fall) in love with the country and since my coming back I dream to visit it again. 6. Open the brackets and put the verbs into one of the Simple Tenses. 1. Dick (to enter) Oxford university in 2003. Now he is a sophomore student. 2. After every three months of study we (hand in) our term papers. 3. Susan (not to know) what exams she has to pass this term. 4. A university lecturer in Western universities (to deliver) 3 or 4 lectures a week. 5. Usually people (to consider) the employment situation before choosing their future careers. 6. Leading universities (to do) everything possible to provide their students with all the necessary facilities. 7. Nick (not to like) to prepare for examinations. 8. I (to chose) my major next year. Now I am not ready to make a choice. 9. There is no free education in Western Europe but they (to have) a developed system of grants and loans. 10. Last year three students of the university were expelled because they (no to respect) the Rules. 7

Reading 1. Read and translate the text. SUCCEEDING IN COLLEGE To succeed in an American college, a student must be organized. The college will have a department with advisors who can help the student to structure the best program. It is then depends on the student to take four or more courses at once, write and hand in term papers on time, and prepare for examinations. Pay Attention to People Differences. Difference is the word to remember when communicating with professors and their requirements. They'll all be different. It is important to have a good knowledge of what the individual professors are looking for, which professors are difficult to communicate with or have personality problems, which professors are well loved or generate a lot of loyalty among the students. The more experienced students can be helpful sources for this information. Respect the Rules. Throughout a college student's career, he or she must pay careful attention to deadlines, university regulations and the paperwork the university bureaucracy requires. Fees should be paid on time. Lack of attention to paperwork and deadlines can cause tremendous problems, especially for foreign students. Choose Courses with Care. Another part of college success is the choice of a major subject. It should be an area the student is happy with. It is important to consider the employment situation after college, or whether or not graduate study is planned. Advance planning will give the college student a good career foundation. 2. What are the main factors of success for an American student? Give the main ideas of the text. Vocabulary practice 1. Fill in the correct word from the list below. Tremendous, subject, courses, situation, term, program, loyalty, people, problems 1. _______ problems 2. to take _______ 3. to structure ______ 4. ______ papers 5. ______ differences 6. personality ______ 7. to generate ______ 8. employment ______ 9. major ______

2. Insert the right prepositions. Make up sentences with the expressions. 1. to succeed ___ 2. to depend ___ 3. to hand ___ 4. to prepare ___ 5. to pay attention ___ 6. to communicate ___ 7. to look ___ 8. ___ time 9. to generate loyalty ___ 3. Match phrases in column A with their translation in column B. A B , major subject to generate loyalty among the students fee experienced students to prepare for examinations to communicate with the professors to hand in term papers on time useful sources for information deadline to respect the rules

4. Consult the dictionary to find the meaning of the following words and their derivatives. Then insert the words into the gaps. To communicate, communication, communicative, to succeed, success, successful, to confide, confidence, confident, to prepare, preparation, preparatory, to respect, respect, respectful. To communicate, communication, communicative 1. He is a very interesting person ___________ with. 2. Computer is one of the widespread means of __________. 3. You may ask our teacher any question you are interested in. He is always ready to answer. He is very _______. To succeed, success, successful 1. Leonardo de Caprio is a _______ actor. He starred such in films as Titanic and Romeo and Juliet. 2. This business will be a ______ if we make a set of right decisions. 3. He needs to be confident _______ in studies. To confide, confidence, confident 1. ________ people are people who believe in their abilities and make others believe in them.. 2. I trust this man and I can _____ all my secrets to him. 3. She doesnt have enough ______ to win in the competition. 9

To prepare, preparation, preparatory 1. He always ______ for the classes. 2. Some ________ work should be done before we start the experiment. 3. ________ for the exams is very important for a student. To respect, respect, respectful 1. Our teacher ______ the opinions of the students. 2. This man is a very ________ one. He treats all the people equally. 3. To deserve the ______ from your colleagues you need to be a highly qualified specialist. Discussion 1. Discuss in groups of four the factors Russian students should keep in mind to succeed in university? Give your opinion using the following phrases. , .. I think that , .. I believe that , .. I suppose that .. As I see it .. . Thats the way I see it. Example: I think that a Russian student should keep in mind that he is responsible for the education he gets and that nobody will do things for him or instead of him. Thats the way I see it. 2. Ask for the opinions of other members of your group using the following phrases. Practise these phrases before using them in speech. What do you think about? ? Whats your opinion? ? What is your point of view ? on the problem? Example: Thats the way I see the problem. And what do you think about it? I think that a Russian student should develop the ability to study that is to search for knowledge and not just take the ready knowledge. Problem solving These are the Rules every student should follow. Discuss in groups of four: what rules seem quite reasonable and what rules seem quite absurd? What rules are impossible to follow, especially for Russian students? 1. Rule 1 Students must respect the rules. 2. Rule 2 Students must hand in term papers on time. 3. Rule 3 Students must be always ready for the lesson. 4. Rule 4 Students must respect their professors and never argue with them. 5. Rule 5 Students must spend 4 hours a day in the library. 6. Rule 6 Students must not discuss the professor personality and style of teaching otherwise they will be expelled (). 10

7. Rule 7 Students must express their opinion on the subject only in case they are asked to do it. 8. Rule 8 No cheating in our university! Example: I completely agree with Rule 1. This rule seems quite reasonable. Every higher institution has a set of rules and you should follow them as entering the university you become part of the system that works in a special mode. If you break the rule it means that you interfere with the normal work of the system and create chaos. Roleplay: University Rules Divide into groups of three. Your task is to work out the rules for the newly established university. Read the role and make up a speech. Student A You are a student taking part in the meeting. The aim of the meeting is to establish the rules for the newly created university. Your task is to suggest some rules your professors should follow and to prove that they are very important (give your arguments). Remember you are speaking on behalf of the students, so you should protect their interests and make their life easier. At the end of the meeting you are to write down a resolution in the form of a table. Student B You are a professor taking part in the meeting. The aim of the meeting is to establish the rules for the newly created university. Your task is to suggest some rules the students should follow. Remember you are a professional. You have been working for about 20 years in education and you dont like many things in modern students (lack of responsibility, bad behavior, missed classes etc.). Suggest the rules that will help the teaching staff to give the education of high quality. At the end of the meeting you are to write down a resolution in the form of a table. Student C You are the member of the administration leading the meeting. The aim of the meeting is to establish the rules for the newly created university. Your task is to listen to the rules suggested by a student and a professor, analyze them and make up a decision whether you accept them or not. You may correct the rules or suggest your own ones. At the end of the meeting you are to write down a resolution in the form of a table. Write in your rules into the table. UNIVERSITY RULES Teachers should 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Students should 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 11

Communication: introducing yourself. 1. Read the dialog, practice and reproduce it. Ann: Hello. Are you a student here? Kate: Yes, I am. Ann: So am I. My name is Ann Duglas. Kate: How do you do? I am Kate Frank. Ann: I am pleased to meet you. Is Frank your first name or your last name? Kate: My last name. Ann: Ann is my first name. Please call me Ann. Kate: Okay, Ann and please call me Kate. Ann: Okay, Kate. I am from New York and where are you from? Kate: I am from Manchester. 2. Turn to your partner and make up a similar dialog. 3. Practice some expressions used to introduce someone: Id like to introduce ... Id like you to meet ... Can I introduce you to ...... 4. Get information about your partner. Here are some questions for you to use. 1. Whats your name? 2. Where are you from? 3. Do you work? 4. If not, what do you do? 5. Are you married? 6. What is your native language? 7. Do you have a hobby? 8. What are the three things you like and three things you dont like? 5. Introduce your partner to the groupmates and tell them about him/her. Homework 1. Give the English equivalents to these job titles. , , , , , . 2. Translate these sentences using job titles from Task 1 and word expressions given below. To work as a , to give private lessons, to have, to be 1. . 2. ? . . 3. . 4. . 12

5. . 6. . 3. Make up sentences using these groups of phrases in one sentence. Example: Natural talent, confidence, to succeed in. He succeeds in college because of his natural talent and confidence in his abilities. 1. to depend on, motivation, high IQ 2. advisor, the best program, to structure 3. to pay attention to, every university, to have, the Rules 4. to prepare for, professors, to be different 5. to hand in, deadline, term papers 6. to communicate with, experienced students, information 7. to generate, professors, loyalty 8. employment situation, to consider, before entering 9. college, to have, a graduate program 4. Read the text written by Steven C. Hayes (University of Nevada) and summarize its main ideas. RULES OF SUCCESS: A MESSAGE FOR STUDENTS Rule 1. Talk and Write A Lot Science is a largely verbal enterprise. Successful scientists must speak, write, persuade, and debate. The only way to become skilled at professional verbal behavior is to engage in it. Talk in class. Talk at conventions. Talk in the halls. Listen and respond. Propose and consider. Argue. Share thoughts. If you think you have something to say, say it. If you wonder if you have sometime to say, and worry that it is not worthwhile, say it anyway. Rule 2. Say Yes Easily and Mean It Early in your study you should expose yourself to different things. You need to take part in many activities. When someone talks about a good project, say let's do it. If someone asks for help with a project, say yes. Then deliver. Do more than is expected. Rule 3. Work with Others and Share Easily You can learn a lot from others. They help you push you and they teach you new things. So collaborate. Form teams. Network. Give more than you ask to receive. Rule 4. Keep Your Word This is the most important rule of all. This one rule separates the successful from the unsuccessful student more than any other, but its value cannot be known until you do it. Set up a program, make it life or death. Do it. Of course, no one always does it. OK, so when you slip, go back and do it 100%. Then when you slip, go back and do it 100%. I violate this one nearly every day. Yet I continue to fight like a tiger to keep it. Rule 5. Realize Your Own Power and Behave Accordingly Let me tell you something incredible: you can make a huge difference in your discipline. We are talking about fields that are young and accessible, in which even one 13

person can make a big difference. The successful student will realize their own power, and will push on to make it manifest. Rule 6. Follow Your Talent Successful students are confident. I dont mean they necessarily feel confident. I mean that they follow their talent. They are true to themselves. Be true to yourself. Do not, however, violate what seems important to you. You will pay very dearly for the violation because it will take away your compass for scientific entertainment. You can get lost without a compass. 5. Enumerate the rules given by paraphrasing them. Example: Rule 1. A student should constantly express his ideas verbally no matter whether he is sure or not about the things he has in mind as any idea can give great opportunities for discussion. The articulation of ideas helps the student to express himself and to enrich his way of thinking by the opinions of others. 6. Using the material of the lesson express your opinion on one of the following themes. 1. Critical factors of success in university. 2. The Rules everybody should follow while studying at university. 3. The Rules every professor should follow while teaching at university. 4. Features of character a student should develop to do his/her best. SMILE WITH US Farther: You know, son when Lincoln was your age he was a very good pupil. In fact he was the best pupil in class. Tom: Yes, Dad, I know that. But when he was your age he was President of the United States. LESSON 2. RUSSIAN SYSTEM OF HIGHER EDUCATION Brainstorming activity Discuss the following question and give all the possible answers to it. What makes many people think that Russian system of Higher education is the best? Example: Russian system of Higher education is the best because our specialists are in great demand all over the world. Active Vocabulary Listen and pronounce the active vocabulary of the lesson after the teacher. 1. academic degree 2. application (n) 3. be admitted to 4. branches of sciences 5. competition (n) 6. competitive system 14

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

curricular (n) educational system entrance exams final state examinations further education give the possibility graduation paper grant a degree higher education humanities (n) lifelong learning multilevel system natural sciences part-time students pass (v) postgraduate education provide access to provide mobility qualifying degree scientific research secondary education vocational education

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Lead-in 1. Here is the structure of Russian educational system. Will you give the English equivalents to the stages mentioned? Example: System of education 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. . 6. . 2. Using your background knowledge about the system of higher education in Russia agree or disagree with the following statements. 1. Russian educational system is the best in the world. 2. One of the main advantages of Russian educational system is that it is free. 3. A typical Russian university has all the necessary facilities for studying. 4. Any school leaver can become a student of a university. 3. Try to develop the idea given. Agree or disagree with it. Give your arguments. Education is the most powerful weapon, which you can use to change the world. Nelson Mandela 15

Grammar: Simple and Progressive Tenses. 1. Put the sentences into the interrogative form. 1. He gets up at seven o'clock on weekdays. 2. He likes fast driving. 3. Caruso sings wonderfully in the opera. 4. Ann likes travelling very much. 5. He knows English very well. 6. They usually go to the discos on Sunday. 7. They are staying with some friends in London. 8. I am putting in weight. 9. She is working in London this week 10. The child is crying bitterly. 11. The guests are leaving the room. 2. Put the sentences into the interrogative form. 1. He is doing the exercise now. 2. Ann is translating the text now. 3. Phil is travelling round the Europe now. 4. I was studying at the university at this time yesterday. 5. The Browns will be visiting their relatives on Sunday. 6. They were staying with some friends in London last week. 7. I was putting in weight when I was eating many sweets. 8. She is working in London this week 9. The child was crying bitterly when he fell on the ground. 10. The guests are leaving the room. 3. Open the brackets and put the verbs into the Present Progressive Tense. 1. What are you doing this weekend? I ____ at home. (to stay) 2. What are you doing here? I ____ for a friend. (to wait) 3. Listen! Someone ____ at the door. (to knock) 4. Don't go into the classroom. The students ____ a dictation there at the moment. (to write) 5. The man who ____a cigarette is our English teacher. (to smoke) 6. Listen! The telephone ___ . (to ring) 7. He ____ hard these days. (to work) 8. She ____ with a friend in Paris at present. (to stay) 9. He is such a boring man who ____always _____ a fuss about nothing. (to make) 10. It ____with rain all week long. (to pour) 11. I ____ a letter to my parents now. (to write) 4. Open the brackets and put the verbs into Present Simple or Present Progressive. Example: Kate usually (to read) a book in the evening but today she (to cook) dinner. 16

Kate usually reads a book in the evening but today she is cooking dinner. 1. Tom usually (to play) football but today he (to play) tennis. 2. What language they (to speak) in Holland? 3. The professor (to speak) five foreign languages. Right now he (to speak) Dutch. 4. My friend always (to tell) me the truth, but I see that she (to tell) a lie now. 5. I usually (to drive) to my work. Be careful! You (to drive) too fast. 6. She, as a rule, (to wear) smart hats. But today she (to wear) a funny one. 7. I (to do) a lot of work every day. Dont worry! I know what I (to do). 8. Every Sunday he (to watch) birds in a forest. Be quiet, the photographer (to watch) that bird. He (to want) to take a picture. 9. You (to eat) fruit every day? Whats the name of the fruit you (to eat) with such pleasure? 10. She (to adore) French perfume but I cant understand what perfume she (to wear) tonight. 5. Put the verbs into the appropriate form of the Past Progressive Tense. 1. He _____ the whole evening yesterday. (to skate) 2. Where _____ you _____ when I saw you yesterday? (to go) 3. I _____ at this time yesterday. (not/work) 4. Who _____ in this room from 5 till 8? (to study) 5. _____ you _____ your mother about the garden at this time yesterday? (to help) 6. Dad _____ me when mother came home. (to scold) 7. She _____ the book when I called on her yesterday. (not/read) 8. What _____you _____ at this time yesterday? (to do) 9. She _____ her car when the accident happened. (to drive) 10. _____ he _____ his composition when you rang him up? (to write) 6. Put the verbs into Past Simple or Past Progressive. 1. When I came home, my little sister ____ (sleep). 2. Peter ____by the fireplace when the door ____ and the maid ____. (read/open/enter) 3. We ___ tea when the telephone ____ . (drink/ring) 4. At this time yesterday we ____ your report. (discuss) 5. John Gray ____ Russia in 1989. (visit) 6. As my brother _____ off the tram, he _____ and _____ his leg. (get/fall/break) 7. The boy _____ and _____ himself, while he his bicycle. (fall/hurt/ride) 8. What _____ you _____ at this time yesterday? (do) 9. Who _____ you ____ to come to see me? (tell) 10. What _____ you____, when I _____ ? (do/ring) 7. Open the brackets and put the verbs into the affirmative, interrogative or negative form of Future Progressive. John: What ____ you ________ (to do) this time next week? Mary: I ______(to fly) to London. What _____ you ______ (to do)? 17

John: I ______(to make) a speech at the club. Mary: ____ you _______ (to work) tonight? John: Yes, I will. I __________(to prepare) my speech. Mary: ____ you ________ (to see) George today? John: Yes, at lunch time. Mary: Tell him I _____ (to wait) for him inside the pub. I_____(to wear) a green dress. John: Why do you mention that? Mary: Because I hope he ___________ (to wear) his green tie. John: ____you _________ (to come) over this evening? Mary: I'd like to. But won't I be disturbing you? John: No, you won't. Mary: Won't you _______ (to write) your speech? John: When you arrive I will try to finish it. I _________ (to wait) for you. 8. Open the brackets and put the verbs into Future Simple or Future Progressive. 1. Sit down and fasten your sit belts. We (to take off) in a few minutes. 2. Do you think you still (to work) here in five years' time? 3. I don't think I (to see) him tonight. 4. They (to reach) the top of the mountain at this time tomorrow. 5. They still (to discuss) the problem at 11 o'clock. 6. You (to hear) in the 8 o'clock news. 7. I (to work) as a teacher next year. 8. They (to have) a party on Sunday as usual. 9. They (to laugh) at you if you tell them this absurd story. 10. I (to wait) for you at the theatre at 7 o'clock. 9. Answer the questions about the actions, which are in progress now. 1. What are you doing at the moment? 2. What is your neighbour doing now? 3. Are you studying at the university? 4. Are you writing a book? 5. What were you doing at this time yesterday? 6. What will you be doing at this time tomorrow? 7. What were you doing at 5 oclock the day before yesterday? 8. What will you be doing at 10 a.m. on Saturday? 10. Translate from Russian into English using the Progressive Tenses. 1. ? . 2. ? . 3. 9 ? . . 4. ? . 5. ? , . . 18

Reading 1. Read the text and express in your own words its main idea. HIGHER EDUCATION IN RUSSIA Russias higher educational system started with the foundation of the State Moscow University founded in the middle of the 18th century. The getting of higher education was and still is very prestigious. Students with secondary education can be admitted to higher educational institutions. In previous years school leavers had to take both secondary schools leaving examinations and higher education entrance tests. In 2004 a choice is given to the school leavers after the Unified State Exam was introduced. Though all the faculties of the universities admit applicants on the basis of the results of the three Unified State Exams chosen by the applicants, on average, competition to enter state university now is 187 applications for 100 places. One of the great attractions of education in Russia is the cost. Degree study tuition is from $2000 to $8000 per year, with other costs (room, books, etc.) ranging from $1500 to $5000 per year, depending on location and spending habits. The types of the educational institutions in the Russian Federation are: University: a higher educational institution with activities aimed at developing education, science, and culture by performing fundamental scientific research and training at all the levels of higher, postgraduate, and further education within a wide range of Natural Sciences, Humanities, and other branches of sciences, technology, and culture. Academy: a higher educational institution with activities aimed at developing education, science, and culture mainly in one specific area of science, technology, and culture. Institute: an independent higher educational institution, which applies vocational education curricula in specific areas of science, technology, and culture. Russian higher educational institutions can grant the following types of degrees and diplomas: Intermediate Diploma; Bachelors degree; Diploma of Specialist; Masters degree. The function of the degree of Intermediate Higher Education granted after no less than two years of training is to certify that a student has successfully completed the first two years of the fundamental higher education, which is considered to be a basis of the chosen field of training. Besides, this degree provides mobility between various higher educational institutions. The Bachelors degree is awarded after at least four years of training. It covers almost all fields of knowledge, except medical science. Final state certification procedure includes the presentation of the graduation paper. Degree of a Specialist is awarded after 5-6 years of studies. The degree of a Specialist has a double function. It provides access to occupational activities and also gives the possibility to enter postgraduate courses (doctoral programs). Final state certification includes presentation of the graduation paper. Besides, in the majority of cases students have to pass final state examinations. 19

2. Use the information in the text to find answers to the following questions. 1. Who can be admitted to a higher educational institution? 2. What are the types of educational institutions in Russia? 3. What is a USE? 4. What types of degrees can Russian higher education institutions grant? 5. What are the functions of an Intermediate Diploma? 6. What does the final state certification procedure include? 3. Finish the sentences using the information from the text. 1. To enter university a student with secondary education have to _________ 2. The types of higher institutions in Russia are___________ 3. After 6 years of training a student gets _________ 4. A traditional Russian final qualifying degree is that of a ________ 5. The function of the Intermediate Higher Education degree is to provide_____ 6. Final state certification includes_______ 4. Look at the scheme of giving summary to the text and enumerate the 4 main elements of the summary. 1. Give the title of the text summarized. The title of the text is. 2. Begin the summary with one of the introductory general phrases: The text deals with (speaks about, say that, present, points out, describes, is devoted to, gives some comments on, offers an overview) 3. The main body must not be more than six plain statements generalizing the main ideas of the text in a logical sequence. 4. Conclude the abstract with your personal opinion of both the content and the language used, using given phrases: The text is informative. The text is dry, dull and boring The reading of the text gives (does not give) some satisfaction and pleasure The text is (not) worth reading and abstracting. The language is quite manageable There are practically no unknown words. 5. Look at the example summary and say what element among the enumerated ones does it lack? SUMMARY The title of the text is Higher Education in Russia. The text offers an overview of the Russian educational system. There are different types of higher educational institutions in Russia. They are universities, academies and institutes. Each educational institution has its peculiarities. They can grant the following types of degrees and diplomas. Intermediate Diploma: to get such a diploma at least 2 years of training is needed. Bachelors degree requires not 20

less than 4 years of training and you need 5 or 6 years of training to get the Diploma of a Specialist, which is the traditional final qualifying degree in Russia and you can get Masters degree after 6 years of training. 6. Give your own variant of the summary. Vocabulary practice 1. March phrases in column A with their translation in column B and make up sentences with them. A B . to enter state university 1. b. vocational education curricular 2. c. to pass final state examinations 3. 4. d. educational system e. to introduce a multilevel system 5. f. secondary education 6. g. to successfully complete the course of education 7. i. to pass entrance exams j. to choose the field of training 8. k. to perform scientific research 9. l. graduation paper 10. m. higher education 11. 12. 2. Distribute the words given below into three columns. To grant, secondary, entrance, to cover, Masters, Bachelors, higher, postgraduate, final, further, academic, qualifying, vocational. Degree 1. to grant 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Education 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Exam(s) 1. 2.

3. Fill in the correct word from the list below. Sciences, to grant, secondary, multilevel, to give, paper, entrance, individual, mobility, research. 1. ________ studies 2. ________ the possibility 3. scientific ________ 21

4. _______ exams 5. Natural _________ 6. ________ education 7. ________ system 8. graduation _______ 9. _________ a degree 10. to provide _______ 4. Make up a dialog on the situation. Student A You are a second-year student of the SUSU. Help the American student to understand the rules and regulations of being accepted to Russian university, being granted a degree. Explain the difference between the types of Russian educational institutions. You may also suggest him some tips for studying, clarify the peculiarities of students life in Russia. Its your first meeting with the person. Dont forget to introduce yourself. Student B You are an American student. You want to get a higher education in Russian. You love Russia very much as your grandmother is Russian. So youve come to Russia to find out as much details as possible about the system of Higher education in Russia, about the types of educational institutions and about the hardships (difficulties) of students life. Youve met a Russian secondyear student. Introduce yourself and remember you are a very inquisitive person. Communication: Reacting. 1. Look at sentences. Then choose phrases from the list and in pairs act out short exchanges reacting positively or negatively. OK. Never mind. Not at all. Go ahead Pity Why not I'd love to. Yes, actually. You'd better not. Let's not. Poor Quite reasonable. I'd rather not. Terribly 1. I won't be able to make it. 2. Shall we go? 3. Do you mind? 4. How did it go? 5. Are you coming then? 6. What are my chances? 7. Can I try? 8. I tried really hard. Example: A. I wont be able to make it. B. Pity. 2. Enlarge the situations given in Task 1. Example: - Will you go to the disco this evening? - I wont be able to make it. I am sitting with my sister this evening. - Pity. May be next time? - With pleasure. 22

Homework 1. Use the phrases given below to fill in the gaps into the sentences. Secondary education, training, final state examinations, vocational education curricula, to provide mobility, entrance exams, degree of a Specialist, to provide access, competition, distance learning students. 1. To enter the higher institution every applicant should pass ________. 2. ____________ is compulsory in Russia. 3. ____________ is awarded after 5 or 6 years of study. 4. Institute is and independent higher educational institution which applies__________ in specific areas of science, technology and culture. 5. The Intermediate Higher degree is designed _________ between various higher educational institutions. 6. Final state certification includes the presentation of the graduation project and ________. 7. In many modern universities large computer centers are established __________ to Internet resources for the students. 8. ________ to enter state university for the specialties that are in great demand nowadays is 5 applications for one place. 9. To get a Bachelors degree a student needs not less than four years of __________. 10. Part-time and __________ constitute one third of the overall number of students in the country. 2. Choose the right variant: Present Perfect or Past Simple. 1. She is happy. She (passed/has passed) her exam in Maths. 2. When (did you pass/have you passed) your laboratory work? 3. Ann is upset. She (lost/has lost) 500 rubles. 4. Pete feels uneasy. He (missed/has missed) his classes and (met/has met) his teacher on the street later today. 5. Yesterday I (read/have read) an interesting article about the nature of earthquakes. 3. Translate from Russian into English using the active vocabulary of the lesson. 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. , , . 5. . 6. . (Unified State Exam) 7. , , . 23

8. : , , . 4. Read the text and match the abstracts with the titles given below. a. Leading role in humanities and in applied sciences b. Russian Diplomas Competitiveness c. Great variety of educational institutions d. High Standard of Education e. Higher Education in Russian is much cheaper than in other countries FIVE ADVANTAGES OF RUSSIAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM 1. The Russian national education system is generally regarded to be of a high standard. It is founded upon a solid theoretical base. Leading Russian Universities are primarily scientific research centres. Many of the greatest achievements of 20th century science took place in Russia. 2. In 2002 31 Russian students took part in international mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, ecology, informatics and geography competitions, 29 of them became International Competition winners. No country in the world has ever achieved such a brilliant result! 3. The Russian Educational System has two types of further education institutions: universities, like Lomonosov Moscow State University, which offer a variety of subjects, and institutions of a smaller size, which concentrate on specific fields. Many new institutions and colleges have appeared in recent years. The level of achievement in these institutions is as high as those in traditional universities, but tuition fees are much lower. There are nearly 400 non-state owned institutions of higher education in Russia and the total number of students is nearly 270 thousand. 4. Russian graduates are considered to be among the top competitors for jobs worldwide. A Classical Russian University Education is considered by many to be an excellent starting point for any career. Bill Gates, the computer king, who has made a fortune of 90 billion dollars has 20 former graduates of Novosibirsk University. According to Bill Gates his staff made him one of the richest people in the world. 5. Tuition fees in Russia are considered to be much lower than anywhere else in the world. Additional costs such as accommodation, textbooks, use of libraries etc., are also low. Take the UK, for example. Accommodation in London will cost a student 360$ a week. In Moscow a student may rent a two-room apartment for 300$ a month, or pay just the same amount for bed-and breakfast accommodation. In London a student has to spend 1000$ a month for textbooks and supplementary literature compared to 100$ in Moscow. The fees in Oxford Westminster College, for example, are usually 2500030000$ a year and in Plekhanov Academy of Economics in Moscow are only 5000$ per year. Did you know that.. There are 1041 institutions of higher education in Russia; 610 institutions are state; 44 % of state institutions' freshmen pay for their education. 24

5. Find what the following figures refer to? Give answers as in the example. 31, 29, 400, 270, 25 000 $, 300$, 20, 100$ Example: 31 is the number of students taking part in the international competitions in 2002. 6. Answer the questions to the text. 1. Why can we be proud of Russian system of higher education? 2. What are the advantages of Russian system of higher education over the Western ones? 3. Why do you think our specialists are highly competitive in the world market? 4. What problems does our system of higher education have? 7. Find information in the Internet on the following topics and present it in the form of a report. 1. What is the Bologna process? 2. Why has Russia decided to become the part of the Bologna process? 3. What is the main purpose of the Unified State Exams? 4. Why is the Russian system of higher education is among the best in the world? Smile with us Professor: A fool can ask more questions than a wise man can answer. Student: No wonder so many of us failed our exams! LESSON 3. HIGHER EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN Brainstorming activity Discuss the following question and give all the possible answers to it. Why do many children of new Russians study in Great Britain? Active Vocabulary Pronounce the active vocabulary of the lesson after the teacher. 1. academic year 2. Advanced Level examinations c 3. applied technology 4. apply to a university 5. approximate number 6. attend a university 7. be dedicated to - 8. be founded in 9. be free (.) 10. be tested in 25

11. extension courses 12. foreign student 13. foremost (a) 14. General Certificate of Secondary Education 15. give a lecture 16. interview (n) 17. it goes without saying 18. methods of instruction 19. resident (n) 20. sandwich course 21. study centre 22. summer school 23. tutorial (n)

Lead-in Try to answer the following questions using your background knowledge. 1. What do you know about the system of Higher Education in Great Britain? 2. Why do you think many new Russians send their children to the UK colleges to get degrees? 3. Do you know any world famous colleges of the UK? Grammar: Perfect Tenses. 1. Put the verbs in brackets into the right form of Present Perfect and translate them. 1. He ____ (gain) a lot of weight recently. 2. Tom ____ just (clear out) the garage. 3. They ____ (sell) their house and ____ (go) on a tour of the world. 4. I ___ (be) to New York several times. 5. Martin is not here. He ____ (leave) for Moscow. 6. I ____ (not see) Kate since my weeding. 7. Pam ____ already (finish) his test. 8. She ____ (quarrel) with her mother 5 times this week. 9. This year I ___ twice (be) abroad. 2. Choose the right variant: Past Simple Present Perfect. 1. We (not/have) a holiday last year. a) didnt have b) havent had 2. My parents (be) to the USA many times. a) have been b) were 3. It (stop) raining? a) Did it stop b) Has it stopped 4. I (buy) a new dress last week. a) have bought b) bought 26

5. Dont worry about your letter. I (send) it the day before yesterday. a) sent b) have sent 6.When Jill (finish) school? a)When has Jill finished b) When did Jill finish 7. When I was a child, I (be) always late for school. a) have always been b) was always late 8. Are you tired? Yes, a little. I (paint) the ceiling today. a) have painted b) painted 9. My husband (work) in the bank for three years since 1990 to 1993. a) has worked b) worked 10. He (call) you yesterday? a) has he called b) did he call 11. One of the passengers (die) in that accident. a) died b) has died 12. Mom (lose) her key, so we have to open the door by force. a) has lost b) lost 3. Choose the right variant: Past Perfect or Present Perfect. 1. Aunt Polly punished Tom Sawyer because he (be) naughty boy. a) has been b) had been 2. Why are you so unhappy? I (lose) my purse. a) have lost b) had lost 3. Sam was upset because Judy (not/come). a) hasnt come b)hadnt come 4. Mother asked the children if they (buy) some biscuits for tea. a) has bought b) had bought 5. I (leave) some photos to be developed. Are they ready? a) have left b) had left 6. Tell Tommy about these wonderful islands. He never (hear) about them. a) has never heard b) had never heard 7. Im so happy to see you again. I (not/see) you since I left Berks. a) hadnt seen b) havent seen 8. She said she (not/see) him since she left Berks. a) hadnt seen b) hasnt seen 9. When she returned home, he (already/cook) dinner. a) had already cooked b) has already cooked 10. Who (read) this book? a) has read b) had read 4. Open the brackets and put the verbs into the Future Perfect Tense. 1. She __________ (to cook) dinner by the time you come. 2. The tutor __________ (to look through) all our tests by the end of the week. 3. The film already _________ (to start) when we get there. 4. I _________ (to finish) this book by next month. 27

5. My parents _________ (to go) to bed when we come back from the theatre. 6. The lecture _________ (to be over) by 5 and the last student will have left the hall. 7. It _________(to stop) raining by the time we get there. 8. By the time you get home you __________ (to forget) everything. 9. Ann ________ (to come) back by the moment the play starts. 10. By 2100 computers _____ (to take over) many of the jobs that people do today. 5. You are first year students. You spent not much time at the university. What have done yet? Example: I have already twice visited the library. 6. React to the suggestion using the Present Perfect Tense as in the model. The following adverbial phrases may be of some help to you: this week, this month, this year, this morning, this evening. 1. Lets go to the library this evening to prepare for our physics classes. 2. Lets go to the cinema to see Quantum of Solace. 3. Why dont we go to visit our grandmother this week. 4. Lets dedicate this poem to Svetlana. 5. Lets go to see Paris this summer. 6. Lets not miss lectures on History this week. 7. You are 18years old students. You are young but I am sure you have some achievements in your life. Think of them and formulate them using the model. Model: I have finished a secondary school and the Chelyabinsk State Pedagogical University. I have visited many foreign countries: Germany, the USA and Great Britain are among them. Reading 1. Read the text and do the tasks after it. HIGHER EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN The percentage of young people entering universities in Britain is lower than in the United States, where more than half attend. In Britain the proportion was one in three in 1996. Nowadays the higher education in UK is not free. For a resident of the country the fee for a year of study is 2000 pounds, while for a foreign student this fee is much higher. A foreign student has to pay 16 thousand pounds a year. So after finishing secondary school you can apply to a university. At the age of 16 students are tested in various subjects to earn a General Certificate of Secondary Education. If they wish to go on to higher education at a university, they take Advanced Level examinations, commonly known as A Levels. Good A-level results in at least 2 subjects are necessary to get a place at a university. However, good exam 28

passes are not enough. Universities choose their students after interviews. British universities are comparatively small, the approximate number of students studying there is about 78 thousand students. A university usually consists of colleges. The departments of the colleges are organized into faculties. The academic year in Britain's universities is divided into 3 terms. In the university students have a series of lectures, seminars, tutorials and laboratory classes. Lectures are given to large groups of students while seminars are much smaller than lectures. Lectures and seminars are all one hour in length, laboratory classes last 2 or 3 hours. After three years of study a university graduate will leave with the Degree of Bachelor of Arts, Science, Engineering, Medicine, etc. Later he may continue to take Master's Degree (I year of study) and then a Doctor's Degree (from 2 to 5 years). It goes without saying that research is an important feature of university work. Britain has more than 90 universities. The oldest and bestknown universities are located in Oxford, Cambridge, London, Birmingham. English universities differ from each other in date of foundation, size, history, tradition, general organization, methods of instruction, way of student life. The foremost universities are the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge, both founded in the Middle Ages. Another type of university is the so called redbrick variety old and solid schools built in the 19th century when bricks were the standard building material. The large number of ultramodern universities that appeared in the last half of the 20th century are often called cement block and plate glass universities. Students interested in advanced education can also attend polytechnics, which are schools dedicated to the sciences and applied technology. They offer the socalled sandwich courses (for people who work). An education act in 1992 changed the status of these colleges to universities. Higher education can also be obtained through the Open University, founded in 1969, which offers extension courses taught through correspondence, television and radio programs, and videocassettes. It also sponsors local study centers and residential summer schools. The purpose of the Open University is to reach people who may not ordinarily be qualified for university study. Did you know that.... The University education in Britain was only for men until 1871, when the first women's college was opened. Now almost all colleges are mixed. 2. Give the main idea of the text in one sentence. The main idea of the text is .. The text is about . 3. Answer the questions to the text. 1. Is the education in the UK free? 2. Why do you think a foreign student has to pay much more money than a resident of the country? 29

3. What is the procedure of entering the university in the UK? 4. What is the approximate number of students studying in the UK colleges? Is it more or less in comparison with Russian higher institutions? 5. What types of classes do the British students have? 6. How many years should an English student study to get a Masters Degree? 7. What are the three types of universities in terms of date of foundation? 8. How do the methods of instruction in the Open University differ from the methods of instruction in a traditional university? 9. What information in the text was new personally for you? 4. Try to explain the purpose of the following educational institutions. Make use of the model given to you. University Polytechnic Open University Example: University aims at giving the traditional type of education with students studying on campus where after three years of study a student can get a Bachelor's Degree. Vocabulary practice 1. Match the English phrases with their Russian equivalents. 1. 1. summer school 2. 2. to be dedicated to 3. 3. to be founded in 4. 4. applied technologies 5. 5. extension course 6. 6. to apply to 7. 7. to attend 8. 8. academic year 9. 9. to give a lecture 10. approximate 10. 2. Fill in the correct word from the list below: approximate, a university, to give, summer, life, instruction, course, student, academic, applied. 1. sandwich _____ 2. _____ year 3. methods of _____ 4. _____ technology 5. _____ a lecture 6. student _____ 7. to attend _____ 8. a foreign _____ 30

9. _____ number 10. _____ school 3. Insert the right prepositions. Consult the text. 1. to apply ___ a university 2. to be dedicated ___ 3. the lecture is one hour ___ length 4. to be tested ___ 5. to consist ___ colleges 6. to get a place ___ a university 7. to leave the university ___ a degree 4. Give the English equivalents to the following Russian phrases. , , , , , , , , , . 5. omplete the gaps using the factual information from the text. Higher education in Great Britain has a long history. First institutions of higher education appeared in _____. The most famous of them are ______ and ______ to which the term Oxbridge refer. For many centuries the tradition of getting higher education was the _____ of the _____. Even nowadays higher education in Great Britain costs money, which means that it is not _____. To enter the university good _____ results in at least __ ______ are necessary. Universities choose their students only after _____. Speaking 1. Tell about the system of Higher education of the UK to your friend who doesnt know anything about it. 1. What are the requirements to the applicant who wants to enter the university? 2. Is the higher education free in Great Britain? 3. Is the fee higher for a foreign student than for a resident of the country? 4. How many terms are there in the academic years in the UK? 5. What types of classes do the English students have? 6. What degrees are awarded in universities? 7. What kind of education do the polytechnics offer? 8. What is a sandwich course? 9. What is the purpose of the Open University? 2. What has changed in your character since you entered the university? Have you become more serious, more responsible, more independent or vice versa? Example: I think I have become more independent from the opinions of my parents. At the university a student has more freedom and he has to take a lot of decisions himself. I like to take decisions myself. 31

Discussion: Choosing a university to study Introduction Most English Universities have picturesque campuses with beautiful gardens decorated with modern sculptures, exotic trees, flowers and ducks swimming in ponds. Some universities have even special staff to take care about the gardens. But university campus doesnt only comprise miles of wellorganized nature but all the necessary facilities for the successful students study as well. Besides you should keep in mind that English universities compete for the students and they have to suggest the best conditions of study and high quality of education for the lowest cost. Make up a dialog. Student A. You are a school leaver. Next year you want to enter a university. You want to leave your home and live in a university campus to have a new experience. You have heard from your friend that Exeter University is one of the beautiful and interesting places to get a degree. But you need some additional information about the university facilities and conditions of study. Your task is to ask all the necessary questions to make a decision on whether you will choose this university as a place to get a higher education or not. Try not to forget to ask about: 1. Terms of admission 2. Fee 3. Methods of instruction 4. Libraries (information resources) 5. Accommodation Student B. You are the Academic Officer of the university. You know the answers to all the questions about the university and students life. Your task is to provide information to the applicants and to make the university attractive for the applicant. Use the information given. 1. Terms of admission (General Certificate of Secondary Education + Alevel results in at least two subjects + interview). 2. Fee (5,000 pounds for a resident, 15,000 pounds for a foreign student). 3. Methods of instruction (personal tutor, individual support and advice, choice of courses, a possibility to study for a year in Europe, lectures, tutorials, elearning, Internetbased materials, interactive online Learning Environment which delivers 120 courses). 4. Libraries (1,100,000 volumes, over 3,500 periodical subscriptions to journals, online access to 7,000 journals, PC clusters available 24hours 7 days a week for Internet access and wordprocessing) 5. Accommodation (4000 thousand places, singles furnished with a bed, wardrobe, bookshelves, desk and chair. All rooms have a phone and highspeed network/internet link. The kitchens are modern and wellequipped). 32

Communication: Congratulating/consoling. 1. Practice the phrases used for making congratulations and consoling. Congratulating Congratulations! ! Well done! , ! Brilliant! / Excellent! ! I'm (really) happy for you! ! Good for you! ! That's great/fantastic news! , ! Consoling That's too bad/a pity/a shame ! Don't let it get you down - ! Never mind. , ! Don't worry. ! You'll be fine/OK/alright. . I'm so sorry. . It's not as bad as it seems. . 2. Read the dialogs and underline the phrases used for congratulating and consoling. What is the situation in each dialog? 1. A: What's the matter, Tom? You look a bit upset. B: Yeah, I am upset, actually. I just got a 'C' in my Physics exam. A: Never mind. It's not as bad as you think. It's still a passing grade. B: I suppose. 2. A: Georgia? Are you free after class? B: Yes, lam. Why? A: Well, I got my driving license yesterday, and I thought we could go out for a bite to eat. B: Oh my goodness! Congratulations! I'm so happy for you! 3. Use the useful language in the box to act out similar dialogs for the situations. 1. A friend has passed her exams. 2. Your brother has crashed his car. 3. Your sister got accepted to study medicine abroad 4. A friend has lost his job. 5. Your classmate entered the university. 33

6. Your girl friend got the leading role in a film. 7. Your mother has won the lottery! 8. Your farther has broken his leg. 9. A friend has failed his exam in maths twice. Homework 1. Open the brackets using one of the Perfect Tenses or the Past Simple Tense. 1. Last year I (to finish) secondary school and (to enter) the South Ural State University. 2. you (to see) our new lecturer? Yes, I have. 3. I (to pass) my entrance exam two years ago. 4. How many lectures you (to give) this week? 5. I (to earn) my General Certificate of Secondary Education by the moment I applied to the university. 6. My brother (to get) a Bachelor's Degree by 2005. 7. you (to prepare) for laboratory classes yet? 8. you ever (to be) to the United Kingdom? 9. you (to choose) your major yet? 10. I (to loose) my textbook. When you (to see) it last? 2. Translate the sentences from Russian into English using the active vocabulary of the lesson. 1. . 2. . 3. 12 . 4. . 5. , . 6. . 7. . 8. . 9. ? 25 . 10. . . . . 3. Express your agreement or disagreement with the statements. Prove your point of view by giving arguments. Model: To be a highly qualified specialist you should study all your life. I agree completely with the statement. I think that knowledge obtained at the university quickly become obsolete and you should learn all your life. 1. It's no use working hard if you have no inborn abilities. 34

2. It's more prestigious nowadays to get higher education abroad. 3. Higher education shouldn't be free. 4. Absent-minded people can't be successful in research. 5. Tutorials and individual work with a tutor is more useful than practical classes in fixed groups. 4. Compare two systems of higher education that of Great Britain and Russia. Give your opinion about their advantages and disadvantages. Smile with us William Lyon Phelps, on a pre-Christmas examination paper, found written, God only knows the answer to this question. Merry Christmas. He returned the paper with the notation, God gets an A; you get an F. Happy New Year. LESSON 4. HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE USA Brainstorming activity Discuss the following question and give all the possible answers to it. What are the advantages and disadvantages of democracy in universities? Active Vocabulary` Listen and pronounce the active vocabulary of the lesson after the teacher. 1. advance ones career 2. Associate degree 3. be insufficient 4. be operated by 5. community college 6. complete a course 7. completion (n) 8. dedication (n) 9. depend on 10. educational background 11. full-time coursework 12. graduate school 13. graduate with a degree in major 14. in addition to 15. in order to , 16. junior college 17. lower the cost 18. major in maths 19. prior to (pp) , 20. public funds 35

21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.

related fields requirement (n) research paper select a major thesis (n) transfer to undergraduate school

Lead-in 1. Using your background knowledge about the system of higher education in the USA agree or disagree with the following statements. 1. The system of Higher Education in the USA does not differ from the Russian one. 2. Higher education in the USA is free. 3. American colleges are not certified to give universities degrees. 4. All universities in the USA are private. Grammar: Passive Voice. 1. Change the active to the passive by supplying the correct form of the verb to be. 1. Tom is preparing the homework. The homework _____ prepared by Tom now. 2. Tom has prepared the homework. The homework _____ prepared by Tom. 3. Tom prepared the homework. The homework _____ prepared by Tom. 4. Tom was preparing the homework. The homework _____ prepared by Tom. 5. Tom had prepared the homework. The homework _____ prepared by Tom. 6. Tom will prepare the homework. The homework _____ prepared by Tom. 7. Tom will have prepared the homework. The homework _____ prepared by Tom. 2. To repair a flat is an endless process. Many things change. Describe the changes that happen when we repair the flat, using the Present Simple Passive. 1. The roof _______ (to repair). 2. The carpet ______ (to wash) in the laundry. 3. The walls ______(to decorate) with wallpaper. 4. The bathroom _______ (to lay) with tile. 5. The dust ______ (to beat) out of the carpet. 6. The ceiling ______ (to whitewash). 7. The new curtains ______ (to buy). 8. All the old things _____ (to throw) away. 9. The parquet _______ (to lacquer). 36

3. Open the brackets and put the words into the Future Simple Passive. 1. Many tasty things ________ (to make) by Mother for our party. 2. The pupils ______ (to give) out prizes by the headmaster. 3. I ______ (to ask) a lot of questions during the interview. 4. A surprise party _______ (to arrange) for Jane next week. 4. Using the verbs in the box fill in the gaps. Put the verbs into the Past Simple Passive. invent, plant, kill, write, build, name, discover, design, paint, break 1. Five fruit-trees ________ in our garden last year. 2. The picture Mona Lisa _________ by Leonardo da Vinci. 3. Marat ______ in his bath. 4. Radio ______ by Popov. 5. The first Pyramid of Egypt ________ around 3000 BC. 6. The winter Palace _______ by Rastrelli. 7. War and Peace ________ by Tolstoy. 8. Rossi street _______ after a famous Russian architect. 9. My car ______ in an accident last night. 10. When ____ America ________? 5. Ann and Tom bought a car 10 years ago. The car has been repaired several times since then. Describe the changes that have been made, using the Present Perfect Passive. Example: The oil ______(to change). The oil has been changed. 1. The radiator _____(to fill) with water six times. 2. It ______(to take) for a test drive once. 3. Broken parts ______(to repair) two times. 4. The battery ______(to check). 5. The filters ______(to replace) three times. 6. Air _____ (to put) in the tyres twice. 7. The brakers _____ (to test). 8. The car ______ (to paint) after the accident. 9. The lights _____ (to change). 6. Make up Yes/No questions using the words given Example: India, rice, is, grown, in. Is rice grown in India? 1. Into, languages, many, this book, translated, has, been. 2. A, is, being, built, new church, in, Moscow. 3. The planet, is , known, Mars, as, the red planet. 4. Ground, the, covered, is, snow, with. 5. Your, is, being, wedding dress, made, your mother, by. 6. At the moment, being, taught, he, to drive, a car, is. 7. The, has, canceled, been, meeting. 37

8. All, have, sold, the tickets, been. 9. The, is, cut, grass, every week. 7. Open the brackets and put the verbs into the Past Perfect Passive. 1. The alarm system had been broken before the thieves climbed through a window. 2. After the stolen motorbike _______ (to find) the police called the owner. 3. Smoke rising from the mouth of the volcano _______ (to see) by the tourists two days before the eruption. 4. The dinner ___already ____ (to eat) by the time I came home. 5. All the work _______ (to do) by the moment the mother came home from work. 8. Open the brackets and put the verbs into the Future Perfect Passive. Example: A new park will have been laid out by summer. 1. All her affairs _________ (to settle) before she gets married. 2. All the stolen goods _________ (to find) by September. 3. By the end of the year a new bridge __________ (to build). 4. I ___________ (to examine) by the doctor by this time tomorrow. 9. Insert by or with into the gaps. 1. Most children are strongly influenced ____ their parents. 2. The jam sandwiches were made _____ white bread. 3. My camera was loaded _____ a black and white film. 4. The supermarket trolley was filled _____ cat food. 5. My hair was cut _____ a top stylist. 6. The song was performed ______ Madonna. 7. This book was written _____ my favorite author. 8. Claire was shouted at ______ her teacher. 9. The cake was decorated _____ icing. 10. The tiger was shoot _____ a gun. 10. Choose the right variant. 1. The children taught/ were taught Italian. 2. This problem will discuss/will be discussed at the conference. 3. The president interviewed/was interviewed on French TV. 4. Teachers have given/ have been given a new pay rise by the government. 5. Walt Disney created/was created the cartoon character of Mickey Mouse. 6. The firm has been making/has been made dresses for twenty years. 7. He treats/is treated the girl very badly. 8. He said that he had taken/had been taken his watch to a watchmakers. 9. Many new houses have been built/have built this year. 10. The door closed/was closed.

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Reading 1. Read the text and do the tasks after it. HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE USA To attend American university students must complete 12 years of primary and secondary education. Students who would like to attend college or university must attend an undergraduate school. These are schools that offer either a two-year degree or a four-year degree in a specific course of study. That course of study is called the major. An associate degree is a two-year degree given by two types of colleges: community colleges and junior colleges. The two classes of associate degrees are the Associate of Arts (also called the A.A.) and the Associate of Applied science (also called the A.A.S.). Community colleges are operated by the local government and are financed by public funds. They serve two functions: (1) students who do not want to get a bachelors degree will attend a community college to get an associate degree; (2) students who want to get a bachelors degree will complete the first two years of their undergraduate education at a community college and then transfer to a fouryear college for the last two years. The tuition at a community college is much less than at a four-year college or university. Therefore many American students choose to attend a community college for two years as a way of lowering the cost of getting a bachelors degree. A bachelors degree is the traditional degree given by American colleges and universities. It normally requires at least four years of full-time college-level coursework. The two classes of bachelors degrees are the Bachelor of Science and the Bachelor of Arts. Students must complete a required number of courses within their major in order to graduate with a degree in that major. They may also be required to complete a number of courses in closely related fields. A college graduate with a bachelors degree may find that degree insufficient for the type of profession he would like to have. It may often be necessary to get an advanced degree, such as a Masters or Doctorate degree, to advance your career. Not all colleges and universities offer Masters degree programs. The Masters degree is a graduate school degree that typically requires two years of fulltime coursework to complete. The Doctorate degree is even more focused and specialized than the Masters degree. Completion of a doctorate degree typically takes between three and six years. The length of time will depend on the students educational background, the field of study selected, the students dedication and ability, and the complexity of the thesis the student has chosen. Did you know that.... Community college is also known as a two-year college. These schools provide college courses for high school graduates and adults in their communities. Community colleges generally have fewer admissions requirements than four-year institutions and courses typically cost 39

less than comparable courses at four-year schools. Most community colleges award two-year associates degrees, though some are now awarding bachelors. An associate degree: A degree awarded after a learner earns a specified number of credits according to the requirements of a community college program. In the United States, that number of credits usually represents two years of full-time study. 2. Answer the questions to the text. 1. What are the admission terms for the American students? 2. Why do many American students prefer studying in community colleges for the first two years of their university career? 3. What two Bachelors degrees do American students grant? 4. What degrees does the graduate school grant? 5. How does the American system of higher education differ from the Russian one? 3. Try to explain the meaning of the following phrases. 1. an undergraduate school 2. a major 3. a community college 4. an Associate of Arts degree 5. tuition 4. Find in the text the sentences in the Passive Voice and read them to the group. 5. Tell about the American system of Higher education to the group of Russian students, using the following plan. 1. Terms of admission 2. Types pf degrees 3. Types of colleges 4. Undergraduate school 5. Graduate school Vocabulary practice 1. Complete the gaps using the phrases given: research, the cost, community, school, educational, degree, coursework, related, a major, to advance. 1. undergraduate _____ 2. _____ paper 3. _____ background 4. to lower _____ 5. associate _____ 6. ______ college 7. to select _____ 8. ______ ones career 40

9. ______ fields 10. full-time _____ 2. Fill in the prepositions and make up the sentences of your own. 1. prior ___ 2. to transfer ___ 3. to major ___ maths 4. to depend ___ 5. ___ addition ___ 6. ___ order to 7. to graduate ____ a degree ___ major 8. to be operated ___ 3. Read the abstract about the assessment system in an American University and answer the questions after it. UNIT SYSTEM College courses are given a value, which are called credits or units. The number of units assigned to a course corresponds to the number of hours that a student will attend class for that course. For example, a course that consists of three class sessions per week will be assigned a value of three units. Typically, colleges require that students complete a minimum number of units in order to graduate, rather than a minimum number of courses. This gives students more flexibility in what courses they decide to take to complete their graduation requirements. Most colleges and universities follow either a quarter-based calendar system or a semester-based calendar system. In a quarter system, the academic year is divided into three sessions called quarters. Each quarter lasts about 12 weeks. There is usually an additional quarter in the summer, where registration is optional. In a semester system, the academic year is divided into two sessions called semesters. Each semester lasts 16 weeks. Students who have registered for at least 12 units in a session are said to be full-time students. Students who have registered for fewer than 12 units in a session are called part-time students. 1. What is a unit system? 2. What students may be called full-time students? 3. What students may be called part-time students? Problem solving Introduction The American system of Higher education has some peculiarities. It is considered a democratic one. But the democracy introduced into the universities as well as in secondary schools seems to cause some troubles for the teaching staff. Very often it results in the low level of education. Among the reasons that strongly influence on the level of higher education the American professors call: 41

the absence of core curriculum. Students may choose both the course they would like to study and the lecturer. The lecturer is free to choose the textbook to deliver lectures on, he is free to choose the themes to be learnt, he may omit some themes, which he considers unimportant. the absence of oral examinations. All the examinations in American universities are done in a written form. A professor can not call a student to the blackboard and discuss the results of his work in class in front of the classmates. the absence of set groups as any student has an individual program of study. 1. Discuss in groups of three: How do you think why the reasons mentioned above worry the American professors? 2. Express your opinion using the following phrases: I think, to my mind, first of all, on the other hand, I firmly believe that, there are plenty of proofs to the fact that. 3. Give arguments to the following: 1. Is it good or bad to have no core curriculum? 2. Can all the skills and knowledge got by the student be evaluated by written tests? 3. Is it good when a lecturer chooses the textbook for studying and creates the course of study according to his likes and dislikes? 4. What are the disadvantages and advantages of studying in groups and individually? Communication: making requests and refusing politely Practice the following phrases and use them in the dialog below. Making requests Refusing politely Would you mind my V-ing? Well, actually, Im a bit busy at the moment , , I was wondering if you could , Could you possibly Im afraid I cant .. , I am terribly sorry to bother you, but I wonder if you could , Can you please? ? 42 Im really sorry, but ,

A: __________lend me your textbook on Maths. I want to prepare for the Friday seminar. B: __________Ill be using it myself. You can have it tomorrow if you like. A: Thanks. Ill collect it tomorrow then. 2. In pairs, take it in turns to make requests and refuse politely in the following situations. 1. You ask your tutor to read over a report you have written. 2. You ask your fellow student to help you with a report. 3. You ask your sister to type out a report for you. Discussion. Study abroad 1. Answer the following questions. The phrases given below may be of some help to you. 1. What are the reasons people go away to study? to see the world, to seek for better education, to have an international diploma, to change the place of living, to have fluency in English, to advance ones career, etc. 2. What problems can someone who is studying abroad face? level of English language is not enough to study for a degree program, large fees to pay, unknown cultural environment, another system of Higher education, to be homesick, etc. 3. Would you like to study in a foreign country? Why (not)? 2. Present your opinion in the form of an essay. The beginning is given to you but you may think of your own first sentence. Study abroad It is common knowledge that more and more overseas students are seeking a university education in an Englishspeaking country. What are the reasons people go away to study? 3. Find the information in the Internet and prepare an opinion essay on one of the topics. 1. Education as the means of a successful career. 2. The art of studying at college. 3. Obsolete features of modern system of education. 4. Education as the process of acquiring knowledge.

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Homework 1. Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate Passive tense form. 1. Students (to be required) to complete 12 years of secondary education before entering the university. 2. Moscow State University (to be founded) in 1755. 3. All the exams (to be passed) in July and January. 4. The course (to be completed) if a student gets a certain number of credits for it. 5. The tuition for study (to be paid) once a year in Russian universities. 6. The thesis (to be written) already. 7. Do you know how many students (to be admitted) to the South Ural State University last year? 8. An Associate degree (to be given) by community colleges. 9. The most successful students (to be given) grants by the university or local authorities. 10. The essay on history (to be written) by him today. 2. Transfer the sentences from Active into Passive. 1. I finished school 8 years ago. 2. I advanced the career. 3. My sister teaches students at the university. 4. I have already done my homework. 5. Scientists proved the theorem 20 years ago. 6. When will you defend your graduation project? 7. We carried out many experiments in the laboratory. 8. I took all the necessary textbooks in the library. 9. We will perform this work on the computer next week. 10. I write letters every week. 3. Read the commands and say that the actions have been performed already. 1. Wash the dishes. 2. Make the bed. 3. Sweep the floor. 4. Do the homework. 5. Clean the carpet. 6. Tidy up the room. 7. Buy some bread. 8. Cook the dinner. 4. Try to match discoveries and works of art with the famous inventors. 1. Assembly line 2. Theory of Relativity 3. Telescope 4. Electric light 5. Ball-point pen a) Alexander Graham Bell b) Albert Einstein c) Galileo Galilei d) Karl Benz e) Henry Ford 44

f) Zacharias Janssen 6. Matches g) William Blackstone 7. Microcsope h) Ladislo Biro 8. Automobile i) Thomas Edison 9. Telephone 10. Washing machine j) John Walker If you don't know the answers you may use the Internet site http://inventors.about.com to find them. 5. Choose one of the inventions and present the story of its development for your classmates. Use the following plan: 1. Name of the inventor. 2. Invention. 3. Reasons for making such an invention. 4. Benefits for a society. 6. Translate the sentences from Russian into English using the Active vocabulary of the lesson. 1. . 2. , 4- . 3. , . 4. , . 5. . 6. , . 7. . 8. . 9. . 10. 1964 1416 . 7. Read the text and open the brackets. FACULTY MEMBERS IN AN AMERICAN UNIVERSITY Colleges and universities in the US (to be headed) by a president and a provost who (to be) usually a chief academic officer. At the head of each school or college there (to be) a dean. A chairperson or head (to supervise) individual departments of instruction. Faculty members (to range) from professor to instructor. A full professor (to have) tenure which is a permanent appointment with guaranteed employment until retirement. The next rank (to be) associate professor, who may or may not have tenure depending on the policy of a particular college or university. Next (to be) an assistant 45

professor who (not to have) tenure. At the bottom of the academic ladder (to be) instructors. In many institutions, some instructors (to be) graduate students who (to conduct) introductory undergraduate courses or (to direct) small groups that meet to discuss material covered by senior faculty in larger formal lectures. 8. Complete the sentence given below: The faculty members in an American university are: a full professor, ... 9. Answer the questions to the text. 1. What does the term tenure mean? 2. Who can be called an associate professor? 3. Who is at the bottom of the academic ladder? 4. What are the responsibilities of the instructors? Smile with us Given the task of writing a composition about what they would do if they had a million dollars, all the children in the class except Willy were busily writing away. The teacher, becoming aware of his idleness, said severely, Willy, don't you know that you are supposed to tell what you would do if you had a million dollars? Well, said the boy, lazily leaning back on his chair, this is exactly what I would do if I had a million dollars. 10. Make up a crossword using the basic terms of higher education. Russian system of higher education Intermediate Diploma (2 years) Bachelor's degree (4 years) Diploma of Specialist (5-6 years) Master's degree (6 years) British system of higher education Bachelor's degree (3 years) Master's degree (4 years) Doctorate Degree (from 8 to 9 years) USA system of higher education Associate degree (2 years in community college) Bachelor's degree (4 years at a 4year college) Master's degree (4 years at university + 2 years at university graduate school) Doctorate degree (4 years at university + 3 or more years of study at a university Professional school) Exams Entrance exams GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary

Types of higher institutions University Institute

Degrees Associate degree Bachelor's degree Specialist degree 46

Master's degree Education) Polytechnics Doctorate degree Advanced Level examinations Academy Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) Colleges American College Test (ACT) 4year colleges Final exams (Finals) Community colleges (2 years) Types of students Faculty members Full time students A full professor Part-time students An associate Distant students professor An assistant professor Correspondence students An instructor

LESSON 5. PERSONAL AND SOCIETAL VALUE OF HIGHER EDUCATION Brainstorming activity Discuss the following question and give all the possible answers to it. How do you think what a person needs higher education for? Active Vocabulary 1. Listen and repeat the active vocabulary of the lesson after the teacher. 1. ambiguous (a) 2. asset (n) , 3. be based on 4. be restricted to 5. confidence (n) 6. deal with 7. express oneself 8. foundation (n) , 9. gather knowledge 10. job market 11. life situation 12. make a choice 13. material possessions 14. measure (v) 15. needs (n) 16. occupation (n) 17. open up 18. participate (v) 19. properly (adv) 20. pursue (v) , 21. recognize (v) 22. society (n) 23. take into account 47

24. value (n) 25. wants (n)

2. Read the words following the order of their Russian equivalents. a. to make a choice 1. b. to take into account 2. 3. c. to pursue d. to be based on 4. e. to gather knowledge 5. f. job market 6. g. to participate 7. h. to take full advantage of 8. i. to express oneself 9. , 10. j. to deal with 3. Read and translate the sentences. Try to explain the meaning of the words and word combinations in bold. 1. What kind of person can be called a confident one? 2. Can we measure the value of education? 3. It often happens in life that our needs do not correspond to our abilities. 4. He has a lot to show but it is very difficult for him to express himself. 5. She doesnt take into account people differences. It results in her loneliness. Lead-in 1. Try to answer the following questions using your background knowledge. 1. Why is higher education important nowadays? 2. What possibilities does it give to the graduates? 3. Is it necessary to go the university in order to be an educated person? 4. Should the higher education of a person relate to the needs of the society he lives in? 5. Can you define the personal and societal value of higher education? Grammar: Types of questions. Modal verbs. 1. Ask Yes/No questions to the following statements. Example: Phil studies at the faculty of Engineering. Does Phil study at the faculty of Engineering? 1. Individuals make choices based on their own needs. 2. The students are writing an exam paper. 3. Ann entered the university last year. 4. They were watching TV when the thunderstorm began. 5. His parents will spend next weekend in Italy. 6. Kate will be dealing with her term paper tomorrow at 5. 7. They have taken the full advantage of the knowledge got at the university. 8. His sister had already left for Paris when Tom came to visit her. 9. By 2010 he will have completed the course of study at the university. 10. She has completely expressed herself in her work. 48

2. Ask special questions to the underlined words. Example: I want to get a good education. What do you want? 1. The aim of education is to give people the possibility to understand their needs. 2. In modern society material values dominate over the cultural ones. 3. He decided to become a teacher because he thinks it is one of the possibilities to influence on history. 4. Kevin participated in the competition and won the prize. 5. It is difficult to measure the value of education. 6. She expresses herself in music. 7. The work has been done properly. 8. All the values of speed were calculated. 9. He took advantage of the opportunity and entered Stanford University. 10. Kelly has got enough knowledge in graduate school to become an engineer. 3. Match question tags with the appropriate statement. Example: It isn't cold, is it? a) ... does he? 1. This statement is ambiguous, b) ... aren't they? 2. We have passed all the exams, c) ... isn't it? 3. She is writing a book, d) ... isn't she? 4. He doesn't know the answer, e) ... can it? 5. Nothing can stop us, f) ... haven't we? 6. Ann has posted the letter, g) ... will they? 7. They have never been to Paris, h) ... has she? 8. Kate doesn't like this professor, i) ... have they? 9. They won't tell anyone, 10. They are working hard, j) ... does she? 4. Fill in the gaps with the Modal verbs: can, cant, could, couldn't . 1. I have been chosen to represent our company in Spain because I am the only person in our firm who _______ speak Spanish. 2. I _______ do my homework last night because I was too tired. 3. Do you know how to cook? Yes, I ______ cook very well. 4. He _____ watch TV last night because his TV set was broken. 5. Mozart _______ play the piano and compose music at the age of three. 6. Elephants ______ live until they are seventy. 7. We ________ go swimming yesterday because the water was cold. 8. This diamond ring is too expensive for me. I ________ buy it. 9. Einstein ______ speak 8 foreign languages. 10. The coffee is too hot I _______ drink it. 5. Look at the phrases given and define what abilities they denote: physical or mental? Put the verbs into two columns. To swim, to speak a foreign language, to run fast, to jump, to play football, to think, to listen to music, to dream, to read, to smell the flower, to feel the fabric, to whisper, to analyze, to argue, to persuade, to write poems. 49

physical abilities to swim

mental abilities to speak a foreign language

Now answer the question What can you do? using the phrases of Exercise 5. 6. Insert into the gaps may, might, to be allowed to/ not to be allowed to. 1. You _____ go to the cinema with your friends, but, please, dont come home late. 2. He _____ work in the laboratory next week. 3. Until you are eighteen you ______ to marry. 4. ______ I take your dictionary for a minute? 5. You _____ leave this little matter entirely to me, Mr Brown. 6. She _____ want some more wine. Youd better ask her to find it out. 7. He _____ park here. Its strictly prohibited. 8. When we lived in a hotel we ___not____ make any noise after nine. 9. According to the rules you ___not ____ bring guests. 10. You ____ take my dictionary. I dont need it now. 7. Fill in the gaps using the modal verb must and the expressions given below. close the door behind you go to medical school have a drivers license have a library card have a passport pay an income tax speak English outside of class every day, read newspapers stop study harder take one pill every six hours 1. According to the law a driver must have a drivers license. 2. If a traffic light is red, a car must_______________. 3. My doctor gave me a prescription. According to the directions on the bottle, I must ____________. 4. If you want to check a book out of the library, you must ________________. 5. Nancy has a job in Chicago. She earns 20,000$ a year. According to the law, she must __________. 6. I failed the last two tests in my biology class. According to my professor, I must ____________. 7. I want to travel abroad. According to the law, I must _____________. 8. If you want to become a doctor, you must _______________. 9. Jimmy! Its cold outside. When you come inside, you must _______________. 10. I want to improve my English. According to my teacher, I must ____________.

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8. Fill in the gaps with the modal verb must or its equivalents have to, be to. 1. We ______ wait for some minutes because we missed the train. 2. I _____ meet my sister at the station today at 7. 3. There is no ice-cream. According to the schedule it ____ be delivered at twelve. 4. I _____ leave early because I was not feeling quite well. 5. The inn was small and we ____ share the room. 6. She ______ come to work in time or Ill fire her! 7. To know English you _____ read more books in the original. 8. The game ______ begin at 6 according to the programme. 9. You ____ study well or you will not enter the university. 10. I ____ be at the meeting. My boss ordered me to be there. He will accept no excuses. 9. Finish the sentences using should or shouldnt. 1. Students ______ come to class every day. 2. We _______ waste our money on things we dont need. 3. Life is short. We _________ waste it. 4. Its raining. You _________ take your umbrella when you leave. 5. People ________ be cruel to animals. 6. Your plane leaves at 8.00. You _______ get to the airport by 7.00. 7. You _______ smoke in a crowded room because the smoke bothers other people. 8. When you go to New York, you _______ see play on Broadway. 9. You _________ walk alone on city streets after midnight. Its dangerous. 10. When you go to San Francisco, you _______ ride on the cable cars. 10. Use mustnt or neednt to fill the gaps. 1. You ______ give Freddy any more sweets or he wont eat any tea. 2. The doctor said I ______ go back to the hospital; my leg is all right. 3. You _____ make any sandwiches for me. Im not hungry. 4. She _____ fill in a new application form, we have the other one. 5. You _____ mention this to Kate, or shell get upset. 6. She _____ bring a doctors certificate, she was only away for one day. 7. You _____ take any more aspirins, youve had four already. 8. Tell her she _____ open any letters marked personal. 11. Choose the right variant. 1. You may/ mustnt run the corridors. Its dangerous. 2. Can/Should I ask you a question? 3. Will/Shall we go out for lunch today? 4. You should/must see a doctor as soon as possible. Youve got high temperature. 5. Tom can/may play tennis very well. 6. I have no choice. I have to/must wait for him until he comes. 7. Today a have a date with Tom. I am to be/have to be at the cafe at 10. 8. Tony was able to/could enter the University. 9. You shouldnt/mustnt lie in court. 51

Reading 1. Read and translate the text. Enumerate its main ideas. VALUE OF HIGHER EDUCATION Our society was designed to give individuals the chance to make choices based on their own needs and wants. Certainly the needs of the society as a whole must be taken into account but the foundation remains the individual. People must have the ability to recognize their own needs and the needs of the overall society. In order to participate properly they must understand the rules of the game. Such sophistication does not come naturally; it must be taught. This cannot be done without proper education. What is the value of higher education for the individual? Sometimes it is difficult to see the exact value of your education. However finishing university is an asset that everyone with the opportunity should take full advantage of. Just finishing higher school alone opens up thousands more opportunities for individuals. When entering a specific field within the job market, it is often required that the applicant has a higher school diploma. Therefore, many times without the higher school diploma, a person is restricted to a smaller number of occupations for which they are qualified for. Higher school teaches students to learn. It gives them a background in many different subjects and methods of learning. An understanding of how the world works is a very important skill for a person who is living in our world today. A higher school education gives student the experience and the confidence that they will be able to use in many life situations. Attending higher school gives students opportunities to express themselves and to learn about other people and their ideas. Having the knowledge obtained in higher school often gives people confidence later in life when they are dealing with the public. It can give a person confidence in the way that they view their abilities later in life. In order for society to advance our society must be educated. As a higher school education is free, people should take advantage of the wonderful opportunity that they are and try to gather all the knowledge that they possibly can. Years ago I saw a poster that depicted a mansion situated on a cliff overlooking the ocean. There were several expensive automobiles in the garages. At the bottom was a phrase stating The Value of Education. This simple statement is wonderfully ambiguous: does it mean that an education is valuable because it will enable one to get such luxury, or that an education will help one to understand that life is not really about such material possessions? My view is that the value of education is best measured by what graduates do with their lives. 2. Answer the questions using the information in the text. 1. What is important to take into account while choosing the occupation? 2. What are the advantages of having a higher school diploma? 3. What is the main function of any higher school? 4. What skills and opportunities does the higher school give to students? 52

5. What does the society need educated individuals for? 3. Can you comment the last sentence of the text? What does it imply? Vocabulary practice 1. Fill in the correct word from the list below: proper, wants, value, to pursue, possessions, ambiguous, properly, job, to make, life. Consult the text if necessary. 1. an ______ statement 2. material ______ 3. _____ situation 4. _____ gathering knowledge 5. _____ choices 6. exact _____ 7. _____ market 8. needs and ______ 9. to participate ______ 10. ______ education 2. Insert the prepositions where necessary. 1. to take _____ account 2. to be based _____ 3. value ____ education 4. to take full advantage ____ 5. to open ____ 6. to be restricted ____ 7. to be qualified ____ 8. to deal _____ 9. to express _____ themselves 3. Make up 15 sentences with the word combinations from Exercises 1 and 2. Discussion 1. What are the things among the enumerated below that will be difficult for you to live without? Make up a list of things in the order of importance and explain your choice. Compare it with your partners list. Health Happiness of your relatives Wellpaid job A good family Safety Selfrealization Usefulness for the society you live in Wealth Spiritual wealth Fame 53

Start your explanations with the following: In the first place of my preference list I placed . . I have chosen it because I think that . Then use the following logical connectors of order. Secondly, in the third place, the fourth in the list is, further I placed, then, after that, finally. 2. Make up a dialog. Student A You have a sister/brother who doesnt want to get a higher education. What arguments will you use to persuade him/her that higher education is essential nowadays? Student B You dont want to get a higher education, as you dont want to spend 5 years of your life studying at some higher institution. You strongly believe that it is impossible to acquire the necessary practical skills by writing lectures and working at seminars. Speaking 1. Read the statement. What does it imply? Try to explain its meaning in your own words. The aim of education is the knowledge not of fact, but of values. William Inge 2. Prepare a talk about the prevalence of values over the actions we perform and things we do in our life. 3. Choose one of the expressions below and write an Argumentative Essay where you are to express your agreement or disagreement with the chosen statement about the purpose of education. 1. Education is for improving the lives of others and for leaving your community and world better than you found it. Marian Wright 2. Education is a progressive discovery of our own ignorance. Will Durant 3. The aim of education should be to teach us rather how to think, than what to think rather to improve our minds, so as to enable us to think for ourselves, than to load the memory with thoughts of other men. Bill Beattie Communication: making small talk. 1. Answer the following questions to find out what small talk is. 1. Have you ever been in a situation where you want to say something to someone and don't know what to say or how to start? 2. What can be said in a situation like that to start the conversation? 3. Who uses small talk? 4. Why is it important to be able to make small talk? 2. Practice the following dialog. Kim: It's hot in here, isn't it? 54

Jill: Yes, it certainly is. I wish they'd open a window or two. Kim: That would be nice. By the way, my name is Kim. Jill: Hi, I'm Jill. Kim: Do you like classes here? Jill: Yes. I'm in English 10. What class are you in? Kim: English 20. Jill: Is it an interesting class? Kim: It's OK. The teacher is great! Jill: Is it easy to get home from where you live? Kim: Yes, it takes me 40 minutes by bus. How long does it take you to get to school? Jill: About the same. Oh, I have to rush. I'm going to be late for class. Nice meeting you. Kim: Bye now. 3. What topics are safe to talk about? Discuss these questions with your partner before you see the list of safe topics. Impersonal topics: the weather: yesterday's weather, tomorrow's weather, today's weather travel: problems encountered at airports, subways, customs news: local, world, national entertainment: movies, concerts, theaters, dances sports: hockey, football, soccer tourist attractions: Kirov street, drama theatre 4. With a partner choose one or two topics from Task 3 making small talk with him or her. Homework 1. Match synonyms and make up sentences with the word expressions from column B. Column A 1. to take into account 2. to recognize 3. to participate 4. occupation 5. to make choice 6. to advance 7. to deal with 8. ambiguous 9. to take advantage of 10. to pursue Column B a. to take part b. to achieve c. to realize d. to develop e. not clear f. to have to do with g. to choose h. to seize the opportunity j. to pay attention to i. profession

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2. Translate from Russian into English. 1. , . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. ? 6. , . 7. , , . 8. . 9. , . 10. , . 3. Ask all the possible questions to the following sentences. Example: He chose his occupation when he was 12 years old. 1. Did he choose his occupation when he was 12 years old? (Yes/No question) 2. He chose his occupation when he was 12 years old, didnt he? (Tag question) 3. Did he choose his occupation or hobby when he was 12 years old? (Alternative question) 4. Who chose the occupation at the age of 12? (Wh-question) 5. What did he do when he was 12 years old? (Wh-question) 6. What did he choose when he was 12 years old? (Wh-question) 7. When did he choose his occupation? (Wh-question) 4. Ask questions starting with the following questionwords. 1. What 2. Why 3. Where 4. Who 5. Whose 6. When 7. How much 8. How long 5. Open the brackets choosing one of the modal verbs: can, may, must. 1. In any research on order to introduce something new you ____ know the history of the question. 56

2. Students are our future scientists. To be in the know of the modern technological advances they ____ read a lot. 3. You ____ do this work tomorrow for me. I dont need it to be done now. 4. Any student ____ improve his abilities if he studies hard. 5. Education ____ serve the needs of human society. 6. I know that you ____ solve this problem alone. You are clever enough to do it. 7. You ____ always keep in mind that your life depends on you, in particular, on the decisions you take. 9. You ____ take my dictionary. I dont need it at the moment. 10. You ____ always remember that innovation is the engine of educational development. 12. Teachers ____ deliver readymade knowledge but they ____ also make students think and exercise their mind constantly which is more effective but more difficult to provide. LESSON 6. MY STUDY Brainstorming activity Discuss the following question and give all the possible answers to it. How is it like being a student? Active Vocabulary Listen and repeat the word expressions after the speaker. 1. Applicant center 2. a dreadful ordeal 3. account for , 4. assistant professor 5. be keen on 6. be noted for 7. branch (n) 8. code gram set 9. digital control language laboratory 10. e-subscription (n) 11. exploit (v) 12. exposition (n) 13. gifted child center 14. introduce (v) 15. linguistic center 16. multimedia information complexes 17. open access 18. Open Institute 19. personal teaching 57

20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

postgraduate education prolong (v) regional campus to a large extent to assemble (v) to attract (v) to be idle to emerge (v) to stagger (v) torture (n)

Lead-in 1. Look at the reasons of choosing the university to study at and select the five most important ones from your point of view. 1. It must be highly competitive. 2. It must give a high quality of education. 3. It must be wellknown abroad. 4. It must have wellequipped laboratories. 5. It must use effective teaching methods. 6. It must be not far from my home. 7. It must suggest the flexibility of curriculum. 8. It must provide students with textbooks and additional information resources. 2. If you had the possibility to choose the university what university would you choose among the suggested ones? Give reasons for your choice. South Ural State University Moscow State University Novosibirsk State University Stanford University (the USA) Oxford University (Great Britain) 3. Answer the questions using your background knowledge about the SUSU University. 1. Why did you decide to enter the South Ural State University? 2. How many faculties does it have? 3. What do you know about the university you study at? 4. What youth organizations does it have? 5. How is the process of study organized? 6. What is it famous for? Grammar: Conditionals. 1. Look at what Jenny and Mark hope will happen in the future. Make sentences using If I, I will..

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Example: If I dont go out so much, I will do more work. Jenny Mark If I do more work If I stop smoking pass my exams have more money go to university save some money every week study how to run a business rich when I am thirty become a businesswomen have my own business earn a large sum of money make a lot of money travel all over the world retire when I am forty 2. What will you do in the following situations? Complete the sentences. 1. If I study hard I will 2. If I get a well-paid job I will . 3. If I miss the classes I will . 4. If I have a holiday abroad I will . 5. If I graduate from the university I will . 6. If I fall ill I will . 7. If I see my friend has problems I will . 8. If I have some free time I will . 9. If I see the book I like I will . 10. If the weather is fine tomorrow I will . 11. It I finish my homework early this evening I will . 3. One of you is going for a holiday to an exotic country. The other sees all the problems. Use the prompts to discuss the problems. Example: A What will you do if the weather is bad? B I will read books and go to discos. A you dont like the food? there is nowhere to go in the evening? you lose your money? you dont understand the language? you dont know anyone? you feel homesick? you lose your passport? 4. Make up 2 Chain stories. Look at the situations, and then continue these people thoughts. Situation 1 If I dont finish this work in time, I will not get a promotion. Situation 2 If I dont write my essay I will not get a credit in the major. Situation 3 If I enter Oxford University, I will be the most diligent student. 59

Reading 1. Read the text and do the tasks after it. SOUTH URAL STATE UNIVERSITY SUSU is one of the largest universities of Russia. It was founded in 1943. SUSU has 33 faculties, 13 branches and 8 regional campuses. There is a linguistic center where you can get a second higher education in the field of linguistics, a gifted child center whose purpose is to develop creativity in children, School of Physics and Mathematics for the schoolchildren keen on math and physics, the Applicant center that prepares school graduates to enter our university, and specialized preparation courses on different subjects. The postgraduate education offers courses in 70 specializations. Over 50,000 students are enrolled at the University full-time. The teaching staff includes 1900 teachers: 265 Doctors of Sciences, Professors; 857 Candidates of Sciences, Assistant Professors, over 90 members of foreign and Russian academies. Our lecturers successfully use new teaching methods. In 2004 on the basis of SUSU the Open Institute was established. It opens its doors for all the people wishing to get a higher education regardless of their age and place of living. This is a new way to deliver education called Distance study that incorporates different kinds of modern technologies and methods of teaching. The SUSU scientific library is the largest one in Chelyabinsk. It has more than 2,5million volumes, journals, periodicals, e-subscriptions. One of these years the library plans to organize the reading hall similar to that in Western universities. It will be a reading hall with open access. Open access means that the students do not need to stand in a line for hours to take a book they need, but they will be able to go around the reading hall with lots of bookshelves, choose the book they like, read it sitting at a comfortable study and put it back into special baskets after they finish reading. Moreover the SUSU scientific library successfully exploits modern technologies and introduces the new electronic system that will allow students to order and prolong books electronically using their home computers. SUSU is a basic educational institution of Russian Ministry of Education on developing new teaching methods, and introduction of new study equipment. The novelties, introduced in teaching process are multimedia information complexes for lecture theaters, digital control language laboratories, study-laboratory complexes and code gram sets on various disciplines. South Ural State University is noted for its students and the teaching staff, democratic in their composition and views. To a large extent it is exactly that fact that accounts for the popularity among the undergraduates, the teachers and the tutors of progressive scientific and social ideas. The University has trained 115,000 specialists, 2,100 Candidates of Sciences and 440 Doctors of Sciences. Many graduates are members of governing body of Russia and Chelyabinsk region, among them V. Khristenko, Prime Minister of Russia; A. Pochinok, Minister on Labour and Social politics; P. Sumin, Chelyabinsk region Governer; V. Tarasov, Chelyabinsk mayor and others. 60

About 6,500 students live in the University hostel. There is a student theater Mannequin, modern dance, ballroom dance, a jazz ensemble, 2 choirs, the University has a modern sports complex with a swimming pool. Since 1956 university newspaper Technopolis has been published. In 2002 a new teleradiocentre was opened. Did you know that The hight of the SUSU with the spire is 72 meters? 2. Answer the questions to the text. 1. How old is the university? 2. What special organizations does it have to help applicants to enter the University? 3. What facts prove that it is one of the largest universities in Russia? 4. What distinguishes the Open University from a traditional one? 5. What special services does the SUSU scientific library provide for the users? 6. What are the novelties introduced into teaching process? 7. Can you name some of the well-known SUSU graduates? 8. What social activities can students take part in? 3. What facts do you know about the SUSU that were not mentioned in the text? Share them with the groupmates. 4. If you were asked to give the three most striking facts about the university what facts would you choose? 5. Find additional information about the following organizations and places of the SUSU. 1. School of Physics and Mathematics. 2. Linguistic Center. 3. Applicant center. 4. Gifted Child Center. 5. SUSU Scientific library. 6. Mechanical and Technological Faculty. 7. University Newspaper Technopolis. 8. SUSU International Department. 9. SUSU Teleradiocenter. 6. Present the information you find to your groupmates using the following scheme: 1. Place (Where is it located in the university?) 2. Year of foundation (When was it founded?) 3. Purpose of creation (What for was it created?) 4. Activities (What services does it provide?) 5. Benefits (What benefits does it provide for those who participated?) 61

Vocabulary Practice 1. Fill in the correct word from the list below: equipment, dreadful, personal, open, education, regional, linguistic, reading, complex, assistant. 1. a _______ campus 2. a _______ center 3. postgraduate _______ 4. an _______ professor 5. ______ access 6. sports _______ 7. _______ teaching 8. a _______ordeal 9. a _______ hall 10. study _______ 2. Insert the right verb phrases into the sentences using the appropriate Tense form: to be founded in, to prolong, to be noted for, to account for, to a large extent, toexploit, to be keen on, to emerge. 1. Technologically minded teachers of the university ________ computer technologies into academic practice. 2. Students that _______ Maths, Physics, Programming can take part in competitions and take some additional training. 3. If you want _______ the book you need to come to the library. 4. Our university ________ its graduates who work in different spheres of industry and social life. 5. Moscow State University _________ 1755 on the initiative of the great Russian scientist Mikhail Lomonosov. 6. As science is rapidly developed new technologies ________ every day. 7. ________ the popularity of the university among the applicants depends on the high standard of education provided. 9. The fact that university is considered to be one of the best higher educational institutions in Russia _______ high competition among the applicants. 3. Use the phrases from exercises 1 and 2 to make up 10 sentences of your own. Speaking 1. A delegation of students and teachers from Cambridge are on a visit at your university. You are asked to tell the guests about it. Present information on: 1. the name of your university; 2. the place it is situated; 3. the departments there are at your university (daytime, correspondence, distance, evening); 4. the time the complete course of study lasts; 5. the number of students who study at the university; 6. information resources 62

7. the equipment the university provided with; 8. the students life; 9. what you like and what you dont like about your university. You may use the following algorithm: 1. Greeting. Dear guests, I would like to give you a tour about our university. 2. Facts about the university. First Id like to give you some general information about our university. Our university is called . It is situated in There are . day-time faculties at our university. The teaching staff accounts to .. The complete course of study lasts .. There about . students studying at the university. I am a student of the . faculty. I study such subjects as .. 3. Teaching aids. Now Id like to say a few words about the teaching aids used to improve the educational process. There are a number of well-equipped laboratories in the university. The modern teaching aids used are . 4. Information resources As for the provision with information resources out university is among the leaders. The SUSU scientific library is . It contains a great number of resources . 5. Students life. Both students and the administration of the university understand that much work and no joy make students dull people. Thats why there are quite a number of university organisations occupied with providing an active social life of students. 6. Personal opinion. What I like about the university is On the other hand, there are some things to improve. They are. Nevertheless our university is one of the best higher institutions in Russia. Communication: Asking for information. 1. Practice the formulas used when asking for information in English. Could you tell me...? ? Do you know...? ? Do you happen to know...? , ? I'd like to know... ? Could you find out...? ? I'm interested in a post office near here. . I'm looking for.. . 63

2. Make up a dialog. Student A You are an English student. You are to write an article about a typical Russian University. By chance you happened to visit the South Ural State University. You are to gather as much information as possible. You have heard about this university before and you know that there are such places as School of Physics and Mathematics, Linguistic Center, Applicant center, Gifted Child Center, Open Institute, SUSU Teleradiocenter. Find out where these places are situated in the university and what types of activities do they perform. Student B You are an active member of the Students Union and you are accustomed to make tours about the university. So its natural that you know the most interesting places of the university. Your task is to be very helpful and provide the English student with all the necessary information about the university. Homework 1. Complete the facts about the South Ural State University using the following phrases: a linguistic center, esubscriptions, postgraduate courses, information resources, Open Institute, to be founded in, to introduce, an assistant professor. 1. The South Ural State University ________ 1943 on the basis of two plants. 2. There is ___________ in our university where you can improve your knowledge of English and get additional qualification. 3. If you want to continue your education the university offers __________ in more than 70 specialties. 4. The purpose of the ___________founded on the basis of SUSU is to reach people in distant rural and mountainous areas. 5. ________ allow students to search information using electronic versions of journals. 6. The administration of the South Ural State University __________ new technologies into the educational process. 7. A person can apply for a position of __________ if he performs some research and has publications. 8. Our scientific library is rich in _________ . 2. Translate the sentences from Russian into English. 1. . 2. 1943 . 3. . 4. , . 5. 115,000 . 2,100 440 . 64

6. , , , . 7. , , . 8. . 3. Finish the sentences. 1. If I pass my exams successfully I will . 2. If I graduate from the university I will 3. If I find a wellpaid job I will . 4. If I earn a lot of money I will 5. If I failed my exam I will 6. If I dont come in time for my classes I wont . 7. If I dont do my homework I wont 8. If I dont get a diploma I wont ,,, 9. If I dont have enough rest I wont 10. If I dont go to the library to prepare for the practice I wont 4. Read the text and say if it is difficult to study at Oxford. STUDENT LIFE AT OXFORD What is it like, being a student at Oxford? Like all British universities, Oxford is a state university, not a private one. Students are selected on the basis of their results in the national examinations or the special Oxford entrance examination. There are many applicants, and nobody can get a place by paying a fee. Successful candidates are admitted to a specified college of the university: that will be their home for the next three years (the normal period for an undergraduate degree), and for longer it they are admitted to study for a post-graduate degree. They will be mostly taught by tutors from their own college. Teaching is pleasantly informal and personal: a typical undergraduate will spend an hour a week with his or her 'tutor', perhaps in the company of one other student. Each of them will have written an essay for the tutor, which serves as the basis for discussion, argument, the exposition of ideas and academic methods. At the end of the hour the students go away with a new essay title and a list of books that might be helpful in preparing for the essay. Other kinds of teaching such as lectures and seminars are normally optional: popular lecturers can attract audiences from several faculties, while others may find themselves speaking to two or three loyal students, or maybe to noone at all. So, in theory, if you aregood at reading, thinking and writing quickly, you can spend five days out of seven being idle: sleeping, taking part in sports, in student clubs, in acting and singing, in arguing, drinking, having parties, in practice, most students at Oxford are enthusiastic about the academic life, and many of the more conscientious ones work for days at each essay, sometimes sitting up through the night with a wet towel round their heads. 65

At the end of three years, all students face a dreadful ordeal, 'Finals', the final examinations. The victims are obliged to dress up for the occasion in black and white, an old-fashioned ritual that may help to calm the nerves. They go into the huge examination building and sit for three hours writing what they hope is beautiful prose on half-remembered or strangely forgotten subjects. In the afternoon they assemble for another three hours of writing. After four or five days of this torture they emerge and stagger out for the biggest party of them all. 5. Find proofs in the text to the following: 1. Teaching at Oxford is informal. 2. Teaching at Oxford is personal. 3. Finals is a dreadful ordeal. 4. You cant buy a place to study at Oxford. 6. How does your life at SUSU differ from that of a British student? Do they have anything in common? Describe the life of a Russian student. Do not forget to mention: 1. Procedure of entering the university. 2. Teaching (formal/informal, personal/impersonal). 3. Free time. 4. Exams.

LESSON 7. MY FUTURE PROFESSION Brainstorming activity Try to give all the possible answers to the following question. How do you think what qualities are important for a teacher?

Active vocabulary Listen and repeat the active vocabulary of the lesson after the teacher. 1. be open to 2. career prospect 3. caring (adj) 4. consistent (adj) 5. cope with (v) - 6. creativity (n) 7. decisive (adj) 8. disruption (n) , 9. do one's best 10. fair (adj) 11. get through -, 12. give equal opportunities 13. go overboard - 66

14. high expectations 15. impressionable (adj) 16. incorporate (v) 17. influence (n) 18. learning environment 19. motivate (v) 20. patient (adj) 21. pride (n) 22. raise the bar 23. relieve (v) 24. rewarding (adj) 25. salary (n) 26. satisfaction (n) 27. sensitive (adj) 28. shape (v) 29. stressfull (adj) 30. take control of 31. treat equally 32. well-paid job Lead-in

, , , , ,

1. Look at the job titles and say where each person works. Researcher Physicist Flight Attendant Executive Teacher Programmer 2. Which of the jobs: are done indoors/ outdoors? require qualifications? have career prospects? are well-paid/poorly-paid? need the most training? are the hardest? need a degree? 3. Which of the jobs do you personally find: rewarding, secure, creative, stressful? 4. Think of a job and talk about it without telling anyone what the job is. The class have to guess which job you have chosen. Talk about What you do Qualities you need for the job Salary Reasons you like/dislike it

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5. Paraphrase the quotations. Which do you agree with? Why? Why not? Discuss them in pairs. 1. Id rather be a happy street cleaner that an unhappy millionaire. 2. It doesnt matter what job you do. Its how you do it. 6. Which of the following people could help you most in choosing a career? Why? Parents, teachers, friends, relatives. 7. Which of the following is the most important to you when deciding on a career? Rank them (starting with the most important) and then compare your list to your partners. long-term career prospects personal satisfaction a good salary an opportunity to travel using your initiative a chance to meet a lot of people a possibility to use your creativity Grammar: Conditionals. 1. Read the sentences and identify the types of conditionals. Which refers to the present/past? 1. If I didnt know how to handle a firm, I would go bankrupt. 2. If Tom had studied hard he would have passed all the exams. 2. Read the sentences. Which expresses an unreal situation in the present? Which expresses regret about the past event? 1. I wish I hadnt left school (but I did) 2. I wish I earned more money. (but I dont) 3. Make wishes for the following situations. Example: You lied to your best friend. I wish I hadnt lied to my best friend. 1. You failed your exams. 2. You were not patient enough with your mother. 3. You dont have a wellpaid job. 4. You cant cope with the stressful situation. 5. You are too impressionable. 6. You cant take control of the situation. 7. Your teacher doesnt treat all the students equally. 8. You didnt do your best to perform the task. 4. Fill in the correct grammar tense. 1. If I hadnt lied to my boss, he __________ (not/fire) me. 2. I wish I ___________ (not/spend) so much money on clothes. Now, I cant pay the phone bill. 68

3. If he ___________ (have), he would give us a lift. 4. If she were qualified, she _________ (find) a goof job. 5. If he _________ (find) a job, he wouldnt ask the money. 6. I wish I _________ (not/have to) work such long hours. Then, I could spend more time with my son. 7. If you keep coming to work late, you __________ (lose) your job. 8. If he had left on time, he ________ (not/be) late for the meeting. 9. If you stopped smoking, you ________ (be) in better health. 10. I wish you _________ (follow) her advice. If you had followed it, you ______ (not/lose) all your money. 5. Complete the sentences. What would you do in the following situations? 1. If I won one million dollars I would 2. If I had a magic stick I would 3. If I were the rector of the SUSU I would.... 4. If I had a possibility to study abroad I would ... 5. If I were the ruler of the world I would 6. If I had chosen another speciality I would (wouldnt) have Ved 7. If I hadnt finished school successfully, I would (wouldnt) have Ved Reading 1. Read and translate the text. TEACHER PROFESSION Teachers have the very important responsibility of shaping the lives of young, impressionable children. With this responsibility comes great pride and joy. Therefore all teachers should strive for what can be considered to be a good teacher. A good teacher can be defined as someone who always motivates students to want to do their best while at the same time trying to make learning interesting as well as creative. A positive or negative influence from a teacher early on in life can have a great effect on the life of a child. A teacher who is constantly looking for the best possible work from the child will force the child to try his or her hardest in order to please the teacher. Going along with this idea is the whole idea of the teacher being interested in the subject matter. If the students know that the subject they are studying is something that greatly interests the teacher, they will be motivated to try their hardest in order to please the teacher. Teachers must be open to many different types of people, ideas and cultures. They also must always try to respect the views of everyone. Children from lots of different backgrounds are going to be together in one classroom. The teacher must learn to incorporate everyone's beliefs into the daily curriculum. All students must be aware of the differences in the world around them. While trying to be sensitive to the beliefs of children and their parents, teachers also must try not to go overboard in covering the traditions of every religion. A teacher who instills a bad learning experience in a child could scar him or her for life. Teachers have a lot of responsibility and need to make sure that they make learning a positive 69

experience for all. By being sensitive to the needs of everyone and presenting different ways of doing things, it can be possible for everyone to have an equal opportunity to do their best. 2. Answer the questions to the text. 1. Why is the work of a teacher is highly responsible? 2. Do you agree with the concept of a good teacher given in the text? 3. How can a good teacher be defined? 4. Why is it important that a teacher should be interested in the subject he teachers? 5. Why should a teacher be open to different people and different opinions? 6. What features of character are emphasized that every teacher should have? 3. Look at the characteristics of a teacher, choose two the most important ones from your point of view and explain your choice. Patience, intelligence, kindness, personal beauty, physical health. Vocabulary practice 1. Fill in the correct word from the list below: ones best, prospect, open to, wellpaid, control of, environment, the bar, to treat, expectations, with difficulties. 1. career _________ 2. a ________ job 3. learning _________ 4. high _________ 5. to raise ________ 6. to cope _______ 7. _________ equally 8. to take _________ 9. to be _______ 10. to do _______ 2. Give the English equivalents for the following word combinations. -, , -, , , , , , , (), , , , . 3. Match words with their synonyms and use them in the sentences to complete the gaps. 1. rewarding a. very easy to hurt 2. patient b. having much stress 3. caring c. living or acting in conformity with ones beliefs 4. decisive d. characterized by frankness, honesty 5. impressionable e. worth doing, useful 6. stressful f. physically or mentally able to bear smth 7. fair g. having the power or quality of deciding a question 8. consistent h. attentive and careful 70

1. The profession of a teacher is a _________ one as a teacher helps to train highly qualified specialists for the country. 2. He is quite _________ in his actions. He doesnt change his beliefs and he is a person you can rely on. 3. My aunt Ann is a very ________ person. If I were her I would divorce uncle Jack because he has a very difficult character. 4. Nurses in the hospital were very ________. They did everything necessary to treat my broken hand. 5. This man will not hesitate while making a decision. He is quite a ______ person. 6. The profession of a businessman is a ________ one. You should always be aware about the market situation in order not to lose the money invested into your business. 7. Be careful! Dont worry your mother. She is very _________ and she has a bad heart. 8. Its a rare case when partners in business are absolutely_______ to each other. Listening 1. Look through the table, listen and fill in the missing information. News reporter Advantages reasons ---------------travel around and meet lots of _______ interesting the news stories I do are ________ every day Disadvantages reasons stressful have to do everything in a very ____ time -------------often work in places where there are wars Surgeon Advantages ----------------rewarding Disadvantages ----------------stressful reasons the job needs a lot of skill its great being able to ______ peoples lives reasons work long, unsteady hours responsible for peoples lives

2. Does a job of a teacher have anything in common with the jobs of a news reporter and a surgeon? What are these similarities if any? Speaking Describe the portrait of an ideal teacher. Do not forget to mention: - the professional skills a teacher needs (as an educator, as an organizer); - the features of character a teacher needs (as a communicator); - the scientific ambitions a teacher needs (as a researcher); The following phrases may be of some help to you: 1. to know the subject 71

to be aware of the methods of teaching to use different forms of work to know the ways of stimulating the students interest to the subject to be able to organize the work 2. to be open to other people opinions to generate the creative atmosphere at a lesson to respect the students points of views on the subjects to be patient to people differences to make studying a positive experience for the students 3. to know about the latest achievements in methodology to study the researches made in human sciences such as psychology, physiology to be aware of the possibilities of computer technologies in the educational process to make research to publish articles to take part in conferences Communication: giving advice. 1. Practice the phrases used to give advice. I don't think you should work so hard. , . . You ought to work less. . If I were you, I'd work less. If I were in your position, I'd work less. . . If I were in your shoes, I'd work less. . You had better work less. . You shouldn't work so hard. Whatever you do, don't work so hard. , . 2. Use the formulas to give a piece of advice in the following situations. 1. Your friend is ill. He has got high temperature. 2. Your sister wants to study abroad. 3. Your classmate is afraid of speaking to a foreigner. 4. Your mother is tired of washing the dishes every day. 5. Your friend wants to buy a present to his girl friend but he doesnt know what present she would like to get. 6. Your farther has bought a car but he doesnt have driving license. 7. Your teacher wants you to know English well.

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3. Do you have problems in your life? Formulate some of the problems and ask your fellow students to give a piece of advice to you. Homework 1. Translate the text in written form. TOP 6 KEYS TO BEING A SUCCESSFUL TEACHER The most successful teachers have some common characteristics. Here are the top six keys to being a successful teacher. Sense of Humor. A sense of humor can help you become a successful teacher. Your sense of humor can relieve tense classroom situations. A sense of humor will also make class more enjoyable for your students and possibly make students look forward to attending and paying attention. Most importantly, a sense of humor will allow you to see the joy in life and make you a happier person as you progress through this stressful career. A Positive Attitude. A positive attitude is a great quality in life. You will be thrown many difficulties in life and especially in the teaching profession. A positive attitude will help you cope with these in the best way. High Expectations. An effective teacher must have high expectations. You should strive to raise the bar for your students. If you expect less effort you will receive less effort. You should work on an attitude that says that you know students can achieve to your level of expectations, thereby giving them a sense of confidence too. This is not to say that you should create unrealistic expectations. However, your expectations will be one of the key factors in helping students learn and achieve. Consistency. In order to create a positive learning environment your students should know what to expect from you each day. You need to be consistent. This will create a safe learning environment for the students and they will be more likely to succeed. It is amazing that students can adapt to teachers throughout the day that range from strict to easy. However, they will dislike an environment in which the rules are constantly changing. Fairness. A fair teacher treats students equally in the same situation. For example, students complain of unfairness when teachers treat one gender or group of students differently. It would be terribly unfair to go easier on the football players in a class than on the cheerleaders. Students understand this too quickly, so be careful of being labelled unfair. Flexibility. One of the principles of teaching should be that everything is in a constant state of change. Interruptions and are the norm and very few days are 'typical'. Therefore, a flexible attitude is important not only for your stress level but also for your students who expect you to take control of any situation. 2. Enumerate the top six key factors to being a successful teacher.

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3. Insert the required form of the verb into the gaps. 1. If I were you I _______ (to require) a well-paid job as you have all the necessary qualifications. 2. If he ____ (to be) open to other people opinions he would not be so stubborn. 3. She would not have lost control over the children if she _______ (to be) more patient with them. 4. If our teacher of Maths treated all the students equally he _______ (not to raise the bar) too high for those he doesnt like. 5. If we _____ (to come) to the party earlier we would have met my uncle. 6. If I _____ (to be) you I wouldnt be so sensitive. 7. If I could relieve your pain I ______ (to do) everything possible. 8. I wish you _____ (to take control) of the situation. 9. We ___________ (to win) the competition if we had prepared for it properly. 10. If he _____ (to be) a fair teacher he would treat everybody equally. 4. Finish the sentences. 1. If I got through these difficulties I would 2. If I got a well-paid job I would 3. If I had high expectations I would 4. If I had a stressful job I would 5. If I were rich I would. 6. If I were patient to other people opinions I would 7. If I had a rewarding job I would 5. Translate the sentences from Russian into English. 1. . 2. , . 3. . 4. . 5. , . 6. . 7. , . 8. . 9. (self-expression), . 10. .

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LESSON 8. INNOVATIONS IN HIGHER EDUCATION Brainstorming activity Try to give all the possible answers to the question. Why do people innovate? Active vocabulary Listen and repeat the active vocabulary of the lesson after the teacher. 1. acquire (v) 2. adapt to (v) 3. advances in science and technology 4. cognitive ability 5. constitute (v) 6. cover (v) 7. creation (n) 8. emergence (n) 9. enable (v) 10. exceed (v) 11. human society 12. industrial civilization 13. information society 14. keep in mind 15. mode of delivery () 16. on the basis of 17. penetrate through 18. personal example 19. play an important role 20. productive labor 21. ready-made knowledge 22. serve the needs of 23. skills and abilities 24. societal demands 25. source of life 26. strive (for) 27. through the medium 28. transmission of culture 29. uninterrupted learning 30. verbal instruction 2. Read the words following the order of their Russian equivalents. 1. to penetrate through 1. 2. human society 2. 3. to strive 3. 4. to provide 4. 75

5. to acquire the ability of 6. creation 7. to exceed 8. to enter an era of 9. rapidly 10. industrial civilization 11. emergence 12. to serve the needs of society 13. personal example 14. mode of knowledge delivery

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Lead-in 1. Answer the questions using your background knowledge. 1. What is the main purpose of education? 2. How is the knowledge transferred from one generation to another? 3. Does education depend on the technological advances? How? 4. What do you understand under the term information revolution? 2. Here are different definitions of the term innovation. Do they mean the same thing or different things? 1. Dictionary definition: Innovation is 1: the introduction of something new 2: a new idea, method, or device. 2. Innovation is the successful exploitation of new ideas and is a vital ingredient for competitiveness, productivity and social gain within organizations. 3. Innovation is an attitude, a state of mind, and a creative process, as much as a specific task or action. Reading 1. Read the text and choose the best title for it. 1. Need for Innovation in Education 2. Mutual dependence of Education and Technological progress 3. Models of delivering knowledge. Education plays an important role in the development of mankind and society and its impact penetrates through the whole course of human history and every field of social life, enabling the development of human society. Under the push of societal demands education is constantly changing its own patterns and mode of delivery. Each innovation in education has impact on the development of human society and thereby the educational enterprise acquires new vitality. Constant innovation in education constitutes the source of life of educational development. In the age of agricultural economy education transmitted the skills of productive labor and the experiences of social life through the medium of personal example and verbal instruction. In earlier times education found its expression in fragmentary 76

activities serving the needs of a minority of people, and in later times it evolved into private schools, official schools and religious schools engaged in the transmission of culture. Modern education systems were established with the emergence of industrial civilization, and organized school education was made possible and became the important pillar of industrial production. With the emergence and development of information society and the changes in economic structure and employment structure brought about by advances in science and technology, the role of intellectual and cognitive abilities has become all the more prominent. It is no longer possible to require the education system to train people engaged in relatively stable occupations, and it becomes necessary to train people who can constantly innovate and adapt to a rapidly changing world. In the latter half of the 20th century human society entered an era of knowledge explosion characterized by the rapid advances in science and technology. The sum of knowledge discovered and created in the 20th century exceeds the sum of knowledge created in the past millenniums, and new knowledge is constantly emerging. Society as a whole and its individual members can only make further advances on the basis of uninterrupted learning and creation. It is obviously impossible for the traditional university education centered around simple transmission of readymade knowledge to cover all knowledge created by mankind. The more important task of university education is to teach students to learn how to learn and acquire the ability of innovation, keeping in mind the needs of lifelong learning and striving to make a solid foundation and provide the necessary conditions for future learning. In conclusion we may say that traditional mode and system of education can hardly adapt to the new changes. Innovation in education has become extremely urgent. 2. Answer the questions to the text. 1. What role does innovation play in educational process? 2. What mode of delivering knowledge predominated in the age of agricultural development? 3. What is the min purpose of education nowadays? 4. What are the means of delivering knowledge in the information society? 5. What skills are very important to acquire for a student studying at the university? 3. Try to summarize the main ideas of the text in one sentence. Vocabulary practice 1. Complete the gaps using the phrases given: to serve, abilities, verbal, example, demands, to play, society, readymade, uninterrupted, human. 1. _____ an important role 2. societal ______ 3. ______ knowledge 4. personal ______ 5. _____ instruction 6. information _____ 7._______ society 77

8. cognitive _____ 9. ________ learning 10. ________ the needs of 2. Fill in the prepositions. 1. to penetrate ______ 2. mode ___ delivery 3. the source ___ life 4. _____ the medium 5. to evolve _____ private schools 6. to adapt ___ 7. ___ the basis of 8. to keep ___ mind 9. advances ___ science 3. Give the English equivalents to the Russian phrases. , ( ) , , , , , , , , . 4. Rank the given statements in order of their importance in answering to the question: What is the main task of education from the point of view of the 21st century student? Give arguments to prove your choice. The main task of education is 1. to transmit the skills of productive labor 2. to transmit social experience 3. to transmit culture 4. to teach students to learn how to learn 5. to develop in students the ability of innovation 6. to help students to realize their strengths and weaknesses in order to develop their inborn abilities 7. to help the students to adapt to the rapidly changing world 4. Read the sentence and try to remember the last variant. 1. We live in an era of knowledge explosion. 2. We live in an era of knowledge explosion characterized by the rapid advances in science and technology. 3. We live in an era of knowledge explosion characterized by the rapid advances in science and technology which results in the fact that new knowledge is constantly emerging. 4. We live in an era of knowledge explosion characterized by the rapid advances in science and technology which results in the fact that new knowledge is constantly emerging therefore the traditional form of delivering readymade 78

knowledge doesnt suit the modern societal demands. 5. We live in an era of knowledge explosion characterized by the rapid advances in science and technology which results in the fact that new knowledge is constantly emerging therefore the traditional form of delivering readymade knowledge doesnt suit the modern societal demands as it has become obsolete and not effective. 6. Here are different reasons that may cause innovation enumerated. Can you think of arguments for the reason if you think it is true and arguments against the reason if you think it is false? 1. Necessity as necessity is considered to be the mother of invention. 2. A desire to challenge the intellect with complex problems and gain recognition for solving them. 3. Money that a person can get for the introduction of new idea. Anything that won't sell, I don't want to invent. Its sale is proof of utility, and utility is success. Charles H. Duell 4. The inner desire of a person to change the world for the better, to make his life more comfortable. 5. The desire to create something new. Model: I agree with the statement that Necessity is the mother of invention as advances in science and technology together with the development of human mind change the living conditions. So when people satisfy their lower fundamental needs for survival they start thinking about the improvements in their everyday life and labor activities. The desire to create effective ways of productive labor and the need to free oneself from tiresome household chores bring to the forefront the inventions of home appliances to make ones life more comfortable and to free peoples life for creativity. Reading 1. There are different types of innovations in education. Read the text and list the global changes suggested into three columns. The first column is done for you. INNOVATION IN EDUCATION FOR THE 21ST CENTURY 1. Innovation of Mode of Education Establish the role of students as the principal part in the process of teaching. Attention must be given to the stimulation of their independent thinking, to the cultivation of their scientific spirit and creative thinking, and to the development of their ability to analyze and solve problems. Teaching objectives will be designed in light of the needs for students development. Students will be enabled to learn through receiving, probing, imitating and experiencing. Reduce childrens overloaded burden of studying. Teaching quality will be improved and pilot schemes on pleasant learning will be experimented so as to enable students to develop in a lively manner and on their own initiative. 2. Innovation of Technology 79

The application of information technology in education will be pushed forward. One way to spread and use educational technology in educational institutions is the usage of multimedia computer technology as the core. Another is to promote the popularization and application of the networks. The third is to develop modern distance education, to build up and provide network resources extensively, and to establish a life-long learning system with this as the platform. The network will provide a variety of channels for learning and training programs to the general public. High-quality courses will be available at low cost on islands, in agricultural and mountainous areas. More practical technology will be provided for the farmers. Distance education facilities will also be used to transmit quality courses to the economically less developed western regions so as to promote educational development there. 3. Innovation of Structure A learning society and the trend of lifelong learning call for readjustment of the educational structure. Basic education must be given top priority. Higher education will be developed considerably through a variety of means. Learning can be achieved through diverse channels. Fly-overs can be built for the development of talented persons. A life-long learning system is being established to advance towards the learning society. Innovation of Mode of Education To make a student the principal part of the educational process To stimulate independent thinking To develop the ability to analyze and solve problems To design teaching objectives in light of the needs for students development To reduce burden of study 2. Any person can be an innovator as our life is an endless process of self perfection. Imagine that you are a group of Innovators. You are invited to the university to make some changes. Discuss in groups the following questions: 1. If you were offered to make some changes in the educational process what you would change? 2. What kind of innovation it would be? (innovation of mode of education, innovation of technology, innovation of structure). 3. Why do you think these changes are necessary for the educational process? Will they be effective? 80 Innovation of Technology Innovation of Structure

3. Choose three innovations and present them to the classmates giving your arguments to proof the innovations are necessary. Homework 1. Translate from Russian into English. 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. , . 6. , . 7. . 8. , . 9. . 10. , . 2. What do the following statements mean? Define the idea and develop it in written form. 1. Discovery consists of seeing what everybody has seen and thinking what nobody has thought. George Gobel 2. Accident is the name of the greatest of all inventors. Joseph Newcomer 3. The film studio is going to make a documentary film about the greatest inventions of the mankind. You an expert who decides what inventions should be included in the film. You are supposed to speak about one invention only. Present information on: 1. the invention you consider to be one of the greatest in the world; 2. the name of the person it was designed by; 3. the country this invention was made in; 4. what this thing was made for; 5. how it is used now; 6. how it influenced our life; 7. why you are sure that it should be included in the film.

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LESSON 9. DISTANCE EDUCATION Brainstorming activity Try to give all the possible answers to the question. Why is distance education a rapidly developing phenomenon in our information society? Active vocabulary 1. Repeat and practice the active vocabulary of the lesson after the teacher. 1. amazing (a) 2. approach (n) 3. capitalize on (v) 4. challenge (v) 5. computer usage 6. distance education 7. distance learning 8. enhance (v) 9. face-to-face environment . , 10. flexible (a) 11. increase (v) 12. keep smb abreast of 13. learning style 14. on-the-job training 15. out-of-date (a) 16. potential benefit 17. real-time seminars 18. rehearse (v) 19. remote (a) 20. reshape (v) () 21. review (v) 22. rural areas 23. supporting materials () 24. technological advancement 25. to be adapted to ( ) 26. up-to-date (a) 27. upgrade ones skills Leadin 1. Discuss in small groups the following questions. 1. Do you think learning, the process of acquiring knowledge, will ever take place without teachers and traditional system of education (classrooms, lectures, seminars, exams)? 82

2. Would you like to study in a virtual environment and never meet your teacher in reality? 3. What are the benefits of computer usage in the classroom (for students, for teachers)? 4. What are the potential benefits of using computer for learning English outside the classroom? Reading 1. Answer the questions using your background knowledge. 1. Have you ever heard the term Distance education? 2. How does Distance Education differ from the traditional one? 3. What are the main means of delivering knowledge in Distance Education? 4. Do you agree that the introduction of DE is the revolution in educational process? 1. Read the text and formulate its main idea. DISTANCE EDUCATION For the decades universities and colleges have been looking for ways of offering courses to students who do not have access to the university campus, usually because of physical distance. Nowadays it is obvious that new information technologies, in particular, WWW and Internet are major technological advancements reshaping not only our society but also that of universities worldwide. Through Internet universities can offer full university-level courses to all registered students, complete with real time seminars and exams and professors' visiting hours. The Web is extremely flexible and its distance presentations and capabilities are always up-to-date. It offers polysensory materials that is, the students can get the text, audio and video of whatever subject they are willing to have. Thanks to telecommunication networks students can not only essentially increase their informational potential, but also get a unique possibility to communicate with their colleagues all over the world. In fact, Russia's students can graduate from foreign universities while remaining in Russia. In light of this, universities have to capitalise on the Internet for teaching, and one progressive development of this is the use of Distance Learning. Distance Learning is one of the most progressive methods of delivering knowledge nowadays. It can be defined as an approach to education delivery that replaces the sametime, same-place, face-to-face environment of a traditional classroom. It is a technology that makes it possible to deliver a good (and relatively cheap) higher education beyond a physical campus. Distance education is used for a broad range of purposes: universities use it to increase the number of students who have access to higher education; companies use it to upgrade their workers' skills and keep them abreast of rapidly advancing technologies; individuals use it for their own professional development and to enhance their career opportunities; 83

governments use it to provide on-the-job training to teachers or other workers, to enhance the quality of traditional primary and secondary schooling, and to deliver instruction to remote rural areas that might not otherwise be served. The potential benefits of Webbased learning resources are: flexibility in the place of learning; material may be presented in alternative formats, speech, print, graphics, voice; material can be adapted to various learning styles; student can clarify, rehearse and review supporting materials without interrupting the flow of the learning; session for classmates; problems of distance, transportation and physical accessibility are reduced. Though the possibilities of Distance Learning are great and its really an innovative way of knowledge delivery it challenges the human mind. Much research should be done in the area to find out the effective ways of computer usage in educational process. Distance Education is defined as a formal educational process in which the majority of the instruction occurs when student and instructor are not in the same place. Instruction may be synchronous or asynchronous. Distance education may employ correspondence study, or audio, or video, or computer technologies. Distance Learning is technology used in Distance education. It refers to the alternative approach to traditional classroom instruction, whereby learning packages are delivered to the learners via multiple channels: mail, media...The term is used to designate any learning that takes place between a teacher and a learner when they are not in the same place at the same time. Answer the question to the text. 1. What makes Distance Education different from the traditional one? 2. What are the categories of customers the Distance Education may be useful for? 3. How can Distance Learning be defined? 4. What are the potential benefits of Webbased materials? 5. What are the means of communication used to establish contact between students and teachers in Distance Learning? 6. What problems can educators face while introducing Distance Education into practice? Vocabulary practice 1. Complete the gaps using the phrases given: computer, environment, courses, advancement, realtime, distance, style, rural areas, to have, to upgrade 1. to offer _______ 2. _______ access 3. technological ________ 4. _______ seminars 5. _______ learning 84

6. facetoface __________ 7. ________ ones skills 8. learning _____ 9. remote ________ _____ 10. _______ usage 2. Fill in the prepositions and make sentences with the expressions got. 1. ____ light ____ this 2. to capitalize ___ 3. to keep smb abreast ____ 4. ___the-job training 5. to be adapted ____ 6. to interfere ____ 3. Find in the text the English equivalents to the following Russian expressions. , , , , , , , , , , . Discussion 1. Read the text and match the headings with abstracts of the text. A. Student support and services. B. Lack of experience. C. Feedback and teacher contact. D. Isolation. E. Training. BARRIERS TO LEARNING IN DISTANCE EDUCATION: HUMAN FACTOR 1. There are several areas of concern for distance students. A first area of concern for the distance student is the lack of contact with the teacher. Because there is not daily or weekly face-to-face contact with teachers, students may have trouble in selfevaluation. These barriers can be mitigated through e-mail. 2. A second area of concern for distance students is the lack of support and services such as providing tutors, academic planners and schedulers, and technical assistance. Technology costs and considerations can be a source of budgeting problems; however, student support for distance learners should be of primary importance. 3. A third problem area is the feelings of isolation reported by distance students. Students of all kinds want to be part of a larger school community, and simply a member of a correspondence course. For many traditional students, this is an important part of their social lives. 4. Another problem encountered by students is the lack of student training, particularly in reference to technical issues. Distance learners must be taught how to manage, not only their study time, but the materials presented as well. 85

5. If students are undertaking distance learning courses that require knowledge of computers, then the students must be taught, at a minimum, the fundamentals of operating the system of choice of the distance-taught course. If distance learning is to be successful, technical barriers must be made a non-issue. 2. Discuss in groups the following questions. 1. How can the problems or barriers enumerated in the text be decided? Suggest your own decision for each problem. 2. Distance learning is an independent learning. What features of character can help the student who studies beyond the physical campus to get a degree and not to drop out () the study? (to be self-disciplined, to be responsible, to have the ability to study, to be motivated, etc.) 3. What features of character may interfere with the normal process of study? Give your arguments. (to be lazy, to be unreliable, to be light-headed etc.) 3. Give the summary of your discussion to the groupmates. Communication: comparing, contrasting, expressing preferences. 1. Compare and contrast two means of communication: post and e-mail. Which do you think is most efficient and why? Comparing and contrasting The main/greatest/most significant difference between two means of communication is that The most sticking/obvious similarity is that The first means of communication, .. whereas/while/but in the second one 2. Which of these means (e-mail, text messages, post, cell phone) do you mostly use to communicate with your family/friends? Expressing preferences Id much rather than I dont like the idea of , so I would prefer to I am not a fan of ., so I would choose to Homework 1. Fill in the gaps using the appropriate Tense form of the verb in brackets. TEXT MESSAGES Can you remember where you ____ 1 (to be) when the first text message _____ 2 (to be sent) in the UK? You can't? I'm not surprised. Nobody ______ 3 (to remember) 86

it. But it's an unpredictable world, and nothing has been less predicted than the rise of text messaging. It ______ 4 (to come) from nowhere to become the fastest growing phenomenon in recent times. Over 2 million text messages _______ 5 (to be sent) every hour in the UK. The mobile phone industry ______ 6 (to claim) that 95% of them arrive within 10 seconds in normal circumstances'. Texting 7 _______(to open) up an entirely new area of communication that ______ 8 (not to exist) before. Texting _____ 9 (to become) a means for parents to maintain contact with their children, for grandparents to bond with grandchildren, for television to interact with the audience. It is a marketing tool of huge potential for companies, which, for the first time, can build up profiles of individual users and target them with special offers. Texting has not been successful simply because it ______10 (to enable) you to communicate with others by phone without speaking, but also because it is brief and no one _______11 (to expect) to follow the usual formalities. Its simplicity may ensure its long life. 2. Translate sentences from Russian into English. 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. , , . 6. : , , . 7. : , . 8. , . 9. . 10. , . 3. Agree or disagree with the following statements. Give arguments. 1. The main purpose of education nowadays is to teach students to learn. 2. Lifelong learning is the best way to keep oneself abreast of advances in science and technology. 3. To become a highly qualified specialist a person should take additional training every 5 years. 4. Distance education has more disadvantages than advantages. 87

LESSON 10. WHAT DOES PSYCHOLOGY STUDY? Brainstorming activity Discuss the following question and give all the possible answers to it. What does psychology as social science study? Active vocabulary Listen and pronounce the active vocabulary of the lesson after the speaker. 1. affection (n) 2. approach (n) ( ) 3. be concerned with , - 4. be convinced of - 5. behaviour (n) 6. child rearing methods 7. conscious life 8. conscious self 9. consciousness (n) , 10. conditional reflexes 11. emhpasize on , 12. environment (n) 13. focus on (v) 14. human being 15. human factor 16. inner life 17. mental health 18. mental illness 19. origin (n) 20. pattern of thought 21. personality (n) 22. persuade (v) 23. prevent (v) 24. psycho-physiology 25. psychoanalysis (n) 26. psychological findings 27. self-actualization 28. social rules 29. social science 30. solve a problem 31. space exploration 32. specialize in (v) 33. subject-matter , 34. unconscious instincts

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Lead-in 1. Using your background knowledge about psychology as a science, complete the following sentences. You may use the phrases given below. Biology, sociology, anthropology, physiology, philosophy, social psychology, child psychology, pedagogical psychology, medical psychology, behaviour, activity, experiment, observance, test, modeling. 1. Psychology is closely related to many other sciences such as . 2. The branches of psychology are . 3. The subject matter of psychology is 4. Research methods of psychology are . 2. Agree or disagree with the following statements. You may use the phrases given to prove your point of view. To develop personality, to affect peoples feelings and emotions, to influence upon peoples behaviour, to answer human problems of our day and age, to help people become more self-actualizing, to communicate with people, to rear children. 1. Learning basic facts and research methods of psychology is extremely important in our present-day society. 2. The modern Russian educational system needs psychological service today. 3. People of legal professions rather than of engineering ones require specific psychological knowledge. 3. Try to develop the idea given. Agree or disagree. Give your arguments. The object of psychology is to give us a totally different idea of the things we know best. Paul Valry. Grammar: sequence of tenses. 1. Say whether the action of the object clause precedes, follows or is simultaneous with the action of the principal clause in the following sentences. 1. At the conference a lecturer told us that psychology, the science of mind and behaviour, had emerged in the nineteenth century. 2. The mayor promised that specialized clinics for such children would be founded in our city. 3. She claimed that the problem was to test the hypothesis. 4. My friend said that he had been interested in the problem since he had entered the University. 5. Scientists believed that the facts of human behaviour had changed little since the time of primitive man. 6. We asked our teacher what branches of psychology we would study during our psychology course? 7. Last week I read that ideas from medical sciences, especially from physiology and neuro-anatomy were continually being used by psychologists. 8. It was published that a technique for measuring visual pigments in living human eye had been developed by Rushton at Cambridge University. 89

9. Criminologists thought that a criminals motives wouldnt be difficult to define. 10. I heard that different methods and approaches had been applied to the investigation of the workings of the human body. 2. Open the brackets and put the verb into the correct form. Mind the sequence of tenses. 1. It was announced that the techniques of the experiment (would be objected; were objected) to. 2. It is known that an Institute of psychology in the Russian Academy of Science (was opened; had been opened) in 1971. 3. We were disappointed to learn that hypothesis (was not proved; had not been proved) yet. 4. Many students were encouraged that they (acquired; would acquire) the knowledge of psychology soon. 5. It was written that nobody (were allowed; had been allowed) to enter the room. 6. The theory was based on the assumption that children (were born; are born) with the innate abilities. 7. Some psychologists claimed that intelligence testing (were; have been) disastrous for many children. 8. It is acknowledged that a great part of psychological research (consists; consisted) of quantitative experimenting. 9. We were told that the behaviouristic approach (was; had been) often referred to as a stimulus-response psychology. 10. Everybody was satisfied that after a long discussion an agreement (was; would be) arrived at. 3. Open the brackets and put the verb into the correct form. 1. The students were informed that for Freudists what was hidden (to be) more important and real than what we (to feel) and (to do). 2. Humanists believed that man (to be born) basically good, and that conscious forces (to be) more important than unconscious forces. 3. It is seldom that this response (can) be measured by direct method. 4. We were said that the subjects activity (to underlie) the development of abilities. 5. I was sure that he (to provide) already you with the all necessary books. 6. It was found that instrumental learning (not to be limited) to skeletal responses. 7. He understood that he (to be mistaken) in classifying types of human behaviour. 8. My daughter told me that she (not to demonstrate) her skills before a big audience. 9. Now we realized what a great contribution psychologists, sociologists and anthropologists (to make) to each others efforts. 10. The chief manager promised that the next year our laboratory (to be equipped) fully.

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Reading 1. Read the text and express in your own words the main idea of the text. PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE Psychology is one of the most rapidly developing social sciences, touching almost every aspect of our lives. It has as its principal focus the individual human being, with special emphasis on the inner life, the personality, the patterns of thought, consciousness and behaviour of the person. Society, which has become more complex, is turning more and more to psychology to answer some of the serious human problems. The public is already convinced of the benefits of using psychological findings in solving such problems as mental illness, human factors in space exploration, as well as in helping persons become more self-actualizing. As a branch of science it has been defined in various ways, according to the particular method of approach adopted or field of study proposed by the individual psychologist. But a comprehensive definition, that represents aspects of the original and historical meaning of the word, would run as follows. Psychology is the branch of biological science, which studies the phenomena of conscious life and behaviour, in their origin, development, and manifestation, and employing such methods as are available and applicable to the particular field of study or particular problem with which the individual scientist is engaged. Psychologists are concerned with a wide variety of problems. Some are of broad concern: what child-rearing methods produce happy and effective adults; how can mental illnesses be prevented, and the like. Others are more specific: How can people be persuaded to give up smoking? What is the most effective method for teaching children to read? What area of the brain controls speech? Just as there are different ways of describing any act of behaviour, there are also different approaches to psychology. The view that behaviour should be the sole subject-matter of this science was claimed by the psychologist John B.Watson in the early 1900s.This view focuses on the observable behaviours of man; that is, those factors that influence him in his environment and his reactions to these forces. He was one of the founders of the school of behaviorism. Another approach to the study of man is psychoanalysis, founded by Sigmund Freud. Freud concluded that personality and our degrees of mental health depend on the actions of three major forces: the id our unconscious instincts, the ego our conscious self or intellect and superego, the conditional reflexes of social rules and internalized values. The humanistic school view is that man becomes what he makes of himself by his own actions and thoughts. It is concerned with the topics having little place in existing theories and systems: e.g. love, creativity, self-actualization, higher values, humour, affection, courage and so on. Russian psychology was linked with the development of research into psychophysiology in the works of I.Pavlov, V.Bekhterev, L.Orbeli and others. Present-day psychology is a complex and differentiated research system extending throughout general, social, developmental, pedagogical, child, medical, engineering psychology. 91

Because psychology affects so many aspects of our lives it is important, even for those who do not intend to specialize in the field, to know something about its basic facts and research methods. 2. Use the information in the text to find answers to the following questions. 1. What is the definition of psychology? 2. What is the subject-matter of psychology as a science? 3. What kinds of problems is psychology concerned with? 4. What are the approaches described? 5. Could you give the names of noted psychologists? 6. Why is psychology complex and differentiated research system now? 7. Is it important to learn psychology? 3. Give the title to each paragraph. Find the basic sentence in each paragraph of the text. 4. Tell about psychology as a science to a person who is interested in learning it. Use the following plan. 1. Social demand for psychology. 2. The subject-matter of psychology. 3. Definition of psychology. 4. Psychological problems considered. 5. Find the information about the leading schools in psychology: school of behaviourism, psychoanalysis and humanistic school following the plan given below. 1. Founder(s). 2. Main principles. 3. The engine of human behaviour. 4. Main representatives. Are you the follower or the opponent of this school? Give reasons to prove your point of view. Vocabulary practice 1. Find the equivalents in the text. ; ; ; ; ; -; ; . 2. Match the words with a similar meaning. a) Aim, aware, persuade, diverse, influence, research. b) Convince, affect, purpose, various, conscious, investigation.

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3. Fill in the table of derivatives. verb noun influence creator

adjective persuasive

adverb

consciously observable application behave developmental -------

4. Match the meaning with the word. 1. The central or most important surroundings, people, way of life, research circumstances in which a person lives; 2. Careful examination of some subject to find out new facts; adult 3. Knowing clearly what is happening about; environment 4. A person who is fully grown (over the age 18); affection 5. A tender feeling toward somebody or something; reflex 6. An involuntary physiological reaction to a nerve receptors conscious reaction to a stimulus; 7. The part of the mind containing memories, thoughts, feelings, unconscious and ideas that the person is not generally aware of but that manifest themselves in dreams and dissociated acts. Discussion Introduction Psychology as a science is mainly concerned with the study of the behavior of humans in their interaction with the environment. Not knowing the way to integrate into the society may lead to the numerous stresses, depression and the feeling of loneliness. 1. Discuss in groups of four the following questions. 1. How can the knowledge of psychology help us in our everyday life? 2. What can psychology be used for? Give your arguments and illustrate them with the examples from real life. 2. Find additional information in the Internet and prepare a talk on one of the following topics: 1. The importance of psychology for people. 2. Freud's contribution into the theory of consciousness. 3. Gestalt psychology. 93

3. Prepare a dialog between a school leaver and a psychology student of your University. A: Excuse me, may I ask you a few questions? B: .... A: You are a psychology student here, aren't you? B: .... A: I got interested in your Department when I was listening to your Dean. Now, before making a final decision I'd like to have more information about psychology. B: .... A: Why have you chosen psychology as your future specialty? B: .... A: What is the subject-matter of psychology? B: .... A: Where is psychology applied and where do graduates from your Department work? B: .... A: How do you like your studies and University life? B: .... A: Oh, your answers sound very interesting. Now I am convinced that psychology is what I need. B: I'll be glad to see you a student of our Department. I am sure, you won't regret if you make this choice. Communication: making suggestions, accepting or rejecting suggestions. 1. Practice some expressions used for making suggestions and accepting or rejecting them. Making suggestions What about going to ? , ? What are you doing in the evening? Where do we meet? What time shall we make it? Does it suit you? Will it be all right for you if? Shall I pick you up at your office? Shall I call for you? Are you going my way? Ill give you a lift. ? ? ? ? , ? () ? ()? ? .

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Agreeing to a suggestion Thats all right with me. Ill be look forward to it. That suits me perfectly. Thats a good idea! Id love to. Ill be delighted. It would be very kind of you. Let me see Disagreeing to a suggestion Sorry, Im busy. Im afraid, I cant. Ive got things to do. Ive got an appointment. Id rather not. Thank you.

. . . ! . . . , . , . . . , , .

2. Practice the dialogs. 1. What are you doing tomorrow morning? Nothing special. Why? How about going to the University? There will be an open day tomorrow and well be able to learn more information about the Psychology Department. Good idea. Where do we meet? Will it be all right for you if we meet at the entrance to the University at 10 oclock? Quite. 2. Have you got anything to do on Friday? Let me see No. I dont think I have. Why? There will be an interesting lecture on modern methods of investigation in psychology. It would be very kind of you to invite me there. Shall I call for you at 3p.m. on Friday? Fine. 3. How about going to the theatre tomorrow night? Ive got two tickets. Id love to. When shall I pick you up? Im afraid I cant say you now. Call me up at the office tonight. If Im not in, Ill leave a message for you with the secretary. Fine. Thank you for inviting me. Ill be looking forward to it. 95

3. Choose the appropriate phrases to complete the dialog. 1. What are you doing Thursday night? 2. Have you got anything to do tomorrow night? 3. Will it be all right for you if I call you up at six? 4. Make up similar dialogs. Homework 1. What are the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations? , , , , , , , , , . 2. Translate these sentences using words and word expressions from Task 1 and mind the grammar of the lesson. 1. , : , , -. 2. . 3. , . 4. . 5. . 6. , . 7. , . 3. Make up sentences using these groups of phrases in one sentence. Example: Forensic psychology, to be, specialized branch. Forensic psychology is a specialized branch of psychology. 1. Psychotherapist, to specialize in, psychoanalysis. 2. Subject-matter, research, self-actualization. 3. Mental health, to depend on, environment. 4. Psychological findings, solve a problem, human factor. 5. Psychology, be concerned with, child-rearing methods. 6. To prevent, mental illness. 7. To influence on, behaviour, human being.

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4. Read the text written and give a 2-minute summary of it. ACTIVE AGENT AND/OR PASSIVE VICTIM The three major psychological views of man the behaviouristic, the psychoanalytic, and the humanistic differ most importantly on the issue of whether man is to be conceived primarily as passive or active. These two positions are often referred to as the pull and push theories of motivation. The pull theory finds most of mans motivation in the environment, in external forces such as rewards and punishments; the push theory finds most of mans motivation from within the individual, in internal forces represented by urges and growth tendencies. All three viewpoints recognize that man is both an active agent and a passive victim of motivational forces. The key difference is how man is seen primarily. If placed on a continuum from passivity to activity, the order of the three viewpoints would be behaviourism, psychoanalysis, and humanism. In the humanistic model there is a wholehearted () belief that we will learn far more about man if we view him as an active agent rather than as a passive victim of external forces. The other two models of man, however, are gradually placing more emphasis on the importance of man as the single most important determiner of his behaviour in order to explain how so much of human behaviour is initiated by man. 5. Make up 6 wh-questions on the text Active agent and/or passive victim; make sure that you can answer them. 6. Using the material of the lesson express your opinion on one of the following themes. 1. Man is an active agent in his own development. 2. Childs intellectual potential is determined biologically. LESSON 11. HOW DOES PSYCHOLOGY STUDY THINGS? Brainstorming activity Discuss the following question and give all the possible answers to it. What methods of gathering scientific information do you know? Why is testing the most widespread method of research in psychology? Active vocabulary Listen and pronounce the active vocabulary of the lesson after the teacher. 1. aggression 2. archival study ( ) 3. artwork 4. assign to , 5. attribute to , 6. birth rate 7. brain damage 97

8. case study 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. child prodigy control group experience experiment experimental group formulate a theory frustration human activity human brain hypothesis in-depth look independent variable intellectual development interaction intervene in investigate marriage and divorce rate medical record naturalistic observation observe reveal statistical trend

, , , , ,

Lead-in 1. Using your background knowledge about methods of research in psychology agree or disagree with the following statements. Peculiarity of the science, to reveal general (specific) psychological properties and capabilities, unique psychological phenomena, difficult to measure, findings about senses, feelings, emotional experience, images, thoughts and etc. 1. All methods of research are of equal validity and reliability. 2. Psychology as a science requires special methods of research. 3. Methods of research used in mathematics and other exact sciences can not be applied in psychology. 4. Choice of method of research fully depends upon the investigated problem. 2. Try to develop the idea given. Agree or disagree with the following quotation. Give your arguments. The psychological observer ought to be more agile (, ) than the tightrope dancer in order to be able to insinuate () himself under the skin of other people. Soren Kierkegaard.

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Grammar: Indirect Speech. 1. Change the following sentences into Indirect Speech. 1. The scientific advisor said to me: Psychologists conduct their research using a variety of methods. 2. The lecturer said: As a discipline, psychology is growing in size. 3. He said: Psychologists have devised numerous ways to test their hypotheses and theories. 4. She told us: Advances in technology in the early 1970s allowed psychologists to see inside the living human brain for the first time without physically cutting into it. 5. Our teacher of psychology said: Frustration and aggression are positively correlated, meaning that as frustration rises, so do acts of aggression. 6. Psychologists said: Animal studies have contributed to the treatment of peoples anxiety, depression, and other mental disorders. 7. Many ancient societies thought: Mental illness results from supernatural causes, such as the anger of gods or possession by evil spirits. 8. The teacher said: Darwin had based his theory on plants and nonhuman animals, but he later asserted that people had evolved through similar processes, and that human anatomy and behavior could be analyzed in the same way. 9. He told us: Psychology professors will often combine teaching, research, and counseling. 10. She said: To become a psychologist, a person must attend graduate school and obtain either a masters degree or a doctoral degree. 2. Change the sentences into Indirect Speech. 1. The American Psychological Association recommended to researchers: Tell prospective subjects what they will experience and instruct subjects that they may withdraw from the study at any time. 2. He said: Offer you own way of treatment for this mental illness. 3. Most researchers said: Follow strict ethical guidelines to minimize pain and discomfort to animals. 4. The teacher said: Classify mental illnesses, please. 5. She said; Have a rest and taste yourself with some wine. 6. The clinician said: Determine whether the patient is suffering from a mental illness and, if so, make a diagnosis. 7. She said: Dont use drug therapy to treat this mental illness. 8. He asked: Keep the subjects responses and behaviors confidential. 9. The scientific advisor said: Conduct research directed at understanding and preventing causes of the disease. 10. She said: Do not take any notes of the lecture. This information is not reliable. 3. Change the sentences into Indirect Speech. 1. She asked: How do body and mind interact? 2. I asked: Are body and mind fundamentally different parts of a human being, or are they one and the same, interconnected in important ways? 99

3. The teacher asked: Could you draw the distinction between a normal personality and a personality disorder? 4. He asked: What mental diseases may include symptoms of impulsive behavior? 5. I asked him: When did the modern era of psychiatry begin? 6. The doctor asked: Have you been sleeping less than normal? 7. He asked me: Are you being distracted now? 8. The lecturer asked the student: Will kinds of cognitive problems actually cause mental illness or merely represent symptoms of the illnesses themselves? 9. He was asked: Have you ever treated people with mental illnesses with the help of drug therapy and psychotherapy? Reading 1. Read the text and express in your own words the main idea of the text. METHODS OF RESEARCH One way to learn about people is through archival studies, an examination of existing records of human activities. Psychological researchers often examine old newspaper stories, medical records, birth certificates, crime reports, popular books, and artwork. They may also examine statistical trends of the past, such as crime rates, birth rates, marriage and divorce rates, and employment rates. The strength of such measures is that by observing people only secondhand, researchers cannot influence the subjects by their presence. Sometimes psychologists interview, test, observe, and investigate the backgrounds of specific individuals in detail. Such case studies are conducted when researchers believe that an in-depth look at one individual will reveal something important about people in general. Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget first began to formulate a theory of intellectual development by questioning his own children. Neuroscientists learn about how the human brain works by testing patients who have suffered brain damage. Cognitive psychologists learn about human intelligence by studying child prodigies and other gifted individuals. Social psychologists learn about group decision-making by analyzing the policy decisions of government and business groups. In naturalistic observation, the researcher observes people as they behave in the real world. The researcher simply records what occurs and does not intervene in the situation. Psychologists use naturalistic observation to study the interactions between parents and children, doctors and patients, police and citizens, managers and workers. In an experiment, the psychologist manipulates one factor in a situation keeping other aspects of the situation constant and then observes the effect of the manipulation on behavior. The people whose behavior is being observed are the subjects of the experiment. The factor that an experimenter varies (the proposed cause) is known as the independent variable, and the behavior being measured (the proposed effect) is called the dependent variable. In a test of the hypothesis that frustration triggers aggression, frustration would be the independent variable, and aggression the dependent variable. 100

There are three requirements for conducting a valid scientific experiment: (1) control over the independent variable, (2) the use of a comparison group, and (3) the random assignment of subjects to conditions. In its most basic form, then, a typical experiment compares a large number of subjects who are randomly assigned to experience one condition with a group of similar subjects who are not. Those who experience the condition compose the experimental group, and those who do not make up the control group. If the two groups differ significantly in their behavior during the experiment, that difference can be attributed to the presence of the condition, or independent variable. 2. Use the information in the text to find answers to the following questions. 1. What methods of research in psychology do you know? 2. What documents can be examined through archival studies? 3. What is the strong point of using the method of archival study? 4. What method allows learning more about people in general by testing an individual? 5. What method can be used to observe relationships between parents and children? 6. What is the difference between dependent and independent variables? 7. What are the major requirements for conducting an experiment? 8. Which method is the most suitable for psychological investigations? 9. What methods of research do we use in our everyday life, though we are not psychologists? 3. Finish the sentences using the information in the text. 1. Marriage and divorce rates can be examined using the method of ________. 2. Using the method of _______ researchers cannot influence the subjects by their presence. 3. The first scientist who began to formulate a theory of intellectual development was ______ . 4. Group decision-making is usually analyzed by ________. 5. Childrens thoughts of mind are studied by ________. 6. In ________ researchers observe peoples behaviour without intervening it. 7. A researcher is able to change one factor leaving others constant only while conducting an _______. 8. The measured aspect of the experiment is called the _______. 9. One of the requirements for conducting an experiment is the use of a _______. 10. The difference between two groups in the experiment can be attributed to the presence of _______. 4. Present the additional information on other methods of research youve found to your groupmates using the following scheme: 1. Name of the method. 2. Historical reference. 3. Aspects that can be learned using this method. 4. Fields of application of the method. 101

Vocabulary practice 1. Fill in the correct word from the list below. Experiment, trend, rate, psychological crime, research, look, group, development, observation, individual. 1. scientific _______ 2. employment ______ 3. _______ report 4. method of _______ 5. control _______ 6. naturalistic ________ 7. ________ researcher 8. in-depth ______ 9. intellectual _______ 10. statistical _______ 2. Match phrases in column A with their translation in column B and make up sentences with them. A B 1. a. to formulate a theory 2. b. to observe a gifted childs behaviour 3. c. to conduct an experiment 4. d. to make a decision 5. e. to advance a hypothesis 6. f. to reveal a prodigy 7. g. to gain experience 8. - h. to assign people to groups 9. i. to investigate peoples interaction 10. j. to intervene in the situation 3. Distribute the words given below into three columns. To examine records, to observe indirectly, independent variable, absence of influence, not to intervene into, experimental group, to examine statistics, to study the interactions, a comparison group, to manipulate a factor. Archival study Naturalistic observation Experiment

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Discussion 1. Make up a dialog. Student A You are a patient. You have got some psychological problem. Tell about it to the psychologist. Ask him/her for advice. Student B You are a psychologist. Talk to the patient. Find out the problem he has got. Give him a piece of advice. Be polite and make the patient trust you. 2. Express your point of view on the following statements. Give your arguments. 1. Psychology is a pseudoscience and psychologists are people with personal problems who want to spoil the life of other people as their own life leaves much to be desired. 2. What kind of person can make you trust him? Describe his appearance and character. 3. Compare the existing methods of research and single out the best one. 3. Role play: A talk to a scientific advisor. A: You are a postgraduate student. You have come to your scientific advisor to discuss the method of research that you will use to obtain psychological findings to confirm the hypothesis of your scientific research. B: You are a scientific advisor. Help you student to choose the most appropriate method of research. Discuss with him/her the following points: methods of research existing nowadays the phenomenon investigated specifics of the situation observed suggestion of the method giving proofs to confirm the method Communication: expressing surprise, doubt and disbelief 1. Practice the phrases. Expressing surprise Oh? Is it so? ? Really? ? ? I am surprised. Do you really mean it? ? Impossible! ! Is it true that? , ? Its a wonder to me. . What a pleasant surprise! ! It isnt surprising. . Good Heavens! ! No wonder. . No wonder she gave a speech at the , conference. . Its only natural. () . 103

Expressing doubt and disbelief Im not sure of it. I doubt it. It all depends. You never can tell. Its hard to believe. Are you sure? I dont believe a word of it. You dont say so!

. . . . . ? . !

2. Read the dialogs, practice them and underline the phrases used to express doubt, disbelief or surprise. 1. Hes been very nervous of conducting an experiment. Really? I never noticed it. 2. He only pretended not to know it. Did he? I doubt it. Its unlike him. 3. They werent satisfied with the results of the naturalistic observation. Werent they? Thats strange. 4. If you had consulted your scientific advisor earlier, youd have advanced the wrong hypothesis. You never can tell it. 5. Will you intervene in the relationships of your parents? That depends. 6. Shes decided to conduct a case study. Its not surprising. Its the most suitable method to investigate the inner life of the respondent. 3. React somehow expressing doubt or surprise. Use the phrases given. Really? Do you really mean it? Are you sure? Is it true that ? It all depends. Im not surprised. 1. Im afraid the archival method will be of no use in his situation. 2. Something is wrong with my records of what is going on. 3. I think youd better conduct a survey to prove your hypothesis. 4. My hypothesis hasnt been confirmed. 5. All children are gifted in various ways. 6. How will you assign your students into groups? 4. Make up sentences so that the following phrases may be answers to them. 1. No wonder. 2. I doubt it. 3. You dont say so! 4. What a pleasant surprise! 5. Its only natural. 104

Homework 1. Translate the sentences from English into Russian. 1. Kraepelin said: Psychiatric disorders are disease entities that can be classified like physical illnesses. 2. Kraepelin also said: The fundamental causes of mental illness lie in the physiology and biochemistry of the human brain. 3. Carl Rogers said: Only negative evaluations made by significant others in the life of the individual limit the individuals potential for growth. 4. Cognitive psychologists said: We are not merely passive receptors of stimuli; the mind actively possesses the information it receives and transforms it into new forms and categories. 2. Translate the sentences from Russian into English using the active vocabulary of the lesson. 1. . 2. , , . 3. , . 4. . 5. , . 6. . 7. , . 8. 1970 . 9. , . 10. , . 3. Express your opinion (agreement, disagreement) in the written form about the following statements. Try to prove your point of view by giving arguments. 1. There is no universal method of research. 2. A method of research must correspond to the nature of the phenomenon investigated. 3. Scientific observation doesnt differ from the everyday observation. 4. Read the text and do the tasks after it. SURVEYS In contrast with the in-depth study of one person, surveys describe a specific population or group of people. Surveys involve asking people a series of questions about their behaviors, thoughts, or opinions. Surveys can be conducted in person, over the phone, or through the mail. Most surveys study a specific groupfor example, 105

college students, working mothers, men, or homeowners. Rather than questioning every person in the group, survey researchers choose a representative sample of people and generalize the findings to the larger population. Surveys may pertain to almost any topic. Often surveys ask people to report their feelings about various social and political issues, the TV shows they watch, or the consumer products they purchase. Surveys are also used to learn about peoples sexual practices; to estimate the use of cigarettes, alcohol, and other drugs; and to approximate the proportion of people who experience feelings of life satisfaction, loneliness, and other psychological states that cannot be directly observed. Surveys must be carefully designed and conducted to ensure their accuracy. The results can be influenced, and biased, by two factors: who the respondents are and how the questions are asked. For a survey to be accurate, the sample being questioned must be representative of the population on key characteristics such as sex, race, age, region, and cultural background. To ensure similarity to the larger population, survey researchers usually try to make sure that they have a random sample, a method of selection in which everyone in the population has an equal chance of being chosen. When the sample is not random, the results can be misleading. For example, prior to the 1936 United States presidential election, pollsters for the magazine Literary Digest mailed postcards to more than 10 million people who were listed in telephone directories or as registered owners of automobiles. The cards asked for whom they intended to vote. Based on the more than 2 million ballots that were returned, the Literary Digest predicted that Republican candidate Alfred M. Landon would win in a landslide over Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt. At the time, however, more Republicans than Democrats owned telephones and automobiles, skewing the poll results. In the election, Landon won only two states. The results of survey research can also be influenced by the way that questions are asked. For example, when asked about welfare, a majority of Americans in one survey said that the government spends too much money. But when asked about assistance to the poor, significantly fewer people gave this response. 5. Answer the following questions: 1. What is the survey? 2. What way can it be conducted in? 3. What phenomena is it possible to investigate using the method of surveys? 4. What is a random sample? 6. Are the following statements true or false? 1. Surveys study one person. 2. To be sure of the validity of the results the investigator must have a random sample. 3. The way the questions are asked doesnt influence upon the results of surveys. 4. Race, age, region and cultural backgrounds of the respondents have a profound effect on the results. 7. Can you give your own example of using the survey method in psychology? 106

LESSON 12. DOES YOUR MEMORY SERVE YOU RIGHT? Brainstorming activity Discuss the following question and give all the possible answers to it. How do you think what the quality of your memory depends on? Active Vocabulary Listen and pronounce the active vocabulary of the lesson after the teacher. 1. anxiety (n) 2. association (n) 3. auditory memory 4. be anxious 5. close attention 6. comprehend (v) , 7. depression (n) , 8. fascinate (v) , 9. frustration (n) , 10. get agitated with , 11. impair (v) , 12. imprint (n) , 13. insist on (v) - 14. long-lasting impression , 15. long-term memory 16. maintenance (n) . 17. memory cell 18. memory technique 19. perception (n) 20. positive expectation 21. reason (v) 22. recall (v) 23. relaxed mind 24. release (v) 25. retain (v) 26. sensory channel 27. short-term-memory 28. stimulus (n) 29. visual memory Lead-in 1. Put the activities developing memory according to their importance and efficiency. 1. Remembering telephone numbers without writing them down. 2. Learning poems by heart. 107

3. Different games for attention. 4. Guessing crosswords. 5. Reading regularly. 2. Look at the activities enumerated in Task 1 and tell your groupmates what develops memory best of all in your opinion. Example: I think that the most effective activity is games for attention as you develop your memory consciously 3. Can you give a clear answer to the question: Whose fault is it that a persons memory is poor? bad heredity environment the person himself 4. Try to develop the idea given. Agree or disagree with the following quotation. Give your arguments. Many a man fails as an original thinker simply because his memory is too good. Friedrich Nietzsche Grammar: Gerund. 1. Choose the right form of the Gerund. 1. The problem is a) discussing b) being discussed c)having discussed d) having been discussed 2. On the news she wrote some notes.. a) telling b) being told c)having told d) having been 3.Can you remember the man before? a) seeing b) being seen c) having seen d) having been seen 4. He hates a) interrupting b) being interrupted c) having interrupted d) having been interrupted 5. He was proud of by this famous scientist. a) receiving b) being received c) having received d) having been received 6. Do you have any difficulty in your memory in practice? a) keeping b) being kept c) having kept d) having been kept 7. She congratulated herself on of such a good idea. a) thinking b) being thought c) having thought d) having been thought 8. We exercise our arms and legs by tennis, volleyball, basketball. a) playing b) being played c) having played d) having been played

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2. Insert the right preposition. 1. They succeeded finding a good way-out. 2. Can you stop the child being lazy. 3. He was accused having broken laws. 4. I insist questioning this fact. 5. I apologize being so awkward. 6. I have no practice solving these problems. 7. She kept interrupting me while I was speaking. 8. He is slow learning poems by heart. 9. He gave up the idea ever hearing about it. 10. He never agreed their catching this opportunity. 3. Put the words given below into the right order to make up a sentence. 1. Things, in, sometimes, overviews, we, great, sweeping, recall. 2. Improves, recalling, conscious, memory. 3. Understanding, is, than, none, even, a better, rudimentary. 4. A, memory, if, want, you, good, to practice, remembering, learn. 5. Mind, reading, in, a, do, voice, loud, you, my? 6. No, this, book, was, getting, there, opportunity, of. 7. Hearing, I, dont, legend, before, remember, the. 8. Being, blamed, any, grounds, nobody, without, likes. 4. Match the parts of the sentences from A and B columns. A B a) Its difficult to keep them a) keeping your memory in practice b) Will you please stop b) exercising all the time c) Does your work involve c) reading so loudly d) Do you go on d) improving our environment e) The aim of Green service is e) meeting with people 5. Open the brackets and put the appropriate from of the gerund. 1. He remembered (discuss) the question. 2. Im still nervous in spite of (rehearse) several times. 3. He began his speech without any (prepare). 4. He complained of (giving) a very small room. 5. The little girl never gets tired of (ask) her mother question. 6. I always treat people politely and I insist on (treat) politely. 7. Try to forget it, it isnt worth (worry) about. 8. After (hear) the conditions I decided not to enter for the competition. 9. They cant help (make) noise. 10. We didnt anticipate (treat) like that.

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Reading 1. Read and translate the text. TIPS ON IMPROVING MEMORY Memory is the storing of learned information and the ability to recall things. Three processes occur in remembering: perception and registering of a stimulus; temporary maintenance of the perception, or short-term memory; and lasting storage of the perception, or long-term memory. Most of us express dissatisfaction with our memory, especially when we want to recall some detail and we can't. A lot of people insist, My memory is terrible, or I can't remember anything. In most cases, their memory is fine. They just need to take the time to learn ways to register the events more clearly, so they can recall them more successfully, later. Here are some tips on what we need to do to improve our memory. 1. Positive expectation: Believe that you have a good memory. If you believe you have a poor memory and you can't remember anything, your mind will do everything to prove you right. It is better to think that your memory is good. When you learn better memory techniques, you will have a better memory. 2. Interest and importance: Recall of a particular event or detail depends on the interest we take and the importance we assign to that detail or event at the time, when it is taking place. We remember so much more about people, places, and topics, which fascinate us. When you are greatly interested in a subject, you pay close attention and your brain releases chemicals to form deeper imprints on the cells that store memory. Those can become long lasting impressions. 3. Pay attention: If you want to recall something, pay close attention to it at the time. The problem may not be memory, the problem may be one of attention. People, who have a good memory, pay close attention to events as they happen. Also, you may well know, that the level of interest and importance we assign to a person or an event determines how much attention we are going to pay it at the particular time it is occurring. 4. Active attention: Memory is an active process. The more active attention you pay, the more details you observe, the more you think, reason, and comprehend, the more associations you make of what you know with what you are trying to learn, the more you will retain and be able to recall later on. Good memory is a state of the active mind. 5. Relaxed mind: A relaxed mind helps memory. Learn with a relaxed mind. Recall the learned material with a relaxed mind. Let's take as an example a situation, where you misplace your car keys. If you get too agitated with yourself in trying to recall something, as is the case in this example, you are in for frustration. But, if you relax your mind, and calmly go through the events backward, you are more likely to remember where you left them. 6. Reduce anxiety: While mild anxiety can increase interest and attention, high anxiety can impair attention and concentration, and therefore, limit the recall of learned material. That is why, if we are too anxious during a test, we forget what we earlier 110

knew very well. Actually, your memory is okay but anxiety is interfering with it. Management of test anxiety has helped many students in their test performance. 7. Monitor depression: Depression can impair the interest and joy in the events surrounding us. As a result, too little energy is left to recall anything. Some depressed persons become more anxious and depressed thinking: I have lost my mind. Once depression is treated, memory, as a general rule, returns to the normal. 8. Sensory channel: Use your favorite sensory channel. Some remember better what they see, visual memory, and some remember better what they hear, auditory memory. If you are someone who remembers better what you hear, then listen to a book on tape, rather than reading it. For other material, tape what you want to learn, and then listen to it for better recall. 2. Use the information in the text to find answers to the questions. 1. How do we remember things? Can you describe the process? 2. What is memory? 3. Do you know any memory techniques to remember things? 4. Why is close attention important when you want to form deeper imprints? 5. How can high anxiety interfere with the process of recalling things? 6. What psychological state impairs the interest to life? 7. What is your favorite sensory channel? 3. Discuss in groups of four: for what professions good memory is a compulsory thing? Make a list and explain why you think so. 4. Your friend complains on his memory. What advice would you give him? Use the information in the text and your own experience. Vocabulary practice 1. Fill in the correct word from the list below: memory, things, active, sensory, techniques, chemicals, expectation, test, interest, mind. 1. to recall ________ 2. long-term _______ 3. positive _________ 4. memory _________ 5. to release ________ 6. ________attention 7. relaxed _____ 8. _______ performance 9. to impair ______ 10. ______ channel 2. Insert the right prepositions. Make up sentences with the expressions. 1. to express dissatisfaction ____ the memory 2. to assign ____ 3. to be interested ____ 111

4. to be _____ frustration 5. to go _____ the events 6. to communicate _____ 7. to interfere ____ Discussion 1. Read the text and name the five simple techniques to improve your memory. Which of them have you used in your life experience? FIVE SIMPLE TECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE YOUR MEMORY Chunking. Perhaps Chunking is the oldest method used in memorization. In this method, the items to be memorized are divided into small and easily memorizable groups. This method works best when the order of the items is not important. Rhyming. This is also one of the popular and oldest methods in memorization. This technique makes use of the fact that we have a natural tendency to remember rhymes and rhythms. The following is a very popular example of application of this technique which almost all school students are familiar with. Thirty days have September April, June and November All the rest have thirty-one February has twenty-eight alone Except in leap year, then the time When Febs days are twenty-nine. Bridging. In this method, a bridge is built in between the items given to be memorized. This technique is best suited for learning material involving word pairs or material that can be reduced to word pairs. An example often cited by memory experts is the learning of the capital of Poland. The capital of Poland is Warsaw. World War II started with Germany's attack on Poland. Thus it may be arranged as Poland SAW War first. Bed-time Recital. In this technique, you do your recital just before going to bed. The mind in the process of sleeping would then arrange the information in a systematic and effective way when you are sleeping. Psychologists have also found that if you sleep after thinking about your problems there is a better chance that you arrive at a solution the next day. Trying by Not Trying. All of us apply this method knowingly or unknowingly. Sometimes when you try to recall you may not be able to recall it at that time even if you are sure that you know it very well. You experience a blocking that prevents you from recalling it. Normally you tend to try again and again but in vain. To handle this situation you just keep away from trying to recollect it and do something else; to your pleasant surprise that information automatically pops up into your mind after some time. This is because even if you stopped trying, the mind is searching for that information and brings it to awareness when it is found. Sometimes the information was blocked when you wanted, and mind brings it forward when the blocking is removed. This is where stress plays its role in hindering recall. 112

2. Discuss in groups of three the advantages and disadvantages of the memory techniques described in Task 1? 3. How do you understand the meaning of the following citations? 1. As memory may be a paradise from which we cannot be driven, it may also be a hell from which we cannot escape. John Lancaster 2. Memory is the library of the mind. Francis Fauvel-Gourand 3. The richness of life lies in the memories we have forgotten. Cesare Pavese 4. The advantage of a bad memory is that one enjoys several times the same good things for the first time. Friedrich Nietzsche. 5. Computers have lots of memory but no imagination. Anonymous quote. 4. Discuss in groups of four. In what situations it is better to have a good memory and in which ones it is better to have a poor memory. Communication 1. Agree or disagree with the following statements. 1. If you sit in all day you exercise your arms and legs. 2. If we have ordinary bodies we can improve our strength by practice. 3. Our memory is weak when we do not give it enough opportunity to become strong. 2. Answer the questions and then make up a dialog using these questions. 1. Have you ever thought about the quality of your own memory? 2. Why is it necessary to give it enough exercise? 3. What useful means of training ones memory could you suggest? 4. What sort of information do you remember better: names, numbers, dates, times? 5. Why do people who cant read or write have better memories? 6. Whose fault is it that a persons memory is poor? 7. What is a way to develop a good memory? 3. Complete the dialog between two students, one of whom majors in psychology, while the other majors in history. - Since you major in psychology, I hope youll be able to help me. The thing is, I must remember numerous facts and figures and I find it too difficult. Im afraid there is something wrong with my memory. Besides, the trouble is that though I can memorize learning material quickly. Why so? - -I see. So there is long-term and short-term memory. What should be done to retain the material studied and make a more permanent gain in learning? - -How much material can be remembered and stored in our memory? Are there any limits to our storage capacity? - 113

-Ive noticed that remember material better if I feel emotionally interested in it. - -I see. But I still dont understand why some people remember things better than others. Can I improve my memory? - -Thanks a lot for the interesting information. You must be a very good student. - 4. Tell your groupmates about your ways of memory exercising. Homework 1. Read through the following, allowing yourself to form mental pictures as you go along. When you come to the end, turn away from the computer and write down the list of words in the correct order. MNEMONICS I'm going to form a short story around the words that you're going to remember, and as you form the images in your mind, make them appear comical. Words - The first word I want you to think of is television and its a very large, pink plastic television, so imagine a large, pink plastic television. And the next word is book. And you see that the reason the pink, plastic television is so big is because it is standing on a pile of old history books, so, the television is standing on a pile of old books and the third word is tree. And suddenly the book decides it wants to be a tree and it grows so big that branches stick out of the television and reach up. The fourth word is chair and looking up to the top of the tree you see a rocking chair nestled between two branches. So the fourth word is chair, and it's up there between those branches. The next word is jelly and the chair is made of jelly and is wobbling around in the tree. The sixth word is cat and suddenly a fat black cat with three legs runs up the tree and becomes so tired that he goes to sit on the jelly, but he is so fat and the jelly so wobbly that the cat comes down out of the tree. The seventh word is nurse and the nurse comes running up the cat to see if he's all right. When she sees that the cat only has three legs she begins to cry and she sheds so many tears that she needs a tablecloth to dry her eyes and blow her nose on. So the eight word is tablecloth. Suddenly a gust of wind blows the tablecloth out of her hand and up in the air. So imagine now a tablecloth flying through the air - and the ninth word is airplane and a jumbo jet comes soaring through the sky and gets all tangled up in the tablecloth. The tenth word is chocolate band you suddenly notice that the airplane is not a real one, but a chocolate one and looks delicious. The eleventh word is spider - and a money spider comes up to the chocolate and licks it - really enjoying the taste. And the twelfth and final word is candle, and the chocolate that is left has a blue candle sticking out of it with purple and green smoke that wafts into the air.

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2. You are a teacher and you are to present 10 new words for the pupils. They are: house, carpet, kitchen, pan, microwave, cat, flower, picture, jam, egg. Make up a vivid story like the one you have read in Task 1 to make your pupils to remember the words easily. 3. Translate the sentences from Russian into English. 1. , , , . 2. , , . 3. , , . 4. , , . 5. , . 6. , . 4. Make up sentences using these words. 1. Cannot read, those, or, write, things, remember, who, have, to. 2. That, my, poor, is, it, is, own, memory, fault. 3. We, details, sometimes, only, remember. 4. Does, work, how, memory? 5. Is, weak, our, memory, enough, opportunity, strong, when, we, don't, give, it, to, become. 5. Read through the quotes of famous people, choose one and develop the idea given. 1. Everybody needs his memories. They keep the wolf of insignificance from the door. Saul Bellow 2. Nothing fixes a thing so intensely in the memory as the wish to forget it. Michel de Montaigne 3. The advantage of a bad memory is that one enjoys several times the same good things for the first time. Friedrich Nietzsche 4. Happiness is nothing more than good health and a bad memory. Albert Schweitzer 6. Give your own definition of memory.

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LESSON 13. WHAT KIND OF PERSON ARE YOU? Brainstorming activity Discuss the following question and give all the possible answers to it. What are the means that help you to find out what kind of person is in front of you? Active Vocabulary Listen and pronounce the active vocabulary of the lesson after the teacher. 1. agreeable (a) 2. apply (v) 3. be assertive 4. be pushy , 5. beware of 6. conceal smbs feelings 7. courageous (a) 8. curious (a) 9. define (v) 10. derive (v) 11. designate (v) 12. despise (v) , 13. effort (n) 14. emulate satiety 15. energize (v) 16. fall into (v) , 17. familiar (a) 18. fearful (a) 19. generosity (n) 20. have a positive attitude 21. in the sense of 22. lifestyle (n) 23. misconception (n) 24. outgoing (a) 25. oyster (n) 26. peculiarity (n) 27. perceive (v) , , 28. regard (v) , 29. respected (a) 30. retiring (a) 31. satisfaction (n) 32. show affection in public 33. shy (a) 34. stimulate (v) 35. trait (n) 36. unfortunate (a)

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Lead-in 1. What features of character do you know? Place the given features of character into two columns: positive and negative. Hardworking, narrow-minded, ill-tempered, hard-hearted, well-educated, easygoing, kind-hearted, open-minded, outgoing, well respected, absent-minded, outspoken, two-faced, generous, agreeable, courageous, fearful, retiring, curious, pushy, assertive. POSITIVE NEGATIVE

2. Match the given explanations with the basic types of personality: extrovert, introvert, ambivert. 1. A person concerned more with practical realities than with inner thoughts and feelings. 2. A person who tends to shrink from social contacts and to become preoccupied with his/her own thoughts. 3. Someone having both extrovert and introvert personality traits. 3. Define the type of personality the following people have. 1. Tom loves meeting new people. 2. Franny needs to stay home to reenergize herself. 3. Bill is a very outgoing person. 4. Meredith is energized sometimes by others and sometimes by being alone. 5. Jonatan becomes energized when he is around other people. 4. Discuss in groups of four the following statement. Give your arguments. Pets have no personality. 5. Do you agree with the statement: Many of us, are probably ambiverts. Example: I agree with the statement Many of us are probably ambiverts from my own experience, sometimes I need to stay alone, sometimes, I need a company. It depends. 6. If you were asked to list three adjectives that describe your personality, what would they be. Use the list from Task 1. 7. Develop the idea given. Man's main task in life is to give birth to himself, to become what he potentially is. The most important product of his effort is his own personality. Erich Fromm Grammar: Participle. 117

1. Open the brackets and put the appropriate from of the participle. 1. (to live) in the south, he cant understand our life order. 2. (to read) the story, she closed the book. 3. (to show) the wrong direction we lost our way. 4. (to be) very ill, she couldnt go out. 5. There are some categories (to develop) to classify people. 6. (to prescribe) some medicine the doctor went away. 7. The classification (to develop) last century is out of date. 8. (to apply) the new method he found several mistakes. 2. Replace the underlined parts of the sentences by the participle. 1. The man who is speaking now is very shy. 2. There are many students in our group who take part in the conference. 3. Be careful when you are crossing the street. 4. When she defined the subject, she began working at it. 5. When I finally made up my mind, I told then about my plans. 6. When I speak to her, I always tries to make my meaning clear. 3. Translate the words in brackets. 1. We came up to the woman () very fearful. 2. () all about the accident he went away. 3. Suddenly I heard a sound of a key () in the lock. 4. Each time () about it she couldnt help crying. 5. The theory () last century is out of date. 6. I felt very tired () the whole day. 4. Define the function of the participle. 1. The house built in the 18th century is ruined. 2. Being tired he went home at once. 3. The students translating this text work with me. 4. Having read this book I learnt a lot. 5. The answer received from her greatly surprised me. 6. Being told of his arrival, I went to see him. 7. The man standing in the hall is my cousin. 8. A person bringing good news is always welcome. 9. Getting off the bus he helped his wife. 10. Being written in pencil the letter was difficult to read. 5. Make up sentences from these words. 1. Performed, are, not, experiments, exact, very, being, here. 2. Physiological, clinic, coming, every, a, careful, should, to, an individual, have, examination. 3. Prefer, by, talking, extroverts, communicate, usually, to. 4. Outgoing, is, a, person, Bill, very. 5. When, become, other, people, I, energized, I, around, am. 118

Reading 1. Read and translate the text. PERSONALITY TYPES The fact that humans differ from one another has stimulated many interesting theories of personality types. Respected thinkers in the fields of sychology, sociology, and philosophy have produced different theories of personality. Let's start with the most familiar of the traditional types, the extrovert and the introvert. The concepts of Extroversion and Introversion were introduced by Carl Jung to designate two opposite types of personality. Many people think that an extrovert is a person who is courageous, outgoing and not at all shy. They believe that an introvert is someone who is shy, retiring, and fearful. These are misconceptions. Actually, psychologists define an extrovert as a person who needs the of others to become energized, while an introvert is the kind of person who needs to be alone to become energized. There is a third category people may fall into: that of the ambivert. This is a person who is energized sometimes by others and sometimes by being alone. He gets activated by the stimulation of others and becomes quite outgoing. But there are other times when he needs to be alone to reenergize. Many of us, perhaps even the majority, are probably ambiverts. There's another way of classifying people. In The Presidential Character, historian James Barber classifies presidents into four personality types: active-positive, active-negative, passive-positive, passive-negative. However, Barber's categories might be applied to anyone, not just to presidents. Let's consider each of these. First, the active-positive person is the type who acts on the world and derives pleasure from doing so. He or she is one whom others regard as a take-charge leader who gets things done. Active-positives are people who regard the world as their oyster. Second, the active-negative is a person whose behavior is similar, to that of the active-positive in the sense of acting on the world. However, active-negatives feel negative about themselves and the world in certain ways, they don't get much inner satisfaction from what they do though they put a great amount of effort into their work. Third, the passive-positive is the kind of individual others regard as a nice person. They usually have a lot of friends and are always agreeable, which is what people like about them. Fourth, passive-negatives are similar to passive-positives in having a negative selfimage and in allowing the world to act on them. However, they tend to view the world as a place where unfortunate things are likely to happen. Passive-negatives often try to compensate for the world's unpleasantness by getting involved in service to others and by stressing moral principles.

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2. What are the main personality types being defined in the text? Vocabulary practice 1. Fill in the correct word from the list below. Theories, moral, unfortunate, types, take-charge, amount, satisfaction, certain. 1. personality _____ 2. _______ principles 3. inner ________ 4. different _______ 5. ________ leader 6. in _______ ways 7. great _______ 8. ________ things 2. Form the adjectives from the following nouns. courage ____________ fear _________________ person _____________ psychology ___________ tradition ____________ pleasure _____________ 3. Form the nouns from the following verbs. behave _____________ stimulate _____________ satisfy _____________ differ ________________ introduce ___________ define ________________ classify ____________ 3. Match phrases in column A with their translation in column B. A B 1. 1. energized 2. 2. derive pleasure 3. 3. fall into 4. 4. take-charge leader 5. 5. put great efforts 4. Complete the sentences. 1. Extroverts are characterized as ... people. 2. An introvert needs .... 3. The concepts of Extroversion and Introversion were introduced by . . . . 4. Historian James Barber classifies presidents into .... 5. The passive-positive people usually have .... Discussion 1. Discuss in groups of three: What features of character can be called the Russian ones? Make a list and present it to the rest of the group. 120

2. Read the text and agree or disagree with the statements, highlighting the peculiarities of the Russians. RUSSIAN CHARACTER Most Russians are not very different from most westerners in the way they perceive things or in their desired lifestyle. However, there are certain peculiarities. We are a free nation. Here we despise all the rules. Its an honor for our drivers to move on the red light or to bother other drivers and pedestrians. Its cool to do nothing and to just lie on the sofa thinking about how great you are. Really, Russia is such an amazing country and we have given the world so much that we can rest a bit. We value generosity. We can give you the last piece of bread we have if we believe you really need it. And we expect the same in return. If you're invited for a meal, expect that the hosts will feed you until you feel completely full and not capable of moving. Most of us are very proud. Don't talk to us about our vices, we won't listen anyway. And don't dare to criticize the way our country is - Russia is the best place and we will prove it to the whole world very soon. Some of us are quite emotional, but somehow its all kept inside most of the time. We may seem a bit cold and too much to ourselves at first, but when you get to know us better, we're like a volcano. We don't feel easy about talking to strangers on the street, but if you start conversation saying that you're from another country or ask for some help, there's a good chance we will be very open, because we are naturally curious about foreigners. Women and old women are very respected here. Its considered polite if while being in the metro and seeing a woman or an old woman coming in and therere no free seats, man offers her his seat. Russians are hooligans. It's not because we're bad - we just like everything extraordinary. But too often we don't express this feeling enough, so when it comes out, it's like a volcano. That's why you hear our tourists singing folk songs at 3am and that's why we make a revolution every 80 years. Many people have a positive attitude towards healthy lifestyle and have a daily morning exercise routine or run in the park. 3. Work in pairs. Translate the sentences in turn from Russian into English, using the information from the text. 1. , . 2. , . 3. -, , . 4. . 5. , , . 121

6. , , . 7. . , , . 8. . 9. , . 10. , . 11. . 12. . 13. , . 14. , . 80 . 4. Read the joke and try to explain in your own words the meaning of the word hypocrisy. HOW TO BECOME A HYPOCRATE If you want to be really and truly British, you must become a hypocrite. How to be a hypocrite? As some people say that an example explains things better than the best theory, let me try this way. I had a drink with an English friend of mine in a pub. We were sitting on the high chairs in front of the counter when a flying bomb exploded about a hundred yards away. I was truly and honestly frightened, and when a few seconds later I looked around, I could not see my friend anywhere. At last I noticed that he was lying on the floor, flat as a pancake. When he realized that nothing particular had happened in the pub he got up a little embarrassed, flicked the dust off his suit, and turned to me with a superior and sarcastic smile. 'Good Heavens! Were you so frightened that you couldn't move?' George Mikes Communication: Whats your sign? 1. Work with your partner. Find out your partners sign. Then read your partners description in the horoscope. See if your partner agrees with the description of his or her personality. Make up your own dialog. A: Whens your birthday? B: November 9. A: Then youre Scorpio. You always keep on working until a job is finished. B: I guess thats true. I am determined to finish everything I start. Aquarius (January 21 February 18) Creative and idealistic, loves daydreaming about making a better world. 122

Pisces (February 19 March 21) Sensitive and gentle, enjoys meeting people and making new friends. Aries (March 22 April 21) Active and adventurous, cant help getting excited about new projects, enjoys traveling. Taurus (April 22 May 21) Generous and good at saving money, enjoys investing in the stock market. Gemini (May 22 June 21) Cultured and clever, prefers reading good books to watching TV. Cancer (June 22 July 21) Home-loving and conservative, dislikes traveling and tries to avoid making changes. Leo (July 22 August 21) Confident and organized, not afraid of making mistakes, often insists on being the leader. Virgo (August 22 September 21) Organized and precise, cant stand having a messy house, always finishes doing what he or she started. Libra (September 22 October 21) Peace-loving and charming, always tries to avoid arguing with people, enjoys telling jokes. Scorpio (October 22 November 21) Determined and intelligent, keeps on doing a job until it is finished. Sagittarius (November 22 December 21) Sincere and careful, loves talking to people and making them laugh. Capricorn (December 22 January 20) Reliable and careful, insists on doing a good job, often avoids listening to other peoples opinions. 2. The following statements are all incorrect. Work with a partner. Ask and answer questions to find out whats wrong. Example: A: Do Aquarians dislike thinking about changing the world? B: No, Aquarians love thinking about making the world better. 1. Aries rarely feel like starting new projects. 2. Cancers cant stand staying at home. 3. Capricorns seldom worry about doing a good job. 4. Gemini love watching TV. 5. Leos insists on following a leader. 6. Libras enjoy arguing. 7. Pisces avoid making new friends. 8. Sagittarians prefer having serious conversations. 9. Scorpios rarely finish a project. 10. Tauruses enjoy spending a lot of money. 11. Virgos dont mind having a messy house. 123

3. Develop the ideas given. Discuss them in groups of three. 1. Character is like a tree and reputation like its shadow. The shadow is what we think of it; the tree is the real thing. Abraham Lincoln 2. Judge of your natural character by what you do in your dreams. Ralph Waldo Emerson. 3. Our character is what we do when we think no one is looking. H. Jackson Brown. Homework 1. Translate the sentences from Russian into English. 1. , . 2. , ? 3. , . 4. , , . 5. , . 6. . , . 7. , . 8. . , , . 9. , , - . 10. , . 2. Read the text and summarize the main ideas. COLORS AND PERSONALITY People try to find out more about their personalities in different ways. One way to discover personality traits is through color analysis. Psychologists say that the color we prefer can tell a lot about, our personalities. According to studies carried out in North America, people who prefer the red color usually have strong personalities. They like expressing their opinions. They insist on saying what they think and feel, even if it is sometimes negative. They're confident people who enjoy meeting others and being in social situations. In contrast to the reds, people who choose blue are generally quiet and gentle. They don't like showing strong emotions. Blues feel they should control what they say and do very carefully. They like spending time by themselves and they like analyzing themselves. Still different are the people who prefer yellow. They are normally cheerful, friendly people who prefer looking at the positive side of things. They don't like thinking about problems or serious subjects very much. Often yellows prefer hiding strong emotions like fear or anger. 124

The analysis of colors is just another system that people have created to understand personalities. 3. Match the color with the personality trait. 1. _________ quiet 2. _________ enjoy meeting people 3. _________ look at the good sides of things 4. _________ don't often show anger 5 _________ control what they say___ 6. ________ confident 7. _________ easily express their opinions 8 . _______ like to be alone_________ . 9. ________ don't think much about problems 10. _______ gentle 4. Read the text and find out what your coffee says about you. COFFEE THERAPY What kind of coffee do you drink? Cappuccino? Irish coffee? Black coffee? A recent psychological study claims that there is a connection between the type of coffee you drink and your personality. Learn what different coffees mean, and use this information to analyze your friends, family and neighbors. Decaf Coffee (decaffeinated coffee).Decaf coffee drinkers have a strong need to have some control of their lives, and they need to be in the driving seat at all times. They also hate feeling any form of dependence - especially on drugs, such as caffeine. Instant Coffee. Instant coffee drinkers are pathologically lazy. They cannot abide hard work and will do anything to avoid messing around with complicated instruments and machines such as coffee percolators. They love the fact that making a coffee consists of merely throwing in a spoon of coffee and chucking some hot water over it. A White Coffee. Coffee drinkers who succumb to the temptation of the white liquid (milk) are often weak-willed people who suffer from self-destructive tendencies. Black Coffee. Black coffee drinkers care little for fads and are more concerned about integrity and honesty. They like a challenge, and they are fast thinkers, fast movers and fast talkers. Espresso. This is the classic, dark Italian coffee that has a rich flavour and smoky aroma. Drink it Italian-style by knocking it back in one or two gulps, giving yourself third-degree burns to the tongue. Espresso coffee drinkers are traditionally stubborn, although the modern tend to be more open to argument and disagreement. Cappuccino. This drink is made from one-third coffee, one-third milk and onethird froth (). Make your own froth by heating milk in a pan and then whisking briskly with a fork. Pour the frothy milk onto your hot black coffee. Sprinkle chocolate powder or cinnamon on top for added colour. Cappuccino drinkers are authentic people who enjoy all the ups and downs life tosses their way. So now you know! 125

LESSON 14. WHAT IS EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION? Brainstorming activity Discuss the following question and give all the possible answers to it. What do you understand under the term communication? Active vocabulary Listen and practice the active vocabulary of the lesson after the speaker. 1. arise (v) , 2. audience (v) , 3. be sensitive to 4. communication apprehension 5. communication competence 6. communication skills 7. communication technologies 8. communicator 9. convince (v) 10. dyad (n) 11. give a speech 12. group dynamics () 13. groupthink (n) 14. ignore (v) 15. interpersonal communication 16. message (n) , 17. organizational communication 18. persuasion 19. reach consensus 20. reluctance (n) , 21. respond to (v) , 22. share information 23. small-group interaction 24. take turns Lead-in 1. Divide into groups of three. Work in a team. Make a list of as many means of communication as you can. 2. Look through the definitions of communication and choose the most appropriate one from your point of view. 1. Communication is a process that allows organisms to exchange information by several methods. 2. Communication is the articulation of sending a message, whether it be verbal or nonverbal, so long as a being transmits a thought provoking idea, gesture, action, etc.

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3. Communication can be defined as the process of meaningful interaction among human beings. It is the act of passing information and the process by which meanings are exchanged so as to produce understanding. 4. Communication is the process by which any message is given or received through talking, writing, or making gestures. 5. Communication is any act by which one person gives to or receives from another person information about that person's needs, desires, perceptions, knowledge, or affective states. Communication may involve conventional or unconventional signals, may take linguistic or nonlinguistic forms, and may occur through spoken or other modes. 3. Express your agreement or disagreement with the following quotes: 1. Anne Morrow Lindbergh: Good communication is as stimulating as black coffee, and just as hard to sleep after. 2. Jonathan Swift: Argument is the worst sort of conversation. 3. Rudyard Kipling: Words are, of course, the most powerful drug used by mankind. 4. Prepare a two-minute speech, where you express your opinion to the following: Pluses and minuses of modern means of communication. Grammar: Infinitive constructions. 1. Compare the forms of the infinitive and elicit the difference in meaning. 1. She had nobody to help her. 2. You ought to have asked my opinion. 3. Its pleasant to be listening to you. 4. Children like to be told fairy tales. 5. The telegram was to have been sent two days earlier. 2. Find infinitives in the following sentences and define their functions. Translate the sentences into Russian. 1. To predict a persons behavior one must take into consideration sociological factors as well. 2. Hungry rats were first trained to press a bar to receive these drugs. 3. The aim of this lecture is to determine the ties of psychology with other disciplines. 4. Psychologists begin to view man as an active creature. 5. To have a good memory is a great advantage. 6. To know what the person thinks about himself is of great importance. 7. We have some right to suppose that in this case we are dealing with specific aspects of transformation of cognitive abilities. 8. The work has not progressed far enough to give a complete account of the system. 9. To understand the method, one must know something about the problem. 10. He continued to be influenced by his past experience. 127

3. Open the brackets using the correct form of the infinitive. Define its function. 1. Attempts ________ (to form, to be formed) conditional reflexes in children of several days or weeks of age lead to contradictory remarks. 2. The conclusion ________ (to draw, to be drawn) from such a result is somewhat ambiguous. 3. The third problem _________ (to be considered, to be considering) is concerned with depth perception. 4. Rats which did not receive electric shocks did not learn __________ (to press, to have pressed) a bar to receive the drugs. 5. You ought___________ (to be punished, to have been punished) for what you did. 6. It was nice _________ (to be sitting, to have sit) there with you. 7. Im sorry _________ (not to be telephoning, not to have telephoned) earlier. 8. I did not expect _________ (to have been invited, to be invited). 9. I opened the door ________ (to let, to have been let) her in. 10. I want ________ (to buy, to be bought) a bicycle. 4. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English using the infinitive. 1. , , . 2. , , . 3. : ? 4. , . 5. , , . 5. Transform the sentences using the complex object construction. 1. Many of the audience considered that the speaker had overstated his case. 2. Everyone knew that he was a man of good communication skills. 3. The majority of psychologists thought that his book was highly original. 4. Researches have found that the suggested method of group observation is invaluable as a method of research. 5. Scientific experiment showed that peoples shyness was a reason for making the communication difficult. 6. No one had expected that he would become a leader of the group. 7. I could see how the conflict was developing. 8. She said to the children that they had to behave well. 9. At a very early age, a boy revealed that he was a master of persuasion. 10. I believe that it would be useful if you agreed to share the information about your scientific research paper with your colleagues.

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6. Translate the sentences using the complex object construction. 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. , . 5. , . 6. , . 7. , ? 8. , . 9. . 10. , . 7. Rewrite the sentences according to the models using the complex subject construction. Model 1: It seemed that he knew the subject well. He seemed to know the subject well. 1. It seemed that these people have difficulties in communicating with each other. 2. It seemed that he was appealing to the audience. 3. It proved that the first experiment was a success. 4. It proved that communication technologies were extremely helpful. 5. It appears that this man was an experienced psychologist. Model 2: It is reported that the delegation has left London. The delegation is reported to have left London. 1. It is believed that there is a hope of reaching consensus. 2. It is considered that communicating well requires good communicational skills. 3. It can be expected that in small groups good decisions are made more easily. 4. It is said that she has ignored all remarks on her report. 5. It is known that the art of living among people is a difficult one. 8. Translate the sentences using the complex subject construction. 1. , . 2. , . 3. , . 4. , . 5. , . 6. , . 7. , . 8. , . 9. , . 10. , , .

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Reading 1. Read and translate the text. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION In every society, humans have developed spoken and written language as a means of sharing messages and meanings. The most common form of daily communication is interpersonal that is, face-to-face, at the same time and in the same place. The most basic form of interpersonal communication is a dyad (an encounter or conversation between two people). Some dyads exist over a long period of time, as in a marriage or partnership. Communicating well in a dyad requires good conversational skills. Communicators must know how to start and end the conversation, how to make themselves understood, how to respond to the partner's statements, how to be sensitive to their partner's concerns, how to take turns, and how to listen. Together, these abilities are called communication competence. Shyness or reluctance to interact is called communication apprehension. Persuasion is the process of convincing others that your ideas or views are valuable or important. Communication may also occur in small groups, such as families, clubs, religious groups, friendship groups, or work groups. Most small-group interaction involves fewer than ten people, and the communicators need the same communication skills as in a dyadic conversation. However, additional factors called group dynamics come into play in a small group. A group may try to work toward a consensus, a general sense of understanding or agreement with others in the group. Groupthink may occur, in which a group reaches consensus so quickly that its members mistakenly ignore other good ideas. Small-group members may experience disagreement or even conflict. Some members may be more persuasive than others and form sides, or cliques, within the group. A special case of small-group interaction occurs in organizations where there is work to do or a task for the group to perform. Or several small groups may need to interact among each other within a single organization. In these cases, the groups must communicate well, both among themselves and with other groups, so that their members can perform their work effectively and make good decisions. Problems sometimes arise in organizational communication between supervisors and workers, or between different groups of workers who are responsible for different parts of a task. Therefore, small-group communication skills can be as necessary as conversation skills in the workplace or other organizational activities. Interpersonal communication occurs with larger groups as well, such as when a speaker gives a talk to a large crowd (a political candidate giving a speech at a campaign rally, or a teacher lecturing to a large class). However, the audience can respond in only limited ways (such as with applause, nodding, whistles, boos, or silence). The speaker usually wants to be persuasive or informative, so the words chosen and the style of delivery or performance are very important. A speaker who wants to reach an even larger audience than the people who can physically hear the speech in one place must use communication technology or media to get the message across distance and even time. 130

2. Answer the questions to the text. 1. What is the most common form of everyday communication? 2. What is the most basic form of human interaction? 3. What abilities should communicators have to communicate well? 4. What is understood under the term persuasion? 5. Is there a difference between communication skills and conversational skills? What is it, if any? 3. Discuss in pairs the following: 1. What abilities and features of character should a perfect communicator have? 2. What techniques do you personally use to persuade the other person? 3. Are you a good communicator? What weak and strong qualities do you have as a speaker? 4. Should a teacher be a good speaker? Why? Vocabulary practice 1. Fill in the correct word from the list below: Dynamics, skills, communication, communication technologies, arisen, audience, ignore, groupthink, reluctant, message. 1. The purpose of interpersonal _________ is to share business and personal information. 2. Conversation ________ are abilities of people to communicate with each other. 3. ____________ is a result of reaching consensus by a group. 4. He seemed somewhat _________ to explain the reasons for his behaviour. 5. Interpersonal relations can be considered in statics and in ________. 6. Different _________________ help people to share information, i.e. e-mail, mobile phones, etc. 7. Interpersonal communication may occur in different ways, i.e. when a speaker addresses himself to an ____________. 8. It is impolite to __________ other peoples opinions when the issue is being discussed. 9. If you are not able to call me, you may leave a __________ for me. 10. A new difficulty has __________ in our private interaction. 2. Insert the right prepositions. Make up sentences with the expressions. 1. to respond ____ 2. to be sensitive ____ 3. to give a speech ____ an audience 4. to be responsible ____ 5. to agree ____ somebody 6. to communicate ____ each other 7. ____ the workplace

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3. Match phrases in column A with their translation in column B. 1. spoken and written language a. 2. daily communication b. , 3. additional factors c. 4. within a single organization d. 5. supervisors and workers e. 6. as well f. 7. campaign rally g. 8. to get the message across distance h. 4. Consult the dictionary to find the meaning of the following words and their derivatives. Then insert the words into the gaps. To interact, interaction, interactive 1. Shyness or reluctance _____________ is called communication apprehension. 2. Most small-group ______________ involves fewer than ten people. 3. A new stream of modern education is an ____________ education. To persuade, persuasion, persuasive 1. The speaker usually wants to be ___________ or informative. 2. ____________ is the process of convincing other people. 3. Some people do not know how to _________ other people. To organize, organization, organizational 1. Conversation skills are necessary in the workplace or other ________ activities. 2. Small groups may need to deal with among each other within a single ________. 3. Only a person-leader is able to ____________ a group. To agree, agreement, agreeable 1. Small-group members try to reach ____________ . 2. I can _________ with neither side. 3. This man is easy to deal with. Hes ____________. To perform, performance, performer 1. The style of delivery or ____________ are very important. 2. In every organization there is work to do or a task for the group to __________. 3. Every __________ must be responsible for the task he is given. Discussion 1. Study the material about how to make persuasive speeches. PERSUASIVE SPEECHES Persuasive speech is the art of using words to influence an audience. It involves directing, guiding, or appealing to the thinking, logic or emotions of an individual or an audience. The goal is to help the listeners to accept the idea, attitude, or action being presented by the speaker. It is accomplished by the use of argumentation, 132

rationalization, symbolisms, and presenting supportive information. This type of argumentative speech uses personal expressions. Your personal opinion should be expressed in the introduction and again in the conclusion, using phrases such as In my opinion, I believe, I think, I strongly believe, and In my view. You should support your opinion by including examples and reasons for what you have said. End your speech by restating your opinion. Paragraph Plan for Persuasive Speech Introduction: state topic and your opinion clearly without using too many personal opinion words. Main body: give the first, second, third argument, etc. and examples or reasons to support your opinion. Give the other side of the argument and reasons. Conclusion: re-state your opinion, using different words. Useful Phrases for making Persuasive speeches To list points: In the first place, first of all, to start with, in the first place, etc. To add more points: what is more, another major reason, also, furthermore, moreover, in addition to, besides, apart from this, not to mention the fact that, etc. To introduce conflicting viewpoints: It is argued that, people argue that, opponents of this view say, there are people who oppose, etc. To express opinion: I believe, In my opinion, I think, In my view, I strongly believe, etc. 2. Read the following model and circle the linking words. Then, underline the reasons given to support each point raised. Introduction Cigarette advertising is a popular topic for discussion, as an increasing number of people believe that it is immoral and should be banned. I support this view for a variety of reasons. Main body In the first place, cigarette advertising should be stopped because an unhealthy product is being promoted. According to many medical reports, tobacco is a major cause of lung cancer and is sometimes responsible for heart disease. What is more, smoking can have harmful effects on non-smokers: when in the presence of smokers, they have no choice but to breathe in second-hand smoke. Another major reason for banning cigarette advertising is the fact that it targets young people. Cigarette adverts show young, beautiful, successful people smoking and having fun. This is an image, which is appealing to teenagers. In other words, they become attracted to this glamorous representation of smoking, which leads to them taking up the habit. Furthermore, the average teenager does not consider the harmful effects of smoking. In their defence, however, tobacco companies argue that since their products are legally sold they have the right to communicate information about them, in other words, advertising. They also argue that their advertisements are not intended to cause people to start smoking, but rather are an attempt to cause smokers to switch brands. 133

They strongly deny that they target young people in their adverts. Conclusion In conclusion, I believe that cigarette companies are only interested in making money, as their advertising campaigns are unethical. It is not good to promote an unhealthy product. In my opinion, cigarette advertising should be banned. 3. Make up a persuasive speech on one of the following topics and present it to your groupmates. 1. E-learning is more effective that the traditional one. 2. Video games promote violence. 3. You can never trust the news. 4. DNA databases jeopardize our privacy. 5. All MP3 music belongs in the free public domain. 6. Spam e-mails should be, should not be outlawed. 7. Home schooling provides a better education, is worse for your child. 8. Zero tolerance is a useful instrument to prevent violence. 9. Babysitters younger than 16 years should be forbidden. 10. Human cloning is bad, is good. Communication: persuasion. 1. Practice some expressions used for persuasion. , ... Wouldnt it be better if... ... How about... Well, look at it this way... .... , ... Possible, but...... , , , ... Thats (probably) true, but... , ... Thats a good idea, but... , ... I see your point, but ... Look, there are many reasons why, but... , ( ), ...

2. Make up small dialogs, using the phrases from Task 1. Example: Steve: It would be better if we went to the park. Its a much nicer place for a picnic. Pam: Thats true, but the others are expecting us at the beach. 3. Here are some dialogs illustrating different ways of persuading. Read them and try to see how one person persuaded the other to do something. Situation 1: A brother and sister take turns doing the supper dishes. Uri tries to persuade his sister to do the dishes on one of his nights. Uri: Leah, would you do the dishes for me tonight? 134

Leah: No way! Uri: Im supposed to meet the gang early tonight. Leah: You know its Tuesday and my favourite TV programs on. Uri: Look, Ill do the dishes two extra times. Please! Leah: I dont know Uri: And besides, Ill give you $1,00 when I get this weeks allowance. Leah: Oh, all right. Ill wash the dishes. Situation 2. Mr. Lim is shopping for a new television set. Salesperson: This model is more expensive, sir, but it is a better buy in the long run. Mr. Lim: Well, there is a hundred and fifty dollar difference, and they both look the same, except for the brand name. Salesperson: thats true, but with this model you have a longer warranty; if new parts are needed, you do not pay for replacements; and finally, it is produced right here, so there is no waiting for spare parts. Mr. Lim: Okay, Im convinced. Ill take it. 4. Create your own dialog. Working in pairs, pick any relationship and any situation and create a discussion, with one person trying to persuade the other to do something he/she did not particularly want to do at the beginning. By the end of the conversation, the second person should agree. RELATIONSHIPS: SITUATIONS: Buying smth Groupmates Choosing a present for your teacher Teacher / student TV program, radio station Parent/son Going abroad to work Parent / daughter Choosing a wife / husband Wife / husband Sharing housework Sister / brother Spending too much money Friend / friend Using the car Learning English Missing the class Homework 1. Use the words and phrases given below to fill the gaps into the sentences. Communication, interpersonal, convinced, competence, respond, be responsible for, perform. 1. I am ____________ that communicational skills are necessary to be able to deal with other people well. 2. Each member of the society we live in must ______________ their actions and behaviour. 3. ____________ interaction influences upon their relations. 4. The audience is expected to _________ to the speech of the lecturer in any way. 5. It would be impossible to fulfill any task without peoples ______________. 135

6. Communication ______________ helps people to cope with conflicts that arise while interaction. 7. Organizational communication occurs as a result of peoples need to _________ work they have to do. 2. Translate from Russian into English using the active vocabulary of the lesson. 1. . 2. . 3. , . 4. . 5. . 6. . 7. . 8. , . 9. . 10. ? 3. Read the text and answer the questions. THE FIRST FOUR MINUTES When do people decide whether or not they want to become friends? During their first four minutes together, according to a book by Dr. Leonard Zunin. In his book Contact. The First Four Minutes he offers this advice to anyone interested in starting new friendship., Every time you meet someone in a social situation, give him your undivided attention for four minutes. A lot of peoples whole lives would change of they did just that. You may have noticed that the average person does not give his undivided attention to someone he has just met. He keeps looking over the other persons shoulder, as if hoping to find more interesting on another part of the room. If anyone has ever done this to you, you probably did nit like him very much. When we are introduced to new people, the author suggests, we should try to appear friendly and self-confident. In general, he says, People like people whop like themselves. On the other hand, we should not make the other person think we are too sure of ourselves. It is important to seem interested and sympathetic, realizing that the other person has his own needs, fears, and hopes. Hearing such advice, one might say, But I am not a friendly, self-confident person. Thats not my nature. It would be dishonest for me to act that way. In reply, Dr. Zunin would claim that a little practice could help us feel comfortable about changing our social habits. We can become accustomed to any changes we choose to make in our personality. It is like getting used to a new car. It may be 136

unfamiliar at first, but goes much better than the old one. But isnt it dishonest to give the appearance of friendly self-confidence when we dont actually feel that way? Perhaps, but according to Dr. Zunin, total honesty is not always good for social relationships, especially during the first few minutes of contact. There is a time for everything: a certain amount of play-acting may be best for the first minutes of contact with strangers. That is not the time to complain about ones health or mention faults one finds in other people. It is not the time to tell the whole truth about ones opinions and impressions. Much of what has been said about strangers also applies to relationships with family members and friends. For a husband and wife or a parent and a child problems often arise during their first few minutes together after they have been apart. Dr. Zunin suggests that these first few minutes together should be treated with care. It there are unpleasant matters to be discussed they should be dealt with later. The author declares that interpersonal relations should be taught in every school, along with reading, writing and mathematics. In his opinion, success in life depends mainly on how we get along with other people. That is at least as important as how much we know. 1. What features are most important for human relations? 2. What kind of situation may be called a social situation? 3. How does an average person behave when someone is introduced to him/her at a party? 4. Is it polite to ignore the person youve just met? 5. Why is it important to seem interested in a new acquaintance? 6. What makes us sometimes change our social habits? 4. Argue or disagree with the following. 1. To like or dislike the same things, that is indeed true friendship. 2. A friend is person to whom I may be sincere. 3. The only possible society is oneself. 4. You must look in the people as well as at them. 5. For a man who lacks self-confidence, silence is the wisest course. 5. Make up a persuasive speech on one of the following topics. 1. Luck is/is not a matter of chance. 2. Exams give no real indication of ability. 3. The case for/against genetically modified food. 4. Democracy is/is not the best form of government. 5. Governments should/should not censor material on the internet. 6. Parents should/should not be held legally responsible for their children's actions. 7. It is/is not crucial to develop a career before marriage. 8. Love is more powerful than hate. 9. Marriage is/is not an outdated institution. 10. Why we should/should not recycle. 137

LESSON 15. HOW TO MAKE UP AN EFFECTIVE PRESENATION? Brainstorming activity Discuss the following question and give all the possible answers to it. What are the key elements of an effective presentation? Active Vocabulary Listen and pronounce the active vocabulary of the lesson after the teacher. 1. attend a presentation 2. bar chart 3. be familiar with - 4. benefit from - 5. body language 6. build rapport 7. career competence 8. diagram (n) 9. direct interaction 10. encompass (v) , 11. final statement 12. flip chart 13. flow chart - 14. flow of information 15. halo effect 16. handouts (n) 17. highlight (v) , 18. informative presentation 19. introduction (n) 20. line chart 21. nonverbal communication 22. OHP (overheard projector) 23. oral presentation 24. overload smb with smth - - 25. persuasive presentation 26. pie chart 27. signposting (n) - 28. social heritage 29. table (n) 30. to outline the structure 31. transparency (n) , 32. trustworthiness (n) , 33. welcome the audience

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Lead-in 1. Discuss with your partner the following questions. 1. Are you afraid of public speaking? Is it possible to get rid of this fear? 2. What methods of dealing with nervousness can you offer? 3. Have you ever made presentation in English? If yes, was it a positive experience? 2. Look through the text and enumerate the methods of fighting fear of public speaking it suggests. DEALING WITH NERVOUSNESS Feeling some nervousness before giving a speech is natural and even beneficial, but too much nervousness can be detrimental. Here are some proven tips on how to control your butterflies and give better presentations: Know your material. Pick a topic you are interested in. Know more about it than you include in your speech. Use humor, personal stories and conversational language that way you wont easily forget what to say. Practice. Practice. Practice! Rehearse out loud with all equipment you plan on using. Revise as necessary. Work to control filler words; Practice, pause and breathe. Practice with a timer and allow time for the unexpected. Know the audience. Greet some of the audience members as they arrive. Its easier to speak to a group of friends than to strangers. Know the room. Arrive early, walk around the speaking area and practice using the microphone and any visual aids. Relax. Begin by addressing the audience. It buys you time and calms your nerves. Pause, smile and count to three before saying anything. (One one-thousand, two onethousand, three one-thousand. Pause. Begin.) Transform nervous energy into enthusiasm. Visualize yourself giving your speech. Imagine yourself speaking, your voice loud, clear and confident. Visualize the audience clapping it will boost your confidence. Realize that people want you to succeed. Audiences want you to be interesting, stimulating, informative and entertaining. Theyre rooting for you. Dont apologize for any nervousness or problem the audience probably never noticed it. Concentrate on the message not the medium. Focus your attention away from your own anxieties and concentrate on your message and your audience. Gain experience. Mainly, your speech should represent you as an authority and as a person. Experience builds confidence, which is the key to effective speaking. 3. Express your opinion to the following. Which of the tips seem quite reasonable to you and which, from your point of view, are useless and why?

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4. Comment on the ideas of the quotations and express your agreement or disagreement with them. 1. If I am to speak ten minutes, I need a week for preparation; if fifteen minutes, three days; if half an hour, two days; if an hour, I am ready now. Woodrow Wilson. 2. Those who treasure the sound of their own voice above all others are truly deaf. Steve Bersani. 3. Remember not only to say the right thing in the right place, but far more difficult still, to leave unsaid the wrong thing at the tempting moment. Benjamin Franklin. Grammar: the Absolute Participial Construction. In the following sentences name the Absolute Participial Construction and translate the sentences into Russian. 1. Man being a very complex organism, many sciences are concerned with his investigation. 2. Experiments being performed under carefully controlled conditions, behaviour of experimental animals may not be characteristic of their behaviour outside the laboratory. 3. Scientists having been able to discover specialization of different nerve fibres, a great deal is to be leaned about the nature of nerve messages. 4. This was done for obtaining additional data, the operations not being shown here. 5. Wernes results appear to demonstrate that even the black disk on a white ground can be made visible, the whole black area being obliterated, if the contour is not given enough time to develop in perception. 6. Scientific measurement may either be direct, the response itself being measured, or indirect, the measurement being of the stimulus used to obtain a specific response. 7. A given individual may have many personalities, one of them being central and, perhaps, explaining the others. 8. Hoppes experiments were characterized by a certain degree of informality, the conclusions being based on the subjects spontaneous remarks concerning their reactions to the various situations. 2. Combine the sentences using the Absolute Participial Construction. 1. Nobody had any more to say on the issue. The conference was over. 2. The process of communication is poor. People need to develop their communication skills. 3. A sender and receiver have common professional knowledge. Their communication is effective. 4. A subordinates self-esteem was diminished. He had to work over it. 5. Cross-cultural differences are great. Communicators try to establish good interpersonal relationships. 6. No other issue was arisen, the discussion was adjourned. 7. Potential error has been eliminated. The work is going on. 140

Reading 1. Read and translate the text. PRESENTATIONS TIPS The human brain starts working the moment you are born and never stops until you stand up to speak in public. George Jessel Presentations come in as many forms as there are life situations. But there are two basic purposes for giving oral presentations: to inform and to persuade. Informative presentations are divided into two distinct categories reporting and explaining. The reporting presentation brings the audience up to date on projects or events, telling how things are going. The explanatory presentation provides information about products and procedures, rules and regulations, operations, and other data. Persuasive presentations are the presentations in which you attempt to convince the audience to support your goals or concepts, or to change their minds or attitudes. Persuasive presentations are often motivational. For example, a college dorm proctor, during a presentation to new freshmen, may try to motivate the students to avoid drugs, alcohol, and unprotected sex. Before you plan your presentation, you have to define your audience. What is the size of the group? What is the age distribution of the audience? Why are people attending your presentation? Are they socially or financially motivated, committed, or pragmatists? How familiar are audience members with your topic? What is the level of education of audience members? The more you know about your audience's value systems, beliefs, experiences, and needs, along with demographic factors like age, economic status, education, and age, the better able you will be to construct a successful presentation. To make your presentation effective you should have in mind the following tips: Clear and simple structure: remember that your audience will benefit most from a very logical and clear structure. Dont overload the audience and try to use simple language. Any presentation should have three main components: introduction, main body and conclusion. Your introduction: some experts say this is the most important part of your presentation. In the first few minutes you can get your audiences attention, build rapport, and create a positive impression. In the introduction you should welcome the audience, introduce yourself, say what topic is, explain why your topic is relevant to the audience, outline the structure of your talk, let your audience know how you are organizing the presentation (questions, length of the presentation, handouts). Main part: clearly say what the topic and objective of your talk is. Repeat the topic and objective at some later time. Signal the beginning of each part. Highlight the main points. At the end of each section summarize the main facts to make sure everybody is following. Signposting: let the audience know at all times what you want to do and how you want to do it. 141

Repeating new information: always repeat new details. This helps your audience to remember them and ensures optimal flow of information. Conclusion: signal the end of your talk, summarize the key points, make your final statement. Interaction with the audience: American audiences expect direct interaction. So treat them as individuals; show them that you care about their individual needs. Presenters role: the presenter is often considered as important as his or her topic, and the presenters role is to make sure the presentation is interesting and entertaining. To achieve this goal presenters often use their personalities more and tend to be more enthusiastic. Making your presentation an effective one you should also remember about such things as body language and appearance. Remember, appearances do count. Wardrobe and nonverbal communication are aspects that are apparent to the outside world. Combined, these factors can frame us as competent, knowledgeable, gracious, or anything else we choose to communicate. Social psychologists studying the impact of image have determined it takes 30 seconds for someone meeting you to form a whole list of impressions about your character and abilities. The list of impressions encompasses: educational level, career competence, personality, trustworthiness, sense of humor, social heritage. These quick impressions can be lasting ones. Psychologists call it the halo effect. When your visual message is positive, the person youve just met will tend to assume that other aspects about you are equally positive. Remember, youll never have a second chance to make the first impression. 2. Answer the questions to the text. 1. What are the two basic purposes for giving oral presentations? 2. What are the types of the informative presentations? 3. What is the purpose of the persuasive presentation? 4. Why is it important to have information about the audience? 5. What are the main three parts of any presentation? 6. What are the constituents of the introduction? 7. Why should you repeat the important information? 8. How do you think what direct interaction is? 9. How much time does it take to form a list of impressions about your character and abilities? 10. Do you agree with phrase, that youll never have a second chance to make the first impression? 3. Dwell upon the citation of George Jessel given before the text. Express your agreement or disagreement with it. 4. Experts say the first minutes of the presentation are the most important ones. Discuss with your partner the variants of effective openings. Then click the button to compare your variants with those suggested by the experts. 142

Vocabulary practice 1. Fill in the correct word from the list below: Competence, oral, to outline, rapport, statement, interaction, nonverbal, language, to highlight, the audience. 1. ________ the main points 2. career ________ 3. _________the structure 4. direct ________ 5. __________communication 6. to convince _________ 7. to build _______ 8. body __________ 9. final __________ 10. ______ presentation 2. Insert the right prepositions. Make up sentences with the expressions. 1. to bring the audience ____ to date 2. to be familiar _____ 3. to provide information ____ 4. to be apparent ____ 5. to have ___ mind 6. to overload the audience _____ something 7. to be relevant ____ 8. to form impression ______ one's character time 9. to benefit ____ 3. Match phrases with their translation. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. , 9. 10.

a. to signal the end of your talk b. audience's value systems c. trustworthiness d. to attend a presentation e. to ensure optimal flow of information f. social heritage g. to welcome the audience h. to define your audience i. halo effect j. to summarize the main facts

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Speaking 1. Read the text and say why do you need to prepare visuals for the presentation. VISUAL AIDS Many public speaking experts contend that visual aids ruin more speeches than they improve. There is a right way and a wrong way to prepare and present visual materials. Visual aids are vehicles for enhancing or facilitating the understanding of your spoken words. If they do not fulfill that purpose, they are misused. Visual material if properly used will give clear visual insights that would require many words or columns of numbers. A visual aid becomes the focal point for the time it is in view. An audience's attention is quite naturally drawn from the speaker to anything that is put on a screen, blackboard or flipchart. Since they automatically assume center stage, it is vitally important that all visual aids clarify and support your talk in an attractive, comprehensible manner or they will detract from it and compete with it. Visual aids add impact and interest to a presentation. They enable you to appeal to more than one sense at the same time, thereby increasing the audience's understanding and retention level. With pictures, the concepts or ideas you present are no longer simply words but words plus images. The chart below cites the effectiveness of visual aids on audience retention. 2. Study the materials about describing visual aids. Choosing the right visual aid and describing it. A flow chart is a diagram showing the steps of some process or the succession of operations in a complex activity. Try a flow chart to illustrate a series of steps in a procedure, decision, or other stepwise process. A pie chart displays the size of each part as a percentage of a whole. Consider a pie chart to show how percentages relate to each other within a whole. A line chart depicts changes over a period of time, showing data and trends. A table is a convenient way to show large amount of data in a small space. A (vertical or horizontal) bar chart is used to compare unlike (different) items. Use a bar chart to compare data. A diagram is a drawing showing arrangements and situations, such as networks, distribution, fluctuation. Presenting a visual aid Introduction This graph shows ... The diagram outlines ... This pie chart represents This line chart depicts ... This chart breaks down ... 144

Indicating upward movement to increase to raise to push/put/step up to grow to extend to expand to jump Indicating no movement to keep smth stable to hold smth constant to stabilize to remain stable/steady

Indicating downward movement to decrease to cut to reduce to fall to drop (off) to decline to collapse Indicating a change of direction to level off to stand at to stop falling and start rising to stop falling/rising

3. Match each sentence below with one of the following graphs. 1. The investment level rose suddenly. 2. The sales of our products fell slightly in the final quarter. 3. The Research and Development budget has stabilized over the past few years. 4. At the end of the first year, sales stood at 50 per cent of the present level. 5. The price reached a peak before falling a little and then maintaining the same level. 6. There has been a steady increase in costs over several years. 7. The sudden collapse in share prices has surprised everyone. 8. The value of the shares has shown a steady decline.

4. Prepare three different visual aids on the subject you like and describe them before the audience. Communication: any questions?

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1. Read the text and say what types of questions can be asked at presentation and how you should deal with them? DEALING WITH QUESTIONS Questions at the end of the presentation are of four main kinds: questions you can answer on the spot; questions that require further information you don't have with you; questions you wish to avoid; aggressive questions. The first kind is no problem and you will deal with them as efficiently as you can. For the second kind, you should acknowledge the question as useful/important/interesting and offer to send the information on, or provide another source of information, if the questioner gives you an address after the presentation. For questions you wish to avoid, you should find some formulae for politely declining to answer: That's really too complicated an issue to discuss right now. That's beyond my brief for today. If someone in the audience is asking aggressive questions, then acknowledge their anger and politely decline to get involved: I can see you are upset by this, but this not the time to engage in an argument. If you don't understand the question, politely ask the person to repeat or explain it. I'm sorry. Could you repeat your question, please? I'm afraid I didn't quite catch that. Sometimes you may be asked questions during the presentation. Whereas some questions can be answered quickly, you might prefer to postpone unwelcome questions or comments. If you don't mind, I'll deal with this question later in my presentation. Can we can back to that a bit later? The last important thing about question session is don't forget being polite and take all the questions with a smile as A Smile is a powerful weapon. You can even break ice with it. 2. Practice some expressions used for dealing with questions. , . Im afraid I didnt get you. Did I get you right? I beg your pardon? I'm sorry. Could you repeat your question, please? I'm afraid I didn't quite catch that. ? ? ( .) , ? , . 146

I'm afraid I don't quite understand , . your question. That's really too complicated an issue . to discuss right now. If you don't mind, I'd prefer not to , . discuss that today. Perhaps, we could deal with this after ? the presentation. That's beyond my brief for today. I'm not really the best person to deal with that question. Can we come back to that a bit later? Sorry, that's not my field. But I'm sure Peter Bott can answer your question.

I can see you are upset by this, but this not the time to engage in an argument. If you don't mind, I'll deal with this , question later in my presentation . 3. Choose the appropriate variant from the list to make sentences. a. your questions, please? 1. Good point, but I'd prefer b. deal with this at some other time. 2. Perhaps we could c. off the top of my head. 3. Could you repeat d. not to discuss that today. 4. I'm afraid that's e. answer your question? 5. I'm sure Mr Major f. not my field. 6. Sorry, I don't g. could answer that questions for you. 7. I'm afraid I don't know that h. in a position to comment on that. 8. I'm afraid I'm not i. quite understand your question. 9. Does that j. to that a bit later? 10. Can we come back

. . ? , . , . , , .

4. Fill in the correct verb from the list below. Answer, deal, go, mention, mind, move, prefer, summarize. 1. Well, actually, I'd to answer your question after presentation. 2. To in a nutshell what we were discussing, let me the following points. 147

3. Sorry, but I'd rather not with this question now. 4. Let me just back to what we were discussing earlier. 5. I'll this question in the course of my presentation. 6. Before we on let me briefly repeat the main ideas of this part. 7. I'm sorry, but would you waiting until the question period. 5. Work with a partner. Choose the topic you both know well. Work separately to write four or five questions about the topic. Then practice asking and answering questions, using different ways of dealing with questions. Homework 1. Translate the sentences from Russian into English. 1. , , 47% 2001 56% 2005. 2. , (44%) . 3. , (38%), ( 14%), ( 6%). 4. 45%. 5. 67% . 60% 2001 67% 2007 . . : , , , . 6. . , , , 134 , 97- . 7. , 2001 2005 . 8. , : 1989 . 1000 1242 , 1994 . 1130 . 9. 1995 52%, 2,5%, (nonfood goods) 31,8% 13,7%. (share) . 10. 2000. 30,3 . . . 1999 . 5,3% ( 1.7% . . ). 148

2. Have you ever made a presentation in PowerPoint? If yes, do you know any secrets of making an effective PowerPoint presentation? Prepare a speech where you are giving advice on using PowerPoint for presentations. 3. Read the text and compare your advice with the tips given in it. THE SEVEN DEADLY SINS OF POWERPOINT PRESENTATIONS 1. Slide Transitions And Sound Effects. They become the focus of attention, which in turn distracts the audience. Worse yet, when a presentation containing several effects and transitions runs on a computer much slower than the one it was created on, the result is a sluggish, almost comical playback. 2. Standard Clipart. PowerPoint is now so widely use the clipart included with it, that it has become a visual cliche. It shows a lack of creativity and a tired adherence to a standard form. First, make certain that you need graphics to enhance your message. If you do, use your own scanned photographs or better-quality graphics from companies such as PhotoDisc (www.photodisc.com) or Hemeras Photo Objects (www.hemera.com). 3. Presentation Templates. Another visual cliche. Templates force you to fit your original ideas into someone elses pre-packaged mold. The templates often contain distracting backgrounds and poor color combinations. Pick up a good book on Web graphics and apply the same principles to your slides. Create your own distinctive look or use your company logo in a corner of the screen. 4. Text-Heavy Slides. Projected slides are a good medium for depicting an idea graphically or providing an overview. They are a poor medium for detail and reading. Avoid paragraphs, quotations and even complete sentences. Limit your slides to five lines of text and use words and phrases to make your points. The audience will be able to digest and retain key points more easily. Dont use your slides as speakers notes or to simply project an outline of your presentation. 5. The Me Paradigm. Presenters often scan a table or graphic directly from their existing print corporate material and include it in their slide show presentations. The results are almost always sub-optimal. Print visuals are usually meant to be seen from 8-12 inches rather than viewed from several feet. Typically, they are too small, too detailed and too textual for an effective visual presentation. The same is true for font size; 12 point font is adequate when the text is in front of you. In a slideshow, aim for a minimum of 40 point font. Remember the audience and move the circle from me to we. Make certain all elements of any particular slide are large enough to be easily seen. Size really does matter. 6. Reading. An oral presentation should focus on interactive speaking and listening, not reading by the speaker or the audience. The demands of spoken and written language differ significantly. Spoken language is shorter, less formal and more direct. Reading text ruins a presentation. A related point has to do with handouts for the audience. One of your goals as a presenter is to capture and hold the audiences attention. If you distribute materials before your presentation, your audience will be reading the handouts rather than listening to you. Often, parts of an effective 149

presentation depend on creating suspense to engage the audience. If the audience can read everything youre going to say, that element is lost. 7. Faith in Technology. You never know when an equipment malfunction or incompatible interfaces will force you to give your presentation on another computer. Be prepared by having a back-up of your presentation on a CD-ROM. With it, you can still make last-minute changes. Its also a good idea to prepare a few color transparencies of your key slides. In the worst-case scenario, none of the technology works and you have no visuals to present. You should still be able to give an excellent presentation if you focus on the message. Always familiarize yourself with the presentation, practice it and be ready to engage the audience regardless of the technology that is available. Its almost a lost art. 1. How to make PowerPoint presentation an original one? 2. Why shouldn't you use your slides as notes? 3. What is the optimal font size for the slides according to the text? 4. When is it better to distribute handouts? 5. What can you do in case of the equipment malfunction? 6. What piece of advice do you find useful and why? 4. Choose the topic you like. Prepare presentation and visuals. Give a speech before your classmates.

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References 1. = English for psychology students : English for psychology students : . . . / . . , . . , . . ; . . . , . . / : , 2003 282 c. 2. : - / . . , . . , . . ; . . . . : . ., 2008. 260 . 3. B. Obee, V. Evans. Upstream Upper Intermediate. Students book. Express Publishing, 2003. 4. -: / , ; . . .. . .: : , 2002. 82 . 5. J.Comfort. Effective presentations. Students Book. Oxford University Press, 2004. 6. M. Goodale. Professional presentations. A video-based course. Teachers guide. CambridgeUuniversity Press, 1998. 7. M. Goodale. Professional presentations. A video-based course. Video. CambridgeUuniversity Press, 1998. 8. C. Graham. Small Talk: More Jazz Chants. Oxford University Press, 2005. 9. M. Grussendorf. English for presentations. Express series. Textbook Oxford Univeristy Press, 2007. 10. S.Sweeney. Communication in Business. Students Book. Cambridge university Press, 2005.

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