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Секция 5.


а является средством достижения иной цели — полу- и такими, которые активизируют внутренние мотивы
чении специальности. В более скромных масштабах (более долгосрочные): похвала, признание, авансиро-
целью может быть хорошая оценка, похвала, полу- ванная оценка.
чение диплома, как символа окончания обучения, Выводы. Таким образом, поскольку мы ставим
получение стипендии, признание авторитета одно- перед собой цель формирования математической
курсниками и тому подобное. культуры будущих строителей, а  составляющим её
На начальном этапе обучения это тоже доста- элементом есть математические знания, умения и на-
точно хороший результат, так как внешняя мотива- выки, то мы должны принимать во внимание эффек-
ция может послужить вовлечением пытливого ума тивность процесса изучения математики. И каждый
в учебную деятельность и активизировать внутрен- преподаватель, заинтересованный в её повышении,
нюю мотивацию. обязан принимать во внимание мотивацию обучения
Следующий момент, который хотелось бы обозна- и стремиться к её активизации и поддержанию её вы-
чить и о которых не должны забывать преподаватели сокого уровня. В этом пригодятся все выше перечис-
высшей школы, это стимулы. Какой бы сознательный ленные аспекты, а также уже существующие методики
не был обучаемый индивид, но существует масса кос- изучения уровня мотивации учебной деятельности
венных факторов, которые гасят интерес к учебному и её динамики (Т. Ильиной, А. Дербенёвой, О. Гребе-
процессу. Ведь стимулы — это награды, которые мо- нюка), которые при необходимости возможно адап-
тивируют поведение [1, 9]. Стимулы могут быть таки- тировать под математику. Это поможет рациональнее
ми, которые активизируют внешнюю мотивацию (она подбирать содержание дисциплины и выбирать сред-
более краткосрочная): получение оценки, стипендии, ства и методы работы.
Список литературы:
1. Дербеньова А. Г. Усе про мотивацію/уклад. А. Г. Дербеньова. – Х.: Вид. група «Основа», – 2012. – 207, –
[1] с.: схеми, рис., табл. – (Серія «Золота педагогічна скарбниця»).
2. Штонда Є. М. Проблеми математичної підготовки бакалаврів напряму «Будівництво» у період пере-
ходу до оновленої дидактичної системи/Штонда Є. М.//Проблеми сучасної педагогічної освіти. Сер.:
Педагогіка і психологія. – Випуск 27. – Ялта, – 2010. – c. 228–235.

Eshboyeva Durdona Alisher kizi,

Gulistan state university,
2 year student, Philological faculty

E‑mail: eshboyeva94@mail.ru

Effective Teaching English Grammar as an improving English Speaking

Abstract: For children with learning disabilities and children who are low achievers, systematic phonics in-
struction, combined with synthetic phonics instruction produced the greatest gains. Synthetic phonics instruc-
tion consists of teaching students to explicitly convert letters into phonemes and then blend the phonemes
to form words. Across all grade levels, systematic synthetic phonics instruction improved the ability of good
readers to spell.
Keywords: grammar, comprehensive, ludicrous, immersed, transferable, combination of methods.
Encourage students to ask questions, during class, comprehension and self-confidence by finding their
to understand difficult topics. Learning style and abil- strengths and expanding on them.
ity vary in each child. Teaching English and grammar Why does grammar retain such glamour when re-
require knowledge of different learning styles and search over the past 90 years reveals not only that stu-
methodologies successfully to reach every student in dents do not learn it and are hostile towards it, but also
the classroom. Sometimes called “differentiation,” us- that the study of grammar has no impact on writing
ing many different teaching methods appeals to the quality. …Until we have such knowledge, the grammar
widest possible range of students and helps improve sections of a textbook should be treated as a reference
Section 5. Pedagogy

tool that might provide some insight into conventions throughout a single class period to ensure students are
of mechanics and usage. It should not be treated as a processing information correctly. To check reading com-
course of study to improve the quality of writing. prehension, introduce a piece of appropriate text verbally
There are many ways to teach English, but it is cum- with the class as a group and explain any difficult words
bersome to find a perfect way to teach. Maybe it is impos- or concepts. Ask the students to read the text and an-
sible to find the perfect and easy way to teach. However, swer a few multiple-choice questions. Listening can be
as we would consider (?) ourselves as decent educators, tested in the same way by using recorded conversation
we just have to find effective ways to teach English well. or pieces of music. Encourage students to ask questions
It will be ludicrous to say that native speakers of English about any reading or listening selections.
are the best English teachers. Just because one can speak In regards to the students, both eighth graders and
English well, does not mean that he/she is an excellent seventh graders, such an approach — asking them why
English teacher. they chose to write things the way they did. Instead of
Experimental research as raised an important ques- telling them this is the way they should write would, I
tion that can best be answered by descriptive studies, for believe, be a much more effective approach to teaching
example, case studies of why writers make certain syn- grammar than the rote teaching (either through Shur-
tactic choices or how concern for syntax assists or inter- ley English, or through worksheets out of a book, or any
feres with planning and composing. A consideration of other textbook-style method) that is currently despised
questions like these would be fruitful direction for future and forced down by students.
research. Into whose lap does this task fall? English teachers.
Grammar cannot be taught as a stand-alone activ- Teaching English grammar to a group of students is a
ity. What is the point of that? Children begin to under- job that should grant super human status to any teacher
stand grammar concepts, and start to apply them  in who manages to do it successfully. There is a steaming
their own writing, when they start to read with a writ- buffet of options to pick from when it comes to choosing
er’s mind. Punctuation rules and techniques are drawn the best way to teach this age old and ever-relevant area
from shared texts, texts that the children have already of study. There is the traditional “sit down, get out your
been immersed in and have a good understanding. Ex- grammar books, turn to page 134, listen to me drone on
ploring these and embedding them creatively is how the for 15 minutes about verbals, and then do pages 135,
learning takes place. questions one through sixty” method.
Answer To, too, and two. Three words, all different There is the new-age method of teaching grammar,
meanings. Public schools everywhere have been preach- which ironically doesn’t actually teach grammar at all,
ing this concept for years, yet for some mystical reason, but instead hopes students just sort of “pick it up” as they
society cannot seem to figure it out. If one is truly hon- read different texts; then, there is a method somewhere in
est about the topic, he or she will have to admit that the the middle, the “discuss some grammatical concept in a
collective grammar of this country is simply tragic. With mini-lesson format, then analyze that concept as students
rampant fagments, run-ons, and the sentence, “Your to read and write” method. Each method depends on who is
old for me, I ain’t got no reason to date u,” the people are doing the teaching, what kind of students occupy the
demanding a remedy. classroom, and the demands of the school system, and
Learning style and ability vary in each child. Teach- each method has plenty to smile about and sneer upon.
ing English and grammar require knowledge of different The traditional method of teaching grammar  is
learning styles and methodologies to reach successfully still very popular among experienced teachers and teach-
every student in the classroom. Sometimes called “dif- ers that have been in the profession for a while. Every-
ferentiation,” using many different teaching methods one knows these kinds of teachers. They’re the ones who
appeals to the widest possible range of students and stamp their little feet and say, “Back in MY day, when
helps improve comprehension and self-confidence by children had some RESPECT…” and similar mantras.
finding their strengths and expanding on them. They proclaim this world has gone to the deepest pits of
Learning English requires command of the four key hell in the roughest of hand baskets, and truly, the rest of
skills: reading, writing, speaking and listening. Receptive the teachers wonder why they are still teaching at all [3].
skills are reading and listening as the learning is simply A few young, fresh, brave souls enter the teaching
absorbing information and attempting to make sense field and follow the example set by their teachers in high
of it. English teachers should test receptive skills often school the traditional, grammar book, worksheet, right
Секция 5. Педагогика

or wrong example. Regardless of whether they look all along. Stupid, stupid me. I’m going to get fired, because
at the student population and see the wasting away of their test scores are going to be in the toilet!” The panic
society or a field of young and potential-filled flowers, continues until summer break when the teacher’s mind
these teachers see grammar as something that should be has gone into somewhere between the “at least I survived”
taught in isolation. It should be given its own time, its mode and the “nothing I can do about it now” mode.
own unit, and its own space in the curriculum. Correctly, For those teachers who are neither traditional nor
they see their chosen field of study as something so high- rebellious, there is a middle road of grammar instruction.
ly important that it cannot be ignored nor tainted with This type of instruction combines grammar with reading
other subjects; the students must learn it because, well, and writing as an everyday experience in the classroom.
that is what students do: they learn grammar. Period. The teacher usually introduces a grammatical concept;
Placing students in cooperative groups or using peer let us say «adjective series» that the students need to
coaching is especially helpful in an ELL classroom where know. He or she gives a short “mini-lesson” on the issue
students are or can be at mixed levels of learning English. and maybe has the students do a quick activity (not a
When this is the case it is best to place them in groups worksheet, more like a creative exercise like, “Write a
that are chosen by the teacher in a manner that places paragraph about your ideal career and include two adjec-
higher level students with lower level ones. In this way tive series in the paragraph.”) [2].
the higher level student is learning, practicing, and per- Then, the students may read a story, discuss the story,
fecting techniques through teaching; and the lower level and then find examples of the grammatical concept in
student is acquiring new knowledge and receiving help the story. This method is very much dependent on the
from a peer. This can also be used to place higher level stu- teacher’s creativity and his or her ability to weave gram-
dents together to work on an assignment while the lower mar into every other area of the English classroom. It is
level students stay with the teacher to learn new informa- by no means the easiest way to teach grammar, but as re-
tion. In this way the teacher is able is optimize learning by search has shown, it may be the most effective. Definitely
provide new information to both levels without actually the method that takes the most time and creativity on the
having to make one or the other sit through information part of the teacher, but for a dedicated professional, these
that is either below or above their learning level. are both secondary concerns to the level of learning the
Based on this information, many have decided to students achieve.
abandon the practice of teaching grammar all together. Grammar is one of those issues that does not have an
They have brushed it off as worthless and have instead easy solution. It is tricky and it is tough, kind of like all-
chosen to cross their fingers in hopes that if students important things in life. It is not for the faint of heart or
read enough and write enough, they will start to natu- the creatively shallow. There are teachers who make the
rally see the patterns of the English language. For some traditional method work; somehow, they have found a
students this may work. In fact, it may work for many way to get bits of information to implant themselves into
students [1]. However, teachers may collide into a prob- student minds like tiny eggs of precious information [1].
lem with this system. In every state, teachers have a cur- There are teachers who do not handle grammar at all, but
riculum to follow, a list of “to-do” if you will that they they make their students read enough and write enough
must be covered in a year’s time. These curriculum lists that somehow, they pass their state tests and grow up
usually contain a set of pure grammatical skills that the with a basic knowledge of the concepts; and there are
students must learn, and unless the teacher wants to rebel teachers who creatively combine grammar to other class-
against the curriculum (and, therefore, the school and room activities.
state boards) that teacher must teach those things. Ah, Which method works the best is up to the individ-
the endless dilemmas of the English teacher. ual teacher, but one thing is certain: “there, they’re, and
As a future teacher, I have known colleagues who have their” all have different meanings, and it is the English
abandoned grammar all together and then right before teacher’s job to make sure this information is cleverly
testing they experience a sort of panic of the conscience. presented. If it is not presented for the benefit and ad-
They realize, “Oh wow, I have ignored grammar all year. vancement of the students, it must be done at least for
It is going to be on the test and my students are not going the sake of nile-biting, socially disenchanted Grammar
to know it! They are not going to know how to distinguish police everywhere who look at their news feed on the in-
an infinitive from a gerund! Oh, and those dreadful dan- ternet and shed a little tear with every non-agreeing sub-
gling modifiers! I should have been teaching those things ject/verb pair.
Section 5. Pedagogy

1. Hillocks G. Ways of thinking, ways of teaching. – New York: Teachers College Press. – 1999.
2. Lucy Pollard. Introduction to Teaching-English, Lucy Pollard – 2008.
3. Wyse D. Teaching English, language and literacy: From new theory to classroom practice. Invited presentation
at Beijing Language and Culture University (BLCU), Department of English, Beijing. – 2012, 12 March.

Jakowlewa Irina Wassiljewna,
Samsonowa Swetlana Nikolaewna,
Die Jelezki staatliche Universität von ihm. I. A. Bunina,
der BewerberFakultät für Pädagogik und Psychologie der Vorschule
E‑mail: yakovlevairinavas070882@mail.ru

Die Entwicklung des freien Verkehrs der Vorschulkinder

Abstrakt: der Vorliegende Artikel ist dem Problem der Entwicklung des freien Verkehrs der Vorschulkinder
gewidmet. Es sind die möglichen Richtungen, die Aufgabe, die Spiele und andere Tätigkeitsarten in der Arbeit mit
den Kindern vorgestellt.
Keywords: die Entwicklung, die Sprechaktivität, den freien Verkehr, die produktive Tätigkeit.
Яковлева Ирина Васильевна,
Самсонова Светлана Николаевна,
Елецкий государственный университет им. И. А. Бунина,
соискатель, дошкольный факультет
E‑mail: yakovlevairinavas070882@mail.ru

Развитие свободного общения дошкольников

Аннотация: Данная статья посвящена проблеме развития свободного общения дошкольников. Представ-
лены возможные направления, задания, игры и другие виды деятельности в работе с детьми.
Ключевые слова: развитие, речевая активность, свободное общение, продуктивная деятельность.
Умение общаться это целое искусство, сложней- Они ссорятся, чувствуют обиду, ревнуют, высказывают
ший, многоуровневый процесс установления и раз- претензии, а иногда делают мелкие гадости. Подобная
вития отношений между людьми. Чтобы ребенок ситуация может привести к возникновению негатив-
своевременно и качественно овладел устной речью, ных форм поведения у детей, отклонениям в развитии
необходимо, чтобы он пользовался ей как можно (замкнутости, агрессивности, тревожности, неуверен-
чаще, вступая в контакт со сверстниками и со взрос- ности в себе, неадекватности поведения).
лыми, т. е. обладал определенной речевой активно- Возникает острая необходимость своевременно
стью. Речевая активность — фактор, предполагаю- обратить внимание на такие проявления детей и по-
щий общую активность в игре и социальной жизни, мочь преодолеть их. Умение планировать и направ-
быстрые речевые реакции в диалоге и выбор слов, лять свои действия и поступки во взаимодействии
интенсивное построение фразы [1]. с миром, развитие свободного общения ребенка
Большинство сложностей и  ошибок возникают со сверстниками и взрослыми, является тем фунда-
в результате неумения слушать, натянутости разговора, ментом, на котором строится дальнейшее развитие
влезания вне очереди, негативного настроения, жела- личности ребенка. Этот первый опыт существенно
ния быть правым всегда и во всем, засорения нелитера- обогащает жизнь детей, раскрашивает красочными
турными элементами, недостаточной интонационной лучами сферу их ощущений, во многом определяет ха-
выразительности речи и многого другого. В результате рактер отношения ребенка к тому, что его окружает.
чего между детьми дошкольного возраста разворачива- С увеличением инновационных технологий (ком-
ется сложная и порой драматичная картина отношений. пьютер, телевизор, айфон), серьёзное волнение и

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