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CORPORATE

LOGISTICS
300 answers
to the questions of professionals
General and scientific editorial supervision of Doctor of Science (Economics),
professor Victor I. Sergueyev

Moscow
INFRA-M
2005


300

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2005
658.7
65.40
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2005. - 976 .
ISBN 5-16-001675-9


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ISBN 5-16-001675-9 , 2004


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Brief c o n t e n t s

PREFACE XXXV
INTRODUCTION XLI

PART 1. F U N D A M E N T A L S O F LOGISTICS A N D LOGISTIC


MANAGEMENT 1

CHAPTER 1. BASIC CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS 1


CHAPTER 2. FUNDAMENTALS OF LOGISTIC MANAGEMENT.
BASIC LOGISTIC CONCEPTS, SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES 67

PART 2. F U N C T I O N A L C O M P L E X OF LOGISTIC
MANAGEMENT 158

CHAPTER 3. PROCUREMENT 158


CHAPTER 4. DISTRIBUTION 226
CHAPTER 5. TRANSPORTATION, RISK MANAGEMENT
AND CUSTOMS ASPECTS OF LOGISTICS 302
CHAPTER 6. INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 485
CHAPTER 7. WAREHOUSING AND MATERIAL HANDLING 564
PART 3. S U P P O R T I N G C O M P L E X O F T H E LOGISTIC
MANAGEMENT 675

CHAPTER 8. INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES


IN LOGISTICS 675
CHAPTER 9. LOGISTIC SYSTEMS ADMINISTRATION 808

GLOSSARY 920
ABBREVIATIONS 926

VI

XXXV
XLI

1.
1

1. 1
2.
,
67

2.
158

3. 158
4. 226
5.
302
6. 485
7. 564
3.
675

8.
675
9. 808

920
926

VII

Brief contents v
vi
Contents in question xxiii
xxxv
xli

1

1

1
1
1
? 1
2 () ? 1
3
? 3
4
? 4
5 ? 4
6
? 5
7 ? 6
8
? 8
9 ? 9
10 ? 10
11 ? 12
12
? 13
13
? 15
14 ? 16
15 ? 17
16
? 18
17
? 21

VIII
18
? 21
19
? 22
20 ? 23
21
? 27
22
? 32
23 ' ? 33
24
? 33
25 ? 44
26 ? 46
27 ? 46
28 ? 50
29 ? 54
30 ? 61
31 ? 61
64
2
.
, 67
32
? 67
33 ? 68
34 ? 72
35
? 72
36 ? 76
37
? 78
38
? 80
39 ? 86
40
? 88
41
Supply Chain Management? 89
42
? 95

IX
43 /
? 104
44
()? 111
45
/ RP
/? 113
46 MRP I? 113
47 MRP II? 117
48 / DRP? 122
49 ERP? 124
50 CSRP? 127
51
, JIT Just-in-time ( )? 130
1
52 KANBAN? 137
53
Lean production? 140
54
DDT Demand-driven Techniques/Logistics
(, )? 143
55
? 149
56 ECR? 151
57 VMI? 152
156

2

158

3
158
58
? 158
59 ? .161
60
? 164
61
? 171
62
? 174
63
? 177

X
64
? 179
65
? 179
66
? 183
67
? 185
68 () ? 187
69
? 192
70 ? 194
71
? 202
72
? 203
73
( )? 206
74 ? 209
75 ? 211
76
? 211
223

226
77 ? 226
78
? 227
79
? 230
80
? 232
81
? 233
82
? 236
83

? 241
84
? 244
85
? 246

XI
86 ? 247
87
? 248
88
? 250
89
? 258
90
? 262
91 ()
? 263
92

? 264
93
? 270
94 Gap-

? 271
95
? 283
299
5
,
302
5. - 302
96 ? 302
97
? 303
98
? 304
99 ? 306
100
( )? 308
101 /
? 316
102
/ ? 317
103 /
? 321
104 ? 323
105 ? 326

XII
106
FIATA? 327
107
? 329
108
? 332
109 ? 333

? 337
111 -
? 342
112 -
? 345
113
-
? 350
114
-
( )? 354
115
? 357
116
? 359
117 ? ... 360
118 ,

? 360
119
? 361
120
? 363
121
2000? 364
122
(INCOTERMS)? 369
123

? 371
124
? 372
125
? 373

XIII
126
? 376
127
? 377
128
, ? 378
129 ? 380
130
? 382
5.2. 383
131 ? 383
132 ,
? 384
133
? 390
134
? 392
135
? 394
136 ? .. 395
137
()
? 406
5.3. 408
138
TIR? 408
139
()? 409
140 ? 410
141 1? 411
142

? 411
143

? 417
144

? 419
145

? 420

XIV
146

? 432
5.4. 438
147
? 438
148 2 9? 442
149
()
? 445
150
? ; 447
151

? 448
152
? 449
153
? 450
154 -

? 454
155 -
? 457
156
? 461
157
? 463
158 -

? 469
477
6
485
159 ? 485
160 ? 486
161
? 487
162 ,
? 489
163 ? 490
164 , ? 494
165 ? 496

XV
166 ? 496
167 ? 497
168
? 498
169 ,
? 502
170
? 508
171
? 514
172
? 517
173
? 522
174

? 527
175
? 527
176

? 530
177
-? 533
178 ABC? 535
179 ? 540
180 XYZ? 545
181 JIT JIT II ? .. 545
182
/ / ? 546
183

? 548
184
? 553
560
7
564
185 ? 564
186 ,

? 565

XVI
187
? 565
188
? 568
189 ? 568
190 ,
? 574
191
/ ? 576
192 / ? 577
193 ? 578
194 ? 580
195 ? 583
196
? 583
197 ? 586
198
? 588
199 ,
? 590
200
? 595
201
? 601
202
? 601
203
? 603
204
? 604
205
? 606
206
? 608
207
? 609
208 ? 610
209
? 613
210
? 615

XVII
211
? 616
212
- ? 618
213 ? 622
214
? 622
215
? 626
216
? 627
217 -
? 628
218 ? 631
219 ? 635
220
? 640
221 ? 642
222
? 644
223
? 644
224
? 645
225
? 648
226
? 650
227 ? 653
228
? 654
229 ? 655
230 ? 657
231 - ? 658
232

? 661
233 ? 662
234 - ? 663
235 ? ; 663
236 - ? .. 665

XVIII
237
? 665
238
? 666
239 ? 668
240
? 669
672

3

675

8

675
241
? 675
242 ,
? 676
243
? 677
244
? 678
245
? 679
246
? 681
247
(EDI)? 684
248 EDI-
? 689
249 ? 697
250 / UN/EDIFACT? 699
251
, ? 712
252
? 716
253
? 717
254
? 718

XIX
255
? 724
256
? 725
257
? 728
258 ? 730
259
/ ? 733
260 APS
? 741
261
()? 744
262
? 748
263
/? 749
264 Internet- ? 751
265 WAP- ( Internet)? 754
266
(PC*Miler/Europe)? 758
267

?39 761
268 BOLERO? 764
269
/ ? 764
270 TEDIM
? 765
271 TRADE POINTS
? 771
272 -

? 783
273
? 786
274
? 795
275 ? 798
804

XX
9
808
9.1. 808
276 ? 808
277
? 808
278 ? 810
279
? 824
280
? 825
281 /

? 831
282 -

? 833
283
? 852
284 - (-)

? 854
285 ? .. 857
286
,
? 858
287
? 861
288 ? 867
289 ,
? 872
290 ? 874
291 ? 878
Z92

? 885
9.2. 894
293
? 894
294
? 896
295
? 898

XXI
296
? 900
297
? 903
298
? 906
299
? 909
300 ? 912
917

920
926
Contents in question

PREFACE XXXV
INTRODUCTION XLI

PART 1. F U N D A M E N T A L S O F LOGISTICS A N D LOGISTIC


MANAGEMENT 1

Chapter 1.
BASIC CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS 1
1 How did the term logistics originate and what are its dictionary
definitions? 1
2 Is there a generally accepted (standard) definition of logistics? 1
3 What is a contemporary interpretation of logistics from
the position of business? 3
4 What is the object of research (study, management) in logistics? 4
5 What is the subject of research in logistics? 4
6 What is a material flow and what are its main characteristics? 5
7 How to classify the material flows? 6
8 What are the service flows from the position of logistics, what are their main
characteristics? 8
9 What is a financial flow? 9
10 What main characteristics define financial flow? 10
11 How to classify the financial flows? 12
12 What are information flows in logistics and how to classify them? 13
13 What is the role of information flows and what are their main
characteristics? 15
14 What is a logistic operation? 16
15 What defines the level of operations' specification in logistic systems? 17
16 What are the logistic functions and how are they classified? 18
17 Why are the logistic functions divided into the key and supporting ones? 21
18 What parameters characterize the key logistic functions? 21
19 What parameters characterize the supporting logistic functions? 22
20 What are the functional fields of logistics? 23
21 What are the logistic systems and how could they be classified? 27
22 What methodological principles are used for logistic systems analysis
and designing? 32
23 What is a subsystem of a logistic system? 33

XXIII
24 What is a logistic system unit and what is the role of the third party
in logistics? 33
25 How to construct a logistic system model (LSM)? 44
26 What is an element of a logistic system? 46
27 What is a logistic chain? 46
28 What is a logistic channel? 50
29 What is a logistic network? 54
30 What is a logistic process? 61
31 What is a logistic cycle? 61
The List of literature 64
Chapter 2.
FUNDAMENTALS OF LOGISTIC MANAGEMENT.
BASIC LOGISTIC CONCEPTS, SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES 67
32 What is logistic management* and what are its functions in a company? 67
33 How to design company's logistic system?? 68
34 What is a logistic mission of a company? 72
35 What is a logistic concept and what are the basic logistic concepts
in business? 72
36 What is the essence of an integrated logistic concept? 76
37 What does it mean to optimize resources in a logistic system? 78
38 What optimization problems are to be solved by a firm's logistic
management? 80
39 What is an interfunctional logistic coordination? 86
40 What is an interorganizational logistic coordination? 88
41 What is the essence of a Supply Chain Management* concept? 89
42 What is a logistic strategy, and what strategies are used most often? 95
43 How to characterize the key / complex parameters of logistic efficiency? 104
44 What is a logistic technology and basic logistic subsystem (module)? Ill
45 How to characterize the essence of RP concept / technology and its
it basic logistic subsystems / modules? 113
46 How does the MRP I module operate? 113
47 What is a MRP II system? 117
48 How to characterize the DRP subsystems / modules? 122
49 What are the ERP class systems? 124
50 What are the CSRP class systems? 127
51 What is a JIT (Just-in-time) logistic technology? 130
52 What is a KANBAN system? 137
53 What is the essence of Lean production* logistic technology? 140
54 How to characterize the DDT (Demand-driven Techniques/Logistics)
logistic technology (logistics focused on demand)?? 143
55 What is the essence of a Fast response* method? 149
XXIV
56 What is the essence of a ECR concept? 151
57 What is the essence of a VMI method? 152
The List of Literature 156

PART 2.
F U N C T I O N A L C O M P L E X O F LOGISTIC M A N A G E M E N T 158

Chapter 3.
PROCUREMENT 158
58 What is a procurement and what terms describe these activities? 158
59 What are the goals of logistic management in the process of procurement?.... 161
60 What are the features of purchase process at an industrial enterprise? 164
61 What are the specific features of procurement process for trading
companies? 171
62 What are typical objectives of procurement at an industrial company? 174
63 What are basic methods of calculating costs in the procurement
process? 177
64 How should an industrial firm establish the relationships between
the spheres of management within the procurement? 179
65 How do a procurement department and other company's functional
subdivisions cooperate among themselves? 179
66 What does constitute a process of choosing a supplier in a company's
procurement activity? 183
67 What factors have to be taken into account in choosing a supplier
for an industrial company? 185
68 What does constitute a general procedure (algorithm) of choosing
a supplier? 187
69 How could you briefly characterize the methods of choosing suppliers? 192
70 What are the sources of information about suppliers? 194
71 What are the functions of Procurement* module in a corporate
information system? 202
72 What rational solutions could exist in procurement? 203
73 How to determine the need for material resources (finished goods)? 206
74 How to estimate purchasing operations efficiency? 209
75 What does constitute a process of purchase control and analysis? 211
76 What kinds of reports are used in a company's procurement activity? 211
The List of Literature 223
Chapter 4.
DISTRIBUTION 226
77 What is distribution? 226
78 How do the types and attributes of a product influence the logistic
decisions in distribution? 227

XXV
79 What factors do determine the structure of logistic channels in
distribution? 230
80 How to classify distribution systems and structures of logistic channels in
distribution? 232
81 What are the types of intermediaries in distribution and what
functions do they perform? 233
82 What are the functions and what is the classification of trade
agents in distribution? 236
83 What does determine a choice of a number and specialization
of intermediaries in distribution and what are the advantages associated
with them? , 241
84 What factors do determine a choice of a distribution channel
and a structure of a distribution system? 244
85 What types of relationships do exist between intermediaries
in distribution? 246
86 What are the golden rules in distribution? 247
87 What are primary objectives of logistic management in distribution? 248
88 How to organize accounting and allocation of logistic costs in distribution to
control logistic system efficiency? 250
89 What is a customer service* in distribution? 258
90 What is the role of logistics in setting up the goals and objectives
in customer service? 262
91 What does it mean to formulate a consumer service policy (program)? 263
92 How to manage consumer service quality and what parameters are used for
quality estimations? 264
93 What is the procedure of estimation of logistic service in distribution? 270
94 What is a Zeithaml Gap-model for estimation of the extent of the
diversity of logistic service parameters? 271
95 How to organize the reverse flows logistics in distribution? 283
The List of Literature 299
Chapter 5.
TRANSPORTATION, RISK MANAGEMENT AND CUSTOMS
LOGISTICS 302
5.1. Transportation and Forwarding Service in Logistic Systems 302
96 What role does the transportation play in logistics? 302
97 What are the primary problems logistic service that personnel solves
in organizing transportation in a logistic system?? 303
98 What are the advantages and disadvantages of different types
of transportation in a logistic system? 304
99 What does determine the alternatives of transportation and what
is the criteria of choosing logistic intermediaries? 306
100 What are the basic ways (types) of transportation used in logistic system? 308

XXVI
101 What is an operator of inter/multimodal transportations? 316
102 What is the reason for a wide use of inter/multimodal transportations
in logistics? 317
103 What are the advantages of inter/multimodal technologies of freight
hauling in logistic systems? 321
104 How does an operator of inter/multimodal transportations function? 323
105 What are main principles of an operator of inter/multimodal transportations
functioning? 326
106 What is a multimodal FIATA bill of lading? 327
107 What is the hub and spoke system and what role does it play
in providing freight flows in transport corridors? 329
108 How to choose a type of transport for transportations? 332
109 How to choose a carrier? 333
110 What is the role that forwarding agents and other logistic
intermediaries play in transportation? 337
111 What services are given by transport and forwarding companies? 342
112 What are the tendencies of forwarding service development
at the present stage? 345
113 What are the main regulations of international and Russian
legislation on transportation and forwarding activities? 350
114 What are the features of transportation and forwarding firms
in connection to the mode of transportation (type of transport)? 354
115 What is the role of transportation and forwarding companies
in the development of integrated supply chain management? 357
116 What is a unit load and how it is used in logistics? 359
117 What is the practice of letters of credit in transportation contracts? 360
118 What objectives does a logistic manager have while making decisions
concerning the organization of an independent motor division
at a company? 360
119 How to calculate carrier costs by the company's own transport? 361
120 How to calculate costs in international motor transportations? 363
121 What are the basic terms of delivery* and how are they determined
according to INCOTERMS 2000? 364
122 What are the peculiarities of INCOTERMS rules? 369
123 What are the documents that regulate the relationships between
contractors in the Russian Federation on freight hauling? 371
124 What are the limits of a carrier's responsibility in the internal
transportations? 372
125 What are the documents that regulate the relationships between
contractors in international freight hauling? 373
126 What is a consignor's responsibility in international transportations? 376
127 What are the rights of transportation participants on cargo handling? 377

XXVII
128 What is a carrier's responsibility on cargo damage, loss and delay? 378
129 What should be taken into account in transporting a hazardous cargo? 380
130 What are the responsibilities of a forwarding agent in organizing
the transportation? 382
5.2. Logistical Risks Management 383
131 How to classify risks in logistics? 383
132 What are the problems concerning identification and
estimation of logistic risks? 384
133 What are the basic means to minimize the logistic risks? 390
134 What does it mean to minimize the logistic risks by insurance
in transportation? 392
135 What is the procedure of cargo insurance in shipment? 394
136 What are the features insuring forwarder's responsibility? 395
137 What does a surveying company do as a transportation logistic
consultant (intermediary)? 406
5.3. Aspects of the Customs Logistics in Transportation 408
138 What are the procedures of customs transportation according to
the TIR procedure? 408
139 How is cargo carried along the Russian territory under the temporary
customs transit (BTT) regulations? 409
140 What are the regulations of a customs warehouse? 410
141 What does T1 cargo status mean? 411
142 What are basic aspects of information interaction of the participants
of foreign trade activities in the organization of international
cargo transportations? 411
143 What is the procedure of organizing and realizing intermodal cargo
transportations under the customs control on the Russian territory? 417
144 How to simplify formalities at customs registration and convoying
international cargo transportations within the activities of an international
forwarding agent? 419
145 What are the features of documents flow and the prospects
of its automation for organizing the foreign trade cargoes
transportation in the combined service? 420
146 What are the logistic aspects of certification and customs
registration of imported food cargoes through the sea and river ports? 432
5.4. Transportation Organization m Macrologistical Systems 438
147 What is a system of international transport corridors (1)? 438
148 How to characterize ITC 2 and 9? 442
149 What are the reasons for creating regional transport logistic systems
(RTLS) and what role do they play in the development of regional
economics? 445
150 What is ITC logistic infrastructure and what are the principles
of its creation and development? 447
XXVIII
151 What does constitute the basic program activities of RTLS in logistic
infrastructure of ITC? 448
152 What is the role of terminal systems in the logistic infrastructure of ITC? 449
153 What are the logistic centers in regional transport logistic
systems and ITC? 450
154 What is the role of transport and logistic centers in modern technologies of
transportation in logistic chains / supply chains? 454
155 What are regional Automated Storage & Retrieval Systems (AS&RS)? 457
156 What is the core and the objectives of logistic management of physical
distribution by means of AS & RS? 461
157 What is the role of Moscow transportation center in organizing
and managing of physical distribution in Moscow's AS & RS? 463
158 What is the scheme of development of transport and logistic service based on
formation of large regional distribution centers and multifunctional terminal
complexes (RDC )? 469
The List of Literature 477
Chapter 6
INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 485
159 What is the reason for inventory creation? 485
160 Is it possible to avoid the increase of inventory level? 486
161 Are there general concepts of inventory management and what are they? 487
162 What stock is better maximal, optimal or minimal? 489
163 How to classify the stocks? 490
164 What is the structure of costs related to inventory management? 494
165 What does constitute the risks of creation and maintenance of inventory? 496
166 What are deficiency costs and how to calculate them? 496
167 What is the logistic approach to inventory management? 497
168 What is the model of inventory management, and what are its parameters? ... 498
169 How to determine the economic order quantity (EOQ) necessary for stock
formation? 502
170 What are the modifications of a basic formula of an economic
order quantity? 508
171 How to account uncertainty in parameters of an economic order quantity?... 514
172 What is an inventory management system of a fixed order quantity? 517
173 What is an inventory management system of a fixed time intervals between
orders? 522
174 What are the advantages and disadvantages of the systems
of a fixed order quantity and of a fixed time intervals? 527
175 What is the procedure of designing a system of stocks control? 527
176 What is an inventory management system with a fixed periodicity
of replenishment up to a constant level? 530
177 What is a minimum-maximum inventory management system? 533
XXIX
178 What is the ABC method of analysis? 535
179 What is a rationing approach for inventory management? 540
180 What is a XYZ method? 545
181 What are JIT and JIT II inventory management systems? 545
182 How to balance a cross inventory management between suppliers /
sellers and consumers / vendor managed inventory? 546
183 What methods are used for forecasting parameters of the inventory
management systems and what is extrapolation of dynamic series? 548
184 What is the method of forecasting the dynamic series with the help
of exponent smoothing? 553
The List of Literature 560
Chapter 7.
WAREHOUSING AND MATERIAL HANDLING 564
185 What are basic problems of warehousing logistics? 564
186 What kinds of warehouses does the material flow go through
from sources of raw materials to the final consumer? 565
187 What is a warehouse network, warehousing of a wholesale trade enterprise
and what are the methodological principles of their formation? 565
188 What are the basic complex tasks of warehouse network formation
of a wholesale trade company? 568
189 What is the algorithm of warehouse network formation? 568
190 What kinds of warehouses do exist and how to determine their sizes? 574
191 What are the methods of a warehouse system analysis as an element /
unit of a logistic system? 576
192 How to describe a warehouse as an element / unit of a logistic system? 577
193 What are the advantages of warehousing and principal causes to
use warehouses in a logistic system? 578
194 What are basic functions of a warehouse in a logistic system? 580
195 What are the major functions of a warehousing in a logistic system? 583
196 How to classify the warehouses in logistics? 583
197 What is a freight terminal? 586
198 How to estimate the efficiency of a logistic process at a warehouse? 588
199 What are the components of logistic costs of the warehouse systems? 590
200 What are the models and methods to find the optimum warehouses
locations? 595
201 What are the goals and principles of a warehousing system? 601
202 How do transport and a warehouse cooperate in a warehousing system? 601
203 How are warehouses subclassified according to technical equipment? 603
204 What is the sequence of operations in developing and choosing
the optimum warehousing system? 604
205 What are basic subsystems and modules in a warehousing system? 606

XXX
206 How to choose estimation criteria of competitive variants for a warehousing
system? 608
207 How to analyze the structure of a warehousing system? 609
208 What are the features of the module Building? 610
209 How to characterize the module warehouse unit load? 613
210 What logistic advantages does the packing provide? 615
211 What is the algorithm of choosing an optimum warehouse unit load? 616
212 What are the features of the module Materials handling equipment*? 618
213 What is the module Types of warehousing*? 622
214 What types of rack equipment are used at warehouses and what
are the ways of goods storage? 622
215 What is the module System of Commissioning*? 626
216 What is the module Material handling management*? 627
217 What is the module Information and computer support*? 628
218 What is a logistic process at a warehouse? 631
219 What is a logistic coordination at a warehouse? 635
220 What is material handling as a part of logistic process at a warehouse? 640
221 What operations are carried in the phase of unloading the cargoes? 642
222 What operations are carried in the phase of acceptance by quantity
and quality? 644
223 What operations are carried out in the phase of transportation
within a warehouse? 644
224 What operations are carried out in the phase of warehousing and storage? 645
225 What operations are carried out in the phase of commissioning
and shipment? 648
226 What operations are carried out in the phase of shipment and delivery? 650
227 What is a warehouse information service? 653
228 What basic questions are solved in designing the zones of material
handling at a warehouse? 654
229 What is a parametrical description of a warehouse? 655
230 What does constitute the design of warehouse zones? .....657
231 What are the planning decisions at a warehouse? 658
232 What are the basic requirements for mutual dislocation of warehouse
zones and for allocation of handling equipment at warehouse areas? 661
233 How to determine the key parameters of warehouse zones? 662
234 How to calculate the length of a dock? 663
235 How to calculate the area of warehouse zones? 663
236 How to calculate the requirement for materials handling machines? 665
237 What is material handling as a logistic function? 665
238 What are basic logistic principles of material handling? 666

XXXI
239 What role does packing play in logistic management? 668
240 What is a container, and what basic types of containers are used
in logistics? 669
The List of Literature 672

PART 3.
S U P P O R T I N G C O M P L E X OF LOGISTIC M A N A G E M E N T 675

Chapter 8
INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES IN LOGISTICS 675
241 What are the information systems and information technologies
in logistics? 675
242 What are the significance, role and prospects of information
technologies in logistics? 676
243 What parameters characterize the efficiency of information technologies
in logistics? 677
244 What are the trends of information technologies development in logistics? .... 678
245 What are the problems and stages of information technologies application
in companies (concerning management and logistics automation)? 679
246 What information flows are there in logistic systems? 681
247 What is a technology of electronic data interchange (EDI)? 684
248 What are the features and prospects of EDI technologies application
in domestic logistics? 689
249 How does data interchange influence information flows in logistic
systems? 697
250 What is a standard / protocol UN/EDIFACT? 699
251 What are the information systems of transport tracking,
communication and superintendence? 712
252 What are the primary objectives of settling an information system
of supply chain monitoring? 716
253 What information systems and technologies should be
used in a system of supply chain monitoring? 717
254 How to organize and what are the functions of the supply chain
monitoring system through a logistic center? 718
255 How does a monitoring system track the supply
chain participants interaction? 724
256 What is an information integration in logistics? 725
257 What is basic software used in logistic systems? 728
258 How to create a corporate information system (CIS)? 730
259 What are the examples of a program module / contour Logistics
in domestic CIS? 733
260 What are the systems of the APS class, and how are they connected
with logistics? 741

XXXII
261 How to choose an information control system for CIS? 744
262 What are the opportunities of INTERNET in logistics? 748
263 What are the virtual logistic centers / operators? 749
264 What are the Internet-localizations in logistics? 751
265 What are the WAP-technologies (the mobile Internet)? 754
266 What is a universal software for tracking (PC*Miler/Europe)? 758
267 How to organize the activities of transportation company with the help
of a program complex TransLogistic? 761
268 What is the basic idea of the BOLERO project? 764
269 What software should an operator of inter/multimodal
transportations have? 764
270 What is the TEDIM program for logistics' information support? 765
271 What is the U N TRADE POINTS* program and what
are the prospects of its introduction in Russia? 771
272 What are the Internet addresses and characteristics of services in information
warehouse technologies? 783
273 What are basic organization decisions for constructing
the integrated information support for regional logistics
transportation distribution center (RLTDC)? 786
274 What is the system of monitoring in the logistic infrastructure
of Moscow transportation complex ()? 795
275 How to arrange the software for Moscow transportation complex ()? ... 798
The List of Literature 804
Chapter 9.
LOGISTIC SYSTEMS ADMINISTRATION 808
9.1. General Problems of Logistic Administration 808
276 What is the essence of administration of a logistic system*? 808
277 What are the basic questions of strategic logistic plan development? 808
278 What is the procedure of a logistic strategy development in the company? 810
279 What is the process of integrated operative logistic planning? 824
280 What are the organizational aspects of logistic management? 825
281 How is the principle of centralization / decentralization used in the
formation of the logistic organizational structures? 831
282 What are the features of linear, functional, and divisional
organizational structures of logistic services? 833
283 What are the features of matrix organizational structures of a company
logistic management? 852
284 What are the features of project- (process-) oriented organizational
structures of company's logistic management? 854
285 What are the functions of an integral logistic manager? 857
286 What are the typical conflict situations between company
divisions concerning logistic parameters? 858
XXXIII
2-6157
287 How to carry an interfunctional logistic coordination? 861
288 How do logistics and marketing cooperate? 867
289 How does logistics cooperate with industrial, investment and financial
management in a company? 872
290 What is controlling of logistic systems? 874
291 What are the functions of logistic analysis and audit? 878
292 What is a modern logistic manager and how to certify his skill? 885
9.2. Financial Flows Management in Logistic Systems 894
293 What are basic approaches to financial flows management and what
are the requirements to their parameters in logistic systems? 894
294 What are the features of financial flows management at different
stages of the logistic process? 896
295 What is the essence of a concept of basic influences* in managing
the flows of resources? 898
296 What elements form internal node structure of flows intersection
of resources and how to classify these nodes? ; 900
297 What factors influence a choice of a toolkit for managing influences
on financial flows? 903
298 What stages impose basic influences on the flows of resources? 906
299 What are the features of redistribution mechanism of financial
resources in logistic systems? 909
300 How to generate system of basic influences? 912
The list of Literature 917

Glossary 920
Abbreviations 926



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APICS Dictionary. 8 Edition. American Production and Inventory Control Society, Inc. 1995. P. 13. (.
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Baker MJ. Dictionary of Marketing and Advertising, 2nd ed. N.Y.: Nichols Publishing, 1990. P. 47. (.
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Terminology in Logistics. ANNEX Dictionary. European Logistics Association, 1994. P. 63. (. .
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- 2526 2002 . / .
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. . : , 1993. . I, . II.
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. .: -, 1999.
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. .: , 1996.
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1993.

64
27. : . / . .. . .:
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. . .: , 1994.
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/ . : .. , . , ..
, .. . . .. . .: . .. ,
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. II.
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1999.
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.: , 1999.
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.: - , 1997.
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. .: -, 2003.
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1996.
51. .. . : . . .:
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53. .. . .: , 2001.
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() ,
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, .. (,
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.
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,
:
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,
, ..;
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()
,
, ()
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, ..;
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hub and spoke,
: N.S. Ford

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Ford -
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Coyle J.J., Bardi . J., Langley C.J.J. The Management of Business Logistics, 5th ed. St.PauLWest Publishing
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16
Stock R. James, Lambert . Douglas. Strategic Logistics Management. McGraw-Hill, Irwin, 2001. P. 56.
17
Mentzer J.T., De Witt W., Keebler J.S., Min S., Nix N.W., Smith C D . , Zacharia Z.G. Defining Supply
Chain Management// Journal of Business Logistics, 2001. V. 22. 2. CLM. P. 4.

89
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Terminology in Logistics. ANNEX Dictionary. European Logistics Association, 1994. P. 95. (. .
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33
(. . 8).
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Davis Herbert W. and Drumm William H. Physical Distribution Cost and Service, 1997. Council of Logistics
Management. Annual Conference Proceedings, 1997. Oak Brook: CLM, 1997. P. 72.
12 1994 . 100.

106
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Annual Report of American Warehousmen's Association. Chicago, 1994.

107

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N.Y.: The Free Press. A Division of Macmillan, Inc., 1990.

108
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111
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42
Orlicky J. Materials Requirements Planning. N.Y.: McGraw-Hill, 1975.

114
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/ (Planned order schedule)


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44
Slack N., Chambers St., Harland Ch., Harrison A., Jonston R. Operations Management. Second Edition.
PITMAN Publishing, 1998.

117
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(Manufactory Resource Planning)
. MRP II
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.
ELA MRP II
.

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MRP II ISO.
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Terminology in Logistics. ANNEX Dictionary. European Logistics Association, 1994. P. 58. (. .


.)
: . MRP-MRP
II ^ ^ . . / 1 / / . 5 1 , . MRP II http://
www.manage.m/vermkov/nup/nup2.shtml, . MRPW.
, , http://www.manage.ru/vernikov/mrp/
nup2systems.shtml, . . .: , 1999; MRPII.
Computer World //, 2000. 3. . 2122; http://www.loginfo.ru/archiv/
Ioginf203/nup2.htm.

118
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119
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120
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49
3. Master Production Scheduling MPS (
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. Purchasing ( ).
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50
16. Performance Measurement ( () ) .
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51
.. .

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48
MRPW. Computer World //. 2000. 3. . 2122 - http://www.loginfo.ru/
archiv/loginf203/mrp2.htm
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50
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http://www.manage.m/vernikov/rmp/irnp2systems.shtml.
51
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121
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122
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MRPW/ ERP.

ERP?
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124
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125
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126
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54
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53
. , (CSRP) / / http://
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54
ERPvi .: ..
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127
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128

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129
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Terminology in Logistics. ANNEX Dictionary. European Logistics Association, 1994. P. 53 (.


.)

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.. : www.
consulting.ru.
Jonson J . , Wood D.F., Wardlow D.L., Murphy P.R. Jr. Contemporary Logistics. Upper Saddle River.
Prentice Hall, 1999.

135

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139
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140
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142

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Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI)
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143
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Wal-Mart.
, & Wal-Mart.
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149


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Martin Ch. Logistics and Supply Chain Management. L.: Prentice Hall, 1998. P. 193.

150
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.
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.

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.

Martin Ch. Logistics and Supply Chain Management. L.: Prentice Hall, 1998. P. 194-195.
Jonson J.C., Wood D.F., Wardlow D.L., Murphy P.R. Jr. Contemporary Logistics. Upper Saddle River:
Prentice Hall, 1999.

151
2. (4,1%),
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.
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71
.



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,
.

VMI?
.
, . -
, -
71
Jonson J . , Wood D.F., Wardlow D.L., Murphy P.R. Jr. Contemporary Logistics. Upper Saddle River:
Prentice Hall, 1999.

152
,
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WBC ,
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Martin Ch. Logistics and Supply Chain Management. L.: Prentice Hall, 1998. P. 196-198.

153
WBC,
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,
. Anheuser
, .
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.
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,
.
1996 .

VMI Anheuser,
. ( 10% ) -

154
50% , 60%
, 55% 80% . -
, VMI 6
1,4 . . ,

,
.
1996 . :
() Britvic - Guinness
Anheuser (VMI).

Bass ,
, Bass , ,
. Bass
.
VMI
2000 .
.
VMI
, VMI .

EDI,
32 .

1. .. . . .: -
, 2000.
2. B.C., .., ..
: . . : , 2002.
3. .., .., X. : / . .
.. . .: , 1999.
4. .., .. . .
.: -, 2001.
5. .
.
. .: , 2000.
6. . , . , . , -. . .
. 7- . / . . .: , 2002.
7. .., .., ..
. .: , 1999.
8. .., .., ..
: . .: , 1998.
9. .., .., ..
: . .: , 1998.
10. . /
. . .: -, 2002.
11. .. . . .:
- - 97, 1999.
12. .. :
. .: -
- 97, 2001.
13. . . .: , 1996.
14. . . : . . .:
, 1999.
15. ..,.., .. .
--: , . , -, 2000.
16. : / . .. . .: -, 2000.
17. ., . -
/. . .: - , 1993.
18. ., ., . . .: , 1994.
19. .., .. . .:
, 1997.
20. : . . .: , 2002.
21. . . .: ,
1993.
22. .. . . 2- . .:
-, 2000.
23. . : . . .: -
-, 2001.
24. / . . . . .:
, 2000.
25. .. . .: -, 2001.
26. .., .., ..
/ . . .. . .: -, 2001.

156
27. .., ..
. . : - , 2003.
28. . . : . . / .
.. . . : , 1999.
29. . . :
. . . : , 1998.
30. . . - . , . . . :
/ . . . : - , 2001.
31. , . .
. . : . , 1997.
32. , . / .
. . : - , 2002.
33. : : . . / .
. . , . , . . . : - , 1999.
34. . / . . . : - , 2002.
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35. A P I C S Dictionary. 8 Edition. American Production and Inventory Control Society,
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39. Coyle J.J., Bardi E. J., Langley C.J.J. The Management of Business Logistics, 5
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th
40. Jonson J.C., W o o d D . F . Contemporary Logistics, 4 ed. N.Y.: M a c M i l l a n , 1990.
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1994.
2

I
I ?
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158
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203
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.: . -, 2001.
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. .: , 1999.
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16. .., .., ..
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17. .., .. . --
: , 1997.
18. . . .: , 1996.
19. . . .: , 1980.
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.: , 2001.
21. .., .. . .: , 1996. . I
. II.
22. .., .., ..
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. .: , 2002.
23. : - :
. / . .. . .: , 2002.
24. : . / . .. . .: -, 2000.
25. - .. . .: - , 2000.

299
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27. . . : .
. .: - , 2000.
28. .. -
: . . .: , 1993.
29. .., .., .. :
. .: -, 2002.
30. .., .. . ,
, : . . .:
, 2002.
31. .., ..
. .: , 2000.
32. .. -
. .: , 2001.
33. .., .., .., ..
. --:
-, 2000.
34. .. . .: , 2001.
35. .., .. .
.: , 1990.
36. -
/ . .. . .: , 2001.
37. / . .. .. -
. .: , 1990.
38. .. : , . .:
, 1996.
39. . . .: ,
1993.
40. : . / . .. . .:
-, 1999.
41. .. -. .:
, 1995.
42. .. . .:
- , 1997.
43. .. . . 2- . .:
-, 2000.
44. .. - /
. .. . .: , 2001.
45. / . .. . .: , 1993.
46. . : . . .: -
-, 2001.
47. .. : . .: -, 2001.
48. .., .., ..
/ . .. . .: -, 2001.
49. .. -
. : -, 2001.
50. .. , -
. .: , 1980.
51. .., .. : . .
--: , 2000.

300
52. .., .. . .: -
, 1996.
53. . . .: ,
1993.
54. .. . : . . .:
- , 2002.
55. .. : . .: - , 2001.
56. .., ..
. .: , 1997.
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Macmillan, Inc., 1990.

301
5

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318

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.. : . . .: , 1995.
3 0
Tyworth J.E., Cavinato J.L., LangleyJ.C. Traffic Management: Planning, Operations and Control. Reading:
Addison-Wesley, 1987.

333

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, 1990.
49. . , ..
: . .: , 1988.
50. .., ..
: . . , 2000.
51. ..
/ /
. 1997. 5. . 3438.
52. ..
: . . ... .: , 1999.
53. .., . .: ,
2001.
54. .., ..
. .: , 1993.
55. : - :
. / . . .. . .: , 2002.
56. : .
23-24 2001 . / . .. . .: - -, 2001.
57. : . / . .. . .: -, 2002.
58. : . / . .. . .: -, 2000.
59. : : .
- 2526 2002 . / .
.. , B.C. , .. . .: , 2002.
60. .., .. ,
- . .:
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61. .. ,
. .: , 1977.
62. .. : .
..: - , 2000.
63. : . . . 2:
/ . . B.C.
. .: , 2001.

479
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.: , 2002.
65.
- . .: ,
,
, 1994.
66. . / /
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67. .., .., .. :
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68. .., ..
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69. .., .. : .
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70. .., .., .. :
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71. .., .., .. . .:
, 2002.
72. XXI : .
. .:
. . , 1997.
73. .., ..
. .: , 2000.
74. .. -
. .: , 2001.
75. .. : . .:
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76. .. : . .: -, 2000.
77. B.C. : . .
, 1995.
78. .. . .:
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79. / / 81 13.02.1996.
.: , 1996.
80.
: . // . . B.C. . .:
, 2001.
81. :
/ .. , .. , .. , .. , .
.. . .: , 1997.
82. . .: , 1994.
83. -
/ . .. . .: , 2001.
84. .., .. --
. .: / , 1987.
85. : . . / . .. . ..
. .: -, 1999.

480
86. .., ..
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87. . ., . .
. .: , 1980.
88. .. - : .
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89. .. : . .:
, 1999.
90. ..
/ /
: . .: , 1983. . 10. . 3136.
91. ..
/ /
: . .: , 1985. .. . 3-151.
92. .
/. .: , 1998.
93. : . / . .. . .:
-, 1999.
94. .. - . .: ,
1996.
95. (
, )
/ . .. , .. . .: ,
1961.
96. -
. .: -, -
- -, 1996.
97. -95:
: - . : ,
1995.
98.
( IV.
). .: , 1999.
99. . . .: , 1985.
100. . . .: , 1994.
101. . / /
: , , . 1993. 3. . 1215.
102. .. : . .: ,
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103. .. . . 2- . .:
-, 2000.
104. . .
. : -,
1999.
105. .. . -
- . .: , 1999.
106. . : . . .: -
-, 2001.

481
107. . , ..
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108. ..
- : .
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109. .. . .:
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110. .. . .:
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111. .. -
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112. .. : . . .: , 1995.
113. .. -. .: , 1997.
114. .. : ..: -, 2001.
115. .., .. .
.: , 1997.
116. .., .., ..
. .: -, 2001.
117. .., ..
. .: -, 2003.
118. .. -
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119. ..
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120. .. . .: , 1993.
121. .. . .: , 1995.
122.
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123. . /
. . 6. .:
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124. .. - .
. .: -89, 2002.
125. / . .. . .:
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126. ., ..
. 4.1: . .:
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127. .
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128. . . 18.06.1993.
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/ / . (.
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482
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142. . ., . ., . .
.
.: , 1982.
143. ..
: . . .: , 2000. 6.
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144. .., ..
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145. .. . .: , 1994.
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6

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.. . .: , 2001; ..
. .: , 1969; .. : . .:
-, 2001; ., . . .: , 1969;
.. - -
. .: , 1977; ; Love S. Inventory Control. Graw Hill, 1979; Slack Nigel, Chambers
Stuart, Harland Christine, Harrison Alan, Jonston Robert. Operations Management. Second Edition. Pitman
Publishing, 1998; Stevenson W.J. Producton/Operation Management. Boston: Irwin-Homewood, 1993;
Tersine R.J. Materials Management and Inventory System. 3rd ed..Elsevior North - Holland Publishing,
1987.

498

(. 6.2).
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499
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6
Harris F.W. How Many Parts to Make at Once / / Factory. The Magazine of Management, 1913. 10. 2.
P. 135-136, 152.
7
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. .: , 1969; ., . . .:
, 1969.

502
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1 3750 400x400x20 35 20 15 10 400

2 3000 300x600x20 40 20 15 10 400

3 2250 1500x2500x30 60 20 15 10 225

4 1250 1500x2500x30 85 20 15 10 225

25% .
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504

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2 (2x75x3000/10)1/2=212
3 (2x75x2250/15)1/2 =150
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, (6.1)
EOQ , , . 168.
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(6.6) q, :

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505
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2.
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1200 60,8 22,0 29,3

EOQ (6.7):

EOQ = q = V2 1200 60,8/0,22 29,3 = 150,46 . * 151 .


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151 .
(6.8) :

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506
, .

g* = 151

HOP = 3 5

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' = 6,5 . ^

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(6.9)
N* = 1200/150,46 * 8 .
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EOQ, (t) /
(Reorderpoint ROP), . .
(Q), .

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ROP = Q = I z .
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( )

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ROP= Q = 1200 1,5/52 = 34,61 * 35 .
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507
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509
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t,

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quantity POQ),
9

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(
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3
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65 . .

POQ = q* = 7 2 1200 60,8/0,22 29,3 ^65/65 - 23 * 188 .


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9
, . 168 169.

510
EOQ , ,
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EOQ ,
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. 6.9. ,

:
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t

Q, = T /T xq.
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(6.14),

Q = D / q + cxixq/2
0 + c /r xq.
r C3 (6.15)

C (j)
h (

, (6.15)
Q = D/q
0 + cxixq/2+r /r
n CJ jxq. (6.16)

511
4
2

:
* 1,4 ,
1,0 ;
* :
* 0,6 .;
* 0,9 .
, Cj j= 10% .

(6.16):
*
Q = 60,8 1200/151 + 29,3 0,22 151/2 + 1,4/6,5 29,3 0,1 151 *
1065 .;
*
Q = 60,8 1200/151 + 29,3 0,22 151/2 + 1,0/6,5 29,3 0,1 151 *
1038 .
, ,
:
*
Q = 1065 + 0,6 151 1200/151 = 1785 .;
*
Q = 1038 + 0,9 151 1200/151 = 2118 .

,
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(CL, TL). ,

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.

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(. 6.10) ,
.
C (C ),
s h

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(C ), (C ).
t v

10
. . 103, 104.

512
. 6.10. EOQ

C ,
v

.
, q *, m

EOQ = q*.
,
, :

Q =c xD/q * 0 0 + cxixq *
g /2 + c,xT/T' xq *
C3 g + pxD, (6.17)


Q =c x D/q* 0 mH +cxix q*mH +c x / " x q'
t mH + PmH xD, (6.18)
p, ()


.
, ,

5
, 4
250 . , .. #* =250 .


' = 250 52/1200 * 11 .

, ,
= 0 , 4 .,

1,2 .
513
:
; = 60,8 1200/151 + 29,3 0,22 151/2 + 1,4/6,5 29,3 0,1 151 +
+ 0,6 1200 = 1785 .
; = 60,8 1200/250 + 29,3 0,22 250/2 + 1,2/11 29,3 0,1 250 +
+ 0,41200=1657 .
, * ,

, 250 .


()
".

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()
.
,
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. . 6.11 ()
.
, ROP, q=EOQ,

of

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ROP

\ ' i.

0
i t

^

.
3 . -
.
4 w

. 6.11.


: .. : . .: , 1997.

514
1, ,
, ROP
, . 6.12.

. 6.12. Q3

(. 6.12) , Q 3

Q = ROP
3

= 0,97 (ROP , ROP + )


|2
. , EOQ = q n

, Q (. 6.11), ..
3

<7


, ,
, , M P
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, , . 6.11,
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.

() , . 6.3
. 0

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EOQ

ROP = Q 3 + Q . cmp (6.19)



|3
Q . 3

12
.: .., .., .. . .:
, 1965.
13
.: .., B.C., ..
. .: , 1988.

515
Q cmp = 8xcr Js[N,
Q (6.20)

5 () ( );
a ... ;
i3

N .
d g

2(8) = . (6.21)

6
2
:
OQ =17 .; / = 0,9.
3

(6.20).
14
8
(6.21):
(5) = / 2 = 0,9/2 = 0,45.
, a = 1,65.
8 (6.20) , N* = 8,

Q . cmp =1,65x17/78 = 9 , 9 * 10 .
, 0,9
10 .
, ,
ROP' = ROP + = 35 +10 = 45 .
, EOQ
, .

Q = D/q + / q/2 + / Q
0 cmp + D/q N , (6.22)
N , , ./;
.

(6.20) ,

C^ = D/qx(c 0 + NxPw) + cxix(q/2 + SxaQJy[N) (6.23)

(6.23) EOQ.


.
14
.: .., .., .. . .:
, 1965.

516

?
. .

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.
,
,
,
.
,
.
,
.
, :
1) ,
2) ,
3) .
,
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, ,
, .

, .

.

,
, ,
, , .. .
.

,
.

.


(. . 169) .

. 6.6.

. 6.13.
:
1) , .;
2) , .;
3) , ;

517
6.6.

Nsn/n
1 , .
2 , .
3 " , *

4 ,
5 , ./ [1]: [ ]
6 , [21: [51
7 , . (31x151
8 , . (131 + [4]) [51
9 , . 81-
10 , . 191 +m
11 , . [91 + [21
12 , - 1 1 0 1 ) .[51

4) , .
:
1) , .;
2) , .;
3) , .
()
.
.


.
( ROP)
, .
,

.
.



<>< >
X

. 6.13.

518
6.7.
()


/
1 ./. 313 250 188 104
2 , . 254 212 150 94
3 , 15 15 . 15 15
4 , 10 10 10 10

5 15 12 9 5 *
, ./
6 , 17 18 17 19
7 325 180 135 75
, .
8 375 300 225 125
, .
9 , . 150 120 90 50
10 , . 375 300 225 125
11 , 404 332 240 144
'.
12 2 3 2 4
,


.

.

.


1 (. . 169).

. 6.6. . 6.7.

: ,
.


374 .
17- ,
149 . 403 .
19- 373 .
148 . , 402 .
.. 15- .
. 6.14.


. 10
27- ( ) ,
1 . 253 .

518

. 6.14.

(
). 42- 28 .
282 .
4 . 5- , .. 102- ,
398 .

4 5 0 -|

. 6.15.

520
. 6.16.

.
404 . 15- (254- ).
227 (15 )
.
, (. . 6.15).



. .
10 27- ( )
( 1 .).
253 .
.
52- 122 .
132 .
77- , 243 () 11 .
364 .
110 . ,
(. . 6.16).

.
, , ,

.

521

173 ?

,
.

, (. 6.8).

:
I = N:S/EOQ, (6.24)
N , ,
S , .,
EOQ , .

.
. , 4
5 , .

. 6.8.

. 6.17.

= - + , (6.25)
, .,
, .,
, .,
, .

1) , .,
2) , ,
3) , ,

6.8.



/
1 , .
2 ,
3 ,
4 ,
5 , ./ [11: { ]
6 , . 131x151
7 , . (131 +141) 151
8 , . -161
9 , . 181 + |2|51
10 , . (. )

522


i * i

' *
W W ^1

. 6.17.

4) , .

* , .;
* , .;
* , .
()
.
.

,
.


.
.
.

.
(6.25), ,

.

.
() .
,

523
(SKU) ,
. .


.
EOQ,

. ,
FOB , ,
. ,
,
MP, ,
M P FOB
.


. ,
(EOQ),
. ,
EOQ,
,
. ,
,
.
,
, ,
.


.
,
. , ,
, ,
, ,
, , .


.
1.
. 6.9.
(
)
.


18- ,
120 ., 216 .,
. . 6.18.

524
6.9.



/
1 , ./ 3750 3000 2250 1250
2 , 17 18 17 19

3 , 15 15 15 15
4 , 10 10 10 10
5 , 15 12 9 5
./
6 225 180 135 75
, .
7 375 300 225 125
, .
8 , . 150 120 90 50
9 , . 375 300 225 125
10 , 405 336 243 145
.
11 , . 255 332 240 144


28- ,
. 216 .

21- , 36- 336
., .. .
. 6.19.

400-.

100-

50-

0 I I I I I I I I I I I I | I I I I I I I I I I I I I I | I I I I I I I I I I I I

18 36 54 72

. 6.18.

525
400-|

. 6.19.

400-1

. 6.20.


28- ,
. 216 .

526

21- .
46- ,
216 ., ,
(. . 6.20).

I
|
?


.

. .
,
.

, .

.

,
(. 6.10).

6.10.


175 ?


:
1. .
2. .

527
3.
.
4.
.
5.
.
6.
.
1.
,
.
:

- .
(SKU).
.
(SKU).
.
.
.
.
.
.
-
.
-
.
.
.
.

.
()
.
,
.
(,
)
.
,
.
2. .

, (.
. 169).
3.
.
:
1.
(. . 172).

528
2. :
;
;
.
3. 2):
(
);
,
;
,
.
4.
.
:
1.
(. . 173).
2. :
() ;
;
.
3. 2)
(
);
() ,
;
,
.
4.
.
, 3 4,
, ,


. :

;
, ;

( ).
5.
.

.
, .
() ,

.

529

176
?



.

. ,
,
,
.
,
(
) (. . 173),
( )
(. . 172).

,
.

. 6.11.

6 . 1 1 .

N9 /
1 , .
2 ,

3 ,

4 ,
5 , ./ : !
6 , . [31[51
7 , . 31 + [ 4 5 1
8 , . 71-61
9 , . 81 + 61
10 , . 191 + 121x151
11 , . (. )


= -, (6.26)
,
,
Q .
, , . 6.21.


, :
(1)
;

530

\\

. 6.21.

(2) () ,
.
,

. (
) . 6.22.


.
,
.


(T3)

3 = - +

= - +

.. .

. 6.22.

531
19-6157


( . 6.7 6.9)
.


51 - . ( 68-
). 5 .
158 . (
73- 80 . ()).
225 . 158 . ,
, (. . 6.23).

3 0 0 -|

. 6.23.

,
.


58- .
. (76- )
45 .
(225 .) ; 18-
(15- ) 220 .,
.
. 6.24.

532

-?
-
,
.
-
,
, ,

.
,
. ,
,
.

(. . 176),
-
.
,
.
,
.
- . 6.12.

= - , (6.27)

533
19*
6.12.
-
/ / ,
1 , .
2 ,
3 ,

4 ,
5 , ./ [11: [ ]
6 , . 131 [51
7 , . ([31 + [41 )51
8 , . [ 7 1 - [61
9 , . [81 + [61
10 , . [91+ [21[5]
11 , . (. )

,
,
q .
(. 6.25).
-
. ,

.
,
. 172 177 ,

, ,
, ..

.6.25. -


1.

534


15 . 19 .
.
17- 119
373 .
,
.
. 31 - , 254
. 137 391 .
34- 13 .
340 353 .
.
5- (85- ).
,
, . 6.26.

I ABC?
'
ABC -
(18481923), .

.
() 80:20.
(. . 6.27).

535
S, % A

. 6.27. 80:20

80:20
(20%), , 80%
. . 6.27 . -
80:20 .
(S) .
20% () 80%
.
TQMRx.. (Jurari)
15
80:20 :
20% 80% ;
20% 80% ;
20% 80%
;
20%
80% .
80:20

ABC.

- ,
.
. , :
,
,
, , .
80:20 , 20%
- 80%
, 20%
80% , ..
15
. Total Quality Management. Teaching Material. TACIS'ED - 062. Milano, 1994.

536
, 80:20 ,
, 20%,

, .

,
, ,
() .
(
) .
ABC , M P ()

. M P
() ,
().
, ,
7580% (. 6.28).
M P (),
1510% .
, 510%,
. , 10
15% , 2025%,
6070% . ,
,
,
,
.
, ()
.
MP.

100
5-1
90

80 15-20%

70

60

50 > 75-80%/

40

30

20

10

0
III)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 1
10 11 12
1 1 1- IIIIiII(-
N

. 6.28. ABC

537
ABC (. 6.13).
. 6.13
MP.
.
. ,
: 10050/
32231 100% = 31,18%. . 6.13
, ,
.
100%.
. 6.13
.
. ,
31,18%. 31,18% -
, 31,18 +
+ 13,07=44,25%.
100%.
. 6.13 -
: 80%

6.13. ABC MP

, ,

. % , %
10050 31,18 31,18
4213 13,07 44,25
3130 9,71 53,96
. 3000 9,31 63,27
2618 8,12 71,39
1730 5,52 76,91
1120 3,47 80,38
1040 3,23 83,61
805 2,5 86,11
700 2,17 88,28
555 1,72 90,0
500 1,55 91,55
461 1,43 92,98
371 1,15 94,13
65*210 354 1,1 95,23
300 0,93 96,16
-22 Cliff-Mors 230 0,71 96,87
225 0,7 97,57
-5 223 0,69 98,26
114 0,35 98,61
-65*210 97 0,3 98,91
87 0,27 99,18
-50 56 0,17 99,35
-100 50 0,16 99,51
42 0,13 99,64
34 0,11 99,75
27 0,08 99,83
214.3 25 0,08 99,91
=1,8 21 0,07 99,98
3 0,02 100,00
32231 100,00

538
. 20%
. ,
. 6.13.
,
10% .
. .
10% .
, ,
80:20 (. 6.27).
ABC 31
6 .

.
ABC .

.
. - ,

,
,
.
ABC
.
-
,
.
,
.
, ABC
,
,
.

80:20 .
: 65:35, 70:30 ..,
.
ABC,
,
.

.
, ( 3 4 )
Volvo 3 4
( 60 ) Volvo F-12 ,
4 . 6.14. 3 4
5 6.
(. 6.14) ,
( ) 1 - 6-, 7- 14-,
.

539
6 . 1 4 . ABC




.


/
,
,
.
.
/. , .
, %
1 423135 5241 2,19 11478 24,7
2 468276 28 217,40 6087 13,1

3 245548-6 269 20,00 5380 11,6

4 270105 1580 2,84 4487 9,7


5 270449-2 266 10,95 2913 6,3
6 468300 4 709,70 2839 6,1
7 468647 178 13,23 2355 5,1


8 468303 161 12,27 1975 4,3
9 275047 30 62,46 1874 4,0
10 466634 363 4,80 1742 3,7
11 423029 25 49,25 1237 2,7
12 1505719 44 25,85 1137 2,4
13 423472 10 105,38 1054 2,3

14 468702 1 978,99 979 2,1
15 468022 6 89,35 536 1,1

15-60 143 358 0,8
100

, ,
. 6.14,
. ,
,
( );
, .

I
I ?
()
,
(
) (
: , , )

540
.
, , 3 4

|6
, - , . . .
3 4 ,
, ,
()

. 3 4 , ,
,
,
.
3 4 ,
, ,
.

3 4 ,
( , ,
). 3 4 : . 3 4 ,
(
).
3 4 , , ,
.
3 4
( 3 4 ) ,
,
3 4 ,
(. 6.29).
3 4
,
2 4
c! = i o - ^(q c7 g),
+ + (6 .28)

/ /- 34'- ;
N /- 3 4
r

- , . 100 ;
. /- 3 4 '-
;

. /-
'- ;
3 4 /- '-
.
(6.28)
17
.

16

3 4 : .., B.C., ..
. .: , 1988.
17
. . 84-85.

541
3 4

I
( )
3 4

*
3 4
( )

3 4
()

3 4 ,

3 4

. 6.29. 34

^ 3 4 ,
, ,
, ..

Cf-ZtfNj, ( 6 . 2 9 )

y=i

;
N '- , .

. (/= 1, R) -
, ..

cf>c^>...>cf.
k = 1, = 2 , 1 = R,
q. (/' = 1 , R) ()
. 6.29:

= . .)
(

^. (. 6.30)
: 1, 2, 3 , R ,
3 4 ; -

542
q., .. aq
r

, .
, ,
3 4 . -
, , ,
3 4 .
, ,
,
.
, ,
( 6.28) ABC
.

,
,
18
.



, . 6.30.


MP
.

, %


. 6.30.

: .., B.C.,
.. . .: , 1988.
. 85-87.

543
M P



M P
M P ,

M P

. 6 . 3 7 . MP

,
(
) M P
.

() ,
57 .
5 ,
,
, .

10,
M P (
).


.
.

544
I XYZ?
' XYZ
ABC.
, XYZ, (
) ().


.
.
X, Y, Z
"
25%.

25 50%.

50% Z.
^ ,
.
,

, (. . 167).
,
().

.
, . 175.
Z
- .

.
.
(. . 175).

I JIT
| ?
/ ( ")
.

(. . 173) , ,

,
.
EOQ, ,
.
,
. .

19
. . 51.

545
, ,
(.
. 57).

, .
20
/ /
. / / / I I
,
, ,
,
.
/ / / , ,
, . 172
177.

I
| / /
21
?

,
,
EDI ,
. ,
,
,
, .

Nestle
Lucky Stores,
Nestle. Nestle
Lucky Stores,
. ,
Nestle 18 5560
22
. .

, ,
.

, ,
,
,
.
.
-
. -

20
JIT II BOSE.
21
. . 57.
22
American Shipper, 1994. May. P. 9.

546
,
, , ,
, ,
.

,
.

. ,
,
,
. (EDI)

(-
) / . 7
,
, ,
.

()
2
, *.

.
, ,
, .
,
,
,
. , ,
,
, . ,
, , :
,
.

.

,
, .
( ,
, )
,
,
. .
,
.
,
. ( ) -

.: Jonson J.C., Wood D.F., Wardlow D.L., Murphy P.R. Jr. Contemporary Logistics. Upper Saddle
River: Prentice Hall, 1999.

547
,
. ,

.
.
,
. 23
, (
). ,
,
.
, .
, ,
,
.
.

[

?
,
.
, () ,
, , (
) ..
24
,
:

;
- ;
.

.

(, ,
), .
(
) . ,
,
.. ( ),
.
( ,
..). -
24
., : ., . , . .: .
. 1, 1974; .., .. . .:
, 1973; B.C., .. . .:
, 1991; .. : . .: -, 2001;
. . : . . / . .. -
. .: - , 1999.

548
- ,

.

, ..
() = y(t).

25
:
1) ,
( );
2) (
);
3) ;
4) ;
5) .

. 6.32.
,

( )
.


()


(
)

. 6.32.

.: .. . .: , 1988.

549

.
()
.
, (
) .
,
. 3 5 . ,
. , (yl,
2, ) 2, (2, , 4)
.. .



.
. 6.33 (t)
. .
. y(t) . 6.33 (
"*") . 6.15.

6.15.
t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
33,8 33,3 36,3 41,3 43,7 45,7 49,7 57,3 58,3 59,7 61,7 70,2
(0

t 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 12
36 29 35 45 44 42 51 56 65 54 60 71

.
. .

100-
90-

80-
70-
60-

50-
40
3 0 - 1

20
10
0
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

. 6.33.

550
y(t)
( )
. *
74,9 . .

( )

.

,
.

26
.

, ,
.


. :
1) (
), , ,
;
2) -
;
3) , , ;
4) ;
5) .

,
.

( ). :

(=1

y(t) = exp

" 1

; t ;
26
.: ..
. .: -, 2001.

551
,,,..., (), .


,
:
1) y(t) = + ;
2
2) y(t) = + bt+ct ;
3) y(t) = afi;

4) y(t) = = a exp(bt);
5) = *';

6) (0 = fl +
~ ^ ~ '>,'
t

d
/

7) \ = ^-.

a + be
, , , d .

()
.

, .

( ) .

.

() .
,
:

S =
\' ~ f( i' x a
i' fl
2 v , )| -> m i n .

/=1



.

27
( ) .
, ,
.
,
.
:
)
2

iS
=E[^-/( r' 0' i'-' m)] ^
x fl fl fl m i n
;
.: .., .., .. . .:
, 1965.

552
)

/=1

w , ..
i

1 1

^ w, - 1 . _ .

I
| ?

.

, .

y(i)

^)=A, + ^+^ 2 +-+V=iV' (6.31)

,
0 ;
]

.

.
(6.31)
:

(6.32)

(0< <1);
&- :

(6.33)

553
-
28

1
5**1 () = a S ' * " ' () + (1 - ) 5 } ( ) . (6.34)


.
(
) :

a= . (6.35)
+1
,

2
a: (6.36)
+ \'
,
()
( = 1) ( = 2).

( )
(6.31) :

y(t) = + b,t. (6.37)

, (6.32) (6.34)
, .
:

$)=- -
(6 38)

^ - ^ ^ (6.39)
a
, ,
0

(6.37).
, .
0

1 - 2-
(6.34):

^() = , (\-)51
+ (6-40)

.: .., .. . .: ,
1973.
554
Sl (y)2]
= *Sl"(y) + (l-a)SV\(y); (6.41)

,
, :

=2$"()-{ , (- )6 42

=^$ ()-$ \>


11 2
(6-43)

/ ( tt) :

y,,=k+b\ti- (6-44)

[ 1 + 4(1 - ) + 5(1 - ) + 2 ( 4 - 3a)]t, + 2[, ( 6 4 5 )


'
(2-)
, .


() :

2 6 46
j;(r) = ^ + V + ^ . <- >

, , 1-, (1-)(2-)
S
o(y) =h *k+" ^ L
(6-47)
2

. , ,
( 2 1 2(1-) (1-)(3-2)

\) = -- -^1 + 2 (6.48)

, . ,
[ 3 1 3(1-) 3(1-)(4-)

S T O ^ - - ' * - 2'^ (6-49) Lb

2
, ,
0 2

6 5
() = + (1 - (); < - )

555
2] l 2
Sl (y)^aSl \y) + (l-a)Sl \(y); (6.51)

] 2
S? (y) = aSl \y) + (l-a)Sl'\(y). (6.52)


i 2
b =3[S! \y)-Sl \y)]
0 + S?\y); (6.53)

[] 2
b =^- [(6-5a)Sl (y)-2(5-4a)Sl \y)
l I + (4-3a)S^(y)]; (6.54)
2(1 - )

\ = ^ - [5} () - 2 5 f () + S F ()]. (6.55)


(1-)

tl


. ^
+ //. 3 6
(- ) 57



,
(y t), / = 1 , ,
it

^ = 1-/(^,-.,^)] 2
^, (6.58)

/(t p b, b
0 v bj (6.31).
(6.58) bg, ,,

, :

{4,++*,!''=5>.
(6.59)

(6.59), () , 0

bb .
v p

b , 0 {

(6.37).

556
b , 6, , (6.59) =\
0

(6.60)

)'
A , , - ,

" I
.S'<I' . ; 2
;

(6.61)

2
1,-/(',,-)] (6.62)
-, =




.
1998 2002 . 6.16.

6 . 1 6 .

, t 1998 . 1999 . 2000 . 2001 . 2002 .


(. . ) , , 40 43 46 48
i 1 2 3 4 5

(6.38), (6.39)

*0 = G=* + V -
, 6, , . 6.16
0

(6.38), (6.39). . 6.17 38.


(6.60), (6.61):
4 10 177 10 4 177
= 20; Di = = 750; D = = 54; 2
10 30 456 30 10 456

b =
{ D /D
t = 750/20 = 37,5; b = D /D = 54/20 = 2,7.
0 2 2 0

,
(. 6.16),

=f(t) = 37,5 + 2,7.

557
6 . 1 7 . 2002 .




,
f(ti)=37,5+ Ay,= *.
(.
, + 2,7t = yrf(ti)
y e . j , ,
t,
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
1 1998 1 40 1 40 40,2 0,2 - - 40,2
2 1999 2 43 4 86 42,9 -0,1 36,0 32,0 42,6
3 2000 3 46 9 138 45,6 -0,4 38,6 34,6 45,3
4 2001 4 48 16 192 48,3 0,3 41,6 37,4 48,6

1=.
It,= *= ,,=

=10 =30 =456
5 2002
w* 44,2 40,1 51,0
=177 48,3 + 2,73t
2002 -

t = 1, 2, 3, 4 (. 6.17),
( 7
. 6.17).
. = . j{t) ( 8 . 6.17)
(6.45) o : t

2 2 2 2
a t = J(0,2) +(0,l) +(0,4) +(0,3) =

. (6.35)

= = = 0,4
+1 4+1
(6.38), (6.39)
:

4=37,5- 2,7 = 33,45;

S
o 2]
= 3 7 , 5 - ^ ^ 2 , 7 = 29,4.


(6.40) (6.44).
(6.17) ( 911).
1 : = 2 (1998 .)

4 11
= 0 , 4 - 4 0 + (1-0,4)-33,45 = 36;
4= 21
0,4-36+ ( 1 - 0 , 4 ) - 2 9 , 4 = 32.

(6.38):

4 = 2 - 3 6 - 3 2 = 40;

558
( ) (6.44)
1998 . ( = 1):
* 40 + 2,6 1 = 42,6 . .
=

2 : ? = 3 (1999 .)

11
Si = 0 , 4 - 4 3 + ( 1 - 0 , 4 ) - 3 6 = 38,6;

1
if =0,4- 38,6 + ( 1 - 0 , 4 ) -32 = 34,6.

4=42,6; 4=2,7.
* |999 = 42,6 + 2,7 1 = 45,3 . .
: = 4 (2000 .)

1 ]
5 j = 0,4 -46 + 0,6 -38,6 = 41,6;

1
Sf =0,4-41,6 + 0,6-34,6 = 37,4;

4=45,8; 4=2,8;
y*l995 = 45,8 + 2,8 1 = 48,6 . .

4 : t = 5. 2001 .
11
SJ = 0 , 4 - 4 8 + 0,6-41,6 = 44,2;
2]
S\ = 0 , 4 - 4 4 , 2 + 0,6-37,4 = 40,1;

4=48,3; 4=2,73.
2001 .
= 48,3 + 2,73 1 = 51 . .
2 0 0 |

2002 .
* = 48,3 + 2,73 2= 53,76 . .
2

2002 . (6.45)

4 2 2
>* = 0,3 ^ - [ 1 + 4 ( 1 - 0 , 4 ) + 5 ( 1 - 0 , 4 ) + 2 - 0 , 4 ( 4 - 3 - 0 , 4 ) ] - 1 + 2 - 0 , 4 - 1 * 0 , 8 2 .

559

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2. .., .., ..
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5th ed. St.Paul: West Publishing Co., 1992.
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