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Хотунцева Е. А.

Пособие для подготовки учащихся к выполнению заданий 39–40 раздела «Письмо»


ЕГЭ по английскому языку

РЕЛОД
Москва, 2015
УДК 802.0ББК 81.2 Англ.

Russian State Exam. Tasks 39–40: Пособие для подготовки учащихся


к выполнению заданий 39–40 раздела «Письмо» ЕГЭ по английскому языку.
Книга для учителя» / Е.А. Хотунцева. – 1-е изд. – М.: ЗАО «РЕЛОД», 2015. – 150 с.

«Russian State Exam. Tasks 39–40: Пособие для подготовки учащихся к выполнению
заданий 39—40 раздела «Письмо» ЕГЭ по английскому языку» создано на основе
накопленного опыта подготовки учащихся выпускных классов к сдаче ЕГЭ
по английскому языку, участия в работе региональной комиссии по проверке
письменных работ ЕГЭ выпускников и опыта работы в качестве тьютора при
подготовке экспертов ЕГЭ по разделу «Письмо». Пособие может быть использовано
как на уроках в 10–11 классах, так и в рамках курсов по выбору или индивидуаль-
ных занятий при подготовке учащихся к выполнению заданий ЕГЭ по английскому
языку раздела «Письмо». Упражнения пособия могут использоваться выборочно,
в зависимости от степени подготовки учащихся и времени на подготовку.

EAN 4623720464226
© ЗАО «РЕЛОД», 2015

Все права защищены.


Никакая часть данной книги не может быть переиздана или распространена в любой форме
и любыми средствами, электронными или механическими, включая фотокопирование,
звукозапись, любые запоминающие устройства и системы поиска информации,
без письменного разрешения правообладателя.
Пояснительная записка
Настоящее пособие создано на основе накоплен- Часть 2. Задание 40
ного опыта подготовки учащихся выпускных клас- (Сочинение-рассуждение)
сов к сдаче ЕГЭ по английскому языку, участия
в работе региональной комиссии по проверке Такой же подход сохраняется во второй части каждо-
письменных работ ЕГЭ выпускников и опыта ра- го раздела. В первом разделе учащиеся знакомятся
боты в качестве тьютора при подготовке экспертов с критериями оценивания сочинения-рассуждения
ЕГЭ по письму. Особую благодарность автор вы- и его форматом. Основное внимание уделяется раз-
ражает коллеге, Петрущенковой И. А., которая витию навыков построения логичной аргументации
выступила в роли рецензента и помогла своими и контраргументации. Кроме этого, предлагаются
идеями в процессе создания данного пособия. упражнения на отработку других умений: писать
вступление и заключение, перефразируя главную
Пособие состоит из двух частей: Книги
для уча- мысль рубрики; правильно употреблять средства свя-
щегося и Рекомендаций для учителя. зи, логично и связно излагать свои мысли, обобщать
сказанное, выбирать правильную лексику, анализи-
Книга для учащегося
ровать написанное и др.
Книга для учащегося написана в формате рабо- Эти умения развиваются как при помощи анали-
чей тетради, где можно выполнять упражнения,
за частей или полных сочинений учащихся, так
и включает 9 разделов, составленных по темати-
и посредством использования и развития пред-
ческому принципу согласно требованиям Стан-
ставленного набора аргументов, упражнений на
дартов нового поколения для профильной школы,
подстановку линкеров, составления целых со-
кодификаторам ЕГЭ–2014/2015. Каждый раздел
чинений из предложений, соотнесения частей
состоит из двух частей:
предложений с последующим их использованием
1) Часть 1. Задание 39 (Личное письмо). в качестве аргументов и др.
2) Часть 2. Задание 40 (Сочинение). Задания для анализа и обсуждения составлены
с учетом типичных ошибок, выявленных в про-
Данные разделы отрабатывают определенные на-
цессе работы экспертом по проверке письменных
выки написания личного письма и сочинения
работ учащихся и проведения апелляций в ходе
с элементами рассуждения в формате ЕГЭ.
Единого государственного экзамена по англий-
Часть 1. Задание 39 скому языку в течение последних нескольких лет.
(Личное письмо) В конце раздела предложены темы для написания
самостоятельного сочинения.
Первый раздел (Unit) пособия посвящен основ- Рекомендации для учителя
ным правилам, которым необходимо следовать
в процессе обучения умениям письма. Здесь раз- Рекомендации для учителя содержат задания из
бираются такие моменты, как организация лич- Книги для учащегося, комментарии к упражнени-
ного письма, правила написания даты и адреса, ям на анализ работ в соответствии с критериями
варианты использования фраз для начала оценивания и правильные варианты выполнения
и завершения письма, использование слов-связок основных заданий. При этом при написании от-
и др. Помимо этого, анализируются критерии ветов к заданиям автор предлагает возможные
оценивания личного письма, которыми руковод- варианты развития аргументов и тем самым на-
ствуются эксперты в своей работе. меренно уходит от составления образцов сочине-
ний, так как это создает возможность для бездум-
В каждом из последующих разделов в части ного заучивания текста вместо развития умений.
1 (задание 39, Личное письмо) первым заданием
является упражнение на анализ образца письма В конце Рекомендаций помещены критерии
по определенному критерию, начиная с содержа- и схемы оценивания выполнения заданий разде-
ния и заканчивая комплексным анализом по всем ла «Письмо».
критериям (содержание, организация, исполь- Пособие может быть использовано как на уроках
зование языка). Мы считаем, что такие задания в 10—11-х классах, так и в рамках курсов по выбору
способствуют развитию когнитивного мышления или индивидуальных занятий при подготовке уча-
учащихся, их аналитических способностей щихся к выполнению заданий раздела «Письмо» ЕГЭ
и более ответственного отношения к результатам по английскому языку. Упражнения пособия могут
обучения. Задания на анализ усложняются использоваться выборочно, в зависимости от степени
к концу пособия. Помимо этого, в каждом уроке подготовки учащихся и времени на подготовку.
представлен банк заданий для самостоятельного
написания писем различной тематики. Хотунцева Е. А.
Contents

Unit Unit theme Skill Task types Page


Assessment criteria 12
Unit 1. Personality
Family relationships
Task 39.
Letter writing 2. An informal letter writing tips: 15
Family and friends Family celebrations • labeling the letter layout;
• opening and closing a letter;
Modern teenagers
• useful expressions for writing;
Friends and friendship • formal and informal style;
• writing the date and address;
• counting the words.
3. Sample letter content analysis. 18
4. Sample letter organisation analysis. 20
5. Linking ideas. 22
6. Language usage. 23
7. Guided practice. 25
8. More writing practice. 25

Task 40. 1. Layout of an opinion essay: 27


matching headings.
Essay writing 2. Focusing on the topic: 29
ЕГЭ task 40 paragraphs analysis
assessment criteria. 3. Making and presenting an argument: 30
Introductory points. • sample essay analysis: argument and
justification;
Many people think that it
• paragraphs analysis and
is better to be an only child
improvements.
in a family than to have
brothers or sisters. (Irrelevant information, undeveloped
arguments, logical an illogical counter-
arguments.)
4. Cohesion. Linking ideas: 33
• presenting an argument;
• listing / introducing additional points;
• giving an example;
• presenting an opposing argument;
• expressing / contrasting points;
• cause / result / consequence;
• summing up.
Using linking words in arguments.
5. Developing counter-arguments: 34
• identifying key points;
• refuting logically.
6. Writing an introduction 35
and conclusion
(restating the question in the task in different
words, restating the writer’s opinion).

Essay writing 1. Sample introduction analysis and 36


1. The majority of improvement.
teenagers try to follow 2. Dividing a part from a sample essay
the fashion. However, into paragraphs.
adults think that there are 3. Making improvements to the essay.
more important things.

2. Old people’s homes 1. Matching topic sentences with 39


are the most suitable the paragraphs.
residences for the elderly. 2. Writing an introduction.
3. Brainstorming arguments using
the suggested vocabulary.
4. Essay writing.

4
Contents

Unit Unit theme Skill Task types Page


Unit 1. Personality 3. It is considered that 1. Rewriting an introduction. 41
giving pocket money 2. Matching arguments with
Family and friends Family relationships
to teenagers doesn’t do counter-arguments.
Family celebrations them any good. 3. Developing examples and supporting
Modern teenagers sentences for the arguments.
4. Writing an essay.
Friends and friendship
4. The modern generation 1. Writing an introduction. Restating 42
of teenagers is worse than the question in the task.
previous genertations of 2. Brainstorming justifications for
teenagers. the arguments.
3. Developing counter-arguments.
4. Choosing a suitable conclusion.
5. Writing according to the plan.

5. Some people think that 1. Brainstorming ideas for the topic 44


the most important thing 2. Planning an essay
in people’s life is family. 3. Writing an introduction. Restating
the question in the task.
4. Completing the main part of an essay.

More writing practice

47
Unit 2.
House and home
Housing
Household chores
Task 39.
Letter writing
1. Analysing a sample letter content.
Completing the task. Formal / informal
style. Number of words.
Shopping 2. More writing practice 49
City life and country life (writing tasks pool).

Task 40. 1. Matching arguments with 50


justifications.
Essay writing 2. Making sentences using linking words.
1. Living in a house is 3. Sample essay analysis. Expanding
better than living in a flat. the essay.

2. Many people consider 1. Cohesion. Using discourse markers 51


that it is better to live in to make up an essay.
the country. 2. Coherence. Sample conclusion analysis.

3. When people are 18 and 1. Cohesion and coherence. Gaps filling. 52


finish school they should 2. Sample essay content and
move away from home and organisation analysis and
start their own life. improvement.

4. City living in the 21st 1. Restating the question in the task. 54


century is stressful and 2. Brainstorming ideas for an essay
offers no advantages. using the suggested vocabulary.
3. Planning and making notes for
an essay.

5. Many people believe 1. Writing an introduction: 56


that online shopping is • expressing the same ideas in
the best way to shop. a different way.
2. Matching arguments with
justifications.
3. Brainstorming counter-arguments.
4. Writing paragraphs under the topic
sentences.
5. Restating the opinion in
the conclusion.

6. Shopping malls and More writing practice. 57


hypermarkets are
the best way of shopping.

5
Contents

Unit Unit theme Skill Task types Page

Unit 3. Food and drink


Healthy eating
Task 39.
Letter writing
1. Analysing a sample letter
organisation:
• writing in paragraphs;
58
Healthy living GMFs • linking ideas in a logical way;
The importance • writing the date and the address;
of sports • salutation;
• ending the letter;
• signing off and signature.
2. Error corrections. 59
3. More writing practice 59
(writing tasks pool).

Task 40. 1. Introduction: restating the question 61


in the task in different words.
Essay writing 2. Linking ideas:
1. The young generation • cause and result;
of people today is not • making up arguments using
as healthy as their linking words.
grandparents used to be. 3. Developing arguments based on
the given ideas.

2. We should close all fast- 1. Matching arguments with 62


food outlets as such food justifications.
is harmful for people’s 2. Linking ideas.
health. 3. Brainstorming counter-arguments.
4. Essay writing.

3. Many people believe 1. Writing an introduction: 63


that the best way to lose restating the question in the task in
weight is following different words.
a special diet. 2. Brainstorming justifications for
the arguments.
3. Sample paragraphs analysis and
improvement.
4. Writing counter- arguments under
the topic sentence.
5. Planning and writing an essay.

4. Doing extreme sports is 1. Gap filling (word-building). 65


rather popular nowadays. 2. Brainstorming arguments using
However, there are people the vocabulary.
who think that they 3. Developing counter-arguments.
should be banned because 4. Writing an introduction and
they are too risky. conclusion.
5. Essay writing.

5. Many people 1. Brainstorming justifications for 67


demand that genetically the arguments using the suggested
modified food should be vocabulary.
banned. Others say it is 2. Planning an essay: making notes.
unnecessary. 3. Writing an introduction. Restating
the question in the task.
4. Essay writing. Checking for mistakes.

More writing practice.

1. Analysing a sample letter language


Unit 4. Hobbies and interests
Music
Task 39.
Letter writing
usage: proof reading. Error corrections.
2. Analysing a sample letter content
70
71
Free time Reading books and organisation.
and culture Making improvements.
Cinema, TV
3. Asking questions practice. 72
Arts 4. More writing practice
(writing tasks pool).

6
Contents

Unit Unit theme Skill Task types Page

Unit 4. Hobbies and interests Task 40. 1. Looking into the content. Matching
73
arguments with the tasks.
Free time Music Essay writing 2. Specifying the ideas in the
and culture Reading books Reading detective / arguments by means of examples.
73

Cinema, TV adventure / science fiction


stories is the best way
Arts to spend time.

1. Reading detective 1. Sample introduction and conclusion


analysis.
73
stories is a waste of time.
2. Using a proper vocabulary to write
an introduction and conclusion
to match the content and the style.
3. Sample paragraphs content analysis.
4. Sample paragraphs content,
organisation, vocabulary, grammar,
spelling and punctuation analysis. Error
corrections.
5. Essay writing.

2. There is nothing worth 1. Sample essay analysis:


watching on television
76
• content;
these days. • organisation;
• vocabulary;
• grammar;
• spelling;
• punctuation.
2. Error corrections.
3. Brainstorming ideas for an essay.
4. Writing an introduction.
Restating the question in the task
in different words.
5. Essay writing.

3. E-books will eventually 1. Avoiding over-use of personal


pronouns.
78
make traditional books
obsolete. 2. Brainstorming ideas for the
arguments.
3. Writing paragraph 4 under
the topic sentence.
4. Essay writing.

4. Public libraries are 1. Brainstorming ideas and developing


arguments.
79
becoming less popular
and they will soon 2. Essay writing.
disappear.

5. Government should 1. Expanding topic sentences into 80


support art galleries and paragraphs using the suggested
museums. vocabulary.
2. Essay writing.

More writing practice. Free writing.

82
Unit 5. School studies
School life
Task 39.
Letter writing
1. Analysing the sample letter:
• content;
Education Further education
• organisation;
• language usage.
Learning a foreign Error correction. Making improvements.
language 2. More writing practice 84
(writing tasks pool).

7
Contents

Unit Unit theme Skill Task types Page

Unit 5. School studies Task 40. 1.Sample introduction analysis 85


and improvement.
Education School life Essay writing 2. Arranging sentences into
Further education 1. Many schools in Russia a paragraph.
Learning a foreign require all students to wear 3. Matching arguments with
language school uniform, while in justifications.
others students can decide 4. Planning and making notes for
what to wear at school. an essay.
Should school uniform be 5. Essay writing.
obligatory at school?

2. Getting marks doesn’t 1. Brainstorming ideas for an essay


using the suggested vocabulary.
87
motivate the students to
study. 2. Developing arguments and
justifications.
3. Planning an essay.
4. Essay writing.

3. It is believed that in the 1. Brainstorming ideas for an essay


using the suggested vocabulary.
89
future teachers will be
completely replaced by 2. Developing arguments
computers. and counter-arguments.
3. Planning and making notes for
an essay.
4. Writing an essay.

4. Some people think that 1. Sample introductions analysis and 92


it is possible to get good improvement.
school education only at 2. Writing a proper introduction:
elite single-sex boarding restating the question in the task
schools abroad. in different words.
3. Sample conclusion analysis and
improvement.
4. Arguments analysis: logical or
not logical?
5. Planning and making notes for
an essay.
6. Writing an essay.

5. Many parents believe 1. Reading and analysing a sample 95


that it is not necessary to essay:
learn a second foreign • content;
language at school. It • organisation;
is enough to learn only • vocabulary;
English.
• grammar;
• spelling and punctuation.
2. Planning and writing an essay.

Unit 6. Jobs and career


Success in life
Task 39.
Letter writing
1. Analysing the sample letter.
Expanding the letter.
2. More writing practice
100
101
Work.
(writing tasks pool).
Choosing a career

Task 40. 1. Reading and analysing a sample 102


essay. Expanding the essay.
Essay writing 2. Matching arguments to the different
1. Doing a part-time job opinions.
while studying is a way to 3. Planning and making notes for
earn their pocket money an essay.
for many teens. However, 4. Writing essays with two opposing
most parents are sure opinions.
that it would be better for
them to concentrate on
their study.

8
Contents

Unit Unit theme Skill Task types Page


Unit 6. Jobs and career 2. Many teenagers believe 1. Analysing the students’ arguments
Work. that it is more important and counter-arguments: logical or 105
Success in life
to get a highly paid job not logical?
Choosing a career than a job that brings 2. Brainstorming and developing
satisfaction. arguments for and against different
kinds of jobs.
3. Planning and writing an essay.

3. Many parents feel 1. Analysing the content and 107


that their children should organisation in sample paragraphs 3-5.
follow their advice in 2. Planning and making notes for
choosing a career. an essay.
3. Developing arguments and
justifications.
4. Writing an essay.

4. The best things in life 1. Brainstorming ideas for an essay 109


are free. using the suggested vocabulary.
2. Writing an introduction: restating
the question in the task in different
words.
3. Planning and making notes for
an essay.
4. Developing arguments and
justification.
5. Essay writing.

111
Unit 7. Popular destinations
Ways of travelling
Task 39.
Letter writing
1. Analysing the sample letter:
• content;
Countries around Traditions and customs
• organisation;
• language usage.
the world Global tourism 2. Error corrections. 112
3. Letter writing (writing tasks pool).

Task 40. 1. Sample introduction analysis: 113


• content;
Essay writing • organisation;
1. Some people believe
that visitors to other • grammar;
countries should follow • vocabulary;
local customs and meet • spelling.
national standards of Error corrections.
behavior. 2. Sample paragraphs 2-4 analysis: 114
• content;
• organisation;
• grammar;
• vocabulary;
• spelling;
• punctuation.
Error corrections.
3. Sample conclusion analysis: 116
• content;
• organisation;
• grammar;
• vocabulary;
• spelling;
• punctuation.
Error corrections.
4. Planning and making notes 117
for an essay.
5. Writing an essay.

9
Contents

Unit Unit theme Skill Task types Page

Unit 7. Popular destinations 2. Some people think 1. Brainstorming ideas on the topic. 117
that international 2. Matching halves of the sentences
Countries around Ways of travelling
tourism brings many to build an argument.
the world Traditions and customs disadvantages to local 3. Planning and making notes for
Global tourism communities. an essay.
4. Writing an essay.

3. It is not important 1. Brainstorming ideas on the topic. 119


to keep and observe 2. Analysing the students’ arguments:
traditions and customs. logical or illogical ?
3. Planning and making notes for
an essay.
4. Writing an essay.

4. It is more important 1. Brainstorming ideas the topic using


the suggested vocabulary.
to travel when your are
young than when you are
121
2-3. Writing arguments to support
a middle-aged person. different opinions.
4. Planning and making notes for
an essay.
5. Writing an essay.

123
Unit 8. Inventions and
discoveries
Task 39.
Letter writing
1. Sample letter analysis:
• content;
Science Modern IT • organisation;
• language usage.
and technology. Modern communication
2. Error corrections.
3. Letter writing (writing tasks pool).
Communication,
the media

Task 40. 1. Sample introduction analysis. 126


Restating the question in the task.
Essay writing 2. Sample paragraphs 2-3 analysis.
1. Space exploration is Making improvements.
a waste of time and 3. Developing arguments for and
money. against space exploration.
4. Planning and making notes for
an essay.
5. Writing an essay.

2. Many people think that 1. Writing an introduction: restating the


the computer is one of question in the task in different words.
129
the most useful inventions 2. Matching paragraph with
of the 21st century. a topic sentence.
3. Choosing the correct linkers.
4. Using linkers in a paragraph.
5. Developing arguments for an essay.
6. Writing an essay.

3. The Internet is one 1. Writing an introduction: restating 132


of the greatest inventions. the question in the task in different
words.
2. Brainstorming the ideas for an essay.
3. Planning and making notes for
an essay.
4. Writing an essay.

10
Contents

Unit Unit theme Skill Task types Page

Unit 8. Inventions and 4. It is only beneficial that 1. Writing an introduction: restating


133
discoveries mass media shapes public the question in the task in different
Science opinion. words.
Modern IT
and technology. 2. Developing arguments for an essay
Modern communication using the suggested vocabulary.
Communication, 3. Planning and making notes for
an essay.
the media
4. Writing an essay.

More writing practice.


(writing pool). Free writing.

Unit 9. Weather and climate


Environmental concerns
Task 39.
Letter writing
1. Sample letter analysis:
• content;
136
The natural world Animals
• organisation;
• language usage.
2. Error corrections.
3. Letter writing (writing tasks pool).

Task 40. 1. Topic focus: sample paragraphs


139
analysis.
Essay writing 2. Sample paragraphs 3 - 4 analysis:
1. Genetic science has content and organisation.
gone too far. 3. Brainstorming ideas for and against
genetic science using the suggested
vocabulary.
4. Planning and making notes for
an essay.
5. Writing an introduction to an essay.
6. Writing an essay.

2. Animal testing should 1. Writing an introduction: restating


be banned. the question in the task in different words.
142
2. Brainstorming ideas for an essay
using the suggested vocabulary.
3. Planning and making notes for
an essay.
4. Writing an essay.

3. It is useless to change 1. Writing an introduction: restating


one’s personal lifestyle the question in the task in different words.
145
to save the environment. 2. Brainstorming ideas for an essay
using the suggested vocabulary.
3. Planning and making notes for
an essay.
4. Writing an essay.

Russian State Exam Task 39 assessment criteria. 148


Russian State Exam Task 40 assessment criteria. 149
При подготовке данного издания были использованы 151

11
Меню

Unit 1 Family and friends

Unit 1. Family and friends

Part 1. Russian State Exam:


Task 39. Letter writing

Task 1. Read the task.

Так выглядит задание 39 (Личное письмо) ЕГЭ по английскому языку.


За него можно получить 6 баллов.
Время, рекомендуемое на его написание, – 20 минут.
You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen friend Pamela who
writes:

… and I really admire my elder brother. What about you? Is there a person in your family who
you admire? What is he or she like? Why do you look up at him or her?
...Guess what! I got a new mobile for my birthday!

Write a letter to Pamela.


In your letter:
• answer her questions;
• ask 3 questions about her new mobile.
Write 100–140 words.

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Task 39. Letter writing

Remember the rules of letter writing.


Exercise 1. Read the sample letter. Study the layout of an informal letter.
Sample answer:

Thanking for the Address


Salutation Reference to the Moscow, Russia
previous letter
previous contact 23.03.2014
Date
Dear Pamela,
Thank you for your letter. It was nice to hear from you again. Sorry for
not writing, I was busy with my project.
Main body:
As for the person in my family who I admire, I think it is my Dad.
answering the
Unfortunately, he is always busy, but when he has some free time I like questions
to talk with him and discuss different problems. He is very intelligent and
smart and that is why I like to spend time with him talking. I admire him
because he is rather a positive and optimistic person.
By the way, what about your new mobile? Is it a new smart phone? Can
you use the Internet and different apps now? Do you use it to listen to
music? That’s all for now. I’ve got to go.
Main body:
Write back soon.
asking
Best wishes, Ending the letter
questions
Semyon
Signing off
Signature

Exercise 2. Read the letter again and study the criteria of assessment.
1) Content (2): Содержание является ведущим критерием при оценивании. Если за
содержание учащийся получает 0 баллов, по остальным критериям он также полу-
чает 0 баллов.
• Number of words (100–140)
В личном письме допустимое расхождение по количеству слов может составлять
10% от указанных границ. Таким образом, минимальное количество слов в письме –
90, максимальное – 154. Если учащийся написал менее 90 слов, например, 89, то за
содержание ему поставят 0 баллов. Если количество слов превышает 154, то в работе
отсчитываются 140 слов и проверяется именно эта часть письма. Таким образом, не-
которые аспекты могут быть не оценены, и учащийся теряет балл.
• Aspects 1–3 (answering the questions).
В данном задании учащийся должен дать ответы на следующие вопросы задания:
Is there a person in your family who you admire?
Ответ дан: I think it is my Dad.

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Unit 1 Family and friends

What is he or she like?


Ответ дан: He is very intelligent and smart and that is why I like to spend time with
him talking.
Why do you look up at him or her?
Ответ дан: I admire him because I can learn much from him and respect his ability to
look at things from different points of view.
• Aspect 4: asking 3 questions.
Согласно заданию, нужно задать 3 вопроса о новом мобильном телефоне.
Вопросы заданы:
• Is it a new smart phone?
• Can you use the Internet and different apps now?
• Do you use it to listen to music?
• Aspect 5: politeness conventions.
При написании личного письма необходимо в начале поблагодарить автора за пись-
мо (e.g.: Thank you for your letter.) и упомянуть о предыдущих контактах (e.g.: It was
nice to hear from you again.). В конце письма необходимо написать завершающую
фразу, выразив надежду на последующие контакты (e.g.: That is all for now. Write
back soon). После чего пожелать всего наилучшего (e.g.: Best wishes) и поставить свою
подпись. В личном письме это имя (e.g. Semyon). Не стоит писать свою фамилию, ри-
совать смайлики и другие рисунки, так как это может быть расценено как нарушение
конфиденциальности и вызовет вопросы у экзаменационной комиссии.
• Aspect 6: style (salutation, ending the letter, signing off and signature are written
according to semi-formal style).
При написании личного письма предполагается использовать полуформальный
стиль, для которого характерна определенная лексика. Следует избегать чересчур не-
формального словаря, учитывая фактор экзаменационной ситуации, например: "Hi,
there!" "Wow!" "Love.", "Kiss you." etc.
2) Organisation (2)
• Logic.
При ответах на вопросы важно следить за логикой и стараться не перескакивать с одной
темы на другую и возвращаться обратно. При этом нужно использовать разные средства
связи, которые помогают делать высказывание четким и логичным (см. критерий Use of
linking words). В данном письме автор последовательно и логично ответил на все задан-
ные вопросы.
• Paragraphs.
При написании личного письма в формате ЕГЭ важно правильно разделить его на
абзацы:
A. Thanking for the previous letter, reference to the previous contact.
B. Main body ( answering the questions).
C. Main body (asking questions).

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Task 39. Letter writing

• Use of linking words.


В личном письме уместно употребление таких линкеров, как "as for…", "and", "but",
"because", "that is why", "so", "by the way" и др. Их не будет много, но они позволяют
четко структурировать высказывания, переходя от одного аспекта к другому. Союзы
"and" и "but" обычно ставятся в середине предложения.
• Salutation, ending the letter, signing off and signature are on separate lines.
Приветствие Dear Pamela,
Надежда на будущие контакты Write back soon / Keep in touch! / Drop me a line when
you can / Hope to hear from you soon.
Заключительная фраза Best wishes /All the best,
Подпись автора Semyon
Пишутся на отдельных строках, слева, согласно современным правилам написания
письма.
После приветствия ставится или не ставится запятая.
После фразы – надежды на последующие контакты – точка.
После заключительной фразы – запятая.
После имени собственного знаки препинания НЕ ставятся.
• The author’s address is in the top right corner (it can be shortened)
Адрес автора пишется в правом верхнем углу.
Дата ставится под адресом. Допустим сокращенный вариант написания адреса:

Moscow, Russia
23.03.2014
• The date is under the address
Способы написания даты могут быть разными. Принимаются и британский, и амери-
канский варианты написания, а также полное написание при помощи слов: October,
23d, 2014. Однако следует обратить внимание, что дата, написанная словами, будет
содержать 3 слова, тогда как дата, написанная цифрами (23.03.2104), считается как
одно слово.
3) Language accuracy (2): the use of grammar, vocabulary and spelling
При оценивании личного письма эксперты подсчитывают общее количество языковых
и орфографических ошибок и далее выставляют балл согласно критериям оценива-
ния.
Informal letter writing tips
Exercise 1. Look at the layout of an informal letter and indicate its parts:
Salutation, address, date, main body (answering the questions), thanking for the previous
letter, main body (asking the questions), signing off, signature, reference to the previous
contact, ending the letter.

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Unit 1 Family and friends

Address

Salutation Date

Thanking for the previous letter, reference to the previous contact

Main body (answering the questions)

Main body (asking the questions)

Ending the letter

Signing off

Signature

Exercise 2. Opening and closing. Match the way we open letters 1–4
to the way we end them A-D: 1-C, 2-A, 3-D, 4-B
1) Put the four endings in order, from most formal to most informal.
Yours faithfully, Yours sincerely, Best wishes, Lots of love
2) Which of them would you use in an informal letter?
1, 3
Exercise 3.
A. Look at the expressions A-K and match them with purposes 1-11.
A-4, B-8, C-1, D-11, E-3, F- 7, G-9, H-2, I-5, J-6, K-10

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Task 39. Letter writing

B. Complete the sample letter with the expressions from task A:

Dear Patricia,
(1) Many thanks for your letter. (2) It was nice to hear from you again. I’m really sorry I
didn’t answer before. I was really busy with my project.
(3) As for your questions, I usually wear a skirt and a blouse or a dress, but actually in Russia,
it doesn’t really matter what you’re wearing. However, clothes can vary depending on different
occasions. For example, teens prefer to dress smart for a party and to wear casual or disco
clothes for dancing. As for me, my favourite type of clothes is jeans and hoodies.
(4) By the way, great news! Where is your sister going to celebrate her marriage? How many
people will be there? What plans do they have for their honeymoon?
(5) I’d better finish now. My mum’s calling me.
(6) Write back soon.
(7) Best wishes,
Asya

Exercise 4.
A. What makes a letter sound informal? Put a tick: or a cross Х
• A friendly and personal tone
• Contracted verb forms like I’m and hasn’t
• Passive verb forms Х
• Phrasal verbs
• Polite expressions like I would be most grateful If you would… Х
• Informal expressions such as a bit (for "a little”), etc.
B. Mark the following phrases as formal (F) and informal (I):
1) F
2) F
3) I
4) I
5) F
6) F
7) I
8) I
9) I
10) F
11) I
12) I
Exercise 5. – Exam Tip SB p.17

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Unit 1 Family and friends

Exercise 6. How to count the words in your writing? Count the words in the
following:
• 03/06/2014 – 1 слово;
• the 3d of June, 2014 – 5 слов;
• 03.06.2014 – 1 слово;
• Dear Patricia, – 2 слова;
• I’m glad to hear from you again. – 7 слов. Стяжные формы глаголов I’m,
don’t, etc. считаются как одно слово;
• I’ve got an elder brother. He’s rather hard-working. – 8 слов. Сложные слова
типа hard-working считаются как одно слово;
• I often use my laptop instead of a TV-set to watch movies, listen to music, etc. –
16 слов. Сокращение etc. также считается как одно слово.

Sample letters content analysis


Task 1. Read the task and the sample letter.

1. What questions should you answer?


Предполагается дать ответы на следующие вопросы (аспекты 1–3):
• What are Russian teenagers like in your country?
• What are their hobbies?
• What do they like to do in their free time?
2. What questions should be asked?
Нужно задать 3 вопроса о новом хобби друга, в данном случае – об увлечении скейт-
бордом.
Exercise 1. Read a student’s letter. Why will the student NOT score maximum points
for the content?

Moscow
Russia
2/06/2014
Dear David,
Thank you for your letter. Sorry for not having written earlier, but I was busy at school.
You asked me about a typical Russian teenager. Well, Russian teenagers are in fact very
ordinary. They think their teachers make them work hard and friendship is the most important
thing in their lives. Parents think that modern teens are awful, but I think they criticize them
for no reason. As for their hobbies, they are quite different. That’s all about it.
Anyway, it’s great that you like skateboarding. Is it difficult to ride it?
I’ve got to go now. Keep in touch!

Yours,
Peter

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Task 39. Letter writing

1) Is there the required number of words? – да, в письме 117 слов.


2) What questions did they answer?
What are Russian teenagers like in your country?
Ответ дан: Well, Russian teenagers are in fact very ordinary.
What are their hobbies?
Ответ дан, но не полный: As for their hobbies, they are quite different.
What do they like to do in their free time?
Ответ на вопрос не дан.
3) What questions did they ask? Comment on them.
Задан только один из трех вопросов: Is it difficult to ride it?
4) Did the student begin and finish the letter according to the rules of letter writing?
В письме нет ссылки на предыдущие контакты, пожелания всего наилучшего.
5) Is the style informal?
Стиль письма соответствует требованиям.
Exercise 2. Read another letter. Why will the student NOT score maximum points for
the content?

Moscow
Russia
2/06/2014
Hi there!
How are you? I’m fine!
Well, Russian teenagers are the same as in the other countries. They like playing computer
games and doing sports. I think the most popular activity among boys is football and as for the
girls, tastes differ. They are fond of music and going shopping. As for me, I like hanging out
with my friends.
Cool! You’ve got a skateboard! Is it big? How many tricks can you do on it? Where do you keep
it?
Write back soon.

Love
Mary Ivanova

Answer the following questions to analyse the letter:


1) Is there the required number of words?
В письме 91 слово, поэтому оно будет проверено.
2) What questions did they answer?
• What is a typical Russian teenager like?
Ответ дан: Russian teenagers are the same as in the other countries.

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Unit 1 Family and friends

• What do they enjoy?


Ответ дан: They like playing computer games and doing sports.
• What do they like to do in their free time?
Ответ дан: I think the most popular activity among boys is football and as for the
girls, tastes differ. They are fond of music and going shopping.
3) What questions did they ask? Comment on them.
Заданы 3 вопроса о новом хобби:
• You’ve got a skateboard! Is it big?
• How many tricks can you do on it?
• Where do you keep it?
4) Did the student begin and finish the letter according to the rules of letter writing?
Не совсем: нет благодарности за полученное письмо, ссылки на предыдущие контакты.
5) Is the style informal?
Стиль местами чересчур неформальный: обращение “Hi, there! “, завершающая фраза
“Lots of love“. Кроме этого, другим нарушением стилевого оформления является под-
пись автора: указана его фамилия.

Sample letter organisation analysis


Exercise 1. Read the beginning of a student’s letter.
Why will the student NOT score maximum points for the organisation?

27 November, 2010
Russia, Moscow
Eletskaya st., 20, 42
Dear David, thanks for your letter. I hope you’re fine. Here’s information
about Russian teenagers.

Answer the questions. Write Yes/No:


1) Are the author’s address and the date in the top right corner? YES
2) Are they written correctly? NO
Дата должна быть написана под адресом. Адрес написан неверно. При написании
полного адреса следует начинать с номера квартиры, затем следуют номер дома, на-
звание улицы, города, страны.
3) Is the salutation written on a separate line? NO
Обращение написано на одной строке с благодарностью за письмо.

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Task 39. Letter writing

Improve this part of the letter


Согласно правилам адрес и дата должны быть написаны следующим образом:
Flat 42, house 20
Eletskaya st.,
Moscow
Russia,
27 November, 2010
Однако на экзамене допустим сокращенный вариант написания адреса:
Moscow, Russia
Следующая часть письма должна выглядеть так:

Dear David,
Thanks for your letter. It was nice to hear from you again. I hope you’re fine.

В следующем абзаце:

Here’s information about Russian teenagers…

Exercise 2. Read the rest of the letter.

I think they are the same like teenagers in other countries. Some of them are polite and well-
behaved, and some of them can be rude and aggressive. But anyway, they are OK and fine. My
mum says that modern teenagers spend too much time on sports, and what about you? They
like to go out and hang out with their friends. The most popular activity is playing computer
games. And they like doing sports. That’s all I want to tell you. Do you need to know anything
else? Do you like to do any other sport? And now about your skateboard. How is it? Do you
know any tricks? Look forward to hearing from you. Best wishes,
Andrew

Answer the following questions. Write Yes/No or make some comments:


1) Is it written in paragraphs:
• Main body ( answering the questions) NO
• Main body (asking questions) NO
2) Did the student use linking words?
В письме мало используются средства связи: I think, and but (которые стоят в начале
предложений). Автор не использует средства связи при смене тем внутри второго аб-
заца и между двумя абзацами: ответами на вопросы и вопросами задания.
3) Is it logical?
Ответы на вопросы не совсем логичны. Не совсем понятна фраза "But anyway, they
are OK and fine," которой предшествует описание современных тинейджеров. Изли-
шен вопрос "What about you?" в конце предложения про то, чем увлекаются подрост-
ки, так как далее следует продолжение про их увлечения.

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Unit 1 Family and friends

Кроме этого, нарушена логика в последовательности заданных вопросов. Нужно было


задать вопросы о новом хобби (skateboarding). Однако первый вопрос "Do you like
to do any other sport?" выглядит не совсем логичным. Далее автор вдруг вспомина-
ет про скейтборд: "And now about your skateboard. How is it?". Только не ясно, что
именно он хотел спросить. Последний вопрос по сути единственный, который здесь
можно принять: "Do you know any tricks?"
4) Are the ending the letter, signing off and the signature on separate lines?
В письме фраза о надежде на последующие контакты и завершающая фраза не выне-
сены в отдельную строку. Имя написано в правом нижнем углу, хотя следует писать
в нижнем левом.
Improve this part of the letter
Данная часть письма могла бы выглядеть следующим образом:

Here’s information about Russian teenagers. I think they are the same as teenagers in other
countries. Some of them are polite and well-behaved, and some of them can be rude and
aggressive. As for things they enjoy, I think they like to go out and hang out with their friends.
The most popular activities are playing computer games and doing sports.
That’s all I want to tell you.
By the way, what about your new hobby? How often do you go skateboarding? Do you do it
alone or with your friends? Can you do any tricks?
Look forward to hearing from you.
Best wishes,
Andrew

Linking ideas
В таблице представлены союзы, наиболее типичные для написания личного письма
в соответствии с неформальным стилем.
Exercise 1. Complete the sentences from different letters using linking words.
1-B. My Mum asks me to go shopping. I also do some dishwashing.
2-C. Russian teenagers don’t differ from the teens abroad. What is more, they have
many similar hobbies and interests.
3-B. Though I often have arguments with my parents about my spare time, we are good
friends.
4-C. Many teenagers like to spend their time playing computer games, but my hobby is
music.
5-A. Sometimes they spend too much time on their hobbies and as a result they don’t
pass their exams well.
6-B. My sister didn’t work hard. However, she still passed.
7-A. Many modern teenagers can have health problems due to the pressure at school

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Task 39. Letter writing

and relations with friends and parents.


8-С. As they don’t earn money, they have to ask it from their parents.
9-A. If modern teens had some part-time jobs, they would be able to value
the money they have. So, they’d be more responsible and as a result have fewer
arguments with their parents.

Language usage
Task 1. Read the task.
You have received a letter from your English-speaking friend Emily who writes:

…By the way, could you tell me what type of clothes Russian teens wear nowadays? Is there
any special fashion for teens? What kind of clothes do you usually wear?
Guess what! My sister is getting married next summer…

Write back to Emily


In your letter:
• answer her questions;
• ask 3 questions about her sister’s marriage.
Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.
Exercise 1. Read the student’s letter. Correct 6 grammar, 8 vocabulary, 1 spelling
mistakes. Put a tick ( ) if a line is correct.

(1) Russia, Moscow (1) Moscow, Russia


(2) 30/09/2014 (2)
(3) Hello Emily, (3) Dear Emily, (style)
(4) Nice to hear you again. I love your last letter it was so (4) To hear from
you (voc),
I liked (gr)
(5) funny. (5)
(6) About Russian teenagers I can tell that today we don’t (6) As for Russian
teenagers, (voc)
nowadays (voc)
(7) have any special clothes, but earlier in Russia was (7) there were (gr),
(8) many different styles and fashion in that clothes. Yes, (8) fashion for teens
(voc)
(9) we love special fashion, but everybody can join it. As (9) we have (voc),
a special fashion (gr),
can follow (voc)
(10) for me, I prefer casual clothes. (10)

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Unit 1 Family and friends

(11) It really a good news that your sister is getting (11) it is really good
news (gr+gr)
(12) married. I’m so happy and proud. Is she happy with (12)
(13) him. Where did they know each other, your sister (13) him? (p) meet
and (voc)
(14) her husband? Where they want to spend their (14) where are they
going (gr)
(15) marriage? (15) honeymoon (voc)
(16) Best wishes, (16)
(17) Peter (17)

Exercise 2. Improve the content and organisation.


Content:
1) Нет благодарности за предыдущее письмо, не выражена надежда на будущие
контакты.
2) Ответы на вопросы.
What type of clothes do Russian teens wear nowadays?
Ответа нет.
Is there any special fashion for teens?
Ответ дан: Yes, we love special fashion, but everybody can join it
What kind of clothes do you usually wear?
Ответ дан: As for me, I prefer casual clothes.
3) Заданные вопросы о свадьбе сестры.
Заданы 3 вопроса, однако они не о свадьбе, а о том, где сестра познакомилась с му-
жем, счастлива ли она и где они будут проводить медовый месяц.
Organisation:
1) Неправильно написан адрес: Moscow, Russia.
2) Неверно расположены адрес и дата: верхний правый угол.
3) Неправильно употреблен линкер About Russian teenagers (as for).

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Task 39. Letter writing

Guided practice
Task 1. Read the task.

You have received a letter from your English-speaking friend Pam who writes.

…Yesterday my mum told me off because I didn’t tidy my room. What about you? Do you
help your parents about the house? What are your duties? Who cooks most of the meals in
your home?
As for my plans for the summer, I’m going to Spain with my friends. We’ll be studying
Spanish at a summer school…

Write a letter to Pam. In your letter:


• answer her questions;
• ask 3 questions about her trip to Spain.
Write 100–140 words.
Remember the rules of letter writing.
Exercise 1. Underline the questions you are going to answer.
What three questions can you ask. Смотри подчеркивание и выделение в зада-
нии-письме на стр. 25.
Exercise 2. Complete the letter.

Moscow,
Russia
5.02.2015
Dear Pam,
Thank you for your letter. It was nice to hear from you again.
Sorry for not answering you earlier: I was busy with my project.
You asked me if I help my parents about the house. Actually, I try to help my parents as they
are very busy. I usually clean my room, throw away the garbage and sometimes buy some
food. However, I don’t cook any meals as my mum usually does it.
It’s great news that you’re going to Spain. Where are you going to live there? Where is the
summer school situated? Are you going to visit any places of interest there?
That’s all for now.
Write back soon.
Best wishes,
Maria

More writing practice


Задания данного раздела предназначены для самостоятельной работы учащихся. При
выполнении некоторых заданий следует обратить внимание учащихся, что в некото-
рых рубриках могут содержаться так называемые «подвопросы» как, например,
в задании № 2:

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Unit 1 Family and friends

Yesterday my friends and I went to the cafe. During our lunch we discussed a lot of
topics. What kind of things do you talk about with your friends and where do you
prefer to talk? Do you discuss the same things with your parents? Why / why not?
Last week I watched a musical…
Следует обратить внимание учащихся на то, что даже если два вопроса стоят в одном
предложении, то нужно обязательно ответить на каждую его часть. То же касается от-
дельно стоящих Why  / why not?, которые обязательно нуждаются в пояснении.

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Task 40. Writing an opinion essay

Part 2. Russian State Exam:


Task 40. Writing an opinion essay
В начале раздела даны критерии оценивания сочинения-рассуждения. Официальная
версия критериев размещена на сайте ФИПИ. Для удобства работы учителя и учащих-
ся мы также поме стили их в разделе «Приложения».
Task 1. Comment on the following statement.

Many people think that it is better to be an only child in a family than to have brothers or
sisters.

What is your opinion?


Write 200–250 words.
Exercise 1. Read the sample essay and match the paragraphs with these headings:
Paragraph 1-B, introduction, stating the problem
Paragraph 2-A, the writer’s opinion on the problem and reasoning
Paragraph 3-D, an opposing opinion and reasoning
Paragraph 4-E, explanations why the writer doesn’t agree with this point of view
Paragraph 5-C, a conclusion restating the writer’s position

Nowadays, there is an opinion that being an only child in a family gives one Paragraph 1
more opportunities than when growing with siblings. However, there are
families that prefer to have many children. So, is life better for children who grow
up with or without brothers and sisters?
In my opinion, there are more benefits than drawbacks of being an only Paragraph 2
child. Firstly, it is hard to deny that children with no brothers or sisters are more
confident and secure as they get more attention from their parents than children
in large families. Secondly, it is also true that brothers and sisters in large families
often argue a lot. They have to share possessions and living space, and this can
lead to conflicts, while an only child doesn’t face this problem.
Nonetheless, some people claim that children with no brothers or sisters may Paragraph 3
sometimes feel lonely, as they have no one at home to play with. Moreover, it is
"believed that they are often spoilt", because their parents give them whatever
they want, so they don’t learn to share or to co-operate with other people.
Personally, I cannot agree with these people. Having brothers or sisters does Paragraph 4
not always mean being good friends with them, especially if there is a large
generation gap. In addition, nowadays, it is easy to find friends to communicate
in social nets or in the school community and learn to help and support them in
difficult situations.
To sum up, in my view, there are clearly more advantages of being an only child, Paragraph 5
though it depends on personal experience and individual circumstances. (267)

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Unit 1 Family and friends

Задание 40 Единого государственного экзамена по иностранному языку – это написа-


ние сочинения с элементами рассуждения.
Прежде чем приступить к выполнению данного задания, нужно внимательно ознако-
миться с рубрикой и критериями оценивания, то есть с требованиями, предъявляемы-
ми к экзаменуемым.
Первый критерий – «Содержание».
За него можно получить максимум 3 балла. При оценивании работы по данному
критерию эксперты обращают внимание на следующее:
1) Объем сочинения составляет 200–250 слов. При этом допустимо откло-
нение от заданного объема в 10%. То есть минимальное количество слов, при
котором работа будет проверена, – 180, а максимально допустимое – 275. Если
учащийся пишет менее 180 слов, работа НЕ проверяется и за задание выставляется
0 баллов. Если объем высказывания составляет больше допустимого отклонения
хотя бы на 1 слово, от начала работы отсчитываются 250 слов и оценивается
ТОЛЬКО эта часть работы. Таким образом, учащийся теряет балл сразу и по крите-
рию «Содержание» (превышен объем слов, один или более аспектов не входит
в работу), и по критерию «Организация» (соответствие сочинения плану).
2) В сочинении должны присутствовать ВСЕ аспекты согласно предложенному пла-
ну: вступление, мнение автора с аргументами, мнение других людей
с аргументами, несогласие автора с их позицией с объяснением почему, вы-
вод, в котором автор обобщает сказанное и еще раз выражает свое мнениe.

3) Во вступлении автор должен сформулировать проблему сочинения


СВОИМИ словами, перефразируя идеи из рубрики. НЕЛЬЗЯ переписывать тему
слово в слово. За это снижается оценка. Во вступлении важно выделить положи-
тельные и отрицательные аспекты проблемы, заявив о столкновении различных
точек зрения. При этом можно кратко выразить свое мнение, однако это не обяза-
тельно. Согласно плану четкая формулировка своей позиции должна быть в следу-
ющем абзаце.
4) Во втором абзаце автор заявляет о своей позиции, подкрепляя ее двумя
аргументами. Аргументы должны быть развернутыми, то есть необходимо, чтобы
они содержали примеры или развернутые объяснения.
5) В третьем абзаце формулируется мнение других людей по данной проблеме.
Оно противоположно и также должно быть подкреплено двумя аргументами. При
написании данного абзаца обязательно нужно начать с фразы However / On the
other hand some people think / consider, etc. … , чтобы показать, что это мнение
других людей, а не абстрактные рассуждения автора о «другой стороне медали»,
что характерно для сочинения «за и против».
6) В четвертом абзаце автор должен объяснить, почему он не согласен с этим
мнением, приведя хотя бы один развернутый контраргумент.
7) В заключении необходимо подытожить все сказанное и еще раз подчеркнуть
свою точку зрения, заявленную во втором абзаце.

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Task 40. Writing an opinion essay

Второй критерий – «Организация» (3 балла)


При оценивании работ по данному критерию эксперты обращают внимание
на следую­щее:
• насколько правильно автор следовал предложенному плану, разделяя работу
на абзацы;
• логично ли его высказывание. При этом нужно следить как за логикой внутри
абзацев, так и за логикой развития аргументации и контраргументации;
• как автор использовал средства связи для перехода от одного абзаца к другому,
для демонстрации причинно-следственных связей, при перечислении и тому по-
добное.
Третий, четвертый и пятый критерии – это оценивание лексики (3 балла), грам-
матики (3 балла) и правописания (2 балла). При оценивании учитывается, насколько
точно и грамотно употреблены лексика и грамматика. Кроме этого, важно продемон-
стрировать высокий уровень словарного запаса, достаточный для выполнения данного
задания.

Topic /Focus
Приступая к написанию сочинения, важно правильно понять, о чем тема. Поэтому не-
обходимо внимательно прочитать рубрику.
Ключевая идея данного задания – это то, что обсуждение планов и идей спо-
собствует укреплению семьи. Однако, не прочитав рубрику внимательно, мож-
но сузить тему до проблемы, следовать или нет советам родителей.

Task 1. Comment on the following statement.

Sharing one’s plans and ideas with parents contribute to a family’s mutual
understanding and harmony.

What is your opinion?


Exercise 1. Read some paragraphs from the students’ essays.
Which of them are related to the topic?

A. In my opinion, there are many advantages of discussing one’s plans and


opinions with parents. Firstly, parents know better. They are more experienced
and have lived long lives. That is why they can definitely give a good piece of
advice. Secondly, they love their children and want them to be happy.
Therefore, they are always ready to help and support their children.

Первый абзац написан на другую тему: насколько полезно подросткам следовать со-
ветам родителей. Несмотря на то что автор привел два хороших развернутых аргумен-
та, они не будут засчитаны.

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Unit 1 Family and friends

B. Personally I don’t agree with these people. Firstly, it is much easier to communicate
with the members of your family if you don’t have secrets from each other. Secondly,
having secrets can lead to misunderstanding between the close people and even
arguments as soon as their secrets are revealed….

Второй абзац содержит аргументы, отстаивающие мнения автора о том, что плохо
иметь секреты друг от друга: единственное, не хватает акцента на то, что наличие та-
ких секретов отразится именно на взаимоотношениях в СЕМЬЕ.

C. However, some people think that sharing with one’s family everything you think
about can be a reason for a quarrel. For example, if you’re born in a family of
engineers, you may have some troubles if you say that you hate maths and prefer
literature. Moreover, your parents tell you what they would do in each situation,
but you are not them, so you should learn how to solve problems yourself.

В третьем абзаце первый аргумент отражает заявленную тему: some people think that
sharing with one’s family everything you think about can be a reason for a quarrel,
а второй скорее на тему, стоит ли подросткам следовать советам родителей: Moreover,
your parents tell you what they would do in each situation, but you are not them, so
you should learn how to solve problems yourself.

Making and presenting an argument


Данный раздел начинается с объяснения того, как нужно начать конкретный абзац
и как правильно сформулировать аргумент.
Нужно обратить внимание учащихся на фразы-клише, которые пишутся в начале аб-
зацев и позволяют четко структурировать их высказывания согласно плану задания.
Кроме этого, важно усвоить, что аргумент состоит из нескольких частей:
1) выдвигается общий тезис / идея о чем-то;
2) эта идея подкрепляется примерами или пояснениями.
Аргументом не может быть просто идея автора типа: “This is a good book because
I like it.“ Автор должен объяснить, почему она ему нравится:
This is a good book. The plot is gripping, and the characters are unusual. That is why
I like it.
То есть, помимо идеи, должны быть какие-то "because"… , убеждающие читателя
в том, что эта идея автора заслуживает внимания.

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Task 40. Writing an opinion essay

Exercise 1. Read the sample essay again and find justifications for the given
arguments:

Argument Justification / example
children with no brothers or sisters are as they get more attention from their
more confident and secure parents than children in large families
brothers and sisters in large families They have to share possessions and living
often argue a lot space, and this can lead to conflicts
children with no brothers or sisters as they have no one at home to play
may sometimes feel lonely with.
they are often “spoilt“, because their parents give them
whatever they want so they don’t learn
to share or to co-operate with other
people.
Having brothers or sisters does not especially if there is a large generation
always mean being good friends with gap.
them,

Exercise 2. Read the second paragraph of another opinion essay on the same topic.
Make some improvements considering the following questions:
a. What information is irrelevant?
b. What is NOT logical?

In my opinion, there are many advantages of having siblings. First, children who
have brothers or sisters learn many values and life skills that are necessary in
life. This includes sharing, considering the feelings and understanding people.
(1) There are many things that you can share: toys, T-shirts and even shoes.
(2) Also, you can share the money parents give you. As a result, children who
have siblings are better able to make and maintain friendship. Secondly, in many
families elder siblings protect and support the younger ones. They help them
to stand up to a bully and prevent them from being hurt. Yesterday my elder
brother had a talk with the boy that took my mobile phone.
(3) However, he smokes a lot and the smell is awful!

Выделенные предложения являются лишними в данном абзаце. Они не развивают


аргументы и нарушают логику высказывания.
Exercise 3. Read the third paragraph of the opinion essay. Why will the student NOT
score maximum points for the content?
1) В абзаце аргументы не подкреплены примерами или пояснениями.
2) Rewrite paragraph 3 using the following sentences. Make all the necessary
changes.

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Unit 1 Family and friends

However, some people believe that having siblings has some disadvantages.
To begin with, conflicts between brothers or sisters are inevitable. The older
ones can tease their younger ones, while the younger ones would try to defend
themselves. Children borrow their stuff without permission, push each other,
and even fight. Moreover, when there are several children in a family, the
parents have to divide their time, money and even love equally. As a result,
children may feel abandoned and depressed and have less pocket money.

Exercise 4. Read the following counter-arguments for the previous paragraph.


Which of them do you find logical ( )? Which of them are not logical at all (Х)?
Необходимо обосновать контраргументы на любой из приведенных в третьем абзаце:
Первый – о том, что в многодетных семьях неизбежны конфликты между детьми.
Второй – о том, что детям достается мало родительской любви, внимания и денег.
1. I don’t agree with these opinions. Needless to say that one can get used to having
conflicts. Any time, my brother tries to argue I switch on stereo system and pay no
attention to him.
Была попытка «отбить» посыл о неизбежных конфликтах. Однако вместо контраргумента
здесь скорее описан собственный опыт учащегося: как он решает проблему конфликтов.

2. However, I don’t agree with these opinions. Though children might have some
conflicts, which is just inevitable in people’s lives, this teaches them to solve the
problems and be more tolerant.
Это логичное возражение по поводу неизбежных конфликтов в больших семьях.

3. They might be true, but life without my elder brother would be boring and
monotonous.
Аргумент совсем не логичен. Это рассуждение о жизни без брата вообще.

4. Personally, I disagree with my opponents because when your parents get older,
your siblings help you to look after them.
Данный контраргумент не относится ни к одному из приведенных в предыдущем аб-
заце.
5. Though they may be right, I can’t agree with them. When parents pay too much
attention to their children and give them everything they want, they grow selfish
and spoilt. So, in my opinion, in big families children having equal amount of
love and money learn to be modest and rely on themselves.
Данный контраргумент можно принять. В нем развивается обратная сторона ситуации,
когда родители не уделяют должного внимания всем детям в многодетной семье.

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Task 40. Writing an opinion essay

Linking ideas
Exercise 1. Look at the expressions that link different ideas. Which of them can you
find in the sample essay?
В образце используются следующие средства связи:
However, so, in my opinion, firstly, secondly, while, nonetheless, moreover, because,
so, in addition.
Exercise 2. Choose the correct alternative.
1. Despite.
2. However.
3. Furthermore.
4. Nevertheless.
5. Nevertheless.
6. Although.
Exercise 3. Students’ own answers.
Exercise 4.
1) 1-B 2-D 3-C 4-A
2) Возможные варианты предложений:
Secondly / Moreover, you can be sure your home-made outfit is original. As a result,
when you go out on a special occasion you are much less likely to meet someone
wearing the same dress as you!
However, it is not always cheap because / as / since you need a good sewing
machine, which can be very expensive, and using the best fabric and sewing materials
adds to the cost of an outfit.
In addition, it is time-consuming as it often takes more than a month to design and
sew an elaborate piece of clothing.
Exercise 5. Comment on the following statement.
It is believed that family traditions unite the members of a family. However, some
argue that they are a waste of time. What is your opinion?
1) 1-C; 2-E; 3-D; 4-A; 5-B.
2) Возможные варианты предложений:
Firstly, keeping up family traditions provides a sense of identity because you begin to
understand your past, and know that you belong to your family.
In addition, it brings confidence in children. It is the fact that / it is hard to deny
that children who know their family’s history are more well-adjusted and self-
confident and have fewer emotional and behaviour problems.
Moreover, following traditions strengthen the family bonds because through regular
family dinners or activities, the familial solidarity is instilled.
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Unit 1 Family and friends

It also teaches values providing a chance for face-to –face communication, thus,
helping family members to get to know and trust each other more closely.
Besides of that, it connects generations as it is true that we all have a lot of great
memories of interacting with grandmothers and grandfathers.

Developing counter-arguments
При обучении учащихся умению приводить контраргументы, следует обратить их
внимание на то, что абзац с контраргументом может начинаться с фразы про мнение
других людей (I don’t agree with these people’s opinion) либо с фразы об аргументах
(I don’t agree with these arguments).
Далее важно, что контраргументы должны соответствовать тематике высказанного
мнения и быть логичными.
В таблице Книги для учащегося приведен пример логичного контраргумента на мне-
ние других людей, однако типичной ошибкой учащихся является добавление допол-
нительных аргументов, которые могут и не являться контраргументами на высказанное
чужое мнение или повторение сказанного во втором абзаце.

Например:

Параграф 3. Мнение других людей о том, что лучше: покупать одежду или
шить самим.

In addition, making clothes by your own is not always cheap as you need a good
sewing machine, which can be very expensive, and using the best fabrics and
sewing materials adds to the cost of an outfit.

Параграф 4. Почему я с ними не согласен.

However, I can’t agree with these people. In my opinion, it is obviously more


beneficial to make clothes yourself as when you go out on a special occasion
you are much less lokely to meet someone wearing the same dress as yours.

Мы видим, что автор высказался просто о положительных сторонах рукоделия вместо


того, чтобы объяснить, что можно уменьшить затраты на шитье.

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Task 40. Writing an opinion essay

Exercise 1
1-C; 2-A.
Exercise 2. Comment on the following statement:

It is believed that family traditions unite the members of the family. However, some argue that
they are a waste of time. What is your opinion?

Возможные контраргументы:

Argument Counter-argument

1. Firstly, different family activities Unfortunately, not all the memories can
connect generations. We all have a lot cause positive emotions. Families differ
of great memories of interacting with and sometimes there are cases when
grandmothers and grandfathers, for it is better to forget about some sad or
example, playing games or listening to unpleasant things.
bedtime stories.

2. Moreover, keeping to family Sometimes the things that our


traditions brings confidence to all grandmothers and grandfathers used
family members, especially children. to do are not understood by the modern
It has been proved that, children who generations. Thus, forcing to keep them
know their family’s history are more up might even worsen the relationship
well-adjusted and self-confident and and make the children suffer.
have fewer emotional and behaviour
problems.

Writing an introduction and conclusion


Exercise 1. Read the task in ex. 2 on p. 33 again and the following introduction to the
essay. How do they differ?
Во вступлении необходимо перефразировать слова из рубрики. Списанные
точь-в-точь предложения приведут к понижению балла по критерию «Содержание».

Exercise 2. Возможный вариант вступления:

It is the fact that a family plays an important role in people’s lives. Therefore, it is beyond
doubts that one of the things that helps to strengthen the family bonds is following its
traditions. However, nowadays there are some people who believe that keeping up traditions
doesn’t help to unite a family.

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Unit 1 Family and friends

An opinion essay conclusion


При написании заключения на экзамене необходимо не забыть ЕЩЕ РАЗ подчеркнуть
свою точку зрения по проблеме, стараясь не повторять уже приведенные доводы и ис-
пользуя другую лексику.
Типичной ошибкой учащихся является написание вывода, который имеет две точки
зрения, что характерно для сочинения «за и против». Другой ошибкой является напи-
сание вывода с выражением точки зрения, противоположной той, которая была заяв-
лена во втором абзаце.
В первом случае будет снижена оценка по критерию «Содержание», во втором – по
критерию «Организация» (это считается нарушением логики).

Exercise 3. Возможное заключение:

In conclusion, though some people prefer to follow a family’s traditions, in my opinion,


keeping them up can be both a waste of time and money as sometimes people from different
generations can’t understand each other’s way of life and this causes even worse conflicts
within the family.

Exercise 4. Возможная лексика:


1) Many people consider/are convinced / believe… when children leave school…
they should begin their own life/ start living separately from their parents…
Conclusion: students’ own answers.
2) It is believed that/it is considered that… there will not be traditional shops…
People will buy things only via the Internet with home delivery
Conclusion: students’ own answers.
3) Going to cafes and restaurants… can be not comfortable as there are many people there …
it is much better… to have a meal prepared at home
Conclusion: students’ own answers.
4) Some people think/ It is believed that… children should be given money / parents should
pay their children for doing household chores… children should not be paid for this
Conclusion: students’ own answers.

Guided Writing Practice

Task 1. Comment on the following statement:

The majority of teenagers try to follow the fashion. However, adults think that there are more
important things.

What is your opinion?


Write 200–250 words.

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Task 40. Writing an opinion essay

Use the following plan:


• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.
Exercise 1.
Во вступлении учащийся не перефразировал задание из рубрики, повторив его слово
в слово.
Возможные варианты для перифраза:
Most teenagers try to look and dress smartly / to wear fashionable clothes, adults
consider /- their parents believe some things to be more important.
Exercise 2.
A. Read the rest of the essay and divide it into paragraphs.
Конец первого абзаца – после предложения: What is more, everybody should find
their own style to express their individuality.
Второй абзац – мнение других людей начинается с предложения: Nevertheless,
many adults don’t understand….
Третий абзац – I don’t agree with them because…
Заключение – To sum up I would like to point out…
I don’t agree with them because nobody likes to dress in styles that are too old for
them, and besides, teens’ fashion is quite specific.
To sum up I would like to point out that the modern lifestyle makes us look
fashionable therefore teenagers should learn how to look nice.
B. Read it again and say if:

1) ...all the information is relevant? Cross out the irrelevant information.


В первом абзаце нерелевантными являются предложения:
I usually try to buy such clothes myself. As for me, I prefer hand-made or designed
clothes. Они нарушают логику развития аргумента о том, как повышается уверенность
в себе, если человек красиво одевается.
Лишними также являются предложения в конце первого абзаца: Besides, it is
important for businessmen because their looks can help to make or lose money.
However, I feel that looking clean and tidy is even more important than looking
stylish. What is more, everybody should find their own style to express their
individuality. Они не являются новыми аргументами и не объясняют приведенных
ранее.

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Unit 1 Family and friends

2) ...all the arguments are presented in a logical way.


Аргументы не совсем логичны. Так, в первом абзаце можно увидеть две ключевые
идеи: следование моде повышает уверенность в себе, и люди, одетые красиво, при-
влекают больше внимания. Однако автор запутался в примерах и объяснениях, распо-
ложив их беспорядочно.
Было бы лучше объединить все примеры и объяснения после основной идеи аргу-
мента:

E.g.: Fashionable clothes improve one’s self-esteem. When you are up with
fashion you feel confident. Many youngsters do not always feel confident. They
suffer from stress and anxiety.
Good-looking people usually attract more attention. Smartly dressed teenagers
are more likely to make new friends.
3) ...the student used linking words where necessary?
Помимо нарушения логической последовательности развития аргументов, автор ми-
нимально использовал средства связи, что также отразилось на стройности высказы-
вания. Так, его аргументы выглядели бы значительно логичнее, если бы между ними
были использованы союзы.
Возможный вариант второго абзаца.
Firstly, fashionable clothes improve one’s self-esteem. It is true, that when
you are up with fashion you feel confident, which is very important for
teenagers as many youngsters do not always feel confident and suffer from
stress and anxiety.
Moreover, good-looking people usually attract more attention. Therefore, smartly
dressed teenagers are more likely to make new friends.
Третий абзац содержит мнение других людей. Однако это мнение не соответствует
заявленной теме – о том, какие приоритеты у детей и родителей: подростки хотят вы-
глядеть модно и делают все для этого, а их родители считают, что есть более важные
вещи, на которые стоит обращать внимание. В данном абзаце речь идет о том, что
родители не современны и не понимают подростковую моду. Логичнее было бы на-
писать, какие вещи они считают более важными, например, учебу, выбор профессии
и тому подобное.
4) ...s/he used the requires number of words (200–250)?
Написаны 30 слов во вступлении и 211 слов в остальной части: таким образом, объ-
ем высказывания соответствует норме.

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Task 40. Writing an opinion essay

Task 2. Comment on the following statement.

Old people’s homes are the most suitable residences for the elderly.

What is your opinion?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.
Exercise 1. Here are some topic sentences for each paragraph for an opinion essay.
Match them with the essay plan. There is one sentence you won’t need.
Introduction-C
Paragraph 2, my opinion-D
Paragraph 3, other people’s opinions-F
Paragraph 4, why I don’t agree with them-E
Conclusion-A
Утверждение В является лишним, так как не отражает проблему сочинения, а коммен-
тирует ситуацию озабоченности жильем для стареющего населения.
Exercise 2.
Возможный вариант использования другой лексики:
The most suitable residences: the best places to live.
Old people’s homes: nursing homes.
The elderly: people in their 70s or 80s.
Introduction: students’ own answers.

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Unit 1 Family and friends

Exercise 3.
Возможное развитие аргументов в поддержку и против проживания стариков в домах
для престарелых:

For Against
1 ) Facilities 1) How would they feel?
To benefit from (-ing), to feel unwanted, suffer from boredom,
necessary facilities, suitable depression, be surrounded by one’s
E.g.: They can benefit from necessary children and grandchildren, to feel
facilities, such as comfortable living the atmosphere of true love,
rooms, gyms, walking areas, etc. not to like the idea, to be considered.
E.g.: They might feel unwanted,
because they will miss their family,
2) Medical care where they were surrounded by
an emergency, to attend their children and grandchildren.
a sick resident As a result, they might suffer
E.g.: They will have an opportunity from boredom and depression…
to be taken care of, as the Only in a family one can feel the
medical personal attends a sick atmosphere of a true love…
resident in cases of emergency. Their opinion must be considered…
2) The food
3) Communication with unsuitable
other people The food might not suit them…
to meet and get friends, 3) The care
similar interests to treat with respect,
E.g.: They will be treated with E.g.: They might not be treated with
respect and might be able to meet respect, and as a result, suffer from it.
new friends, and communicate with They might even suffer from
people of the same ages and interests. physical mistreatment.
4) Living conditions
(un)hygienic, to be cleaned
save money on sth, cleaning staff
E.g.: The living conditions may not
be appropriate and even unhygienic
as it sometimes happens that they
save money on the cleaning staff…

Which of the ideas can you choose to develop counter arguments?

Развивая данную тему, нужно обратить внимание учащихся на то, что некоторые
идеи могут стать друг для друга контраргументами.

Например, в домах для престарелых пожилые люди могут попасть как в хорошие
условия для проживания, так и в плохие; получить надлежащий уход или столкнуться
с неуважением; встретить новых друзей или скучать по родным и близким.

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Task 40. Writing an opinion essay

Таким образом, нужно показать, как построить свое сочинение, какие аргументы ис-
пользовать в абзаце – выражении своего мнения, а какие – в абзаце для выражения
несогласия с мнениями других людей.
Например, если выбрать позицию автора: «Я против того, чтобы старики жили
в домах для престарелых», то во втором абзаце можно развивать аргументы № 1 из
графы "against".
Тогда для мнения других людей из графы "for" можно взять аргументы
№ 1 ("facilities"), № 2 ("medical care"), а в качестве контраргументов – идеи
из графы "against, аргументы № 3 ("care"), № 4 ("living conditions").

Exercise 4. Students’ own answers.

Task 3. Comment on the following statement.

It is considered that giving pocket money to teenagers doesn’t do them any good.

What is your opinion?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.
Exercise 1. Students’ own answers.

Exercise 2.
1-C, 2-D, 3-B, 4-A.

Exercise 3. Students’ own answers.


Exercise 4.
Возможные варианты развития темы:
1. Мнение автора: for giving pocket money
Paragraph 2: Some arguments to support my opinion:
1) They feel personal satisfaction when spending money they have saved.
2) They develop a feeling of independence / maturity as they can buy things
themselves.

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Unit 1 Family and friends

Paragraph 3-other people’s opinion


1) They can’t appreciate the value of money they haven’t earned themselves.
2) They get spoilt / take money for granted as they can easily get it from their
parents.
Paragraph 4. Why I don’t agree with them
1) If parents discuss money matters with their children and trust them, they
appreciate parents and the value of money.
2) It teaches responsibility because they make decisions how to spend the money
they have.
2. Мнение автора: against giving pocket money (возможная последовательность ар-
гументов):
Paragraph 2. Some arguments to support my opinion:
1) Children become spoilt / take money for granted.
2) It discourages them from finding a part-time job.
Paragraph 3. Other people’s opinions:
1) They appreciate parents / value of money.
2) They develop the feeling of independence / maturity.
Paragraph 4. Why I don’t agree with them:
1) One can’t appreciate the value of money they haven’t earned themselves.
2) The feeling of independence and maturity can be developed by other means:
for example, helping and taking care of the elderly relatives.
Task 4. Comment on the following statement.

The modern generation of teenagers is worse than previous generations of teenagers.

What is your opinion?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.
Exercise 1.
Возможный вариант использования другой лексики:
The modern generation of teenagers: the teenagers of the 21st century.
To be worse than: to be better than (о предыдущем поколении подростков).
The previous generations of teenagers: the generations of teens of the last century.

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Task 40. Writing an opinion essay

Introduction: students’ own answers.


Exercise 2.
Возможные идеи, почему поколение современных подростков хуже, чем предыдущее
поколение:
• they don’t respect the parents and elderly people;
• they don’t appreciate moral values;
• they are badly behaved, study and work less…
Exercise 3.
Возможные идеи:
• many teenagers leave school with good results (gold medals, high grades);
• become successful in their life (get high education, a highly paid job, make
a career);
• do household chores (help parents about the house, take care of their
grandparents / younger brothers, sisters, etc.);
• take part in different competitions (go in for sports, set records, get awards,
prizes, etc.).
Exercise 4.
Сопоставив идеи «за» и «против» на мысль о том, что современное поколение под-
ростков хуже предыдущего, можно выстроить вариант развития аргументации
и контр­аргументации:
• например, контраргументом на мысль they are badly behaved, study and work
less… будут идеи many teenagers leave school with good results (gold medals, high
grades), take part in different competitions (go in for sports, set records, get awards,
prizes, etc.), become successful in their life (get high education, a highly paid job,
make a career);
• для аргумента they don’t appreciate moral values контраргументом мо-
жет стать do household chores (help parents about the house, take care of their
grandparents / younger brothers, sisters, etc.);
• таким образом, лучше выбрать позицию защиты современных подростков и
для своего мнения взять два аргумента из упр. № 3, например: many teenagers
leave school with good results, become successful in their life (get high education, a
highly paid job, make a career);
• затем выразить противоположную точку зрения при помощи аргументов they
are badly behaved, study and work less…, they don’t appreciate moral values
• и после этого объяснить, почему вы с ними не согласны, при помощи контр­
аргумента do household chores (help parents about the house, take care of their
grandparents / younger brothers, sisters, etc.).

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Unit 1 Family and friends

Exercise 5.
Мнение автора совпадает с утверждением в рубрике, поэтому из предложенных за-
ключений наиболее подходящим является первое.

1. All in all, it can be said that each generation has their problems in life. However,
I consider that there are reasons to criticize teenagers today.

Во втором заключении не выражено мнение автора, идет абстрактное рассуждение о


проблеме.

2. To sum up, the main reason for such unjust attitude to teenagers is the generation gap. It is
difficult for adults to admit that teenagers have the right to have their own fashion,
music and habits. Of course not all teens are ideal, but by and large they are no worse
than their parents.

В третьем приводится пример своей семьи и на этом основании делается глобальный


вывод обо всех поколениях подростков.

3. In conclusion, I would like to mention that my grandparents also had some problems with
their parents. They also didn’t understand each other, therefore today’s teenagers are not
worse than the previous generations of teenagers used to be.

Exercise 6-7. Students’ own answers.

Task 5. Comment on the following statement.

Some people think that the most important thing in people’s life is family.

What is your opinion?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.
Exercise 1. Brainstorm some ideas for the following:
1) Why is a family important in people’s life? Match the arguments with justifications.
Teaches values: to explain both good and bad.
Brings up and develops personality: to imitate their parents in their behaviour and
manners; to develop many abilities and characteristics that last a lifetime; to teach
social skills.
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Task 40. Writing an opinion essay

Ensures security: to provide with support and care.


2) What other things might be important for different people?
Возможное развитие темы, если семье по значимости противопоставляются другие
ценности:

What? Why? Examples

• Similar tastes and behaviour • Can tell secrets,


friends • Spend more time together • Share the same interests
• Can understand better • Clothes / values
• an ability to develop oneself • To get promoted
career • to get a feeling of satisfaction • To be given a higher salary
with one’s results
• Gives a sense of security, an • People feel relaxed and
opportunity to be independent self-confident
• Gives a chance to be generous: to • To be involved in charity
money help other people • To spend money on cars,
• Gives an opportunity to buy houses, traveling, education,
luxurious things, to provide one’s etc.
family

Exercise 2. Plan your essay. What opinion are you going to support?
Complete the following paragraph plan for your essay, making notes on what you
are going to include in each paragraph.
Вариант развития темы с мнением в пользу семьи.
Из приведенных аргументов нужно выбрать один, который может стать уникальным
контраргументом для мнения других людей. Очевидно, им может стать идея о том, что
семья – это поддержка и забота: ensures security: provides with support and care.

An opinion essay plan


Paragraph 1 Introduction: Restating the question in the task:
Some people think: It is believed, many people
claim, are sure, are convinced
The most important thing: the most significant for people
Family: parents, relatives
Paragraph 2 My opinion: for family
Teaches values: explains both good and bad
Brings up and develops personality: children imitate their parents in
their behaviour and manners; many abilities and characteristics
developed in childhood last a lifetime; teaches social skills

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Unit 1 Family and friends

Paragraph 3 Other people’s opinion:


В абзаце с мнением других людей можно выбрать по одно-
му примеру, например о преимуществах друзей и денег.
Про друзей – can understand better: can tell secrets.
Про деньги – gives a sense of security, an opportunity to be
independent.
Paragraph 4 Why I don’t agree with it?
1) В качестве контраргумента можно использовать тезис: a family
not only ensures security providing its members with support and
care, it also brings happiness, which cannot be bought for money.
Paragraph 5 Conclusion: restating my opinion.

Вариант 2. Отстаиваем позицию, что деньги важнее, чем семья.


Тогда для второго абзаца можно использовать аргументы: Gives an opportunity to
buy luxurious things, to provide one’s family, gives a sense of security, an opportunity
to be independent…
Для мнения других людей о важности семьи:
Teaches values: explains both good and bad.
Brings up and develops personality: children imitate their parents in their behaviour
and manners; many abilities and characteristics developed in childhood last a lifetime;
teaches social skills.
В качестве контраргументации: having money gives a chance to be generous: to help
other people.
Exercises 3, 4, 5: Students’ own answers.

Task 6. Students’ own answers.

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Part 1. Letter writing

Unit 2. House and home


Part 1. Letter writing

Task 1. Read the task.

You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen friend Robert who writes:

…My parents have decided to sell our house in London and to move to the countryside. Do
many people move from big cities to the country in Russia? Would you like to live in a city or
in the country? Why? What about your parents’ preferences?
Anyway, I have taken up horse-riding in order to prepare myself for life in the country …

Write a letter to Robert.


In your letter:
• answer his questions;
• ask 3 questions about his new hobby.
Write 100–140 words.

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Unit 2 House and home

Remember the rules of letter writing.

Exercise 1. Read the sample letter. Why will the student NOT score maximum points
for the content?

27-54, Kooperativnaya street


Moscow, 119241, Russia
The 24th of November, 2013
Dear Robert,
I am writing in response to your letter. I would be very happy to provide you with the
information which you required.
On the one hand, moving to the country is a good idea. It is such a relaxing way of living in
our modern world full of much pressure. For example, many friends of mine live in the country
nowadays and have to travel to school every morning. It is extremely inconvenient because
Moscow roads are full of traffic jams. Moreover, there are a lot of places of entertainment in
the city, such as night clubs and entertainment centers, therefore it would be better to live in
Moscow. It is , however, extremely healthy to live in the country. In addition, you can enjoy
nature there every time.
Anyway, what about your horse-riding? Could you tell me where you go to do it? Isn’t it
dangerous? What is the name of your horse?
I am looking forward to your answering my letter.

Yours sincerely,
Daniel*

* Выделенная жирным часть письма не будет проверяться из-за превышения объема слов.

Answer the following questions to analyse it:


1. How many words did the student write? 178
2. Is the style formal or informal?
В письме использован достаточно формальный стиль, на что указывают:
1) лексика (I am writing in response, to provide you with, you require);
2) средства связи (on the one hand, moreover, therefore, in addition);
3) грамматические конструкции (I would be very happy, it would be better, пол-
ные формы вспомогательных глаголов it is, there are, I am looking forward…);
4) завершающая фраза Yours sincerely.
3. Have the following questions been answered? Underline their answers.
• Do many people move from big cities to the country in Russia?
Ответ на вопрос не дан.
• Would you like to live in a city or in the country? Why?
Ответ есть, но довольно пространный: moving to the country is a good idea. It is such
a relaxing way of living in our modern world full of much pressure. Далее следует
пример о жизни друзей за городом, после чего автор делает вывод: It is extremely
inconvenient because Moscow roads are full of traffic jams. Moreover, there are a lot

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Part 1. Letter writing

of places of entertainment in the city, such as night clubs and entertainment centers
therefore it would be better to live in Moscow.
• What about your parents’ preferences?
Ответ на вопрос не дан.
4. Are there 3 questions about the new hobby?
Вопросы заданы:
Could you tell me where you go to do it?
Isn’t it dangerous?
What is the name of your horse?
5. Why will the student NOT score maximum points for the CONTENT?
Несмотря на то что письмо написано грамотно, автор допустил следующие недочеты
по критерию «Содержание»:
1) превысил заданный объем слов. Из-за этого выделенная жирным шрифтом
часть, содержащая вопросы, проверке не подлежит;
2) не дал ответа на один вопрос;
3) использовал формальный стиль для написания личного письма.
6. Students’ own answers.

More writing practice


При выполнении учащимися заданий по письму в данном разделе следует обратить
их внимание на то, что иногда рубрики могут содержать вопросы, которые не относят-
ся к их личному опыту, например как в Задании 3:

…I had a row with my boyfriend yesterday. He hates going shopping with me! Do you like
shopping? Where do you prefer to buy clothes: in small boutiques or large mega-markets?
Why? Do you go shopping with your parents or friends?
By the way, a new sporting centre has been opened in our town…

Возможно, учащийся не только не любит ходить по магазинам, но и вообще сам не


покупает одежду, но поскольку это задания экзаменационной ситуации, ответить на
все вопросы нужно.
Возможный вариант ответa:

In fact, I don’t like shopping, especially buying clothes. So, I neither go shopping with my
friends, nor with my parents. Usually my Mum buys clothes for me as she has a wonderful
taste or I try to find something in the Internet shops.

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Unit 2 House and home

Part 2. Essay writing

Task 1. Comment on the following statement.

Living in a house is better than living in a flat.

What is your opinion?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion.
• draw a conclusion restating your position
Exercise 1. Read the arguments for the task.
1) 1-D, 2-A, 3-C, 4-B, 5-E.
2) Make up sentences using different linking words.
1. To start with, people who live in a flat have no privacy as they are too close to
each other. As a result, they can get irritated by each other’s habits and even have
arguments about it.
2. Moreover, there is less space in a flat than in a house and that is why there is not
much room to store different things , such as warm clothes, bikes, skies, instruments,
etc.
3. Finally, if you live in a flat, you have to follow certain rules, for example, you can’t
have a pet because some of your relatives might be allergic to it or just be against the
noise.
4. On the other hand, some people believe that there are certain disadvantages of
living in a house. For example, a house needs more looking after than a flat. You need
not only do indoor chores, but also do chores connected with landscape maintenance
such as grass mowing, weed whacking, gardening and weeding.
5. Secondly, living in a house can be very expensive because you have to pay bigger
bills for the electricity, running water, heating and community services.
Exercise 2. Read the sample essay. Why did the student get 0 points for it?

В сочинении 172 слова, что является недостаточным. Поэтому за содержание


и за всю работу учащийся получит 0 баллов.

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Part 2. Essay writing

Exercise 3. Expand the essay, using the ideas from exercise 1.


Основные моменты, которые можно дополнить в данной работе:
1) Вступление: добавить рассуждение о том, что разные люди предпочитают раз-
ные виды жилья. Свое мнение можно оставить во вступлении, а можно сформули-
ровать во втором абзаце.
E.g.

Nowadays when many new houses are being built both in the cities and in the outskirts, many
people are considering where it would be more beneficial to live. Some of them think that
having a flat in the city is more convenient than living in a house in the country. So, who is
right?

2) Второй абзац: аргументы о недостатках жизни в квартире нуждаются в приме-


рах. Во втором абзаце нужно выразить свое отношение к проблеме:

In my opinion, it is better to live in a house. Here are some arguments to support my


opinion.
Далее см. примеры в упр.1
3) Третий абзац: есть мнение других людей, но нет пояснений и примеров
(см. примеры в упр. 1).
4) Четвертый абзац: контраргумент на мнение других людей является неразвер-
нутым. Его также необходимо дополнить примерами или пояснениями.
E.g.:

Though they are right, it can be argued that if you want to have privacy, you need to pay for
it. In addition, some flats in the center of the city can be as expensive as houses. For example,
a single room flat in the center of the city can be worth a two-storied house in the
countryside.

5) Вывод вполне логичен.


Task 2. Comment on the following statement.

Many people consider that it is better to live in the country.

What is your opinion?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.

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Unit 2 House and home

Exercises 1-2.

Sample answer:
При выполнении данного задания важно обратить внимание учащихся на средства
связи и ключевые слова, при помощи которых можно установить логику развития
высказывания:

(1) The question where it is better to live is being discussed these days. (2) Some
people are strongly convinced that the best place to live for them and their children
is some quiet place in the country. (3) Others are in favour of living in a city.
(4) In my opinion, life in the country has more advantages. (5) Firstly, the lifestyle
can be very enjoyable as one can make the most of the environment. (6) For example,
there are fields and forests where you can go walking or have a picnic. (7) Secondly,
in the rural community one doesn’t feel the rush and pressure that people can get
under while living in big cities. (8) Therefore, it is more beneficial for the children’s
and people’s health.
(9) However, some people prefer to live in big cities. (10) They say that the prospects
are not good for people in the country, they can’t find a job there and have to travel
to the nearby towns and cities to work. (11) This means that unless you have a car,
travelling can be a bit of a problem. (12) Furthermore, thanks to all the pesticides and
chemical fertilizers that are used in crops, the environment is beginning to suffer.
(13) Though they may be right, personally I think that this is beginning to change,
with ‘greener’ approaches to farming in general. (14) Also, in some areas tourism is
bringing some needed money and employment to the local villages.
(15) All things considered, though there might be advantages of living in the country,
I believe that life in the city can be more interesting and exciting because there are
many places of entertainment there.
Exercise 3.
В сочинении сделан нелогичный вывод: автор развивал аргументацию за проживание
за городом, а вывод сделал в поддержку жизни в городе. Это считается нарушением
логики.

Возможный вариант заключения:


All things considered, though there might be advantages of living in the city, I still
believe that it is better to live in the country because this way of life gives one a
chance to stay healthy and become much happier.
Task 3. Comment on the following statement.

When people reach the age of 18 and finish school they should move away from home and start
their own life.

What is your opinion?


Write 200–250 words.

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Part 2. Essay writing

Use the following plan:


• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.

Exercise 1.
A-6
B-12
C-1
D-10
E-8
F-5
G-4
H-7
I-2
J-3
K-11
L-9
Sample essay:
Nowadays a lot of young people move away from home in their late teens,
(1)­which is an important part of growing up but the process has both its rewards
and challenges.
In my opinion, (2) there can certainly be some real advantages to moving away
from home. First of all, it gives you real freedom, and it is much easier to have a
proper personal relationship. (3) As well as that, the freedom affects all sorts of small
things, and it means you can watch whatever you like on TV, (4) you can go to bed
when you want and so on. Finally, you can share a flat with mates your own age,
who have the same interests, (5) and that can make life a lot more fun.
(6) On the other hand, moving away from home has some drawbacks as well. (7)
Firstly, when you move away, you can miss the warmth and support of your family,
and you can end up feeling quite lonely and homesick. (8) On top of that, you can
also have money problems because you have to pay for rent, food and so on, (9) and
it means that your standard of living can fall sharply. Lastly, you have to do a lot
more domestic work – you have to cook for yourself, do your laundry and ironing and
keep the place clean.
(10) Personally, I can’t fully agree with these opinions. Nowadays it is not a
problem to be in contact with your family when you move away as you can make
a call or contact your family via the Internet. Secondly, if you are short of money,
your parents can transfer it on your credit card. Finally, taking care of oneself is only
beneficial for a person, (11) as one learns certain life skills.

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Unit 2 House and home

So all in all, moving away from home is probably a good thing, (12) and anyway
it is something that everyone has to do at some stage. However, it can be made
a bit easier with a little support from your family, and it can help a great deal if
you stay in touch with them after you leave.
Exercise 2. Why will the student NOT score maximum points for the content and
organisation?
1) В сочинении 350 слов, поэтому проверке будет подлежать лишь часть
в 250 слов, то есть абзацы с контраргументами и выводом проверяться не будут.
2) В третьем абзаце автор не указал, чье мнение он представляет. Идет общее рас-
суждение о недостатках жизни вне родительского дома.
Task 4. Comment on the following statement.

City living in the 21st century is stressful and offers no advantages.

What is your opinion?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.
Exercise 1. What topic are you asked to write about?
Underline the key words.
City living in the 21st century is stressful and offers no advantages.

Тема сочинения акцентирует внимание на том, что жизнь в городе в XXI веке довольно
вредна для здоровья и не дает никаких положительных моментов. То есть, продумы-
вая аргументы, нужно будет не просто писать о преимуществах или недостатках жизни
в современном городе, а обратить внимание на то, насколько это вредно / не вредно
для здоровья.

Exercise 2. Think of different vocabulary you can use to say the same things.
Возможный вариант использования другой лексики:
City living: urban living, lifestyle
21st century: contemporary, modern, nowadays
stressful: oppressive
offers: provides, supports
advantages: benefits, opportunities

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Part 2. Essay writing

Возможный вариант вступления:


Nowadays there is an opinion that a contemporary urban living might be fairly oppressive
for many people and provides them with no benefits. However, is it really so?
Exercise 3. Brainstorm some ideas about the topic. Consider the following:

What are the benefits of living in the modern cities?


• Culture / entertainment: to never be bored, numerous entertainment and sports
facilities.
• Shopping: the diversity of shops and different stores.
• Education / job: colleges, universities: an opportunity to get a good education;
there are more chances to find a job.
Why might life in big cities be stressful?
• Noise / crowds: the population is growing, a lot of cars.
• Fast pace of life: busy working days, to feel pressurized, to travel to work and
back home.
• No greenery: not many green places to walk and relax.
• Transport: traffic jams.
Is it right to say that all people feel pressurized in big cities? How can stress be
avoided?
Возможные варианты ответа:
• People get used to noise and crowds of people.
• One can use different facilities to spend time after work or study and get rid of
stress….
Exercise 4. Which of the opinion are you going to support?
Develop your arguments and make notes for your essay following the plan.
Возможное развитие темы сочинения:

An opinion essay plan


Introduction Introduction: restating the question in the task in different words:
See ex. 2
Paragraph 2 My opinion:
Topic sentence: In my opinion, living in a modern
city may give one a lot of opportunities.
Argument 1: education, job
Argument 2: culture, entertainment
Paragraph 3 Other people’s opinion:
Topic sentence: However, there are people who
believe that the lifestyle in a contemporary mega
city can be oppressive due for some reasons.
Argument 1: fast pace of life
Argument 2: transport

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Unit 2 House and home

Paragraph 4 Why I don’t agree with it:


Topic sentence: Personally, I can’t fully
agree with these opinions.
Argument 1: people get used to it, cannot imagine their
lives without the hustle and bustle of big cities; manage
to find time for different activities beside work.
Argument 2: most cities have developed excellent and affordable
transport system, taking all the stress of getting around.
Paragraph 5 Conclusion. Restating my opinion.

Exercise 5. Write an essay. Follow the plan in exercise 4. Check for grammar,
vocabulary and spelling.

Students’ own answers.

Task 5. Comment on the following statement.

Many people believe that online shopping is the best way to shop.

What is your opinion?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.
Exercise 1. Write the introduction to an essay.
Express the same ideas in a different way.

Introduction:
При выполнении этого задания следует напомнить учащимся о том, что во вступлении
нельзя использовать рубрику слово в слово. Выделите ключевые слова и подумайте,
какими словосочетаниями или синонимами их можно заменить.
Возможный вариант использования другой лексики:
People believe: there is an opinion, it is considered, etc.
Online shopping: buying goods via the Internet.
The best way: the most beneficial way, the most convenient way.
Students own answers.

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Part 2. Essay writing

Exercise 2. Look at the notes a student made for an essay.


Match the justifications with the arguments.
Develop the ideas.
Advantages of on-line shopping:
• convenient: to shop 24 hours a day, to stay at home, to save time, to avoid
crowded supermarkets, to buy gifts for people who live a long way from you;
• wider choice: to have a chance to browse different on-line shops and choose what
you want, to buy things from anywhere in the world;
• buy more cheaply: to compare prices, no transport costs.

Disadvantages of shopping on-line:


• fake website: to cheat, a risk of fraud, to buy fake goods;
• goods out of stock: to take time, to wait;
• delivery charges: a small item can turn to be more expensive;
• complaining: to speak to real people, to return faulty goods;
• identity theft: to send unnecessary advertisements.

Exercise 3. Brainstorm counter-arguments for the following ideas:


• Fake website: can check the feedback from different people, can study the ways
of payment;
• Goods out of stock: to order beforehand;
• Delivery charges: can make a decision before buying and use another website;
• Identity theft: take some precautions, not to give many personal details;
• Complaining: it is not easier to complain at ordinary shops, can write a letter of
complaint.
Exercise 4-5-6-7.
Students’ own answers.

Task 6. Comment on the following statement.

Shopping malls and hypermarkets are the best way of shopping.

What is your opinion?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.
Students’ own answers.

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Unit 3 Healthy living

Unit 3. Healthy Living

Part 1. Letter writing

Task 1. Read the task.

You have received a letter from your English pen friend Martha who writes:
…Guess what! I’ve recently joined our local fitness club. Do you do anything special to
stay healthy? I’d like to lose weight. Do you think I should go dieting? What do you
think of a healthy lifestyle?
By the way, my brother has given me a book “Yoga for women”…
Write a letter to Martha.
In your letter:
• answer her questions;
• ask 3 questions about her new book.
Write 100–140 words.
Remember the rules of letter writing.

Exercise 1. Read the sample letter.


Why will the student NOT score maximum points for organisation?
Answer the questions and put a tick ( ) if it is done correctly, a cross (Х) if it is done
incorrectly and (+/-) if it is almost correct.

1. Is the letter written logically? X


Не совсем логична последовательность ответов: You should lose weight or your
boyfriend won’t like you at all. I try to follow these rules, but sometimes it’s really
difficult. Dieting is OK if you have much time and will.
Непонятно, о каких правилах говорит учащийся: о том, что надо сбросить вес, или
о том, что надо заниматься спортом и делать простые упражнения. Очевидно, лучше
было бы поменять предложения местами: сначала написать про себя, а потом про
диету Джулии.
2. Is the letter divided into paragraphs? Х
Письмо неверно поделено на абзацы: первый абзац должен содержать благодар-
ность, ссылку на предыдущие контакты. Второй – ответы на вопросы.

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Part 1. Letter writing

3. Are the linking words used in a proper way? Х


В письме практически нет средств связи внутри абзацев и при переходе от ответов на
вопросы к параграфу, где нужно задать вопросы, кроме связующей фразы You asked
me about health.
Можно было бы добавить линкеры внутри второго абзаца:
You asked me about the health. Leading a healthy way of life should be the main
life purpose of everyone. Doing sports or simple exercises and trying to avoid
harmful food and habits make people healthy and strong. I try to follow these rules,
but sometimes it’s really difficult. As for you, I think you should lose weight or your
boyfriend won’t like you at all. However, dieting is OK if you have much time and
will.
Между вторым и третьим абзацем: By the way, …
4. Are the address and the date written correctly? X
Адрес написан неверно и в левом верхнем углу, нет даты.
5. Are the salutation, ending the letter, signing off, and the signature written
on separate lines? +/-
На отдельной строке написано только обращение. Заключительная фраза и подпись
стоят на одной строке. Ссылка на последующие контакты отсутствует.

Exercise 2. In the letter the student made some grammar mistakes when asking
questions. Can you correct them?

Does it big for you? (Is the book long?)


What you can get from it?
(вопрос не совсем понятен. Возможно, автор имел в виду What can you learn from it?)
Is there many good exercises with yoga? (Are there many good yoga exercises?)
Exercise 3. Improve the letter.
1) Write the date and address.
2) Divide it into paragraphs.
3) Arrange the answers in a logical way.
4) Use linkers to connect ideas, to change the topic.

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Unit 3 Healthy living

Вариант исправленного письма:

Moscow, Russia
21/04/2013
Dear Martha,
Thank you for your last letter. I was so glad to hear from you again.
You asked me about health. Leading a healthy way of life should be everyone’s main purpose in
life. Doing sports or simple exercises and trying to avoid harmful food and habits make people
healthy and strong. I try to follow these rules, but sometimes it’s really difficult.
As for you, I think you should lose weight or your boyfriend won’t like you at all. However,
Dieting is OK if you have much time and will.
By the way, is the book long? Are there many good yoga exercises? Can you do any of them
now?
That’s all for now. I must go.
Write back soon.
Best wishes,
Julia

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Part 2. Essay writing

Part 2. Essay writing

Task 1. Comment on the following statement.

The young generation of people today is not as healthy as their grandparents used to be.
What is your opinion?
Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem;
• express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.
Exercise 1. Write an introduction to the essay.
Restate the problem using the other words.

Возможный вариант использования другой лексики:


Young generation of people: teenagers
Are not as healthy as: are less healthy than…
Grandparents: grandfathers and grandmothers

Exercise 2. Use the words in brackets to make sentences which will form a part of
your arguments. Use linkers to express cause and result:

as, because (of), since, as a result, due to , for this reason, therefore, that is why, etc.
1) E.g. Firstly, teenagers are fond of eating fast food such as pizza and burgers, which is not
good for their health. (lack vitamins and minerals)
…because these foods lack essential vitamins and minerals.
2) They also contain a large amount of fat and carbohydrates…
• and because of getting too much fat children can suffer from malnutrition;
• so children get too much fat and as result / for this reason can suffer from
malnutrition.
3) Besides, modern children are addicted to computers and TV instead of doing sports,
• as a result / due to this / for this reason, they get overweight and have heart
diseases.

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Unit 3 Healthy living

4) However, many people claim that teenagers’ health today is no worse than their
grandparents had when they were young…
• due to modern health care and better nutrition;
• as / since we have better nutrition and modern health care.
5) Moreover, they don’t die from such diseases as chickenpox, pneumonia or tuberculosis…
• due to vaccination, modern pills, and because there is no hunger;
• as / since they can have vaccination, get modern pills and because there is no
hunger.
6) Of course, young people do not die today of such diseases, but their health is definitely
getting worse,
• since / because / as teenagers eat what they want and skip meals.
7) We must admit that nowadays we are threatened by even more terrible diseases, for
example, AIDS and hepatitis,
• that is why / therefore we should also think about healthy eating.
8) In conclusion I would like to say that our society should pay more attention to the health of
younger generation
• as / because / since they are the basis for the future of the country.
Exercise 3. Students’ own answers.

Task 2. Comment on the following statement.

We should close all fast-food outlets as such food is harmful for people’s health.
What is your opinion?
Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.
Exercise 1. Read and match the arguments with their justifications.
1-C, 2-B, 3-A.
Exercise 2. Make up complete sentences using the ideas above
and proper linking words.
Add some other words if necessary.
1) Firstly, buying fast food is convenient because / as you don’t have to wait for a
long time until your food is prepared.
2) In addition, it is inexpensive, which is important because / since / as teenagers
don’t have much money.
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Part 2. Essay writing

3) Finally, there are many places where you can have it, such as / for example,
McDonalds.
Exercise 3. Look through the possible opposite opinions and try to think of some
reasons why you wouldn’t agree with them.

Возможные варианты контраргументов:


1) This kind of food is high in fat, which can cause obesity and heart disease.
• Such problems can be caused not only by eating fast food but, for example by
the lack of regular sports exercises.
2) It can be addictive as the high level of salt and sugar content in the fast food
makes the brain seek them out.
• If you don’t eat it too often and try to follow a balanced diet you are not likely
to get addicted to it.
Exercise 4. Students’ own answers.

Task 3. Comment on the following statement.

Many people believe that the best way to lose weight is following a special diet.

What is your opinion?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.
Exercise 1. Look through the notes for an essay and write your introduction. Restate
the question in the task in different words.

Возможный вариант использования другой лексики:


Many people believe: it is believed / there is an opinion / many people consider, etc.
The best way to lose weight: to get slim / become less heavy / fat
To follow a special diet: to stick to / to go on / to start, a weight-reducing / calorie-
controlled / low-calorie diet

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Unit 3 Healthy living

Exercise 2. Develop the following arguments.


Возможные варианты аргументов:
1) In my opinion, strict dieting can be dangerous. Why?
• People eat lower amount of calories and this can result in malnutrition and
dangerous diseases, for example anemia.
• It can socially isolate you because it will be difficult to meet with friends, have
meals together or celebrate somebody’s birthdays.
• It might turn into obsession and cause even a nervous breakdown as you’ll have
to check everything you eat and count calories.
Other reasons:
Some people take their diet to the extreme, not eating at all for days. Others will make
themselves vomit after each meal. Many others will go for dieting medication and
beverages that help them to lose their appetite. These unhealthy dieting will cause
internal damage in the long run.
2) There are other ways to lose weight: sport, exercises, etc.
Doing sports or physical exercises regularly one can burn the calories and keep fit.
Exercise 3. Read paragraph 3 for an essay. Why will the student NOT score maximum
points for content?

Other people believe that if you want to lose weight it is very important to keep your eye on
what you eat. To begin with, you should cut out snacks and desserts, which add weight without
boosting energy levels. Besides, you ought to cut down on fat as it is believed to be one of the
major causes of obesity. Finally, you may count the number of calories you eat
every day, which will help to reduce the amount of food you eat and help to lose weight.

Этот абзац по форме и содержанию напоминает инструкцию или совет, но не содержит


аргументов, подкрепляющих мнение других людей, высказанное в первом предложе-
нии.

Exercise 4. Develop some ideas for paragraph 3. Why might other people believe that
dieting is the best way for losing weight?

Возможный вариант ответа:

Many people do not have an opportunity to consume a healthy meal. Their daily meals consist
of fast food, which contains large amounts of fat and salt. The most significant proof of this
unhealthy lifestyle is the weight gain. Therefore, most of these people have to control
their diet in order to stay in shape either for their appearance or health.

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Part 2. Essay writing

Exercise 5. Write counter-arguments under the topic sentence:

Though it might be true, I still believe that dieting is not the best way to lose weight.
В качестве контраргумента могут быть использованы идеи из упражнения № 2, напри-
мер про занятия спортом или рассуждения о сбалансированном питании или о меди-
цинской помощи:
The most common and proper method of maintaining one’s weight is eating less oily
food, more green vegetables, fruit and avoiding alcohol.
Individuals who wish to control their weight should seek professional adviсe if they
are unable to reduce their weight after switching over to a healthy diet for a period of
time.
Exercise 6. Students’ own answers.

Task 4. Comment on the following statement:

Doing extreme sports is rather popular nowadays. However, there are people who think that
they should be banned because they are too risky.

What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.
Exercise 1. Read the text and complete the sentences with the correct forms of the
words:
1. Popularity.
2. Dangerous.
3. Especially.
4. Unsafe.
5. Professiona.
6. Variety.

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Unit 3 Healthy living

Exercise 2. What are the advantages of doing extreme sports? Develop the following
arguments and add some more ideas of your own.
Возможные варианты аргументов:
1) Nowadays many people are bored with the traditional lifestyle, therefore doing
extreme sports makes a person’s life more thrilling and exciting as they can try a
new experience. For example, taking the plunge when skydiving, people enjoy the
adrenaline rush that throwing themselves into the atmosphere supplies.
2) Moreover, one can learn to cope with unexpected situations, which might be
useful at certain moments of life. In addition, being in an extreme situation can help
one to find out where one’s limits are and overcome difficulties.
Some examples of extreme sports are: skateboarding, ice climbing, whitewater rafting,
zorbing, scuba diving, bungee jumping, skydiving.
Exercise 3. What counter-arguments can you develop for these ideas in exercise 2?
Возможные варианты контраргументов:

Advantages of doing extreme sports Counter-arguments

1) It makes a person’s life One can get an adrenalin rush doing


more thrilling and exciting. some other things, for example
travelling around the world.
2) One can learn to cope with
unexpected situations. Life is full of unexpected situations and if
one concentrates on coping with them,
they won’t need doing extreme sports.

Exercise 4. Why do some people want to ban extreme sports?


Develop the following ideas.
Возможные варианты ответов:
1) Most extreme sports, for example, boxing are too risky. Being punched repeatedly
can cause countless injuries to the head, body and internal organs. Even such a
popular activity as bungee jumping causes thousands of injuries each year.
2) Organised extreme sports are done at higher speeds, or greater risk, and due to
this there are fatalities each year.
3) Although nowadays there are professional associations for many extreme sports,
many have no provisions for health, welfare, or insurance.
4) Many people doing extreme sports lack experience, which leads to serious injuries
or death. Sometimes one competitor endangers others.
5) It is like a drug: the more people do them the more they want to do them again.
Therefore, people can become addicted to them and, as a result, might abandon
family and friends.

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Part 2. Essay writing

Exercise 5. What counter-arguments can you develop for the ideas in exercise 4?
Возможные варианты контраргументов:

Disadvantages of doing extreme sports Counter-arguments


1. They are too risky; 1. Doing extreme sports one can
2. People can become use special safety equipment, for
addicted to them. example, helmets, pads, mouth guards
and other items for protection.
2. People are busy doing something
instead of getting addicted to
drugs when they are bored.
Exercise 6. Write an introduction to the essay. Restate the question in the task in
different words.
Возможный вариант использования другой лексики:
Doing extreme sports: going in for / doing adventure sports
Popular: appealing
Nowadays: these days, in the last 20 years, recently
People who think: people who believe / consider / are sure / claim, etc.
Should be banned: should not be allowed to do
Too risky: too dangerous
Exercises 6-7-8. Students’ own answers.
Task 5. Comment on the following statement.

Many people demand that genetically modified food should be banned. Others say it is
unnecessary.

What is your opinion?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.

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Unit 3 Healthy living

Exercise 1. Expand on the ideas and write an essay. Use the vocabulary below.
For GMFs:
• food supply for population
Genetic engineering is the way to solve the world’s famine problems.
GMF products might solve the problem of hunger in many developing countries and
provide food supply for the population.
• Can be grown in any areas
As it is easy to increase resistance to various diseases in such plants and make them
pest-resistant, they can be grown in any areas.
It is also cost-effective and thus, the amount of grown food can be doubled to meet the
needs of the population.
• GMFs can be enriched with vitamins and nutrients
Besides, GMFs can be enriched with vitamins and nutrients, and therefore do away
with malnutrition.
Against GMFs:
• dangerous for environment (animals, plants), to harm the crop plant
However, GMFs can be dangerous for environment, as the foreign genes and other
artificial substances they contain can be harmful to plant and animal species.
• can be dangerous for people’s health, can cause an allergic reaction in some
individuals
In addition, they can be dangerous for people’s health and can cause an allergic
reaction in some individuals. What is more, they might have an unexpected negative
impact on any person’s health in the future.
• old GMFs have little nutritional value
Though any GMFs may look fresh, the old ones have little nutritional value.
• economic problems: GMF seeds can be expensive for small farmers
Finally, not all the countries can afford to grow them. For example, GMF seeds can be
expensive for small farmers, thus the possibility to meet the needs of the population can
turn to be an illusion.
Exercise 2. Make notes for your essay
Возможный вариант развития темы:
1) My opinion: I strongly believe that genetically modified food should not be allowed.
• dangerous for environment
• dangerous for people
2) Other people’s opinion:
• GMFs is a food supply for population

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Part 2. Essay writing

• Can be grown in any areas


3) Why I don’t agree with them:
• Not all the countries can afford to grow them
Exercise 3. Write an introduction to the essay. Restate the problem using some
other words:
Nowadays: at the present time
Many people demand: many people insist
Should be banned: should not be allowed
Others say: other people believe / consider / etc.
It is unnecessary: it is not necessary
Exercise 4. Students’ own answers.

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Unit 4 Free time and culture

Unit 4. Free time and culture

Part 1. Letter writing

Task 1. Read the task.

You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen friend Anna who writes:

…My Mum often complains that I spend too much money on souvenirs. To tell the truth, I collect
souvenirs. Do you and your friends collect anything? How do you and your friends spend your
pocket money? What’s your parents’ attitude towards it?
As for the latest news, I have just entered courses….

Write back to Anna.


In your letter:
• answer her questions;
• ask 3 questions about her courses.
Write 100–140 words.
Remember the rules of letter writing.
Exercise 1. Read a sample letter. Why will the student NOT get maximum points for
the language usage?
Correct spelling, vocabulary and grammar mistakes.
Put a tick ( ) if the lineis correct.

(1) Russia, Moscow (1) Неверно написан адрес


(2) 30/09/2014 (2)
(3) Hi Anna, (3) лучше написать Dear Anna,
(4) Thanks for your last letter and it’s nice to (4) to hear from you (voc)
hear you again.
(5) Of course I love to buy some stuff. Me (5) Of course, (p). My
and my friends are friends and me (voc)
(6) totally into collecting different books and (6) sharing them (gr)
sharing it. We
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Part 1. Letter writing

(7) don’t have our food in school so we waste (7) don’t have meals, at
our pocket school(voc) we spend (voc)
(8) money on food, we are always feel (8) we always feel hungry
hungry in the school. (gr), at school (gr)
(9) My parents are okay with it. (9)
(10) But whatever, I heard you just entered (10) you had just entered (gr)
new courses.
(11) What courses do you enter? Are they (11) What courses have
long for you? What you entered? (gr)
(12) subjects you study there? (12) What subjects do
you study there? (gr)
(13) Good luck on the courses, (13) Good luck on the courses! (p)
(14) Best wishes, (14)
(15) Elisa. (15) Elisa
(после имени точ-
ка не ставится)-(p)

Exercise 2. What other things in the letter should be improved? Analyse the content
and the organisation.
Content:
Есть нарушение в стиле при обращении “Hi, Anna“, нет ссылки на последующие кон-
такты после завершающей фразы (Write back soon / Looking forward to hearing from
you).
Вопрос про курсы “Are they long for you? "не совсем понятен. Возможно, автор имел в
виду "How long do they last?"
Organisation:
Неверно написан сокращенный адрес (Moscow, Russia).
Предложение “We don’t have our food in school so we waste our pocket money on
food, we are always feel hungry in the school" немного нелогично, поэтому его следу-
ет перестроить с акцентом на причинно-следственные связи:
We are always hungry at school because we don’t have meals there, so we spend our
pocket money on food.
As we don’t have our meals at school, we are always hungry, that is why we spend
our pocket money on food.

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Unit 4 Free time and culture

Exercise 3. Now practice asking questions to the exam tasks.


Possible questions:
…I’m reading a new book by J. K. Rolling…
(Ask 3 questions about the book)
• Do you like the book?
• Who are the main characters?
• What is it about?
… I’m going to spend a month at the seaside this summer...
(Ask 3 questions about the coming holidays)
• Where are you going?
• Have you booked a hotel yet?
• Are you going with your family or with your friends?
…We’re planning a birthday party for our friend Nicole…
(Ask 3 questions about the party)
• Where are you going to celebrate?
• Who is going to bring the music?
• Will you cook yourself or order some food?
…I’ve joined a new fitness club…
(Ask 3 questions about the new hobby)
• How often do you go to the fitness club?
• Have you joined some group training there?
• Is there a swimming-pool?
… My best friend’s moved to another town…
(Ask 3 questions about the friend’s new life)
• Is he living far from you now?
• Does he like his new school?
• Has he made new friends there?
… I’ve just entered language courses…
(Ask 3 questions about the courses)
• When do you go to the courses: at the weekend or in the evenings?
• What subjects are you studying there?
• Do you like the teachers there?
…last Saturday our team won a basketball match…
(Ask 3 questions about your friend’s hobby)
• How long have you played basketball?
• Do you play it at your school?
• How often do you have competitions?
….We went to a restaurant last Friday and tried there different delicious dishes…
(Ask 3 questions about the restaurant).
• Where is it situated?
• Do they play live music there?/ Were there many people?
• What food do they serve?/ What food did you eat there?

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Part 2. Essay writing

Part 2. Essay writing

Task 1. Looking into the content.


Exercise 1. Which essay topics do these arguments refer to?
Все аргументы можно одинаково отнести к приведенным темам, так как они не со-
держат примеров или пояснений, которые непосредственно относятся либо к чтению
приключенческих романов, либо к чтению детективов и т. п.
Exercise 2. Arrange the following arguments into different columns according to the
topics of the essays. Which of the arguments can be used in all the essays?

For reading adventure stories For reading detective stories For reading science fiction
2, 3, 4, 6 1, 2, 4, 6 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Аргументы 2, 4, 6 являются наиболее общими и могут быть отнесены к любым из при-
веденных тем.
Exercise 3. What examples, explanations would you add to make the arguments
sound more specific according to the essays topics?
• Reading adventure stories helps people to feel adventurous in the modern world.
When one reads them, they imagine themselves in the exciting situations and
adventures that are described in a book.
• Reading detective stories develops thinking abilities and logic, because while
following the development of the events one can try to solve the mystery together
with the detective using the suggested evidence and facts.
• Reading science fiction might inspire people to invent new things. For example,
in the middle of the last century in his stories Ray Bradbury described such things
as a cell-phone, 3-D home cinema, remote control, mini head-phones and other
things, which were later invented.
Task 2. Comment on the following statement.
Reading detective stories is a waste of time.

What is your opinion?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.

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Unit 4 Free time and culture

Exercise 1. Read the introduction and the conclusion to this essay.


1) How well has the student stated the problem in the introduction?
Тема сочинения: читать или не читать детективные романы? Во вступлении автор рас-
суждает о том, что эта тенденция популярна и важна для людей всего мира. Далее он
заявляет, что это противоречивая проблема, которая нуждается в тщательном анализе.
Такая трактовка темы сочинения звучит странно.
Очевидно, это результат заучивания клишированных фраз слишком формального
стиля, которые не всегда годятся при формулировке вступления. Данный вариант это
наглядно демонстрирует.
2) Has the student restated their opinion in the conclusion?
Заключение опять-таки звучит странно из-за слишком формального вокабуляра: «По-
чему мы должны решать проблему чтения детективных романов?»
Кроме того, автор не выразил свою точку зрения, закончив фразой, которая больше
подходит для сочинения «за и против».
Exercise 2. Read the introduction again. Which topics of the essays might / might not
this vocabulary suit? Why?
Так как в данном вступлении используется очень формальная лексика, оно должно
затрагивать более философские проблемы. Таким образом, сюда подошли бы такие
темы сочинений, как poverty and hunger in undeveloped countries, global warming,
air pollution.

E.g.: Nowadays the tendency of global warming / air pollution is really important for
people all over the world. It is a controversial problem / question which needs careful
consideration.

Exercise 3. Read the introduction and the second paragraph of a student’s essay.
Why will the student NOT score maximum points for the content?

1. Во вступлении автор не формулирует проблему сочинения, а рассуждает о популяр-


ности чтения в наши дни. Заканчивает он вопросом о преимуществах и недостатках
чтения детективов. Таким образом, отсутствует логика высказывания.
2. Во втором абзаце автор выразил свое мнение по проблеме: он считает, что чтение
детективов имеет ряд положительных моментов. Однако первый аргумент о выучива-
нии новых слов можно отнести к любому виду чтения, а не только детективов. Таким
образом, здесь снова нарушена логика высказывания. Второй аргумент более точен
по отношению к теме, однако второе предложение не является его развитием: это
общее рассуждение о том, что надо делать, чтобы стать хорошим детективом.

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Part 2. Essay writing

Exercise 4. Read the third paragraph of an essay. Why will the student NOT score
maximum points for the content and organisation?

Find and correct 5 vocabulary (voc), 1 grammar (gr), 2 spelling mistakes (sp),
2 mistakes on using linking words. Put a tick ( ) if the line is correct.

(1) In the other side, reading detective stories has (1) on the other hand
(voc)
(2) some weak points. Firstly, when we read detective (2) some disadvantages
(voc)
(3) stories about the central centuries we can’t (3) middle centuries (voc)
(4) understand some words which are used in these (4)
(5) stories. And that is why detective stories become (5) And- не нужно в на-
not чале предложения (на-
рушение линкера)
(6) interesting for us. Then, nowdays some detective (6) secondly - линкер,
nowadays (sp)
(7) stories seem to us illogical becose of its methods of (7) of their methods (gr),
because (sp)
(8) detecting. And I can’t disagree with people who (8) detection (voc),I can’t
think agree /  I disagree (g)
(9) that new detective stories are interesting. (9)
(10) Finally, there are lots of murders in detective (10)
stories
(11) and as a result, people become mad. (11) go mad (voc)

Комментарии:
Не высказана другая точка зрения: идет рассуждение об отрицательных моментах
чтения детективов. Первый аргумент сомнителен с точки зрения содержания: какие
слова мы можем не понимать, читая романы, очевидно, Средних веков? Что это за
детективы? Далее приведен аргумент о том, что некоторые детективы нелогичны из-за
методов расследования. Однако автор не приводит никаких примеров. Следующее
предложение о том, что современные детективы неинтересны, по сути, повторяет пре-
дыдущую мысль без объяснения причин.
Наконец, последний аргумент о том, что, читая детективы, люди сходят с ума, так как
в них много убийств, нелогичен по сути и является примером тенденции к обобще-
нию. Во-первых, не во всех детективах много убийств, а во-вторых, вряд ли кто-то
после их прочтения сходит с ума.

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Unit 4 Free time and culture

Exercise 5. Read another paragraph from a student’s essay.


Why will the student NOT score maximum points for vocabulary, grammar and
spelling?

(1) Many people think that detective stories are (1)


(2) useful. To start with, they can develop peoples (2) people’s (gr)
(3) logic. Before a detective tells the readers who is a (3) who the murderer is
(gr+gr)
(4) murderer, they often make a suppose and try to (4) make a supposition
(voc)
(5) find some proves. Readers often try to do it too (5) find some evidence
(voc); too. (p)
(6) During the reading their logic and way of (6) the way of thinking (gr)
thinking
(7) is developing too. To conclude, detective stories (7) are developing (gr).
(8) can be educational. Readers can get a lot of (8)
(9) useful information such as a new kinds of guns (9) about (v) new kinds(gr)
(10) and drugs. They can learn about some kinds of (10)
(11) pills that can kill a persons and not use it in the (11) can kill people (voc),
future. not use them (gr)

Exercise 6. Students’ own answers.

Task 3. Comment on the following statement.

There is nothing worth watching on television these days.

What is your opinion?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.

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Part 2. Essay writing

Exercise 1. Read a student’s essay. Why will the student NOT score maximum points
for it?
A. Analyse the content and organization.
1. В сочинении есть необходимое количество слов – 186. Однако автор не соблюдает
предложенный план:
• отсутствуют вступление и формулировка проблемы;
• сочинение не разделено на абзацы, а написано сплошным текстом, в котором
приведено мнение автора о том, что в наше время показывают по телевизору и по-
чему ему это не нравится;
• в конце есть заключение, но не по теме сочинения. Таким образом, в лучшем
случае такое содержание будет оценено на 1 балл.
2. В принципе, сочинение логично, автор использует достаточно средств связи, однако
предложенный план не соблюден полностью. Поэтому за организацию автор, скорее
всего, также получит минимум баллов.
B. Find and correct the vocabulary/grammar/spelling mistakes. Put a tick ( ) if the
line is correct.

(1) In my opinion, television in my country is generally (1)


(2) very bad. There are many reasons for this. First of (2)
all,
(3) the programmes are so bad quality. TV companies (3) of such a bad quality
(gr)
(4) just want to make much money as possible, so they (4) as much money as
possible(gr)
(5) just make cheap programmes, like quiz shows and (5) such as quiz shows (gr)
(6) music programmes. Even when they show up good (6) when they show (voc)
(7) programme, they keep interrupt it with the (7) a good programme (gr),
keep interrupting (gr)
(8) advertisments. I also hate when they interrupt with (8) advertisements (sp),
(9) a good basketball or football match to show (9) interrupt a match (voc)
(10) advertisements for the soap powder. Moreover, (10) of a soap powder
(gr+voc)
(11) there are too much violence on television, which (11) there is violence (gr)
has
(12) bad influence on viewer, espesially and young (12) a bad influence on a
viewer (gr), especially (sp)
young people (voc)
(13) people. They often show scenes of violence just to (13)

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Unit 4 Free time and culture

(14) get good audience rating. And it show them when (14) a good audience’s
rating (gr+gr),they show
(gr)
(15) people have dinner or have nothing to do for (15) people are having
dinner (gr)
(16) example, in the evening. Finally, another thing (16) the other thing (gr)
(17)which I think is very bad are the talk programmes, (17) is talk shows (gr+voc)
(18) when people who talk there very bad. They (18) where (v), people who
talk are very bad(gr)
(19) sometimes show not important things which (19) which are discussed
discuss (gr)
(20) for hours. In conclusion I can say that I don’t like to (20) In conclusion, (p)
(21) watch TV and I prefer downloading some (21) don’t like watching (gr)
(22) interesting films and watch them in my spare time. (22) and watching them
(gr)

Exercise 2. Students’ own answers.

Exercise 3. Write an introduction to your essay. Restate the question in the task in
different words.

Возможный вариант использования другой лексики:


There is nothing worth watching: watching TV is not useful
These days: nowadays

Exercise 4. Students’ own answers.

Task 4. Comment on the following statement.

E-Books will eventually make traditional books obsolete.


What is your opinion?
Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.

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Part 2. Essay writing

Exercise 1. Read the writing tip. Then rewrite the sentences using preparatory it and
the words in brackets.
1. As many of us download more music and films than we buy from shops in CD forms,
it is highly likely that in the next decade it will be the turn1 of books.
2. It is / would be wrong to suggest that traditional books will disappear.
3. It is undoubtedly true that they are more environmentally friendly as they save paper
and there is no transport cost.
4. It is sometimes argued that e-Books have two major drawbacks: they are currently
very expensive and they rely on batteries.
5. It is not surprising that so many people choose e-Books.
6. It would appear that e-Books will become cheaper as they grow in popularity.
Exercise 2.

A. What sentences from exercise 1 can be used to support the opinion in the task?
Sentences N 1, 3, 6
Some other ideas:
They save space at home: An E-book can hold hundreds of digital novels, while traditional
books occupy meters of shelving.
B. What sentence from exercise 1 can be used to express other people’s opinion?
Can you add some examples or explanations to expand these ideas?
Sentence 4
C. What sentence can be used as a counter-argument to say why you don’t agree
with the people? Can you suggest a counter-argument for the second idea?
Sentence 6; battery-life will improve in the coming years.
Exercise 3. Students’ own answers.

Task 5. Comment on the following statement.

Public libraries are becoming less popular and they will soon disappear.

What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.

1 В предложении на стр. 75 Student’s book – опечатка. Правильно turn.

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Unit 4 Free time and culture

Exercise 1. Brainstorm some ideas and develop the arguments:

1) Why do people still go to public libraries?


• They love paper books.
• It is not convenient to keep many books at home.
• Special events in libraries ( meetings with... ).

First of all, many people prefer to read paper books. However, as it is not convenient to keep
many books at home, borrowing them from a library will remain a great opportunity for many
book-lovers. Moreover, libraries are cultural centres organising special events, for example,
meetings with writers, poets or composers. So, this will continue
to attract people.

2) Why do other people think that libraries will disappear?


• It saves time: one can download books from the Net, doesn’t need to leave home.
• The book you need is often given out.

Nonetheless, many people believe that public libraries are not necessary anymore because nowadays
one can download any kind of reading they like and enjoy themselves not leaving their house. They
think that as it saves time and money there won’t be a need
in going to a public library and as a result, they will be closed.

3) Why can’t I fully agree with this?


• Not all the books are in e-format.
• Rare books are in libraries.
• Authorship right (the law, one should pay when downloading legally).

However, I still can’t fully agree with this. Firstly, not all the books have been transformed into
electronic format yet, so, if one needs a rare or an old book they will find it only in a library.
Secondly, the law protecting authorship rights requires
paying for a book that one wants to download, so in many cases it is not cheap.

Task 6. Comment on the following statement .

Government should support art galleries and museums.


What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?
Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.

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Part 2. Essay writing

Exercise 1. Read the topic sentences and expand them into paragraphs. Use some of
the ideas below. Add examples and explanations.

Possible ideas for the paragraphs:


1. There are certainly reasons why I am against spending large sums of money
on art galleries. Firstly, it would be hard to deny that keeping paintings in a good
condition in the museums is extremely expensive, while there are more important
things to spend money on, for example developing medicine for incurable diseases.
Secondly, it is undoubtedly true, that looking at paintings is a bit of luxury, because
the tickets fees are quite high, which not all the people can afford. So, why should
the government spend the citizens’ taxes on it?
2. However, some people believe that we should support art galleries and museums.
Firstly, it is right to suggest, that they have an important part to play in education,
providing people with an opportunity to see the masterpieces of outstanding artists
that worked in different centuries. Moreover, it is the fact that big art galleries are
major tourist attractions, which bring money to the local communities.
3. Though these people might be right, I can’t fully agree with them, because
it would appear that not all the people are interested in art, and besides a lot of
modern art is just difficult to understand.
Exercise 2. Students’ own answers.

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Unit 5 Education

Unit 5. Education

Part 1. Letter writing

Task 1. Read the task.

You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen friend David who writes:
…Tell me about your school. What is your favourite subject? Why? What sports facilities does
the school have? My school has just built a new gym, it’s great! Have you joined any school
clubs?
It’s my basketball team’s first match of the season on Saturday…

Write a letter to David.


In your letter:
• answer his questions;
• ask 3 questions about the basketball match.
Write 100–140 words.
Remember the rules of letter writing.
Exercise 1. Read the sample letter. Analyse the content, organization, use of English.
Put a tick ( ) if a line is correct.

(1) Russia, Moscow, (1)


(2) 21/12/2012 (2)
(3) Dear David, (3)
(4) Thank you for your last letters. I hope you are (4)
fine.
(5) You asked me about my school. As I know, our (5) As far as I know (voc)
(6) teachers like good students, who are learning (6) who learn (gr)
hard. I
(7) really like English language, and I don’t know (7) the English language (gr)
why. I’m
(8) proud of ability to speak one more language. (8) an ability (gr).

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Part 1. Letter writing

(9) However, our school has only one gymnasium (9) As for sport facilities
and we (voc), there is one
gymnasium (voc), but
(10) haven’t enough time to do sport. At last, (10) haven’t got / don’t have
(gr)
(11) unfortunately, I did not join any school club. (11) I haven’t joined (gr)
(12) By the way, how long do you study (12) how long have you been
basketball? playing (gr+voc)
(13) How many players in your team? Do you (13) How many players are
really enjoy it? there in your team? (gr)
(14) Well, it’s all about it. Looking forward to (14)
hearing from you.
(15) Best wishes, (15)
(16) Kirill (16)
Answer the following questions to analyse it.
1. Content:
1) How many words are there in the letter? 112
2) Have the following questions been answered?
• What is your favourite subject? Why?
Ответ на вопрос дан: I really like English language, and I don’t know why. I’m
proud of ability to speak one more language.
• What sports facilities does the school have?
Ответ на вопрос дан: However, our school has only one gymnasium.
• Have you joined any school clubs?
Ответ на вопрос дан: At last, unfortunately, I did not join any school club.
3) Are there 3 questions about the basketball match?
Не все заданные в письме вопросы о предстоящем баскетбольном матче:
By the way, tell me, how long do you study basketball? How many players in your
team? Do you really enjoy it?
Засчитается только вопрос о количестве игроков в команде, поэтому данный аспект
будет считаться невыполненным.
4) Have the rules of politeness been observed?
Практически да. В письме отсутствует лишь ссылка на предыдущие контакты.
5) Is the style formal/informal?
Стиль неформальный в соответствии с требованиями.

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2. Organisation:
1) Is the letter written logically?
Не совсем. Очевидно, это связано также с неверным использованием средств связи:
aвтор заявляет о том, что он гордится способностью говорить еще на одном языке
"I’m proud of ability to speak one more language", а далее пишет, что в школе один
спортивный зал и у них нет времени на спорт.
"However, our school has only one gymnasium and we haven’t enough time to do
sport".
И далее снова нелогичный переход к третьему вопросу:
At last, unfortunately, I did not join any school club.
2) Are the linking words used in a proper way?
Некоторые средства связи используются неверно (However, At last, and, см. предыду-
щий комментарий), отчего нарушается логика высказывания.
3) Is the letter divided into paragraphs?
Да, письмо правильно разделено на абзацы.
4) Are the date and the address written correctly?
Нет. Следует писать: Moscow, Russia
5) Are the salutation, ending the letter, signing off and signature written on
separate lines?
Не совсем. Ссылка на последующие контакты стоит не на отдельной строке:
"Looking forward to hearing from you".
3-4. Students’ own answers.

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Part 2. Essay writing

Part 2. Essay writing

Task 1. Comment on the following statement.


Many schools in Russia require all students to wear school uniforms, while in others students
can decide what to wear at school.

What is your opinion? Should school uniform be obligatory at school?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.
Exercise 1. Read an introduction to the essay. Why will the writer NOT score
maximum points for the content?

Во вступлении автор не перефразировал слова из задания и добавил ненужную ин-


формацию о том, какую школьную форму носят мальчики и девочки в его школе. Про-
блема не сформулирована.
Rewrite the introduction according to the rules of essay writing. Restate the question
in the task in different words.
Возможный вариант замены ключевых слов:
1) Require all students to wear: it is obligatory to wear a uniform / must wear.
2) Can decide what to wear at school: can choose the clothes to wear at school.
Exercise 2. Read paragraph 2 for the essay and rewrite the sentences in the correct
order.

There are a few reasons why I support the idea of introducing school uniform. Firstly, school
administrators often face a complicated task setting a dress code. That is why it may be easier
to have a uniform than to detail and specify independently chosen clothing. Secondly, parents
often spend much money on teenagers’ clothes following their interest in fashion and pressure.
Therefore, school uniforms refocus this issue. Finally, wearing school uniforms emphasizes
membership and group identity, fostering school and community spirit.

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Exercise 3. Read the notes for arguments against wearing school uniforms and
match them with justifications. Make up sentences using the correct linking words.

a-2 Uniforms interfere with students’ rights for self-expression: teenagers can’t
express their tastes and personality.
b-4 They are unnecessary expense: can create economic problems.
c-1 They don’t prevent bad behaviour: they can’t prevent students from expressing
unpopular or inappropriate views in other ways.
d-3 It is not good for students’ self-esteem: they have to wear something unattractive.
Sentences: students’ own answers.

Exercise 4. Which of the opinions are you going to support? Develop your arguments
and make notes for your essay following the plan.

Возможное развитие темы:

An opinion essay plan


Introduction: Restating the question in the task.
Paragraph 1
See ex. 1
Paragraph 2 My opinion: see ex. 2
1) There are a few reasons why I support the idea of introducing
school uniform. Firstly, school administrators often face a
complicated task setting a dress code. That is why it may be
easier to have a uniform than to detail and specify independently
chosen clothing.
2) Wearing school uniforms emphasizes membership and group
identity, fostering school and community spirit.
Paragraph 3 Other people’s opinion
1) Uniforms interfere with students’ rights for self-expression:
teenagers can’t express their tastes and personality.
2) They are unnecessary expense: can create economic problems.
Paragraph 4 Why I don’t agree with them
Из второго абзаца в качестве одного из контраргументов на мнение
других людей можно использовать тезис о дороговизне одежды
для тинейджеров:
1) There are different ways to express one’s personality,
for example doing voluntary work, taking part in different
sports competitions or just taking up a hobby.
2) Buying modern and fashionable clothes
for teens is even more expensive.
Paragraph 5 Conclusion: Restating my position.

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Part 2. Essay writing

Exercise 5: students’ own answers.


Task 2. Comment on the following statement.

Getting marks doesn’t motivate the students to study.

What is your opinion?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.
Exercise 1. Answer the following questions expressing your opinion.
Возможные варианты использования лексики при ответах на вопросы:
1) Do the marks that students get make them learn better? Why?
• They might be indicators that show that students should pay more attention to
a certain subject or area of study.
2) Do marks arouse competition among students? How is it beneficial for them?
• In many schools getting good marks encourages students to learn more so as to
be the best.
• Getting good marks might arouse students’ interest in the subject serving as a
stimulus.
3) Do students with high marks have more chances to go to university and then find a
good job? Why?
• Universities rank students according to their marks, that’s why getting
high marks is a good stimulus to get a chance to enter university.
• Graduates with high grades in their diploma are likely to get a good job.
4) Do they show the true picture of students’ progress? Why?
• Not necessarily: sometimes students just do a lot of drills before a test
without understanding the subject properly.
• Schools might not have the unique assessment criteria and, as a result,
students might not deserve the marks they get.
• A good mark might not mean that a student is good at the subject.
5) Can getting a mark be stressful? Why?
• In some families children can be punished for getting a bad mark.
• Getting marks can be stressful for many students during the tests or
while taking exams. There are many students who are not self-confident
enough and feel embarrassed when making their presentations. However,
they might know the subject well. Besides, a lot of students feel frustrated
when failing an exam.

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Unit 5 Education

Exercise 2. What are the arguments for and against getting marks? Complete the
following table.

Возможный вариант развития контраргументов:

For getting marks Against getting marks

1. They might be indicators that show 1. They might not show the real students’
students that they should study better… knowledge…
Schools might not have the unique assess-
ment criteria and, as a result, students
might not deserve the marks they get.
2. In many schools getting good marks 2. This can lead to envy and jealousy
encourages students to compete to be among the students and ruin their rela-
the best. tionships…
3. Getting good marks might arouse 3. Striving for good marks doesn’t often
students’ interest in the subject serving mean to be interested in a subject.
as a stimulus.
4. Universities rank students according 4. Students put the results of formal as-
to their marks, that’s why getting high sessment above the joy of getting knowl-
marks is a good stimulus for the stu- edge, and eventually lose interest in edu-
dents to get good knowledge. cation.
5. Graduates with high marks in their 5. Many employers require working ex-
diplomas are likely to get a better job. perience rather than good marks.

Exercises 3. Student’s own answers.


Exercises 4. Plan your essay. What opinion are you going to support?
Возможный вариант развития темы. Судя по имеющейся аргументации, логично пред-
ставить план сочинения с мнением автора о запрете оценок.

An opinion essay plan


Paragraph 1 Introduction: restating the question in the task:
Students: schoolchildren
Get marks: be assessed
Motivate: encourage
To study: to learn, to get knowledge
Paragraph 2 My opinion: I strongly believe that marks can discourage students
from studying and that is why should be banned.
1) They might not show the real students’ knowledge…
2) It might be stressful…

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Part 2. Essay writing

Paragraph 3 Other people’s opinion:


1) Getting good marks encourages students to compete to be the
best.
2) Graduates with high marks in their diplomas are likely to get a
better job.
Paragraph 4 Why I don’t agree with them:
1) Competition can lead to envy and jealousy among students and
ruin their relationships…
2) Many employers require working experience rather than good
marks.
Paragraph 5 Conclusion: restating my opinion
Getting marks doesn’t not always encourage students to get good
knowledge, but can also ….

Task 3. Comment on the following statement.

It is believed that in the future teachers will be completely replaced by computers.

What is your opinion?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.
Exercise 1. Answer the following questions giving your opinion. Develop the
arguments adding some justifications.
Примеры использования лексики в тезисах для аргументации:
1. What is the teacher’s role in educating students?
• to instill values and attitudes;
• to motivate, to encourage;
• to care about;
• to understand one’s needs;
• to help to overcome problems;
• to meet special needs;
• to be necessary.

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Unit 5 Education

E.g.: Teachers bring their students up, instilling values and attitudes;
They motivate and encourage students to learn;
They understand their needs and help to overcome problems…
2. Why will the role of teachers be more difficult in the future?
The access to information, to increase, to face challenges.
E.g.: The access to information is increasing nowadays, and teachers face
challenges in their job.
3. What is the role of computers in modern education nowadays?
• To offer online courses and degrees, virtual school, home-schooling, to be
available;
• To attend classes at one’s convenience, face-to-face interaction.
E.g.: Nowadays virtual and online courses are available. One can attend classes
at their convenience without face-to-face interaction.
4. In what educational process are computers the most beneficial?
To provide with information.
E.g.: Computers provide us with necessary information.
5. Why do students need to be supervised?
To be taught different skills, perform better, a sense of responsibility towards sth,
under supervision.
E.g.: Students perform better under supervision which brings a sense of
responsibility towards the study. Students need to be taught different skills…
6. What can’t computers do?
• To provide a human contact.
• To understand.
• To care about.
• To communicate in a social manner.
E.g.: Computers can’t provide a human contact.
They can’t understand the students and care about them;
They can’t communicate in a social manner.
Exercises 2-3. What are the arguments for and against replacing teachers by
computers? Complete the following table:

For replacing teachers Against replacing teachers


1. Computers provide one with 1. Computers can’t provide a human
information. contact.
They can’t understand the students and
care about them.
They can’t communicate in a social
manner.

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Part 2. Essay writing

2. Online courses, virtual schools 2. Teachers not only teach, but bring the
and degrees, are available, which is students up.
convenient. They motivate and encourage students to
learn.
They understand their needs.
3. Students perform better under
supervision.
Students need to be taught different skills.

Exercise 4. Plan your paragraphs. Complete the following paragraph plan for your
essay, making notes on what you are going to include in each paragraph.
Возможный вариант развития темы:

An opinion essay plan


Paragraph 1 Introduction: restating the question in the task:
It is believed that in the future teachers will
be completely replaced by computers.
It is believed: there is an opinion
Teachers will be completely replaced by computers: computers will
totally replace teachers / teachers will be totally substituted by
computers.
A possible beginning:
The access to information is increasing nowadays,
and teachers face challenges in their job…
Paragraph 2 My opinion: I don’t believe that computers will replace teachers some
day.
1) Teachers not only teach, but bring their students up.
They motivate and encourage students to learn.
They understand their needs.
2) Students need to be taught different skills…
Paragraph 3 Other people’s opinion:
1) Distant learning is available.
2) Computers store and provide more information than a human
being.
Paragraph 4 Why I don’t agree with them:
1) Students perform better under supervision…
2) Computers can’t provide a human contact.
They can’t understand the students and care about them.
They can’t communicate in a social manner.
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Paragraph 5 Conclusion:
To sum up, though there are many advantages of using computers
in the educational process, I still believe that teachers will hardly be
substituted by them in the future…..

Exercise 5. Students’ own answers.


Task 4. Comment on the following statement.

Some people think that it is possible to get good school education only at elite single-sex
boarding schools abroad.

What is your opinion?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.
Exercise 1. Read the following introductions from students’ essays. What is not
logical? Which things need to be improved?

1. Sending children to prestigious boarding schools is quite common nowadays, especially in the
European countries. But is it really useful for them or is this kind of education much
more harmful than it seems to be?

В первом вступлении нарушены структурно-смысловые связи между первым и вторым


предложением. Первое предложение заканчивается словом "countries". Второе начи-
нается словами But is it useful for them… Местоимение "them", таким образом, согла-
суется со словом countries, что делает высказывание нелогичным.
Смысл вопроса меняется. Он звучит, как если бы автор спрашивал, есть ли смысл
в таком образовании для стран, а не для учащихся.

2. Boarding schools are very popular nowadays. As everyone is aware, this is one of the most
progressive ways of getting education. However, it has its own pluses
and minuses as everything.

Данное вступление содержит нелогичное обобщение: As everyone is aware, this is


one of the most progressive ways of getting education. В этом предложении их сразу
два: «каждый уверен» и «такой вид обучения – самый прогрессивный». Следует из-
бегать таких обобщений в сочинениях, так как они вызовут недоумение у экзаменато-
ров: а если они думают иначе? Значит, и кто-то еще может думать иначе. Тогда выска-
зывание заведомо спорно, а значит, нелогично.

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Part 2. Essay writing

3. Everyone can choose which school to go to. First of all, one will try to find out more about
that school. Let us find some advantages and disadvantages of studying at a prestigious
boarding school abroad.

В этом вступлении лишним является второе предложение. Оно звучит как описание
действия человека, который решил выбрать школу. Таким образом, учащийся отходит
от формулировки проблемы. Кроме этого, учащийся не сформулировал проблему,
а собирается анализировать «за» и «против» обучения в таких школах.

Exercise 2. Write your variant of an introduction to the essay.

Возможные варианты использования другой лексики:


Some people think: many people believe / there is an opinion…
To get good education: children can be taught well
Elite single sex boarding schools: prestigious schools for boys or girls
Abroad: in foreign countries.
Introduction: students’ own answers.

Exercise 3. Read a conclusion from a student’s essay. Why will the student lose
a point for the content and organisation?

Student’s opinion: In my opinion, boarding schools abroad are not the best places
to get a good education…

All things considered, personally I wouldn’t like to study at such a school because it would be
very hard for me to leave my mother. Also, there are very severe rules there and I don’t like
strict discipline because, to my mind, if these principles become the cornerstones of your life,
you will be a serious, unsociable person. I don’t want to become such a dried-up woman, that’s
why I don’t want to study at a boarding school.

Данное заключение не обобщает сказанного ранее и содержит, очевидно, новые


аргументы или повторяет сказанное ранее. Кроме того, есть логическое нарушение:
почему в результате соблюдения дисциплины и правил можно стать серьезным и не-
общительным человеком?
Exercise 4. Which of the following arguments from the students’ essays do you find
the most logical and convincing? Put a tick ( ), a cross (X) or a question mark (?)
next to them.

Explain why.
A. Some parents have no choice as they have to work outside the city and have not enough time
to take care of their child so sending their child to a boarding school can be a necessary
solution. Х

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Unit 5 Education

Данный аргумент не о преимуществах элитного образования за рубежом, а о занятых


родителях.
В. Living away from their families, children have to learn to be independent. Therefore, a child
has to make their own decisions, to find new friends, find their own time to study and
we can say that they mature faster. ?

Речь о том, что дает обучение вдали от родителей. Нужно сделать акцент, где именно.

С. To start with, students of such a school aim high, so they work hard to achieve success. As a
result, a student who has got into such educational environment, will also try their best
so as not to be worse than others.

Хороший аргумент о преимуществах таких школ: есть тезис об образовательной сре-


де, где учатся мотивированные дети: ”students of such a school aim high, so they work
hard to achieve success”; дается пояснение, почему это хорошо для обучающихся:
”a student who has got into such educational environment, will also try to do their
best not to be worse than others”.
D. To start with, students of such a school aim high, so they work hard to achieve success. As a
result, a student who has got into such educational environment, will also try their best
so as not to be worse than others. ?

Неплохой аргумент о контингенте учащихся в таких школах, но нет завершения: что


в итоге?

E. First of all, these educational institutions usually provide excellent education, which is
definitely good for students. So, children who studied at such schools are likely to enter
a good university and then to get a highly-paid job.

Хороший аргумент: есть основная мысль (excellent education) и объяснение, что это
дает учащимся ”they are likely to enter a good university and then to get a highly-
paid job”.

F. In addition, as such schools are usually expensive, not many children have a chance to get
there. This means that teachers can pay them more attention than at ordinary schools
and as a result, they are sure to get more knowledge.

Аргумент является нелогичным: сначала речь идет о том, что школы дорогие и не все
могут там обучаться. Далее следует предложение о том, что в результате учителя уде-
ляют им больше внимания. Кому? Тем, кто не может учиться в таких школах? Здесь
неверно построена фраза, что нарушает структурно-смысловые связи внутри абзаца.
Нужно было бы добавить промежуточное звено: As a result, there are not many
students at such schools, which means that teachers can pay them more attention…

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Part 1. Letter writing

Exercise 5. What is your opinion about getting education at elite single-sex boarding
schools abroad? Plan and write your essay.

Тезисы для возможного варианта развития темы:

An opinion essay plan


Paragraph 1 Introduction: see notes in exercise 2
Paragraph 2 My opinion: To my mind, it is possible to get a good education in
the native country.
There is a variety of schools in our country that can give a good
education.
A family doesn’t have an opportunity to bring up and instill
values if a child studies abroad.
Paragraph 3 Other people’s opinion:
Such boarding schools set high educational standards and provide
students with a good education.
Students are disciplined and work hard.
Paragraph 4 Why I don’t agree with them:
Schoolchildren can also enter courses or study with private
teachers / distance learning is also available.
The atmosphere in such schools can be stressful.
Going abroad one might miss their family and friends.
Paragraph 5 Conclusion: restating my opinion.

Task 5. Comment on the following statement.

Many parents believe that it is not necessary to learn a second foreign language at school. It is
enough to learn only English.

What is your opinion?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.

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Unit 5 Education

Exercise 1. Read the student’s essay. Analyse the content, organisation, vocabulary,
grammar and spelling? Correct the mistakes. Put a tick ( ) if the line is correct.

Content Mistakes corrected


(1) Nowadays most schools gives pupils a chance to learn (1) schools give (gr)
foreign
(2) languages. Some people think that only English (2) should be taught
should taught (gr)
(3) at schools because this language is the most popular (3)
language
(4) in the world. Others believe that another languages (4) other languages
such as (gr)
(5) German, French, Spanish should be taught too. To my (5) to my mind, (p)
mind the
(6) variety of foreign languages should be in schools (6) there should be a
today. variety (gr)
(1) Firstly, learning some foreign languages will increase (1)
your
(2) brain’s abilities. Most of scientists believe that if you (2) most scientists (gr)
study two
(3) or three foreign languages your memory’s skills are (3) memory skills (gr),
developing. develop (gr)
(4) In fact, if a student have learned some foreign (4) for example (voc),
languages, he’ll a student has learned/
is learning (gr)
(5) memorize poetry more faster than others. Secondly, (5) faster (gr)
learning
(6) some foreign languages will help student to travel in (6) a student, while
the future. traveling (gr)
(7) In many countries people don’t know English, but (7) speak English (voc)
they speak,
(8) for example, French. Students, who learned this (8)
language at
(9) school could ask for help everybody in this country. (9) could ask
everybody for help(gr)
(1) My opponents believe that many students don’t want (1)
to be

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Part 2. Essay writing

(2) interpreters(sp)
(2) interpretors, so they don’t need two or three foreign don’t need to learn
languages (voc)
(3) due to the process
(3) and in our world is going globalization, so we don’t of globalization we
need don’t need to learn
(voc/gr)
(4) foreign languages at school because they’ll disapear (4) soon disappear
soon. (sp+gr)
(1) I can’t agree with them because students may have a (1) may (want to)
wish to
(2) change their
jobs(voc+gr), to do
(2) change their job in the future and others professions need other jobs one needs
(voc/gr)
(3) knowledge of three foreign languages. So, this student (3) a / some knowledge
may (gr) these / such
students (gr)
(4) have problems in the future. Moreover, globalization is (4,5) the process of
(5) increased in low speed, so humanity will have spoken globalization is going
foreign not very fast (gr+voc)
(6) languages for many centuries. (5,6) will speak, many
more (voc)
(1)To sum up, there’re many opinions on this theme, but (1)
mine is
(2) more convenient for me. (2) convincing (voc)

What are your comments about the content and organisation?


1. Содержание
Paragraph 1. Вступление.
Во вступлении учащийся сформулировал проблему рубрики своими словами и при-
вел свое мнение. В принципе, это допустимо.
Paragraph 2. Аргументы в поддержку мнения автора.
Даны два развернутых аргумента: первый о том, как улучшаются мыслительные спо-
собности человека, изучающего иностранные языки, второй о том, что знание не-
скольких языков помогает во время путешествий в разные страны.

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Unit 5 Education

Paragraph 3. Мнение других людей.


Приводятся два аргумента: первый о том, что не все собираются быть переводчиками,
поэтому не обязательно знать несколько иностранных языков, и второй – о глобали-
зации, в результате которой иностранные языки в школе исчезнут. Второй аргумент
немного нелогичен, так как процесс глобализации скорее приведет к возникновению
одного или нескольких международных языков.
Paragraph 4. Почему автор с ними не согласен.
Первый аргумент о том, что кто-то захочет поменять работу, где требуется знание ино-
странного языка, в целом можно принять. Однако странным выглядит приведенное
количество языков, необходимое для выполнения другой работы. Лучше было бы
избегать таких категоричных примеров и писать более нейтрально: a knowledge of
more than one foreign languages.
Второй аргумент о том, что процесс глобализации идет медленно и поэтому человече-
ство еще долго будет говорить на разных языках, тоже логичен.
Paragraph 5. Вывод.
В выводе автор коротко подвел итоги и заявил о том, что свое мнение он считает бо-
лее убедительным. Звучит немного странно: свое мнение всегда более убедительно.
Очевидно, было бы лучше это мнение еще раз озвучить другими словами.
Организация
1) Имеются некоторые недостатки в использовании средств связи:
• В предложении ”In fact, if a student has learned some foreign languages,
he’ll memorize poetry faster than others” вместо ”in fact” лучше употребить ”for
example”.
• Между двумя предложениями напрашивается союз ”So”:
In many countries people don’t know English, but they speak, for example, French.
SO, students, who learned this language at school could ask everybody for help in this
country.
• В следующем абзаце хочется по-другому использовать линкеры, чтобы он зву-
чал более целостно и логично:
My opponents believe that many students don’t want to be interpreters, so they
don’t need two or three foreign languages. Secondly / Moreover, due to the process of
globalization we don’t need to learn foreign languages at school because they’ll soon
disappear.
• В следующем предложении вместо ”and” нужно употребить ”but”:
I can’t agree with them because students may want to change their jobs in the future
but to do other jobs one needs some knowledge of three foreign languages.
Далее снова два раза подряд употребляется SO. Его можно заменить другим союзом,
например:

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Part 2. Essay writing

As a result, such students may have problems in the future. Moreover, the process
of globalization is going not very fast, that is why humanity will speak foreign
languages for many more centuries.
Exercise 2. Plan and write an essay expressing an opposing opinion.

Возможное развитие темы с противоположной точкой зрения:

An opinion essay plan


Paragraph 1 Introduction: restating the question in the task in different words:
Many parents believe: a lot of parents consider / think, etc.
It is not necessary: there is no use
A second foreign language: another foreign language/ more than one
foreign language
It is enough to learn English: only English should be taught
Paragraph 2 My opinion: I am convinced that all schools should teach only
English as a foreign language.
1) It’s a waste of time and money to learn several foreign
languages at school: students can spend their time concentrating
on some other more important subjects. It is more expensive
for schools to provide such conditions: they spend money on
making several learning groups and have to hire more teachers.
2) Due to globalization English has already
become an international language.
Paragraph 3 Other people’s opinion:
1) There are jobs that require the knowledge of other languages.
2) When one learns foreign languages they develop their memory.
Paragraph 4 Why I don’t agree with it:
1) One may learn another foreign language better and
faster if they know that they need it in the job.
2) One can develop their memory even better if they
study some other things at school, for example math.
Paragraph 5 Conclusion: restating my opinion:
Though there are different opinions about this subject, I strongly
believe that it is enough to learn just English at schools.

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Unit 6 Work. Choosing a career

Unit 6. Work. Choosing a career

Part 1. Writing letters

Task1. You have received a letter from your English-speaking


pen friend Susan who writes:

… At school we are now doing a project on the most popular jobs among young people in the
USA. Could you tell me what jobs young people in Russia want to get? Why are they popular?
What career have you chosen, if any yet?
Last week I took part in a tennis tournament…

Write a letter to Susan. In your letter:


• answer her questions;
• ask 3 questions about the tennis tournament.
Write 100–140 words.
Remember the rules of letter writing.
Exercise 1. Read the sample letter. What mark will the student get for it? Why?

Moscow, Russia
14.05.2014
Dear Susan!
I was glad to receive your last letter. You asked me some questions, now I’ll answer them.
Many teenagers choose economics and law to study, as they want to become lawyers and
economists, because later they will earn a lot of money. As for me, I’d like to become a
technologist, so I’m going to study Chemistry.
By the way, who did you play with? Who won the game? What was the first prize?
That’s all. Write back.
Best wishes,
Polly

Учащемуся поставят 0 баллов по критерию «Содержание», так как в письме


86 слов, несмотря на то, что задание практически полностью выполнено. Это является
часто допустимой ошибкой, когда на экзамене экзаменуемые плохо считают слова.
(При объеме 100 –140 слов допускается отклонение в 10%, то есть минимальное
количество слов, подлежащее проверке, будет 90, а максимальное – 154).

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Part 1. Letter writing

Exercise 2. Can you expand the letter?

Так как нужно всего минимум четыре слова, чтобы работу проверили, можно доба-
вить отсутствующую благодарность за полученное письмо: Thank you for your letter.
Затем, однако, придется изменить следующую фразу: I was glad to receive it again.
Можно также добавить фразу Sorry for not answering before: I was busy with my
project / exams, etc.

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Unit 6 Work. Choosing a career

Part 2. Essay writing

Task 1. Comment on the following statement:

Doing a part-time job while studying is a way to earn their pocket money for many teens.
However, most parents are sure that it would be better for them to concentrate
on their study.

Write 200–250 words.


Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.
Exercise 1. Read and analyse the sample essay:

Nowadays people can’t come to an agreement if to work or not to work when you study at
school. This is a question that worries a lot of teenagers and their parents nowadays.

There are a lot of different kinds of jobs that teenagers can do. And it won’t influence their life
because they do it part-time. Firstly, you can work at Mac Donald’s. In my opinion, it is one of
the most popular teenagers’ job. You can make fast food and work in a good team. They also
give you a different time to work. So, you can choose. Then, you get money, of course. Secondly,
you can be a waiter or a courier to bring different things to people. You learn to communicate
with people.

On the other hand, some people think that it is dangerous to be a courier. Because you can come
late and people can be angry. They even can fight you. As a result, you can lose your money
and health.

I don’t agree with them. To my mind, if you don’t want to be a courier, you can choose other
jobs. There are many of them. And if you are a courier, you can call back and they answer your
call, so you can say when you will come and it is not dangerous.

In conclusion I want to say that teenagers must work part-time because there
are many different jobs and they can be very useful.

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Part 2. Essay writing

1) Has the student stated the problem?


Да. Во вступлении автор перефразировал задание и таким образом сформулировал
проблему. Однако выбранная им начальная фраза звучит немного странно: какие
люди не могут договориться?
2) Have they expressed their opinion?
Мнение автора по проблеме не сформулировано. В первом абзаце есть лишь мнение
о том, что самая популярная работа среди подростков – в «Макдональдс». Кроме того,
второй абзац целиком посвящен рассуждению о том, где могут работать подростки
и почему это хорошо.
3) Is there an opinion of the other people?
Мнения других людей по проблеме рубрики нет. В третьем абзаце есть мнение и рас-
суждение о том, почему опасно работать курьером.
4) Are there any counter-arguments?
В четвертом абзаце есть контраргументы на мысль о том, что можно сделать, чтобы
работать курьером было безопасно. Кроме того, упоминается, что можно выбрать
другую работу.
5) Has he/she drawn a conclusion?
В конце – вывод о том, что подростки могут работать, так как есть большой выбор про-
фессий частичной занятости и что они полезны.
6) What mark will the student get for the essay?
Учитывая то, что автор полностью отошел от предложенной темы, за содержание он
получит 0 баллов и, таким образом, по остальным критериям – также 0 баллов.

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Unit 6 Work. Choosing a career

Exercise 2. Here are sentences from the 2nd paragraphs from the two jumbled essays.
Organise them so that they will match the students’ opinions.

Essay 1 Essay 2
Introduction Nowadays many teenagers are Most teenagers believe that
determined to work part-time in working part-time has a lot of
order to earn some pocket money. benefits. However, parents do
Others don’t think it is a good not often approve of it. Let us
idea. So, who is right? look into this question.

Paragraph 2 H, D, G, E, B A, F, C
Personally I agree with the There are some reasons why I
second point of view. There are a would like to work part-time.
few arguments that support my
opinion. First of all, working at First of all, thanks to this job
the expense of studying can lead teenagers will learn the value of
to losing an opportunity to enter money and hopefully will spend
college or university and then to it more wisely. What is more,
find a future job. That is why, while spending their own money
it is better to spend more time teenagers will get information
studying. Secondly, teenagers
will have enough work to do in about the cost of living. So,
the future. So, I suppose, that they will realize what kind of
they may use their chance to get education and a job to choose to
more pleasure from life and not earn enough money to provide
to work until they grow up. for their future families.

Exercise 3. Complete the essays. Write paragraphs 3, 4 and a conclusion in a logical way.
Возможное развитие темы:

Essay 1 Essay 2
Paragraph 3 Other people’ s opinion: Other people’s opinion:
However, my opponents say that However, other people may
working part-time also means say that working part-time
getting experience that can later while at school may have some
help to do a future job. Moreover, disadvantages. For example,
if a family has a low income, teenagers may not have enough
working part-time can help it. time to go to the cinema or
socialize with their friends.
Moreover, working part-time and
studying, young people often sleep
less which has a bad influence on
their health.

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Part 2. Essay writing

Paragraph 4 Why I don’t agree with it: Why I don’t agree with it:
Not all the teenagers want to When a person has an aim
develop the career they start and many things to do, they
doing a part-time job. Many of organise their time better, so
them enter university and start they will be able to combine
doing something quite different. studying, working and having
a rest. What is more, teenagers
who don’t work part-time can
sleep little due to chatting in
social nets at night.
Conclusion Restating my opinion. Restating my opinion.

Task 2. Comment on the following statement:

Many teenagers believe that it is more important to get a highly- paid job than a job that brings
satisfaction.

What is your opinion?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.

Exercise 1. Read the students’ arguments for the essay. What is NOT logical?
Comment on the arguments:

A. To my mind, people shouldn’t focus on money when choosing a job. Firstly, if one‘s job
brings them satisfaction, they will do it willingly and, as a result, get profit from it. For
example, one will never make oneself work extra hours if they hate their job.

Непонятно, как работа, не приносящая денег, может стать выгодной.

B. Secondly, there is no doubt, that people spend a great amount of time at their working place.
So, they become grumpy, depressed and dissatisfied with their life.

Здесь учащийся сделал нелогичное обобщение: получается, люди проводят на работе


много времени и все поголовно становятся ворчливыми, депрессивными и неудовлет-
воренными. Одно из другого наверняка не следует.

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Unit 6 Work. Choosing a career

C. However, others believe that a future job should be chosen according to the amount of money
it brings. That is why they choose a job according to the amount of money it brings.

Здесь в качестве пояснения использован тезис аргумента: нужно выбирать работу ис-
ходя из количества денег, которые за нее платят, поэтому они выбирают работу, исходя
из количества денег, которые за нее платят.

Exercise 2. Read paragraph 4 of the same essay. Is the counter-argument logical?

Though I partly agree with them, I can’t fully accept this point of view. Unfortunately, many
very useful jobs nowadays are poorly-paid. Nevertheless, society can’t live without these
specialists. So, when choosing their jobs teenagers should think about this and give society
a possibility to help others.

Контраргумент нелогичен, так как развивается мысль о необходимости и пользе для


общества низкооплачиваемых специальностей. Отсюда делается вывод о том, что
подросткам не следует об этом забывать при выборе профессии. Но к теме это не име-
ет отношения. Тема о том, какую работу лучше иметь: высокооплачиваемую или при-
носящую человеку удовлетворение, и почему.

Exercise 3. Brainstorm and develop arguments for and against different kinds of jobs.
Возможные варианты аргументов:

For a highly-paid job For a job that brings satisfaction

It gives an opportunity to provide for It makes a person feel that they are
one’s family. necessary.
It raises one’s status in a society. It offers many challenges for a person’s
It gives a chance to satisfy one’s needs development.
and wishes. It gives an opportunity to meet new
likely-minded friends.
Against a highly-paid job Against a job that brings satisfaction

It might be stressful (competition, high A person might have a very low salary
expectations from the managers). and not be able to provide for their
It might require working overtime. family.
It might influence a person’s character It brings stress: as a person will need
(people neglect their friends and family, to look for some other opportunities
become selfish, etc.). to earn money and as a result to work
It might make a person feel unhappy in over-time and neglect their family.
case they don’t like the job.

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Part 2. Essay writing

Exercise 4. What’s your opinion about the problem? Plan and make notes
for an essay.
Возможный вариант развития темы:

An opinion essay plan


Paragraph 1 Introduction: restating the task
Teenagers believe: young people consider
It is more important: it is better
A highly paid job: a job with a high salary
To bring satisfaction: a rewarding job
Paragraph 2 My opinion: it is better to have a rewarding job
1) It makes a person feel that they are necessary.
2) It offers many challenges for a person’s development.
Paragraph 3 Other people’s opinion:
1) A person might have a very low salary and not be able to
provide for their family.
2) It brings stress: a person will need to look for some other
opportunities to earn money and as a result to work over-time
and neglect their family.
Paragraph 4 Why I don’t agree with it:
1) A highly-paid job also might require working overtime.
2) It might be even more stressful due to serious competition
among the colleagues and high expectations from the managers.
Paragraph 5 Conclusion: restating my opinion.
All things considered, I would choose a rewarding job as it is
more likely to make me happy.
Exercise 5: students' own answers.
Task 3. Comment on the following statement:
Many parents feel that their children should follow their advice in choosing a career.

What is your opinion?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.

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Unit 6 Work. Choosing a career

Exercise 1. Read paragraphs 3–5 from a student’s essay. Why will the student NOT
score maximum for the content and organisation?

However, some people feel that children should always follow their parents’ advice because they
are wiser than youngsters. They say that parents never do harm to their children, they want
only the best for them.
To my mind these facts are true but these people are not quite right. It is true that parents care
a lot about their children. However, in some cases even wise people are mistaken. In the modern
world teenagers should be allowed to choose their jobs because they are often up-to-date and
know how to become successful better than parents. So, parents can give them good advice.

В данном абзаце очевидны некоторые логические противоречия. В первом предложе-


нии утверждается, что, по мнению автора, эти факты верны, однако эти люди не пра-
вы. Звучит странно. Далее автор пишет о том, что, с одной стороны, взрослые могут
ошибаться и подросткам нужно давать своду выбора, так как они лучше ориентируют-
ся в современном мире и знают, как преуспеть. А с другой стороны, автор заканчивает
тем, что поэтому родители дадут детям хороший совет.

To sum up, children should have the right to decide their future while parents may give them
some useful advice.

В выводе не обозначено мнение автора, приводится позиция «и то и другое хорошо».


Exercise 2. Complete the following paragraph plan for your essay, making notes on
what you are going to include in each paragraph.
Возможный вариант развития темы:

An opinion essay plan


Paragraph 1 Introduction: restating the task
Parents feel: parents consider / are sure / believe
Follow advice: to follow their recommendations / can’t make their
choice independently
Choose a career: to choose a future job
Paragraph 2 My opinion: teenagers shouldn’t follow their parents’ advice
1) It doesn’t develop responsibility in children for their choice
and decisions.
2) Making one’s career choice should be based on the person’s
individual needs and interest, but not on the ideas of other
people.
Paragraph 3 Other people’s opinion:
1) Parents know best, as they are older and wiser.
2) Parents can help if teens join in their family business or start
the same career.

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Part 2. Essay writing

Paragraph 4 Why I don’t agree with them:


1) Even wise people can make mistakes.
2) People learn when making their own mistakes, so it is not bad
to follow one’s own path.
Paragraph 5 Conclusion: restating my opinion.

Exercises 3-4. Student’s own answers.


Task 4. Comment on the following statement:

The best things in life are free.

What is your opinion?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you do not agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.
Exercise 1. Answer the following questions giving your opinion.
Возможные варианты использования лексики:
1) What things do people consider to be the best for them?
It depends: true love, family, friends, relationship with people, health, happiness,
talent, an opportunity to develop oneself, a chance to help other people, a highly-
paid job, a career, an expensive car, house, etc.
2) Which of these things can’t be bought with money? Why?
Money is irrelevant: one can’t buy love, talent, happiness, friends, health;
Many rich people feel miserable about friendship or family, because it is difficult
for them to find true friends and true love. If money could buy happiness, the
rich would be the happiest people in the world.
3) Why might some people think that one should pay for some things that are
important for them? What are they?
Money is necessary to buy essential things, improve one’s life / health, remove
worries and distress, provide for a family, fulfill one’s purposes.
Money can prevent the sufferings related to poverty, for example cold and
hunger.
One can obtain an advanced education and develop their abilities.
It gives us an opportunity for leisure.
Even though sickness cannot be completely obliterated by money, it can be
considerably relieved by it.
People having money can donate it to charity.
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Unit 6 Work. Choosing a career

4) Can people be happy without money? Why? Why not?


Doing voluntary work can provide one with the satisfaction of relieving others
from sufferings. People can be happy with a job that brings satisfaction.
Exercise 2. Think of an introduction to your essay.
Restate the idea in the task.
The best things in life: the most important things for people
free: cannot be bought for money
Exercise 3. Complete the following paragraph plan for your essay, making notes on
what you are going to include in each paragraph.
Возможный вариант развития темы:

An opinion essay plan


Paragraph 1 Introduction: restating the task
(see notes in ex. 2)
Paragraph 2 My opinion: I am convinced that the most important things in life
can’t be bought for money.
1) True love, relationship with people, friendship.
2) Health.
Paragraph 3 Other people’s opinion:
1) Money is necessary to buy essential things, and thus relieve
people from sufferings.
2) One can obtain an advanced education and develop their
abilities;
3) It gives us an opportunity for leisure.
Paragraph 4 Why I don’t agree with them:
1) Money can relieve people’s sufferings to some extent, but
it can’t buy love, happiness and friendship. So, having a lot
of things, people may still suffer from the lack of family and
friends’ support.
2) Money can relieve people’s sufferings to some extent, but
it can’t buy love, happiness and friendship. So, having a lot
of things, people may still suffer from the lack of family and
friends’ support.
Paragraph 5 Conclusion: restating my opinion..

Exercises 4-5. Students’ own answers.

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Part 1. Letter writing

Unit 7. Countries around the world

Part 1. Letter writing

Task1. You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen friend Charles
who writes:

… My class went on a one-day trip to Stratford-upon-Avon last week. I really enjoyed it. Do
you often go on school outings? Do you enjoy these trips? Why or why not? What was the most
interesting trip?
By the way, my grandfather was 75 last week and we had a family gathering…

Write a letter to Charles. In your letter:


• answer his questions;
• ask 3 questions about the family gathering.
Write 100–140 words.
Remember the rules of letter writing.

Exercise 1. Read a sample letter.


Why will the student NOT score maximum points for it?

Analyse the content, organisation and use of English.

(1) Moscow, Russia (1)


(2) 24/11/2013 (2)
(3) Dear Charles, (3)
(4) Glad to hear from you again! (4)
(5) How did you celebrated the B-day? Do you usually (5) How did you
celebrate (gr)
(6) have many guests on a family gathering? What (6)
(7) presents do you like to give? (7)
(8) As for your questions, each year my class organise (8) my class organises
(gr)
(9) some trips. Usually we go to any Russian town for a (9) we go to some /a
Russian town (gr)

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Unit 7 Travelling. Countries around the world

(10) few days. So my classmates have already been to (10) So, (p)
(11) Vladimir, Suzdal and Zvenigirod. What’s more, last (11)
(12) year the class went to Riga. According to what they (12)
(13) said, they really liked it very much. Although, the (13) However, the trip
trip to… (voc)
(14) to Zvenigorod bio station was the most interesting (14)
(15) and I liked it very much. I realy spend a great time (15) I really had a
great time there
(sp+ gr/voc)
(16) and got a lot of positive emotions. (16)
(17) Sorry, but I must go now. (17)
(18) Best wishes, (18)
(19) Ann (19)
Содержание:
В письме 126 слов
1. Ответ на вопрос, часто ли автор путешествует с классом, отсутствует: each year
my class organise some trips и далее про то, где были одноклассники.
2. Ответ на вопрос, нравятся ли автору эти путешествия и почему, отсутствует.
3. Ответ на вопрос, какое путешествие было наиболее интересным, дан: Although,
the trip to Zvenigorod bio station was the most interesting and I liked it very much.
I really spend a great time and got a lot of positive emotions.
4. Из трех заданных вопросов о дне рождения дедушки принимается только один:
How did you celebrate the B-day? Остальные вопросы не по теме.
5. Кроме того, отсутствует фраза-благодарность за полученное письмо и нет фра-
зы-надежды на последующие контакты.
Организация:
1. Адрес и дата под адресом в правом верхнем углу написаны верно.
2. Обращение, завершающая фраза, подпись автора написаны на отдельных стро-
ках.
3. Средства связи в основном использованы верно, однако неправильно употре-
блен союз "although" (должен быть "however").
4. Письмо написано логично. Автор разделил его на абзацы, хотя нарушил после-
довательность их изложения: сначала заданы три вопроса, а потом даны ответы на
вопросы друга. В принципе, при условии логичного изложения, такая последова-
тельность не вызовет понижения балла.
Языковое оформление
Имеется ряд ошибок (см. исправления).

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Part 2. Essay writing

Part 2. Essay writing

Task 1. Comment on the following statement.

Some people believe that visitors to other countries should follow local customs and meet
national standards of behaviour.

What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.
Exercise 1. Read an introduction to the essay. Analyse the content, organization,
grammar, vocabulary and spelling. Correct the mistakes. Put a tick ( ) if the line
is correct.

(1) Travelling plays an important role in people life. Some (1) people’s lives (gr)
(2) people travel and follow the law and traditions of (2)
(3) countries. But some people don’t. However many (3) the countries (gr)
people Лучше предложе-
ние с "but" сделать
частью предыду-
щего (gr). После
"however" нужна
запятая
(4) consider that foreign countries should encouraged other (4) should
encourage (gr)
(5) different cultures. They travel to learn more about the (5)
(6) country. This is the question we need to resolve. (6) the question we
need to discuss (voc)
Комментарии:
Проблема сочинения: следует ли соблюдать традиции и обычаи страны, если ты на-
ходишься в ней в качестве путешественника. Но во вступлении учащийся

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Unit 7 Travelling. Countries around the world

сформулировал ее неверно: какие-то люди в путешествиях соблюдают законы и тра-


диции,
а какие-то – нет. Далее идет нелогичное развитие мысли: страны должны приветство-
вать другие культуры. Почему? Затем следует предложение о том, что «они путеше-
ствуют, чтобы узнать о стране». Местоимение they в данном контексте согласовывается
с предыдущим существительным cultures. Нарушена логика высказывания.
Таким образом, с точки зрения содержания мы наблюдаем неверно сформулирован-
ную проблему, а с точки зрения организации – нарушение логики высказывания.

Exercise 2. Read paragraph 2 from the student’s the essay.


Analyse the content, organisation, vocabulary, grammar and spelling.
Correct the mistakes.
Put a tick ( ) if the line is correct.

(1) On the one hand, tourists who travel abroad should (1)
(2) respect the culture and the inhabitants who live in this (2) citizens / people
(voc)
(3) country. Another it will be difficult to seek mutual (3) otherwise
(voc), to find/
establish’(voc)
(4) understanding. As a result, people all over the world will (4)
(5) become more friendly and polite. In addition, people (5)
(6) visiting other countries are interested in learning more (6)

(7) facts about style of life and behaviour of local people in (7) the way
of life (gr+voc)
(8) this foreign country. In my opinion tourists should (8) in these foreign
follow countries (gr) in my
opinion, (sp)
(9) traditions and customs of the country which they visit. (9) the traditions
and customs (gr)
(10) While sightseeing people learn more about history of (10) the history of
the country (gr)
(11) the country they are in and wide their own experience. (11) broaden their
horizons (voc)
Комментарии:
1. Мнение автора должно быть написано в начале абзаца, однако оно стоит почти
в конце, что делает высказывание нелогичным. Последнее предложение не по теме.
2. Есть другие нарушения логики высказывания: будет трудно найти взаимопони-
мание, и в результате люди станут более дружелюбными и вежливыми.

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Part 2. Essay writing

3. Неверно употреблено слово "another" вместо союза "otherwise".


Exercise 3. Read paragraphs 3 and 4 from the same essay. Analyse the content,
organisation, vocabulary, grammar and spelling. Correct the mistakes. Put a tick ( )
if the line is correct.

(1) But some people consider that, the host country should (1)
(2) welcome and encurage cultural differences as it is very (2) encourage’ ( sp)
(3) important being tolerant with your visitors and always (3) it is important to
be tolerant’ (gr)
(4) look friendly and hospitality. What is more, it is not (4) be friendly’ (voc),
hospitable (gr)
(5) possible to have only one common culture in the (5)
country.
(6) That is the reason why people should accept and tolirate (6) tolerate’ – в од-
ном случае написа-
но верно, в другом
– нет
(7) different traditions and customs. In addition, different (7)
(8) cultures mixing together, contribute to the (8) development (sp)
developement
(9) of a more sustainable society. (9)
Комментарии:
1. Есть аргумент, почему страны должны поощрять другие культуры: важно быть
толерантными. Но далее автор начинает развивать другую тему: почему в одной
стране не может быть только одной культуры. Таким образом, наблюдается отход от
темы сочинения.
2. С точки зрения «Организации» есть претензия к использованию союза "but"
в начале абзаца.
3. Имеется ряд ошибок.

(10) Though they are true, I don’t agree with these opinions. (10) Лучше было
бы сказать: "though
these people might
be right / their
opinions" (voc)
(11) Firstly, it is impossible to be tolerant with people who (11)
(12) break the rules and don’t follow the customes. That is (12) customs (sp)
(13) why people who don’t do this shouldn’t get offensive (13)

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Unit 7 Travelling. Countries around the world

(14) when somebody will speak about it and tell them that (14) when somebody
speaks about
it / tells them’ (gr)
(15) they are not right. Secondly, many different nations live (15)
(16) in different countries. (16)

Комментарии:
1. Контраргументы нелогичны: непонятно, почему автор говорит о людях, которые
нарушают правила и не соблюдают традиции. Возможно, нужно было сказать, что
бывают такие люди и поэтому трудно быть дружелюбным. Следующее предложе-
ние звучит как рекомендация, а не как аргумент (поэтому не стоит обижаться). На-
конец, последнее предложение не относится к теме, так как оно о том, что разные
национальности живут в разных странах. Данное предложение является нелогич-
ным.
2. Есть ряд ошибок.
Exercise 4. Read the conclusion that the student wrote. Analyse the content,
organisation, grammar, vocabulary and spelling. Correct the mistakes. Put a tick ( )
if the line is correct.

(1) In conclusion, both opinions are correct. Studying (1) В первом пред-
ложении лучше
написать’it is obvious
that both opinions are
correct’. (voc)
(2) and following other nations behaviour and culture (2) the other nations’
behaviour… ( gr)
(3) while visiting foreign countries is very important as (3)
(4) it helps to get life experience and make friends. (4)
(5) However, the host country should welcome other (5)
(6) traditions and customs too. If we will be friendly (6) If we are friendly
(gr)
(7) and polite, world will become better. (7) the world (gr)

Комментарии:
1. В заключении автор повторно не заявил о своем мнении, таким образом, оно
звучит как вывод для сочинения «за и против».

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Part 2. Essay writing

Exercise 5. What is your opinion on the problem? Develop your arguments and make
notes for your essay following the plan.

Возможный вариант развития темы:

An opinion essay plan


Paragraph 1 Introduction: restating the question in the task:
Some people believe: many people consider, etc.
Visitors to other countries: when coming to other countries tourists
To follow local customs: should follow local traditions
Meet national standards of behavior: rules of behaviour
Paragraph 2 My opinion: In my opinion, people should respect local traditions
and customs.
1) It helps to learn different cultures.
2) It helps to feel comfortable in a foreign country.
Paragraph 3 Other people’s opinion:
1) Other countries should welcome their visitors
and be tolerant to their style of behavior.
2) It is not necessary to follow other traditions as
you spend little time in a foreign country.
Paragraph 4 Why I don’t agree with it:
1) Showing one’s respect to other traditions
will help to make new friends.
2) It develops mutual understanding between
nations and prevent conflicts.
Paragraph 5 Conclusion: restating my opinion.
Exercise 6. Students’ own answers.
Task
Some2.people
Comment on the
think that following
international statement:
tourism brings many disadvantages to local
communities.

What is your opinion?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.

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Unit 7 Travelling. Countries around the world

Exercise 1. How can local communities benefit from international tourism?


Match 1-3 to A-C to make complete sentences.
1-C, for example, in related industries such as hotels and restaurants.
2-A, which later can be spent by the local authorities on the further development
of the area, such as building schools, hospitals, etc.
3-B. People learn about other cultures, they broaden their horizons, and by and
large it teaches them to be more tolerant and understanding.
Exercise 2. What might be the negative consequences of the mass tourism for the
local communities?
1-C. and this has clearly had a detriment effect on the earth’s atmosphere.
2-A. It can be especially true for remote and poorer parts of the world, such as
Africa and Asia.
3-E. because of thousands of people coming and visiting them every day.
4-B. as they will have to buy goods at the prices which might be higher than usual
to get a profit.
5-D. due to foreign visitors’ behaviour, many of which break the customs and
traditions of the local people and thus cause irritation and annoyance.
Exercise 3. What can be done to eliminate some of the mass tourism threats to the
local communities?
Some ideas:
• To encourage people to use types of transport that doesn’t have a negative effect on
the environment, for example, trains.
• People can also be encouraged to travel to places where they are less likely to
compromise the wildlife, environment or local community.
Exercise 4.
Возможный вариант развития темы:

An opinion essay plan


Paragraph 1 Introduction: restating the question in the task:
Some people think: it is considered / believed:
International tourism: global / mass tourism
Brings many disadvantages: is not beneficial
Local communities: the country / population / nation
Paragraph 2 My opinion: In my opinion, it is beneficial for the country.
1) It boosts the economy.
2) local people also benefit from it.
Paragraph 3 Other people’s opinion:
1) A vast increase in number of flights results in increased
carbon emission.
2) Mass tourism can destroy historical monuments and places
of natural beauty.

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Part 2. Essay writing

Paragraph 4 Why I don’t agree with it:


1) People can be encouraged to use types of transport that
don’t have a negative effect on the environment, for example,
trains.
2) People can travel to places where they are less likely to
compromise the wildlife, environment or local community.
Paragraph 5 Conclusion: restating my opinion.

Exercise 5. Students’ own answers.


Task 3. Comment on the following statement:

It is not important to keep and observe traditions and customs.

What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your persona opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.
Exercise 1. Answer the questions. Use the vocabulary to help you:
1) What kinds of traditions are kept and observed in different countries?
• National traditions: in Russia (every day meals, meeting guests with salt
and bread, having large feasts when celebrating, etc., some of the holidays:
V-Day, Mother’s Day, etc.).
• Family traditions and rituals (family dinners, celebrations, bedtime stories,
etc.).
• Religious traditions (Christmas, Saints Days, etc.).
2) Why do many people find it important to keep and observe traditions?
• It provides a sense of identity, gives us insights into our cultural and religious
history; passes on cultural and historical heritage.
• Can serve as reminders of events that have shaped our society.
• They shape our personal identity.
• Strengthen the family bonds, connect generations.
• Teach / introduce / reinforce values.
3. Why do some people regard keeping traditions as a waste of time?
• There are no opportunities to take part in some of them.
• People don’t know about their history and its importance.

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Unit 7 Travelling. Countries around the world

Exercise 2. Read the arguments from some essays. Which of them do you find the
most logical and convincing (put a tick V). Why?
A, B, E – наиболее логичные аргументы, хотя для аргумента В нужно добавить
какие-то примеры.
C – не является хорошим аргументом по данной теме, так как звучит больше деклара-
тивно, без объяснений, почему важно соблюдать традиции.
D – звучит несколько агрессивно. Кроме этого, наблюдается обобщение: не все моло-
дые люди могут так считать, поэтому аргумент спорный.
F – странный аргумент, иллюстрирующий непонимание автором сути соблюдения
традиций.

Exercise 3. Which of the opinions are you going to support? Develop your arguments
and make notes for your essay following the plan.
Возможный вариант развития темы:

An opinion essay plan


Paragraph 1 Introduction: restating the question in the task:
Keep and observe: cherish, continue, follow, maintain, preserve
Tradition: convention, norms, practice
Custom: an accepted way of behavior, a habit, practice
Not important: it is not necessary, it is no use…

Paragraph 2 My opinion: In my opinion, it is very important to keep and observe


traditions.
1) Teach / introduce / reinforce values.
2) Strengthen the family bonds, connect generations.
3) In my opinion, it is very important to keep and observe
traditions.
Paragraph 3 Other people’s opinion
1) There are no opportunities to take part in some of them.
2) People don’t know about their history and importance.
Paragraph 4 Why I don’t agree with them
1) Anyway, there is a chance to keep up the most important
ones for the society (+ examples).
2) It is a chance to learn history as following traditions gives
us insights into our cultural and religious history and passes on
cultural and historical heritage.
Paragraph 5 Conclusion: restating my opinion.

Exercise 4. Students’ own answers.

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Part 2. Essay writing

Task 4. Comment on the following statement:

It is more important to travel when you are young than when you are a middle-aged person.

What is your opinion?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.
Exercises 1-2-3.
Возможный вариант ответов на вопросы с использованием лексики:

Why travelling might be important for…


Answer the
questions: …young people: teenagers,
…middle-aged people?
students, young couples?

Active, they are gaining life They are busy working and
What is their experience. caring about their families.
way of life? They have little spare time,
they might be bored with life…
Most of young people depend They differ (some people might
What
on their parents or have just be well-off, while others can
opportunities
little money to travel on. be short of money), they can
for travelling
travel only on holidays, their
do they have?
holidays might be short.
They may have problems with
their health.
They learn about the world, see They have seen a lot, so they
What can places they have read about. need more impressions to get
they learn? To look for language exchange. surprised, which they can get
while travelling.
They can make friends from They enjoy every moment of
around the world. travelling.
They can learn to It is an opportunity to have a
communicate, have a lot of rest with their families.
What can action, do different activities It can satisfy different needs
they do? get more experience, make a and tastes: some people would
difference to the world. head for the museums and
To go to museums and art art galleries, while the others
galleries, to go shopping. would spend time and money
shopping.

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Unit 7 Travelling. Countries around the world

They have a great chance to It is a chance to get to a dream


get to know people, to make destination, to enjoy spending
friends from around the world, their time relaxing and soaking
What dreams to have stories to discuss with up the atmosphere of new
can they their friends, to see what they places.
realize? have read about. They can get new impressions,
Young couples can enjoy their get surprised, have a rest.
honeymoon.

Exercise 4. Which of the opinions are you going to support? Read your arguments
and make notes for your essay following the plan.
Возможное развитие темы:

An opinion essay plan


Paragraph 1 Introduction: restating the question in the task:
It is more important to travel: travelling is more important
When you are young: for young people
When you are a middle-aged person: for people of the older
generation

Paragraph 2 My opinion:
In my opinion, travelling is more important for young people.
1) They can learn to communicate and make friends from
around the world.
2) They can have a lot of action doing different activities and get
more experience.
Paragraph 3 Other people’s opinion:
Some people say that travelling is more important for people of
the older generation because:
1) It gives an opportunity to realize one’s dreams.
2) They have seen a lot, so they need more impressions to get
surprised, which they can get while travelling.
Paragraph 4 Why I don’t agree with it:
Though these people might be right, I don’t quite agree with
them because young people can also dream about seeing different
places, which they have read about and watched in the films, so
travelling for them is not less important than for their parents
and grandparents.
Paragraph 5 Conclusion: restating my opinion.

Exercises 5. Students’ own answers.

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Part 1. Letter writing

Science and technology.


Unit 8. Modern communication,
the media

Part 1. Letter writing

Task 1. Read the task:

You have received a letter from your English pen-friend Jason who writes:

We’re doing a project on modern technologies. Could you tell me what electronic devices are the
most popular in your country? How often do people use them? Do you agree that the best of all
is a mobile phone? Why or why not?
By the way, my friend from Italy is coming to us next week…

Write a letter to Jason. In your letter:


• answer his questions;
• ask 3 questions about his friend.
Write 100–140 words.
Remember the rules of letter writing.

Exercise 1. Read the student’s letter. Analyse the content, organisation, grammar,
vocabulary and spelling. Put a tick ( ) if the line is correct.

(1) Moscow, (1) 26, Gorky Street,


Moscow
(2) 26 Gorky street (2) 14.02 2014
(3) Hello, Jason! (3) Dear Jason,
(4) How are you? Thank you for the letter. Its nice to (4) it’s (g),
heare to hear (sp)
(5) from you again. (5)
(6) I’ll ask to your questions. We have many electronic (6) I am going
to answer your
questions. (gr, voc),

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Unit 8 Science and technology. Modern communication, the media

(7) divices and they are popular. People are using them (7) devices (sp),
people use them (gr),
(8) every day. But they take them to work and at home. I (8) they use them at
work and
at home (voc)
(9) don’t agree that the best of all is a mobile phone. I like it (9)
(10) too. I have new mobile phone and calling my friends (10) a new mobile
phone, call, (gr)
(11) and parents by it. (11)
(12) However, is you friend live in Italy? How old is he? (12) By the way/
Anyway, does your
friend live
in Italy? (voc, gr)
(13) Whats his name? (13) What’s his
name? (gr)
(14) Best wishes. (14) Write back
soon. (p)
(15) Write soon, (15) Best wishes, (p)
(16) Kirill. (16) Kirill (p)
Answer the following questions to analyse the letter:
1. Content:
1) How many words are there in the letter? 97
2) Have the following questions been answered?
• What electronic devices are popular in your country? NO
В письме нет ответа на этот вопрос, автор просто констатирует факт: We have many
electronic devices and they are popular.
• How often do people use them? YES
People use them every day.
• Is a mobile phone the best of them? Why or why not? YES/NO
Ответ есть, но неполный. Отсутствует вторая часть ответа: почему автор так считает.
3) Are there 3 questions about the friend from Italy? YES
Вопросы заданы, но первый вопрос не по теме: Does your friend live in Italy? Мы уже
знаем, что друг живет в Италии.
4) Have the rules of politeness been observed? YES
Автор поблагодарил за письмо, сослался на предыдущее, выразил надежду на после-
дующие контакты и написал завершающую фразу. Но завершающая фраза и надежда
на последующие контакты расставлены неверно: их нужно поменять местами.

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Part 1. Letter writing

5) Is the style formal/informal? INFORMAL


В письме автор использовал неформальный стиль. Небольшим нарушением является
употребление обращения Hello, Jason! с восклицательным знаком. В ситуации экзаме-
на этого следует избегать.
2. Organisation:
1) Is the letter written logically? YES/NO
Некоторые ответы, например на вопрос про мобильный телефон, нелогичны.
2) Are the linking words used in a proper way? NO
• В письме мало используются средства связи, причем некоторые неверно: People
are using them every day. But they take them to work and at home. Здесь мож-
но было сделать одно предложение: People are using them every day: they use
them at work and at home.
• Неверно употреблен союз however в начале третьего абзаца.
• Практически не используются средства связи внутри второго абзаца.
Возможный вариант:

Now I’m going to answer your questions. There are a lot of popular electronic devices in Russia,
for example, computers, mobile phones and e-books. People use them every day at their work
and at home. I agree that the best of all is a mobile phone, because you can do a lot
of things with it. As for me, I have a new one and call my friends and parents by it.

3) Is the letter divided into paragraphs? YES


4) Are the date and the address written correctly? NO
Название города должно быть написано после названия улицы. Отсутствует дата под
адресом.
5) Are the salutation, ending the letter, signing off and signature on separate
lines? YES
Завершающая фраза и надежда на последующие контакты стоят не в той последова-
тельности. Их нужно поменять местами.
3. How many grammar / vocabulary / spelling mistakes are there in the letter?
6 грамматических, 3 лексические, 5 орфографических.
Помимо лексико-грамматических ошибок, следует еще раз обратить внимание уча-
щихся на знаки препинания. В конце личного письма точка ставится после фразы-на-
дежды на последующие контакты Write back soon. / Looking forward to hearing from
you. / Keep in touch.
Запятая – после завершающей фразы: Best wishes, / All the best, etc.
Точка после имени НЕ СТАВИТСЯ!

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Unit 8 Science and technology. Modern communication, the media

Part 2. Essay writing

Task 1. Read the task.

Comment on the following statement.

Space exploration is a waste of time and money.

What is your opinion?


Do you agree with this statement?
Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.
Exercise 1. Read the introduction from a student’s essay. How well has the statement
in the task been restated?

Nowadays many people think that exploring outer space is just useless. Others and I am among
them are interested in space and other planets. They read articles about space exploration and
other planets.

Проблема сочинения: следует или нет исследовать космос? Стоит ли это денег и вре-
мени? Однако автор не сумел ее правильно сформулировать. Есть попытка в первом
предложении, но дальше автор говорит о том, что он и другие люди интересуются
космосом и читают об этом статьи. Таким образом, он отходит от темы.
Write an introduction to the essay. Restate the statement in the task in different
words?
Возможные варианты использования другой лексики:
Space exploration: space research, to explore space
To be a waste of time and money: to be worthless spending time and money on it…

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Part 2. Essay writing

Exercise 2. Read the second paragraph of the essay. Analyse the content,
organisation, vocabulary, grammar and spelling. Correct the mistakes using the lines
in the tables. Put a tick ( ) if the line is correct:

(1) On the one hand, scientists say about overpopulation (1) speak about(v)
on
(2) our planet. So, it’s a good solution in migrating to (2) migration to …is a
other good solution.(v)
(3) planets or space stations. Space research can help to (3)
do
(4) it. Secondly, the resources of our planet are now (4) the resources are
being exhausted. exhausting. (g)
(5) What the human kind shall do then? Space (5) What should
mankind
do then? (g, v)
(6) exploration can help to research other planets for (6) for mineral deposits
deposits. (v)

Content:
В абзаце нет мнения автора. Оно высказано во вступлении, но так как не касалось за-
трагиваемой проблемы, выражено нечетко. Поэтому второй абзац больше похож на
рассуждение о пользе исследования космоса.
Приведены два аргумента: первый – о возможности решить проблему перенаселения
планеты, второй – о возможности найти новые ресурсы.

Organisation:
В абзаце есть недочеты использования средств связи. Например, аргументы можно
было развить немного иначе:
Firstly, scientists speak about overpopulation on our planet. So, migration to other
planets or space stations could be a good solution to it, and space research could
help it.
Secondly, the resources on our planet are exhausting. So, what should mankind do? In
my opinion, researching space for mineral deposits is a good idea.
Exercise 3. Read paragraph 3 of the essay. Analyse the content, organisation,
vocabulary, grammar and spelling. Correct the mistakes. Put a tick ( ) if the line is
correct.

(1) However, the advocates of the opoising point of view (1) opposing (sp)
(2) beleive that we can’t explore other planets or space (2) believe (sp),
shouldn’t (gr)

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Unit 8 Science and technology. Modern communication, the media

(3) becouse we can’t look for other resources. They say that (3) because(sp),
(4) people don’t want to migrate to other planets too. (4) too- в конце
предложения лиш-
нее. In addition, they
say that people don’t
want to migrate (v)
(5) Although, it is not humane to waste millions on space. (5) Also (v) , fair
(voc), millions of
dollars (voc)
Content:
В абзаце приведены мнения других людей, однако они повторяют аргументы автора
в пользу исследования, только зеркально наоборот. Таким образом, в сочинении нет
правильного развития аргументации.
Organisation:
Есть нарушение в использовании союза although в последнем предложении.
Есть нарушения в логике аргументации: мы не можем исследовать космос, потому что
мы не можем / не умеем искать полезные ископаемые. Это мнение ни на чем не осно-
вано.
Exercise 4. Develop arguments for and against space exploration.
Возможные идеи для развития темы:

For space exploration Against space exploration

1. Investing in further scientific 1. There are a lot of more urgent


exploration of space is a good use of problems on the earth: diseases,
resources that will help to stimulate hunger. We are experiencing climate
global economies. There has never change, famine, drought, warfare
been a space programme that hasn’t and we are investing money needed
been a good economic stimulus. to solve these problems in Space.
2. Space research forges new 2. It might be dangerous for
diplomatic relationships between people and the environment
countries, while getting engineers (spacecraft crashes, space junk).
with different backgrounds and
traditions to work together.
3. It also ensures the development 3. Millions of dollars have been
of a good technology base, not only spent without visible results.
among companies, but among young
people who need something to inspire
them through the educational system.
These people are more likely to be
interested in building a space ship
than something less tremendous.

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Part 2. Essay writing

Exercise 5. Plan your essay. What opinion are you going to support? Complete the
following paragraph plan for your essay, making notes on what you are going to
include in each paragraph.

Возможный вариант развития темы:

An opinion essay plan


Paragraph 1 Introduction: restating the question in the task:
Space exploration: space research.
A waste of time and money: it is useless / it is not worth
researching space.
Paragraph 2 My opinion: Space exploration is very important for science and
all the mankind.
1) It will help to stimulate global economies.
2) Space research forges new diplomatic relationships between
countries.
Paragraph 3 Other people’s opinion:
1) There are a lot of more urgent problems on the earth: diseases,
hunger.
2) It might be dangerous for people and the environment
(spacecraft crashes, space junk).
OR:
(3) Millions of dollars have been spent without visible results.
Paragraph 4 Why I don’t agree with it:
1) 99.999 per cent of all that we need to know is off-world.
2) There are projects on how to reuse / recycle space junk.
OR:
(3) Returns on scientific investments do not occur immediately.
Paragraph 5 Conclusion: restating my opinion.

Exercise 6. Students’ own answers.

Task 2. Read the task below.

Many people think that the computer is one of the most useful inventions of the 20th century.

What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?


Write 200–250 words.

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Unit 8 Science and technology. Modern communication, the media

Use the following plan:


• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.
Exercise 1. Write an introduction to the essay. Restate the question in the task using
some other words.
Варианты использования другой лексики:
Many people think: there is an opinion / it is believed, considered, etc.
One of the most useful inventions: one of the most necessary things invented in…
20th century: last century.
Exercise 2. Read the second paragraph of a student’s essay and choose the correct
linking words and a topic sentence for it.
Topic sentence 3
Предложения 1 и 4 выражают мнения против использования компьютеров и поэтому
по смыслу не подходят для этого абзаца.
Предложение 2 содержит посыл о том, что все должны иметь дома компьютер. Од-
нако оно не совсем отражает тему сочинения о том, что компьютер – самое лучшее
изобретение XX века.
Linking words:
1) Firstly
2) Therefore
3) In addition to this
4) As a result
Exercise 3. Read the second paragraph from another student’s essay on the same
topic. Improve it using linking words. Add some examples or justifications where
necessary.
В абзаце не выражено мнение автора, недостаточно средств связи. Нет акцента на то,
что компьютер – самое лучшее изобретение XX века.
Возможный вариант данного абзаца:
In my opinion, the computer can be considered the best invention of the last century. It has
improved people’s lives in many ways. Firstly, computers are used in business, for example, to
check the credit status of customers, and transfer money electronically.
Secondly, they are used in homes to control the temperature in most appliances, operate home
security systems, tell the time and turn the TV on and off. Moreover, computers are widely
used in scientific research to solve mathematical problems or investigate complicated data. In
addition to this, computers hel p us to study and they also entertain, for example you can
watch films or download some music.

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Part 2. Essay writing

Exercise 4. Why might some people think that the computer is not one of the
most useful inventions of the 20th century? Develop your arguments. Answer the
following questions.

Возможные варианты ответов:


Are there any other inventions of the last century that can be considered very
useful for people?
Medicine such as antibiotics – saved thousands of lives.
Atomic bomb – provides an opportunity to keep military balance on the planet.
Laser technologies: provide people with lots of opportunities in medicine (laser surgery),
sending and keeping information (laser disk), materials processing.
Plane – gave an opportunity to broaden the boarders.
Are there any disadvantages of using computers?
• People might lose an ability to solve problems without a computer.
• Computers are replacing people in many jobs, therefore people lose their jobs.
Exercise 5. What counter-arguments can you develop to the ideas in exercise 4?

Возможные контраргументы на мнения других людей:


• Antibiotics can be harmful and cause side effects such as stomach diseases.
• Traveling by plane causes carbon emissions, which are harmful for the environment.
• Computers can’t completely substitute for people at work.
• Computers provide people with new opportunities to think and create.
Exercise 6. Plan your essay. What opinion are you going to support? Complete the
following plan, making notes on what you are going to include in each paragraph.
Возможный вариант развития темы:

An opinion essay plan


Paragraph 1 Introduction: restating the question in the task:
See ex. 1
Paragraph 2 My opinion: I strongly believe that computer is one of the most
necessary things invented in the 20th century.
1) It has developed people’s lives in many ways.
2) They are used in study and to entertain.
Paragraph 3 Other people’s opinion:
There are some other not less important inventions of the last
century:
1) Atomic bomb;
2) Lazer technologies.

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Unit 8 Science and technology. Modern communication, the media

Paragraph 4 Why I don’t agree with it:


1) The invention of the atomic bomb caused a lot of casualties
and can be a threat to global peace.
2) Using laser technologies in medicine can cause side effects
(cancer).
Paragraph 5 Conclusion: restating my opinion.

Task 3. Read the task:

The Internet is one of the greatest inventions.

What is your opinion?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.
Exercise 1. Write an introduction to the essay. Restate the idea in the task using some
other words:
One of the greatest inventions: the most significant thing
Introduction: students’ own answers.

Exercise 2. Answer the following questions giving your opinion.

Возможные варианты ответов на вопросы:


a. How have people’s lives changed with the invention of the Internet?
• people got an opportunity to store / access and sent information;
• it is the quickest way to communicate and connect people throughout the world
(emailing, social networks, Twitter, WhatsApp, Instagram, etc.);
• it gives an opportunity to work/study / entertain.
b. Are there any other inventions that are not less significant for people?
См. тезисы в задании 2, упр. 4.

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Part 2. Essay writing

Exercise 3. Plan your essay. Complete the following paragraph plan for your essay,
making notes on what you are going to include in each paragraph.
Возможное развитие темы:

An opinion essay plan


Paragraph 1 Introduction: restating the question in the task: see notes in ex. 1
Paragraph 2 My opinion: I strongly believe that the Internet is the most
significant thing ever invented by people.
1) Quick access to information.
2) Communication.
3) Work / study.
Paragraph 3 Other people’s opinion: There are other inventions that are more
important for the mankind
1) Plane.
2) Medicine (antibiotics).
Paragraph 4 Why I don’t agree with it:
1) The Internet helps to guide planes and operate other systems
nowadays.
2) Antibiotics are not quite safe to use.
Paragraph 5 Conclusion (restating my opinion):
I still consider the Internet to be the most useful and necessary
invention that significantly changed people’s lives throughout the
world.

Task 4. Comment on the following statement:

It is only beneficial that the mass media shapes public opinion.

What is your opinion?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.

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Unit 8 Science and technology. Modern communication, the media

Exercise 1. Write an introduction to an essay. Restate the idea in the task using some
other words.

Beneficial: there are some advantages in … / it is advantageous for… / positively


affects.
To shape public opinion: to have a powerful influence on / to make an impact on
people’s opinions about the issues.
The mass media: the sources of information and news / newspapers, magazines, radio,
television.
Introduction: students’ own answers.

Exercise 2. Develop arguments for the essay. Answer the questions below.

Use the following words and phrases:


To increase one’s awareness, to find important information without a long search, to monitor
public opinion by means of opinion polls, to shape people’s attitudes and opinions, to present
experts’ opinions, to have educational purposes, to censor, manipulated by the government, to
learn the truth, to impose a required point of view, to affect people’s minds, to expose children to
things they needn’t know

Возможные варианты ответов на вопросы с использованием лексики:


1) What are the advantages of the mass media shaping public opinion?
They increase the awareness of people as they can find important information without
a long search.
They help to understand the most complicated issues presenting experts’ opinions.
They improve social control by monitoring public opinion by means of opinion polls
and surveys.
2) Why might some people think that the mass media can have a negative
impact on people’s minds?
The way the events are presented can be censored and manipulated by the
government, so it’s difficult to learn the truth.
They might negatively affect children’s minds exposing them to things they needn’t
know (e.g.: violence scenes on TV, computer games, etc.)

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Part 2. Essay writing

Exercise 3. Plan your essay. What opinion are you going to support? Complete the
following paragraph plan for your essay, making notes on what you are going to
include in each paragraph.

Возможное развитие темы:

An opinion essay plan


Paragraph 1 Introduction: restating the question in the task:
See notes in ex. 1
Paragraph 2 My opinion: I believe that the sources of information and news
have positive influence on people’s minds.
1) They increase the awareness of people…
2) They improve social control…
Paragraph 3 Other people’s opinion:
1) They can be censored and manipulated by the government..
2) They might negatively affect children’s minds…
Paragraph 4 Why I don’t agree with it?
1) The government might censor mass media to avoid chaos in
the country.
2) There are a lot of educational magazines / programmes on TV,
articles in the newspapers / the Internet that can shape people’s
and children’s minds in a beneficial way.
Paragraph 5 Conclusion: restating my opinion:
To sum up, in my opinion, mass media has a positive influence
on people’s minds in spite of some disadvantages.

Task 5. Students’ own answers.

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Unit 9 The natural world

Unit 9. The natural world


Part 1. Letter writing

Task 1. Read the task.


You have received a letter from your English pen friend Anna who writes:

... Personally, I can’t understand people who have pets at home. They don’t look after them
properly. Do you have a pet? If yes, what kind of pet have you got? If not, would you like to
have one and why? Do you think that people do enough to help animals, why or why not?
By the way, my Dad has changed his job…

Write a letter to Anna.


In your letter:
• answer her questions;>
• ask 3 questions about her father’s new job.
Write 100 – 140 words.
Remember the rules of letter writing.
Exercise 1. Read the student’s letter. Analyse the content, organisation, grammar,
vocabulary and spelling. Correct the mistakes using the space in the right.
Put a tick ( ) if the sentence is correct.
Answer the following questions to analyse the letter:
1. Content:
1) How many words are there in the letter? 107
2) Have the following questions been answered?
Do you have a pet? If yes, what kind of pet have you got? YES
Ответ дан: we don’t have them at home.
If not, would you like to have one and why? YES
Ответ дан: I think I wouldn’t like to have a pet because my mum doesn’t like them.
Do you think that people do enough to help animals, why or why not? YES
Ответ дан: I don’t think that people do enough to help animals because most of
them don’t like animals. They keep them in zoos and try to protect.
3) Are there 3 questions about the father’s new job? NO
Вопросы заданы, но не в том времени, поэтому данный аспект засчитан не будет.
4) Have the rules of politeness been observed? YES/NO
Есть недочеты по использованию форм вежливости: отсутствует завершающая фраза.

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Part 1. Letter writing

5) Is the style formal / informal? INFORMAL


В письме использован неформальный стиль. Однако следует обратить внимание
учащихся на нежелательное употребление чересчур неформальных слов и меж-
дометий, таких как Wow, а также предложений с восклицательными знаками.
2. Organisation:
1) Is the letter written logically? NO
Ответы на вопросы выстроены нелогично: сначала автор говорит, что у него нет
домашнего животного, затем объясняет, почему люди недостаточно помогают
животным, а затем снова возвращается к вопросу, хотел бы он иметь животное
дома или нет.
2) Are the linking words used in a proper way? NO
В письме в некоторых случаях средства связи использованы неверно: I don’t like
pets at all and neither does my mum, because we don’t have them at home.
Кроме того, очевидно отсутствие линкера между предложениями I don’t think
that people do enough to help animals because most of them don’t like animals.
However, they keep them in zoos and try to protect, что нарушает логику выска-
зывания.
3) Is the letter divided into paragraphs? YES
4) Are the date and the address written correctly? NO
В письме полностью отсутствуют адрес автора и дата.
5) Are the salutation, ending the letter, signing off and signature written
on separate lines? YES
3. How many grammar / vocabulary / spelling mistakes are there in the letter?

(1) Dear Anna, (1)


(2) Many thanks for your letter. It was nice hearing (2) it was nice to
from you hear (gr)
(3) again. (3)
(4) As for your question, I don’t like pets at all and my mum (4) questions (gr),
neither does
my mum (gr),
(5) too, because we don’t have them at home. I don’t think (5) so we don’t
that have (have)
(6) peoples do enough to help animals becouse most of them (6) people (gr),
because (sp)
(7) don’t like animals. They keep the, in zoos and try to (7) them (sp)
protect.

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Unit 9 The natural world

(8) I think I wouldn’t like to have pet because my mum (8) a pet (gr),
don’t doesn’t
(9) likes them. (9) like
(10) Wow! Great news! What job your father had? Was he (10) What job did
your father have?
(11) travelling to his job? He liked it, isn’t it? (11) Did he travel
to his job? He liked
it, didn’t he?
(12) That’s all for now. I must to go now! (12) I must go now
(13) Keep in touch, (13) Keep in touch.
(p)
(14) Mag

4. Improve the letter. Students’ own answers.

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Part 2. Essay writing

Part 2. Essay writing

Task 1. Comment on the following statement.

Genetic science has gone too far.

What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.
Exercise 1. Read the following paragraphs from students’ essays. Which paragraph
focuses on the topic? Put a tick ( )and explain why.

Тема сочинения: наука о генах и ее последствия.


Эта наука включает следующие направления: создание трансгенных животных с целью
получения лекарственных препаратов, использование анализа ДНК в криминологии,
изучение вирусов и борьба с ними.
Ее исследования также включают создание генно-модифицированных продуктов,
консервативную генетику (сохранение исчезающих видов растений и животных) и др.
Ответы:
• Абзац В.
• В абзацах А и С тема сужена до клонирования человека, то есть автор подменил
тему рубрики.
Exercise 2. Read paragraphs 3 and 4 from a student’s essay. Analyse the content and
organisation:

However, there are people who consider that genetic science is a positive way of development.
They think that genetic engineering, for example, is the key to solving the world’s famine
problems. I don’t agree with them, as the problems we сan face because of it are even more
frightening than the famine problems. Other people say that it’s just a medical procedure, so it
isn’t dangerous. However, this is a procedure at the molecular level, so it is
a very difficult operation.

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Unit 9 The natural world

Content + organisation:
Данный абзац представляет собой неудачный пример приведения мнения других лю-
дей и попытку им возразить в одном абзаце вместо двух. Это серьезное отступление от
предложенного плана. Кроме того, есть претензии к качеству аргументов и контраргу-
ментов, а также логике построения высказывания.
Итак, мнение других людей: они за развитие науки о генах. В качестве аргумента автор
использует идею о решении с помощью науки проблемы голода во всем мире. Однако
контраргумент автора является неразвернутым: as the problems we сan face because of
it are even more frightening than the famine problems. Нет пояснения, с какими более
страшными проблемами могут столкнуться люди.
Второе мнение других людей про медицинскую процедуру непонятно. И, соответ-
ственно, возражение автора о том, что эта процедура на молекулярном уровне и по-
этому операция трудная, нельзя считать удачным контраргументом.

Exercise 3. Brainstorm some ideas you want to include in your essay. Use the
following vocabulary to help you.

Поскольку тема достаточно сложная, в упражнении важно показать, чем занимается


наука о генах. Таким образом, у учащихся есть возможность планировать свое эссе,
опираясь на известные факты и имея достаточный выбор для развития аргументации
собственного мнения.
Больше информации можно получить на сайте:
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/science/
- DNA sequencing technology1, to track the path of the infection, to be a solution
for many problems, to eliminate terminal illnesses, to save millions of people, GMO
products, to offer a time-saving method, to produce larger, higher-quality crops with
less effort and expense, to manage ecosystems, to help to preserve endangered animals,
to use farm animals for drug production; to be used to identify individuals.
- to change the way things happen naturally, to pose many risks, the risks of changing
the genetic makeup of organisms, to be toxic or allergenic to certain individuals, to
replace traditional farming, to destroy economic systems, to have the potential long-
term impacts of genetically modified plants on the environment, to cause suffering
and harm to the animals involved, the high cost, not to be worth the possible benefits.

1 DNA Sequencing technology.


Today scientists can use genetic tools, such as DNA sequencing, to learn about new strains of viruses.
These tools are helping researchers identify the cause of an infection, piece together a story about where new
viruses come from, diagnose new cases, and develop preventive vaccines.

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Part 2. Essay writing

Exercise 4. Complete the table. Match the words from exercise 3 with the ideas
in the left column. Use the given vocabulary to develop counter-arguments to
complete the right part in the column.
Вариант использования лексики:

For genetic science Against genetic science


1. DNA sequencing technology can be 1. Such experiments change the way
a solution to many medical problems. For things happen naturally. It may have
example, scientists could trace the path of the potential long-term impacts on
an infection, prevent and even eliminate people’s health in the future.
the terminal diseases, such as cancer.
2. People could solve the famine 2. There is concern that such products
problems. Genetic engineering offers may be toxic or allergenic to certain
a time-saving method for producing individuals.
larger, higher-quality crops with less We need to learn more about the potential
effort and expense. long-term impacts of genetically modified
plants on the environment before mass-
producing them.
3. By effective managing ecosystems, 3. There are risks of changing the
we can help to preserve endangered genetic makeup of organisms.
animals that will ensure their survival
into the future.
4. Using farm animals for drug 4. Pharming has the potential to
production has many advantages cause suffering and harm the animals
because they are reproducible, have involved.
flexible production, and are easily For many, the high cost, in both
maintained. They also have a great animal lives and money, of making
delivery method: just milk them. a transgenic animal is not worth the
possible benefits.
5. DNA can be used to identify 5. Human error may occur.
individuals
(missing people, criminals, relatives).
Exercise 5. Write an introduction to the essay. Restate the question in the task in
different words.

Genetic science: sciences, such as DNA sequencing technology, genetic engineering,


pharming for pharmaceuticals, and some others.
Has gone too far: has more disadvantages than benefits for people and the
environment.
Introduction: students’ own answers.
Exercise 6. Students’ own answers.

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Unit 9 The natural world

Возможный вариант развития темы:

An opinion essay plan


Paragraph 1 Introduction: restating the question in the task:
See ex. 5
Paragraph 2 My opinion: To my mind, the development of genetic
engineering has a lot of benefits for people and the environment.
1. DNA sequencing technology can be a solution to many
medical problems.
2. Genetic engineering offers a time-saving method for
producing larger, higher-quality crops with less effort and
expense.
Paragraph 3 Other people’s opinion:
1. Such experiments change the way things happen naturally.
It may have the potential long-term impacts on people’s
health in the future.
2. There is concern that such products may be toxic or
allergenic to certain individuals.
Paragraph 4 Why I don’t agree with it:
1. It is just a medical procedure that can help people. There
are people who would risk to try a new medicine in the hope
to cure.
2. Different people might be allergic to different fruits and
vegetables that are grown in a usual way.
Paragraph 5 Conclusion: restating my opinion.

Task 2. Comment on the following statement.

Animal testing should be banned.

What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.

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Part 2. Essay writing

Exercise 1. Write an introduction to an essay. Restate the question in the task using
some other words.
Animal testing: to experiment on living animals.
Should be banned: should not be allowed.
Introduction: students’ own answers.

Exercise 2. Answer the following questions and brainstorm the ideas for your
arguments. Use the following words to help you:

To be a breakthrough, to be an essential part of one’s job, to find cure for human


diseases, to struggle against / cure cancer / diabetes, to get the information needed, to
get progress, to develop thousands of vaccines, to save millions of children’s lives.
To kill, to harm, to murder, to die from testing, to be treated in a harsh way, to fail
on humans, to be in an unusual environment, to be scared, to be stressed, not to be
accurate, to create a cure that works both for animals and people, to have alternatives,
bio-engineering and computer modeling, micro dosing or artificial skin, to provide
with more accurate results, to be a much faster and cheaper method; to have the right
to live / choose, to have emotions, thoughts, ideas, feelings, to suffer.
Возможный вариант использования лексики в ответах:
1) Do you know when scientists first started experimenting on living animals?
What were the results?
The first animal testing took place more than 2000 years ago. Animal research has
proved to be a great deal of a breakthrough.
2) What medical advanced have these experiments led to? Think about:
The following:
Treatment for diseases:
For many scientists working to cure cancer, diabetes, and other terminal diseases,
animal research is an essential part of their job. In some areas there is simply no
other way to get the information needed to make progress against these diseases.
By testing on animals scientists have developed thousands of vaccines that have
saved millions of children's lives.
3) Why might some people be against animal testing? Think about the ethics:
How are animals treated during the experiments?
During the research process animals are killed and harmed, it is the same thing as
murder.
About 1.4 million animals die each year from animal testing because of harsh
ways animals are treated by their experimenters.
Animals also have feelings and suffer from pain during the experiments.

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Unit 9 The natural world

Money: Why can such experiments be a waste of money? Why are they not always
accurate?
Возможно использование следующих данных. Однако следует предупредить уча-
щихся избегать т.н. blind statistics, когда цифры берутся «с потолка».
90 percent of medicines tested on animals fail on humans.
During the experiments animals are in an unusual environment, so they might feel
scared and stressed, therefore, the results will not be accurate. 9 out of 10 times, the
testing is found inaccurate in the end.
There is only a 5-25% chance of creating a cure that works for both animals and
people. Mice have a cure for cancer but humans don't have anything that will work
for sure.
There is concern that such products may be toxic or allergenic to certain
individuals.
Alternatives: What alternative technologies could be used instead?
We now have alternatives such as bio-engineering and computer modeling that can
provide us with better, more accurate results than animal testing. It's also a much
faster and cheaper method.
There are cheaper and less cruel methods to test medicine without hurting animals
or people, like micro-dosing or artificial skin.
Animals’ rights:
Animals also have the right to live, and the right to choose.
Animals have emotions. They have thoughts, ideas, feelings. They also suffer.
4) What is your attitude to this issue? Do you think that animal testing should be
allowed?
Students’ own answers.

Exercise 3. Plan your essay. What opinion are you going to support? Complete the
following paragraph plan for your essay, making notes on what you are going to
include in each paragraph.
Возможный вариант развития темы:

An opinion essay plan


Paragraph 1 Introduction: restating the question in the task:
См. ex. 1
Paragraph 2 My opinion: I am for banning animal testing
1) The ethics: animals are killed, suffer.
2) There are alternative ways.
Paragraph 3 Other people’s opinion:
1) Treatment for diseases;
2) Ethics (to experiment on people?).

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Part 2. Essay writing

Paragraph 4 Why I don’t agree with it:


1) Accuracy of the experiments.
2) Animals’ rights.
Paragraph 5 Conclusion (restating my opinion).

Exercise 4. Students’ own answers.


Task 3. Comment on the following statement.

It is useless to change one’s personal lifestyle to save the environment.

What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement?


Write 200–250 words.
Use the following plan:
• make an introduction (state the problem);
• express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion;
• express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion;
• explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion;
• draw a conclusion restating your position.

Exercise 1. Write an introduction for an essay. Restate the idea in the task using some
other words.

Вариант использования другой лексики.


To change a lifestyle: to live a "greener" lifestyle.
To be useless: there is no use in …/ there is nothing we can do to…
To save the environment: to protect the environment
Exercise 2. Answer the following questions and brainstorm the ideas for your
arguments. Use the following words to help you.
Вариант использования лексики при ответах на вопросы:
1) What environmental problems are thought to be the most important nowa-
days?
Water supply, air and water pollution, climate change, global warming and the
greenhouse effect.
2) What are the reasons for these problems?
Most of people’s activities have impact on the environment.
3) What can a person do to contribute to the environment protection?
At home: to avoid letting water run continuously or leaving taps partially open or
having leaky taps; to save energy, using solar or wind energy where possible, bio
fuel and CFL bulbs (compact fluorescent light or energy saving light), switching off
the lights when leaving.
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Unit 9 The natural world

Out of the house: take care of trees and plants around the houses, plant more;
keep the environment clean;
Other: take part in 3R projects (Reuse, Remake, Recycle) to both increase the
recycled products and decrease the new ones.
Be concerned: if every individual is aware of this issue, not only their house, but
the whole street, city or even the world can be much cleaner and better.
4) Why might some people think that making personal lifestyle changes will nev-
er save the environment?
Carbon emissions are increasing so quickly in developing countries that there is
nothing a person can do to prevent climate change.
Using energy-saving bulbs at home makes an insignificant difference compared to
that used by a factory.
They might think that all the problems could be solved only on a governmental
level. Nothing depends on their opinions or actions.
5) What is your opinion about the problem? How environmentally-friendly are
you?
• With these environmental ethics in mind, we should be able to do what we can
individually, for the results to have a bigger impact on the planet at large.
• As long as you do your part, and try to pass on that knowledge, the world is one
small step closer to being saved.

Exercise 3. Plan your essay. What opinion are you going to support?
Complete the following paragraph plan for your essay, making notes on what you
are going to include in each paragraph.

Возможное развитие темы:

An opinion essay plan


Paragraph 1 Introduction: restating the question in the task:
See notes in ex. 1
Paragraph 2 My opinion: An individual can contribute to environmental
protection.
1) They can save energy and water.
2) They can take care of trees and plants.
Paragraph 3 Other people’s opinion:
1) Using energy-saving bulbs at home makes an insignificant
difference compared to that used by a factory.
2) Carbon emissions are increasing so quickly that all the
problems could be solved only on a governmental level.

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Part 2. Essay writing

Paragraph 4 Why I don’t agree with it?


It is possible to educate people and if people working at factories
and plants keep environmental ethics in mind, the damage from
the factories will be significantly reduced.
If each individual does what they can do to save environment, the
results will have a bigger impact on the planet at large.
Paragraph 5 Conclusion: restating my opinion.

Exercise 4. Students’ own answers.

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Appendix 1

Appendix 1
Критерии оценивания выполнения задания 39
(максимум 6 баллов)

Решение Языковое
Организация
Баллы коммуникативной
текста
оформление
задачи текста

К1 К2 К3

2
Задание выполнено Высказывание логично; Используемый словарный
полностью: запас и грамматические
средства логической связи
структуры соответствуют
содержание отражает использованы правильно;
поставленной задаче;
все аспекты, указанные
текст верно разделен
в задании (даны полные орфографические
на абзацы;
ответы на все вопросы, и пунктуационные ошибки
заданы три вопроса по структурное оформление практически отсутствуют
указанной теме); текста соответствует (допускается не более
нормам, принятым в стране двух негрубых лексико-
стилевое оформление речи грамматических ошибок
изучаемого языка.
выбрано правильно или / и не более двух
с учетом цели высказывания негрубых орфографических
и адресата; и пунктуационных ошибок).
соблюдены литературные
нормы и правила этикета
межличностного общения
(используются вежливые
обращения и пр.).

1
Задание выполнено Высказывание Имеются лексические
не полностью: не всегда логично; и грамматические
ошибки, не затрудняющие
содержание отражает не имеются
понимания текста: имеются
все аспекты, указанные недостатки / ошибки
орфографические и
в задании (более одного в использовании средств
пунктуационные ошибки,
аспекта раскрыто не логической связи, их
не затрудняющие
полностью или один аспект выбор ограничен;
коммуникации (допускается
полностью отсутствует); не более четырех негрубых
деление текста на абзацы
встречаются нарушения нелогично / отсутствует; лексико-грамматических
стилевого оформления речи ошибок или / и не
имеются отдельные более четырех негрубых
или/и принятых
нарушения принятых орфографических
в языке правил общения.
норм оформления и пунктуационных ошибок.
личного письма.

0
Задание не выполнено: Отсутствует логика Понимание текста
в построении высказывания; затруднено из-за
содержание не отражает принятые нормы множества лексико-
тех аспектов, которые оформления личного грамматических ошибок.
указаны в задании письма не соблюдаются.
или / и не соответствует
требуемому объему.

Примечание. При получении экзаменуемым 0 баллов по критерию «Решение


коммуникативной задачи» все задание оценивается в 0 баллов.

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Appendix 2

Appendix 2
Критерии оценивания выполнения задания 40
(максимум 14 баллов)
Решение
Организация
Баллы коммуникативной
текста
задачи
К1 К2

3
Задание выполнено полностью: Высказывание логично;
• содержание отражает все структура текста соответствует
аспекты, указанные в задании; предложенному плану;

• стилевое оформление речи средства логической связи


использованы правильно;
выбрано правильно (соблюдается
нейтральный стиль общения). текст разделен на абзацы.

2
Задание выполнено: Высказывание в основном логично;
• некоторые аспекты, указанные имеются отдельные отклонения от
в задании, раскрыты не полностью; плана в структуре высказывания;

• имеются отдельные нарушения имеются отдельные недостатки при


использовании средств логической связи;
стилевого оформления речи.
имеются отдельные недостатки
при делении текста на абзацы.

1
Задание выполнено Высказывание не всегда логично;
не полностью:
есть значительные отклонения
• содержание отражает не все от предложенного плана;
аспекты, указанные в задании; имеются многочисленные ошибки
• достаточно часто встречаются в использовании средств логической
связи, их выбор ограничен;
нарушения стилевого оформления
речи. деление текста на абзацы отсутствует.

0
Задание не выполнено: Отсутствует логика в построении
высказывания; предложенный
• содержание не отражает тех план ответа не соблюдается.
аспектов, которые указаны в зада-
нии, или / и не
соответствует требуемому объему,
или / и более 30% ответа имеют
непродуктивный характер (то есть
текстуально совпадают с опублико-
ванным источником).

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Appendix 2

Орфография
Баллы Лексика Грамматика
и пунктуация
К3 К4 К5

3
Используемый словарный Используются
запас соответствует грамматические
поставленной структуры в соответствии
коммуникативной задаче; с поставленной
коммуникативной задачей;
практически нет нарушений
в использовании лексики. практически отсутствуют
ошибки (допускается одна-
две негрубые ошибки).

2
Используемый словарный Имеется ряд Орфографические ошибки
запас соответствует грамматических ошибок, практически отсутствуют.
поставленной не затрудняющих
Текст разделен на
коммуникативной понимания текста (не
предложения с правильным
задаче, но встречаются более четырех).
пунктуационным
отдельные неточности
оформлением.
в употреблении слов (две-
три), либо словарный запас
ограничен,
но лексика использована
правильно.

1
Использован неоправданно Многочисленные ошибки Имеется ряд
ограниченный элементарного уровня либо орфографических
словарный запас; ошибки немногочисленны, или /  пунктуационных
но затрудняют понимание ошибок, в том числе тех,
часто встречаются
текста (допускается шесть- которые незначительно
нарушения в
семь ошибок затрудняют понимание
использовании лексики,
в трех-четырех разделах текста (не более четырех).
некоторые из них могут
грамматики).
затруднять понимание
текста (не более четырех).

0
Крайне ограниченный Грамматические правила Правила орфографии
словарный запас не не соблюдаются, и пунктуации не
позволяет выполнить ошибки затрудняют соблюдаются.
поставленную задачу. понимание текста.

Примечание. Критерий «Орфография и пунктуация» в разделе «Письмо» оценива-


ется в 2 балла. При получении экзаменуемым 0 баллов по критерию «Решение комму-
никативной задачи» все задание оценивается в 0 баллов.
Порядок определения процента текстуальных совпадений
в задании 40
При оценивании задания 40 (развернутое письменное высказывание с элементами
рассуждения) особое внимание уделяется способности экзаменуемого продуцировать
развернутое письменное высказывание. Если более 30% общего числа слов в ответе
имеют непродуктивный характер (т.е. текстуально совпадают с опубликованным источ-
ником), то выставляется 0 баллов по критерию «Решение коммуникативной задачи»,
и, соответственно, все задание оценивается в 0 баллов. Текстуальным совпадением
считается дословное совпадение отрезка письменной речи длиной 10 слов и более.
Выявленные текстуальные совпадения суммируются, и при превышении ими 30% от
общего числа слов в ответе работа оценивается в 0 баллов.

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Литература
При подготовке данного издания
были использованы:
1. Федеральный компонент государственных стандартов основного общего и среднего (полного) обще-
го образования, базовый и профильный уровни / Приказ Минобразования России от 05.03.2004
№ 1089.
2. Примерные программы по иностранным языкам // Новые государственные стандарты по иностран-
ному языку. 2–11-е классы / Образование в документах и комментариях. М.: АСТ: Астрель, 2004.
3. Программы общеобразовательных учреждений. Английский язык для 10–11-х классов школ с углу-
бленным изучением иностранных языков. – М.: Просвещение, 2003.
4. Кодификатор элементов содержания и требований к уровню подготовки выпускников образователь-
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Елена Александровна Хотунцева

«Russian State Exam. Tasks 39–40:


Пособие для подготовкиучащихся к выполнению
заданий 39–40 раздела «Письмо» ЕГЭ
по английскому языку. Книга для учителя»

Рецензент:
И. А. Петрущенкова,
ведущий специалист по английскому языку ГБОУ
лицей № 1535, эксперт ЕГЭ

Автор выражает признательность за участие в подготовке


пособия к изданию А. Г. Королеву и А. В. Кузьминой.
Выпускающий редактор: М. А. Шигапова
Верстка: А. В. Измашкин
Фотограф: А. С. Саргисон

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