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ISSN 2306-4099

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2012 .

77-49339 10 2012 .

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420012 . , . , . 30
: (843) 292-91-99
E-mail: arch.pov@mail.ru
http://www.tataroved.ru
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, 2013

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( XIII XIV .) ...........................................216

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(, , 2225 2012 .) ....................................................232
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POVOLSKA ARHEOLOGI. 1 (3) 2013


(THE VOLGA RIVER REGION ARCHAEOLOGY)
CONTENTS
Nikitin V.V. To the memory of friend .........................................................................7
Kalinina I.V. A word about Rustem Sultanovich Gabyashev .................................15

Articles
Lychagina E.L. The role of the R. Gabyzshev
to stady Neolitic Volga-Kama region .................................................................17
Nikitin V.V. Neolithization of forest Volga-Kama region ........................................22
Viskalin A.V. Stonetools continuity of late Mesolithic
and early Neolithic population of the Lover Kama region ................................32
Berezina N.S. On the Neolithic comb-ornamented ware assemblages
of Chuvash Volga area .......................................................................................41
Stavitsky V.V. Discussion of the stady of the monuments
Middle Volgas comb-ceramics ...........................................................................52
Vasilyeva I.N., Vybornov A.A. About Neolithic pottery technology
in the Lower Kama Region and the time
of ancient ceramic traditions expansion .............................................................60
Korolev A.I. Some aspects of Samara culture investigation ...................................87
Sidorov V.V. Specificity of stone technology Volosovo culture ..............................96
Shipilov A.V. Chronological complexes of XXth Kuzkinsky stand
in the Bottom Prikamye ...................................................................................113
Kosmenko M.G. Belonging and functions of stone constructions
in Karelian maritime area ................................................................................126
Chernych .. Sanctuary on the Zuevoklychevskoe I settlement
of the late Ananyino the Lover Kama Region .................................................153
Fonyakova (Chuvilo) N.A. To the semantics of plates
from the village of Shilovka ............................................................................166
Danich A.V. Flange sheets of Peter burial ground
(Stepanovs rafting ground) .............................................................................181
Smagulov .. Archaeological studies of the ancient Turkestan:
results of 20112012 ........................................................................................197
Bugarchev A.I., Petrov P.N. Stages of copper coin circulation in Bulgar willayat
(the second half of the XIII the first third of the XIVth cc.) ..........................216

POVOLSKA ARHEOLOGI. 1 (3) 2013


(THE VOLGA RIVER REGION ARCHAEOLOGY)

Chronicle
Khuzin F.Sh., Vladimirov G., Sitdikov A.G. IV International
Bulgar forum Origins, historical development and cultural heritage
of Bulgarian Civilization (Varna, Bulgary, 2225 October 2012) .................232
Abdullin Kh.M., Sitdikov A.G., Khuzin F.Sh.
On the anniversary of G.I. Drozdova ...............................................................237
Salugina N.P. On the anniversary of I.N. Vasilyeva .............................................240
List of abbreviations .............................................................................................244
Rules for authors ...................................................................................................246

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(19412010)
(19412010) ,
,
. ,
-
. , ,
, .
, .
Rustem Sultanivich Gabyashev (19412010) is a brightly gifted person, one of the
largest specialists who highly contributed to study of the Stone Ages archeology of the Middle Volga region. Experienced scout and excellent field scientist, he stood out due to the originality of his view on historical development
of primitive population of the Volga-Kama region. His developments, characterized by the novelty of thinking and principally new theoretical schemes,
initially looked seditious and caused incomprehension of those outside the
research process, and sometimes incisive criticism from our senior choragi.
The time has shown that he was right in many aspects.

1 (3) 2013

2013 . ..
. .. ,
. - (tshikaeva@yandex.ru)

2013 . ..
, . -
(irkalinina@yandex.ru)

1 (3) 2013

.. -

2013 . ..
-
, . (LychaginaE@mail.ru)
: , , , , .
.. , -. ..
, .
, 2 .
.
.

.. -. : - . . . -,
2008. 490 .
..
- // , .
2008. 4. . 1524.
.., .., .., .., .., .., .., .. //
. 2008. . 2. . 3645.
.., .., .., .., ..
- // : -
. : - . . -, 2008. . 8894.
.. - // -. , 1976. . 3546.
.. II - // -
. , 1978. . 4067.
.. // . 1978.
153. . 7476.

1 (3) 2013

.. //
. , 1980.
. 1213.
.. VIII . .. : ,
2003. 226 .
.. -
- // . . 3. -. , 2008. . 4892.
.. : // ,
, . .: , 2008. . 344353.
.., ..
( VI ) // , . 2011. 1 (14). . 410.
THE ROLE OF THE R.S. GABYASHEV
TO STUDY NEOLITHIC VOLGA-KAMA REGION

E.L. Lychagina
Keywords: Neolithic, pricked ceramics, comb ceramics, stone equipment, radiocarbon
dating.
The article analyzes the work of R.S. Gabyashev dedicated to characteristic of Neolithic
cultures of the Volga-Kama region. The analysis showed that modern researchers confirmed
many of the ideas of R.S. Gabyashev. They confirmed the validity of two phases of a selection of sites of pricked ceramics, and also the thesis, based upon radiocarbon dating, that the
existence of sites with pricked and comb ceramics in the Lower Kama the Middle Volga
was synchronous. Researchers have confirmed the existence of synchronicity of southern
Chalcolithic cultures with the Neolithic cultures of the forest belt.

1 (3) 2013

2013 . ..
. ..,
. - (tshikaeva@yandex.ru)
: , , ,
, , .
- .. .. .
, , ,
. 19802000- .
- VIIVI
VI . .. -
.
, ,
.

.., .. . // 19801986
. (. . 15). -, 1989.
.., ..
- // . ., 2000.
.., .. // . 2006. 1.
.. . , 1992.
.. // . ., 2000.
.. -. , 2008.
.., .., .. V // . . 2. ,
2004.
.. . .
.; , 2001.
.. - . ,
1993.
.. . //
. ., 2000.

10

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.., .. // . . 8 . 1. , 2010.
.., .. // . ., 2000.
.. // . ., 2000.
.. . ., 1977.
.. - // . . ., 1989.
.. , . . . ... . . . ., 1987.
.. // . . ., 1996.
.. // . . , 1996.
.. , (
) // . ., 2000.
.., ..
- // . ., 2000.
.. // . ., 2000.
.. . ., 1976.
.. , III // .
., 2000.
.. ( - XII ) //
. , 1988.
.. . (. . . IV). , 1996.
.. -
- // . ., 2000.
.. -
- ( ) //
. , 2003.
.. (
// . . 6, . 1. ,
2006.
..
// - . , 2010.
.. //
. ., 2000.
.. // . ., 2000.

11

1 (3) 2013

.. // . (. . 7). , 1984.
..
// . ., 2000.
.., .. // . ., 1996.
..
. (. . . I). -,
1960.
.. . ., 1969.
.. . ., 1997.
.. - // . ., 2000.
.. . . . ... . .
. ., 1995.
.. - -
. . . ... . . . , 2006.
NEOLITHIZATION OF FOREST VOLGA-KAMA REGION

V.V. Nikitin
Keywords: Late Mesolithic Period, neolithization, stroke-ornamented ware, graving
tool, point, plate.
The problem of Volga-Kama neolithization was investigated by Kazan archaeologist
A.H. Halikov and R.S. Gabyashev. By their studies they determined the territory of settlement of early Neolithic formations, designed the schemes of development, designated chronological frames of existence, blocked out their further transformation into cultures of Kama
and Oka Neolithic Period. Works of years 19802000 in Mari Volga region revealed numerous Late Mesolithic and Early Neolithic settlements. Exhumed complexes of MesolithicNeolithic frontier allowed author to draw a conclusion of concurrent neolithization process
in forest area of European Russia at the border of VIIVIth and VIth millennium BC. The
origins of bearers of flat-bottomed stroke ornamented wares trace back to forest-steppen cultures of the Elshan type. In the Mari lowland the bearers of the ceramics come into contact
with local population of Late Mesolithic Period and create a new cultural formation, related
to Elshan, Samara and Upper Volga cultures.

12

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2013 . ..
, . (alvisk@mail.ru)
: , , ,
, .
. ,
, .

.. - // .
1973. 172.
.., .., .., .., ..
I //
. . 3. , 2007.
.. // . . 2. , 1997.
.. XI // . . 5. , 2004.
.. -
// ,
, .
. 8 (14). 2. , 2011.
.. -. , 2008.
.. . . . . . .
, 1978.
.. // -. , 1988.
.. VIII .
, 2003.
.. // . 1973.
172.
..
1980 / . . 1, . 567. 1981.
.. 1982 / . . 1, . 659. 1983.

13

1 (3) 2013

.. (
) // . . 6. . I. ,
2006.
.. VII ( ) // . -, 2006.
.. . ., 2008.
.. . .
1972. . 131.
.. . ., 1969.
STONE TOOLS CONTINUITY OF LATE MESOLITHIC
AND EARLY NEOLITHIC POPULATION OF THE LOWER KAMA REGION

A.V. Viskalin
Keywords: stone tools, the Late Mesolithic Age, the Early Neolithic Age, the Lower
Kama region, the problem of continuity.
A widespread thesis about Lower Kama population continuity during the Late Mesolithic
and Early Neolithic ages is challenged in the article. The author maintains that similarity of
stone tools of the Mesolithic and Neolithic ages is a consequence of Mesolithic silicon mechanical impurity that eliminates cultural diversity.

14

1 (3) 2013

2013 . ..
,
. (terra3@inbox.ru)
: , , , .
, . ( , ,
). -
.
V . .. .

.. . .,1963.
.., .. I // . . . 3. , 2003. . 1130 .
.. XIV // . . 6. , 2006.
. 233240.
.., .. // . , 2003. . 89171.
.., .., .., .., ..
I //
. . 3. , 2007. . 1423.
.., .., .., ..
III //
. . 1. , 2010. . 6175.
.., .. ( ). , 1988. 112 .
.. -. , 2008. 490 .
.., .., .., .., ..,
.. - // . , 2008.
. 2025.
.., .., .. II // . , 2006.
. 4. . 113120.

15

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.. : . . . . .
, 1978. 20 .
.. VIII . .. , 2003.
226 .
.. // . . 20. ., 1979. . 527.
.. . (. . . IV) -,
1996. 180 .
.. . ,
1999. 196 .
.. - . .: , 1972. 136 .
.. . .: , 1969. 395 .
ON THE NEOLITHIC COMB-ORNAMENTED WARE ASSEMBLAGES
OF CHUVASH VOLGA AREA

N.S. Berezina
Keywords: Volga area, the Neolithic, Kama archaeological culture, comb-ornamented
ware.
The Neolithic comb-ornamented assemblages from Chuvash Volga area are analyzed
in the article. General description this pottery (vessel forms, texture, inclusions, decoration
patterns) has been represented in conclusion. Author gives cultural and chronological
attribution of these complexes. This comb-ware is supposed to become into use at the end of
the V millennium BC. This pottery has been attributed to the Kama Neolithic culture.

16

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2013 . ..
,
. (stawiczky.v@yandex.ru)
: , , -
, .

.
- , , . , , ,
.

.., .. I -
// : . . , 1995.
. 136163.
.. -. : , 2008. 490 .
.., .. // . .
2009. 11, 6 (32). . 282284.
.. , .. // . .
2010. 12, 2 (34). . 252255.
.., .. 3 //
. (. . 13). -, 1987. . 5568.
.. - // .
. 2. 1. , 2008. . 136147.
.. - // . . 4. , 2009. . 2937.
.. -
//
: , 100- .. . ., 2009. . 162164.
.. - .
. . . . . , 2011. 24 .

17

1 (3) 2013

.. . (. . . IV). , 1996. 180 .


.. . ,
1999. 196 .
.. , - :
. . . . . . , 2006. 46 .
.. - . .: , 1972. 136 .
.. . .: , 1969. 396 .

DISCUSSION OF THE STUDY OF THE MONUMENTS


MIDDLE VOLGAS COMB-CERAMICS

V.V. Stavitsky
Keywords: Posure, radiocarbon chronology, comb-ceramic Neolithic.
The article deals with the question of correspondence of radiocarbon chronology to stratigraphic data of Neolithic sites near Volga. According to radiocarbon dates culture of combceramics in the Middle Posure preceded stands with comb ceramics. It requires a review
of the issues of synchronization based on typological data. In the forest-steppe zone the
sequence of development of ceramic traditions, apparently, could differ from that which took
place in the more northern areas.

18

1 (3) 2013

2013 . .. , ..
- ,
. (in.vasil@mail.ru; vibornov_kin@mail.ru)
: , , , , - , , , , .
, -
.
-
. .
. .
- .
: 10-01-00393
13-11-63005 /.
1

.. // . ., 1970.
. 157171.
.. - // .
1973. 172. . 99106.
.. . . ., 1978. 272 .
.. - // . . , 1999. . 5109.
.., .. // .
: , 1998. . 193214.
.., .. -
// - . , 1993. . 2021.
.. //
. : , 1999. . 7296.
.. // . . 4. , 2006. . 426439.

19

1 (3) 2013

.. - ( ) // . . VIII. : , 2007. . 2338.


..
(
) //
. , 2009. . 6577.
..
// - .
, 2010.
.. - (
) // , . , 2011. 2 (48). . 7081.
.., .. // . , 2012. . 6168.
.., ..
// . .VIII. , 2012.
. 3350.
.., ..
( ) //
( ). , 1999.
.. - // . , 1976. . 910.
.. //
. . . . . ., 1984. 16 .
.. - //
. , 1988. . 6277.
.. . , 1992. 148 .
.. //
- . ,
1993. . 3233.
.. -. , 2008. 490 .
.., .. . // . 1988. . 193. . 7175.
.., .. -: //
. , 2007. . 188198.
.., .., .., .., .., .., .., .. //
. . 2. , 2008. . 3645.
.., .., .., .., ..
-
// : . , 2008. . 8894.

20

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.. - // -. . , 1976.
.. // . . . . .
, 1978. . 119 .
.. VIII
. , 2003. 224 .
.. // . .20. ., 1979. 20. . 527.
.. //
. . .XLIX. ., 1984. .3335.
.. // . . . . . ., 1993. 21 .
.., ..
// . ., 2007. . 120126.
.. // .
1972. . 131. . 4652.
.. . .:
, 1990. 189 .
.. . .: , 1969. 390 .
.. // . 1973.
172. . 107121.
.. : - . ., 2012. 380 .
ABOUT NEOLITHIC POTTERY TECHNOLOGY IN THE LOWER KAMA
REGION AND THE TIME OF ANCIENT CERAMIC TRADITIONS EXPANSION

I.N. Vasilyeva, .. Vybornov


Keywords: Neolithic, ceramics, the Lower Kama Region, radiocarbon dating,
technological analysis, chronology, Kama culture, pricked ceramics, moulding
material, tradition.
The article deals with the results of typological and technological analysis and radiocarbon
dating of the Neolithic ceramics in the Lower Kama Region. The distinctive aspects and
peculiarities of the Kama and Volga-Kama cultures ware are singled out. Peculiarities at
different stages of development are studied. The absolute chronology of all periods is being
checked. The synchrony at certain stages is being proved. The information about correlation
of the representatives of the Kama and Volga-Kama cultures is being determined.

21

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2013 . ..
- ,
. (arkorolev@gmail.com)
: , , , , , .
, .
, , .

.., .. I
//
. , 2010.
.. . . .
. . . ., 1992.
.. ( ) // XV . . . .
. , 2001.
.. //
. . 3. , 2003.
..
( - ) // . . 2. , 2004.
.., ..
// .
, 1985.
.. . . ., 1995.
..
// - . (.
. 3). -, 1978.
.. // .
, 1980.
.. ( ). , 1981.
..
// . , 1985.

22

1 (3) 2013

..
- // (XVI ) . . . , 2003.
.., .. ( ). , 1988.
.., .. //
. . , 2000.
.., .. //
. . . . . , 1984.
.., .. - . , 1985.
.. . // . . 3. , 1999.
.. . , 1998.
.. -. , 2008.
.. . , 1969.
.. . , 1974.
.. I // .
1987. . 192.
.. . ,
2009.
.. // . . . . . , 1984.
.. - . , 1994.
.. . , 2002.
.. II //
. , 1989.
.. // . , 1984.
.. // . , 1986.
.. //
. , 1989.
.. - . , 1995.
.. -
//
. , 2009.
.. - . , 2011.
.., .., .., ..
- // . 2010. 4.
.. III // . , 1995.
.. // XVII . ; , 2007.

23

1 (3) 2013

..
. . . . . . ., 1987.
..
// - . , 1979.
.. . .
. . . . , 2012.
..
// II . . . ., 2005.
.. - // -: . . . , 2006.
.., .. -
. , 2003.
.. - // .
. , 2000.
.. . , 2005.
.. // . , 1986.
.. // - (
). . . 1. , 1996.
.. // . , 1998.
.. . ,
2004.
.. // . . 2, 1. , 2008.
SOME ASPECTS OF THE SAMARA CULTURE INVESTIGATION

A.I. Korolev
Keywords: the Volga region, Eneolithic period, Samara culture, Sezzhinskiy type of
ceramics, Hvalyn culture, Mariupol communion of cultures.
In this article the problems of the origin of the Samara culture and development of Enolithic cultures of steppen and forest-steppen Volga region are considered as a whole. The
author concludes that the Samara culture was formed as a result of western cultural and racial
impulse from the Mariupol communion of cultures with subsequent influence by bearers of
the Hvalyn culture.

24

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2013 . ..
, . (gav-lupus@rambler.ru)
: , , ,
.
4 (III . , ) . , .
. .
. . ,
.
,
.
. . .
.

.. - .
. . . . . , 2011.
.. // . . .: ,
1989.
.. - . ., 1992. . 1028.
.. . (. . . IV). , 1996.
.., .. ? // . . 2. , 1996.
.. . // .
. 2. , 1996.
.. IIIII .
.. .: , 1990.
.. // . . . 68. .. . ., 1988.
.. // . . . 22. .,
1953.
.. // .
. 1970.

25

1 (3) 2013

.. // . 1975. . 141.
SPECIFICITY OF STONE TECHNOLOGY VOLOSOVO CULTURE

V.V. Sidorov
Keywords: Eneolithic, Volosovo culture, processing flint stone tools.
Research Summer settlements Maslovo Swamp 4 (III mln.B.C, Volosovo culture) has
made it possible to identify the specificity of stone technology of its equipment. Here for
centuries existed workshops where they make chopping tools. They were made from nodules
and large flakes of flint using shaders. Wood finishes processing intermediaries. Variety of
types associated with specialization guns. Most of the pigs was also used for the manufacture
of boats. Typical for Volosovo culture form trapezoidal scrapers with a sharp blade, part
of grinding and gear. Among other specific forms many knives of flat flakes with a gentle
touch-up and drills caught working end, often with a burin chipped. As drills often used
arrowheads. Arrowheads and spears are no different from the Neolithic. But among them are
the products of fine workmanship. The main differences of technique Volosovo culture of
Neolithic deal of tools and technologies.

26

1 (3) 2013


XX

2013 . ..
. . ,
. (shipilov_anton@mail.ru)
: , , , , .
,
. , ,
, , - (, , )
(, ).

.. .
. . . : , 1984.
.. -. , 2008.
.., .., .., ..
// . , 1976.
.. // . 1952.
30.
..
// 1957. 2.
..
// . 1960. 80.
.. //
- . , 1978.
.. // . . ,
2000.
.. ( ). , 2007.
.. . // . . 1. ., 1972.
.. - ( III II
..). -, 1991.
.. .
, 1998.

27

1 (3) 2013

..
. , 1949.
..
1965 . // , 1968.
.. . ., 1969.
.. : // XVII . . . ;
, 2007.
.. -
. ( ). , 2008.
.., .., .. 20092010 // . 2012. 1.
CHRONOLOGICAL COMPLEXES OF XXth KUZKINSKY STAND
IN THE BOTTOM PRIKAMYE

A.V. Shipilov
Keywords: ceramics, a chronological complex, ornamental motifs, stone stock,
the tool.
In the article the materials of XXth Kuzkinsky stand of the Republic of Tatarstan located
in Laishevsky area are entered into a scientific locution. The monument has a multilayered
character. It includes materials from an epoch of a neolith to the early Iron Age.

28

1 (3) 2013

2013 . ..
,
. (kosmenko@sampo.ru)
: XVI ., , , ,
, , , .
52 .

, . , ,
()
.
. , . ,
, . XVI
XVIII . .

.. //
. , 2007.
.. -
// . , 2009.
.. // . . . IX. ., 1940.
.. .
// . .
4. , 1927.
..
// . , 1997 (1935).
.. // .
, 1947.
.. // . 1948. . .
..
- //
. , 2002.
. , . ., 1836.

29

1 (3) 2013

.. . XVXVI . // .
, 2005.
.. . .
., 2007.
..
. ., 1993.
.. . - // . , 1996.
..
// . , 2007.
..
// . , 2007.
.. -
,
// . , 2009.
.. //
- . , 2003.
..
//
. , 2007.
.. ( )
// . 1970. 1.
..
// - . , 2003.
..
(20032005 .) // . , 2005.
.. (
20002005 .) // : . , 2006.
.. // ( ). ,
2000.
.., ..
- // . . , . . 2. , 2001.
.. ( ) // . , 1996.
.. // - . ., 2003.

30

1 (3) 2013

.., ..
// . , 2002.
..
. ; , 2002.
.. //
. , 1966.
.. //
. ; , 1984.
.., ..
// 1969 . ., 1970.
. //
. , 2002.
. . . 1. ., 1961.
.. 1907 . // 1907 . ., 1907.
.. . . 2. . ., 1977.
.. // . 1904. . 6.
.. . , 1976.
..
//
.
, 2009.
.. //
- . , 2003.
..
.. : // :
. , 2006.
Aspelin I.R. Latulinarhat Suomen rautamailla // Finska Forminustreningens Tidskrift. T. II. Helsingfors, 1877.
Henriksen J.E., Amundsen C.P. Multi-room houses and trans-cultural interaction in
medieval coastal Finnmark // -
. , 2003.
Kraft J. Labyrint och ryttalek // Fornvnnen. 72. Stockholm, 1977.
Olsen B. Material metaphors and historical practice: A structural analysis of stone
labyrinths in coastal Finnmark // Fennoscandia Archaeologica. VIII. Helsinki, 1991.
Saarikivi J. On the uralic substrate toponymy of Arkhangelsk region: problems of
research methodology and ethnohistorical interpretation // Substrata Uralica. (Article
2). Tartu, 2006.
BELONGING AND FUNCTIONS OF STONE CONSTRUCTIONS
IN KARELIAN MARITIME AREA

M.G. Kosmenko
Keywords: White Sea, Karelian coast, stone structures, Pomors, sea fishing, field
stations, trade, Solovetsky monastery.

31

1 (3) 2013

The paper aims to study the belonging and functions of artificial stone objects in the
coastal zone of the southern (Pomor) and western (Karelian) shores of the White Sea in
Karelia. Some researchers interpreted those structures as the objects of pagan religious cult
and ascribed them to the Stone Age, ancient Smi or Karelians. Using the analysis of the
natural and cultural contexts, topography of structures in 52 sites (mostly new ones) the
author has come to the conclusion that the stone objects concentrated outside of the Pomor
villages, just at their field stations for the seasonal exploitation of marine resources in XVI
XVIII centuries AD. The functions of all objects correspond to the functions of field stations.
Stone structures were the results of environmental adaptation of Pomors (who formed as
the integrated descendants of Russian and Karelian peasants) to the stony areas of seashore
and islands. At the same time, they indirectly reflect the intense economic and organizing
activities of Solovetski monastery. The monastery was the only feudal possessor of south
and west coastal area and carried on the business traffic with Muscovy and the states of
Scandinavia.

32

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I ( )

2013 . ..
, . (emch59@mail.ru)
: , , , , , .
I , .
. , , , ,
.

.., .. - I // -.
, 1986.
.. . 2-
. .: , 2005.
. .. : // :
. . . ., 2000.
.. - // . , 1976.
.. - I 1971 . // , 1972. -1.
4545.
.., .. -: , , . :
19352012 . , 2012.
.. 1898 . // .
. 2. ., 1933.
.. // .
1952. 30.
.. : . .: -100, 2003.
.. .
, 2007.

33

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.. II
// . 1957. 58.
: . .: , 1993.
.., .. . .:
, 1993.
.. VI
XIII .: . . . . . .: , 2006.
: . . .
., 2000.
.. .
, 1989.
.. // . . 1. , 2001.
.. I :
// 50 . .
. . . , 2004.
.. // :
. . . .
. . .: , 2008.
.. I
// -: 150 . ( . . 8). , 2009.
.. - // - : . ,
2004.
SANCTUARY ON THE ZUEVOKLYUCHEVSKOE I SETTLEMENT
OF THE LATE ANANYINO IN THE LOWER KAMA REGION

E.M. Chernykh
Keywords: Early Iron Age, settlement, spiritual culture, ritual, cult paraphernalia,
sacrifice.
The article deals with analysis of the archaeological objects which were founded in the
southern part of the Zuevoklyuchevskoe I settlement. This ancient settlement is known as the
largest one in the Kama region. Southern part of the settlement is unusual by its topography.
Objects are located in this area are uncommon too. There are religious buildings, altars, a
grave of baby, finds of clay craft and miniature pots. That are characterized this place as a
sanctuary.

34

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2013 . .. ()
, . -
(natalya.fonyakova_chuvilo@mail.ru)
: , , , , , .
, .
, , -.
, VIIVIII . .
: ,
, , , .
. ,

, .
. ( )
, (
). , ,
. , , . , ,
. , , -
: .
.

.. . : , 1980.
. - . .: ,
1980.
.. .. .. . -. , 1988.
.., .. // . .
., 1988.
.. . . . .: , 1973.
.., //
. ., 1959.
.., .., .. . .: - , 1991.

35

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.. . . ., 1977.
.. // STRATUM plus. . .; ; , 1999.
..
// . . 4. . , 2005.
. . 1. ., 1980.
.. : . .: , 1983.
.. . . // .
. 1-36. .: , 1966.
/ . . .. . ., 1958.
.., .. , // . , 1997.
.. //
. . 23. , 2005.
.., .. ( ) //
. . 23. , 2005.
.. // . . . .,
2010.
.. .
,
. ., 1909.
., .
// I . .. . , 2010.
.. VIIVIII : //
. . 15. . ,
2001.
.. //
. 1976. 2.
. . ., 1981.
TO THE SEMANTICS OF PLATES FROM THE VILLAGE OF SHILOVKA

N.A. Fonyakova (Chuvilo)


Keywords: early bulgars, early turks, graves of high status warriors, bone plates,
plates on saddlebows, scienes of fight with bear, hunt for dear.
Among the artifacts found in the Middle Volga region and Siberia there are splendid
bone plates which presumably decorate a saddlebows of the military saddles. Some of
them are with floral ornamentation, another with the scenes of hunt. They represent the
mentality of nomadic warriors and are dated widely but not late than VIIVIII centuries. The
picturies were drawn with thin cutter and blackened down the lines. Especially interesting
are the pictures depicted on the plates of Shilovka borrow-grave from Ulianovsky district.

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The pictures are: two dragons, hunt for dear,warriors in ambush, struggle with the bear, the
defence of a fortress. The author propose the following explanation of the dramatic scene
happened with the Turkish leader during his hunt for dear. Suddenly he was attacked by
a huge bear. A hunter tried to save his life. He knelt and stretched the bow. At the most
inappropriate moment his bow-string breaked. The guard left their leader and galloped away
from him. Another troop dismounted from horses left them and went away from the leader
too. Apparently he was kild by the bear. One can suppose that the tragic episode happened
at the height of military operation and was a war cunning that changed the result of the war.
The symbols of victory on the plates are the dragons, which are depicted in heraldic pose.
They underlined the main principle of warriors in the Middle Ages: wellfare and well-being
is received by war and victory. The plates were put into the grave of the victor.

37

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( )

2013 . ..
- ,
. (adanich@yandex.ru)
: , , .
, ( ) 19971999, 2001 .
. IXXI . , .

.. XIIXIII . ( ).
-: . . -. 1986. 163 .
. , 2002.
.., .. :
. . : , 2008. 603 .
.., .. .
: . . -, 1990. 174 .
.., .. / .
. .. . : , 1989. 215 .
.. . XXIII . / . . .. .
.: , 1983. 212 .
. , , / . .
.. -. , 1996. 315 .
.. . .: , 2004. 592 .
.. . / . . .. . , 1998. 308 .
.. 37 //
- . , 1992. . 127136.
.. // -. , 1999. . 76102.
.. XXIII . . : . . , 1991. 176 .
.. / . . .. .
.: , 1992. 335 .
.. ( X
XI .) // , -, , . ., 2000.
. 8799.

38

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.. . : , 1997. 196 .
.. III . .. //
. . I. , 2007. . 8199.
. XXIII . / . .
.. . .: , 1985. 216 .
.. VIIIXII . / . . .. .
.: , 1981. 164 .
.. - XI
XIV . // , . -, 2004. . 148159.
.. ( ) //
. . . 191. (. . .) , 1968. . 256268.
.. XIXIV . .: - , 1987.
200 .
.., .. . :
. -, 1990. 128 .
.. // .
: , 1980. . 5135.
.. //
. : , 1985. . 92118.
- / . . .. .
, 1999. 388 .
Central Asian Art from the Museum of Indian Art, Berlin, SMPK: Catalogue.
Tokyo, 1991. 226 p., il.
Grnwedel A. Altbuddhistische Kultsttten in Chinesisch-Turkistan. Berlin, 1912.
370 S., il.
FLANGE SHEETS OF PETER BURIAL GROUND
(STEPANOVS RAFTING GROUND)

A.V. Danich
Keywords: flange sheet, burial ground.
In this article we generalize the flange sheets received during the excavations of the Peter
burial ground (Stepanovs rafting ground), which had been examined in 199799, 2001 near
the Kamsk Archaeological Ethnographic Expedition of the State Pedagogical University of
Perm. In this work the substantial data of the archaeological excavations of 911 cent. was
summarized. This data was not brought in the scientific use before.

39

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:
20112012 .

2013 . ..
. ..
, . (azret_sultan@mail.ru)
: , , , , , , , .

. . , ,
. , .
, .

. , 3 ,
.
.
-
. IIII . .. . ,
.
,
, ,
.
,
.

..
// . ., 1979.
.., .. .
, 1962.
.. - I
. ., 1982.
.. // . , 1987.
. -
// . . 35. ., 1910.

40

1 (3) 2013

. .. // . . 37.
., 1910.
.. ( ) // . . 11.
, 2003.
.. ( .
.. ) // . . 37. ., 1910.
.. ( ). , 2011.
.. // .
., 1977.
..
( ) //
. . 6. ., 2011.
.. // . 2005. 2.
.. //
. . 1. , 2005.
.. // . , 2010.
..
// , . ., 1968.
.. - I . .. .: ,
1971.
.. . I
.. I .. .: , 1996.
.. 1958 . //
. - . . 1961. . 27.
.., .., .., .. . -, 1968.
.. - IXXI .
.: , 2002.
.., .., .., ..
. . ,
1988.
.., .. 1999 . //
. . 1. ., 2000.
.., .., .., .., ..,
.., .. 2001 . //
. . 3. ., 2002.
.., .., .. / // . . .
: , , .
20- 20-
. .. . . III. , 2011.
.. V XIII . ( ) // . . . . . ., 2011.

41

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.. (
). . . . . . , 2011.
ARCHAEOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE ANCIENT TURKESTAN:
RESULTS OF 20112012

E.A. Smagulov
Keywords: alabaster idols, amulet, site of ancient town, cruciform planning, ceramics,
cultural layer, Turkestan, citadel.
The excavation of early layers of the ancient settlement Turkestan carried out by Turkestani
archaeological expedition of A. Margulan Institute of archeology is aimed at research of the
most ancient stages of city origin and in particular, identification and studying its ancient
citadel. As now it is unequivocally stated the most ancient center of the city was located
under Kultobe hill on the east suburb of the ancient settlement. The present article is devoted
to the short characteristic of research results received within two seasons of researches on an
ancient citadel of the settlement.
It appeared that the most ancient architectural object of the citadel is crosswise
construction. Three rooms behind the thick and big pakhs walls remained on height more
than 3 m. They were cut through at the initial stage by narrow loopholes and connected with
each other by arch doorways. In the second construction horizon to this crosswise castle
the building consisting of long narrow rooms round an open small yard was attached. During
this period on perimeter of a citadel powerful pakhs and raw fortifications raised and the
space between them and the extended lock was just partially built up. These two periods
according to available data can be dated to IIII A.D. This stage, apparently, comes to an end
with defeat and fire. The corner house was burnt on the floors of which mass disorder of
ceramic vessels and the remains of the charred roof are found out.
During excavation works both complexes of mass household ceramics, and separate
unique findings among which interesting alabaster idols (3 copies) were found in a fire
layer. Architectural evolution of the most ancient stages of development of citadel building
is traced, materials on further development of Ancient Turkestan during an era of the early
Middle Ages are gathered.

42

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( XIII XIV .)

2013 . .. , ..
. . ,
. (abugar.61@rambler.ru, ppn@zmail.ru)
: XIIIXIV ., , , , .
XIII XIV .
.
(~60 ) XIII XIV .,
. XIV .
- .

.., .. // ..
. : , 2009.
.., .. I // .
2005. . I.
..
// . . 36. .; , 2003.
.. XIIIXIV . //
. 2002. . 3, . IV.
.. .. . , 1896.
.., .. //
. . 3, . IV.
.., .. // . 2004. . 4, . V.
.., .., ..
// . 2008. . IV.
.. , .. . . I-VII. , 183.
.. . .: . ., 1896.
.. - XIIXV . .: , 1983.

43

1 (3) 2013

.. XIV
XVI // - . ,
2006.
.. // - . , 2009. . 2.
.., ..
XIII XIV . // . . . 2012. 3.
.., .. -,
// Stratum plus. 2012. 6.
.. XIII
XV . .: - , 2011.
.. . : , 2002.
., ., ., . . : Grapho-art, 2006.
.. XIII . : , 2003.
.. . . . III. . .:
, 1886.
- .. //
. . .: , 1987.
.. . ., 1832.
. , . III. . ,
1912.
.. 19461952 . // . 1954. 42.
.. 19531954 . // . 1958. 61.
.. 1957 . // . 1960. 80.
.. // . 1962. 111.
Beresine E. Catalogue des monnaies et des medailles du Cabinet numismatique de
LUniversite Imperial du Cazan. Cazan. 1855.
Fraehn Ch.M. Recensio numorum muhamedanorum. Petropoli, 1826.
www.zeno.ru.

44

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STAGES OF COPPER COIN CIRCULATION IN BULGAR WILAYAT


(THE SECOND HALF OF THE XIII THE FIRST THIRD OF THE XIVth cc.)

.I. Bugarchev, P.N. Petrov


Keywords: numismatics, pools of Bulgar of the XIIIth XIVth centuries, monetary
treatment, monetary reform, khan Uzbek.
The article presents a new look at the stages of the copper coin circulation in the Bulgar
Wilayat of second half XIIIth of the first third XIVth century. On the basis of circumstantial
evidence we proposed of dating of copper coins of a four types. Discovered a long time
(~ 60 years) at the end of XIII the beginning of the XIV century, in which the pools are not
minted and has not been accessed in Bulgars wilayat. Start chasing pools in the XIV century
the authors attribute to the reform of Uzbek khan in Bulgars wilayat.

45

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IV
,

(, , 2225 2012 .)

2013 . .. , . , ..
2225 2012 . . () IV
, . , ,
, . .
.
.

..

2013 . .. , .. , ..
27 2013 . 60 . . . ( 1996 . , . .
) 1974 .

..

2013 . ..
. ,
, , , .
60- ,
.

46


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47

1 (3) 2013

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.
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. E-mail : arch.pov@mail.ru.


: 420012, . , . , . 30, .
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. ( , , -) 1 .. (16 .
1 40 . ) 810 . 15 . . , ,
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49

1 (3) 2013

. , (. ),
(, , , , , , ).
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2012 . ..
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(1, 2, 3...).
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.. : (, 1964, . 2325, . 5: 1; 6: 3; . XII, 16; , 2007, . 93, 590).

: ,
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, , .
:

.. // . 2000. 3.
.. . ., 1954.
..
// .
1978. . 154.
. , 2007.
.. . .: , 1964.
.. XIII . //
. 1962. 111. (. . . . . IV).

50

.. . 1977 . //
. 1977. -1. 6695.
.. - ( ): . . . . . , 2012.
Chalikova E.A., Chalikov A.H. Altungarn an der Kama und im Ural: Das Grberfeld
von Bolschie Tigani. Budapest, 1981.
:
,
.
:
THE MESOLITHIC ENEOLITHIC FLINT ASSEMBLAGES
FROM THE NORTH PART OF IK BELAYA INTERFLUENT AREA
M.Sh. Galimova
Keywords: Mesolithic, Neolithic, Eneolithic, flint, blade industries, burial
assemblages, Volga-Kama region.
The article deals with a problem of chronological division of basic multilayer
settlements of stone eneolithic age situated near the mouth of Belaya river (left tributary
of Kama), on the bank of Azibey lake etc.
:



, , .
.

-
420014 . , , 5
25.03.2013 . 70108 1/16
. . . 15,5 1000

51