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..

BOPO,
uRPBO
OROO
ny
Mr n P
y pn yp
. p
npy
MOKB
BLLH
LKO 1988
81.2 923
47
: coo xt Tytcoo ocycn-
oo noucoo cy m. . H. Tocoo (n. o -
o. y no. . . Ho)
otn . u.
47 Toucx o coo xt: Vu. x
cyon nu, ou. o- nnyon.2- ., cn.
on.M.: tcm. m., 1988.271 c, .
H o, . : S. F. Leont yeva. A Theoretical Course
oI English Phonetics.
Ocont ouco o oxt n yu o n ocyno
om. onoct xomy y, ynxx, oott x, mu m
nomoxoct ont mom cmocoxto. Tt, cxmt, cy oc-
nunm xoct yuoo m. o yu cont o-
ucx mon. Vu com xt.
n 4602010000 (4309000000)-038 r.t , m ., FK 81.2 -923
-----------
00 U 0 D -88 -------------------K-5-36-87 4 ()
tcno tcmx mo, 1
tcno tcmx mo,
u HEOE
Vu xnxcx notm m oucoo yc o -
coo xt x cyon nuo . ouoo o nou-
cx cyon, onyonoo n 1980 oy.
noom onoom c -yu yut mux,
ct n c nnoo x, cnotont ont mt no
ouco nuco o, ntnymt n noc ot.
Ht yu nomout cym yymm yuxm omo-
onttx mo ont oconm o o x yyumx
nton nx utm, x o ucno x nooon n-
uco o n mo n ucn yu coo xt.
H cocn yu no yonocnoncx onxm,
oxtm n nomm no oucomy ycy o coo
xt:
1. Oomt cyon c conmtm cocoxm y o o
ucom co coo xt, oomt yyt x no o,
noyut cym n yu omnoo yc, nt y x
cnocooct t cmocoxtt nuc ntnot m
oucm mom.
2. Hyut cyon nmxt ouc nooxx yc n
nnon coo xt. 3o ccx, nm, x nonocon,
nto yuo omt noomx, con, nt no
octtx omo, nm yton oooucoo
n oyu noomm .
3u yu ccmont +mt ouco o
t +o ocon o not x o ncx omnox ou-
coo cox conmoo coo xt n x ccm n conocn-
c oucm com ooo xt.
Vu nmu n cx cxt on. Om xoo on-
xcx cno m. Ocoo nm yxcx oncm
nyon u: t , I I I , IV, V.
Kxt cx on coco utx uc: 1) ouco
uc; 2) nonocon; 3) ynx; 4) oottx .
M yu mcycx cym, cxmm m,
oot oxcxm mxm yx cnococnym yummy no-
mm ycnom coo noomx-
yu mcx cont oucx mon mu o
ytm ynxxm (o nomut nouo), uo oxomo x
cmocoxtoo yux nm.
Mouc om
Touc m n yu n mmtom om. H
nooon nooomy ocyxm ottx m cy omont
onotym yy, yym n oucom cnc.
T yu nu cnto x cyon nuo
ouoo o, ny u onct n m yxot
yott t. 3o nomoxoct cym nonot
omnt yc, cnxt om c no xno u. Fotmo n-
m yo n noco oncm yxoo-cyntx cnocn
'om, uo cnococny nomm o x to nyumx n u ny-
ontx non ooon.
yu moo cnotycx con. 3o m -
monxo u x cox nouo noocto t t-
mo coxx omnoo noomx, uo ocoo oxomo
yum ocoo xt.
3
onoct no oucomy my yu xnxmcx ocono
x oox ycnox yuoo m.
yxx o c ynxxm nomo ont oucm
mom.
Koott x m nomoxoct nont x cyon.
Vnxx ony o ytx nyontx nxoon
ccm coo nom ocom n cn c yccm
xtom nomoy yummcx yyumt noom coto noo
cnnm omo.
o ynxxm, cnxtm c onm u n
mmttx nx, ocontx nnx cc om,
cnococny o yoomy nomm cmtcouttx y
nyontx , yu cyon cmocoxto nonot oo-
ooouc .
ynxxx uomt oox cy ot n-
m ony ux nctm m cocntx oucx
n o coxoo m n on noomm
coo xt.
Vnxx nom cyyt co, o coooc -
nxxoc yx n coooon, cooom noo-
ctoo, moooucoo ooucoo co ccut
coto on coono cyyo co u.
Vnxx on tm omnoom oucoo
cox tno cnxt c um oyux noomm n cn
ncx o omnoon.
ox cox ynxx, ccut no-
m cyytx ocooc o, o n on -
co utm.
x c yuoo nocc num ouom o-
xx omycx ntoct uct m ocyx n yuo-
ccontcx cyucx yxx no ouco nuco
o. Moxo x omont: ) ocyx oon no ot-
tm nomm ouco o; ) out o o yxon (no
yonocnom uon c ouco o) n mo no nmx
nouco n cyon; n) ouco uc mot-
tx yuon m, coom cym no nmx nouco
n.
Fotmym ot n yu ouco o num -
ouom oxx oon cym xtx noco:
, cxm, cyon cox oon u yx nyon.
cnx co cno ot num ouom oxx -
om no yum ouco o ocx om x-
. Hnont n xom oom cyu mox nouc n-
ont m n cooncn c ocoocxm yo yonm
nooon ynn. yy yu nomoxoct ntont
mouc nmt x ntnox on nommt.

CONTENTS
I. THE SUBJECT-MATTER OF PHONETICS................................. 8
Questions.................................................................................................... 14
Exercises.................................................................................................... 14
Cont r ol Tas s . ........................................................................................ 17
I I . SOUNDS OF SP EECH AS ACOUSTI C AND ARTI CULATORY
UNI TS...................................................................................................... 19
Acous t i c As pect oI Speech
1
Sounds ........................................................ . 19
Ar t i cul at or y and Phys i ol ogi cal As pect oI Speech Sounds . . . . . . 21
Questions.................................................................................................. 25
Exercises............................................................................................... . 25
Control Tass......................................................................................... 25
Articulatory and Physiological ClassiIication oI English Consonants 25
DiIIerences in the Articulation Bases oI English and Russian Consonants
and Their Peculiarities............................................................................ 31
Questions...........................-..................................................................... 33
Exercises.................................................................................................. 33
Cont rol Tass......................................................................................... 35
Ar t i cul at or y and Phys i ol ogi cal Cl assi Ii cat i on oI Engl i s h Vowel s . . . 35
Di I I e r enc es i n t he Ar t i cul a t i on Bas e s oI Engl i s h a nd Rus s i a n Vowel s 42
Questions.................................................................................................. 43
Exercises................................................................................................... 44
Control Tass........................................................................................... 47
III. FUNCTIONAL ASPECT OF SPEECH SOUNDS............................... 48
Q u e s t i o n s . . . , ~ u ..................................................................... 5 4
Exercises.................................................................................................. 54
Cont rol Tass.......................................................................................... 57
Engl i sh Consonant s as Uni t s oI t he Phonol ogi cal Syst em........................... 57
Questions.................................................................................................. 61
Exercises ............................................................................................ 62
Cont rol Tass........................................................................................... 63
Engl i s h Vowel s as Uni t s oI t he Phonol ogi cal Sys t em . . . . . . . . . . 63
Questions.................................................................................................. 67
Exercises............................................................................................... . 67
Control Tass........................................................................................... 68
Consonant Phonemes. Description oI Principal Variants.............................. 68
Occlusive Noise Consonant Phonemes (Plosives) /p, b, t, d, k, !" 69
Questions.................................................................................................. 74
Exercises................................................................................................... 74
Occlusive Nasal Sonorants /m, n, n/ ................................................ 75
Questions.................................................................................................. 77
Exercises.................................................................................................. 77
Constrictive Noise Consonant Phonemes (Fricatives) /s, z, I, v, , 3, h,
L zl.......................................................................... l\
Questions.................................................................................................. 83
Exercises.........................................................................,......................... 83
Constrictive Sonorants (Approimants) /r, , 1, w/ ....................... 85
Qu e s t i o n s .................................................................................................. 3 9
E x e r c i s e s .................................................................................................. 90
O c c l u s i v e - C o n s t r i c t i v e N o i s e P h o n e me s ( A I I r i c a t e s ) / t I , / . . . 91
Questions.................................................................................................. 93
Exercises.................................................................................................. 93
Subsidiary Variants oI English Consonant Phonemes............................. 93
5
Questions................................................................................................ 03
Exercises.................................................................................................
10

Control Tas......................................................................................... 105


Vowel Phonemes, Description oI Principal Variants............................. 105
a) Monophthongs, or Simple Vowels................................................... 105
Questions............................................................................................... UI
Exercises................................................................................................ H5
Control Tas......................................................................................... 18
Jb) Diphthongs, or Comple Vowels...................................................... 19
Closing Diphthongs............................................................................. 119
Centring Diphthongs........................................................................... 123
'Subsidiary Variants oI English Vowel Phonemes................................ 125
a) Unchecked and Checked Vowels........................................................ 125
Quecsions........................................................................................ #
E$tises................................................................................................ 134
Control Tass....................................................................................... 136
) Diphthongs........................................................................................... 37
Questions................................................................................................ I
42
Exercises................................................................................................ 2
Control Tass....................................................................................... 343
IV. ARTICULATORY TRANSITIONS OF VOEL AND CONSO
NANT PHONEMES.............................................................................. 5
Assimilation.................................................................................................. 145
Elision........................................................................................................... 150
Questions................................................................................................. 51
Exercises................................................................................................. 152
Control Tass........................................................................................ 154
V. ENLISH PHONEMES IN RITIN............................................ 157
Questions................................................................................................. 162
Exercises..............................................................................................- 163
Control Tass......................................................................................... 164
VI. SYLLABLE............................................................................................ 167
Theories oI Syllable Formation and Syllable Divison.......................... 170
Functional Characteristics oI the Syllable............................................... 174
raphic Characteristics oI the Syllable................................................... 175
Questions................................................................................................. 176
Exercises.................................................................................................. 176
Control Tas%is......................................................................................... 178
VII. STRESS............................................................................................... 179
Questions................................................................................................. 185
Exercises.............................................................................................. . 186
Control Tass......................................................................................... 188
VIII. STRON AND EA FORMS. UNSTRESSED VOCALISM 190
Questions............................................. ...................................... 196
Exercises.................................................................................................. 196
Control Tass..................................... ..................................... 197
I. INTONATION............................................................................................... 198
Melody..................................................................................................................... 19a
Sent ence St ress, or Accent ............................................................................... 2011
Rhythm and Tempo.............................................................................................. 202
Pausat i on and Tamber ....................................................................................... 203
Stylistic Use oI Intonation.................................................................................. 204
Questions.......................................................................................................... 205
Exercises..........................................................................................................
205
Control Tass................................................................................................ 20a
. RECEIVED AND ENERAL AMERICAN PRONUNCIATION 21
The Syst em oI Ameri can Engl i sh Consonant s ............................................ 213'
The Syst em oI Ameri can Engl i sh Vowel s .................................................... 21/
The Accent ual St ruct ure oI ords i n Ameri can Engl i sh ........................ 2211
Intonation in American English................................................................ 22SP
Questions.......................................................................................................... 22
Exercises........................................................................................................... 224
ey t o Eerci ses.................................................................................................. 227
lossary oI Phoneti c Terms.............................................................................. 244
Bibliography . .........................................................................................., . 270
I. THE SUBJECT-MATTER OF PHONETICS
The signiIicance oI language and speech becomes uite clear Irom
the works oI the classics oI Marism-Leninism who deIined language
as the most important means oI human intercourse, and stated that
language and consciousness arouse in order to satisIy the human
need Ior communication.
. . . men . . . arrived at the point where t&e' &a( so$et&in! to sa'
to each other. Necessity created the organ; the undeveloped laryn
oI the ape was slowly but surely transIormed by modulation to pro-
duce constantly more developed modulation, and the organs oI the
mouth gradually learned to pronounce one articulate sound aIter
another.
First labour, aIter it and then with it, speechthese were the two
most essential stimuli under the inIluence oI which the brain oI the
ape gradually changed into that oI man , . .
By the combined Iunctioning oI hands, speech organs and brain,
not only in each individual but also in society, men became capable
oI eecuting more and more complicated operations, and were able
to set themselves, and achieve, higher and higher aims.

Ancient obects, drawings, and written documents show that


voice and speech always Iascinated men. ritten documents and evi-
dences Irom ancient civilizations point to an awareness oI speech,
its origin and abnormalities a long time ago.
In India more than 2000 years ago there Ilourished a science oI
phonetics more advanced than any that has since been known until
very recent times. The results, embodied in a series oI Sanskrit tets,
were Iirst introduced to the est only some 80 years ago.
Here are some data connected with the history oI phonetic develop-
ment:
1829 laryngoscope was invented,
1852 Iirst observations oI the vocal cords were made,
1877 gramophone was invented,
1886 International Phonetic Association (IPA) was Iounded.
IPA started publications oI a special phonetic magazine Le
Mattre Phonetiue. It stated phonetic symbols Ior sounds oI many
eisting languages. iven below is a table oI vowel symbols used in
various systems oI transcription:
1
)arx* +arl an( En!els* ,rie(ric&* Selected orks. M. , 1970. P.
356-357, 359-360.
8
Example EPD GIM KK DJ LAD
1 Beed i: 1; i i: i I
2
bid I I I I i I
3
bed e

4
bad x m se +
5 bard
6 rod m
D

D 0
7 caii
D:

+
x
D
8 wood u

0
U CD 0
9 root
U!

10
dug
" " "
hurt : :
#
+: + +:
12 about + +
$ $ $ $
13 late
e% e% e% e% et et
14 rode + + o ou ow
$&'
15 tide
at a% a% a% a% a%
16 loud au o au aco
17 boy
0& 0&
0& D%
0&
18
pierce
&

&
is
& (
19
Iares + + + + + +
20 tours + + + + +
riting transcription symbols one should use the Iorm oI print
rather than handwriting, e.g. /bed/ not -e(* /tip/ not ti.* /bit/ not
-it.
Some shapes oI the transcription symbols demand special atten-
tion.
/B/ is like /b/ without an ascending stroke,
/0/ is written as capital 0 with a cross-stroke.
/5/ is like a reversed 6 with a cross-stroke.
/ll does not descend below the line.
Don't use any capital letters.
Don't conIuse orthography and phonemic representation.
Slant brackets are used to mark oII phonemic transcription, suare
brackets are used Ior allophones (see below).
It is not necessary to show any punctuation.
II necessary uestion marks and eclamation marks () may be
used to give an indication oI intonation- Commas, Iull stops, inverted
commas, hyphens, etc. should be ecluded since they can be con-
Iused with intonation or stress markings.
Abbreviations and numbers should be transcribed in their Iull
spoken Iorm, e.g. 0112 /lu: es es V. Note that the stress always
Ialls on the last item.
EPD English Pronouncing Dictionary (Jones,
IM imson (1980)
R ruisinga (1975)
DJ Jones (1962)
LAD - LadeIoged (1975)
JL - indsor Lewis (1972)
1977)
Syllabic consonants are indicated by l34 placed beneath the sym-
bol, e.g. 5ritten /ritn/.
Primary stress is indicated by ' beIore the stressed syllable, e.g.
6at&er 789". Secondary stress is shown by beIore the syllable,
e.g. exa$ination /igizsemi'nei/+n/.
Phonetics is an independent branch oI linguistics like leicology,
grammar and stylistics. It studies the sound matter, its aspects and
Iunctions.
Phonetics is connected with linguistic and non-linguistic sciences:
acoustics, physiology, psychology, logic, etc.
The connection oI phonetics with grammar, leicology and styl-
istics is eercised Iirst oI all via orthography, which in its turn is
very closely connected with phonetics.
Phonetics Iormulates the rules oI pronunciation Ior separate
sounds and sound combinations. The rules oI reading are based on the
relation oI sounds to orthography and present certain diIIiculties in
learning the English language, especially on the initial stage oI stud-
ying. Thus, vowel sounds, Ior instance, are pronounced not only as
we name the letters corresponding to them: the letter a as /ei/, the
letter e as i:;.l* the letter i as /ai/, the letter y as /wai/, the letter u
as i<=>n?l* the letter o as /+/, n a can be pronounced as: /ae/ can*
/a/ car* 7sa/care@* e can be pronounced as: /(t&e$* :16ern*
li-l&ere* etc.
Through the system oI rules oI reading phonetics is connected
with grammar and helps to pronounce correctly singular and plural
Iorms oI nouns, the past tense Iorms and past participles oI English
regular verbs, e.g. /d/ is pronounced aIter voiced consonants A-e!B
-e!!e(>* /t%aIter voiceless consonants A5is&5is&e(>* /id/aIter
/t% A5antB5ante(>. Itis only iI we know that /s/ is pronounced aIter
voiceless consonants, /z/ aIter voiced and /iz/ aIter sibilants, that we
can pronounce the words -oos* -a!s* -oxes correctly. The ending -ed
is pronounced /id/ Iollowing /t/ or /d/, e.g. 5aite( /iweitid/, 6ol(e(
/iIauldid/. Some adectives have a Iorm with /id/, e.g. crooe( /'kru-
kid/, nae( /ineikid/, ra!!e( /'rsegid/.
One oI the most important phonetic phenomenasound
interchangeis another maniIestation oI the connection oI pho-
netics with grammar. For instance, this connection can be
observed in the category oI number. Thus, the interchange oI
/tBv/, /az/, /3/ helps to diIIerentiate singular and plural Iorms
oI such nouns as: cal6Bcal;es //Bv/, lea6Blea;es //Bv/, &ouse@&ouses
/sz/.
Vowel interchange helps to distinguish the singular and the
plural oI such words as? -asisB-ases /'beisisbeisi:z/, crisis B
crises /ikraisis'kraisi:z/, anal'sisBanal'ses /ainaelaaia ainaateshz/
.and also: $anB$en /manmen/, 6ootB6eet /IutIi:t/, !oose B
C!eese /gu:sgi:z/, $ouseB$ice /mausmais/.
Vowel interchange is connected with the tense Iorms oI irregular
vverbs, Ior instance: sin!Bsan!Bsun!4 5riteB5roteB5ritten* etc.
Vowel interchange can also help to distinguish between
10
a) nouns and verbs, e.g -ai&-at&e /a:ei/,
b) adectives and nouns, e.g. &otBeet ";i:/,
c) verbs and adectives, e.g. $o(erate$o(erate /ei1/,
d) nouns and nouns, e.g. s&a(eBs&a(o5 /eise/,
e) nouns and adectives, e.g. t'.et'.ical /ai/.
Vowel interchange can also be observed in onomatopoeitic com-
pounds:
iggleoggle ouo, noun Ilip
Ilop y, mno chipchop
yt onoom, mtont IlapIlop
mnt, mnyt hiphop nontnt
n xot
Consonants can interchange in diIIerent parts oI speech Ior eample
in nouns and verbs:
etentetend /td/
mouthmouth /9/
relieIrelieve /Iv/
Phonetics is also connected with grammar through its intonation
component. Sometimes intonation alone can serve to single out the
logical predicate oI the sentence. Compare:

He came home. Not Mary or John. He


'came home. So you can see him now. He
came 'home. He is at home, and you said
he was going to the club.
In aIIirmative sentences the rising nuclear tone may serve to show
that it is a uestion. CI.:
He 'came
t
home.
He I came ,home.
Pausation may also perIorm a diIIerentiator y Iunction. II we
compare two similar sentences pronounced with diIIerent places oI
the pause, we shall see that their meaning will be diIIerent.
hat Iwriting 'poet is (doing is interesting.
II we make a pause aIter the word 5&at* we are interested in what
the poet is doing in. general. II the pause is made aIter the word 5ritD*
in! we want to know, what book or article the poet is writing.
Phonetics is also connected with leicology. It is only due to the-
presence oI stress, or accent, in the right place, that we can diti
guish certain nouns Irom verbs (Iormed by conversion), e.g.
I abstract to abstract nt
'obect nmto ob'ect ooxt
'transIer nocto transIer noct.
Intonation compensates Ior the Iied word-order oI English sentence.
)
Homographs can be diIIerentiated only due to pronunciation,
because they are identical m spelling, e.g.
bow /bau/ ybow /bau/ noo
lead /li:d/ yonocnolead /led/ cn
row /+/ xrow /rau/ mym
sewer /++/ mnxsewer /sus/ coux y
tear /tea/ tntear /+/ c
wind /wind/ nwind /wamd/ no
Due to the position oI word accent we can distinguish between
homonymous words and word groups, e.g.
'blackbird o'black
4
bird ux n
Phonetics is also connected with stylistics; Iirst oI all through
intonation and its components: speech melody, utterance stress,
rhythm, pausation and voice tamber which serve to epress emotions,
to distinguish between diIIerent attitudes on the part oI the author and
speaker. Very oIten the writer helps the reader to interpret his ideas
through special words and remarks such as: a .ause* a s&ort .ause*
an!ril'* &o.e6ull'* !entl'* incre(ulousl'* etc. For eample:
Now let me ask you girls and boys, would you paper a room with
representations oI horses
AIter a pause, one halI oI the children cried in chorus, Yes, sirl
Upon which the other halI, seeing in the gentleman's Iace that Yes
was wrong, cried out in chorus, No, sirlas the custom is in these
eaminations.
OI course, no. hy wouldn't you
A pause. (Ch. Dickens. Ear( Ti$es>
II the author wants to make a word or a sentence specially promi-
nent or logically accented, he uses graphical epressive means, e.g.:
Phonetics is also connected with stylistics through repetition oI
words, phrases and sounds. Repetition oI this kind serves the basis
oI rhythm, rhyme and alliteration.
Regular recurrence oI accented elements, or rhythm, may be used
as a special device not only in poetry, but in prose as well.
For eample, in the etract given below the repetition oI the word
6act helps Ch. Dickens to characterize his hero, Mr. radgrind as a
narrow-minded person unable to see anything behind bare Iacts.
Now, what I want is Facts. Teach these boys and girls nothing
but Facts. Facts alone are wanted in liIe. Plant nothing else and root
out everything else. You can only Iorm the minds oI reasoning animals
upon Facts; nothing else will ever be oI any service to them. (Ibid.)
12
In the description oI radgrind's mental introduction rhythm
is'achieved through the repetition oI parallel constructions, beginning
with the word $an* which gradually develop and help to achieve the
uclima oI signiIicance.
Thoraas radgrind, sir. A man oI realities. A man oI Iacts and
calculations. A man who proceeds upon the principle that two and
two are Iour, and nothing over, and who is not to be talked into al-
lowing Ior anything over. Thomas radgrind, sir peremptorily
ThomasThomas radgrind. (Ibid.)
The repetition oI identical or similar sounds, which is called allit-
eration, helps, together with the words to which they belong, to im-
part a melodic eIIect to the utterance and to epress certain emo-
tions. Thus, the repetition oI the sonant /m/ in the lines oI the ballad,
given below (together with the other stylistic devices), helps to pro-
duce the eIIect oI merriment.
There are twelve months in all the year,
As I hear many men say, But the merriest
month in all the year Is the merry month
oI May.
The repetition oI the words 'ear* sa' and )a' produces the eIIect
oI rhyme.
Onomatopoeia, a combination oI sounds which imitate sounds
produced in nature, is one more stylistic device which can serve as
an eample oI the connection between phonetics and stylistics. E.g.:
tinle* =in!le* clin* tin!* c&inF c&atter* =a--er* clatter* -a--leF c&ir.*
c&ee.* t5itter* c&irru.F cla.* (a-* s$acF cras&* -an!.
The study oI phonetic phenomena Irom the stylistic point oI view
is phonostylistics. It is connected with a number oI linguistic and non-
linguistic disciplines, such as: paralinguistics, psychology, psy-
cholinguistics, sociology, sociolinguistics, dialectology, literary crit-
icism, aesthetics, inIormation theory, etc.
Phonetics has the Iollowing branches: 1) articulatory (physiolog-
ical) and perceptive (auditory), 2) acoustic, 3) Iunctional (linguistic).
Articulatory and perceptive investigation oI speech sounds is
done on the basis oI a good knowledge oI the voice and sound produc-
ing mechanisms, their structure, work and perceptive (auditory)
eIIects, that isphysiology and psychology. Articulatory phonetics
makes use oI such instruments and devices as: a hand mirror, laryn-
goscope, artiIicial palate, graphical representations oI sounds, pho-
tographs and -ray photographs, gramophone records and magnetic
tape recorder. TV classes and special Iilms are also very helpIul Ior
the investigation and study oI the articulatory aspect oI speech.
Acoustic properties oI sounds, that is, uantity, or length, tamber,
intensity, pitch, temporal Iactor are investigated by the acoustic and
auditory branch oI phonetics.
13
Special laboratory euipment, such as kymograph, spectrograph,
oscillograph and Monograph help to obtain the necessary data about
prosodic properties oI speech sounds. , . . ,
A kymograph records ualitative variations oI sounds in the Iorm
oI kymographic tracings,
A spectrograph produces sound spectrograms which help to list
the Ireuencies oI a given sound and its relative amplitudes.
An oscillograph records oscillograms oI sound vibrations oI any
Ireuency. Automatically recorded oscillograms can be observed upon
the screen.
An intonograph measures automatically: 1) the Iundamental tone
oI the vocal cords, 2) the average sound pressure, 3) the duration or
length oI speech (pausation). The results are recorded: 1) visually
upon the screen oI the electron-ray tube, 2) on paper or Iilm with the
continuous reproduction by tape recorder, 3) in digits (while estimat -
ing the limits oI the recorded area along the screen oI the electron-
ray tube).
The phonological or Iunctional properties oI phonemes, syllables,
accent and intonation are investigated by means oI special linguistic
methods, which help to interpret them as socially signiIicant ele-
ments.
Theoretical signiIicance oI phonetics is connected with the Iurther
development oI the problem or the synchronic study and description
oI the phonetic system oI a national language, the comparative ana -
lysis and description oI diIIerent languages and the study oI the cor -
respondences between them, the diachronic description oI successive
changes in the phonetic system oI a language or diIIerent languages.
Practical signiIicance oI phonetics is connected with teaching
Ioreign languages. Practical phonetics is applied in methods oI speech
correction, teaching deaI-mutes, Iilm doubling, transliteration, radio
and telephone.
uestions
1; hat is the signiIicance oI speech according to the classics oI
Marism-Leninism 2. hat are the vowel and consonant transcrip-
tion symbols 3. hat rules Ior writing transcription symbols do you
know 4. How is phonetics connected with other sciences 5. hat
are the branches oI phonetics 6. hat are the methods and devices,
oI phonetic investigation 7. hat is the practical and theoretical
signiIicance oI phonetics
Eercises
1. rite the plural Iorms oI these words and transcribe them. Prove thai,':
phonetics is connected with grammar.
witch udge halI loaI wiIe mistress
glass crash kniIe selI wolI sculptress
Io calI leaI sheaI actress waitress
gas elI liIe thieI hostess lioness
14
2. rite the three Iorms oI these verbs and transcribe them. Prove that pho-
netics is connected with grammar.
beg compel stop work nod invent
live recognize wrap pass permit rest
open arrive help ship wait load
travel rain ask pack epect depend
cancel inIorm discuss look
u3. Transcribe these words. Underline the interchanging vowels and conso-
nants in the corresponding parts oI speech.
nationnational adviceto advise
gravegravity useto use
provokeprovocative a houseto house
zealzealous an ecuseto ecuse
supremesupremacy a deviceto devise
occur'occurrence looseto lose
closeto close
4. Read these words and word combinations. Translate them into Russian.
Prove that phonetics is connected with leicology through accent.
'redbreast Ired 'breast I break-1 promise'break 'promise
'bluebell'blue *+ell 'heavy-weight'heavy 'weight
'bluestone'blue 'stone 'red-book'red 'book
'blue-lines'blue 'lines 'blue-stocking'blue 'stocking
'bluebottle'blue 'bottle 'blue-nose'blue 'nose
'blackshirt'black 'shirt 'blue-coat'blue 'coat
'black-Iace'black 'Iace 'blue-bonnet'blue 'bonnet
tbird's-eye'bird's 'eye 'black-hole'black 'hole
'bread-and-butter'bread and 'black mass'black 'mass
'butter
5. Transcribe, read and translate these pairs oI words, Single out the sounds
that diIIerentiate the meaning oI the words,
stillsteel sellsale butbath
poopull modelmodal breathbreadth
shipsheep sawso diarydairy
sitseat Polishpolish suitsuite
IillIeel guardguide patrolpetrol
liveleave worthworse mayormaor
illeel truthtruce routroute
slipsleep
6. Read these pairs oI words. State to what parts oI speech they belong. Single
out the sounds that interchange. Translate the words into Russian.
deep depth antiueantiuity knowknowledge
brieIbrevity coalcollier pleasepleasure
sagacioussagacity meadmeadow perceiveperception
strongstrength naturenatural describe description
preciseprecision beastbestial aboundabundance
broad breadth brassbrazen modemodiIy
IS
Slower-Ilourish admitadmission pretendpretention
assumeassumption correctcorrection preciseprecision
presumepresumption conclude conclusion obectobection
conIessconIession dividedivision neglectnegligent
depressdepression collidecollision competecompetition
deceivedeception intentintention rectorrectorial
'7. Read these compounds. Single out the sounds that interchange. Translate
the compounds into Russian.
knick-knack shilly-shally pingpong
mingle-mangle ticktack singsong
mishmash wigglewaggle slipslop
prittleprattle wigwag tiptop
ricketyrackety zig-zag wishwash
r
iII
r
aII clipclop wishy-washy
riprap
8. Read the rhyme. State what stylistic eIIect is achieved through repetition.
To market,, to market, to buy a Iat pig,
Home again, home again, iggety ig; To
market, to market, to buy a Iat hog. Home
again, home again, iggety og. To market,'
to market, to buy a plum bun, Home again,
home again, market is done.
e. Read the rhyme. hy is the word think singled out
Look t o leIt and look to ri ght, Note
what traIIic is in sight. Note, too,
which light can be seen: The Red, the
Amber, or the reen-Children, keep
Irom dangerous play And THIN
beIore you cross today.
10. Read these rhymes. State what sounds are used to produce the eIIect oI
alliteration and Ior what purpose.
(a) She sells sea-shells on the sea-shore;
The shells she sells are sea-shells, I' m sure.
So iI she sells sea-shells on the sea-shore,
Then I'm sure she sells sea-shore shells.
(b) Swan swam over the sea
Swim, swan, swim;
Swan swam back again-
ell swum swan.
11. Read the rhyme. Transcribe the words ased to imitate the sounds made
by diIIerent animals. State the stylistic device Iormed by this phonetic
means.
Bow-wow, says the dog;
Mew, mew, says the cat;
runt, grunt, goes the hog;
16
And sueak, goes the rat.
Tu-whu, says the owl; Caw,
caw, says the crow; uack,
uack, says the duck;
And moo, says the cow.
Control Tasks
1. How do you prove that phonetics is an independent science
2. Cive eamples to prove the signiIicance oI phonetics.
S. ive eamples to prove that phonetics is connected with other sciences,
4. Translate these words and then transcribe them.
1. out; mxtcx, mxtcx; 2. ut; nco, ut
cocn; 3. ocmm; cn; 4. nyt; ; 5. m+; mo; 6. y;
om; mmy, nyt; 7. ntoct, nt; nno; 8. o; yxo;
9. xx; out; 10. onyct; ocyn, nxo; 11. nxt;
+; 12. cnox; cyx; 13, nooct; x; c; 14. -
nt; t; n; 15. myxcno; no: 16. ont; no-
t
5. ive the plural Iorm oI these words and then transcribe bothIorms.
wolI, wiIe, liIe, leaI, thieI, kniIe, sheaI, halI, selI, elI, loaI, calI,
echo, potato, hostess, tigress, basis, thesis, crisis, analysis, man,
Ioot, goose, mouse, bath, house, class, bo, dish, inch, phenome -
non, Iocus
6. Single out pairs oI sounds the interchange oI which makes the words diI -
Ierent parts oI speech.
clothe ;cloth n halve ;halI n
glaze ;glass n live ;liIe n
loathe ;loath It prove ;prooI n
lose ;loss n serve ;serI n
7. Accent and transcribe these words. Translate them into Russian.
insultto insult outgrowthto outgrow
obectto obect outlayto outlay
outgoto outgo out throwto outthrow
produceto produce presentto present
subectto subect protestto protest
tormentto torment
8. Read the poem by an anonymous writer and state what phonetic epressive
means the author ases to make it moreimpressve.
Susan Simpson
Sudden swallows swiItly skimming.
Sunset's slowly spreading shade,
Silvery songsters sweetly singing
Summer's soothing serenade.
17
Susan Simpson strolled sedately.
StiIling sobs, suppressing sighs.
Seeing Stephen Slocum, stately
She stopped, showing some surprise.
Say, said Stephen, sweetest sigher;
Say, shall Stephen spouseless stay
Susan, seeming somewhat shyer,
Showed submissiveness straightaway.
Summer's season slowly stretches,
Susan Simpson Slocum she
So she signed some simple sketches
Soul sought soul successIully.
Si September Susan swelters;
Si sharp seasons snow supplies;
Susan's satin soIa shelters
Si small Slocums side by side.
9. Say how the eIIect oI rhythm and rhyme is achieved by phonetic epressive
means in the poem by D. F. Alderson.
Lines on Montezuma
Aan extract>
Montezuma
Met a puma
Coming through the rye:
Montezuma made the puma
Into apple-pie.
Invitation To the nation
Everyone to come.
Montezuma And the
puma ive a kettle-
drum.
Acceptation
OI the nation
One and all invited.
Montezuma
And the puma
Eually delighted.
II. SOUNDS OF SPEECH AS ACOUSTIC
AND ARTICULATOR, UNITS
Speech sounds can be analysed Irom the viewpoint oI three as-
pects: (1) acoustic, (2) physiological and articulatory, (3) Iunctional,
ACOUSTIC ASPECT OP SPEECH SOUNDS
Speech sounds have a number oI physical properties, the IirsI
oI them is Ireuency, i.e. the number oI vibrations per second.
The vocal cords vibrate along the whole oI their length, producing
Iundamental Ireuency, and along the varying portions oI their
length, producing overtones, or harmonics. hen the vibrations pro-
duced by the vocal cords are regular they produce the acoustic
impression oI voice or musical tone. hen they are irregular noise
is produced. hen there is a combination oI tone and noise, either
noise or tone prevails. hen tone prevails over noise sonorants are
produced. hen noise prevails over tone voiced consonants are
produced.
The comple range oI Ireuencies which make up the uality oI
a sound is known as the acoustic spectrum. Bands oI energy which
are characteristic oI a particular sound are called the sound's Ior-
mants..
Perception oI the pitch oI a speech sound depends upon the Ire-
uency oI vibration oI the vocal cords. The higher the pitch oI vibra-
tions, the higher the pitch level. A male voice may have an average
pitch level oI about 150 cps.
1
and a Iemale voicea level oI about 240
cps. The total range oI a speaking voice varies Irom 80 to 350 cps.
but the human ear perceives Ireuencies Irom 15 cps. to about 20,000
cps. The Ireuency oI sound depends on certain physical properties
oI the vibrator, such as mass, length and tension.' ,'
The second physical property oI sound is intensity. Changes in
intensity are perceived as variation in the loudness oI a sound. The
greater the amplitude oI vibration, the greater the intensity oI a
sound; the greater the pressure on the ear-drums, the louder the
sound. Intensity is measured in decibels (dbs).
Any sound has duration, it is its length or uantity oI time during
which the same vibratory motion, the same pattern oI vibration, are;
maintained. The duration oI speech sounds is usually measured im
milliseconds (msecs).
The analysis oI a sound Ireuency and intensity at a deIinite
period oI time can be presented graphically with the help oI a sound
spectrograph. Acoustic characteristics oI speech sounds are repre-
sented by spectrograms: linear or dynamic and intensity or instant.
In instant spectrograms intensity is represented by vertical dimen-
sions,- Ireuencyby horizontal dimension (Fig. 1).
- C./le0 pe1 0e/2345
In linear representations oI intensity spectrograms the strength
o harmonics is adeuate to the blackness oI spots: the stronger the
harmonic, the blacker is the spot.
Both types oI spectrograms have certain limitations: in linear
spectrograms a succession oI sounds can be measured but it is diIIi-
,i!. i
cult to compare their eact uality. However, they reveal a lot oI
inIormation about the sound changes in time.
The intensity representations oI instant spectrograms cannot be
read oII with any eactness, but their great mdIIt GH the possibility
to record not only the eact uality, but also the changes oI sounds
oI speech at a particular moment oI time.
Spectrographic analysis gives basis Ior acoustic deIinitions and
classiIication oI speech sounds. One oI such classiIications was suggest-
ed byR. Jacobson, . Fant and M. Halle. This classiIication is not
only phonoacoustic but also phonemic
Although acoustic descriptions, deIinitions and classiIications
oI speech sounds are considered to be more precise than articulatory
ones, they are practically inapplicable in language teaching, because
20
the acoustic Ieatures oI speech sounds cannot be seen directly or Ielt
by the language learner. Acoustic descriptions, however, can be ap-
plied in the Iields oI technical acoustics. They are also oI great theo-
retical value.
The research work made in acoustic phonetics is connected with
1) the methods oI speech synthesis and perceptual eperiment Ior the
study oI cues oI phonemic distinctions and Ior the eploration oI diI-
Ierences in tone and stress; 2) the design oI speech recognizing ma-
chines, the teaching oI languages, the diagnosis and treatment oI patho-
logical conditions involving speech and language. The Iuture work in
acoustic phonetics will be connected with brain Iunctioning and ar-
tiIicial intelligence. Eperimentation will involve the whole oI
-speech programming and processing, including the relations between
the acoustic level oI speech and operations at the grammatical, syn-
tactical, leical and phonological levels.
ARTICULATOR, AND PH,SIOLOGICAL ASPECT OF SPEECH SOUNDS
To analyse a speech sound physiologically and articulatorily some
clataonthearticulatory mechanism and its work should be introduced.
Speech is impossible without the Iollowing Iour mechanisms:
(1) the power mechanism,
(2) the vibrator mechanism,
(3) the resonator mechanism,
(4) the obstructor mechanism.
The power mechanism (Fig. 2) consists oI the diaphragm (1), the
lungs (2), the bronchi (3), the windpipe (or trachea) (4), the glottis
(5), the laryn (6), the mouth cavity (7), and the nasal cavity (8).
The vibrator mechanism (the voice producing mechanism) consists
oI the vocal cords, they are n, the laryn,, or, voice bo. The vocal
ucords are two horizontal Iolds oII elastic tissue.'They may be opened
or closed (completely or incompletely, , The pitch oI the voice
is controlled mostly by the tenon oI the vocal cords. Voice produced
by the vocal cords vibration is modiIied by the shape and volume
oI the air passage.'
H. A. leasori mentions three sounds in the English language that
are produced by the vocal cords /h, 6I* /. /h/ is the glottal voiceless
Iricative and /I/ is its voiced allophone. He states that during the
pronunciation oI /h, Iy / the mouth may be in position Ior almost
any sound.
3
hen both parts oI the glottis are Iirmly closed, the sound pro-
duced at separating the glottal stop position, is called the glottal stop
//. It sounds like a soIt cough.
Thorough acoustic investigations show that besides the vocal
cords there are two more sources that participate in the production
,r' J. K* Acoustic phonetics: A Course oI Basic Readings, Cambridge,
1976P. 16.
a
Lleason E. M* An Introduction to Descriptive Linguistics. N. Y,,
1961,P. 241.
6&
oI speech sounds: (a) the turbulent noise, which results Irom some
constriction in the Ilow oI air and (b) the impulse wave, which is
Iormed when the complete ob-
struction to the Ilow oI air in the
mouth cavity is suddenly broken.
These sources oI speech sounds
may work separately or simulta-
neously. For eample: (1) the
vocal cords produce vibrations in
the articulation oI vowel sounds,
(2) the turbulent noise helps to
produce voiceless constrictive
consonants, such as /I, s, J7, (3)
the impulse source helps to pro-
duce voiceless plosiye consonants ,
such as /p, t, k/.
The two sourcesvocal and
turbulent participate in the pro-
duction oI voiced constrictive
consonants, such as /v, z, 5/, the
vocal and impulse sources partici-
pate in the production oI voiced
plosive consonants, such as /b,
d, g/.
The resonator mechanism (Fig.
3) consists o the pharyn (2),
the laryn (4), the mouth cavity
(1), and the nasal cavity (3).
The obstructor mechanism (Fig. 4) consists oI the tongue
(1: a Bi@ blade with the tip, --N
nil
.2OPQ
back

or

dorsu
m); the lips '(2),
the teeth (3), the soIt palate with the uvula (4), the hard palate (5),
the alveolar ridge (6).
,
R@ s
,i!i
thPi 3t
b

rne

In

mind

that

the

Iour
mechanisms (the
power, the vibrator, the resonator and the obstructor mechanisms)
work si-
22
tnultaneously and that each speech sound is the result oI the simul-
taneous work oI all oI them.
The air, which is necessary Ior the production oI the speech sounds,
is pushed out oI the lungs. The lungs take in air rapidly and let it out
slowly. Most speech sounds are made by using the air which is pushed
out oI the lungs.
From the lungs the air gets into the bronchial tubes and then
into the trochea, at the top oI which there is the laryn with the vocal
cords. The laryn oI a man is larger than that oI a woman and can
be easily seen as a proecting lump. The space between the vocal Iolds is
called the glottis. The vocal Iolds vibrate about 130 times Ior a
man's voice and about 230 times Ior a woman's voice each second.
Variations in the speed (Ireuency) oI the vibrations oI the vocal
cords produce changes oI pitch: the higher the Ireuency, the
higher the pitch oI the sound produced.
Longer and larger vocal cords produce slower vibrations, i.e. low-
er Ireuency and lower pitch. Conseuently voices oI men are much
deeper in pitch than those oI women.
The area above the glottis is called the supra-glottal vocal tract.
It consists oI the pharyn, the mouth and the nasal cavities. The
mouth and the nasal cavities are separated by the hard palate and the
soIt palate with the uvula.
The soIt palate, or velum, can move to the pharyn wall and
block oII the nasal cavityvelic closure, it is part oI the articulation
oI all oral consonants. ,
hen the soIt palate is pressed against the back part oI the tongue
3t is a velar closure, e.g. /* !l have botha velic and a velar closure;
/r/ is a nasal sound, it is pronounced with the velar closure, the velic
closure does not take place in its production.
The uvula is at the back oI the soIt palate, neither English, nor
Russian have uvular articulation.
The buk oI the tongue can be approimately divided into Iront
part with the blade and the tip, middle part, and back part with
the root (see above). Some phoneticians call the whole upper surIace
oI the tongue dorsum.
t
In the production oI English and Russian Iorelingual consonants
-the tip oI the tongue may occupy a number oI positions. It is raised
against the upper teeth ridge in the articulation oI the English
/t* d, s, z, J
1
, 3, , S, I, dg, n, 1/ and the Russian /, ', m, m', x/
apical position. It is passive and lowered in the articulation oI the
Russian /, T , H, H , , u', / dorsal position, the
blade oI the tongue takes part in their articulation. The tip oI the
tongue is against the back slope oI the teeth ridge (a depression is
uIormed in the blade oI the tongue) in the articulation oI the English
,/r/cacuminal position. The tip oI the tongue vibrates, tapping
against the alveolar ridge in the articulation oI the Russian /6 /* /p7.
hen the soIt palate is raised and Iorms a closure against the
pharyn wall, the entrance to the nasal cavity is shut oII.
Most speech sounds are pronounced with the soIt palate raised,
23
they are called oral. hen the soIt palate is lowered the air passes out
through the nasal cavity, it happens when normal breathing takes
place and when nasal sounds are produced, e.g. English /m, n, r/,
Russian /M, M H, H7.
The oral cavity begins with the lips: upper and lower hp. They
can be rounded, as Ior /w/, protruded, as Ior the Russian /y/, spread,
as Ior /i:/. The lower lip may move close to the upper teeth, as Ior
/I, v/. The two lips can close to block the air stream, as Ior bilabial
/p, b, $l.
The teeth act as obstacles to the air stream. The upper teeth are
the most important Ior the articulation oI dental, or dorsal, the
blade oI the tongue is against the upper teeth, alveolar /t* d, I, s, z, n/,
interdental /9, S* labiodental &i. The alveolar ridge can be Ielt
with the tip oI the tongue as a corrugated ridge ust behind the upper
Iront teeth.
The hard palate can be Ielt with the tip oI the tongue, it is behind
the alveolar ridge. In the articulation oI the sound // the tongue
makes a movement towards the hard palate.
The centre oI the tongue can be grooved along mid-line, the sides,
raised, e.g. /s, z/.
The Iront oI the tongue can be raised to the hard palate, e. g.
English'//.
The back oI the tongue can be raised to the velum, e.g. the Rus-
sian //, it is pressed against the velum, e.g. the Russian / , / and
the English /k, g/.
The ability to detect the movements made by the tongue dimin-
ishes towards the back oI the tongue.
Articuiatory diIIerences between vowels, consonants and sono-
rants depend on the three articuiatory criteria. They are:
(1) the presence or absence oI an articuiatory obstruction to the
air stream in the laryn or in the supra-glottal cavities;
(2) the concentrated or diIIused character oI muscular tension;
(3) the Iorce oI ehalation.
On the basis oI these criteria consonants may be deIined as sounds,
in the production oI which (a) there is an articuiatory obstruction to
the air stream (complete, incomplete, intermittent); (b) muscular
tension is concentrated in the place oI obstruction; (c) the ehaling:
Iorce is rather strong.
Vowels may be deIined as sounds in the production oI which (a)
there is no articuiatory obstruction to the air stream; (b) muscular
tension is diIIused more or less evenly throughout the supra-glottal
part oI the speech apparatus; (c) the ehaling Iorce is rather weak.
Sonorants are sounds intermediate between noise consonants and
vowels because they have Ieatures common to both. There is an ob-
struction, but not narrow enough to produce noise. Muscular tension-
is concentrated in the place oI obstruction but the ehaling Iorce is.
rather weak, English sonorants are: /m, n, g, 1, w, r, /.
uestions
1. From what points oI view can speech sounds be analysed 2.
hat physical properties oI speech sounds- do you know 3. How does-
the power, vibrator, resonator, obstructor mechanism work 4. hat
are articulatory diIIerences between vowels, consonants and sono-
rants
Eercises
1. Draw the diagrams oI the sound producing mechanisms: a) the power mecha
nism; b) the vibrator mechanism; c) the resonator mechanism; d) the ob
structor mechanism.
2. Speak on the work oI the Iour sotmd producing mechanisms, illustrate your
speech by the diagrams you have drawn.
Control Tasks
1. Show on the diagrams:
a) the diIIerence in the position oI the soIt palate in the production oI ora and
nasal consonants;
b) the diIIerence In the position oI the tip and the blade oI the tongue in the
production oI dorsal and apical consonants;
c) the diIIerence in the position oI the lips in the articulation oI /w, v/, the
Russian /y/;
d) the diIIerence in the position oI the back part oI the tongue in the articu
lation oI English =a / and Russian //.
ARTICULATORY AND PHYSIOLOICAL CLASSIFICATION OF ENLISH
CONSONANTS
Soviet phoneticians classiIy consonants according to the Iollowing
principles:
I. ork oI the vocal cords and the Iorce oI ehalation.
II. Active organs oI speech and the place oI obstruction,
III. Manner oI noise production and the type oI obstruction.
ithin this principle oI consonant classiIication there are the
Iollowing subdivisions according to:
(1) voice or noise prevalence,
(2) number oI noise producing Ioci,
(3) shape oI the narrowing.
IV. Position oI the soIt palate.
I. According to the work oI the vocal cords and the Iorce oI eha-
lation consonants are subdivided into voiced and voiceless.
Voiced consonants are: /b, d, g, z, v, T* g, m, n, g, 1, r, ~
w, ds/.
Voiceless consonants are: /p, t, k, s, I, 9, h, J t/.
The Iorce oI ehalation and the degree oI muscular tension are
greater in the production oI voiceless consonants thereIore they are
called by the Latin word Iortis, which means strong, energetic.
Voiced consonants are called lenis, soIt, weak, because the Iorce
25
oI ehalation and the degree oI muscular tension in their articula-
tion are weaker, e.g.
,ortts Uenis
/p/ pipe /b/ Bible
/t/ tight /d/ died
/k/ cake /g/ gag
/tJ7 church // udge
/I/ Iive /v/ vibrant
/6/ three // thee
/s/ soup /z/ zoo
/// pressure /3/ pleasure
The English consonants /h, m, n, r, 1, w, , r/ do not enter into
Iortis-lenis oppositions. The energy contrast in English operates-
throughout the system oI consonants. In Russian it does not play as-
signiIicant a role.
II. According to the position oI the active organ oI speech against the
point oI articulation (the place oI articulation) consonants are
classiIied into (Table 1, p. 2930): (1) labial, (2) lingual, (3) glottal-
Labial consonants are subdivided into: a) bilabial and b) labiodental.
Bilabial consonants are produced with both lips. They are-the
English /p, b, m, w/ and the Russian /n, n', , ', m, MV. Labiodental
consonants are articulated with the lower lip against the edge oI the
upper teeth. They are the English //* v/and theRussian/, ', n, n7.
Lingual consonants are subdivided into: a) Iorelingual, b) media-
lingual and c) backlingual.
Forelingual consonants are articulated with the tip or the blade
oI the tongue. According to the position oI the tip oI the tongue they
may be: a) dorsal, b) apical and c) cacuminal. According to the place
oI obstruction Iorelingual consonants may be: (1) interdental, (2)
dental, (3) alveolar, (4) post-alveolar, (5) palato-alveolar. Interdental
consonants are articulated with the tip oI the tongue proected
between the teeth, e.g. /3, 3/. Dental.consonants are articulated with
the blade oI the tongue against the upper teeth, e.g. the Russian &*
, c, c', , ', , , '/. Alveolar consonants are articulated with
the tip oI the tongue against the upper teeth ridge, e.g. /t* (* s, z,
n, I/. Post-alveolar consonants are articulated with the tip or the
blade oI the tongue against the back part oI the teeth ridge, e.g. /r/.
Palato-alveolar consonants are articulated with the tip or the blade
oI the tongue against the teeth ridge, the Iront part oI the tongue
raised towards the hard palatetwo places oI articulation, or Ioci,u
e.g. the English /tI, dg, J 5/ and the Russian /m, m V* u'
Mediolingtsal consonants are produced with the Iront part oI the-
tongue. They are always palatal. Palatal consonants are articulated
with the Iront part oI the tongue raised high to the hard palate, e.g.
//.
26
Backlingual consonants are also called velar, they are produce
with the back part oI the tongue raised towards the soIt palate ve-
lum, e.g. the English /k, g, r/, the Russian /, ', , ', x, x7.
The glottal consonant /h/ is articulated in the glottis.
This principle oI consonant classiIication is rather universal; the
only diIIerence is that V. A. Vassilyev, . P. Torsuyev, O. I. Diku-
shina, A. C. imson give more detailed and precise enumerations oI
active organs oI speech than H, A. leason, B. Bloch, . Trger and
others.
There is, however, controversy about terming the active organs
oI speech. Thus, Soviet phoneticians divide the tongue into the Iol-
lowing parts (Fig. 5): Iront with the tip (1), middle (2), and back (3).
Following L. V. Shcherba's terminology the Iront part oI the
tongue is subdivided into apical (a), dorsal (b), cacuminal (c) and
(
,i!. W ,i!. X
retroIleed (d) according to the position oI the tip and the blade
oI the tongue in relation to the teethridge (Figs. 5, 6),
A. C. imson's terms diIIer Irom those used by Soviet phoneti-
cians: apical is euivalent to Iorelingual; Irontal is euivalent to
mediolingual; dorsum is the whole upper area oI the tongue.
H. A. leason's terms in respect to the parts oI the bulk oI the
tongue are: apethe part oI the tongue that lies at rest opposite
the alveolae; Irontthe part oI the tongue that lies at rest opposite
Ihe Iore part oI the palate; back, or dorsumthe part oI the tongue
that lies at rest opposite the velum or the back part oI the palate.
III. A. L. Trakhterov, . P. Torsuyev, V. A. Vassilyev and other
Soviet phoneticians consider the principle oI consonant classiIication
according to the manner oI noise production and the type oI obstruc
tion to be one oI the most important and classiIy consonants accord
ing to this principle very accurately, logically and thoroughly.
First oI all they suggest a classiIication oI consonants according to
ihe manner oI noise production Irom the viewpoint oI the closure,
which is Iormed m their articulation (Table 1). ,
It may be: (1) complete closure, then occlusive (stop, or plosive)
and nasal consonants are produced: /p, b, t, d, k, g, m, n, r/; /n, 6,
T, , , r, n', 6', T'
(
', ', r M H M, H/.
(2) incomplete closure, then constrictive consonants are produced,
/I, v, 6, , h, s, Y* 1* 3, w, , 1, /; /, n, c, , x,
1
, n c , x, m,
. (3) the combination oI the two closures, then occlusive-constric-
iive, or aIIricates, are produced: /tI, dg/; /, u/.
27
(4) intermittent closure, then rolled, or trilled consonants, are pro-
duced: Russian /p, p7.
A. C. imson, H. A. leason, D. Jones, and other Ioreign phone
ticians include in the manner oI noise production classiIication
groups oI lateral, nasals, semivowelssubgroups oI consonants
r
which do not belong to a single class.
(1) According to the principle oI voice or noise prevalence, Soviet
phoneticians suggest a subdivision oI the group oI occlusives and the
group oI constrictives into noise sounds and sonor ants (Table 1).
Noise occlusive sonorants are also called nasals.
The group oI occlusive-constrictive consonants consists oI noise
sounds /tI, dg, u, /. The group oI rolled or trilled is represented by
two Russian sonorants /p, pV,
There is no such subdivision in the classiIications suggested by
D. Jones, H. A. leason and A. C. imson. These authors do not
single out the groups oI sonorants, as such, but D. Jones, Ior eample,,
gives separate groups oI nasals /m, n, r/, the lateral /1/, Irictioness-
continuants, or glides (semi-vowels) /w, r, /.
H, A. leason gives separate groups oI nasals /m, n, /, the lat-
eral ///* semi-vowels S* / y/.
B. Bloch, . Trager give separate groups oI nasals /$* n, r/, the-
lateral /Z* trills &i[
B, Bloch, . Trger and A. C. imsn include in their classiIi -
cations oI consonants a number oI allophones.
(2) Soviet phoneticians subdivide the rolled, occlusive, constric-
tiye, occlusive-constrictive consonants into unicentral (pronounced
with one Iocus) and bicentral (pronounced with two Ioci), according:
to the number oI noise producing centres, or Ioci (Table 1). This sub
division is not included into the classiIications oI Ioreign phoneti
cians.
(3) According to the shape oI the narrowing constrictive conso
nants and aIIricates are subdivided into sounds with Ilat narrowing
and round narrowing.
The consonants /6* v, 6, , J
1
, 5, tI, do/ are pronounced with the
Ilat narrowing; the consonants /s* z, w, / are pronounced with the
round narrowing. H.A. leason considers /J, 3/ to be grooved Irica-
tives.
There are diIIerent opinions on the nature oI English aIIricates..
The most etreme are the views epressed by B. Bloch and . Trger
who deny the eistence oI aIIricates as monophonemic entities and
state that they are biphonemic seuences. The other etreme point oI
view is that epressed by D. Jones and I. ard who state that there-
are si aIIricates in the system oI English consonants (D. Jones),.
or even eight (I. ard): /tI, dg, is, dz, tr, dr, t9, dS/.
Soviet phoneticians consider aIIricates as units which are articula-
1
e include here only the symbols oI the sounds which are Familiar to
Russian students.
28
Ta-le 1
Table oI English and Russian Consonant Phonemes
According to the place oI obstruction
o the manner oI tbe productEon u and tbe
type oI obstruction N
La+%a! 7 L%38)al

l
o
t
t
a
l

(
P
h
a
r
y
n
g
a
l
)
A//214%38 92 9:e p20%9%23 2; 9:e
tip oI the tongue
t
<
II
B
a
c
k
l
l
n
-
g
u
a
l
B
i
l
a
b
i
a
l
cd
&
=> >
Dorsal Apical Cacuminal n
'S
V
e
l
a
r
According I
o noise
D
e
n
t
a
l
D
e
n
t
a
l
A
l
v
e
o
l
a
r
(0
? )
@5 A
A
l
v
e
o
l
a
r
P
o
s
t
a
t

v
e
o
l
a
r
Occlusive
consonants
Noise conso-
nants (plo-
sives)
Uni central P.
n, 6
T7 B
97 4
,
,
Bicentral Iront secon-
dary Iocus
C7 ? T7 D
',
Sonorants
E3a0al'
UnI centrat
m

3
3
F-
u
Bicentral
Iront secon-
dary Iocus
C7 #
07 G -
9
Constrlc-
tive con-
sonants
Noise conso-
nants (Irica-
tives)
Unicentral
round
narrowing
c

E
Bicentral
Iront secon-
dary Iocus
I, v
u, n .
$. H I
Unicentral
Ilat nar-
rowing
J*7 K* L MN.OL I
Bicentral
Iront secon-
dary Iacus
M7 O
+a/P 0e/23-
4a1. ;2/)0
& &
\8]V^
^ According to the place oI obstruction
to the manner oI the production e and
ttie type oI obstruction -~v-
Labial Lingual

l
o
t
t
a
l

(
P
h
a
r
y
n
g
a
t
)
According to the position oI the
tip oI the tongue
M
e
d
i
o
-
l
l
n
g
u
a
l
n x
B
i
l
a
b
i
a
l
> /a
Dorsal Apical Cacuminal
P
a
l
a
t
a
l
V
e
l
a
r
According
oI nois
D
e
n
t
a
l
D
e
n
t
a
l
A
l
v
e
o
l
a
r
P
a
l
a
t
o
-
a
l
-
v
e
o
l
a
r
A
l
v
e
o
l
a
r
P
o
s
t
-
a
l
v
e
o
l
a
r
Coibtric-
tive con-
sonants
Sono-
rants
Medi-
a
Unicentral ' 1
Lat-
eral
Bicentral
Irom secon-
dary Iocus
w
Medial back secon-
dary Iocus
round
narrowing
a J
Lat-
eral
Q
Ocelusive-constric-
tive (noise) conso-
nants aIIricates)
Uni central
round
narrowing

Bicentral
Iront secon-
dary Iocus
Ilat
narrowing
V, u
Rolled
conso-
nants
Sonorants Uni central P
BiccnIral
Iront secon-
dary Iocus
P
P
torily and acoustically indivisible (this can beproved by instrumental
techniues), and morphologically uniue. For instance, no morpheme-,
boundary can pass within /t
1
, d.3/ which is not the case that can be~
Iound in /t9/, Ior eample: ei!&tBei!&t& /eiteit-6/, and /dz/, Ior
eample: -e(B-e(s /bedbed-z/.
Since only the sounds /t / in the system oI English consonants,
and /, u/ in the system oI Russian consonants are articulatorily and
acoustically indivisible and morphologically uniue (the combina-
tions /tI, dg. Ir~ dr, to, d5/ do not comply with these reuirements),,
they are the only occlusive-constrictive or aIIricated sounds.
IV. According to the position oI the soIt palate all consonants are-
subdivided into oral and nasal. hen the soIt palate is raised and the-
air Irom the lungs gets into the pharyn and then into the mouth
cavity, oral consonants are produced, e.g. /p, t, k, I, v/, etc. hen the-
soIt palate is lowered and the air on its way out passes through the-
nasal cavity, nasal consonants are produced: /m, n, r/.
II we compare classiIications oI consonants suggested by Soviet
and some Ioreign authors, we can state that Soviet phoneticians pro-
pose more logical, accurate and detailed classiIications which serve-
the teaching purposes much better than other classiIications.
DIFFERENCES IN THE ARTICULATION BASES OF THE ENGLISH AND
RUSSJAN CONSONANTS AND THEIR PECULIARITIES
The diIIerences in the articulation bases between the two languages-
are in the general tendencies their native speakers have, in the-
way they move and hold their lips and the tongue both in speech and
in silence, in the way they coordinate the work oI the obstructor and
1
vibrator mechanisms (lenis and Iortis articulations), in the way they
eIIect CV, VC and CC transitions (close and loose transitions).
The peculiarities oI the articulation bases which give rise to the-
diIIerences in the system oI consonants in English and in Russian are-
the Iollowing:
(1) The English Iorelingual consonants are articulated with the'
apico-alveolar position oI the tip oI the tongue. The Russian Iorelin
gual consonants are mainly dorsal: in their articulation the tip oI the-
tongue is passive and lowered, the blade is placed against the upper
teeth. The Russian Iorelingual dorsal consonants are: /, ', ,
, ', c, c', , u /. The Russian Iorelingual apical consonants-
are only: /, ', m, m', x/.
(2) In the production oI the Russian consonants the bulk oI the-
tongue is mainly in the Iront-mid part oI the mouth resonator. hen
Russian soIt Iorelinguals are produced the muscular tension is concen
trated in the bunched up Iront-mid part oI the tongue; when the soIt
backlingual consonants are produced the muscular tension is concen
trated in the middle part oI the tongue.
- Vassituev V. A. E38l%0: P:23e9%/0N A T:e21e9%/al C2)10e.RM.7 &$S0.R
P. &&S.
#&
In the production oI the English Iorelingual consonants the tip
oI the tongue and the Iront edges are very tense. It results in the de-
pression in the Iront part oI the tongue, which enlarges the size oI the
Iront resonator and lowers the tone oI the apical consonants. The Eng-
lish soIt consonants are pronounced with the Iront secondary Iocus.
They are /J 3, dIc, tI/ and the soIt /1/. The English /J 5/ are short,
the similar Russian consonants /m':, x':/ are long. The Iront secon-
dary Iocus is Iormed by the middle part oI the tongue which produces
secondary articulation simultaneously with the primary Iocus, or
primary articulation (see p. 87).
The Russian /n ' , m' , ', n', c', ' , ', u, ' , ' , 7
are also pronounced with the Iront secondary Iocus, but the middle
oI the tongue in their production is raised higher to the hard palate,
than during the secondary articulation in the production oI the
English soIt consonants.
Russian students oIten use the hard /m, x/ phonemes instead
oI the soIt English/J, 5/. Palatalization is a phonemes Ieature in Rus-
sian (see below).
There is no opposition between palatalyzednon-palatalyzed
consonants in English. The soIt colouring oI the English //, tI, , 1,
W" is non-phonemic.
(3) The English /w/ and 04 are pronounced with the back secon
dary Iocus, Iormed by the back part oI the tongue, which is raised to
the soIt palate simultaneously with the Iormation oI the primary
iocus. In the articulation oI /w/ the primary Iocus is Iormed by the
lips, which are rounded but not protruded, as it happens when the
Russian /y/ is pronounced. The bilabial /w/ which is pronounced
with a round narrowing is very oIten mispronounced by the Russian
learners. They use the labio-dental /n/ or /v/ which are pronounced
with a Ilat narrowing instead oI the English /w/.
The primary Iocus in the articulation oI dark I/4 is Iormed by
the tip oI the tongue pressed against the teethridge.
English voiceless plosives /p, k/ are aspirated, when Iollowed by
a stressed vowel and not preceded by /s/.
(4) The English voiceless iortis /p, t, k, I, s, J, tI/ are pronounced
more energetically than similar Russian consonants.
The English voiced consonants /b, d, g, v, 3, z, 5, (_" are not
replaced by the corresponding voiceless sounds in word-Iinal posi-
tions and beIore voiceless consonants, e.g. /'big eibl/.
(5) Consonant phonemes in English which have no counterparts
an Russian are the Iollowing:
1. the bilabial, constrictive median sonorant /w/,
2. the dental (interdental) Iricative consonants /3, /,
3. the voiced bicentral aIIricate /13/,
4. the post-alveolar constrictive median sonorant /r/,
5. the backlingual, nasal sonorant /ri/,
6. the glottal Iricative /h/.
Consonant phonemes in Russian which have no counterparts in
English are the Iollowing:
32
1. the palatalized consonants /n', `:* , ',
1
,
1
, m ', ', n',
, ' , 7,
2. the voiceless unicentral aIIricate //,
3. the rolled post alveolar sonorant /p/,
4. the backlingual Iricative voiceless //.
The most common mistakes that may result Irom the diIIerences
in the articulation bases oI the English and Russian languages are
the Iollowing:
dorsal articulation oI the English Iorelingual apical /t, d/,
the use oI the Russian rolled /p/ instead oI the English post-
alveolar constrictive &i*
the use oI the Russian // instead oI the English glottal,
Iricative /h/,
mispronunciation oI the English interdental /0, 5/: the use
oI /s, I/ Ior /e/ and /d, z/ Ior //,
the use oI the Iorelingual /n/ instead oI the backlingual velar /n/,
the use oI the Russian dark /m, x/ instead oI the soIt English
ts> TU.
the use oI the labio-dental /v, b/ instead oI the bilabial /w/,
absence oI aspiration in /p, t, k/ when they occur initially,
weak pronunciation oI voiceless Iortis /p, t
F
k, I, s, J, tI/,
devoicing oI voiced /b, d, g, ;* 3, z, g, d/ in the terminal
position,
uestions
1. hat are the mechanisms Iort ha production oI speech sounds
2, hat are the Iour main principles oI consonant classiIication
3, hat are the diIIerences in the second principle oI consonant clas
siIication according to Soviet and Ioreign linguists 4. How are the
consonants subdivided according to the third principle 5. hat are
the subgroups oI the noise consonants and sonorants within the groups
oI the occlusive and constrictive consonants and what is the contro
versy about them 6. How are the consonants subdivided according
to the noise producing Ioci and the shape oI the narrowing 7. hat
do you know about the groups oI the aIIricates and rolled consonants
8. hat are the principal diIIerences in the articulation bases oI the
English and Russian consonants 9. hat mistakes result Irom the
diIIerences in the articulation bases oI the English and Russian con
sonants
Eercises
1, Draw diagrams oIthe Iour speech producing mechanisms.
2, Eplain the work oI the Iour mechanisms in the production oI speech sounds,
3. Eplain the articulation oI /p, t, k/ and /b, d, / Irom the viewpoint oI
the work oI the vocal cords and the Iorce oI ehalation.
33
4. Eplain the articulation oI /mt n, n/ Irom the point oI view oI the position
oI the soIt palate.
S. State the diIIerence in the articulation oI /b, v, I/ and the Russian /p/
Irom the point oI view oI the manner oI noise production.
6. Eplain the articulation oI /w, , h/ Irom the viewpoint oI the active organ
oI speech.
7. Draw Iigures oI the position oI the tip oI the tongue in the articulation oI
the Russian &i* English /t, r/ and the Russian /p/7
8. Eplain the articulation oI/s/ and lit Irom the viewpoint oI noise producing
Ioci.
9. Draw Iigures to show the position oI the tongue in the production oI Iront
secondary and back secondary Ioci.
10. Transcribe these words and read them. Observe the aspiration oI the ini -
tial /p, t, k/.
people
paper
purpose
possibl
e
put
pence
Pity
poor
pieces
port
penny
take
time
town
ties
tennis
took
tais
till
teacher
s
turned
total
toss
tin
tons
courts
cold
careIul
car
cook
covered
cost
kissed
campus
curtly
cottage
current
s
colour
. Read these words. Observe the apical and cacuminal positions oI the tip
oI the tongue in pronouncing the English it* r/ and the dorsal in pronounc-
ing the Russian &i.

m
o

Tom
Tm
o
(o xt)
yy...

Tm
ut

oc
take
tent
time
talk
tell
town
Tim
ton
ties
two
tear
Teddy
take
team
teach
ticket
toast
rates
read /red/
rhyme
rock
ren
round
rim
run
rise
room
rear
ready
rake
real
reach
ricket
roast
&6. Rea4 9:e0e R)00%a3 a34 E38l%0: V2140. AW2%4 pala9al%Ga9%23 2; E38l%0:
%3%9%al /23023a390 +e;21e 9:e ;1239 W2Vel0 U:7 97 e7 e%U.
npay bill veal c said
Hpit c sill uIeeling c less
kit u zeal bell beg
gay c sell n tip net
t i k mmeal bed when
tell m mell let reck
dell Hnil
Control Tasks
&. D1aV 9:e ;2ll2V%38 9a+leN /la00%;%/a9%23 2; E38l%0: a34 R)00%a3 /23023a390
a//214%38 92 9:e a/9%We 218a3 2; 0pee/: a34 9:e pla/e 2; 2+091)/9%237
6. D1aV 9:e ;2ll2V%38 9a+leN /la00%;%/a9%23 2; E38l%0: a34 R)00%a3 /23023a390
a//214%38 92 9:e W2%/e 21 32%0e p1eWale3/e.
#. D1aV 9:e ;2ll2V%38 9a+leN /la00%;%/a9%23 2; E38l%0: a34 R)00%a3 /23023a390
a//214%38 92 9:e ma33e1 2; 9:e p124)/9%23 2; 32%0e a34 9:e 9.pe 2; 2+091)/
9%237
ARTICULATOR, AND PH,SIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF ENGLISH
XOYELS
The Iirst linguist who tried to describe and classiIy vowel sounds
Ior all languages was D. Jones. He devised the system oI 8 Cardinal
Vowels. The basis oI the system is physiological. Cardinal vowel No,
1 corresponds to the position oI the Iront part oI the tongue raised as
close as possible to the palate. The gradual lowering oI the tongue to
the back lowest position gives another point Ior cardinal vowel No. 5.
The lowest Iront position oI the tongue gives the point Ior cardinal
No. 4. The upper back limit Ior the tongue position gives the point
Ior cardinal No. 8. These positions Ior cardi nal vowels No. 1, 4, 5 and 8
were copied Irom -ray photographs. The tongue positions

between these points were -rayedand the


J
V V
d t t p i t I N 2, 3, 6, 7
Iound. The IPA symbols Ior the 8 Cardinal ------
Vowels are:
g g
oI the primary cardinal vowel ualities,
using Ior comparison French, erman and
a a
Russian languages.
,t s
: :
No. 1 is the euivalent oI the erman ie in Kiene. This position
is higher than Ior the Russian accented / / in the word ].
No, 2 is pronounced with the position oI the tongue narrower than
Ior the Russian /e/ in the word ^a.
No. 3 is similar to the Russian / +/ in the word 9.
#T
eui-distant points Ior No. 2, 3, 6, 7 were
A. symbols Ior the 8 Cardinal v------s

1 i, 2 e, 3 s, 4 ,
5
a
, 6 o, 7 o, 8 u. ' -----
Below we give some rough indications
;l%p 31%ma1W 3a119%*33% W2Vel 4)al%9%e0. Z [
N.o. 4 is similar to the French sound /a/ in la.
No. 5 is nearly what is obtained by taking away the lip rounding
Irom the English sound &% in &ot.
No,' 6 is. similar to the erman sound oI /o/ in 1onne* so.
No. 7 is similar to the French sound oI /o/ in 2ose.
No. 8 is. similar to the erman sound oI /u/ in !ut.
See Fig. 7. /, t, y, o, , +/ are Russian vowels, given Ior corapari-
son.
The system oI Cardinal Vowels is an international standard.
Ta-le b
English and Russian Vowel Phonemes
Accord-
ing
N. According to
Front
vo-
Front-
retracted
Central
vowels
Back-
ad-
Back
vowels
to the Ac- N tionoI wels vowels vanced
height cord- the bulk' vowels
oI the
ing to oIthe
raised
part
the va- 4 t0
natron Nt
oI the in the N. -
tongue height oI Ny
the raised N.
part oI Nv
the tongue N.
Narrow
Close variation

(hieh)
vowels Broad
Z @"R\]. Z ^^]R
variation
Z X Z T - RKJ_ Mid- Narrow
open variation
(mid)
vowels
Broad
variation
vrVIvr
Narrow
Open
(low)
variation
vowels Broad
variation
V TVn
D
The Cardinal Vowel scale is a Sine and independent system needed
on the auditory and articulatory levels.
Y
In spite oI the theoretical signiIicance oI the Cardinal Vowel Sys-
tem its practical application is limited to the Iield where no compar-
ison is needed, in purely scientiIic work. In language teaching this
system can be learned only by oral instruction Irom a teacher who knows
how to pronounce the Cardinal Vowels. Those who have access nei-
Ll$son M.C. An Introduction to the Pronunciation oI English,
1964. -P. 36.
36
Ldn.
ther to a ualiIied teacher, nor to a . . . record cannot epect to
learn the values oI these or any other cardinal vowels with accuracy.
Acoustically vowels are musical tones (not noises): the word
vowel is a derivative oI voice. But vowels are not necessarily
connected with voice. ProI. L.R. inder states that iI the organs oI
speech are adusted Ior the articulation oI a vowel, it can be pronounced
without voice, breathing the air out through the mouth cavity, then
a voiceless vowel is produced. Such voiceless vowels eist in all lan-
guages as a schwa in a terminal position aIter voiceless (especially
occlusive) consonants. E.g. in the Russian language // is heard in
the words: c8* /com, c`* d* e]^`* etc. hen people pronounce
vowels in whisper, they also articulate voiceless vowels.
Acoustically vowels diIIer due to their tembral colouring, each
vowel is characterized by its own Iormants (that is concentrations oI
energy in certain Ireuency regions on the spectrogram).
Soviet phoneticians suggest a classiIication oI vowels according
to the Iollowing principles:
I. Position oI the lips.
II. Position oI the tongue.
III. Degree oI tenseness and the character oI the end.
IV. Length.
V. Stability oI articulation.
I. The main eIIects oI lip rounding on the shape oI the mouth are:
a) to enlarge the oral cavity, b) to diminish the size oI the opening oI
the oral cavity. Both oI these deepen the pitch and increase the reso
nance oI the Iront oral cavity according to the position oI the lips.
According to the position oI the lips vowels are classiIied into: (a)
rounded, (b) unrounded, The Russian rounded vowels are pronounced
with more lip protrusion than the English rounded vowels. The Eng
lish rounded vowels are: /u u:, o:/, the Russian rounded and
protruded vowels are: /o, y/. The general pattern is that the Iront
and open vowels are articulated with spread to neutral lip position
while back vowels have rounded lips. The rounding tends to be more
worked with closer tongue height.
II. According to the position oI the tongue t is the bulk oI the
tongue which conditions most oI all the production oI diIIerent vow
els. It can move Iorward and backward, it may be raised and low
ered in the mouth cavity.
L. V. Shcherba did not separate vowels according to the vertical
and horizontal movements oI the tongue with deIinite lines, consid-
ering such subdivision to be conventional (Fig. 8).
Soviet scientists divide vowels according to the (a) horizontal and
(b) vertical movements oI the tongue (Table 2).
(a) hen the bulk oI the tongue moves backwards, it is usually
the back part oI the tongue which is raised highest towards the soIt
palate. Vowels produced with the tongue in this position are called
back. They are subdivided into:
i Zasstt'e; Z.M. Op. cit@fg. 92.
37
Iully back: &* +:, u:/, the nucleus oI the diphthong &i%* and the
Russian /o, y/;
back-advanced: /u, at.
hen the bulk oI the tongue moves Iorward, it is usually the Iront
part oI the tongue which is raised highest towards the hard palate.
Vowels produced with this position oI the tongue are called Iront.
They are subdivided into:
Iully Iront: /i:, e, /, the nuclei oI the diphthongs /ei, +/ and the
Russian /u, +/;
Iront-retracted: /i/ and the nuclei oI the diphthongs /au, ai/. In
the production oI central vowels the tongue is almost Ilat. Its central
part is raised towards the uncture
between the hard and soIt pal-
ate. Central vowels are /:, +, /
and the nucleus oI the diphthong
/au/.
Some phoneticians considered
that /:, +/ are mied not central
vowels (.P. Torsuyev, A.L.
Trakhterov, H. Sweet). .P. Tor-
suyev reIerred to the group oI
central vowels the Russian /a/
and /t/. L.V. Shcherba does not
, ., , mention central vowels at all,
he considers the vowels oI the lul type and the English /:, / mied,
(b) According to the vertical movements oI the tongue vowels are
subdivided into:
high: /i:, i, u, u:/, Russian /, y, t/;
mid-, halI-open /e, Y.* a(u), (+), a/, Russian /+, o/;
n I
:

"M
3 '
a
k
u
~'
c
'
;
g /. Russian /a/. t,acn ot the
subclasses is subdivided into vowels oI narrow variation and vowels
oI broad variation:
narrow variation: /i:, u:/, Russian /, t, y/
broad variation: /i, u/
narrow variation: /e, :, e(u)/, Russian /+/
u broad variation: /),
+:
,
9
/, Russian /o/
narrow variation: /, o(i)/
broad variation: /
tt
;* +, a(i, u)/, Russian /a/
The Russian /+/ is on the borderline between narrow and broad mid
vowels, /o/ is on the borderline between mid-open and open, i

c
I
c
.
ord
J
n
e i
0

the
degree oI tenseness traditionally long vow-
L t i
1

56

short

as

Ia
-
The

t e
n tense was ind by H.
Sweet, who stated that the tongue is tense when vow-
38
,ront
)ixe(
Ka
V
+l
m
VI

X
+
V
0
E_8 #

X
D
/n(e6init
e ,i!. h
els oI narrow variety are articulated. This statement is a conIusion
oI two problems: acoustic and articulatory because tenseness is
an acoustic notion and should be treated in terms oI acoustic data.
However, this phenomenon is connected with the articulation oI vow-
els in unaccented syllables (unstressed vocal ism). The decrease
oI tenseness results in the reduction oI vowels, that is in an unstressed
position they may lose their ualitative characteristics.
hen the muscles oI the lips, tongue, cheeks and the back walls
oI the pharyn are tense, the vowels produced can be characterized
as tense. hen these organs are relatively relaed, la vowels are
produced. There are diIIerent opinions in reIerring English vowels
to the Iirst or to the second group. D. Jones considers only the long
/i:/ and /u:/ to be tense. .P. Torsuyev

deIines all long English


vowels as tense as well as /ae/, all short vowels are considered by him
as la.
This problem can be solved accurately only with the help oI elec-
tromyography. The Russian vowels are not diIIerentiated according
to their tenseness but one and the same vowel is tense in a stressed
syllable compared with its tenseness in an unstressed one.
English vowels can be checked and unchecked. Checked vowels
are those which occur in stressed closed syllables, ending in a Iortis
voiceless consonant, e.g. /e/ in /bet/, ":le-"F 6a." in /kat/, /Jeep/,
The checked vowels are pronounced without any lessening in the Iorce
oI utterance towards their end. They are abruptly interrupted by the
Iollowing voiceless consonant. Unchecked vowels are those which oc-
cur terminally, or are Iollowed by a lenis voiced consonant, e.g. /:;.l
in /bi:/, la.1 in /ka:d/. There are no checked vowels in Russian. All oI
them are unchecked.
The English vowel /+/ does not occur in a stressed contet. It must
be regarded outside the Iree/checked classes.
IV. According to the length English vowels are subdivided into:
(historically) long and (historically) short.
Vowel length may depend on a number oI linguistic Iactors:
(1) position oI the vowel in a word,
(2) word stress,
(3) the number oI syllables in a word,
(4) the character oI the syllabic structure,
(5) sonority.
(1) Positional dependence oI length can be illustrated by the Iol-
lowing eample:
be bead beat we
- weed wheat tie
tied tight
1
fones J. An Outline oI English Phonetics, 9th ed. Cambridge, 1960.
a
ic^ j. \. o co oot n com xt AI.,
1975.. 84102.
3
Length is marked with a macron (), shortness with a breve ().
39
In the terminal position a vowel is the longest, it shortens beIore
a voiced consonant, it is the shortest beIore a voiceless consonant.
(2) A vowel is longer in a stressed syllable than in an unstressed
one:
Iorecast n /iIo:kast/ nooIorecast ; /b;ikast/ nct-
nt nooy
In the verb /o:/ is shorter than in the noun, though it may be
pronounced with /o:/ eually long.
(3) II we compare a one-syllable word and a word consisting oI
more than one syllable, we may observe that similar vowels are short
er in a polysyllabic word. Thus in the word ;erse /:/ is longer than in
uni;ersit'.
(4) In words with V, CV, CCV

type oI syllable the vowel length


is greater than in words with VC, CVC, CCVC type oI syllable. For
eample, &3l is longer in err (V type), than in earn (VC type), /u:/
is longer in (e5 (CV type), than in (ut' (CVCV type).
(5) Vowels oI low sonority are longer than vowels oI greater sonor
ity. It is so, because the speaker unconsciously makes more eIIort
to produce greater auditory eIIect while pronouncing vowels oI lower
sonority, thus making them longer. For eample, /i/ is longer than
&iF l3?i is longer than /a/, etc.
Besides vowel length depends on the tempo oI speech: the higher
the rate oI speech the shorter the vowels.
D. Jones
k
treats uantity independently oI the vowel sounds
themselves. Thus he treats jY.* i/ as positional allophones oI one pho-
neme.
Length is a non-pnonemic Ieature in English but it may serve to
diIIerentiate the meaning oI a word. This can be proved by minimal
pairs, e.g.
beat /bi:t/ tbit /on/ ycou
deed /di:d/ o (x)did /did/ , c
The English long'vowels are /i:, u:, , o:, +:/.
.P. Torsuyev considers //tobea long vowel, but he admits
that in certain positions /se/ can be a short phoneme. English pho-
neticians state that it is a short one, though in some words it
may be long.
3
The English short vowels are /i, e, m, as, u, , +/.
V. The stability oI articulation is the principle oI vowel classi -
Iication which is not singled out by Britisn and American phoneti -
cians. In Iact, it is the principle oI the stability oI the shape, volume
and the size oI the mouth resonator.
>
2
V is the Initial letter oI the word vowel; is the Initial letter oI the
word consonant; V, CV, CCV are open types oI syllables; VC, CVC, CCVC
are closed types oI syllables.
Y
fones l* Op. cit.P. 70,
8
mar( /. The Phonetics oI English, Cambridge, 1948. P. 76.
40
e can speak only oI relative stability oI the organs oI speech,
because pronunciation oI a sound is a process, and its stability should
be treated conventionally.
According to this principle vowels are subdivided into:
(a) monophthongs, or simple vowels,
(b) diphthongs, or comple vowels.
(a) English monophthongs are pronounced with more or less
stable lip, tongue and mouth walls position. They are: /i:, i* e,
ae, , m, +:, u, u:, , +:, +/.
(b) Diphthongs are deIined diIIerently by diIIerent authors. One
deIinition is based on the ability oI a vowel to Iorm a syllable. Since
in the diphthong only one element serves as a syllabic nucleus, a diph
thong is a single sound.
Another deIinition oI a diphthong as a single sound is based on
the instability oI the second element. The third group oI scientists
deIine a diphthong Irom the accentual point oI view: since only one
element is accented and the other is unaccented, a diphthong is a
single sound.
D. Jones deIines diphthongs as unisyllabic gliding sounds in the
articulation oI which the organs oI speech start Irom one position and
then glide to another position,
N.S, Trubetskoy states that a diphthong should be (a) unisyllab-
ic, that is the parts oI a diphthong cannot belong to two syllables,
(b) monophonemic with gliding articulation, (c) its length should not
eceed the length oI a single phoneme.
L.R. inder adds that phonemically diphthongs are sounds that
cannot be divided morphologically. E,g. the Russian /, o/ in Gn*
n can be separated: G@o* @to*
L. L. Bulanin calls combinations like Russian /, , o/ pho-
netic diphthongs and English inseparable units like /ai, ei. .../-
phonemic diphthongs.

The Iirst element oI a diphthong is the nucleus, the second is the


glide, A diphthong can be Ialling when the nucleus is stronger
than the glide, and rising when the glide is stronger than the nu-
cleus. hen both elements are eual such diphthongs are called
level,
English diphthongs are Ialling with the glide toward:
i/ei, ai, oi/, u
/au, +/, a
/19, +, +/.
8
Diphthongs /ei, +, ;x* au, ai/ are called closing, diphthongs
/+ ,13, +/ are called centring, according to the articulatory char
acter oI the second element.
1
pc] f/.f/. uo conmoo oyccoo xt. M., 1970.
. 85.
. -

D. Jones treats the diphthongs /ia, ua/in some positions as rising, e.g.
/ ' h / / ' /
41
There are two vowels in English/i:, u:/that may have a
diphthongal glide where they have Iull length, e.g. in open syl -
lables and beIore lenis or nasal consonants: /bi:, bi:d, bi:n/, /du:,
du:ra/.
In allophonic transcription they can be represented as ii
J
, uu
w
.
BeIore Iortis consonants it is more usual to hear steady-state /i:,
u:/, e.g. /bi:t, bu:t/. Russian vowels / +, o/ are diphthongoids oI
the widening type, Russian /a/ between soIt consonants is a diph-
thongoid, it begins and ends with //, e.g. q8a /c'Y/, // a
H
I.
II we compare classiIications oI vowels suggested by Soviet and
Ioreign authors, we may state that the classiIication oI vowels suggest-
ed by Soviet authors is more eact Irom the articulatory point oI
view and more simple Ior teaching purposes. It reIlects more eactly
distinctively relevant diIIerences between the English vowel pho-
nemes.
DIFFERENCES IN THE]ARTICULATION BASES OF
ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN `XOYELS
Articulation bases oI English and Russian vowels are diIIerent.
(1) The lips. In the production oI Russian vowels the lips are con
siderably protruded and rounded /o, y/. In the articulation oI the
similar English &* o:/, /u, u:/ considerable protrusion does not take
place. Englishmen have the so called Ilat-type position oI the lips,
their lips are more tense than the lips oI the Russian, and the corners
oI the lips are raised, which resembles a smile.
(2) The bulk oI the tongue. In the articulation oI the English vow
els the bulk oI the tongue occupies more positions than in the pro
duction oI the Russian yowels. hen the bulk oI the tongue moves
in the horizontal direction it may occupy a Iully Iront and a Iront-
retracted, a Iully back and a back-advanced position. Horizontal move
ments oI the tongue condition the articulation oI the /+, +:/ vowels,
which are oI mied type.
Each oI the three vertical positions oI the tongue (high, mid, low)
in English is subdivided into a narrow and broad variety. Thus, si
groups oI vowel sounds are Iormed in the system oI English vowels.
Such broad variety oI the bulk oI the tongue positions is not ob-
served in the production oI the Russian vowel sounds. hen clas-
siIied according to the vertical movement oI the tongue they may
be divided into; high /, t, y/, mid /+, o/ and low /a/.
According to the horizontal movement oI the bulk oI the tongue
Russian vowels may be subdivided into: Iront / , +/, central
/t, a/ and back /o, y/. The articulatory peculiarities in the pro-
nunciation oI English vowels constitute the basis Ior the Iormation
oI diphthongs when the position oI the tongue changes within the
articulation oI one and the same vowel.
(3) The principle oI the degree oI tenseness in vowel classiIication
is inseparably connected with the Iree or unchecked and checked char
acter oI the vowels.
42
(4) The length oI the vowels. Long vowels in English are consid
ered to be tense. There are no lon! vowels which can be opposed pho-
neraically to short vowels in the Russian language. Length in the
Russian vowel system is an irrelevant Ieature.
(5) The stability oI articulation. There are monophthongs and
diphthongoids in the Russian vowel system, but there are no diph
thongs.
(6) There are 6 vowel phonemes in Russian and 20 in English.
iven below are English vowels which have no counterparts in Rus
sian:
(1) long and short vowels / i : i/, /o:--D/, /U: U/, /1? B a/,
UaR"D
(2) slightly rounded, but not protruded vowels /u:, o:/;
(3) vowels articulated with the Ilat position oI the lips in the
/i:, i, e, ei/ production;
(4) very low vowels, such as /se, ;* a/;
(5) Iront-retracted /i/ and back-advanced /u, a"F
(6) central or mied /+, s:/;
(7) checked and Iree vowels;
(8) diphthongs /ei, ai, oi, m
7
+, +, , +/.
In articulating EngHsh vowels Russian students are apt to make
the Iollowing mistakes:
(1) they do not observe the uantitative character oI the long
vowels;
(2) they do not observe the ualitative diIIerence in the artic
ulation oI such vowels as /i:i6* /:/, /+:1~/;
(3) they replace the English vowels /i:, o:, :, , , .* / by
the Russian vowels / , o, y, , +/;
(4) they pronounce /i:, i, e, ei/ without the Ilat position oI
the lips;
(5) they soIten consonants which precede /i:, i, e, se, ei/ Iront
vowels as a result oI which the latter become more narrow and
the consonants are palatalyzed.
(6) they articulate /t~, o:, u, u:, +/ with the lips too much
rounded and protruded;
(7) they make the sounds /se, D/ more narrow because they
don' t open the mouth properl y, similarly to the Russian / +, o/;
(8) they do not observe the positional length oI vowels;
(9) they make both elements oI the diphthongs eually distinct;
(10) they pronounce initial vowels with a glottal stop ().
uestions
1. hat do you know about the system oI Cardinal Vowels devised
by D, Jones 2. hat is the acoustic nature oI vowels 3. hat are
Shcherba's principles oI vowel classiIication 4. hat are the prin-
ciples oI vowel classiIication suggested by Soviet phoneticians 5. How
are vowels classiIied according to the movements oI the bulk oI the
43
tongue 6. hat do you know about the principle oI lip participation
and the degree oI tenseness in the articulation oI vowels 7. How are
vowels classiIied according to their tenseness and length hat does
the length oI vowels depend on 8. hat is the diIIerence between
checked and unchecked vowels 9. hat do you know about stabiliiy
oI articulation in vowel production 10. hat are the diIIerences in the
articulation bases oI English and Russian vowel sounds 11. hat
mistakes may the Russian students make because oI the articulation
diIIerences in the pronunciation oI English and Russian vowel sounds
Eercises
1. Show by dots the position oI cardinal vowels on the trapezium. Supply each
dot with the appropriate cardinal vowel and its number.
2. Characterize each oI,'(he cardinal vowels according to D. Jones,
3. Draw a diagram oI cardinal vowels.
4.;Describe the cardinal vowels that can be compared with the corres onding
' Russian vowels.
5. ive eamples to prove that voiceless vowels eist in English and in Rus -
sian.
6. Eplain the articulation oI the /i:, e, / sounds Irom the viewpoint oI the
horizontal and vertical movements oI the tongue.
7. Eplain the articulation oI the /+, +:/ sounds Irom the viewpoint oI the hor
izontal and vertical movements oI the tongue. Compare these sounds with
the Russian vowel sounds /t, /.
8. Eplain the articulation oI the /u:, +:, et:/ sounds Irom the viewpoint oI the
horizontal and vertical movements oI the tongue.
Il. Eplain the articulatory diIIerences between the/i: i"* /u: u/, &? u/
sounds.
10. ive articulatory and morphological prooIs oI diphthong indivisibility.
Prove by eamples that the Russian sound combinations / o, , +/ are
not diphthongs.
I1. Draw sagittal Iigures and use solid and dotted lines to show that the
/i:, u:/ vowels can be pronounced as diphthongoids.
12. Transcribe these'words and read them. Observe the diIIerence between
the Iully Iront /i:/ and the Iront-retracted &i.
(a) seemsince (b) readrid
mealB stealstill
meanmince creekcrick
sleepslip sleetslit
leastlist seeksick
(c) teamTim (d) seensin
IeelIill dealerdinner
beenchill heathit
cheapchip beatbit
(e) deed-did () IeesIizz
JeanJim memissed
44
IeelingIilling . thesethis
eatit steepstick
seatssits
(g) leavelive (h) hehim
IeverIiIty themething
beaconbill sealssits
cheekchin steepstiII
beatbit peoplepit
13. Transcribe these words and read them. Observe the diIIerence between
the mid-open /e/ and the Iully open (low) / /.
(a) bedbad (b) beadhad
thenthan tentan
plentyplan leItlad
elseAlice letslack
letterladder selectrela
(c) Frenchran (d)endand
pencepants thenthan
burialbarrow anywayIamily
t wentytwang bedb ack
manymatter helpinghappy
(e) deadDad (I) tentan
anyAlice menman
Shellyshall saidsad
merrymarried bedbad
Henryhappy ' chest chap
(g) Hettyhat (h) anyanious
centralsandy betback
cheviotchannel plentyplatIorm
manymap IleshIlash
vesselvalue
elderlyanious
J4. Transcribe these words and read them. Observe the diIIerence between
the low long vowel oI broad variation /a:/ and the low short vowei oI
narrow variation //.
(a) calmcome (b) auntunder
ratherrunning hardhundred
barnbutton darkdull
larkluck basketabove
classesbusses JarkIlush
(c) marvelmoney (d) darndone
laughlovely Bartbut
pastpuzzl ing cartcut
marketmug Marchmuch
lastLondon
(e) Arnoldothers (I) hardlyhoney
mastermonkeys ratherrubbed
startedstudy lastluck
43
To-te r
Front
Front-re-
tracted
Mied,
central
Back-ad-
vanced
Back
Close
(high)
Narrow
variation
Broad
variation
Mid-open
(mid)
Narrow
variation
Broad
variation
Open
(low)
Narrow
variation
Broad
variation
enlargeinstructor
lastmust (g)
FranceIront
harbourshundred
advantageabove
halIhut
pastbut
(i) starstun
can'tcome
hardhut
targettwo-pence
maskmust
15. Transcribe these words and read them. Observe the diIIerence between
the high /i:, i/, the mid /e/ and the low S1*
bidbedbad teamtentan
ridreadrat hidheadhad
millmenman Hit-leItlad
Sidsaidsad litletlack
pitpetpat meanmanymatter
beatbetbat
16. Transcribe these words and read them. Observe the diIIerence between
the back S* the mied S and the Iront /se/.
tornturntan
callcurlcat
boardbirdbad
chalkchurchchannel
(h) armother
hardlyhundred
startedstudied
Marchmuch
halIstruck
allearlshall
caughtcurtcat
walkworkwhack
IorIurIat
warmwormtwang sawsirsad
more mercyman cautioncurtaincat
lawnlearnlad
Control Tasks
1. Make a copy oI Table 3 and Iill it in with the suitable vowels.
2. Draw a diagram oI English and Russian vowel sounds and mark by dots
the eight cardinal vowels.
III. FUNCTIONAL ASPECT OF SPEECH SOUNDS
Separate segments oI speech continuum have no meaning oI their
own, they mean something only in combinations, which are called
words.
Phonetics studies sounds as articulatory and acoustic units, pho-
nology investigates sounds as units, which serve communicative pur-
poses. Phonetics and phonology are closely connected. The unit oI
phonetics is a speech sound, the unit oI phonology is a phoneme. Pho-
nemes can be discovered by the method oI minimal pairs. This method
consists in Iinding pairs oI words which diIIer in one phoneme. For
eample, iI wereplace /b/ by /t/ in the word -an we produce a new word
tan* -an tan is a pair oI words distinguished in meaning by a single
sound change. Two words oI this kind are termed minimal pair.
It is possible to take this process Iurther, we can also produce can*
ran* $an* 6an it is a minimal set. The change oI the vowel /s( in
-an provides us with another minimal set: -un* -one* Ken* -urn* -oon*
-orn. The change oI the Iinal /n/ in -an will result in a third minimal
set: -a(* -at* -ac* -a(!e* -an!. To establish the phonemes oI the lan-
guage the phonologist tries to Iind pairs that show which sounds oc-
cur or do not occur in identical positions u commutation test. See
Table 4.
The phonemes oI a language Iorm a system oI oppositions, in
which any one phoneme is usually opposed to any other phoneme in
at least one position in at least one leical or grammatical minimal
or sub-minimal pair. II the substitution oI one sound Ior another re-
sults in the change oI meaning, the commuted sounds are diIIerent
phonemes, speech sounds, which are phonologically signiIicant.
The Iounder oI the phoneme theory was I.A. Baudouin de Courte-
ney, the Russian scientist oI Polish origin. His theory oI phoneme
was developed Y`. perIected by L.V. Shcherba the head oI the
Leningrad linguistic school, who stated that in actual speech we ut-
ter a much greater variety oI sounds than we are aware oI, and thai
in every language these sounds are united in a comparatively smalt
number oI sound types, which are capable oI distinguishing the mean-
ing and the Iorm oI words; that is they serve the purpose oI social
intercommunication. It is these sound types that should be included
into the classiIication oI phonemes and studied as diIIerentiatory
units oI the language. The actually pronounced speech sounds are va-
riants, or allophones oI phonemes. Allophones are realized in con-
crete words. They have phonetic similarity, that is their acoustic and
articulatory Ieautures have much in common, at the same time they
diIIer in some degree and are incapable oI diIIerentiating words. For
eample, in speech we pronounce not the sound type ttA* which is
aspirated, alveolar, Iorelingual, apical, occlusive, plosive, voiceless-
Iortisaccording to the classiIicatory deIinition, but one oI
its variants, e.g. labialized in the word t5ice* dental in the word
ei!&t&* post-alveolar in tr'* eploded nasally in 5ritten* eploded la-
48
terally in little* pronounced without aspiration in sta'* etc. Another
eample: the sound type, or the vowel phoneme /i:/, which is de-
Iined as unrounded, Iully Iront, high, narrow, tense, long, Iree, is
more back in e'* than in eat under the inIluence oI the backlingual
/k/, it is longer beIore a voiced lenis, than beIore a voiceless Iortis
consonant: see( seat* !ree( !reet* etc.
The number oI sound types, or phonemes, in each language is
much smaller than the number oI sounds actually pronounced (see
Table 5).
Phonemic variants, or allophones, are very important Ior language
teaching because they are pronounced in actual speech and though
their mispronunciation does not always inIluence the meaning oI the
words, their misuse makes a person's speech sound as Ioreign.
That variant oI the phoneme which is described as the most re-
presentative and Iree Irom the inIluence oI the neighbouring pho-
nemes is considered to be typical, or principal. The variants used in
actual speech are called subsidiary. Subsidiary allophones can be
positional and combinatory. Positional allophones are used in cer-
tain positions traditionally. For eample, the English /1/ is realized in
actual speech as a positional allophone: it is clear in the initial po-
sition, and dark in the terminal position, compare ti!&t* let and &ill*
$ilt. Russian positional allophones can be observed in ]a* c`]a
where terminal // is devoiced aIter voiceless /n, /.
Combinatory allophones appear in the process oI speech and re-
sult Irom the inIluence oI one phoneme upon another see below,
To distinguish the sound types Irom their allophones in writing,
two types oI brackets are used: slant-like Ior the phonemes proper,
and suareIor their allophones, e. g. the phoneme /1/ has two po-
sitional allophones: clear 1J and dark I/4. In practical teaching the
most important allophones should be mentioned to teach the pupils
their correct pronunciation.
Each phoneme maniIests itselI in a certain pattern oI distribution.
The simplest oI them is Iree variation, that is the variation oI one and
the same phoneme pronounced diIIerently, e. g. the pronunciation oI
the initial /k/ with diIIerent degrees oI aspiration, the pronunciation oI
/w/ as / in 5&'* 5&ic&* 5&o.
Complementary distribution is another pattern oI phoneme envi-
ronment, when one and the same phoneme occurs in a deIinite set oI.
contets in which no other phoneme ever occurs. The allophones oI
one and the same phoneme never occur in the same contet, variants
oI one phoneme are mutually eclusive.
1
Contrastive distribution, is one more pattern oI phoneme envi-
ronment, e. g. sai( B sa(* .it .eat* -a( B -e( these are min-
imal pairs.
Minimal distinctive Ieatures are discovered through oppositions.
This method helps to prove whether the phonemic diIIerence is rele-
1
hen allophones oI one phoneme do occur In the same contet without
distinctive Iorce, they are in Iree variation.
49
//
/ /
//
UbU
UV
U
"U
UWU
/
/
/*/

Ea/: m%3%mal pa%1 exempl%;%e0 a p200%+le /23023a39 2pp20%9%23


UmU UVU U;U UWU UeU UaU U9U U4U U3U
pike pen pine pan pin pine pin park pi ece-
mike when Iine van thin thine tin dark niece
boss bind boot ban brash bat bill bide beer -
moss wind loot van thrush that till died near
mind meet mice room mine man mad mine
wind Ieet vice Ruth thine tan dad nine
wind went wick wine will wide weed-
Iind vent thick thine till died need
Iear Iear
near
van veal vice-tan
deal nice
thigh- Uy thin t hi ck
ly they din Nick
these they thine
tease day nine
beatst i ght -
beads night
/n/
IV
III
/3/
U
1U
UIU
/
k/
/S/
/0/
vant or not, whether the opposition is single, double or multiple,
e.g. /t/ and /d/ diIIer along the Iollowing lines:
/t/ /d/
voiceless Iortis voiced lenis
Their other characteristic Ieatures are irrelevant, thus /t/ and M/
have only one distinctively relevant Ieature single opposition.
e can prove that this opposition is really phonemic by the minimal
pairs: ten (en* ti$e B (i$e* tr' B (r'. II there are two distinc-
60
fo-
IiIe loaI
Iive loath thine ught-
deer taught
vane vow-
thane thou
Co$$utation Ta-le t
E29:e1 example0 /a3 +e ;2)34 +. 9:e 09)4e390'.
M N IV U1U U%U // U8U U>U UcU
perch pope pay pine, rope pipe top play pig pip pen-
search pose lay shine rouge ripe toy clay gig ping hen
birch best bay bob babe bound- bell bar bide bib be
search zest lay bosh beige round yell car guide bing he
mad meal mike make room mice mel- mad met rum mouse-
sad zeal like shake rouge rice low cad get rung house
yellow
wo- west wiIe whine wipe well wave wave we-
und zest liIe shine ripe yell cave gave atth
sound health
Iound Ieel IiIe Iee rooI Ioot Iolk Iat Iame rough Iorce-
sound zeal liIe she rouge root yoke /a9 game rung horse
veal veal vice veer vice veer van vet have vi ew-
seal zeal lice sheer rice year can get hang bue
thin- think thaw thieI- ruth- thumb- thaw- throw throw hath t hi r d-
sin zinc law shieI rouge runt your crow grow hang heard
they thee thy thy- bathe- thy- then- that- t hese- with t here-
say zee lie shy beige rye yen cat geese wing here
talk booty tight toe root talks tongue- tin tap sit Toby-
sock boozy tight shoe rouge rock young kin gap sing hobby
died deal dives death rude doe door dan- died bad dear -
side zeal lives cheI rouge 12V your cer guide bang hear
cancer
knock known- kniIe nave bane knock- hap night name Ian near -
sock nose liIe shave beige rock yap kite game Iang hear
peace sock sock base sock sore city same sis sit
peas rock slock beige rock your kitty game sing hit
zest zone ruse sest zoo zinc easel has zero
lest shown rouge rest you kink eagle hang hero
look rule lice less lick lame silk late
shook rouge rice yes kick game sink bate
ruche shock shell shin shame- wish she-
rouge rock yell kin game wing he
rouge beige
Ruhr bake
rack rid rag roof -
yak kid gag hoof
yap yes
cap guess
coat sock cal f -
goat song half
bag gear -
bang hear
tively relevant Ieatures, the opposition is double, e.g. /p/ and /d/
diIIer along the Iollowing lines:
/p/ /d/
voiceless Iortis voiced lenis labial,
bilabial lingual, Iorelingual, apical,
alveolar
This opposition is really phonemic. It can be proved by the minimal
pairs: .ie (ie* .ail (ale* .r' (r'. The opposition /b/ 1S
SI
Ta-le W
Comparative Table oI Phonemes in DiIIerent Languages
Uan!ua!e
Conso-
nants
Vowels Total Language
Conso-
nants
Vowels Total
Russian
English
French
36
24
17
6
20
15
42
44
32
erman
Abkhazian
Finnish
22
68
13
IS 3
8.
40
71
21
is multiple because these phonemes diIIer along the Iollowing linesi
/b/ /h/
voiced lenis voiceless Iortis
labial, bilabial pharyngal
occlusive constrict ive
The phonemic nature oI this opposition can be proved by minimal
pairs, e.g. -e &e* -it &it* -ait &ate.
Soviet phoneticians perIorm commutation tests on the basis oI
the knowledge oI the grammatical Iorm and the meaning oI the words,
they apply the semantic method oI phoneme identiIication.
The method oI minimal pairs helps to establish the inventory oI
phonemes, it is one oI the two main problems oI phonological analy-
sis. The other big problem phonologists are conIronted with is to
deIine the phonemic status oI the sound in the neutral position.
There is one more big problem in phonology theory oI distinc-
tive Ieatures.
It was originated by N. S. Trubetskoy and developed by such Io-
reign scientists as R, Jackobson, C. . Fant, M. Halle, N. Chomsky,
P. LadeIoged, H. ucbra, . . Monroe and many Soviet phonolo-
gists, such as L. R. inder, . S. lychkov, V. Ya. Plotkin, Stepona-
vicius and many others.
The taonomy oI diIIerentiator Ieatures is being constructed on
the basis oI obective reality oI phonological distinction, which really
eist in phonemic classes. Distinctive Ieatures are the main, basic
elements oI variability in diIIerent languages. The commutation oI
meaning and utterance is eIIected due to these Ieatures.
Enriching the theory oI distinctive Ieatures ProI. . S. lychkov
introduces a modal Ieature oI turbulency to make the hierarchy
oI consonants more logical. He states that the main uestion oI dis-
tinctive theory is the criterion oI Ireuency and the direction oI
markedness.
There are diIIerent opinions on the nature oI the phoneme and its
deIinition.
;
I. I. A Baudouin de Courteney (1845-1929) deIined the phoneme
as a psychical image oI a sound. He originated the so called menta-
Jist view oI the phoneme. In our days ProI. V. Ya. Ptotkin thinks
it appropriate to revive the terms kinema and acousma coined 52
by Baudouin deCourteneyIor the psychic images oI articulatory move-
ments and their auditory counterparts and blended into kinakeme
to designate the bilateral psychophonic unit He states that eperimen-
tal investigations demonstrate the impossibility oI accepting the pho-
neme as the basic unit in the production and perception oI oral speech.
Speech production and perception are cerebral activities Iirst and Iore-
most, while the sound chain is the vehicle Ior their eternalization.
Thus phonemes are composed oI kinakemes which possess the paradignr-
atic, syntagmatic and semantic properties, characteristic oI -other
phonological units, and are ultimate phonological units. The accept-
ance oI the kinakeme makes the notion oI distinctive phonemic Iea-
tures redundant in phonemic theory because the kinakeme covers prac-
tically the same ground as the notion oI distinctive Ieature. (. Fant
considers the term minimal category or distinction much better
than distinctive Ieature.) V. Ya. Plotkin suggests two dichotomies:
l. inakemic system consists oI two sub-systems: vocalic and con
:
sonantal, which are not rigidly separated.
2. All kinakemes are divided into two categories: modal and lo-
cational.
Modal kinakemes are concerned with the origin oI sounds and the
vertical dimensions oI the vocal tract. (1) Obstructional: a) occlu-
sion, b) constriction, (2) Phonal: a) sonority, b) discordance.
Consonantal modal kinakemes determine the mode oI obstruc-
tion and the acoustic type oI sound-tone or noise, their vocalic kina-
kemes deal with the height oI the vocal tract.
Locational kinakemes: vocalic and consonantal, Iunction on the
horizontal plane, activating certain areas along the vocal tract,
(1) Articulatory: a) prelinguality, b) postlinguality. (2) Pointal: a)
prealveolarity, b) postalveolarity.
The-phoneme retains its status oI the minimal unit oI sound in
the language system. Its indivisibility should be ualiIied as inability
to be broken up into smaller units oI sound. As Ior the ultimate pho-
nological unit, it is an instrument Ior the linguistic structuring oI
etralinguistic substance which might be called prephonic rather than
phonic.
1
II. The abstraction conception oI the phoneme was originated
by Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913), the Iamous Swiss linguist and
the Danish linguist L. Helmsley (1889-1965). It was .advocated by
their pupils in the Copenhagen Linguistic Circle'. The abstract view
regards the phoneme independent oI the phonetic properties.
III. N. S. Trubetzkoy (1890-1938), L. vBloomIield (1887-1949),
R, Jakobson (1896-1982) viewed the phoneme as the minimal sound
units by which meanings may be diIIerentiated. They stated that the
Ieatures oI the phoneme involved in the diIIerentiation oI words are
called distinctive. They can be Iound in contrastive sets.
1
Nlotin Z. ua. Systems oI Ultimate Phonological Units // Phonetica,
1976. P. 82.
53
IV. The physical view on the phoneme was originated by D. Jones
(1881-1967). He deIined the phoneme as a Iamily oI sounds. The
members oI the Iamily show phonetic similarity. No member oI the
Iamily can occur in the same phonetic contet as any other member.
This view was shared by the American scientists B. Bloch and
. Trger. They deIine the phoneme as a class oI phonetically similar
sounds, contrasting and mutually eclusive with all similar classes
in the language.
V. The problem oI the phoneme can be solved on a populational
basis (J. A. Perry, 1974), that is on the deIinition oI the phoneme as
a unit oI an idiolect (D. Jones, . Pike), a dialect (L. BloomIield),
a multidialect the phoneme is a unit oI the English Language as
a whole (. Trager, H. Smith), or a supralect the phoneme is a
unit oI a standard Iorm, by which the dialects and idiolects may be
compared (J.A. Perry),
VI. L. V. Shcherba (1880-1944) was the Iirst to deIine the phoneme
as a real, independent distinctive unit which maniIests itselI in the
Iorm oI allophones. ProI. V. A. Vassilyev developed Shcherba's theo
ry and presented a detailed deIinition oI the phoneme in his book
English Phonetics. A Theoretical Course, where he writes that a
phoneme is a dialectical unity oI three aspects: (1) material, real and
obective, (2) abstractional and generalized, (3) Iunctional. It serves
to perIorm the Iollowing Iunctions: (a) constitutive, (b) distinctive
and (c) recognitiye. V. A. Vassilyev states that phoneme is material,
real and obective because it really eists in the material Iorm oI
speech sounds, allophones. It is an obective reality, eisting inde
pendently Irom our will, or intention. It is an abstraction, because we
make it abstract Irom concrete realizations Ior classiIicatory pur
poses; it Iunctions to make one word or its grammatical Iorm distinct
Irom the other, it constitutes words and helps to recognize them.
uestions
1. hat is phonology 2. How are phonemes discovered 3. hat
is commutation test 4. hat is the diIIerence between phonemes and
allophones How are they represented in writing 5. How are allo-
phones classiIied 6. hat patterns oI phoneme distribution do you
know v. Speak on the method oI discovery oI minimal distinctive
Ieatures. 8. hat are the main problems oI phonological analysis
9. hat do you know about the history oI the phoneme discovery
10. hat is a kinakeme H. How is the phoneme deIined by Soviet
scientists
Eercises
&. Rea4 al2)4 9:e m%3%mal pa%10 +el2V. S%38le 2)9 9:e p:23eme0 V:%/: a1e
/2391a09e4.
ugbug ledlaid layHe
udgebudge menmain saysigh
Td
birch-bird
singesinned
keencoin
tryTroy
baysbuys
liedLloyd
burnbone
IorkIolk
Iawnphone
IurIoe girl
goal
readreared
leadleered
daydeer
payspeers
pacepierce
penpain
edgeage
lawlow saw
so gnaw
no pause
pose
pearlpole
pursedpost
curtcoat
perchpoach
cursedcoast
redrared
veryvary
bedbared
pierpair
deariedairy
bayby
daysdies
roarsrose
awedode
calledcold
torntone
barredbowed
arlcowl part
pout artout
nonow
dodoer pear
poor mymire
writeriot
boweredb owed
2. Read these words. Pay attention to the allophonic diIIerence oI one and the
same phoneme.
U9U
aspirated: tae* tall* tone
unaspirated: stea* stall* stone
no audible release: out.ost* &al6.in* 6oot-all* 5&ite c&al
nasal release: cotton* -utton* eaten* ut$ost
lateral release: cattle* atlas* at last
partly devoiced: (o* (o!* (a'
voiced: lea(er* or(er* $ur(er
voiceless: -i(* $a(* roa(
no audible release: !oo( (o!* -e( ti$e* !oo( c&eese
nasal release: a($it* roa( $a.* re( $a.
lateral release: $i((le* &ea(less* -a(l'* !oo( luc
ft/
aspirated: co$e* car* coal unaspirated:
-aer* talin!* ewual* secret
no audible release: loce(* (ec c&air* -lac-oar(* (ar ni!&t* -lac
/$a!ic* -e!!e(
lateral release: !lo5* -u!le* stru!!le
voiceless: (o!* le!* ;a!ue partly
devoiced: !o* !eese* !irt* !lass
voiced; 6i!ure* ea!er* a!o* -e!in
I.5
3, Read these words. Pay attention to the positional allophones oI the /1/ pho-
neme.
pull-mill
Ioolhall
lessleak dollgirl let
list coaltwelve
4. Read these words. Pay attention to the pronunciation oI the de voiced allo-
phones oI the /1, w, r/ phonemes aIter /p, t, k/.
cleIt twice
cleg tweed
ply uiet
please uaver
clerk ueer
play
try tree
pry
price
cry
crone
crop
plightblight classglass
cladglad cleanglean
clueglue
5. Read these words. Mind the distributional character oI the /h/ phoneme.
Pay attention to the allophones in the syllable initial prevocalic position,
each oI them should be considered as a strong, voiceless onset oI the vowel,
which Iollows it.
Y
he, hit, help, happy, halI, hop, horn, hut, hook, who, her, habit -
ual, hay, high, how, hoist, hoe, hear, hare, houri
6. Read these words. Pay attention to the complementary nature oI soIt and
hard English allophones and to the independent soIt and hard Russian pho
nemes.
/p/ pea paw
/b/ bee bark
/t/ tea talk
/d/ deepdope
/k/ key car
/g/ geese goose
/t(7 cheesechose
/dg/ et ar
x Iar Iee /v/
veel vote /9/
themethumb /5/
thee those;
/r/ readrode
/s/ seesaw
/z/ zealzone // yesyoung
/JI/ she
shoe /w/ we
wet /m/ memet
/n/ kneenet
/n/ no
/n7 ne
// /
67 xt
// o
/7 e
1
Li$son * y*
/7 Kxx /c/
// o /c
1
/
/7
xy //
UQU
nt
UeS
z
uc
/
UfU
y
U
Op. cit. 1S6.
co
ce
o
xt
me
/m/ m
/m7 mxt
// oc
/7 ec
//
/7 e
56
likelip
liveUly
// upeJoe
/h/ hehome
/1/ leelaw
// /
1
/ ue /x/ x // x
/
1
/ xx /n/ no /x'/ xxemt //
// /n7 ne /x/ xom /7 x
Control Tasks
1. ive eamples to prove that the Iollowing Ieatures oI the English conso-
nants and vowels are distinctive,
oralitynasality 'plosivenessconstrictiveness labial-
voicelessnessvoicedness ' ity
tensenesslaness Irontnessbackness
2. ive eamples oI combinatory allophones oI the /r/ phoneme.
3. hat positional aIlophones occur as a result oI palatalization in the Rus -
sian language
4. ive eamples Ior 'diIIerent types oI distribution: (a) complementary, (Ia)
contrastve, (c) Iree variation.
5. ive eamples oI: (a) single opposition, (b) double opposition, (c) multiple
Opposition.
6. ive theoretical and practical prooIs to eplain constitutive, recognitive
and distinctive Iunctions oI phonemes.
7. Match the words below to obtain minimal pairs.
catch, pip, cheap, sap, he, ail, lap, pair, say, sink, rip, Iail, lass,
Sam, mink, cap, tear, she, lay, heap, match
ENLISH CONSONANTS AS UNITS OF THE PHONOLOICAL SYSTEM
Sounds can Iunction as units oI language only iI they diIIer Irom
one another. Mutually distinctive speech sounds are called phonemes.
As has been pointed out the main method oI establishing phonemes oI
a given language is the commutation test or discovery oI minimal
pairs through which the establishment oI the phonemic status oI each
sound is accomplished.
hen in a contrastive pair one consonan ;pnoneme is opposed to
any other consonant phoneme in at least one position, this pair is
called minimal,
1
For eample, in the minimal pair .en Ken the
phoneme /p/ is opposed to the phoneme /b/ due to the presence and
absence oI voice; it is the only distinctive Ieature oI this minimal pair.
All the other Ieatures oI the pair .en Ken are irrelevant. II there
are more than one distinctive Ieature in a pair, it is called sub-min-
imal. For eample, the pair treasure .ressure is sub-minimal be-
cause the opposition is due to: (1) the presence and absence oI voice
in the /g J/ phonemes, (2) Iorelingual articulation oI the /t/ pho-
neme and bilabial articulation oI the /p/ phoneme. All the other Iea-
1
Minimal pairs are useIul, when Iound, but not necessarily to be epect -
ed, and not essential to the work oI analysis. :{teason E* M. Op. cit. P. 280.)
tures are distinctively irrelevant. Minimal pairs occur in identical,
sub-minimal in similar environments.
It should be borne in mind that distinctively irrelevant Ieatures
can be oI two types: incidental, which may or may not be present in
a phoneme, and such, without which the phoneme can't eist at all.
For eample, the presence or absence oI voice in the word Iinal conso-
nants /c, / in the Russian | is a 'genuinely incidental or
redundant Ieature, whereas the Iorelingual articulation oI /t/ and the
bilabial articulation oI /p/ are relevant diIIerentiatory Ieatures. Pal-
atalization is phonemically irrelevant, incidental in English and rel-
evant in Russian, etc.
The phonological analysis oI the system oI English consonant pho-
nemes helps to establish 24 phonemes:
/p, b, t, d, k, g, I, v, 9, 3, s, z, J 5. h, t, XW* m, n, n, w
t
r, , 1, A
1
/
ClassiIicatory principles suggested by Soviet phoneticians provide
the basis Ior the establishment oI the Iollowing distinctive opposi-
tions in the system oI consonants oI the English language.
I. ork oI the Vocal Cords and the Force oI Ehalation
Zoiceless6ort is ;s
t
;oice(lenis
/pb/ penBen /td/ tenden /kg/ coatgoat
Voiceless voiced opposition is simultaneously based on Ior-
tis lenis distinction. It is not so in the Russian language where
the voiceless voiced opposition is based only on the presence or
absence oI voice. II we compare the English /p, t, k, b, d, g/ and the
Russian /n* , , , , /, we may state that: in the initial position the
English /b, d, g/ are weakly voiced, the Russian /, , / are Iully
voiced:
book y goose yct deem m
In English /p, t, k/ in the initial position are aspirated Iort is, in
Russian /n, , / are unaspirated, thereIore in English the /p b,
t d, k g/ oppositions are based on breath-Iorce distinction, where-
as in Russian, the pairs /n , , / diIIer due to voice
absence oI voice distinction (but not in the Iinal position).
in En!lis&
(pleadbleed tip dip comegum
peachbeach tea Dee cot got pat
bat teardear canegain
1
/A/ is a Iacultative phoneme. Some authors prove its phonemic status
by minimal pairs: 5itc& 5&ic&* 5ine 5&ine* 5earOOOO5&ere.
in 2ussian
noo oo
n oo
2. Active Organ oI Speech and the Place oI Articulation
This principle oI consonant classiIication provides the basts Ior
the Iollowing distinctive oppositions:
A1> Ua-ial ;s. lin!ual
pain cane bun ton Iame tame
In these pairs the labial bilabial /p/ is opposed to the lingual back-
Hngual velar /k/; the labial bilabial /b/ is opposed to the lingual Iore-
lingual apical E/F the labial labio-dental /I/ is opposed to the lin-
gual Iorelingual apical /t/.
Ab> Uin!ual ;s. .&ar'n!at A!lottal>
Tim him this hiss Ioam home care hair
In these pairs the lingual Iorelingual apical /t/ is opposed to the
pharyngal "&iF the lingual Iorelingual apical interdental 1S is opposed
to the pharyngal /h/; the labial labio-dental /I/ is opposed to the phar-
yngal /h/; the lingual backlingual velar /l is opposed to the phar-
yngal /h/.
ithin the group oI labial, bilabial may be opposed to labio-
dental.
wear Iair mice vice
In these pairs the bilabial /w/ is opposed to the labio-dental E/F
the bilabial /m/ is opposed to the labio-dental /v/.
ithin the group oI Iorelingual, apical may be opposed to cacumi-
nal.
dim rim
In this pair the apical Iorelingual alveolar /d/ is opposed to the
cacuminal Iorelingual alveolar /r/.
ithin the group oI lingual, Iorelingual can be opposed to medio-
lingual.
tongue young et yet
In these pairs the Iorelingual (apical alveolar) /t/ is opposed to
the mediolingual (palatal) 1>14
the Iorelingual (apical palato-alveolar) l}Hl is opposed to the me-
diolingual (palatal) //.
3. Manner oI the Production oI Noise
This principle oI consonant classiIication provides the basis Ior
the Iollowing distinctive oppositions: A1> lcclusi;e Asto.s> ;s.
consticti;e
59
pineIine BernIern dare share bat
that borethaw bee thee care
there minet hine ca melame
In these pairs the occlusive /p, b, d, k, $l are opposed to the con-
strictive /I, J
1
, S, 9, 1/. Ab> Constricti;e ;s. occlusi;e@constricti;e
Aa66ricates>
Iare chair Iail ail work erk
In these pairs the constrictive /I, w/ are opposed to the occlusive-
constrictive (aIIricates) /tI, dg/.
ithin the groups oI occlusives, or stops, and constrictives, noise
consonants may be opposed to sonorants.
Aa> occlusi;e? noise ;s. nasal so$rants
pinemine boat moat talenail
deadneed kickking
In these pairs the occlusive noise /p, b, t, d, k/ are opposed to the
nasal sonorants /m, n, r/.
A-> constricti;e? noise ;s. sonorants
same lame vain lane then when
In these pairs the constrictive noise consonants /s, v, / are op-
posed to the constrictive sonor ants /1, w/.
Unicentral constrictive consonants may be opposed to bicentral
consrictive consonants.
Ac> constricti;e unicentral ;s. constricti;e -icentral
same shame thine wine
In these pairs the constrictive unicentral /s, 5/ are opposed to the
constrictive bicentral ~* w/.
Constrictive consonants with a Ilat narrowing can be opposed to
constrictive consonants with a round narrowing.
A(> 6lat narro5in! ;s. roun( narro5in!
Iame same vat sat
In these pairs the constrictive consonants with a Ilat narrowing
/I, v/ are opposed to the constrictive consonants with a round narrow-
ing "si.
In all these oppositions only eamples with the initially opposed
consonant phonemes are given. It does not mean that the pairs oI me-
dially and Iinally opposed consonants, that prove their phonemic sta-
tus, may not be Iound.
d. P20%9%23 2; 9:e S2;9 Pala9e
This principle oI consonant classiIication provides the basis Ior
the Iollowing distinctive oppositions. lral ;s. nasal
pit pin seek seen thieve theme sick sing ?0
In these pairs the oral consonants /t* k, v/ are opposed to the na-
sal /m, n, y.
The method oI minimal pairs helps to identiIy 24 consonant pho-
nemes in the English language on the basis oI such an analysis which
demands a recourse to the meaning, or to the distinctive Iunction oI
the phoneme. V. A. Vassilyey
Y
writes that those linguists who reect
meaning as eternal to linguistics think that it is possible to group
the sounds oI the language into phonemes even without knowing the
meaning oI words as D. Jones put it. V. A. Vassilyev states thai this
belieI I. . . is based on two laws oI phonemic and allophonic distri-
bution (1) that allophones oI (i66erent phonemes always occur in the
same phonetic contet I. . . and (2) that conseuently, the allophones
oI the sa$e phoneme never occur in the same phonetic contet and
always occur in (i66erent positions . . .. From these laws two con-
clusions are deduced: (1) iI more or less diIIerent speech sounds occur
in the sa$e .&onetic context* they should be allophones oI (i66erent
phonemes; and (2) iI more or less similar speech sounds occur in (i6@
6erent .ositions and never occur in the same phonetic contet, they are
variants oI one and the sa$e .&one$e .... This method is known
in modern phonology as the .urel' (istri-utional $et&o(o6 identiIying
the phonemes oI a language as items oI its phonemic system.
Though the practical application oI the purely distributional meth-
od is theoretically Ieasible, there are many diIIiculties in its use.
The principle which determines the choice oI the most suitable
method Ior teaching purposes is called the principle oI pedagogical
epedience in phonemic analysis.
uestions
1. hat is the deIinition oI the phoneme Irom the viewpoint oI
distinctive oppositions 2. hat is the diIIerence between minimal
and sub-minimal pairs 3. hat Ieatures oI the phoneme are distinc-
tively relevant and distinctively irrelevant 4. hat is the nature
oI voiced voiceless opposition in English and in Russian 5. hat
distinctive oppositions illustrate the eistence oI labial, lingual, and
pharyngal consonant phonemes 6. hat distinctive oppositions
illustrate classiIicatory subdivisions within the group oI labial and
lingual consonants 7. hat distinctive oppositions illustrate the
eistence oI occlusive (or stops), constructive, occlusiye-constrictive
(or aIIricated) consonants 8. hat distinctive oppositions illustrate
classiIicatory subdivisions within the groups oI occlusive and con-
strictive consonants 9. hat distinctive oppositions prove the eist-
ence oI oral and nasal consonant phonemes 10. hat is the diIIer-
ence between the semantic and purely distributional methods oI
phonological analysis
Zassil'e; Z. M. Op. cit,P. 160.
61
Eercises
1. State what classiIicatory principles can be illustrated by the groups oI pairs
given below (consonants opposed initially).
pin bin, pack back, pie bye, tie die
pen ten, been dean
pole coal, bait gait
Iee we, Iell well
Iee he
sob rob, seal real, sole role, sip u rip, sight right
pitycity, pay say, pail sail, pole sole, peel seal
pine mine, debt net, kick Nick
Iell well, those rose, soul role, sip rip, sight right
Iell well, Iee we
Iail sail, Iee see, Ioot soot, Iat sat, Iell sell
2/ Read the pairs oI words. Pay attention to the presence oI aspiration in /p,
t, k/ vs. its absence in /b, d, g/ rather than to voiceless Iortis vs. voiced
lenis distinction.
/pb/
pet bet
pig big
puts boots
pass bus
packback
portbought tear dear
tart dart
torse doors
3. hat minimal distinctive Ieature (or Ieatures) makes these oppositions
;phonologically relevant
(a) cap cab sent send
pack back ton don
caper labour latterladder
leak league
coal goal
decreedegree
62 (b) pee Iee tie sigh do zoo
suppersuIIer attendascend raiderrazor
leap leak park part rude ruse
(c) till chill day ay share chair
martyrmarcher murdermerger much marsh
eat each lard large IurnisherIurniture
(d) thighshy Ruth ruche root rouge
save shave presserpressure massmash
corn gone
cave gave
/tBd/ /kg/
ten den come gum
town down coast ghost
ton done came game
ties dies couldgood
takesdays cot got
curls girls
ru
se

ro
ug
e
(e)bad

m
ad
do
ck

kn
oc
k
rig
gi
ng

rin
gi
ng
ar
bo
ur

ar
m
ou
r
ed
dy

an
y
lo
g
-lo
ng
ru
b

ru
m
ba
d

ba
n
4. Read these pairs oI words. State which oIthem represent minimal pairs
and which sub-minimal pairs.
thick sick zest lest daily daisy
bathed base they lay eilerweather
mouth mouse marrymeasure eel ease
thigh shy genre ar bathe bail
leasure ledger
Control Tasks
1. Sort out the oppositions under the Iollowing headings: (a) labial vs. Iore-
lingual, (b) labial vs. mediolingual, (c) labial vs. backlinguai.
pat cat wieldyield man nap
suppersuccour wail Yale comingcunning
leap leak seem seen
2. State which oI the pairs illustrate (a) Iorelingual vs. mediolingual and (b)
Iorelingual vs. backlingual oppositions.
tame carae sinnersinger sungyoung
less yes bitterbicker bat back
rudderrugger clue cue day gay
drew due bad bag rungyoung
3. Sort out the oppositions under the Iollowing headings: (a) occlusive vs.
constrictIve, (b) constrictive vs. occlusive-constrictive, (c) noise vs. so-
norants, (d) unicentral vs. bicentral, e) Ilat narrowing vs. round narrowing.
pine Iine work erk vain lane
Iare chair bee thee camelame
boatmoat deedneed Iamesame
seek seen thinewine sick sing
kick king
4. State allophonic diIIerences oI the /t, k/ phonemes in the initial position due
to the inIluence oI the net vowel.
3 m tea, tip, ten, tan, tar, top, tore, tub, took, two, term, tobacco,
tale, tie, town, tow, tear, tore
/k/ key, kin, kept, cap, car, cot, core, cut, cork, cool, curb, contain,
cake, kite, cow, coy, coal, care
5. State allophonic diIIerences oI:
, r, / aIter /p/ in: plan, price, pure;
/r, , w/ aIter /t/ in: try, tube, twelve;
/I, r, , w/ aIter /k/ in: clean, cream, cue, uite
ENLISH VOELS AS UNITS OF THE PHONOLOICAL SYSTEM
ClassiIicatory principles suggested by Soviet phoneticians can
be illustrated by distinctive oppositions in the system oI the Iollow-
ing English vowel phonemes: /i:, i, e, se, a-, D, O:, U, U:, , ?*
63
1. Position oI the Lips
2oun(e( ;s. unroun(e( ;o5els?
don darn pot part
In these pairs the unrounded vowel phoneme &i is opposed to the
rounded &i phoneme.
2. Position oI the Tongue
A1> Eorisontal $o;e$ent o6 t&e ton!ue Aa>
6ront ;s. central
cabcurb bedbird
honemer
A-> -ac ;s. central
pullperl cartcurt callcurl
Ab> Zertical $o;e$ent o6 :t&e ton!ue
Aa> close A0!&> ;s. $i(@o.en A$i(>
bidbird putport weekwork
fo$;o#ikt
dose

vowels

llt

u
'
lu"

are

opposed

t0

the
A-> o.en Alo5> ;s. $i(@o.en A$i(>
lacklurk bardbird callcurl
envowei/
3
:/
to the h
0
ltei
i
l
hin

e
I
ch

grou
P
which

we

s
tog
le

out
according
subgroups
3nd

Vert i cal

move
nts oI the tongue there are
/i

0
/1T,
8
,n

3(

1y1c1B11
V
o
and Iront-retracted:
Its' indSendent ,h
y
7
nt
-'
1;
.


Ir
nt-retracted vowel phoneme.
oI IpaU
h
e
n
g
S1CalstatuSCan

be

proved

V
the

6istenCe
Pete-pit deep-dip beet-bit
andck-SrlLI /
al s
Evicted into Iully back /u:, o:,
back-advncS 2 '
a/
' T
he
dependent phonological status o
pairs, e
V

els

can

be
Pved by the eistence oI minimal
bardbud cartcut poolpull
els
y
1jS#[1
1
@
n
P


or

mid
~
as
well as open (or low) yow-are
subdivided into vowels oI narrow and broad variation. ?d
Thus, within the group oI high vowels /1:, u:/ belong to the vowel
phonemes oI narrow variation, and /i, u/ belong to the vowel pho-
nemes oI broad variation. Their independent phonological status
can be proved by the eistence oI such pairs as:
Petepit poolpull
In these pairs /i:, u:/ are opposed to /i, u/, which belong to
the subgroup oI high vowels oI broad variation.
ithin the group oI mid-open (or mid) vowels /e, :/ belong to
the phonemes oI narrow variation and /a/ belongs to the subgroup
oI mid vowels oI broad variation. The independent phonological
status oI /e, :, +/ can be proved by the eistence oI such pairs as:
pencesipence IorewordIorward
/'pens//'sikspans/ /iIo:w3:d//iI
Open (or low) vowels are also subdivided into the phonemes oI
broad variation (/se, a/) and oI narrow variation 3&t>. Their
independent phonological status can be proved by the eistence oI
minimal pairs:
badbard knotgnat
3. Degree oI Tenseness and the Character oI the End oI the Vowel
This principle oI vowel classiIication together with the principle
oI length provide the basis Ior the Iollowing distinctive oppositions:
Tense ;s. lax C&ece( ;s. 6ree
eel ill steel-still donedarn knitneed
peel pill seat sit Iun Iarm cut -card
deeddid Ieet Iit comecalm Iit Ieed
4. Length
There are long vowel phonemes in English /i:, * o:, :, +:/
and short /i, e, ae,
1
, , , +/. But the length oI the vowels is
.not the only distinctive Ieature oI minimal pairs like: NeteB.it*
-eet-it* Kart-a(* etc. In other words, the
diIIerence between /i:i,
u/, etc. is not only uantitative--------1
but also ualitative, which is condi-I
tioned by diIIerent positions oI the bulk
uoI the tongue. E.g. in the words -ea(B-i(
not only the length oI the vowels /i:, i/
s diIIerent but in the /i:/ articulation
the bulk oI the tongue occupies a more Iront and high position,
than in the articulation oI A/.
ualitative diIIerence is the main relevant Ieature that serves to
diIIerentiate long and short vowel phonemes because uantitative
Some authors consider /a/ to be a long phoneme.
3182
6>
characteristics oI long vowels depend on the position they occupy in
a word:
1
(a) they are the longest in the terminal position: -ee* -ar* coo* &er*
la5* car*
(b) they are shorter beIore voiced consonants: -ea(* -ar(* cool* ter$*
lar(* car(:*
(c) they are the shortest beIore voiceless consonants: -eet* Kart*
&oot* Tur* loose* cart.
To observe the uantity, or length oI vowels in diIIerent posi -
tions, it is advisable to do contrast eercises, e.g.
bee bead beet bar Bard Bart car card cart
5. Stability oI Articulation
The principle provides the basis Ior the Iollowing distinctive
oppositions:
A1> )ono.&t&on!s ;s. (i.&t&on!s
bitbait bidbeard deaddared cotcoat
In these pairs the monophthongs /i, e, o/ are opposed to the
diphthongs /ei, ia, +, +/.
kitkite debtdoubt Johnoin
In these pairs the monophthongs /i, e, o/ are opposed to the
diphthongs /ai, au, 01/.
Ab> Ji.&t&on!s ;s. sta-le ;o5els
bitebee bait beet boatboot pailpool
lakeleek beardbead raidrude carecoo
In t hese pairs t he dipht hongs /ai, ei, m, +, n+/ are opposed
to the =r.* u:/.
According to the movement oI the tongue within the articula -
tion oI the diphthong Irom the nucleus to the glide, diphthongs
are subdivided into closing and centring.
The method oI minimal pairs helps to establish 20 vowel pho-
nemes in the phonological system oI English vowels:
12 monopht hongs: / i , e, se, a, ;* o?* u, , : , +, i : , u: / ~
8 di phthongs: /ei, ai, oi, 13, n+, +, , +/.
D There are other Iactors, that condition the uantitative diIIerence oI
vowel phonemes (see p. 39).
uestions
1. hat distinctive oppositions illustrate classiIicatory groups
oI rounded and unrounded vowels 2. hat distinctive oppositions
illustrate classiIicatory groups according to the (a) horizontal, (b)
vertical movements oI the tongue 3. Can the eistence oI Iront-re-
tracted and back-advanced vowels be proved by minimal pairs 4.
Is the length oI the vowels the only distinctive Ieature oI long (tense)
and short (la) vowel phonemes like /i:, i/, /u:, u"* etc. 5. How is
vowel length conditioned positionally 6. hat distinctive opposi-
tions illustrate the classiIicatory principle oI vowel stability in ar-
ticulation 7. How are diphthongs subdivided according to the
tongue movement Irom the nucleus to the glide
Eercises
1. Read these pairs oI words. State what principles oI vowel classiIication
they illustrate.
(a) cod cord (b) end and (c) Iir Ior
not nought ten tan Iirm Iorm
cot caught hem ham turntorn
bodyborder kettlecattle bird bord
(d) Iool Iull (e) am aim (I) nor no
pool pull add aid law low
Iood put manmain called cold
tool took lad laid bald bold
bootbook Iat Iate caughtcoat
2. Read these words and state what movements oI the tongue make the vowel
phonemes /e, :, , a:, u, i, +, x/ diIIerent,
bedbirdbudbard bidbirdbud
lacklurklucklark lidledlad
hathurthutheart bigbegbag
cabcurbcub kitcurtcaught
tanturnton
3. Read these pairs oI words. State:
(a) what closing diphthongs are opposed in the pairs:
hayhigh laidlied nonow knownnoun
baybuy tapetype hoehow phonedIound
(b) what centring diphthongs are opposed in the pairs:
herehair ear air rearrare
Iear Iair beerbear teartare
4. Read these words. Observe the allophonic diIIerence oI the /i:, ei, x, :/
phonemes conditioned by their positional length.
beebeenbeet laylaidlate
deedeandeep maymaidmate
o* 67
kneeneedneat saysavesaIe
seeseedseat sign sidesight
leeleagueleak tietidetight
corecordcaught herheardhurl
sawswordsought sirserveserI
IourIormIork IurIurlIirst
boreboardbought weregirlpurse
-T. Y:a9 /la00%;%/a921. p1%3/%ple 2; W2Vel0 /a3 +e %ll)091a9e4 +. 9:e /2391a09%We1
pa%10 8%We3 +el2Vg
bid beard pooh poor too tour at out
deaddared ass ice ate eight ladderlower
pod poured mannerminor letterlater mass mouse
C23912l Tasks
-&7 Y:%/: 2; 9:e 8%We3 example0 %ll)091a9e Ea' :%8:7 m%47 2pe3 a34 E+' ;12397
m%xe47 +a/P 2pp20%9%230g
beadbedbad deeddeaddad
cabcurbcub tanturnton
hadbirdbud hathurthut
h6. A11a38e 9:e0e V2140 %392 m%3%mal 4%09%3/9%We pa%10.
cart, wart, Boz, caught, dor, wrat, bars, cod, card, down, cot,
cord
-6. S219 2)9 9:e0e 2pp20%9%230 %392 9V2 /2l)m30N Ea' /l20%38 4%p:9:238 W0.
/l20%38 4%p:9:2387 E+' /e391%38 4%p:9:238 W0. /e391%38 4%p:9:238.
known noun beerbear hayhigh rearrare
phonedIound ear air baybuy no now
hear hair tear tear IearIair hoehow
tape type
CONSONANT PHONEMES. DESCRIPTION OF PRINCIPAL XARIANTS
Strictly speaking, it is impossible to give an eact and detailed
description oI a sound within the limits oI a short deIinition, because
not a single sound is pronounced identically even twice. Sounds un-
dergo changes due to the individual manner and even mood oI the
speaker and due to the complementary distribution in which every
sound eists in the language.
The Iirst step to learn a sound is to isolate it. It means that Ior
teaching purposes we single out the principal, or typical variant oI
the phoneme as a segment oI the system, which is conventionally Iree
Irom any inIluences. Then a detailed description oI this variant should
be carried out by means oI simultaneous comparison with the sim-
ilar sound oI the mother tongue. The net stage is the mastering oI
the sound, which is done by teaching the students to pronounce the
sound in a deIinite set oI contets in which this sound occurs. The
i8
Iinal stage is to automatize the newly acuired abilities oI the stu-
dents.
Consonants are best oI all learnt iI the teacher directs the atten-
tion oI the students to tactile and muscular sensations oI the organs
oI speech. In teaching to articulate sounds, diagrams and tables are
very helpIul.
Occluslve Noise Consonant Phonemes (Plosives)/p, b, t, d, k, g/
/P. b/
I.
1
In the articulation oI /p/ the vocal cords do not vibrate, thereIore
/p/ is voiceless, but the Iorce oI ehalation and the muscular ten-
sion is great, /p/ is Iort is.
II. The lips are brought together and Iorm a complete obstruction-,,
/p/ is labial, bilabial. In the pronunciation oI the Russian /n, X1:
the lips are not spread and they are less tense.
III. The obstruction is broken with a kind oI eplosion, /p/ is occIiI--
sive (plosive, or stop).
(1) In the production oI /p/ noise prevails'over voice, /p/ is a noise
consonant.
(2) There is only one place oI articulation in the /p/ production, so
it is unicentral.
IV. The air passes out oI the mouth cavity, /p/ is oral.
/b/ is pronounced in the similar way, but the vocal cords are drawn
together and vibrate, the Iorce oI ehalation is not great and the mus-
cular tension is not strong, thereIore /b/ is voiced lenis labial,
bilabial, occlusive, noise, unicentral,
oral.
The English /p/ is pronounced with
aspiration, when it is Iollowed by a vowel
in a stressed syllable and not preceded
by /s/.
The Russian /n/ is pronounced without aspiration. Aspiration
is a slight puII oI breath, which is heard immediately aIter the
eplosion is accomplished. That is, when the contact is released,
the glottis s still open, the air escapes Irom the mouth cavity with a
plosion.
The Russian 1X1 is Iully voiced in the initial position, the English
/b/ is slightly devoiced. CI. Kill `]. /b/ is Iully voiced between
voiced sounds.
In the terminal position the Russian 1X1 can be devoiced almost
completely: e.g. Y` /n/, 8c` /yn/, etc.
The English /b/ is devoiced but slightly: sob, ro-* $o-.
The English ".*: b/ are never soIt, whereas in Russian there are two
independent phonemes /n n7 and "X B X:".:/t can be proved by
the eistence oI such pairs as: `] `]* ] ]* etc.
1
The Iigures I, II, III, IV correspond to the principles oI consonant clas-
siIication (see p. 25).
69
SoIt articulation oI the consonant is called palatalization. Its
simultaneous mechanism Ior /n, X1 closure is the Iollowing: as soon
as the lips are pressed to Iorm a complete obstruction primary
Iocus, the Iront part oI the tongue is raised to the hard palate (Iront
secondary Iocus).
To avoid palatalization oI /p, b/ in the initial position when they
are Iollowed by Iront vowels it is advisable to do contrast eercises
oI the Iollowing type:
peel nt
n bill t

raphic Euivalents oI the /p, b/ Phonemes


/p/ is pronounced when spelt as:
p pen /pen/no
pp happy /'haspi/cucnt
gh hiccough /'/o
/p/ is not pronounced:
(1) in the Iollowing words.
cupboard /'kAbad/m, raspberry /'razban/m, receipt
/nisi :t/cnc
(2) in reek words beIore n, s, t:
pneumonia /nuimauna/nocn x, pneumatic /nuimae-
tik/nnmuc, psalm /sam/ncom, Ptolemy /ibtemi/
Hom
/b/ is pronounced when spelt as: b
be /bi:/tt bb ebb /eb/ytnt
// is not pronounced aIter m and beIore t:
lamb /lsem/xo, plumber /11+/noononou, comb
/kaum/t, bomb /bum/om, debt /det/o, doubt
/daut/com, subtle /'sAtl/o-
, xt
/
I. /t/ is voiceless Iortis, /d/ is voiced lenis;
II. lingual, Iorelingual, apical, alveolar;
III. occlusive (plosive, or stop)
(1) noise, (2) unicentral;
IV. oral.
The English /t/ is pronounced with aspiration, the Russian &i
is not aspirated, see /p/.
The English /t, d/ are never soIt, whereas in the Russian language
70
there are two independent phonemes: &" and /7, // and /7. It can
be proved by the eistence oI such minimal pairs, as:
t om em
The English /t, d/ are apical: the tip oI the tongue is against the
alveolar ridge, the Russian /, / are dorsal: the blade oI the tongue
touches the upper teeth, the tip being passive and lowered.
To avoid palatalization oI the English/t, d/ in the initial position,
when they are Iollowed by Iront vowels, it is advisable to do contrast
eercises oI the Iollowing type:
t tea "ti?" m Tim "0$" Dick /dik/
ttin /tin/ teeth /ti:8/ dead /ded/
tick /tik/ mdeem /di:m/ dell /del/
raphic Euivalents oI the /t, d/ Phonemes
/t/ is pronounced when spelt as;
t take /teik/t
tt better /'bete/yum
ed stopped /sbpt/oconcx
th Thames /temz/Tm, Thomas /ibmss/Tomc, Thomson
/iIomsn/Tomco, Anthony /laentsni/3o, Esther/lesta/
3c
/t/ is not pronounced: (1)
in the Iollowing words:
oIten /b:In, In/uco, Christmas /iknsmas/oxcno, boats-
wain /ibsusn/om, soIten /In/cmxut, bankruptcy
b k / ocno, chestnut /itJesnAt/m
(2) in words ending in -stle, -sten:
listen /ilisn/cymt, hasten /'heisn/cnmt, castle /ikasl/
mo, ostler /'usla/omx
(3) in French borrowings:
restaurant /irestro:r/co, mortgage /1+:1/x,
tnt, trait /trei, treit/u, bouuet /ibukei/y
/d/ is pronounced when spelt as:
d do /du:/t
dd add /sed/onxt
ed begged /begd/noc
ddh buddhism /'budizm/ym
/d/ is not pronounced in the Iollowing words:
handkerchieI /ihsenkatiI/ocono no, handsome
cnt, uildIord /tgilIsd/o, indsor
o
Uj7 8U
I. // is voiceless Iortis, /g/ is voiced lenis;
1
II. lingual, backlingual velar the back part oI the tongue is pres
sed against the soIt palate, or velum;
II. occlusive (plosive, or stop)
(1) noise, (2) unicentral;
IV. oral.
The English /k/ is aspirated, see /p/, /t/.
The Russian // is pronounced without aspira-
/ tion: d* dc]a.
- . / The Russian /r/ is Iully voiced in initial
posi-'MSl
ti01
.
an
devoiced almost completely in the
Iinal p/iI position: Y8* Y.
S I The Russian/', 7 are pronounced with a more
A3 advanced position oI the tongue, the central part oI
( the tongue is pressed against the uncture oI the hard
and soIt palate palatalization.
To avoid palatalization oI the English /k, g/ it is advisable to do
eercises oI the Iollowing type;
t o - keen
o keel
n
keep
To observe the correct degree oI aspiration oI /p, t, k/ the Iollowing
eercises are recommended:
1. Strongest aspiration in initial position, beIore a long vowel or
a diphthong:
tie, toe, party, taper, coat, tart, patter, cape
2. Less strong aspiration is maniIested in the devoicing oI /1, r,
w, / aIter /p, t, k/:
pray, proper, creep, try, uick, pleat, crow, clip, clean, ueen
3. Less strong aspiration is maniIested beIore a short vowel:
pity, bick, cut
4. Practically no aspiration:
(a) aIter /s/: stop, spit, score, sport, scope;
(b) in the Iinal position: top, pit, cope, port, coke
raphic Euivalents oI the /k, g/ Phonemes
/k/ is pronounced when spelt:
k keep /ki:p/-xt, mt
c beIore , o, :
can /kaen/mout, tt n cocox, coat /lout/nx
nto , cut /kAt/no
Since only the Iirst classiIicatory principle oI the consonants /k, g/ i
diIIerent, principles H, I I I , IV are given Ior both.
72
c in terminal position:
music /'muzik/myt ck black /blsek/
ut, lock /bk/mo ch in a number oI
Latin and reek words:
chemist /'kemist/-xm, character /'kserskta/x,
anchor /'+n+/xot, scheme /ski:m/n, no u
uick /kwik/tct, banuet /'bserkmt/ cu
acuaintance /a'kwemtsns/omcno cc account /s'kaunt/
cu n sc sceptic /'skeptik/ cn /ks/ ecept
/ik'sept/cmut, ehibition eksi'bign/
ntcn gh hough /hok/
nox
/k/ is not pronounced:
(1) beIore n in initial position: kniIe /naiI/ox
(2) in the Iollowing words:
indict /m'dait/onxt, -victuals /'vitlz/cct nnct,
muscle /'m1/mycy
/g/ is pronounced when spelt;
(1) g beIore a, o, u, beIore a consonant and in terminal position i
go /+/xo, xot, good /gud/oo, o, game /geim/
, leg /leg/o, signiIicant /sig'mIikant/utt
(2) but also in the words:
get /get/ocnt, girl /:1/nou, gild /gild/oot,
give /giv/nt, gig /gig/o
gg egg /eg/xo
gu guard /gad/ox
gh ghost /gaust/nn
/gz/ eamine /ig'zeemm/ccmnt, ocmnt
/g/ is not pronounced:
(1) beIore n in initial and Iinal positions:
gnat /nset/om, Ieign /Iem/nnoxtcx, gnaw /no:/
tt, sign /sain/
(2) when spelt as:
ng singer /'sing/nn, tongue /Ur/xt gm
in the reek words such as:
diaphragm /idaisIrsem/m, paradigm /Ipseredaim/
nm, o, phlegm /Ilem/moo; xoon,
but phlegmatic /Ileglmaetik/ . ,t- gh high /hai/
ntco, sigh /sai/ntxt, plough /plau/
nxt, light /lait/cn
73
uestions
1. Is it possible to give a detailed description oI a sound within
the limits oI a short deIinition 2. hat are the ways to learn a conso-
nant 3. To what classiIicatory groups do the phonemes /p, b, t, d,
k, g/ belong according to the I, II, III, IV principles 4. hat is the
diIIerence between the English and the Russian occlusive consonant
phonemes Irom the viewpoint oI the tongue and the lips position
5. hat is palatalization Is it a phonemic Ieature in English 6. hat
is the diIIerence between the English /p, t, k/ phonemes and the
Russian /n, , / phonemes Irom the viewpoint oI voice-breath dis-
tinction 7. Prove that soItness oI consonants, in Russian is a pho-
nemic Ieature. 8. How are the phonemes /p, t, k; b, d, g/ repre-
sented in orthography
Eercises
1. DeIine the consonant phonemes /p, t, k/.
2. DeIine the consonant phonemes /b, d, !".
3. State articulatory diIIerences between the English /p, t, k/ and the Russian
/n, T, /.
4. State articulatory diIIerences between the English /b, d, g/ and the Russian
/, , r/.
5. Transcribe the words and read them. Observe the degree oI aspiration: (a)
the strongest, (b) less strong, (c) practically no aspiration.
(a) keep, pieces, teachers, people, purpose, curtain, turned, curly,
car, courts, parts, pause, take, time, ties, tears, cold, total, care, peer
ing;
(b) till, kissed, tin, pity, penny, tell, tennis, Pendelton, campus,
Cambrian, tai, put, took, cook, currents, colour, pumped, republic,
covered, tons, possible, cost, college, toss;
(c) spent, stay, stone, study, stick, started, splendid, eperience,
etensively, basket, cleaning, eplain, place, plan, classes, plain, creek,
crept, crop, platIorm, act, kept, looked
6. Transcribe these words and read them. Avoid palatalization oI consonants
beIore the Iront and mied vowels.
/p/ people, pay, permanent; /t/ eating; /k/ camp, kitchen; /b/ bil-
liards; /d/ diIIerent, idea; /g/ get, again, girls
/b/
goes
/p/ pieces, repaired, purpose; 6t% tears, take, turned; /b/ been, big,
bed, back, both; /d/ idea, decided, didn't, day; /g/ get, guessed, girls,
going
/p/ picture, period, epect, pair; til IiIteen, instead, artist; /k/
keep, basket, vacation, campus; /b/ be, beside, embarrassing; la" stu-
dy, depths, days, Daddy; "!" giggle, gets, girls, go
/p/ pink, eperience, penny, pale; /t/ tin, wanted, take-, turned;
/k/ drinking, came, candid, curly; /b/ been, beacon, bit, bad, Burton;
/d/ condition, nodded, idea; /g/ give, get, girls
/p/ especially, pattern; /t/ still, potatoes, tulip; /k/ keep, occasion-
al, can, occupy; /b/ be, sugar-beet, backbone; /d/ Dee, deer, muddy,
dirt; /g/ gives, longest, regular
/p/ appealing, paid, pupils, perIect; /t/ teach, stick, Tuesday,
tears; /k/ keep, looking, carriage, cold; /b/ be, obeyed, back, boat;
/d/ indeed, dinner, duly, date; /g/ given, guessed, again, ago
/p/ planning, pit, repaid, passenger; /t/ stiII, city, grotesue, turns;
/k/ keep, breaking, carriage, cold; /b/ being, best, back, Burlow; /d/
deal, ditties, dear, dead; /g/ getting, gave, go.
7. Transcribe these words. Say how the /p, t, k; b, d, g/ sounds are represent -
ed in spelling. Point out the letters which represent the mute sounds
/N* t, k; b, d, g/.
happy, hiccough, cupboard, pneumonia, lamb, plumber, bomb,
Thomas, Christmas, listen, whistle, bouuet, handkerchieI, ind-
sor, chemist, anchor, banuet, ecept, muscle, ghost, gnaw, sign,
tongue, diaphragm, sigh, plough, eight
Occlusive Nasal Sonor ants /m, n, r/
In the /m, n, g/ phonemes only the second principle oI classiIica-
tion is diIIerent.
/m/ is labial, bilabial: the lips are slightly pressed together, Iorm-
ing a complete obstruction.
\
/n% is lingual, Iorelingual apical, alveolar: the tip oI the tongue
touches the alveolar ridge.
/r/ is backlingual, velar: the back oI the tongue touches the soIt
palate or velum.
All the other principles (I, III, IV) are similar.
I. in the articulation oI /m, n, r/ voice prevails over noise, so they
are sonor ants;
II. see above;
III. /m, n, r/ are occlusive (plosives, or stops);
III. /m, n, g/ are nasal: because the soIt palate in the articulation oI
/m, n, r/ is lowered and the air passes out through the nasal cav
ity.
75
. The English /$* n/ are longer than the Russian /m, / and louder
in terminal positions; cI.:
doom /du:m/ ym /ym/ balm /bam/ m /m/
The pronunciation oI the English /r/ presents diIIiculties Ior Rus-
sian students. There is no similar sound in the Russian language, /r/
is articulated by the back part oI the tongue, which is pressed against
the soIt palate and thus a complete obstruction is Iormed Ior the Ilow
oI air through the mouth cavity. It passes out oI the nasal cavity. The
tip oI the tongue and the middle part oI the tongue do not participate
in the articulation oI this sound. To prevent possible mistakes, care
should be taken (a) to watch the position oI the tip oI the tongue,
which is to be lowered, (b) to pronounce the Iinal /r/ as one sound.
Jt is advisable to do the Iollowing eercises:
1. kgkgkgkggggrgrgrdndndndn
2. sigggnig 3. sirsensog SA
PDira sigzsaegzsi~nz,+n
brigggrig sigsaersionSAT)
IIll
4. /o gk/
6m Itrk SAB sAgk Ihserp (ihsegga)
raenrsegk 'siririsigkir
5. /n Ba.1 6. inginaut
sir sin sAn SAn ibnriraut
raerraen m m idirigaut
haeghaend 'nbin'mm 'sirigaut
raphic Euivalents oI the /m, n, n/ Phonemes
/m/ is pronounced when spelt:
m meat /mi:t/mxco mm
summer /'++/o mb
comb /kaum/t mn
autumn /loitam/oct
/n/ is pronounced when spelt:
n no /n/
nn dinner /'dina/o
en written /'ntn/nct
on button /IbAtn/nyon
/n/ is not pronounced in the words: damn /daem/
noxt, solemn /isulem/oxcnt;
/r/ is proimouIced when spelt: ng long /ltln/
t, strong /stror/ctt nk sink /sink/
on
ing writing /iraitir/nc, reading /'riidir/u
ngue tongue /tAr/xt
76
/n/ is pronounced, when ng is immediately Iollowed by a vowel
with the eception oI the degrees oI comparison oI adectives,
where /g/ is pronounced), cI.:
younger /IJAgga/, longer /'bns/, singer /'sina/, but: getting
on /igetu
v
un/, peering aniously /'piano Ilkash/, working in
the garden /iwsrkin in o+ gocdn/, coming out /'n

aut/
In such combinations, the uvula takes part in the articulation
oI the sound /r/.
/ncf/ /9/
1
younger 'getting
v
on
longer 'peering aniously
singer 'working in the
v
garden
'coming
k
out
In the words: En!lis&* En!lan(* $in!le(* &un!r' the sounds /gg/
are represented in spelling by the letters ng.
uestions
1, hy are the /m, n, r/ phonemes reIerred to sonor ants 2. hat
is the diIIerence between /m, n, r/ Irom the viewpoint oI the active
uorgan oI speech (II) 3. hat are the ways to teach students the Eng-
lish consonant phoneme /r/ 4. hat is the diIIerence in articulation
between the English /m, n/ and the Russian /m, / 5. How are the
sounds /m, n, r/ related to orthography
Eercises
1. DeIine the sounds /m, n, n/.
1. State the articulatory diIIerences between the English /m, n/ and the Rus
sian /m, /.
S. Describe the position oI the tongue In the articulation oI the English /m, n, /.
4. Read these words and spell them. Translate them into Russian.
6m 9ir rsen winz wirz win
wig SAn+ iteikniteikin sin
sir n n
5. Transcribe these words, read and translate them into Russian.
yarnyoung sonsung
thinthing cleancling
give ingiving not thingnothing
drive indriving go ingoing
come incoming ownowing
1
The practice oI such combinations helps to obtain a nasal-Ivowel with-
out a plosive.
// /
/ oot
77
sane saying break in
breaking look in
looking
6. Transcribe these words. Underline /r/ with a single line, /rg/ with t5}
lines, /g/ with a wavy line.
bring, lungs, England, younger, anything else, nothing oI the-
kind, willingly, taking it, mingled, sleeping, thing, hungry, Iishing,
morning, driving on, longer, younger, getting on, spring, seeing a
Iriend oII, clasping in both hands
7. Transcribe these words and use them to eplain the /m, n, g/ relation to
orthography.
writing, reading, going, gone, when, sung, hungry, sunk, thing,
thick, hanger, hanker, rang, rank, comb, autumn, English, mingled
Constructive Noise Consonant Phonemes (Fricatives) /s, z, I, v,
e. a7 :7 `7
T
U
I. /s/ is voiceless Iort is, /z/ is voiced lenis;
II. lingual, iorelingual, apical, alveolar: the tip oI the tongue rises
to the alveolar ridge, the sides oI the tongue Iorm a closure against
the upper side teeth;
III. constrictive, noise, unicentral with a round
narrowing;
IV. oral.
The /s, z/ phonemes are pronounced with a round narrowing
or a groove, which is Iormed with the tip and the blade held
close to the alveolar ridge. The sides oI the tongue are raised
Iorming a short and narrow groovelike or round depression
narrowing. The Russian /c, / are pronounced with the blade oI
the tongue close to the upper teeth (round narrowing). The tip oI
the tongue is passive and lowered (dorsal position).
raphic Euivalents oI the /s, z/ Phonemes
/s/ is pronounced when spelt:
s speak /spkk/onot
ss pass ".as"noxo, nyt
c beIore e, i, y: certainly /'sertnli/ouo, nmo, circle
/'S3:kl/y, cynik /isinik/
sc scene /si:n/mco cnx (n ntc, om . .), scis-
sors /isizaz/oxt, scythe /sai/oc (cn), coalesce
/kaualles/coxtcx, abscess /'sebsis/tn
,78
seh in the word sc&is$ /sizm/co, ct
ces in the middle oI the word Ueicester /'lesta/
ts in wuarts /kwo:ts/n
/s/ is not pronounced:
(1) in the words:
isle /ail/, island /laibnd/ocon, aisle /ail/oo, noxo,
rosvenor /igrauvna/ocno
(2) in French borrowings:
corps /+:/onyc, chamois /'Jaemi/mm
/z/ is pronounced when spelt:
z zeal /zi:l/n, puzzle /'1/yt nonoc
s iI terminal or Iollowed by vowels or voiced consonants:
houses /'hauziz/om, husband /'hAzband/myx, walls /wo:Iz/
ct, socialism /'saughzm/ com
ss in the words:
dessert /diiza;t/c, dissolve /diizwlv/cnoxt, hussar
/hu i zee/yc, p ossess /+' zes/ nt, scissors /' sizaz/
oxt
/6* v/
I. /I/ is voiceless Iort is, &i is voiced lenis;
II. labial, labio-dental: the lower lip makes a
light contact -with the upper Iront teeth;
III. constrictive, noise, unicentral with a Ilat
narrowing;
III. oral.
The narrowing between the upper teeth and the lower lip is Ilat
or slit type.
Care should be taken not to devoice /v/ in terminal position. CI.i
rove /rsuv/on /o/ oI /v/mon /mo/
raphic Euivalents oI the /I, v/ Phonemes
/I/ is pronounced when spelt:
I Iork /Io:k/n
II oII /o(:)I/o yt, t
ph physics /IIiziks/
pph sapphire /isaeIara/cn
ugh enough /i'nAI/ocout, laugh /lerI/cmxtcx, cough
/Io:I, I/mxt, draught /draIt/cnox, tough /I/
nt, rough /x/yt, ont
/I/ is not pronounced in the words:
halIpenny /11(+)m/nonc, lieutenant M$. /lu:itenant/ and
$arine /la'tenant/, but: /leIitenant/
79
/v/ is pronounced when spelt:
v view /vu:/n I oI /Dv/o, o, o (preposition)
ph nephew /'nevu/, but a l s o /'neIu/nmx,
/'sti:vn/n
Stephen
/9, S/
/9/ is voiceless Iortis, // is voiced lenis; ... lingual,
Iorelingual, apical, interdental; III. constrictive, noise,
unicentral with a Ilat or slit narrowing:
the air escapes over the whole surIace oI the tongue;
'There are no similar sounds in the Russian language. The place oI
incomplete obstructions is between the tip oI the tongue (which
may be slightly proected Ior /6/) and the rear oI the upper
teeth.
Energetic articulation oi // may also be
interdental. It is usually post-dental with the
tongue position a little behind the Iront teeth.
There are several mistakes the Russian stu-
dents make in the articulation oI /0, /: they
substitute /s, I/ Ior /3/ and /z, v/ Ior /5/ and
similarly the Russian /c, / Ior /3/ and /n, /
1. To avoid the
r
/I/ Ior /9/ articulation care should be taken
to observe the position oI the lower lip, which should be lowered
Irom the edge oI the upper teeth so that the lower teeth can be
cut!
2. To avoid the /s/ Ior /9/ articulation the tip oI the tongue
should be slightly proected between the teeth.
3. To avoid the /z/ Ior // articulation observe the second rec
ommendation and make the vocal cords vibrate to produce the
voiced consonant /9/. , ,. ,. ,
H
4. To avoid the /v/ Ior // articulation observe the Iirst recom
mendation and make the vocal cords vibrate to produce the voiced
consonant "o6. ,
n
,, . , .
n0n
The substitution oI /s, I, z, v, t, 1, d/ Ior / 3, / leads to pho-
nological mistakes because they are diIIerent phonemes, ven
below are contrast eercises, which may be helpIul Ior distinguish-
ing between /s, z, t, d/ and /9, /.
/9/ "#. /#/
thicksick
mouthmouse
thumbsum
worthworse
/$/ "#. /t/
thicktick
thoughttaught
threetree
heathheat
both-boat
IourthIort
80
I.
II.
// vs. /z/ /9/ -vs. /d/
seethesees thenden
lathelaze thoughdough
cl otheclose seet heseed
breathebreeze theredare
otherudder
worthywordy
The eercise given below can be done to improve the pronuncia-
tion oI /6, / in diIIicult combinations.
/S/ /6/ this thing, sith
// /6/ his thumb
/S/ /3/ pass the
/z/ /5/ is this
/6/ /s/ /5/ Smith's there
// /z/-i-// soothes them
raphic Euivalents oI the /6, 5/ Phonemes
/9, / are always spelt th:
thick /6ikAoct, thin /0in/o, there /3+/m,
with /wi5/c (preposition)
/h/
I. voiceless Iortis;
II. glottal;
III. constrictive, noise, unicentral, with a Ilat narrowing;
IV. oral.
The /h/ phoneme is pronounced when a strong stream oI air is
passing through the open glottis.
The articulators are in the position Ior
the Iollowing vowel sound. A strong stream
oI air produces Iriction both at the glottis
and throughout the vocal tract.
The lip and tongue position is that oI the
Iollowing vowel. In phonetic terms, /h/ can
be considered a type oI voiceless vowel.
There are as many allophones oI /h/ as there
are vowels in English, which Iollow it,
Russian students oIten use the backlingual Russian // instead oI
the glottal /h/. To avoid this mistake it is advisable to do contrast
eercises oI the Iollowing type;
x hill xhull xyohood
xohall xheet
raphic Euivalents oI the /h/ Phoneme
/h/ is pronounced when spelt:
h how /hau/, hill /hil/xom, hate /heit/nct
wh who /hu:/o, whom /hu:m/omy
8&
/h/ is not pronounced:
(1) in initial position:
hour /'am/uc, honest /'onist/uct, honour /1on+/uct,
heir /69/c, heiress /'+/c
(2) in medial position:
ehaust /igizorst/ntnyc, ntxon, ehibit /igizibit/+cno,
vehicle /'vitikl/u nomot
(3) In the word s&e.&er( /'Jepad/ncyx
/0 5/
I. E/ voiceless Iortis, /3/ voiced lenis;
II. lingual, iorelingual, apical, palato-alveolar, with a strong outer
lip-rounding and protrusion which contributes to the graver
character oI the hiss as opposed to the sharper Iriction oI /s, z/;
III. constrictive, noise, bicentral, with a Iront secondary Iocus,
with a Ilat narrowing;
IV. oral.
In the articulation oI the /J g/ phonemes the tip and the blade are
raised to the teethridge, Iorming a narrowing with the back oI
the alveolar ridgeprimary Iocus. The Iront oI the tongue is
raised in the direction oI the hard palate,
Iorming the Iront secondary Iocus. The
sounds /J, 5/ are soIt or slightly palatal- zed.
The Russian/m':, x':/ are soIter. They are spelt
m, xx as in: ^]a* 8VV.
The Russian "R* V" are hard sounds. They are produced
with a back secondary Iocus and have the /t/ colouring. To
avoid the pronunciation oI the Russian /m':, x':/ Ior the
English /J
1
, 5/ it is useIul to do a contrast eercise oI the
Iollowing type:
mnJi:p m Ji:t ox'
mJi:n ox'mesa ox'
mJi:k
raphic Euivalents oI the /J, 5/ Phonemes
/// is pronounced when spelt:
sh she /Ji:/o
sugar /iuga/cx
assure /++/yn
82
g g / ss assure /++/
ynxt si Asia /leiJVx, Persia /1:+/
Hcx sion aIter consonants:
pension /'pentyncx, version /lva;Jn/nno; ncx
ssi session /'se/n/cccx, mission /'mr/n/mccx
ti ration /iraen/n, notion /'nsun/nox se
nausea /' n++, ino:sis/omo ci suspicion
/sasipin/noo c ocean /isu'n/o
sci a vowel in the middle oI a word aIter the accented syllable:
conscience /iktmans/conct, conscientious/ iknni'en'ss/
ooconct, uct
sch schedule /iedu:l/ (/iskedu:l/4/ra.Jonct; cnc ch
in French borrowings:
machine /maiirn/mm, chivalry /'J'rvsln/'tcno,
champagne /Jaem'pem/mmnco, chaise /Jeiz/- nouonx
/kJ7 in accented
syllables:
luury /ilAkJari/-ocomt, anious /lEerkJss/cnoot
b u t in unaccented syllables/gz/:
luurious /kg'zuams/ocomt, aniety /sen(g)'zaiati/
no, cnoocno
/5/ is pronounced when spelt:
g regime "rei#;.$"xm, rouge /ru:g/ymx
su pleasure /'plega/yonotcn
si decision /di'sigan/m
zi glazier /igleigs/ (more oIten /igleizis/)cotm
zu azure /isegs/oyo, yt
ti transition /trsen'sn/nxo; nxot no
zh hukov /i3uknv/Xyon
uestions
1. To what classiIicatory groups do the /s, z, I, v/ sounds belong
according to the I, I I , III, IV principles oI consonant classiIica-
tion 2. hy are the /s, z/ consonants considered to be unicentral
with a round narrowing 3. hat is the diIIerence in articulation
oI the English /s, z/ and the Russian /c, s/ 4. hy are the "i* v/
consonants considered to be uni central wit h a Ilat narrowi ng
5. hat is the articulatory diIIerence between the English /I, v/
and the Russian /n/ 6. hat are the graphic euivalents oI the
consonants /s, z, I, v/ 7. To what classiIicatory groups do the
/9, , h, J i6 sounds belong according to the I, II, III, IV prin-
ciples 8. hy is it diIIicult to master the pronunciation oI /9, 8/
9. hy is it diIIicult to master the pronunciation oI /h/ 10. hy
do the sounds /J, 5/ belong to the subgroup oI bicentral with a Iront
secondary Iocus Compare them with the Russian /m, x, m':, x' :/.
11. hat are the diIIiculties in mastering the /J
1
, 3/ pronunciation
12. hat are the graphic euivalents oI the consonants /8,9, h, J 3/
Eercises
1, DeIine the consonant phonemes /s* z, I, v/.
2. State articulatory and phonemic diIIerences between /s z/, /I v/,
/s f/, /% "/.
83
3. DeIine the consonant phonemes /9, 3/.
4. Read these words, spell them and translate them into Russian.
0m sin 9ik tik hi:0 hi:t mAn8s
9ik sik 6o:t to:t +o baut i eit zun
9o:t so:t 9ri: tri: Io:9 Io:t wistend
Io:9 b:s si:6 si:z klauBkbuz kteuz
mau8maus leileiz bri:Bbri:z siks0
sAm 6en den o+ des iz 6m
wa:9 3:s + dau Uda 'Ada its 6is
si:6 si:d iwa:5iiw3:di huz 6set
5. Transcribe these words and read them.
Ioundthousand Ioughtthought F i nnsth ings
Iirst thirst Iree three deaI depth
6. State the articulatory diIIerences between /6 s/, /9 t/, /9 I/, /9 z/,
/( B v/, /d-d/, " B 1/.
7. Prove by minimal pairs that /0 s/, /8 t/, /6 z/, /d d/ are diI-
.. Icrent phonemes.
8/ DeIine the consonant phoneme /h/.
9. State articulatory diIIerences between the English /h/ and the Russian //.
10. Read these words. Mind the pronunciation oI /h/ as a pure sound oI breath,
help, hall, house, here, hand, harm, heard, hold, head, hear,
hot, hills, high, whole, he, his, has, him, 'hardship, 'holiday,
'horror, ho'tel, ihuman, 'happy, behind, ihither'to, 'heather, 'hand-
some, 'hardly, 'horses, 'Henry, 'Holland, 'Hubert, iHelen D0.
Transcribe toese words. Translate them into 2ussian an( read them.
allhall oughthot it hit and hand
earhear is his ill hill arm harm
outhouse oust house as has addshands
artheart addhad air hair
1b.: DeIine theconsonant phonemes /J
1
, 3/.
13. Describe the bi central position oI the tongue in the production oI the noise
/J, 3/ sounds.
14. Read these words. Spell them and translate them orally into Russian.
Ji:p Jip ;ed Jeiv Jeip Ji:t
Aid Jel Jeid .Iai 6un Juk
Jetk Jeim Jam
iilek.Cn (bmpa'tian 11+ 'vi3n
ksnidin p:g8nai'zei,r9n '1+ g'keign
ideh'gein 'stein di'sn '+
15. Transcribe these words and read them.
she, sheep, shut, Iish, brush, Irish, Iishing, special, station, usual,
usually, pleasure, shop, sugar, should, Ilash, British, English, anious,
aniously, especially, Angelo, occasion, occasional
84
16. Transcribe these words. Use them to eplain the /s, z, I, v, 8, 9, h, J
1
, 3A
relation to orthography,
pass, certainly, cynic, scythe, Leicester, isle, houses, husband,
dessert, hussar, physics, sapphire, enough, draught, lieutenant, neph-
ew, Matthew, alsworthy, ehaust, vehicle, shepherd, sugar, as-
sure, version, notion, social, conscience, chivalry, chaise, regime,
pleasure, decision, azure
Constrictive Sonorants (Approimants) /r, , 1, w/
In the articulation oI these consonant phonemes voice prevails
over noise, thereIore all oI them are sonorants. They Iall into three
groups: median /w, r/, lateral /1/, and palatal //.
/r/
I. sonorant;
II. lingual, Iorelingual, cacuminal, post-alveolar;
III. constrictive, median, unicentral;
IV. oral.
The tip oI the tongue is curled behind the back slope oI the teeth-
ridge. This position oI the tip oI the tongue is called post-alveolar, or
cacuminal. II it is curled still Iurther retroIleed
position. The air passes out oI the mouth cavity
through the median line: along the lowered Iront and
the bunched-up back oI the tongue, then through
the narrowing Iormed by the tip and the
r
back
slope oI the teethridge. This passage is rather wide,
so voice prevails over noise and the sound
produced is a sonor ant. The main body oI the tongue
has lateral bunching: the sides oI the tongue are in
close contact with the back teeth and the palate. (In the/r/
production the tip and the blade oi the tongue are not so tense as
in the articulation oI the Russian/x/ apical.)
The similar Russian sound /p/ (apical sonorant) is characterized
by a diIIerent manner oI the production oI noise: the tip oI the tongue
vibrates in the Ilow oI air and interrupts it repeatedly Iorming mo-
mentary obstructions against the teethridge. The Russian sound /p/
is rolled, or trilled.
To pronounce /r/ in the proper way care should be taken to hold
the tip oI the tongue placed in post-alveolar position while breathing
the air out oI the mouth cavity.
Combinations /r ai/ are most simple, they should be practised
and learnt Iirst: ri!&t /rait/, -ri!&t /brait/, tr' /trai/, (r' /drai/,
!rin( /gramd/; only aIter that, other combinations are to be
practised.
raphic Euivalents oI the /1/ Phoneme
/r/ is pronounced when spelt:
red /red/ct
rr merry /'men/nct
85
wr write /rait/nct
rh rhythm /n3/m
/r/ is not pronounced at the end oI the word and beIore a vowel:
star /sta/n, Iirst /Ie:st/nnt, door /do:/nt, Iarm
/Ia:m/m
/r/ is pronounced at the end oI the word iI it is Iollowed by
another word with an initial vowel:
beIore I go /biiIo:r,ai 1+/nx um y
By analogy this linking /r/ intrudes sometimes into the pro-
nunciation oI such combinations as:
drama and music, India and Pakistan, law and order, area oI
agreement
The intrusive /r/ should be avoided.
In the American pronunciation /t% is retroIleed, the tip oI the
tongue is curled Iurther back behind the back slope oI the teethridge
and the vowels which precede /r/ acuire the /t" colouring. The re-
troIleed allophone oI the /r/ phoneme has the symbol ~1 It is pro-
nounced with noticeable lip-rounding and protrusion.
bird /ba:d/ /b3;d/
Iirm :/ /Is-.m/
Lord /b:d/ /lo:d/
/&/
I. spnorant;
II. lingual: medi o-lingual, palatal;
III. constrictive, median, unicentral;
IV. oral.
A. C. imson calls it a semi-vowel because it is pronounced as a
rapid vocalic glide on to a syllabic sound oI a greater steady dura-
tion.
Y
The tongue immediately glides Irom the
position Ior /V to that oI the Iollowing vowel, this
second element oI the glide is more prominent
than the Iirst, e.g. /es/.
In the articulation oI // the Iront part oI the
tongue is raised to the hard palate but not so high
as to produce much Iriction. The tip oI the tongue
is lowered. The air passes out oI the mouth cavity
along the central, median part oI the tongue, the
sides oI the tongue are raised.
Care should be taken to avoid much noise and not to make the
tongue tense when /7 is articulated, especially in initial position:
yes, yield, yard, you, youth, yawn, yellow
1
Li$son M. C. Op. cit, P. 207.
'The Russian is pronounced with more Iriction, which is the
result oI the higher position oI the Iront part oI the tongue to the hard
palate.
raphic Euivalents oI the A3I Phoneme
// is pronounced when spelt:
y yes /es/, yield /i:Id/ycynt, yeast /i:st/oxx i
opinion /a'pmsn/'M, onion /'m+n/y, Iamiliar +'n-
la/omt u in
initial position:
union /'u:n3n/com, unite /u:'nait/oxtcx, use
/u:s/not, usual /1':+1/otut in medial position:
duty /'du:ti/o, mute /mu:t/mo
eu in initial position:
euphony /i u:Isni/onyu in.
medial position:
neuter /nu:t3/c, Ieud /Iu:d/nx ue
rescue /'resku:/cnc, due /du:/oxt ewe
ewe /u:/on, ewer /u:9/ynm eur Europe
/iu:9rap/Enon
eau beauty /'bu:ti/co, beautician /bui'ti'sn/ocmu
ew, iew in medial and Iinal positions:
Iew /Iu:/moo, new /nu:/ont, dew /du:/oc,
news /nu:z/onoc, sewage /'su:i33/cout not,
view /vu:/n
/w/
I. sonorant.
1
Like //, /w/ is pronounced with a glide onto another
vowel oI greater prominence;
II. labial, bilabial, the tongue begins to move Irom an /u/-like
vowel with strongly rounded lips;
III. constructive, bicentral, velar, median
with a round narrowing;
IV. oral.
This sound is bicentral. The Iirst, or primary, Iocus is Iormed by
the lips which are protruded and rounded. The second, or back secon-
dary Iocus is Iormed by the back part oI the tongue which is raised to
the soIt palate (velum). The Ilow oI air passes out oI the mouth cavity
without any audible Iriction along the median line oI the tongue, its
sides being raised, and through the round narrowing Iormed by
the protruded lips, which instantaneously part, The vocal cords vi-
brate.
There is no similar sound in the system oI Russian consonants.
1
A. C. imson terms it a semi-vowel as well as //.
87
There isVdanger oI conIusing /w/ with /v/. This mistake is pho-
nemic, because bilabial vs. Iabio-dental articulatory Ieatures in these
two phonemes serve to diIIerentiate the meaning oI the words, e.g.
whale veil nyt west nvest xxx co
ou; ncn
wine novine nox worse xyxverse cx
o
raphic Euivalents oI the /w/ Phoneme
/w/ is pronounced when spelt:
w sweet /swi:t/c
wh why /wai/noumy, what /wiat/uo, which /utYo
u uite /kwait/concm, suare /skwes/nomt
su persuade /ps'sweid/yxt
And also in the words:
one /AH/o, once /Ans/oxt, choir /kwaia/xo
/w/ is not pronounced:
(1) when Iollowed by r:
write /rait/nct, wrong /rug/o; no
(2) in the words:
who /hu:/o, whose /hu:z/u, ut, whom /hu:m/oo,
whole /haul/o, towards /to:dz, ta'woidz/no nnm ,
two /tu:/n, twopence /iUp(3)ns/n nc, answer /lanss/
on, sword /so:d/mu:
(3) in the geographical names ending in -wich, -wick:
reenwich /'grmicIe/nu, Chiswick /itIizik/
N
I. sonorant;
II. lingual, Iorelingual apical, alveolar: the tip and the blade are
slightly pressed against the alveolar ridge;
III. constrictive, lateral, bicentral, Iront secondary Iocus 1, back
secondary Iocus I/4F
IV. oral.
There are two positional allophones oI the /1/ phoneme in English:
one is the clear, or soIt 1, it is pronounced with the Iront
secondary Iocus; the other- vari ant oI the /1/ phoneme is the
dark 1, it is pronounced with the back secondary Iocus, i.e.
the back oI the tongue is raised towards the velum in a concave
shape, it gives a back-central vowel type resonance to /1/.
88
-ac secon(ar' 6ocus
6ront secon(ar' 6ocus
The soIt 1 is pronounced beIore vowels and //, the dark I/4
is pronounced in word Iinal position and beIore consonants.
in m
leap, lean, Ilee, Lewis bill, hill, mill, well, cold
In the articulation oI the /1/ phoneme the tip with the blade oI
the tongue is pressed against the teethridge to Iorm an obstruction.
The air escapes rather Ireely along the sides oI the tongue, which are
lowered (usually only one side oI the tongue is lowered) (lateral ar-
ticulation).
The English soIt 1 is not so soIt as the Russian /7 (in the artic-
ulation oI the Russian /7 the Iront part oI the tongue is raised still
higher to the hard palate). To avoid etra palatalization in the artic-
ulation oI the English soIt 111 the Iollowing contrast eercises are
recommended:
n /leIt/ c /les/ /Uih/
n/lip/, /H:p/ m/luk/
/I/ /let/
The Russian soIt and hard /, 7 are separate phonemes, because
each oI them serves to diIIerentiate the meaning or words:
momot oe t m
mt t yoyot
raphic Euivalents oI the "/" Phoneme
/1/ is pronounced when spelt:
I lay /lei/ct
IIwell /wel/oo, o; xoomo
/1/ is not pronounced in the Iollowing words:
would /wud/x, x, should /Jud/ A.ast o6 shall), talk
/to:k/c, walk/wo:k/xot, Iolk/Isuk/m, balm /bam/
tm, calm /kcum/mt, calI /ka:I/o, halI /ha-I/no-
on, almond /lamand/mt, salmon /'sseman/ococt
uestions
1. To what classiIicatory groups do the /r, , 1, w/ sounds belong
according to the I, II, III, IV principles oI consonant classiIication
2. hy are the /r, w/ sounds Jconsidered median, /1, // B lateral,
// palatal 3. hat are the articulatory diIIerences between the
h
English /r, , 1,1* w/ ana the Russian /p, , , n/ 4, hat are the pho-
nemic diIIerences between the English /1, 3l and the Russian /, '/
5. hy do the sounds //* w/ belong to the subgroup oI bicentral with
a back secondary Iocus 6. hat are the ways to avoid mistakes the
Russian students make in mastering the/r, , 1, w/ pronunciation
7. How are the English constrictive sonorants related to orthography
Eercises
1. DeIine the sonorants /r, , I, w/.
2. Read these words. Spell them. Underline the devoiced allophones oI the
&i phoneme.
rait, raid, raip, krai, kraisis, prais, grei, bred, ri:d, ri:p, ' rhzn,
rl:tI, ndg, risk, Irend, Irans, rig, rod, rsen, rsen, rot, run, greit,
trai, ru-.l, ru:I, ru:ra, red, rest, iredi, pres, pn'zent, rae, rag, 'trhzn,
intn, reu, raud, 'preznt
3. Transcribe these words and read them.
rates, red, room, roast, round, rose, record, regular, railway, run-
ning, really, Mary, married, Iriends, Crusoe, drive, prices, true,
drowned, dressing, worry, Iorehead, hundred, temperature, carried,
period, borrowed, currents, diIIerent, Iever, comIort, heather, world,
America, cigarette, modern, matter, mother, were, weary, scenery,
curly, coloured, never, Ior, story, Iigure, work, doors, part, Iour, car
4. Read these sentences. Mind the linking &i in terminal position beIore a
vowel which begins a new word.
1. Hotels are epensive in the South. 2. You can see Moscow grow
beIore your eyes. 3. There is a theatre and a bar in the building oI
the new hotel. 4. There are hostels all over the place. 5. The weather
gets nicer and nicer. 6. There are a number oI small islands on thenv-
er. 7. There are more sheep in ales than anywhere in the British
Isles. 8. In Hyde Park and ensington ardens you Iorget that you
are in a big city. 9. Americans are a sociable people they say.
10. The local newspapers were a surprise to me.
5. Transcribe these words. Read them. Mind the // articulation.
young, youth, your, year, yet, yesterday, used to, news, human,
museum, suit, Iew, reviews, used, capsules
6. Read these words. Observe the light i beIore Iront, mied and back vowels.
large, lots, look, luck, low, o'clock, looking, absolutely, Ilushed,
Iollowing, lost, along, kilometer, Iellow, slums, clean, let, late, glad-
ly, realize, lived, letter, plain, blank, learned, willing, leIt, place,
landed, linked, glorious, lovely, lonely, clasp, long, looked, London,
clothes, glass, longer, applause, broom
7. Read these words. Observe the dark 1J in terminal ..position and beIorea
consonant (not //).
elp, meals, adult, cold, miles, old, world, rebuilt, will, special,
restIul, still, rule, wild, twelve, deal, I ' l l , chuckle, helps, bald, bold
90
8. Underline the letters, which represent in spelling the dark Ii4 with one line
and the light 1 with two lines in the words given below.
Ielt, hills, always, least, holiday, letter, plans, like, soil, total,
gentle, little, leIt, eplain, slack, coloured, light-headed, small,
people, hostel, sleep, believe, lit, reply, model, hotel, article, lasted,
longer, looked, lunch, will, special, restIul, laughed, long, low,
smile, nearly, usual, led, Iinal, place, deal, clapping, Iell, loudest
9, State the articulatory diIIerences between the English and the Russian
sounds,
) /p/
u u / : l l / /
1 //
I~ -M7
/w//n/
10. ive some eamples to prove that the Russian //, / V are separate pho-
nemes and the English I, I/4 are allophones oI one and the same phoneme.
11. hat can you prove by the eamples given below
whenvan worseverse
went vent westvest
week Vi c wearyvery
12. Transcribe these words. Use them to eplain how the /T* , 1, w/ sounds
are related to orthography.
yes, opinion, onion, unite, mute, neuter, Europe, sewage, would,
talk, Iolk, balm, Lincoln, which, once, choir, whose, towards, sword
Occlusive-ConstrIctive Noise Phonemes (AIIricates) /tI, (H6
I. /t7 voiceless Iortis, /63/ voiced lenis;
II. lingual, Iore- and raediolingual, apical, palato-alveolar;
III. occlusive-constrictive (aIIricates) bicentral
(Iront secondary Iocus) with a Ilat narrowing;
IV. oral.
From the articulatory point oI view /tI, dg/ are
indivisible clusters oI two sounds: /t/ / I/ /tI/;
/
3
/ /3
/tr, ds/ are bicentral. The Iirst, or primary, Iocus
is Iormed by the tip and the blade oI the tongue,
touching the back part oI the teethridge; the contact
is relatively slowly released into Iriction.
1
The second, or Iront
secondary Iocus is Iormed by the Iront part oI the tongue, which
is raised to the hard palate.
There are two aIIricates in the system oI Russian consonants
/u7 and //. The English /tI/ and the Russian / Iare almost
similar, but in the Russian /u7 articulation the Iront part oI the
1
The Iriction present in the aIIricate is oI shorter duration, than that
which characterizes the Iricative proper. ALi$son M. C. Op. cit. P. 166.)
91
tongue is raised higher to the hard palate, than in /tI/ articta-taIIon.
The Russian /u
1
/ is soIter than the English /tI/.
In order to avoid /t
1
, d.5/ conIusion the Iollowing eercise is
recommended:
catches on cadges nonomu
riches ocn ridges ot xt
lunch u lunge oco beseech ymoxt
besiege ocxt
There is no sound in the Russian language similar to "8_1* but where
the Russian /u7 is voiced under the inIluence oI the Iollowing voiced
consonants /, , , s, x/ we hear a sound similar to M5/:
mu o c nu oo
mu t nu om yu

Care should be taken to pronounce both parts oI the aIIricate


/d5/ simultaneously. CI.:
xo/dgrcn/ John x/dgaek/ Jack x/eisern/ Jane-
The Russian // is one more aIIricate, which can be deIined as
occlusive, noise, Iorelingual, dorsal, dental, voiceless. The English
/ts/ is a cluster oI two consonants/t/ /s/, e.g. cats /kgets/.
/tI/ is pronounced when spelt:
ch child /tIaild/o
ic& kitchen /ikitIsn/yxx
tu nature /'neitIa/no
ii uestion /ikwestIsn/nonoc
te righteous /'raitIss/nnt
Also in the word $isc&ie6 /imistIiI/n.
/ds/ is pronounced when spelt;
J oy /u1/oct
g beIore e, i, y in French and Latin borrowings: giant /idJarant/
, gem /dgem/ot mt, gyps-/d3ips/nc
ge, gi in the middle oI the word in an accented syllable, between
the vowel sounds:
advantageous /isedvcmiteidgas/ntot, legion /ildsan/ o
ge at the end oI words:
large /lads/otmo, singe /sincIe/cnt, nont,
but rouge /ru:g/ ymx
dg budget /ibAdgit/mx, knowledge /1n1/ du
verdure /'vaidgs/t de grandeur /Igraanclsa/nu,
non di soldier /' n+/co
ch reenwich /igrmids/nu, sandwich /1ssenwidg/cnu,
yo
m
uestions
1. To what classiIicatory groups do the /t
1
, dg/ phonemes belong
according to t&e I, II, III, IV principles oI consonant classiIica-
tion 2. hy are the /tI, dg/ sounds considered to be aIIricates
3. hat is the articulatory diIIerence between the English /t dg/
and the Russian /u', / 4. Is the presence oI voice in // a pho-
nemic Ieature 5. hat are the articulatory diIIiculties in the /t
1
, dg/
production 6. How are the consonants /t, d/ related to orthography
1
Eercises
I. DeIine the aIIricates /tI, cIc/.
2. State the acoustic, articulatory and phonemic diIIerences between , d/'
and /tr, dr, ts, tz, 0, da/.
3. Read these words. Spell them and translate them into Russian orally.
tIin i Iama iI up dgim peids dem
tIek tIarid wut
1
dgra tIeindg o:
Ies ntI tIoik id3imi # e $ 'dgaimsni
Iern inAtI kauI eid3 (_ee dgu:n
4. Transcribe these words and read them.
cheap, cheek, chieI, chin, channel, gentle, gently, germs, stranger,,
middle-aged, rich, which, such, much, lunch, watch, age, page,
large, college, cottage, sandwiches, Manchester, manuIacturers, enoy-
ment, arrangement, engagement, detached, temperature, natural
5. Eplain the articulatory diIIerences (a) between the English /tI/ and the-
Russian AiV; (b) between the English /d/ and similar Russian comb
-ti'ons.
6. Transcribe these words. Use them to eplain how the /tI, (I3/ sounds are
related to orthography.
child, nature, uestion, righteous, mischieI, oy, gem, gyps,
advantageous, legion, budget, knowledge, grandeur, soldier, reenwich'
SUBSIDIARY VARIANTS OF ENLISH CONSONANT PHONEMES
Allophonic variants oI consonants should be analysed Irom the
viewpoint oI CV, VC, CC connections. There are some rules to this
eIIect that can be Iormulated in the Iollowing way.
1. In initial prevocalic position the number oI allophones oI con
sonant phonemes is adeuate to the number oI vowels that Iollow
them.
2. Voiced consonants in initial position are gradually voiced
(strong end, weak beginning).
3. In terminal post-vocalic position the number oI allophones-
is adeuate to the number oI vowels that precede them.
4. Voiced consonants in terminal position are gradually devoiced
(weak end, strong beginning).
93'
5. In medial position voiced consonants are Iully voiced.
6. Consonants are shorter in initial position than in terminal po
sition.
7. Similar voiced consonants are shorter beIore voiceless, longer
beIore voiced and the longest in Iree terminal position.
8. In CC transition plosive consonants may lose their plosion or
its character may be modiIied: loss oI plosion, nasal, lateral plosion.
9. In CC transition constrictive consonants may be pronounced
with terminated constriction under the inIluence oI the Iollowing
consonant.
10. Plosive constrictives and aIIricates may be modiIied by the
inIluence oI nasal /m, n/, palato-alveolar //, interdental /0, 5/, post-
alveolar /r/, bilabial /w/, etc.
iven below are the most important allophonic variants oI Eng-
lish consonant phonemes.
Phonemes /p, t, k, b, d, g, iI, (H" occur in all positions.
1. Aspirated: .ass* .icture* Neter. Aspiration may also be heard in
Iinal position: to..
2. ModiIied by the Iollowing vowel: .ea* .it* .et* .at* .al$* .ot*
.a5* .un* .ut* .ool* .urr* .ara(e* .a'* .ie* .oun(* .oac&* .eer* .ore*
.oor.
3. ModiIied by the preceding vowel: 0.* lea.* ste.* cla.* &ar.*
&i.* t&or.* stoo.* u.* c&ir.* 5allo.* ta.e* t'.e* &o.e* s&ar..
1. No release: su..e(* 5&at .lace.
2. Release partly lost: s.leen* s.len(i(* &el.s* ste.* &o.* to..
3. Lateral release: .eo.le* cou.le* a..le.
4. Nasal release: o.en* &a..en*
5. ModiIied by // palatalized: .e5terF
/r/ post-alveolar: .rice* sur.rise* .ressF /9/
dental: (e.t&F /w/ labialized: Nue-lo.
enerally preglottalized p when syllable Iinal beIore conso-
nants to.* s.in.
/ b/
1. ModiIied by the Iollowing vowel: -it* -et* -a(* -ar* -ox* -ou!&t*
-ut* -oo* -oot* -urr* -anana* -a'* -'* -o5* -o'* -eer* -oor* -ore.
2. ModiIied by the preceding vowel: !re-e* ni-* e--* ca-* !ar-* $o-*
or-* tu-e* tu-* ;er-* &u--u-* -a-e* i$-i-e* !lo-e.
1. Fully voiced between voiced sounds: la-our.
2. Partly devoiced (a) initially: -al$* -ee* -etF
(b) Iinally: e--* ni-* ca-.
5. No release: ru--e(* so- -itterl'* e--e(* sta--e(.
6. Lateral release: a-le* ta-le* -i-le.
7. Nasal release: ri--on* stu--orn.
8. ModiIied by // palatalized: -eaut'F
/T / post-alveolar: -ri!&tF /1/
released laterally: -li!&tF /w/
labialized: Kuenos Mires.
N
1. Aspirated: ta-le* ti$e* Ti$. Aspiration may also be heard in
the Iinal position, e.g. rat.
2. ModiIied by the Iollowing vowel: tea* ti.* ten* tan* tar* to.* tore*
tu-* too* t5o* ter$* to-acco* tale* tie* to5n* to'* to5* tear* tour.
3. ModiIied by the preceding vowel: eat* it* ate* at* art* &ot* ou!&t*
&ut* &urt* .ut* &ost* -ut* ei!&t* 5rite* rout* 5rote* a(roit* licentiate.
4. No release: sto. talin!.
5. Release partly lost: stron!* stra5* eats* &oots.
6. Lateral release: -ottle* little.
7. Nasal release: 5ritten* -eaten.
8. ModiIied by /7 palatalized: tu-e* tuitionF
/w/ labialized: t5ice* t5ent'* /r/
post-alveolar: tr'* tree* actressF 1S
dental: at t&eF /9/ dental: -rea(t&.
enerally preglottalized p when syllable Iinal, beIore conso-
nants, e.g. &at* tric.
In collouial speech /I/ may be reduced to /t/. Intervocalic /t/ is
Ireuently realised as a brieI voiceless tap, e.g. -etter.
w
1. ModiIied by the Iollowing vowel: (ee.* (i(* (ea(* (a(* (arn
6
(o!* (oor* (uc* (o* (irt* (o$ination* (a'* (ie* (o5n* (ail'* (o$e* (ear*
(are* (our* (oor.
2. ModiIied by the preceding vowel: (ee(* (i(* (ea(* (a(* &ar(* o((*
&or(e* &oo(* -roo(* -u(* -ir(* &a(* $a(e* ri(e* cro5(* anno'e(* ro(e
t
-ear(* s.are(* -ore(* !our(.
3. Fully voiced between voiced sounds: u((er* rea('.
4. Partly devoiced (a) initially: (o* (one* (o5nF
(b) Iinally, &ar(* &oo(* $i(.
5. No release: !oo( (a'* 5&at (a'* 5al (o5n.
6. Lateral release: $i((le* -ea(le.
7. Nasal release: !ar(en.
8. ModiIied by /7 palatalized: (ut'F
/t% post-alveolar: (r'* (ress* 1S dental: rea(
t&ose -oos. In collouial speech /d/ may be reduced
to /d.3/.
N
1. Aspirated: +ate* it* co$eF aspiration may also be heard in the
Iinal position, e.g. roc.
2. ModiIied by the Iollowing vowel: e'* in*e.t* ca.* car* cot*
$T
core* cu.* coo* cool* cur-* contain* cae* ite* co5* co'* coal* care* ur@
saal* cor(.
3. ModiIied by the preceding vowel: -ea* .ic* 5rec* -ac* (ar*
loc* 6or* -oo* (ue* (uc* wuir* -ul5ar* tae* lie* &oi* oa.
4. No release: .ice(* .ece(* lie(* act* coo clean* too +ate.
5. Release partly lost: s'* sc&ool.
6. Lateral release: ticle* ;ocal* c'cle.
7. Nasal release: taen* -acon* t&icen.
8. ModiIied by /7 palatalized: cuteF
/w/ labialized: wuae* wua!* wua66F /r/ post-alveolar: cr'* cra-*
cran-err'F /S/ dental: tae t&e$* .ic t&ose -oos. enerally
preglottalized k when syllable Iinal, beIore consonants; e.g.
(uc sou..
The velar closure Ior /* y/ is advanced beIore Iront vowels, e.g,
fteen* !eeseF retracted beIore back vowels, e.g. cou.* !oose.
N
1. ModiIied by the Iollowing vowel: !eese* !i;e* !et* !as* !ar(en*
!ot* !ore* !utter* !oo(* !oose* !ilt* !alloon* !a'* !u'* !o5n* !oitre* !o*
!ear* !aris&* !our(.
2. ModiIied by the preceding vowel: lea!ue* 6i!* -e!* 6o!* $or!ue*
-i!* -ur!* .la!ue* ro!ue.
3. Fully voiced between voiced sounds: a!on'* a!ain.
4. Partly devoiced (a) initially: !o* !ain* !uar(F
(b) Iinally: -i!* -e!* lea!ue.
5. No release: -e!!e(* .la!ue(* -i!* !a$e.
6. Lateral release: ea!le* !i!!le.
7. Nasal release: (ra!on.
8. ModiIied by // palatalized; LueF
/r/ post-alveolar: !reat* a!reeF
ll dental: -e! t&e$F /w/
labialized: L5en(olen.
N1
1. ModiIied by the Iollowing vowel: c&eese* c&in* c&est* c&a$.*
c&a66* c&o.* c&ore* c&ou!&* c&e5in!* c&e5* c&urc&* c&eru-ic* c&ain*
c&il(* c&o5* c&oice* c&oe* c&eer* c&air* c&e5er.
2. ModiIied by the preceding vowel: eac&* itc&* 6etc&* $atc&* tnarc&*
scotc&* scorc&* .utsc&* .ouc&* $uc&* searc&* suc&* aitc&* coac&.
3. Shortened in terminal position, when Iollowed by E/? reac&e(*
:&itc&e(* 6etc&e(* $atc&e(* $arc&e(* searc&e(* touc&e(.
4. Lateral release: 2ac&el* satc&el.
5. Nasal release: 6ortune* wuestion.
6. ModiIied by /r/ post-alveolar: teac& 2o-ertF
/3/ dental: teac& t&e$. /tI/
may be preglottalized tI, e.g. touc&.
-$?
1. ModiIied by the Iollowing vowel: !ee* !i--er* =et*@=a$* =ar* =o-*
=a5* =ust* ful'* fe5* =ourne'* fa.an* =ail* =i-e* =oule* =o'* foe* =eer*
=urist.
2. ModiIied by the preceding vowel: lie!e* ri(!e* le(!e* -a(!e* lar!e*
a-(!e* !or!e* Loo!e* stoo!e* =u(!e* ur!e* a!e* o-li!e* !ou!e* ;o'a!e*
(o!e.
3. Shortened in terminal position, when Iollowed by /d/i o-li!e(*
6or!e(* ur!e(.
1. Lateral release: cu(!el.
2. Nasal release: re!ion.
3. ModiIied by /t / post-alveolar: ur!e 2o-ertF
// dental: =u(!e t&e$.
/V is voiced between voiced sounds, e.g. &e(!es* partly devoiced
in other positions, e.g. !in* -a(!e.
N
1. ModiIied by the Iollowing vowel: 6ee* 6ill* 6ence* 6an* 6ar* 6ox*
6our* 6uss* 6oot* 6oo(* 6ir* 6orsae* 6ail* 6ine* 6o5l* 6oil* 6oe* 6ear* 6are*
6ore.
2. ModiIied by the preceding vowel: lea6* i6* c&ie6* !ira66e* c&a66
t
o66* cou!&* &al6* rou!&* tur6* sa6e* li6e* loa6* coi6.
3. Longer in terminal than in initial position, cI. t&ie6 6eet.
4. Lateral release: ri6le* tri6le.
5. Nasal release: o6ten.
6. ModiIied by /7: 6e5F
/r/: 6r'F ///?
6la!F /m/:
l'$.&.
The eact point oI contact may vary: it is more Iorward on the
lip Ior Iront vowels, and retracted Ior back vowels, e.g. 6ee* 6ar.4
lUWU
1. ModiIied by the Iollowing vowel: ;eal* ;icar* ;est* ;accine* ;an
ta!e* ;ocati;e* ;ortex* ;ul!ar* ;ocation* ;oo(oo* ;ir!in* ;eil* ;ile* ;o5*
;o'a!e* ;ote* ;eer* ;ariance.
2. ModiIied by the preceding vowel: lea;e* li;e* &a;e* star;e* o6D
!roo;e* lo;e* ser;e* s&a;e* 6i;e* ro;e.
3. Longer in terminal than in initial position, cI. ;eal e;e.
4. Partly devoiced (a) initially: ;ileF
(b) Iinally: li;e.
5. Fully voiced between voiced sounds: e;er*
6. Partly devoiced (a) initially: ;er'F
(b) Iinally: lea;e.
7. Lateral release: (e;il.
8. Nasal release: e;en.
9. ModiIied by /1/: Zla(i;ostoF
4182
97
//: Zr'-ur! /'vraib3:g/ (. uy n u); //: ;ie5. Place
variation as Ior /I/.
/ 0/
1. ModiIied by the Iollowing vowel: t&e$e* t&in* t&era.'* t&an*
t&on!* t&un(er* t&irteen* T&alia* t&ane* t&i!&* t&ousan(* t&ole* t&eatre.
2. ModiIied by the preceding vowel: 5reat&* $'t&s* (eat&* $at&s*
lat&s* $ot&s* 6ourt&s* toot&s* -irt&s* 6ait&s* sout&* Kat&s* .at&s.
3. Longer in terminal than in initial position, cI. $ot& t&e$e.
4. Nasal release: eart&en* len!t&en.
5. ModiIied by /r/: t&reeF
/w/: t&5artF //:
6ourt& 'ear* S?
sout& ni!&t.
6. May be interdental in energetic articulation.
/ 8/
1. ModiIied by the Iollowing vowel: t&ee* t&is* t&en* t&at* t&us*
t&e'* i&'* t&ou!&* t&ere.
2. ModiIied by the preceding vowel: -reat&e* 5it&* -oot&* -at&e*
tit&e* $out& (v), loat&e.
3. Longer in terminal than in initial position, cI. -reat&e t&ese.
4. Partly devoiced (a) initially: t&eseF
(b) Iinally: 5rit&e.
5. Fully voiced: &eat&en.
6. Nasal release: r&'t&$.
7. ModiIied by &i? 5it& 2oseF
1>l3 loat&e 'ouF
)? -at&e zell.
8. Initial /5/ in unstressed syllables in an approimant. It is one
oI the most Ireuent phonet c contets Ior /6/, e.g. t&e* t&is.
M
1. ModiIied by the Iollowing vowel: see* sit* set* sat* ser!eant* soc*
sa5* su66er* soot* soon* sir* surroun(* sa'* si!&* so5* soil* so* sear* 1ara&D
sour(ine* sore.
2. ModiIied by the preceding vowel: lea6s (v), sni66s* c&e6s* !ira66es*
c&a66s* cou!&s* cu66s* &oots* ser6s* sa6es* ni6es (v), coi6s* loa6s.
3. Longer in terminal than in initial position, cI. sic iss.
4. Lateral release: 5&istle* castle.
5. Nasal release: listen* so$e /sm/.
6. ModiIied by // palatalized: suit* suici(eF
/(k)w/ labialized: swuir$* swuis&F
/n/ nasalized: snarl* snareF /m/
nasalized: s$o'* s$iteF /5/
dental: $iss t&e train.
In present-day RP the increasing dominance oI /su:/ over /su:/
is observed, e.g. suit /su:t/.
$8
N
1. ModiIied by the Iollowing vowel: seal* sinc* sest* Qa$-ia* Qa$a*
soril* Qut.&en* soolo!ical* Qoo* sirconiu$* Qealan(* s'$osis* soun(s*
sone* sero* Qar a.
2. ModiIied by the preceding vowel: c&eese* is* sa's* &as* -ars* 5as*
.ause* c&oose* -uss* &ers* letters* $aise* rise* &ouse (v), .oise* rose* &ears*
t&eirs* oars.
3. Longer in terminal than in initial position, cI. soo oars.
4. Partly devoiced (a) initially: soo* sestF
(b) Iinally: &ouses* rise*
5. Fully voiced between voiced sounds: reason* season.
6. Lateral release: teasel* $easles.
7. Nasal release: socialis$* reason.
8. ModiIied by // dental: la t&e* is t&isF
// palatalized: is 'etF /n/
nasalized: -uns* .ines.
/s, z/ can be assimilated to //, g/ beIore palatal and pal a to-al -
veolar consonants, e.g. !as s&o5roo$ /gce i8tiru:m/, are t&ese
'ours /+ c5i:5 '+:/.
UJU
1. ModiIied by the Iollowing vowel: s&e* s&i.* s&el6* s&all* s&a6t*
s&o.* s&ore* s&ut* s&oul(* s&een* s&irt* s&allot* s&a.e* s&'* s&o5er* s&o5*
s&eer* s&are* sure.
2. ModiIied by the preceding vowel: clas&* 6is&* 6res&* s$as&* $ars&*
5as&* .us&* rus&* (ouc&e.
3. Longer in terminal than in initial position, cI. s&i. 6is&.
4. Lateral release: s.ecial.
5. Nasal release: station* nation.
6. ModiIied by // dental: 5as& t&e$F
// palatalized: .us& 'our ta-leF
/r/ post-alveolar: s&rie* s&re(F
/w/ labialized: 6res& 5aterF
/$.%u nasalized: &o$e s&i.* 5ar$ s&o..

Occurs only in medial position, between vowels, e.g. $easure. It


may be syllable-initial and syllable-Iinal in recent French loan-
words, e.g. !ara!e /igseraig/, -ei!e /beis/, !enre /s:nr/.
1. ModiIied by the Iollowing vowel: !i!ue* Lene;ie;e* =a-ot* !en
(ar$e* =on!leur* =u.e.
1. ModiIied by the preceding vowel: .resti!e* -arra!e* rou!e* -ei!e.
2. Longer in terminal than in initial position, cI. =u.e rou!e.
3. Partly devoiced (a) initially: =a-otF
(b) Iinally: rou!e.
5. Fully voiced: asure.
6. Lateral release: usual.
4*
99
7. Nasal release: (ecision.
8. ModiIied by //: rou!e 'our 6aceF
/n"? s.on!e* oran!e* stran!e.
N
Occurs only beIore vowels. In phonetic terms /h/ canbe consid-
ered a type oI a voiceless vowel.
1. ModiIied by the Iollowing vowel: &e* &it* &el.* &a..'* &al6* &i.**
&orn* &ut* &oo* 5&o* &er* &a-itual* &a'* &i!&* &o5* &oist* &oe* &ear* &are
6
&ouri.
2. Voiced between vowels and voiced sounds: -e&in(* in&a-itD
-o'&oo(.
There are as many allophones oI /&l as there are vowels in English,
the articulators are always in the position Ior the Iollowing vowel
sound.
/w/
Never occurs Iinally,
1. ModiIied by the Iollowing vowel: 5e* 5it* 5ax* 5a6t* 5as* 5ar
t
5orr'* Eoo(* 5oo* 5ere* 5a'* 5&'* 5o5* 5oe* 5eir* 5are* 5ooer.
2. Deyoiced Iollowing /t, k/ in stressed syllables: t5ee(* t5ent'*
t5ice* wuite* wueen.
Theie-may be complete devoicing, and /w/ will T 'realized as
a voiceless, labial-velar Iricative /JU/. Some speakers have an addi-
tional phoneme contrast, with /A/ used in all words beginning wh~,
e.g. 5&ere5ear /+wee/.
1
3. Fully voiced between voiced sounds: a5ae* (5ale* (5in(le.
//
Occurs only initially beIore vowels.
1. ModiIied by the Iollowing vowel: 'e* ui((is&* 'es* uanee* 'ar(
t
'on(er* 'our* 'oun!* 'ou* 'out&* 'ear* 'oursel6* 'a* 'oic* 'oel* 'are.
2. Devoiced by the preceding consonants /p, t, k/: .iano* tu-e*
curious.
3. Nasalized: $ule* $unition* ne5.
4. The seuences /t, dV are oIten realized as /tI, dg/, e. g. 5on:t
'ou /iwauntIu:/, coul(n:t 'ou /IkudntIu:/.
It may also be heard in stressed syllables in lazy speech, e. g.
tune /tIu:n/
t
(une /dsu:n/.
/r/
1. ModiIied by the Iollowing vowel: rea(* ri(* rest* rat* ra6t* roc*
ra5* rust* roo* roo6* 2nt!en* racoon* ra'* ri!&t* ro5* roister* rear
6
rare* rural* roar.
2. The initial clusters /tr, dr/ are realized as post-alveolar aIIri
cates.
This phoneme is used by Iew RP speakers. It is borrowed Irom Ameri -
can English.
100
3. In initial clusters, aIter Iortis stops, /r/ is a completely voiceless,
post-alveolar Iricative, e.g. .resse(* .resent. In theclusters /spr, str,
skr/ Iriction is not heard,- but there may be devoicirig: s.rea(* scratc&.
In unstressed syllables and aIter Iricatives /r/ ipartly/levoiced, post-
alveolar Iricative, e.g. ,re(* s&re(.
According to the /r/ distribution the dialects oI English can be
divided into two groups: rhotic and non-rhotic. In rhotic dialects /(
is pronounced in all contets, these dialects include the maority oS
American English varieties including . A. and Canadian dia-
lects (including the est oI England, especially the rural areas, Scots.,
and Irish). '
In non-rhotic dialects &i is not pronounced beIore a consonant or
pause. 'These dialects include most oI those spoken in England and
ales; American English spoken in the Southern and uEastern States,
Australian, South AIrican and most New ealand.
In non-rhotic varieties /r/ is pronounced in word'boundaries,
e. g. tar an( 6eat&er /'tar on iIecte/, $ot&er@in@la5 /'m+ m 'lot/.
This /r/ is called linking /r/. ' '
In non-rhotic English /r/ may be heard in places when there is
no r~ in spelling, it is termed intrusive /r/, e. g. t&e i(ea o6 it
/3i ai'dra av it/, t&e (ata in t&e re.ort /9+ Meits r m 3+ riipo:t/.
The use oI intrusive /t% is considered by 'English nativesIpeakers
as lazy or uneducated.
/I/
1
1. ModiIied by the Iollowing vowel: lee* lit* let* lac* lar* lot* la5*
tuc* too* loo.* lurc&*:la!oon* la'* tie* lou(* loiter* to5* tear* lair* lure*
lore (light allophones).
2. ModiIied by the preceding vowel: 6eel* 6ill* 6ell* .al* snarl* (oll>
6all* (ull* -ull* 6ool* earlF =e5el*5ale* 5&e:*5t*oil*.ole*i(eal*annual
(dark allophones).
3. Devoiced aIter /p, k/; .lea* .lent'* clean* cle;er. Less devoiced
aIter /I, s/, e.g. 6la!* sla..
4. Devoiced and slightly Iricative when syllabic, e.g. s.arle* ri.D
.ie* $etal.
5. Fully voiced: Mlice* 6ills* &oles.
6. Shorter beIore terminal voiceless consonants than beIore termi
nal voiced consonants and the terminal proper, cI.:
hilthealeddoll insultbaldCarl
beltbuiltbull spoiltbulledewel
asphaltspelledbill holtIooledvale
saltsnarledbell Ialsehurledwell
IaultlolledNell
7. ModiIied by nasals, nasalized: si!nal$an /'signlnran/;
by /w/ and rounded vowels, labialized, e.g. la5**
rail5a'*
See p, 89:
101
by dental, beIore and aIter them /I/ becomes dental,
e.g. 6ilt&'* -reat&less.
hen receded by Iront vowels dark Ii4 makes them more cen-
tral and low, e. g. still* tell* -alcon'. Long /i:/ when Iollowed by the
dark Ii4 becomes /+/-, e.g. $eal nrnl. /ai/, /ei/ turn into /+/, /
3/, e.g. $ile maaI, $ail meal.
k
1. ModiIied by - ne Iollowing vowel: $e* $ill* $a(* $ar* $o.* $ore*
$uc&* $oustac&e* $oon* $ur'* $aroon* $a'* $'* $ouse* $oist* $o5*
$ere* $are* $oor.
2. ModiIied by the preceding vowel: see$* &i$* t&e$* &a$* &ar$*
-o$-* stor$* roo$* -roo$* (ru$* 5or$* loat&so$e* na$e* ti$e* &o$e.
3. Shorter beIore terminal voiceless than beIore terminal voiced
and the terminal proper, cI.:
limplimbham bumpharmsbeam
hempdimsdrum lymphaimscome
4. Lateral release: ca$el.
5. Devoiced aIter /s/, e.g. s$ac.
6. Palatalized aIter /7, e.g. $ate.
/n%
1. ModiIied by the Iollowing vowel: nee* nit* nest* !nat* nast'*
not* nor* nut* noo* noon* nurse* narrate* na'* ni!&* no5* noise* no* near*
zares* zora.
2. ModiIied by the preceding vowel: s.leen* .in* .en* .an* (arn*
u.on* -orn* 6un* fune* -urn* Uon(on* .ain* 6ine* (o5n* =oin* o5n* an
ti.o(ean* Nitcairn* -ourn* $ourn* Krunn&il(e.
3. Shorter beIore terminal voiceless than beIore terminal voiced
and the terminal proper, cI. tent B turne( -an.
4. Lateral release: .anel* c&annel.
K. ModiIied by //palatalized: ne5F
//dental: on t&atF
/tI/. /V~ /J7. /3/palato-alveolar: -enc&. 6.
Devoiced aIter /s/, e.g. snac /snsek/,
Occurs only Iinally.
1. ModiIied by the preceding vowel: t&in!* son!* restaurant* 5ron!*
'oun!* oran!* len!t&'.
2. Shorter beIore terminal voiceless than beIore terminal voiced
and the terminal proper, cI. sin sin!e( sin!.
3. ModiIied by /k/: -acon (it Iorms a syllable with the preceding /k/).
4. Vowels preceding nasals are nasalized, e.g. 5ron!* fa$-* on.
102
uestions
I. How should the all op hones oI the consonant phonemes be viewed
and analysed 2. hat general rules do you know about the allophon-
ic distribution oI the consonant phonemes 3. How can you prove
that in initial prevocalic position the number oI allophones oI the con-
sonant phonemes correspond to the number oI the vowels that Iollow
7
them 4. How can you prove that voiced consonants in initial posi-
tion are gradually, voiced 5. How can you prove that the number oI
allophones oI the consonant phonemes is adeuate to the number oI
the vowels that precede them 6. How can you prove that voiced con-
sonants in terminal.position are gradually devoiced 7. How can you
prove that in medial position voiced consonants are Iully voiced
8. How can you prove that consonants are shorter in initial than in ter-
minal position 9,.Is the uantity oI constrictives altered under the
inIluence oI the Iollowing consonant 10. How do the phonemes /m,
n, 9, 5, tI, d3, I, v/ modiIy the consonants that Iollow or precede them
11. Is the uantity oI similar consonants diIIerent when they are Iol-
lowed by voiceless arid voiced consonants 12. In what position are
voiced consonants characterized by maimal length 13. hat do
you know about a) the distribution oI /r, I, w, /; b) the distribution oI
/p, t, k, b, d, g/; c) the distribution oI /h/, /J/
Eercises
&. Rea4 9:e0e V214 /m+%3a9%230 a34 V2140. O+0e1We Ea' l200 >
la9e1al pl20%237 E/' 3a0al pl20%23.
(a) /P/ (b) /P/ (c) /P/
supped people open
top people couple happen
stop talking apple
/b/ /b/ /b/
rubbed able ribbon
ebbed label stubborn
stabbed
sob bitterly
U9U U9U
/t/
he went to see bottle written
I want to go little bitten
/k/ /k/ /k/
cook clean tickle taken
took ate cycle bacon
vocal thicken
/d/ /d/ /d/
good day middle garden
what day beadle pardon
walk down riddle warden
103
/g/ /g/ /g/
begged eagle dragon
plagued giggle wagon
big game beagle Morgan
@67 Rea4 9:e0e V2140. O+0e1We 9:e /:a1a/9e1 2; 9:e W2%/e4 /23023a390 Ea' %3
;)ll. W2%/e4 p20%9%237 E+' %3 %3%9%al p20%9%237 E/' %3 ;%3al p20%9%23.
Ea' U+U E+' U+U EC' U+U
labour balm ebb
imbue bee nib
bet cab
/d/ /d/ /d/
Udder do hard
ready done hood
down mid
/g/ /g/ /g/
agony go big
again gain beg
guard league
#. Rea4 9:e0e V2140. O+0e1We Ea' 9:e l238e1 /:a1a/9e1 2; 9:e U9;7 48U p:23eme0
%3 9e1m%3al p20%9%23 a34 E+' 9:e 0:219e1 /:a1a/9e1 2; 9:e U9;7 9]U p:23eme0
%3 p1e-9e1m%3al p20%9%23 EV:e3 9:e. a1e ;2ll2Ve4 +. U97 4U'.
(a) each, Ietch, match, scorch, putch, pouch, much, liege, ridge,
badge, large, lodge, gorge, eorge;
(b) reached, hitched, Ietched, matched, searched, obliged, Iorged,
urged, udged
d. Rea4 9:e0e V2140. O+0e1We 9:e l238e1 /:a1a/9e1 2; 9:e 9e1m%3al all2p:23e0
2; 9:e U;7 W7 07 x/ p:23eme0 a34 9:e%1 0:219e1 /:a1a/9e1 %3 %3%9%al p20%9%23.
I leaI, iI, oII, cough, halI, rough, saIe, liIe
Iee, Iill, Ience, Ian, Iar, Io, Iour, Iuss, Iood
v leave, live, have, oI, groove, love, serve
veal, vest, vulgar, veil, vile, vow, vote, vet
s Iace, tennis, various, piece, since, kiss, guess
u sister, sea, sincerely, sick, sitting, see, sake z
is, his, birds, days, guards, Iees, please
zeal, zebra, zed, zero, zest, zip, ion, zone, ouave
l7 Rea4`9:e0e V2140. Pa. a99e39%23 92 Ea' 9:e pal a 92-alWe2la1 /:a1a/9e1 2; 9:e
/23023a39 m24%;%e4 +. 9:e ;2ll2V%38 p:23eme U`UL E+' 9:e p209-alWe2la1
/:a1a/9e1 2; 9:e /23023a39 m24%;%e4 +. 9:e ;2ll2V%38 p:23eme U1U9 m/' 9:e
la9e1al /:a1a/9e1 2; 9:e /23023a39 m24%;%e4 +. 9:e ;2ll2V%38 p:23eme III!
E4' 9:e la+%al%Ge4 /:a1a/9e1 2; 9:e /23023a39 m24%;%e4 +. 9:e ;2%l 2V%38 p32-
3eme UVU.
(a) beauty, tube, cute, duty, ue, Iew;
(b) bright, ,try, cry, dry, great, Iry;
(c) blight, little, clever, middle, giggle, devil;
Aa> twice, twenty, ueen, wendolen, thwart -
JO4
?. Rea4 9:e0e V214 /2m+%3a9%230. Pa. a99e39%23 92 9:e /23023a39 m24%;%e4
+. 9:e ;2ll2V%38 %39e14e39al U?7 U.
at' the institute and the children
that's the latest news opened the window
on the hook on the radio
at the club about the'house
repairs the plug in the'bathroom
Control Task
- Cla00%;. 9:e0e V214 /2m+%3a9%230 a//214%38 92 9:e 3a9)1e 2; m24%;%/a9%23
V%9:%3 9:e 812)p 21 a9 9:e e34 2; %9N Ea' a l200 2; pl20%237* E+' a3 alWe2la1
1epla/e4 +. a 4e39al7 E/' 9:e l%8:9 a34 4a1P UIU.
will you read louder, will you please, sit down; read tet 1, write
down, net time, repeat the noun, in the noun, at' ths blackboard,
clean the board, glad to see you, what can I do, like to have it, on the
seventh, round the city, and the guest, on this, what country,-good
time, tea and cake, many people, don't like, I' d like, on the bo.y's
plate, ust thirsty, mashed potatoes, mustard please, got to eat, that
pub, will you tell me, tell the girl, work now, diIIicult to deal silk
dress, but good, hit nose
XOYEL PHONEMES. DESCRIPTION OF-PRINCIPAL XARIANTS
a) Monophthongs, cr Simple Vowels
Vowels are best oI all learnt when the teacher directs-the-attention
oI the pupils to the position oI the tongue and the lips.The descrip-
tion oI the vowels should be accompanied by appropriate diagrams o
the tongue position, because a vowel is voice modiIied by diIIerent
shapes oI the supra glottal passages, especially, the mouth and the
lips.
No. I /i :/
The bulk oI the tongue is in the Iront part oI the mouth cavity, the
space in the back part oI the mouth cavity is empty.
The middle and the Iore parts oI the tongue are raised to the Iront
part oI the hard palate, but not so high as in the pronunciation oI the
Russian //.
In the course oI the /I:/ articulation the bulk oI the tongue may move
Irom a more retracted and low position, to the more Iront and ad-
vanced position. The slight movement oI the tongue which results
in the instability oI the /i:/articulation occurs within the Iront and
high position (narrow variation) oI the bulk oI the tongue.
The Iront oI the tongue starts at the /i/ position and glides up and
toward the /i:/ position, sometimeseven overshooting it and ending
"#eet $. T:e S2)340 2; E38l%0:. R Ox;2147 &$6$.R P. 66.
&0T
up in the E/ position. Thus, this diphthongoid may be represented in
allophonic transcription as Iollows: li'J.
1
Most RP speakers pronounce this sound as a stable vowel. Its
idiolectal variationa narrow diphthongal glide (in open syllables,
beIore lenis and nasals) is considered as vulgar and many
educated speakers attempt to avoid it. /i:/ can be
deIined as:
I. unrounded;
II. Iront (a) Iully Iront, high;
(b) narrow variation oI the high posi-
tion oI the tongue;
III. tense;
IV. long;
V. monophthong.
In the English /:;.6 articulation the tongue is tense, the side rims
oI it make~ Iirm contact with the upper teeth. The lips are spread.
The Russian // is pronounced with the almost neutral position oI the
lips.
Care should be taken not to conIuse the English f:;./ with the Rus-
sian 6a6.
n pi:l c
rees
niece c seal
u cheek
In the pronunciation oI /i:/ its positional length should be ob-
served: the longest in the open position, shorter in the position beIore
a voiced consonant, the shortest beIore a voiceless consonant, cI. -ee
-ea( -eat.
raphic Euivalents oI the 6:;.6 Phoneme
/i:/ is pronouncedVhen spelt:
e be /bi:/tt see /si:/
nt ea tea /tl:/u ie piece
/pi:s/yco ei ceiling /'si:hg/
nooo i in French
borrowings: machine /msiiin/
mm In Latin and reek
words: ae Caesar /~si:z3/
Ht oe Oedipus /'irdtpss/
3n ey key /ki:/mu ay
uay /ki:/xx eo
people /ip:pl/ o
l
Zassil'e; Z. M. Op. cit,- P. 95.
106
No. 2 /i/
The bulk oI the tongue is in the Iront part oI the mouth cavity
but slightly retracted. The Iront oI the tongue is raised in the direc-
tion oI the hard palate, but not so high as Ior /i
:
/. The lips are spread
and neutral. The position oI the tongue does not change during
its articulation.
/i/ can be deIined as: I.
unrounded;
II. Iront (a) Iront-retracted; '{ V
(b) broad variation oI the high po- i 4
sition oI the tongue; ( u
III. la; -----N / /
IV. short; '
V. monophthong.
/i:/ and &i are diIIerent phonemes. This can be proved by the min-
imal pairs:
eat it sheepship beetbit seeksick
Ieel Iill eel ill leadlid deeddid
heat hit meal mill leek lik beadbid
leavelive Ieet Iit peakpick peel'pill
raphic Euivalents oI the /i/ Phoneme
/i/ is pronounced when spelt:
i lid /lid/tm
y very /Iven/out, lymph /hmI/m, gladly /'glaedh/oxoo
ey whiskey /'wiski/nc
e, a beIore /biiIo:/nx, touches /'UtIiz/o, courage
/'n/cmoct
ie studies /'stAdiz/yu, sieve /siv/co ai
captain /'keeptm/n, mountain /'mauntin/o ui biscuit
/ibiskit/cyxo nut, circuit /'s3:kit/nt; oy ei
IorIeit /iIo:Iit/mtcx uo-.
It is also pronounced in the Iollowing words: busy /'bizi/
xo, minute /'mmit/my, Sunday /isAndi/ nocct,
Monday /iniAndi/not, Tuesday /'tu:zd(e)i/ no,
ednesday /iwenzd(e)i/c, Thursday /I9a:zd(e)i/ un,
Friday/'Iraidi/nx, Saturday /isaetad(e)i/cyo,
Iorehead /'Iond/o, breeches /ibri(:)tIiz/x, coIIee /ikoIi/
o, England/iiIlgbnd/x, the English/lirgliJVu,
business /ibizms/o, x, women /iwimm/xmt, mis-
chieI /imistIiI/n
No. 3 /e/
The bulk oI the tongue is in the Iront part oI the mouth cavity.
The Iront oI the tongue is raised to the hard palate but not so high
as in the /// production. The lips are slightly spread. The position oI
the bulk oI the tongue does not change during the /e/ articulation.
107
/e/ can be deIined as:
I. unrounded;
II. Iront (a) Iully Iront, mid-open;
(b) narrow variation oI the medium position oI the tongue;
III. la;
IV. short;
bitbet beetbitbet
lidled leadlidled
pickpeck peakpickpeck
Sidsaid seedSidsaid
knitnet neatknitnet
hidhead heedhidhead
raphic Euivalents oI the /e/ Phoneme
/e/ is pronounced when spelt:
e red /red/ct
ea bread /bred/x
eo eopardy /'cepadi/oncoct
ei leisure /'less/ocy
ie Iriend /Irend/y
ai said /sed/c
ay says /sez/ono
a any /leni/o-yt, coto
u bury /'ben/tnt, xoot
threepenny /'+m/xncon
No. 4 /x/
The bulk oI the tongue is in the Iront part oI the mouth cavity,
but rather low: the lower aw is uickly and energetically lowered as
soon as the vocal cords start vibrating. The
Iront oI the tongue is slightly raised, but not so
high as Ior /e/. The lips are neutral. It is longer
beIore voiced lenis consonants, and nasals, e. g. -a!*
$a(* $an. 2
// can be deIined as:
I. unrounded;
II. Iront (a) Iront, low;
(b) broad variation oI the low position oI
the tongue;
///. laxF
IV. short;
1
V. monophthong.
l
The etension oI /as/could be regarded as being in Iree variation
108
; V.
monophthong.
To practise the /e/ articulation contrast eercises are very helpIul;
To practise the // articulation contrast eercises are very helpIul;
guessgas bed bad net gnat
set sat saidsad met mat
bet bat menman headhad
beetbitbedbad peak pickpeckpack
leadlidled-lad seeksicksecsack
leeklicklack deeddiddeaddad
raphic Euivalents oI the /se/ Phoneme
/ae/ is pronounced when spelt:
a sat /saet/c ai
plaid /plaad/n
It is also pronounced in the Iollowing words: champagne
/Jaem'pem/mmnco, absolutely /igabsalurth/como,
abstract /'aebstraekt/ct, ambition /aera'bisn/
ucom
No. 5 /a/
The bulk oI the tongue is low, in the back oI the mouth cavity,
but somewhat advanced. The back part oI the tongue is slightly raised.
The lips are neutral. The mouth is open (the opening between the
aws is rather wide). It is long, but the position oI
the bulk oI the tongue does not change during its / ,
articulation. T4
S can be deIined as: Af" 4
I. unrounded; . , -----
u

H. back (a) back-advanced; Q 33
open (b) broad variation oI the low position oI / / I
the tongue; ------ I l
III. tense;
IV. long;
V. monophthong.
To practise the "at" articulation contrast eercises are recommended:
beadbard beebar
leadlard teatar
heatheart IeeIar
sheepsharp keycar
raphic Euivalents oI the /a/ Phoneme
/a/ is pronounced when spelt:
a staII /sta:I/m
Iar /Ia/
aunt "ant"Bx er
clerk /klctk/ ear
heart /hoi/c
IC$
No. 6 /D/
The bulk oI the tongue is low in the mouth cavity, but not so low-as
in the la" articulation. It is Iarther in the mouth cavity than its the
6a" articulation. The back oI the tongue is raised a little bit more-than
Ior /a/. This sound is short and is pronounced with the energd-ic
downward movement oI the lower aw. Thelips-are slightly rounded.
The Russian "o6 is closer, /u/ can be deIined as:
I. siighly rounded;
II. back (a) Iully back;
open (b) broad variation oI the low position
oI the tongue;
III. la;
IV. short;
V. monophthong.
To practise the &i articulation contrast eercise should be done
(see No. 7 /o:/ hereinaIter).
raphic Euivalents oI the "o6 Phoneme
/D/ is pronounced when spelt:
o not /nut/
a what /wot/uo
au because /bi'kDz/noomy uo
It is pronounced in the words:
loucester /igbsta/oc, knowledge /inuhcIe/, yacht
/ut/xx, arwick/'wDrik/. Vo, ashington /'DJirtan/
. mo
No. 7 /+:/
The bulk oI the tongue is in the back part oI the mouth cavity.
The back oI the tongue is raised a little higher to the soIt palate than
in the /o/ articulation. The lips are rounded and slightly protruded.
The opening between the lips is smaller than Ior
/D/. This vowel is long.
I. rounded;
. back (a) Iully back;
mid-open (b) broad variation oI the mid-
open position oI the tongue;
B, tense;
IV. long;
V, monophthong.
The Russian/o/is pronounced with the more rounded and protrud-
ed lips. The bulk oI the tongue in the articulation oI the Russian )
occupies the closer position. The Russian /o/ is a diphthongoid, it
begins with the /y/ glide. Its allophonic transcription is yo.
(o
Not to conIuse &?/ with &i the Iollowing contrast eercise can be
recommended:
cordcod sportspot caught
cot naughtnot portpot
soughtsot
raphic Euivalents oI the /o:/ Phoneme
/+:/ is pronounced when spelt:
o beIore r: horse /ha:s/omt
oo Iloor /to:/no
ou your /o:/nm
oa oar /D:/nco
a war /D:/no
eo in the word Leor!ia /'dgoidgis/yx m xoxx n
B
oa broad /bro:d/mo
ough thought /D:t/mtct
a water /'wo:ta/no
au pause /pa:z/ny
augh taught /to:t/yu
al walk /wo:k/xot
aw law /&:.lo
No. 8 /u/
The bulk oI the tongue is in the back part oI the mouth cavity,
but somewhat advanced. It is raised in the direction oI the Iront part
oI the soIt palate, higher than Ior /o:/. The lips are slightly rounded.
/u/ can be deIined as:
I. slightly rounded;
II. back (a) back-advanced;
(b) broad variation oI the high position oI
the tongue;
III. la;
IV. short;
V. monophthong.
raphic Euivalents oI the /u/ Phoneme
/u/ is pronounced when spelt:
u put /put/ct
o woman /'wumen/xm
oo book /buk/
ou could /kud/mo (t)
ull pull /pul/xyt
ush push /puJVot
M
No. 9 /u:/
The bulk oI the tongue in the /u:/ articulation is in the back part
oI the mouth cavity, retracted more than Ior /u/. The back oI the
ton!ae is raised higher in the direction oI the soIt palate than in the/u/
production, /u:/ may be a diphthongoid, then its beginning is a short
/u/, which glides to more tense and labialized /u:/, which in the end
has a /w/ glide. Allophonic transcription oI the diphthongoid /n?% can
be represented as Iollows: uu
w
. The Russian /y/ is pronounced with
the lips more rounded and protruded. The bulk oI
the tongue is tense, /u:/
can be deIined as:
I. rounded;
II. back (a) Iully back;
high (b) narrow variation oI the high position
oI the tongue;
III. tense;
IV. long;
V. monophthong.
In order not to conIuse the pronunciation oI /u:/ and /u/ which are
diIIerent phonemes, the Iollowing eercise is recommended:
poolpull toot took IoolIull coot
could goosegood poodgood boot
book
raphic Euivalents oI the /u:/ Phoneme
/u:/ is pronounced when spelt:
a true /tru:/nt
oo tool ytu:l/cym
o who /hu:/oot
o soup /su:p/cyn
ui Iruit /Iru:t/-no
eu rheumatism /iru:matizm/nmm, sleuth /slu:9/ctm
ew crew /kru:/om, +nx
/u:/ is pronounced when spelt:
tune /tu:n/mox due /du:/
xm ugn impugn /raipu:n/
ocnnt ui suit /su:t/myxco
ocmm eau beauty /'burti/co
No. 10 //
R
The central part oI the tongue is raised in the direction oI the
uncture oI the hard and soIt palate. The tongue is a little higher
than Ior /cc/. The lips are spread.
112
// can be deIined as:
I. unrounded;
II. central mid (a) narrow variation oI the low
position oI the tongue;
III. la;
IV. short;
V. monophthong.
To practise the // articulation contrast
eercises are very helpIul, e.g.
Bart-but darndone marchmuch carp cup cart
cut calmcome dark duck charmchum
raphic Euivatents oI the // Phoneme
// .is pronounced when spelt:
u sun /8n/co
o come //nxot, London /Hn+n/oo
oo blood /bUd/ont
ou touch /UtVot, enough /i'nAI/- onoto, ocouo
No. 11 /:/
The central part oI the tongue is raised almost as high as Ior / Its
surIace is more or less Ilat, the middle oI the tongue is slightly
higher. The lips are spread. Since.we cannot say that-the bulk oI the
tongue occupies the Iront or back position, it is convenient to deIine
this position oI the tongue in the /s:/ articulation as mied.
/:/ can be deIined as: I.
unrounded;
II. (a) mied;
narrow variation oI the mid-open position
( 4 3 oI'the tongue;
4 III- tense; IV. long; V.
monophthong. ,
To practise the /:/ articulation it is useIul to do the Iollowing con-
irasteercises:
bedbird all earl torn turn IullIurl
ten turn Iour Iur boardb ir d pull pearl
Benburn IormIirm court curt tookTurk
raphic Euivalents oI the /:/ Phoneme
/:/ is pronounced hen spelt:
ir birth /:6/ox y
myrtle /ima:tl/m
ne
)*+
),
+
3-
er serve /ss:v/cyxt
ear earn /a :n/tnt
wor word /3:d/cono
our ourney /'(:m/nymcn
ur turn :n/nt, nonount
No. 12 /+/
The central part oI the tongue is raised a little bit less than
Ior /:/. The lips are neutral. In speech /+/ is easily aIIected by the
neighbouring sounds and acuires diIIerent shades which are subdi-
vided by . P. Torsuyev
1
into (1) // shade, (2) /e:/, (3) /t/ shade,
(4) /7 schade.
1. // shade oI /a:/ phoneme is observed in Iinal position, beIore
a pause: co$$a /1~+

/, -utter /1+

/.
2. /:/ shade is observed in all positions, with the eception oI
those mentioned (as 1, 3), Ior eample: a-o;e /3'V/, alon!
/+H/.
3. /t/ shade is observed when // is preceded or Iollowed by the
/k, g/ phonemes: a!ain /sigem/, cac/ /Ira'nael/.
4. /7 shade is observed beIore the terminal /z, d/: tem /Uetaz/,
co;ere(
/+/ can be deIined as:
I. unrounded;
II. (a) mied;
(b) broad variation oI the mid-open position oI the tongue; B.
la;
IV. short;
V. monophthong.
raphic Euivalents oI the /+/ Phoneme
It can be stated, that almost every vowel in the unstressed po-
sition can be pronounced as /a/, Ior eample:
/e/ sense /sens/ cmtcnonsense /inunsans/ ccmtc /x/
man /xn/ uonmilkman/ /Imilkman/ moou /+:/
Iord /b:d/ oOIord /toksIod/ Oco /a:/ sir /sa:/ c+
yes, sir /'es sa/ , c+
/ei/ relation /nn/ oom, cnxtrelative /Irelativ/ o-
cn, etc.
uestions
1. hy is it important to direct the attention oI the pupils to the
movement oI the lips and the tongue in teaching vowels 2. hat
do you know about vowel No. 1 (a) description oI the articulation;
(b) deIinition; (c) comparison with the similar Russian vowel //;
i ic ^ j. \. uo coo xt. M., 1950. R3
111
d) rules oI reading. 3, hat do you know about vowel No. 2 (a) des-
cription oI the articulation; (b) deIinition; (c) comparison with vowel
No. 1; (d) rules oI reading. 4. hat do you know about vowel
No. 3 (a) description oI the articulation; (b) deIinition; (c) compari-
son with vowel No. 2; (d) rules oI reading. 5. hat do you know about
vowel No. 4 (a) description oI the articulation; (b) deIinition; (c)-
comparison with vowels Nos 3, 1,2; (d) rules oI reading. 6. hat do-
you know about vowel No. 5 (a) description oI the articulation; (b~
deIinition; (c) comparison with vowel No. 10; (d) rules oI reading.
7. hat do you know about vowel No. 6 (a) description oI the ar-
ticulation; (b) deIinition; (c) comparison with vowel No. 7; (d) rules-
oI reading. 8. hat do you know about vowel No. 7 (a) description
oI the articulation; (b) deIinition; (c) comparison with the Russian
&iF (d) rules oI reading. 9. hat do you know about vowel No. 8~
(a) description oI the articulation; (b) deIinition; (c) comparison with
vowel No. 9; (d) rules oI reading. 10. hat do you know about vowel
No. 9 (a) description oI the articulation; (b) deIinition; (c) comparison
with. Russian /y/ and English /it/; (d) rules oI reading. 11. hat d
you know about vowel No. 10 (a) description oI the articulation; (b)
deIinition; (c) comparison with vowel No. 5; (d) rules oI reading. 12.
hat do you know about vowel No. 11 (a) description oI the articu-
lation; (b) deIinition; (c) rules oI reading. 13. hat do you know-
about vowel No. 12 (a) description oI the articulation; (b) deIinition
c) rules oI reading.
Eercises
-&. T1a30/1%+e 9:e0e V2140. Rea4 9:em. O+0e1We p20%9%23al le389: 2; 9:e W2Vel
ll%L
(a) see, we, tree, be, me, he, Iee;
(b) seem, read, clean, seen, deal, people, easily;
(c) cheep, sweep, chieI, treat, least, creek, week
-6. T1a30/1%+e 9:e0e V2140. U0e 9:em 92 expla%3 9:e 1ela9%23 2; 9:e U%N p:2-
3eme 92 219:281ap:..
she, eve, concrete, Ieet, meat, niece, receive, Iatigue, aesthete,
key, uay
-#. T1a30/1%+e 9:e0e V2140. Rea4 a34 91a30la9e 9:em %392 R)00%a3.
in, ill, big, wings, pit, stick, cliIIs, spring, thing, sick, wrist, sil -
ly, building, England, backing, bushes, guineas, lovely, busy, mi-
nutes, going, dishes,
1
begins, college, women, commit, mercy, Britain,
window, missis, symptoms, holiday, interested, ecited, anything,
hesitate, privilege, criticism, initiate, medicine
-d. T1a30/1%+e 9:e0e V2140. U0e 9:em 92 expla%3 9:e 1ela9%23 2; 9:e &i p:23eme
92 219:281ap:..
did, lid, gladly, Freely, lyn, courage, village, washes, rouges,
boes, worries, copies, loaded, Iountain, biscuit, Friday, sieve, let-
tuce, Iorehead, IorIeit, coIIee
liIe
S. Transcribe these words. Read and translate them into Russian.
bed, said, help, tell, yet, head, tennis, weather, member, letter,
dressed, setter, helping, anyway, envied, pleasure, Iriendly, dressing,
desolate, separate, hesitate, myselI, remember, endeavour, hotel,
instead, Iorget, eleven
6. Transcribe these words. Use them to eplain the relation oI the /e/ phoneme
to orthography.
red, get, ten, seven, head, dead, ate, the Thames, burial
7. Transcribe these words. Read and translate them into Russian,
glad, bad, plan, can, swam, blank, drank, act, sat, Iancy, gladly,
shallow, added, anious, badly, traIIic, happen, Daddy, sadness,
began, eactly, imagine, vocabulary, programme, sandwiches, manu-
Iactures, balcony, sacriIice
Dh. Transcribe these words. Use them to eplain the relation oI the' se/ pho-
neme to orthography.
carry, ample, have, salmon, plaid, champagne, absolutely, ab-
stract, ambition
9. Transcribe these words. Read and translate them into Russian.
are, bar, Iar, car, arm, ask, card, past, Iarm, halI, part, large,
France, grass, dark, guard, park, start, smart, last, hard, mask, danc-
ing, basking, laughing, rather, hardly, harbour, answer, artist, Iather,
basket, classes, articles, archangel, departure, enlarge, at last
10. Tranicribe these words. Use them to eplain the relation oI the /ct/ pho-
neme to orthography.
mast, answer, last, tar, part, laugh, Berkley, HertIord, heart
11. Transcribe these words. Read and translate them Into Russian.
on, nod, was, rod, want, gone, ob, hot, long, song, bother, bon-
net, doctor, model, hostel, honest, nodded, body, oIIer, Holland,
rocky, solid, cannot, occupy, cottages, prosperous, geometry, Iollow-
ing, holiday, wasn't, seen oII
12. Transcribe these words. Use them to eplain the relation oI the /;l pho-
neme to orthography.
u hot, sorry, Ioreign, uality, almanac, sausage, knowledge, yacht
13. Transcribe these words. Read and translate them into Russian.
more, draw, all, call, bore, thought, horse, talk, sort, bought,
eorge, shore, always, Iorward, water, walking, morning, beIore,
also, eports, importance, awIully, audience, orchestra, altogether,
oI course, Iorty-Iour
H. Transcribe these words. Use them to eplain the relation oI the S pho-
neme to orthography.
port, Iort, Iloor, door, course, court, Iour, pour, roar, war, broad,
bought, wrath, cause, Iall, yawn, paw, thaw
116
15. Transcribe these words. Read and translate them into Russian.
good, room, would, cook, Ioot, took, put, soot, shook, looked,
bushes, manuIactures, wooden, couldn't, wouldn't, woodland, restIul,
woman, put out, put on, good-bye, naturally, recapitulate, careIully
16. Transcribe these words. Use them to eplain the relation oI the "a" pho-
neme to orthography.
put, push, pull, worsted, wolI, look, stood, took, could, should,
courier 17. Transcribe these words. Read and translate them into Russian.
Ilue, zoo, too, who, two, use, you, Iew, true, Iood, soon, school
youth, move, rule, huge, knew, usually, absolutely, pneutnona, mov-
ing, avenue, humour, beautiIul, review, ruined, suicide, value, reg-
ular, pupils, human, assumed, constitution
18. Transcribe these words. Use them to eplain the relation oI the /u:/ pho-
neme to orthography.
blue, rude, rule, June, cool, tomb, group, wound, bruise, brew,
alsribe these words. Use them to eplain the relation oI the /a:/ pho
neme to orthography. , . uli ow
tune, humour, use, cue, Tuesday, suit, neuter, Iew, beauty, Hughes
20. Transcribe these words. Read and translate them into Russian.
one, run, Iun, shut, bus, much, ton, young, come other rammer,
brother, mother/another, currents, chuckle, worndwd m
money, Iunny, lovely, country, compass, must, ust, trouble, wonue
Iul, wonderland, instructor, introduction, meaning 21. Transcribe
these words. Use them to eplain the relation oI the 0% pho-
neme to orthography.
must, unust, udge, humbug, does, Iront, among, money,
couple, rough, tough
22. Transcribe these words. Read and translate them into
'
were,
heard, word, workers thirty JS her, years, Burlow,
girls, birds, work, turkey, cu worse, Sherlock, certainly, worth,
dirt, perIect 23. Transcribe these words. Read them. Use them to eplain
the relation
the &il phoneme to orthography. stir, myrtle, kernel, heard,
worker, turner, nurse, Iur 24. Transcribe these words.
Read~nd;tramlate them into
ussia
.
D
agai n, al ong, about , acr os s , obey, J '
Piccadilly, conIess, perhaps, suppose, condition, p
to pleaseI to stop, the song, to do, to Iish, the giris,.P
ably, Iinally, wonderland, woodland, decorate, gli
ehester, desolate, recognize, traveller, balcony ,,stressed
25. ive eamples to prove that the sound S 0 the core oI the unstressed
vocal ism in Modern English.
Control Task
Transcribe and read the passages.
1
Underline the vowels, which relate to the
Iounds /i, i, e, x, , ~,,,1, , :, e/. ive their articulatory charac-
teristics.
No. 1 /i:/
1. People seem to like it. 2. They help by sweeping and cleaning
the rooms. 3. That doesn't mean sleeping and eating in tents. 4. The
hotel at the seaside will cost you at least thirty pounds a week.
No. 2 /i/
I. hat is it I asked him. 2. He looked a sick and miserable
boy. 3. He leIt diIIerent medicines with instructions Ior giving them.
4. The medicine w 1 bring (o5n the Iever.
No. 3 "el
1. It took him ten minutes to get to ensington ardens. 2. There's
a special burial ground Ior dogs there. 3. You Iorget about en-
sington ardens, you could spend a couple oI hours there. 4. They
drive on the leIt side oI the road instead oI the right.
-o. 4
1. Ann and Mary were happy in their ntw hats. 2. The Iact is Mother
packed the sandwiches herselI. 3, He waved his hand back to~ her
till he hit his hand on the back edge. 4. She'd have gladly sacriIiced
1
anything Ior the Iamily's sake. 5. The plate oI sandwiches.' is standing
on the mantelpiece.
No. F
Arnold laughed at the artist. 2. She started to have classes last
autumn. 3. Last time Arnold asked iI they could have classes with
the artist. 4. Arnold can't enlarge his vocabulary by starting to toss
dictionaries into a waste basket. 5. To enlarge your knowledge in
art you must start reading at once.
No. 6 S
I. I hadn't got a vacancy in my oIIice. 2. tio made that oIIer
oI a ob 3.1 was shocked when he oIIered to sell his watch 4. Oh, my
godl hat a lot oI people come to his oIIice to ask Ior a ob. 5 Do-
yon want a ob He nodded. At $; oIIice I haven't got anything
to oIIer you.
No. 7

y

is
he water oI the North Sea near
England is warm. 3. There are no more
good waterways in the north. 4. Shallow water is warmertSi deep wat-
/3i#6tQr#T* lItI Cour se
IIS
It. wSI J
a
l
er
i5
ea
5iS
irway

is

- 2- It is very important that


the water oI the North Sea near England is warm. 3. There are no more
good waterways in the north 4 Shall S t
er and helps to keep the shores Irom the cold oI Norway. 5. The North
Sea is not more than 600 Ieet deep. So the water in the North Sea is
shallow and warm.
No. 8 /u/
I. He is a good cook. 2. Should I look Ior the sugar 3. He'd put
on weight and looked solid. 4. The woman put on her new dress and
asked iI it was good. 5. The good woman put on her hat, looked at
iierselI and said that iI she could go, she would.
No. 9 /u:/
The youth soon Iound two very good seats Ior the two. 2, The
youth is truly Iond oI new music. 3. Soon the two were through too.
4. You like their new costumes, don't you
No. 10 //
1. Mother is coming to see us this summer. 2. My brother likes
running very much. 3. Every summer hundreds oI people come to the
South, 4. He said he would come another time and I saw he was wor-
ried about something.
No. 11 &?l
1. You are perIectly sure to meet Iactory workers, oIIice woikers
and shop girls there. 2. First oI all you must know that holiday camps
are permanent buildings. 3. Perhaps when you were here last year you
heard something about my girl-Iriend. I
No. 12 &i
1.1 was rather surprised. 2.1 looked at him or a bit. 3. It was such
an insane answer to give. 4. I got some glimmering oI what he was
driving at. 5. He was rather taken aback. 6. It's over three miles an
it's rather diIIicult on'account oI the currents roun the beacon.
b) Diphthongs, or Comple Vowels
Closing Diphthongs
No. 13 /et/
The nucleus oI the diphthong /ei/ is vowel No. 3/e/, which is close-
ly connected with the second element oI the diphthong the glide
/i/. In the articulation oI the diphthong /ei/the bulk oI the tongue
glides Irom the /e/ to the &i position, but the Iull Iormation oI &i
is not accomplished. Since the movement oI the tongue in thearticu
:
lation oI /ei/ is Irom a more open to a more close position, /ei/ is cal-
led a closing diphthong with the Iront, mid narrow unrounded nu-
cleus. The lips are slightly spread. The opening between the aws is
rather narrow, wider Ior the nucleus than Ior the glide (Fig. 9).
119
mended: peelpailpile
weelwailwhile
neanma inmine
IeetIateIight
leaklakelike
paypaidpain
maymademate
daydate
ablecable'table pain
camegame play
playspace penpain
Iell Iail sell:sale
menmain
saysamesake
gaygamegait
baybait
raphic Euivalents oI the /ei/ Diphthong
/ei/ is pronounced when spelt:
a take /teik/t ai
wait /weit/xt ay
say /sei/ct ei
vein /vein/x ey
they /ei/o ea great
/greit/otmo
It is also pronounced in the words: ail /dseil/
mtm, gauge /geidg/m; mxt, chaos aoc,
aorta /eibtta/o
Z"
'(
Z Z
+
Z X
Z
N
,i!. ,i!. 1
No. /+/
The nucleus oI the diphthong /+/ starts at the position Ior
1
vowet
No. 11 /3:/,the articulation oI the nucleus is closely connected with
the second element oI the diphthong, the glide /u/. In the articulation
oI /+/ the bulk oI the tongue glides Irom the /a/ to the /u/ position,
but the Iull Iormation oI /u/ is not accomplished. Since the movement
oI the tongue in the articulation oI /$l is Irom a more open to a more
close position /au/ is called a closing diphthong with a central
1
mid
(narrow variation oI the medium position oI the tongue) nucleus
(Fig. 10). The lips are neutral at the beginning oI the diphthong and
rounded at the end oI it Ior /u/.
To practise the /+/ articulation the Iollowing eercises are re-
commended:
120
To practise the /ei7 articulation the Iollowing eercises are recom-
oak own open old over only go
snow no so show low ago October
Moscow also tempo window Ilow . coal home
hold cold close telephone Soviet slogan socialist
raphic Euivalents oI the /au/ Diphthong
/+/ is pronounced when spelt:
o so /sau/
oe Ioe /Iau/n
oa road /raud/oo
ou soul /ssul/ym
ough though /3+/xox, dough /dau/co
ew sew /sau/mt
ow know /neu/t
It is also pronounced in the words: omit /s(u)imit/ynyct,
Olympic /au'limpityomnc
No. 15 /ai/
The nucleus oI the diphthong /ai/ is the Iront open /a/ (more open
and retracted than vowel No. 4 /seO which glides to /i/ without reach-
ing it, the glide sounds like a weak /(. In the articulation oI /ai/
the bulk oI the tongue moves Irom a more open /a/ position to a more
close /i/ position. The amplitude oI this
movement is bigger than that in the /ei/
and /+/ articulation.
The opening between the aws is rather
wide Ior the nucleus and much narrower Ior
the glide.
To practise the pronunciation oI the diph-
thong /ai/ the Iollowing eercises are recom-
mended:
,i!. it
I mine tide Iight
tie time tile slight
die dime size like
pie pine lies pipe
my nine wide
1
might
lie line died night
IineIeign bybay
linelain likelake
IightIate mymay
minemane dieday
raphic Euivalents oI the /ai/ Diphthong
/ai/ is pronounced when spelt:
i time /taim/nmx
igh night /nait/out
121
eigh height /hart/ntco, but: eight /eit/nocmt y
my' /mal/mo
It is also pronounced in the words: buy /bai/
ynt, guide /gaid/, eye /ai/
No. 16 /au/
The nucleus oI the diphthong /au/ is /a/, which is more back than
/a/ in /ai/. According to the data given by Ioreign authors, the nucleus.
oI the diphthong /au/ is open, broad, central, unrounded. Vassilyev
deIines it as a diphthong with a Iront-retracted nucleus /a/, which


&
Uau
0&
1b ,i!. 1r
The opening between the aws is wide Ior the nucleus and much
narrower Ior the glide.
To practise the /au/ articulation, the Iollowing eercises are re-
commended:
micemouse liedloud
licelouse nightnow
shyshout gyegout
diedoubt ryerout
Iowl thythou
raphic Euivalents oI the /au/ Diphthong
/au/ is pronounced when spelt:
ou house /haus/ om
otigh plough /plau/ nxt
ow how /hau/
No. 17 /: i/
prop
6
H' 7
M0B

31/

is
}
which

is

ndther

No
-
6
) 1:&lanri S t
I
The

08
,

on

oI

the

bulk

oI
e tongue is be-TQ direction
tOng
-
U
I'
gH
I
deS
,
cm

the

back

and
low position glide TI6$-$U#f#
l0l
;/l
z
D
,
H(

c83
V to accomplish the
122
cow
gown howl
now bow
house
town
row
mouth
down loud allow
DeIinition: /01/ is a closing diphtnong with the back, low (narrow
variation) slightly rounded nucleus (Fig. 13).
To practise the /oi/ articulation the Iollowing eercises are recom-
mended:
oil voice avoid
coil oin spoil
boy toy destroy
boy bay Ioil Iail pointpaint
doilydaily hoisthaste soil sail
raphic Euivalents oI the /oi/ Diphthong
/DI/ is pronounced when spelt:
oi point /pomt/ny, ou, boil /boil/nt, coin /kom/
mo V boy /boi/mtu, oy /d3Di/
oct
Centring Diphthongs
1
No. 18 /ia/
The nucleus oI this diphthong is vowel No. 2 /i/. The bulk oI
the tongue moves Irom the /i/ position to the position, which it occu-
pies in the /+/ articulation, the Iull Iormation
oI it is Iully accomplished.
DeIinition: /ia/ is a centring diphthong
with the high (broad variation oI the high
position oI the tongue) Iront-retracted unround-
ed nucleus. hen /la/ occurs in an open syl-
lable and is Iollowed by a pause, the glide
sounds like the vowel //. The lips are neu-
tral.
To practise the +/ articulation the Iollow
ing eercises are recommended: ,i!.

ear, hear, year, dear, near, clear, engineer, really


he hear me mere Iee Iear tea
tear beadbeard shesheer bebeer
we weir peapeer
raphic Euivalents oI the /ia/ Diphthong
/m/ is pronounced when spelt:
er here /hra/-ct eer
beer /bia/nno
U The term centring is connected with the glide / +/, which is considered
to be central. In this book it is reIerred to as mied. In leason's transcription
they are represented as /ih/, /eh/, /oh/, /uh/.
123
\ '
ier pier /pia/xx ir
Iakir +'m, 'Iakia/
ear year /is, a:/o ea
beIore other consonants:
real /ml/coxm e
beIore unaccented a, u:
idea /aildia/x, geum
@`. n
No. 19 /+/
The bulk oI the tongue starts Irom the position intermediate
between vowels No. 3 /e/ and No. 4 /se/, then it glides to articu-
late /9/, the Iull Iormation oI which is not accomplished. The

)/
,i!. /K ,i!. 1X
nucleus oI /+/ is more open than the English /e/ or the Russian
/+/ in a$o. The lips are spread .or neutral.
DeIinition: /+/ is a centring diphthong with the Iront, mid-
open -(broad, variation oI the medium position oI the tongue), un-
rounded nucleus (Fig. 15).
To practise the /+/ articulation the Iollowing eercises are re-
commendedr-
chair ware hair
care suare Iair
their mare' pair
dare Iare declare
IarIare' marmare carcare
bar bare char-chair tartare
raphic Euivalents oI the /E3/ Diphthong
/+/ is pronounced when spelt:
a beIore r; care //o
ai s~ air /+/noyx
e there /3+/m
ei their /5+/x, cno
ea tear +/t, nt
aerate /'+, 'eiareit/nonnt
ay beIore or: mayor /+/m+
1bt
No. 20 /+/
The nucleus oI the phoneme /+/ is a high back-advanced /u/, which
gradually glides to /+/.
DeIinition: /+/ is a centring diphthong with the back-advanced,,
high (broad variation oI the high position oI the tongue), slightly round-
ed, short and la nucleus (Fig. 16).
Care should be taken not to conIuse the diphthong /+/ with /u./,
To avoid this mistake the Iollowing eercise is recommended:
shoesure poolpoor crewcruel two
tour do doer grewgruel
raphic Euivalents oI the /+/ Diphthong
/+/ is pronounced when spelt:
oo beIore r: poor //t oe
doer /dua/xt ou
tourist /ituanst/yc u
sure /Jua/ynt
It is pronounced in the words: steward /'stusd/
ynnxmm, sewer /su9/coux y
The phoneme /~+/ which is represented in spelling by -oor, -ore,.
e. g. (oor* $ore is not obligatory, it is considered to be a Iree
variant oI the phoneme /+:/. It is not included in the inventory
oI vowels.
SUBSIDIAR, XARIANTS OF THE ENGLISH XOYEL PHONEMES
a) Unchecked and Checked Vowels
Allophonic diIIerences in the vowel system oI the English language
are conditioned by their distributional characteristics. All oI them may
occur in initial position
"i?" economy /a:/ arc /u:/ Uganda /ei/ eight /ia/ earshot
/i/ image ";" on //' utter /ai/ idea /+/ airway
/e/ editor /o:/ all /+:/ earn /au/ hour /+/ Urdu
/ae/ acid /u/ Uruguay /+/ about /oi/ oily /+/ over
In initial position the vowel is more or less Iree Irom the inIluence
oI the net consonant phoneme.
Vowels may be nasalized, (a) more iI they precede the'nasal
sound and (b) less when they Iollow it.
(a) tIia pen hsem b) mi: nset msep
kin ten bom meed nest b
Low vowels are more aIIected by nasal consonants than mid and
high vowels.
&6T
noon nine
noodle neat
moon clean
mar
mean
Iarm Iine
Allophonic diIIerences in the vowel system are mostly in uantity,
or length. The uantity oI vowels depends on the Iollowing Iactors:
1. position oI a vowel in a word: (1) Iree; (2) terminated by a
uvoiced, or a voiceless consonant;
2. position oI a vowel in relation to word stress;
3. position oI a vowel in relation to sentence stress and rhythm;
4. there are etralinguistic Iactors that may aIIect the length oI
uvowels. They are connected with emotional characteristics. For eam
ple, iI we compare similar vowels in the Iollowing sentences we may
observe uantitative dependence oI vowels on the emotional colour
ing.
The 'Man o Property, by iJohn
4
abworthy (title) A Forsyte,
reiplied iyoung ,Jolyon, is ' not an uncommon animal...
/o:/ in the word ,ors'te is longer than /D:/ in the word oats@
5ort&'.
Connection oI a vowel with word stress is another characteristic
iIeature, peculiar to the English language. A vowel in unstressed po-
sition may change not only its uantity but it undergoes ualitative
-changes, which may result not only in its reduction but in the occur-
rence oI the neutral vowel /+/.
It should be borne in mind that unstressed vowels in English
nay preserve their uantity. They may be Iully long: e$ission
,/k'miIn/, orc&estral /o:'kestrel/, etc.
This is never the case with the Russian language, where all un-
stressed vowels are reduced, according to their position in the word.
For eample, the Russian /a, o/ are reduced to / / in the Iirst
pretonic syllable and to // in other unaccented syllables: c//c,
//t, o//ny, co//y, // oo.
The Russian /e/ is pronounced as /t

/ aIter /x, m/ in the Iirst


pretonic syllable: x/t

/, x/t

/nt. In other pretonic syllables


,/e/ is pronounced as //: x//.
The Russian /a/ is pronounced as /

/ aIter the soIt /u, m/ in


the Iirst pretpnic syllable: u/

/ct.
The Russian /e/ is pronounced as /+/ aIter soIt consonants in
posttonic position: nt/+/cy, ou/+/t.
The uality oE English vowels oI Iull Iormation is very stable
and deIinite /i:/ and /u:/ are eceptions).
Articmatory diIIerences oI vowel phonemes depend on (1) the place
uoI articulation oI the adacent consonant and on (2) the active organ
oI speech oI the adacent consonant,
&6?
Contetual and Idiolectal Variants oI English Voels.ar.d
Monophthongs in Terms oI CV, VC Relations
n*i
The phoneme /k/ may occur in initial and in terminal posi -
tions: e.oc& /ii:puk/, tea /ti:/.
/i:/ is preceded by consonants characterized as:
labial
bilabial: .ee* -e* 5e
Iabio-dental: 6eet* ;eal
lingual, Iorelingual
dental, interdental: t&e$e* t&e
alveolar: tea* (eal* sea* seal* lee* neat
palato-alveolar: s&e* c&eese
post-alveolar, cacuminal: rea(
lingual, medio-Hngual: 'iel(
lingual, backlingual: e'
pharyngal (glottal): &e
/;.l is Iollowed by consonants characterized as:
labial
bilabial: lea.* see$
Iabio-dental: lea6
lingual, Iorelingual
dental, interdental: s&eat&* -reat&e
alveolar: eat* (ee(* s.leen
palato-alveolar: leas&* eac&
lingual, backlingual: tea* lea!ue
It may be diphthongized in open syllables and beIore lenis and na-
sal consonants, See above.
BeIore dark I/4 a centring glide may be heard.
RP speakers try to avoid any glide in /i;/ pronunciation as vul -
gar. ide diphthongs are typical oI Cockney, Birmingham, South-
ern USA and other low prestige dialects.
N
The phoneme /i/ occurs in initial and in terminal position.
It never occurs Iinally in a stressed open syllable: enou!& 1n/

.it' /piti/.
&i varies with /+/ in unstressed syllables, e. g. &el.less* re$o;e.
In words with preIies pre, de, re /// is* pronounced, iI the preIi i
used to convert a word into a new Iorm, e. g. $o(i6' B .re$c(i6'
u
conta$inate B (econta$inate* /+/ instead oI /i/ tends to be the domi-
nant Iorm, see the latest edition oI the English pronouncing dictionary,
&i is preceded by consonants characterized as:
labial
bilabial: .it* 5it
labio-dental: 6it* ;ie
lingual, Iorelingual, apical
127
dental, interdental: t&in* t&is
alveolar: tin* (in* nit
palato-alveolar: sItip, c&in
post-alveolar, cacuminal: ri(
lingual, medio-Iingual: 'in* 'ill
lingual, backlingual: in* !i;e
pharyngal: &it
S is Iollowed by consonants characterized as:
labial
bilabial: li.* ni-
labio-dental: i6* li;e
lingual, Iorelingual, apical
dental, interdental: $'t&
alveolar: it* (i(* t&is
palato-alveolar: 6is&* ri(!e
lingual, backlingual: .ic* -i!
Final /i/ in modern RP is considerably closer. In Yorkshire and
Lancashire a very open vowel, almost like /e/ is Iound Iinally, e. g.
n/. /i/ is centralized and lowered beIore dark lit* e. g. still* sil.
In modern RP /i/ is lower and more centralized than in more old-
Iashioned speech.
/e/
The phoneme /e/ may occur in initial position, but it never occurs
terminally.
"el is preceded by consonants characterized as:
labial
bilabial: .et* -et
labio-dental: 6ence* ;est
ingual, Iorelingual, apical
alveolar: ten* (ea(
palato-alveolar: s&el6* c&est
post-alveolar, cacuminal: rest
lingual, medio-lingual: 'es
lingual, backlingual: e.t
pharyngal (glottal): &el.
/( is Iollowed by consonants characterized as:
labial
bilabial: ste.* e--
labio-dental: c&e6 lingual,
Iorelingual, apical
dental, interdental: (eat&
alveolar: ate* (ea(* less
palato-alveolar: 6res&* 6etc&
lingual, backlingual: 5rec* -e!
Some speakers have a more central uality, sometimes with a Ii -
nal /a/ glide.
/e/ is lowered and centralized beIore dark II, e, g. tell* 6elt. /(
is closer beIore velars, e. g. .e!* .ec.
128
The phoneme /ae/ may occur in initial position but it never occurs
terminally.
/se/ is longer beIore Ienis and nasals in: -a!* $a(* $an* sa(* -a(*
t&at (the only eample beIore a Iortis).
Sometimes /se/ has a pharyngal constriction creaky voice ual-
ity.
In aIIected RP some speakers pronounce S with a Iollowing /a/
element diphthongization.
/se/ is preceded by consonants characterized as:
labial
bilabial: .at* -a(
Iabio-dental: 6an lingual,
Iorelingual, apical
dental, interdental: t&an* t&at
alveolar: tan* (a(
palato-alveolar: s&all* =a$
post-alveolar, cacuminal: ran
lingual, medio-Iingual: uanee
lingual, backlingual: cat
pharyngal (glottal): &a$
S is Iollowed by consonants characterized as:
labial
bilabial: cla.* ca-
labio-dental: &a;e lingual,
Iorelingual, apical
dental, interdental; &at&
alveolar: &at* (a(
palato-alveolar: s$as&* -a(!e
lingual, backlingual: -ac* -a!* san!
A very open /se/ is heard Irom young speakers.
M
The phoneme "a" may occur in initial and in terminal positioni
ar$' /lami/, 6ar /Ia/,
/a/ is preceded by consonants characterized as:
labial
bilabial: .al$* -ar
labio-dental: 6ar* ;ast
lingual, Iorelingual, apical
alveolar: tar* lar
palato-alveolar: s&a6t* c&ance* =ar
post-alveolar, cacuminal: ra6t
lingual, medio-lingual; 'ar(
lingual, backlingual: car* !ar(en
pharyngal (glottal): &ar$
/a:/ is Iollowed by consonants characterized ass
labial
5-182
I29
bilabial: &ar.
labiodental: star;e lingual,
Iorelingual, apical
dental, Interdental: &ealt&
alveolar: &eart* &ar(
palato-alveolar: $ars&* tar!e
lingual, backlmgual: -ar
A very back uality oI S is typical oI old-Iashioned speech or
aIIected Iorms.
N
The phoneme &i may occur in initial position but it never occurs
in terminal position. The l i p rounding is very slight.
&i is preceded by consonants characterized as;
labial
bilabial: .ot* -ox
Iabio-dental: 6ox* 6o!
lingual, Iorelingual, apical
dental, interdental: t&on!
alveolar: to.* (o!* soc
palato-alveolar: c&o.* 6o-
post-alveolar, cacuminal; ro-
lingual, medio-Hngual: 'on(er
lingual, backlingual: cot* !ot
pharyngal (glottal): &ot
/D/ is Iollowed by consonants characterized as:
labial
bilabial: &o.* $o-
1 abio-dental: o66* o6
lingual, Iorelingual, apical
dental, interdental: $ot&
alveolar: &ot* ol(* 5as
palato-alveolar: 5as&
lingual, backlingual: loc* 6o!* 5ron!
M
The phoneme /o:/ may occur in initial and in terminal position:
or-it /b:bit/, sa5 /so:/.
/+:/ is preceded by consonants characterized as:
labial
bilabial: .ort* -ou!&t* 5ar
Iabio-dental: 6or lingual,
Iorelingual, apical
dental, interdental: t&orn
alveolar: tal* (oor* sa5
palato-alveolar: s&ore* =a5
post-alveolar, cacuminal: ra5
lingual, medio-lingual: 'our
130
lingual, backlingual: core
pharyngal (glottal): &orn
// may be Iollowed by consonants characterized as;
labial
bilabial: or-
1 abio-dental: cou!&
Singual, Iorelingual, apical
dental, interdental: nort&
alveolar: ou!&t* .ause
palato-alveolar: scorc&* !or!e
Hngual, backlingual: 6or
Some speakers pronounce /++/ in words with ore, e.g. sore /SDS/.
It is heard in old-Iashioned RP and prevails in dialects.
.?l may be pronounced instead oI /+/ in: sure /Jo:/, 'ou:re /o:/,
.oor /po.7. More open varieties oI oil characterize old-Iashioned
Beech.
UAU
The phoneme // occurs in initial position, but it never occurs
terminally. It is the shortest oI the checked vowels.
// may be preceded by consonants:
labial
bilabial: -ut* 5orr'
labio-dental: 6uss* -ul!ar
lingual, Iorelingual, apical
dental, interdental: t&un(er* t&us
alveolar: tu-* (uc
palato-alveolar: s&ut* =ust
post-alveolar, cacuminal: ran
lingual, medio-lingual: 'oun!
lingual, backlingual: cut
pharyngal (glottal): &ut
"]% may be Iollowed J3y the Iollowing consonants:
labial
bilabial: u.* tu-
labio-dental: rou!&* lo;e
lingual, Iorelingual, apical
dental, interdental: (ot&
alveolar: -u(* -ut
palato-alveolar: rus&* =u(!e
lingual, backlingual: (uc* -u!* 'oun!
// is retractedbeIoreiark B, e.g. (ull.
N
The phoneme /u/ occurs initially only in proper names oI Ioreign
origin, e.g. 0ru!ua'. .
/u/ may be preceded by consonants characterized as:
labial
6
131
bilabial: .ut* -oo
labiodental: 6oot
lingual, Iorelingual, apical
alveolar: too* soot
palato-alveolar: s&oul(
post-alveolar, cacuminal: roo
lingual, backlingual: coo* !oo(
pharyngal (glottal): &oo
/u/ may be Iollowed by consonants characterized as: labial
bilabial: roo$ lingual,
Iorelingual, apical
alveolar: .ut* &oo(* .ull
palalo-alveolar: .us&* -us&* cus&ion
lingual, backlingual: too* cucoo
Some speakers pronounce back-advanced ) as more central, e.g.
!oo(.
/ u: /
The phoneme /:/ may occur in initial and in terminal position:
oose /u:z/, un(o /'An'du:/,
/u:/ may be preceded by consonants characterized as:
labial
bilabial: .ool* -oot
labio-dental: 6oo( lingual,
Iorelingual, apical
alveolar: t5o* (o* noon
post-alveolar, cacuminal: roo6
iala to-alveolar: s&oe* fune
ingual, medio-Hngual: 'out& I
lingual, backlingual: cool* !oose
pharyngal (glottal): 5&o
/u:/ may be Iollowed by consonants characterized as:
labial
bilabial: stoo.
labio-dental: &oo6 lingual,
Iorelingual, apical
dental, interdental: toot&
alveolar: -oot&* c&oose* $oon* 6ool
palato-alveolar: (ouc&* rou!e* .ooc&
lingual, backlingual: (ue
/u:/ may be diphthongized in open syllables and beIore lenis or
nasal consonants. It is a stable vowel beIore Iortis. Similarly to /:;f
diphthongization /u:/ with a glide is considered vulgar. All speakers
pronounce /u/ with a very wide glide aIter 1>1* e.g. use* ne5. It is
stable aIter 1.
132
/.//
The /:/ phoneme occurs in initial and in terminal position:
earl' /ia:h/, 6ur /Ia:/, 6urt&er /:+/, re6er /riIe:/.
/:/ may be preceded by consonants characterized as:
labial
bilabial: .urr* -urr
labiodental: 6ir* ;er!e
lingual, Iorelingual, apical
dental, interdental: t&irst
alveolar: ter$* (irt* sir
post-alveolar (cacuminal): 2nt!en
palato-alveolar: s&irt
lingual, medio-lingual: 'ear
lingual, backlingual: cur-* !irl
pharyngal (glottal); &er
/s:/ may be Iollowed by consonants characterized as:
labial
bilabial: er-* 5or$
labio-dental: tur6* ser;e
lingual, Iorelingual, apical
dental, interdental: $irt&
alveolar: &urt* -ir(
palato-alveolar: ur!e
lingual, backlingual: -ur!
Very open /r.l is typical oI old-Iashioned speakers and aIIected
RP.
The /+/ phoneme occurs in Initial and terminal position: a-out
/31baut/, so6a /IseuIa/.
/+/ may be preceded by consonants characterized as:
labial
bilabial: -anana* 5as
labio-dental: 6orsae* ;ocation
lingual, Iorelingual, apical
dental, interdental: T&alia
alveolar: to-acco* (o$ination
post-alveolar (cacuminal): racoon
palato-alveolar: fa.an
lingual, medio-Iingual: 'oursel6
lingual, backlingual: contain* !alloon
pharyngal (glottal): &a-itual
S may be Iollowed by consonants characterized as:
labial
bilabial: 5allo.
labio-dental: 0/ lingual,
Iorelingual, apical
dental, interdental: Nl'$out&
03S
alveolar: -ut* &a(* Uon(on
palato-alveolar: suc&
lingual, backlingual: -ul5ar
&i has two distinct allophones: 1) a closer one beIore velars, e.g.
a!ainF 2) an opener allophone in Iinal position, similar to //, e.g.
(octor* c&ina* -itter* see above.
Idiolectal variations are connected with the degree oI openness
in terminal positions.
uestions
1. hat is the basis Ior vowel allophonic diIIerences 2, In what
position are vowels Iree Irom the inIluence oI other sounds 3. hat
vowel distributional characteristics are aIIected in a greater degree:
ualitative or uantitative 4. In what way are vowels inIluenced by
neighbouring nasal consonants 5. hat are the Iactors that may aI-
Iect vowel uantitative characteristics 6. hat is positional length
oI the vowels 7. How is vowel uantity connected with accent
8. Is vowel uality connected with the neutral vowel phoneme /+/
9. Is vowel uantity connected with sentence stress and rhythm
10.How do etralingu ist ic Iactors aIIect thelength ~I vowels 11. hat
is the diIIerence between the English and the Russian unstressed vow
els in terras oI their ualitative characteristics 12, How do ada
cent consonants aIIect vowels hich classiIicatory characteristics
oI consonants are the most important in this respect
Eercises
1. Transcribe these words. Use them to illustrate the distributional charac-
teristics oI the /i:/ phoneme. DeIine the consonants which (a) precede and
(b) Iollow it.
(a) we, Iever, theme, sea, deal, cheeks, reaches, yield, he, meals,
me, needn't;
(b) grebe, leave, sheath, breathe, eat, Ieel, leash, each, beak,
league, seem, spleen
2, Transcribe these words. Use them to illustrate the distributional charac-
teristics oI the l phoneme. DeIine the consonants which (a) precede and
(b) Iollow it.
(a) mist, big, Iish, thinks, thing, did, sit, liIt, giver, rich, P%ll-
hid;
(b) him, iI, live, myth, with, is, bill, tin, ridge, pick, big
3. Transcribe these words. Use them to illustrate the distributional character -
istics oI the /e/ phoneme. DeIine the consonants which (a) precede and (b)
Iollow it.
(a) wet, met, vest, then, rest, leIt, nest, chest, et, read, yes, get,
help;
(b) ebb, them, cheI, death, says, tell, pen, Ietch, ledge, lengthy
134
4. Transcribe these words. Use them to illustrate the distributional charac
teristics oI the /e/ phoneme. DeIine the consonants which (a) precede and
(b) Iollow it.
(a) van, that, lamb, gnat, champ, am, rank, Yankee, gas, ham;
(b) have, hath, match, badge, bag, sang
5. Transcribe these words. Use them to illustrate the distributional character
istics oI the /L7 phoneme. DeIine the consonants which (a) precede and (b)
Iollow it.
(a) waIt, mar, vast, tsar, lark, nasty, chance, ar, raIt, yard, gar
den;
(b) harm, starve, hearth, pass, bars, snarl, march, large
6. Transcribe these words. Use them to illustrate the distributional charac
teristics oI the /nl phoneme. DeIine the consonants which (a) precede and
(b) Iollow it.
(a) was, mop, vocative, thong, lot, not, chop, ob, rob, yonder,
got, god, hot;
(b) mock, bomb, oI, moth, was, doll, upon, scotch, dodge, Iog,
wrong
7. Transcribe these words. Use them to illustrate the distributional character
istics oI the &?l phoneme. DeIine the consonants which (a) precede and (b)
Iollow it.
(a) war, more, vorte, thorn, saw, law, nor, chore, aw, raw, your,
core, gore, horn;
(b) orb, storm, cough, north, horde, horse, all, thorn, gorge,
morgue
8. Transcribe these words. Use them to illustrate the distributional charac
teristics oI the // phoneme. DeIine the consonants which (a) precede and
(b) Iollow it.
(a) worry, much, vulgar, thunder, thus, luck, nut, ust, rub, young,
gutter, hut;
(b) tub, come, love, doth, buzz, dull, none, much, udge, bug,
young
9. Transcribe these words. Use them to illustrate the distributional charac
teristics oI the /u/ phoneme. DeIine the consonants which (a) precede and
(b) Iollow it.
(a) wood, Ioot, soot, hook, July, rook, good, cook;
(b)room, puss, bull, putch, took
10. Transcribe these words. Use them to illustrate the distributional character
istics oI the laii phoneme. DeIine the consonants which (a) precede and
(b) Iollow it.
(a) woo, Iood, you, zoom, loop, noon, rooI, chew, June, youth,
goose, who, zoo;
(b) broom, groove, booth, goose, choose, moon, stooge, duke, Bug
11. Transcribe these words. Use them to illustrate the distributional character
istics oI the /+:/ phoneme. Deline the consonants which (a) precede and
(b) Iollow it.
135
. (a) were, murky, virgin, thirst, lurch, nurse, Rntgen, church
ourney, year, girl, her;
(b) kerb, worm, serve, mirth, earl, burn, urge, uirk, burg 12.
Transcribe these words. Use them to illustrate the distributional charac-
mi Ilirt Ioil Phoneme. DeIine the consonants which (a) precede
Ia) maroon, vocation, Thalia, lagoon, narrate, racoon, Japan,
galloon, habitual;
(b) loathsome, oI, Plymouth, ewel, letters, bulwark, agnostik
Control Tasks
I. Describe thOHophonic diIIerences oI the vowel phonemes /* i, e, , n, ,
;* a, u, it, a:, a/ in these words.
No. 1 /i:/
easily, sea, we, meals, cheaper, tree, Iever, sleet, speaker, he,
teach, keep, sheep
No. 2 &i
in, B, big, pit, silly, middle, shilling, thing, rivers, lived, hill
No. 3/e/
5
eI
5'i
edl

ten~

1(1
'
pence
'
weather
~ eleven, anyway, them, very, d, debt
No. 4 S
n
O
TT4
pl

n

sad
',
x

1
'
natural
. imagine, shallow, strand, channel, Jack,
hats, pal, cab
No. 5 &i
bar, Iar, started, dancing, large, grass, halI, harbour, card, yard
-o. 6 hi
'
S0Ud~

no(
#g
crop
'

S* shocked, gon
d ht t
No. 8 / u/
good-byecook

Uld
'
t0

k~

l00kedt

SOOt
'
room
'
should
~ y
No. 9 / u: /
e t o o
l
'
move
'
Iood
'
soon
'
ru
ned, cool, hooI, boot, chew, 136
4
o
+
:]:
Y
gg*
S0U4p

n+,
->
/12p
*
.
, dollar, bomb,
John, gone, yonder, hot, pot
No. 7 /a/

sorts~

shore
'
re)rd
'
water
~
No. 10 //
bus, must, nothing, Iunny, summer, instructor, luck, ust, come,
chuckle, wonderIul, vulgar, thunder, thus, shut
No. 6r.6
bird, turned, girl, sir, heard, Sherlock, workers, ermany,
churches, curly, nurse, dirt, year, murky, purr
No. 12 &i
along, about, upon, to see, perhaps, summer, August, London,
desolate, condition, consist, speaker, letter, never, anious, human
2. Transcribe these words. Present the rules Ior reading the vowel phonemes
in bold type. Single out the words which are eceptions Irom theules,
holidays, Maria, Iorward, sightseeing, mouth, comIort, caIe, bil-
liards, workers, Crusoe, Sherlock, Mathew, Earnest, Iorehead, pneu-
monia, detached, bothers, head, varnished, Priestley, puzzling, pieces,
asylum, record, Maugham, Friday, woodland, newspaper, tais,
unbelievable, purpose, unIortunately, awIul, year, hotel, awkward,
coughing, employ I ee
b) Diphthongs
1t/
The phoneme /ei/ may occur in initial and in terminal position:
aorta /eib:ta/, (a' /dei/.
/ei/ is preceded by the Iollowing consonants:
labial
bilabial: .a'* -a'
labio-dental: 6ail lingual,
Iorelingual, apical
dental, interdental: t&ane
alveolar: tale* (a'
post-alveolar, cacuminal: ra'
palato-alveolar: ^* c&ain
lingual, medio-lingual: uale
pharyngal
lingual, backlingual: cae
pharyngal (glottal): &a'
/ei/ is Iollowed by consonants characterized as:
labial
bilabial: a.e
labio-dental: .a;e
lingual, Iorelingual, apical
dental, interdental: -at&e
alveolar: ate* .ace* lai(* raise* ale* $ane
palato-alveolar: a!e
lingual, backlingual: ;a!ue
/ei/, like other Ironting diphthongs, is shortened beIore Iortis,
it results in the reduction oI the Iirst element, compare /lert leid/.
The glide oI /ei/ is obscured or may be oI /+/ type.
There is some variation in the openness oI the starting point.
A more open uality is characteristic oI low-prestige dialect Iorms,
e. g. Cockney, Birmingham, Southern United States.
M
The phoneme /ai/ may occur in initial and in terminal position:
Ci(ea /atldia/, $' /mai/.
/ai/ is preceded by consonants characterized as:
labial
bilabial: .ie* -'
labio-dental: 6i!&t lingual,
Iorelingual, apical
dental, interdental: t&i!&
alveolar: tie* (ie
post-alveolar, cacuminal: ri!&t
palato-alveolar: s&'* c&il(
lingual, backlingual: ite
pharyngal (glottal): &i!&
S is Iollowed by consonants characterized as: labial
bilabial: t'.e* ti$e
labio-dental: li6e lingual,
Iorelingual, apical
dental, interdental: sc't&e
alveolar: ni!&t* ri(eO
palato-alveolar: o-li!e
lingual, backlingual: lie
For contetual variations see /ei/.
The starting point may vary: a) close starting point, above //
characterizes aIIected speech; b) retracted starting point is Iound in
Cockney and Birmingham.
/ au/
The phoneme /au/ may occur in initial and in terminal posi -
tion: o5lis& /'auhJV, no5 /nau/.
/au/ is preceded by consonants characterized as:
labial
bilabial: .oun(*@ -oun(
labio-dental: 6o5l lingual,
Iorelingual, apical
dental, interdental: t&ousan(
alveolar: to5n* (o5n
post-alveolar, cacuminal: roun(
palato-alveolar: s&out
lingual, backlingual: co5
pharyngal (glottal): &o5
1rh
/au/ is Iollowed by consonants characterized as:
lingual, Iorelingual, apical
dental, interdental: $out&
alveolar: rout* cro5(
palato-alveolar; .ouc&
The Iirst element is shorter beIore Iortis, compare: /laut laud/.
In prestigious old-Iashioned speech the nucleus is more back. Very
Iront starting points are Iound in many dialects.
U0&U
The phoneme /01/ may occur in initial and in terminal posi -
tion: oil' /bill/, -o' /boi/.
/oi/ is preceded by consonants characterized as:
labial
bilabial: .oint* -o'
labio-dental: 6oil lingual,
Iorelingual, apical
alveolar: to'* (oil'
post-alveolar, cacuminal: roister
lingual, medio-lingual: 'oic
lingual, backlingual: co'
pharyngal (glottal): &oist
oil is Iollowed by consonants characterized as:
labial
labio-dental: coi6 lingual,
Iorelingual, apical
alveolar: a(roit* anno'e(
palato-alveolar: ;o'a!e
lingual, backlingual: &oi
For contetual variations see /ei/,
A very close nucleus may beheard only in dialects, e. g. Cockney.
M
The phoneme /+/ may occur in initial and in terminal posi -
tion: o-e' /aulbei/, no /n+/.
/+/ is preceded by consonants characterized as:
labial
bilabial: .oac&* -o5
labio-dental: 6oe lingual,
Iorelingual, apical
dental, interdental: t&ole
alveolar: to5* (o$e
post-alveolar, cacuminal: roa(
palato-alveolar: s&o5* c&oe
lingual, backlingual: coal* !o
pharyngal (glottal): &oe
/+/ is Iollowed by consonants characterized ast
labial
bilabial: &o.e
labiodental: loa6 lingual,
Iorelingual, apical
dental, interdental: !ro5t&*
alveolar: 5rote* ro(e
palato-alveolar: coac&
lingual, backlingual: oa
The Iirst element oI the diphthong / +/ is reduced beIore Ioriis
consonants, compare: coat co(e.
BeIore dark I the second element is sometimes lost, the diph-
Jhong reminds /:/, e. g. coat /+/~-/:1/, saAo/e/haul//:1/-
M
The phoneme /m/ may occur in initial and in terminal position
eer' /'m/, i(ea /aiidia/.
m is preceded by consonants characterized as:
labial
bilabial: .eer* -eer
labio-dental: 6ear lingual,
Iorelingual, apical
dental, interdental: t&eatre
alveolar: tear* (ear
post-alveolar, cacuminal: rear
palato-alveolar: s&eer
lingual, medio-lingual: 'ear
lingual, backlingual: +{ar'
pharyngal (glottal): &ear
/;(l is Iollowed by alveolar consonants and sonorants /$* n, r,
1/: labial
bilabial: $useu$ lingual,
Iorelingual, apical
alveolar: -ear(* 6ierce*# li-rarian* centennial
post-alveolar: a..earin!
The nucleus may begin closer, nearer to &i.
Dialect speakers have very close starting points, as a seuence oI
/:;.l to /+/.
Very open endings are characteristic oI aIIected speech.
This phoneme is highly variable, because the glide /+/ is more
sonorous than the nucleus /i/. Thus /ia/ may be divided morpholog-
i cal l y i nt o t he nucl eus and t he gl i de i n unst r essed posi t i on,
e. g. t&eoretical /Oiairetilral, 01-+-1I/.
reater sonority oI the glide may lead to the /e/, /a:/ instead
oI /m/ articulation, e, g. 6rontier /iIrAntra, tIrAnta/.
/13/ may turn into /t/ in terminal position: real /rial, nl/.
Jn present day RP 'ear is pronounced as /a:/.
140

The phoneme /+/ may occur in initial and in terminal position:


air5a' /teswei/, air /+/.
/+/ is preceded by consonants characterized as:
la-ial
bilabial: .ear* -ear
labio-dentai: 6are lingual,
Iorelingual, apical
dental, interdental: t&ere
alveolar: tear* (are
post-alveolar, cacuminal: rare
palato-alveolar: s&are
lingual, medio-lingual: uare
lingual, backlingual: care
pharyngal (glottal): &are
/+/ is Iollowed by consonants:
labial
bilabial: 1&air. ngual,
Iorelingual, apical
alveolar s.are(* scarce
The chieI variation is in the presence or absence oI t he/+/oII-glide.
The use oI the stabl e nucl eus /e:/ is on the increase, e. g.
scarce /ske:s/, scares /ske:z/.
M
The phoneme /+/ may occur in initial and in terminal position:
0r(u /' uadu/, .oor /+/.
/+/ is preceded by consonants characterized as:
labial
bilabial: .oor* -oor
lingual, Iorelingual, apical
alveolar: tour* (our
post-alveolar, cacuminal: rural
palato-alveolar: sure
lingual, medio-Iingual: 'our
lingual, backlingual: ursaal
pharyngal (glottal): &ouri
/+/ is Iollowed by consonants:
labial
bilabial: !our$an( lingual,
Iorelingual, apical
alveolar: -ourn
post-alveolar, cacuminal: rural
The phoneme /+/ is highly variable because the nucleus oI this
diphthong is more sonorous than the glide. Its pronunciation may
lead to phonological disintegration oI / +/ into /u/ and /+/: in@
6luence /'nB-+n/. In this case the morphological division takes
place within the diphthong /+/.
Hl
The greater sonority oI the glide may also lead to the substi -
tution oI /w/ Ior /u/: in6luence /imIluvrans/.
In an accented syllable /+/ may turn into /o:/, e. g. sure* .oor
r
'our* 'ou:re and other high Ireuency words.
The phoneme /+/ may turn into /u/ beIore dark I/4? usual
/lugual/ c /IJU3U1/. .
The use oI /o:/ in such words as tourist* $oor* sure* 6urious*
is becoming more and more Ireuent.
uestions
1. hat is the diIIerence between closing and centring diphthongs
2. hat can you say about distributional, contetual and idiolecta
peculiarities oI the diphthongs /ei, ai, 01, , +, , , +/
Eercises
1. Transcribe these words. Read them. Use them to illustrate the distribution
al characteristics oI the /ei/ phoneme. State how / til is inIluenced by the
consonants which (a) precede and (b) Iollow it.
(a) way, may, veil, they, lay, nay, rate, ail, Yale, gay, hate:
(b) , shave, bathe, pace, maize, pain, age, plague
2. Transcribe these words. Read them. Use them to illustrate the distribution
al characteristics oI the /ai/ phoneme. DeIine the consonants whicha~
precede and (b) Iollow it.
(a) why, my, vile, thy, lie, night, ride, ibe, kind, high;
(b) imbibe, time, Iive, lithe, mice, rise, nine, oblige, Mike
3. Transcribe these words. Read them. Use them to illustrate the distribu
tional characteristics oI the // phoneme. DeIine the consonants which
(a) precede and (b) Iollow it.
(a) wow, mouse, vow, thou, loud, now, round, chow, gown, how;
(b) mouth (v), crowd, mouse, owl, down, gouge
4. Transcribe these words. Read them. Use them to illustrate ihe distribution
al characteristics oI the /oi/ phoneme. DeIine the consonants which (a)
precede and (b) Iollow it.
(a) moist, voyage, soil, loiter, roister, oy, yoick, goiter, hoist;
(b) coiI, choice, oil, oin, voyage, hoik
5. Transcribe these words. Read them. Use them to illustrate the distribution
al characteristics oI the /+/ phoneme. DeIine the consonants which (a)
precede and (b) Iollow it,
(a) woe, mow, vote, though, so, zone, low, no, rope, oke, yolk,
go, hoe, known;
(b) home, rove, loathe, rode, close, pole, own, doge, rogue .
6. Transcribe these words. Read them. Use them to illustrate the distribution
al characteristics oI the S phoneme. DeIine the consonants which (a)
precede and (b) Iollow it.
Ei
(a) weir, mere, veer, theatre, sear, zero, lear, near, rear, cheer,
eer, year, gear, hear;
(b) licentiate, beard, Iierce, hear, ideals, antipodean
7. Transcribe these words. Read them. Use them to illustrate the distribution
al characteristics oI the /+/ phoneme. DeIine the consonants which (a)
precede and (b) Iollow it
(a) ware, mare, variance, there, ara, lair, Nares, rare, chair,
Yare, garish, hare;
(b) Shairp, theirs, Pitcairn
8. Transcribe these words. Read them. Use them to illustrate the distribution
at characteristics oI the /+/ phoneme. DeIine the consonants which (a)
precede and (b) Iollow it.
(a) wooer, moot, zoological, luer, rural, chewer, urist, your,
gourd;
'b) gourd, arduous, Boers, annual, bourn
Control Tasks
1. Sort out these words according to the distributional characteristics oI the
phonemes /ei, +, ai, , oi, , n+, +/ in relation to the (A) preceding or
(B) Iollowing consonants. Follow the order oI consonant classiIication:
(1) Labial a) bilabial, b) lablo-dental. (2) Lingual, Iorelingual a) apical,
(inter)dental, b) apical alveolar, c) apical palato-alveolar, d) cacuminal
post-alveolar. (3) Lingual medio-Iingual. (4) Lingual backlingual. (5)
Pharyngal (glottal),
/ei/
stay, pay, game, again, make, lake, lay, pain, case, day, weigh,
rain, Iamous, ray, able, way, ache, late, lain, David, age, waste,
pale, sane, taken, ales, shape, Iace, gave, paint
/23/
go, over, hope, boating, hotel, show, hold, only, Iollow, road,
shoulder, poker, Ioe, gold, don't, old, cold, both, motor, total, bureau,
social, though, low, poet, yolk, motive, so, nose, cosy, okes, noticed
/ai/
why, high, kind, wiIe, wild, mild, lie, die, nine, while, silence,
proIile, right, eye, side, like, kindly, isles, eyes, idea, rise, climb,
uite, my, bright, Michael, kite
/23/
how, thousand, south, now, down, round, pound, mouth, drown,
out, couch, Iound, loud, sound

oin, enoy, boy, point, coin, destroy, soil, employ, noise, oint
143
/4/
dear, near, year, idea, Crimea, here, severe, museum, accordeon,
Iear, clear, ears, cheer, theatre, real, realize, appear, period, tear,
weary
/#*/
there, parents, anywhere, care, stare, bare', area, various, despair,
suare, stairs, careIully, pair, Mary, dare, Iarewell
// ' sure,
poor, tour, during, usual, moor, Europe
2. Transcribe these words. Use them as eamples to eplain the rules Ior read-
ing the letters in bold type which represent the diphthongs /ei, +, ai, ,
+, , +, us/.
south, sincerely, strangely, Iacilitated, noticeable, winding, poor,
Iollowing, realize, motor, heighten, potatoes, over night, theatre, u-
rist, Mary, Michael Angelo, Jane Eyre, enoyment, typhoid, Europe,
dour
IX. ARTICULATOR, TRANSITIONS
OF XOYEL AND CONSONANT PHONEMES
ASSIMILATION
In the process oI speech, that is in the process oI transition Irom the
articulatory work oI one sound to the articulatory work oI the neigh-
bouring one, sounds are modiIied. These modiIications can be condi-
tioned:
a) by the complementary distribution oI the phonemes, e. g.
the Iully back /u:/ becomes back-advanced under the inIluence oI
the preceding mediolingual sonorant // in the words tune* nu(e.
The mid-open, Iront /e/ becomes more open Iollowed by the dark 1
in &ell* tell* sell. Compare with -et* let* set.
In the word een /k/ is not so back as its principal variant, it is
advanced under the inIluence oI the Iully Iront /:;.l which Iollows it.
b) by the contetual variations in which phonemes may occur at
the unction oI words, e. g. the alveolar phoneme /n/ in the combina
tion in t&e is assimilated to the dental variant under the inIluence oI
/3/ which Iollows it.
c) by the style oI speech: oIIicial or rapid collouial. E. g.
sli!&t .ressure /'slait iprea/ may turn into /islaipiprea/ in collo
uial speech, similarly &ot $u66ins /ihut ImAImz/ may turn into
f5 !f
/ p /
Assimilation is the chieI Iactor under the inIluence oI which the
principal variants oI phonemes are modiIied into subsidiary ones.
Assimilation is a modiIication oI a consonant under the inIluence
oI a neighbouring consonant.
hen a consonant is modiIied under the inIluence oI an adacent
vowel or vice versa this phenomenon is called adaptation or accommo-
dation, e. g. tune* een.
hen one oI the neighbouring sounds is not realized in rapid
or careless speech this process is called elision, e. g. a -ox o6
$atc&es /+ ibks sv ' msetiz/ may be pronounced without/v/in/sv/
/+ ' bks + ' msetIiz/, maste .a.er /iweist ipeipa/ may turn into
/iweis ' pei pa/ in rapid or careless speech.
Assimilation which occurs in everyday speech in the present-
day pronunciation is called living.
Assimilation which took place at an earlier stage in the history oI
the language is called historical.
For eample the present-day pronunciation oI the words session*
wuestion* nature* occasion results Irom the historical assimilation
oI /s/, /t/, /z/ in /Isesan/, /ikwestan/, /' nsetur/, /alksezan/ to
/isean/, /ikwestbn/, /ineits/, / +' x+n/.
As Iar as the direction oI assimilation (and accommodation) is con-
cerned it can be:
1) progressive, when the Iirst oI the two sounds aIIected by assimi -
lation makes the second sound similar to itselI, e. g. in (ess* .e!s* the
45
sounds /k/ and /g/make the plural inIlection /s/ similar to the voiceless
fl in /desks/ and to the voiced /g/ in /pegz/;
2) regressive, when the second oI the two sounds aIIected by assim
ilation makes the Iirst sound similar to itselI, e. g. in the combina
tion t&e the alveolar /t" becomes dental, assimilated to the inter
dental /(" which Iollows it;
3) double, or reciprocal, when the two adacent sounds inIluence
each other, e.g. t5ice /t/ is rounded under the'inIluence oI /w/ and /w/
is partly devoiced under the inIluence oI the Voiceless /t/.
To make the mechanism oI articulatory transitions clear it should
be viewed in detail in terms oI the articulatory work oI the speech
producing mechanisms.
Each sound pronounced in isolation has three stages in its articu-
lation. During the Iirst stage the organs oI speech move to the posi -
tion which is necessary to pronounce the sound. It is called diIIerently
by diIIerent authors: initial stage, on-glide, ecursion. During the
second stage the organs oI speech are kept Ior some time in the posi -
tion necessary to pronounce the sound. This stage is called: medial
stage, stop-stage, retention stage, the hold. Duringthe third stage the
organs oI speech move away to the neutral position. This stage is
called Iinal stage, oII-glide, recursion, release.
There are two ways oI oining the sounds: (1) merging oI stages
when the Iinal stage oI the Iirst sound merges with the initial stage
oI the second sound, loose type oI articulatoiy transition and (2) in-
terpenetration oI stages when the Iinal stage oI the Iirst sound
penetrates not only the beginning but also the middle oI the second
sound close type oI articulatory transition. For eample in the
word la5 the two sounds /// and /o:/ are oined by way oI merging their
stages, see Fig. 17.
The Iirst stage Ior /// is the raising oI the Iront edge oI the tongue
to the alveolar ridge and simultaneous liIting oI the middle part oI
the tongue to the hard palate (the soIt palate is raised). As soon as
the tip oI the tongue touches the teethridge and the sides oI the tongue
are lowered Iorming lateral passages, the vocal cords are brought
together and made tense, the air passing between the vocal cords makes
them vibrate: the vibrating air Iills the pharyn, the mouth cav-
ity and escapes through the lateral passages producing a clear allo-
phone 1 oI the /1/ phoneme it is the medial stage oI the lateral so-
norant /1/.
- During the Iinal stage oI "//* the tip oI the tongue moves away
Irom the alveolar ridge and the whole oI the tongue moves backwards
to the low, narrow position Ior I, which Iollows ///* the lips begin
to get rounded Ior S* the end oI /// merges with the beginning oI
&?l. In the word /b:/ /1/
4
is Iollowed by /, and /l/
3
coincides with
l'.lt* then Iollows /o:/
g
and /o:/
3
.
Interpenetration oI stages takes place when sounds oI a similar,
or identical nature are oined together. For eample: in the words
act* -ottle* ;e&icl e the clusters /kt/, /tl/, /Id/ are pronounced
with the loss oI plosion /kt/ and lateral plosion /tl/, /kl/.
146
In /kt/ the medial stage oI the sound // the back part oI the
tongue is pressed against the soIt palate and a complete obstruction is
Iormed coincides with the initial stage oI the sound /t/ the tip
oI the tongue touches the alveolar ridge. The back part oI the tongue
is lowered only aIter the tip oI the tongue is pressed against the alveo-
lar ridge, the plosion oI /k/ is not heard, see Fig. 18.
In the word -ottle the sounds /t/ and /1/ are oined interpenetrat-
ing their stages. At the moment oI the hold oI /t/, that is, when the
tip oI the tongue is pressed against the teethridge, the sides oI the
tongue are lowered, letting the air pass through these narrow air pas-
sages (or one passage, iI only one side oI the tongue is lowered): the
lateral plosion takes place the hold. The vocal cords start vibrating
A
z
B
2 /-----------J-TT
M, &iX\3 B^ ^f B/ ^
,i!. 1v. ,i!. /1.
at the end oI the hold Ior /t/ and the air passes through the pharyn
and the mouth cavity along the lateral passages, producing the dark
allophone II oI the /// phoneme.
AIter the hold oI /1/ is accomplished, the Iinal stage oI /1/ takes
place, that is the tongue returns to the neutral position and the vocal
cords stop to vibrate. In /kl/ the air also escapes laterally, the vocal
cords start vibrating at the end oI the hold Ior /k/. The velar closure
is released by lowering the sides oI the tongue.
In a seuence: aIIricate -I- a stop, the aIIricate is released in the
usual way, e. g. setc&-oo /'sketIbuk/ the alveolar release oI ".
takes place in the usual audible way.
hen a plosive is Iollowed by the nasal /n, m/ the closure is released
nasally: the soIt palate lowers during the hold oI the stop, releas-
ing the compressed airstream through nasal cavity; /bm, tn, dn/
nasal plosion.
hen two identical sounds are oined together, a single but pro
longed medial stage, or hold, takes place. There is no interruption
in the articulation oI the two sounds, but we hear both oI them due
to the change in their tenseness, e. g. &ot tea /'hut 'ti:/, &ar( ti$es
":&a( 'taimz/. The tenseness decreases at the end oI the hold oI the
Iirst sound and increases at the beginning oI the hold oI the second
sound. u u u
Russian learners are apt to mispronounce English clusters /tn/,
/dn/, /kt/, /gd/ because the mechanisms oI the articulatory transitions
Irom /t, d/ to /n/, Irom /k, g/ to /t, d/ in English and the Russian clus-
ters 7n/, /T/, // are diIIerent, that is, the timing oI the work oI
the power, vibrator, resonator and obstructor mechanisms in English
and Russian is diIIerent. For eample the Russian clusters /n/, /T/,
// :in ^d* d* Y8^ /, / are pronounced with an audible
plosion oI 7n, , /.
47
Cases oI loose and close articulatory transition can also be observed
a) the mechanism oI the aspiration oI the initial stressed /p, t, m
in English. Aspiration is a delay in the onset oI voicing. A brieI peri
od oI voicelessness is heard aIter the hold oI /p, t, k/, which sounds like
a puII oI air aIter the release oI the stop: Nete* tic* +ate /p
h
i:t/,
/t
h
ik/, /k
h
eit/ beIore the vowel, which Iollows /p, t, k/. Russian /n,
T, / under similar conditions are unaspirated: the vocal cords begin
vibrating immediately aIter the release oI the closure Ior / n, , /:
a* i* d close CV transition;
b) the mechanism oI the Russian CV transition, when a consonant
is Iollowed by the Iront // is more close than the English consonant
to /i/ or // transition, compare: Nete B a* neat B a* -eat
`a* seen a* $eal ]* d^ ]* lea. u ]* ;eal
`].
Both in Russian and in English the vowel articulation is superim-
posed on the consonant articulation which precedes it, this results in
palatalization. However the delay in the onset oI the vowel is
longer in English than in Russian, which is characterized by the more
obvious soItening in the Russian consonants during the CV transi -
tion close type.
c) Labialization in English (no lip protrusion) and Russian simi
larly involves the lip-rounding in addition to the primary articula
tion clcse CV transition. Compare: Naul \]* tool ic]*
tall ]* .ull c]q* call B d]* -oor `c* cool dc]a*
-uc B `cd.
hen the two neighbouring sounds are aIIected by assimilation,
it may inIluence: 1) the work oI the vocal cords; 2) the active organ
oI speech; 3) the manner oI noise production; 4) both: the place oI
articulation and the manner oI noise production.
1) Assimilation aIIecting the work oI the vocal cords is observed
when one oI the two adacent consonants becomes voiced under the
inIluence oI the neighbouring voiced consonant, or voiceless under
the inIluence oI the neighbouring voiceless consonant. For eample,
in the word !oose-err' /s" became voiced under the inIluence oI the
net voiced /b/ regressive assimilation. In the combination 5&at:s
t&is the voiced /z/became voiceless under the inIluence oI the preced-
ing voiceless E/B progressive assimilation.
In the process oI speech the sonorants /m, n, 1, r, , w/ are partly
devoiced beIore a vowel, preceded by the voiceless consonant pho-
nemes /s, p, t, k/, e. g. .late* slo5l'* t5ice* cr'. In this case partial pro-
gressive assimilation aIIects the work oI the vocal cords both in English
and in Russian; compare the above eamples with the Russian: ]@
q* ^* d.
In Russian voiceless-voiced distinction can be completely lost,
compare: c* c`8cd where /6/ undergoes complete regressive
assimilation to /n/ which Iollows it. Russian learners should be care-
Iul about the cases where regressive assimilation may Iully aIIect the
work oI the vocal cords due to the Russian habit oI regressive voicing
48
or devouring, Ior eample: -lac-oar( no voicing oI /k/, set-auit
no voicing oI E/* t&ese .eo.le no devoicing oI /z/.
Two obligatory assimilations oI this type in English are use(
to and &a;e to (must), e.g.; / use( to 5ear a suit /ai Ju:st t9 'wee
+
s
su:t/ but / use( t5o /ai iu:zd ?" (mm verb), / &a;e to -e
earl' /ai 'haeI ta bi
V
3:h/ but / &a;e t5o /ai 'hsev 'tu:/ (main
verb).
In unstressed syllables the assimilations oI Ienis to Iortis (energy
assimilation) are very Ireuent particularly with a) Iinal
inIleional /d, z/; b) grammatical items as* o6F c) auiliary verbs:
He collected stamps ///
I was sure /s/
As cold as ice /s/
She reIuses to answer /s/
oI course ///
James could tell him /t/
This assimilation is not observed in the most careIul styles oI
speech.
2) The manner oI noise production is aIIected by assimilation in
cases oI a) lateral plosion and b) loss oI plosion or incomplete plosion.
The lateral plosion takes place, when a plosive is Iollowed by /1/.
In this case the closure Ior the plosive is not released till the oII-glide
Ior /1/: the sides oI the tongue are lowered and the air escapes along
them with lateral plosion, e. g. .lease* can(le* cattle (see above). In-
complete plosion takes place in the clusters a) oI two similar plosives
like /pp, pb, tt, td, kk, kg/, or b) oI two plosives with diIIerent points
oIIcrticulation like: /kt/, /ktI/, /dg/, /db/, /tb/. In the Iirst case a single
uplosive is pronounced with a very long hold, e. g, attraction* la$.
.ost* 5&at ti$e* 5ent (o5n* -i! cat. In the second case the
uclosure oI the organs oI speech Ior the second plosive is made beIore
the release oI the Iirst. So there is only one eplosion Ior the two
plosives. The Iirst is incomplete, or lost, e, g. act* 6act* !oo( !irl* &ot
-ottle. In Russian similar plosives have the three stages, which results
in two eplosions Ior both plosives: d* dA}^} above).
The mechanism oI the nasal plosion is similar in both languages:
a plosive Iollowed by the syllabic/n/, /m/has no release the release
is produced not by a removal oI the closure, but by the lowering oI
the soIt palate, the air escapes through the nasal cavity, e. g. -ut@
ton* sto. $oanin!* su-$arine. Nasal plosion takes place in Russian, e.
g. 8^* `* o8a.
Complete nasal and lateral assimilation may occur in t&e* t&ere
across word boundaries, e. g.:
turn the key /its:n + :C" B~-/:nn+ Jki.7 open
the door /teupn 5+
v
da:/-/(+n n+
v
do:/ all the
best "?3
v
best/-/'o:l
w
te
v
best/
3) Assimilation aIIects the place oI articulation and the manner
oI noise production when the plosive, alveolar /t/ is Iollowedy the
constrictive, post-alveolar /r/. For eample, in the word ti. alveolar
/t/ becomes post-alveolar and has a Iricative release.
In s&oul( 'ou /iud u:/ the place oI the alveolar /d/ can be
changed into palato-alveolar /dg/, which is not a plosive but an
aIIricate, under the inIluence oI the palatal /7. which Iollows /d/:
/'Judgu:/.
ELISION
Elision can be historical and contemporary.
English spelling is Iull oI silent letters which bear witness
to historical elision, e.g. 5al /wo:k/, nee /ni:/, ni!&t /nait/, cas@
tle /ika:sl/, 5rite /rait/, iron /laisn/, etc.
The most common cases oI contemporary elision are Ihe Iollowing:
elision oI /t, d/ in
a) /It, st, Jt, 6t, vd, zd, d/ seuences:
cleIt palate /ikleI paslst/
waste paper /'weis

+/ crushed
strawberries /1
s
stro:bnz/ bathed the
baby /ba:6 3
4
beibi/ dived below /idaiv
biau/ closed doors /kbuz
4
do:z/ breathed
deeply /'bri:8
v
di:ph/.
b) /pt, kt, bd, gd, tIt, dsd/ seuences;
trapped by /Itrsep
v
bai/
cracked pots /'+
4
pots/ dubbed
Iilm /idAb Jilm/ bugged
telephone /' elsIaun/ enriched
IoodstuIIs /mintI Ju'.dsUIs/ ridged
surIace /Ind3
v
s3:Ias/
c) /md, rid, gd/ seuences:
slammed the door /islsem Sa do:/
hair-brained scheme /iheabrem
s
ski:m/
stringed musical instrument /'strip ' muzikl nstrsmsnt/ In a),
b), c) cases elisions most Ireuently remove the marker oI past
tense in verbs. The meaning is usually clear Irom the contet.
There are some words and verbal Iorms in which elision Ire-
uently eists in everyday speech. They are:
1. $ont&s and clot&es with elided dental, Iricatives: /mAn6s/-~
>/nuns/, /kbuz/ ~u /klauz/;
2. 6i6t& and sixt& elide the consonants which precede /6/, e.g.
/IiI6/+/IiI/, /siks/ - /sik/.
3. o6 elided /v/ beIore /5/, e.g.
seven oI those apples /isev3n + air. ,replz/
si oI the best /isiks d 3+
v
best/
beIore other consonants, at more rapid tempo, e.g. two
pounds oI pears /ltu: Ipaunz +
v
peaz/ a pint oI
milk /+ Ipamt +
4
milk/
150
Elided /v/ beIore /m/, at more rapid tempo, e.g,
give me your word /'gi mi o:

w3:d/
leave me some more pudding /IH: mi ++ 1+:
v
pudin/
he must n' t have my share /hi ' nusnt h mai Jes/
4. tt is reduced to t in the Iollowing verbal Iorms:
I want to drive /ai ' wonla
v
draiv/ e' ve
got to be careIul /wi:v igots bi
5. !oin! to has the Iorm /+n+/ in all cases ecept very care-
Iul speech, e.g.
e're going to move house /n+ 1+n+ ' mu:v
v
haus/
There is a tendency nowadays to pronounce sounds which are
not pronounced as a result oI historical elision, e.g. o6ten /uIn/~
/oI tan/.
Assimilation in English diIIers Irom the Russian mainly along
the lines oI direction: progressive voicing or devoicingis very rare
in Russian, but uite common in English. It occurs in the Iollow-
ing cases:
1. Contracted Iorms oI the verbs, when the ending s is preceded
by a voiced or a voiceless consonant, e,g. Ko-:s !one* t&at:s ri!&t.
2. SuIIies -(e)s oI the nouns in the plural, or the third person
singular, e.g. !irls* roo$s* -oos* 5rites.
1. The possessive suIIi -s' or -' s, e.g. fac:s &at* Ko-:s (o!*
4. The past indeIinite suIIi -ed, e.g. .la'e(* 5ore(* li;e(.
Cases oI English regressive voicing or devoicing are very rare,
e.g. 6i;e .ence /iIaiIpans/, !oose-err' /,'gu:zbn/; these are cases oI
historical assimilation.
Regressive voicing or devoicing in Russian is obligatory both
within a word and at the word boundary, e.g. `d* d|d* |
^* 8 ].
Regressive assimilation oI this type is very rare inside words
in English, e.g. ne5s.a.er /inu:speipa/.
However it is observed in word boundaries in rapid, careless
speech (see above).
Care should be taken to avoid regressive assimilation in such
English words as tennis -all /items bo:l/, -lac-oar( /iblaekbo:d/
and in the word boundaries: En!lis& -oo /Irngli
1
tbuk/, lie t&at
/laik laet/, t&ese .eo.le /'Bi:z ipi:pl/.
uestions
1. hat is assimilation, adaptation, elision 2. hat conditions
are responsible Ior the modiIications oI sounds 3, hat types oI as-
similation do you know 4. hat is the merging oI stages 5. hat is
the interpenetration oI stages 6, hat is the diIIerence between the
close and loose type oI articulatory transition 7. How is the work oI
the vocal cords aIIected by assimilation 8, How is the manner oI
151
noise production aIIected by assimilation 9. How are the place oI
articulation and the manner oI noise production aIIected by assimi -
lation 10. ive eamples oI contemporary elision. 11. hat is the
diIIerence between the mechanisms oI articulatory transitions in
English and in Russian
Eercises
I. Read the pairs oI words below, characterize subsidiary variants oyom
phonemes due to adaptation,
a) booty /lbu:ti/beauty /ibu:ti/
moon /mu:n/music /imurzik/
b) bed /bed/bell /bei/
wet /wei/well /wel/
c) coop /ku-.p/cat /kst/keen /kkn/
goose /gu:s/cattle U%P0e9lU- keep /ki:p/
d) peel /pi:I/pool /pu:l/-Paul /po:l/
tea /ti:/ioo /tu:/tore /to:/
geese /gJ:z/goose /gu:s/gorge /+:/
2. Read the pairs below. hat variants oI the alveolar /t, d, n, I
1
should be
used beIore /0, B/ which Iollow themJ
eight Ue%9Ueighth /ate/
that evening /lset
v
i:vmr/that theme /tset

6i:m/
write it /Yait it/write this /'rait-
v
Sis/
wide /waid/width /wide/
read it /ri:d it/read this /iri:d J5is/
ten /ten/tenth n3/
on my table /on mai xI/on the table /on 9+ teibl/
heal /hi:l/health /helB/
all his /to:t Jhiz/all this /I
3
:l

is/
3. hat variants oI the /r/ phoneme are used: a) when it is preceded by /0, 0/
in three, thread, with Russian: b) when it is preceded by a voiceless
consonant in shriek, Iry, try, Iree; c) when it is Iollowed by / ;,
u:/ in roar, room, rule.
4. Read the pairs below. hat variants oI the consonants /d, g, 3/ are used
beIore /w/
a) dell /del/ b) dwell /dwel/
luggage /UAgids/ language /ilsergwids/
gendarme /isa-ndam/ bourgeois /'buaswa/
c) read well /irl:d wel/the bag which
disappeared /+ ibseg witI dis3,pi9d/
5. Read the eamples below. How are sonorants modiIied a) in the cluster
/pi, pr, tw, tr, kw, kl, / beIore a stressed vowel b) in the clusters /p,
t, k, H, Ir, I, 6r, 0), 6w, sw, si, s, sm, sn/ beIore a stressed vowel
a) lane /lern/ plane /plem/
rise /raiz/ price /prais/
. . ,, beware /bilwea/ between /biitwim/
J52
=41. /drai/
wire /waia/
lean /lkn/
green /grim/
beauty /ibu:ti/
dune /du:n/
you /u:/
lie /lai/
rend /rend/
reviews /n'vu:z/
rise /raiz/
enumerate /iinu:m9reit/
way /wei/
leep /H:p/
mute /rau:t/
mile /mail/
know /n+/
try /trai/ uire
ik clean /klhn/
cream /kri:m/
pupil /ipurpl/
brie /tu:n/
ueue /ku:/
Ily /Hai/
Iriend /trend/
reIuse /n'Iu:z/
thrice /8rais/
enthusiasm /m'Ouizisezm/
sway /swei/
sleep /sli:p/
suit /su:t/
smile /small/
snow /srau/
Eplain the mechanisms oI a) the orally eploded variants oI /p, b, t, d,
k, g/ in the leIt column; b) the nasally eploded variants oI /p, b, t, d, * g/
Iollowed by /m, n/ in the right column.
help us Ahelp as/
departing /di'patir/
don't ask /idsunt

ask/
darker /'dctkg/ ask us /
4
o:sk as/
help me Ahelp mi/
department /di'patmsnt/
don't know /idaunt
v
nsu/
darkness /idakms/ ask
me -sk mi/
7. Eplain the mechanism oI the laterally epl ded variants oI the /t* d/ pho-
nemes Iollowed by E/ in:
that lesson /'Sset Jesn/
good luck /igud

1/
S. 5tate what cases oI assimilation can be observed in rapid, collouial stylt
in the eamples below.
a>bright blue
. dart board
whitewash
b) third part
head boy
red meat
hard work
c) short cake
bright green
ud) hard cash
head gird
) in CardiII
sunglasses
I) Christmas shopping
g) get your coat
I heard you come in bless
you close your books ..
.won't you ...couldn't
you ...shouldn't
you .. .can't you h) in
the corner all the books
what's the point where's
the breadkniIe
153-
little /Hi/
middle /imidl/
9. Transcribe and read the eamples below, observe the elision oI /t, d/ pie-
ceded by a) Iricatives, b) stops, c) nasals.
a) cleIt palate c) slammed the door
waste paper hair-brained scheme
crushed strawberries stringed musical instrument
bathed the baby
b) trapped by
cracked pots
dubbed Iilm
bugged telephone
enriched IoodstuIIs
ridged surIace
dived below
closed doors
breathed deeply
10. Transcribe the words below. Single out the vowels that may be elided in
these words.
nursery temporary reasonable
petitioner phonetically parliament
policeman potato buIIalo
diIIicult preIerence government
banana secretary bachelor
boundary Edinburgh naturally
several especially awIully
suppose careIully comIortable
history ' possibly machine
perhaps suIIering interesting
11. Transcribe the words below. Single out the consonants that may be elided
in these words.
handbag humpty-dumpty landscape
postman attempt sanctuary
a sith round empty net stop
last Saturday night time lamb
net time crumbs punctual
12. ive eamples oI historically established elision in words with the clus
ters /$* kn, gn, mb, mn,'Jk/.
C23912l Ta0P0
1. Read the words, observe Ihe stronger aspiration oI/p, t, k/ beIore long vow
els and diphthongs. Compare with the Russian /n, , / pronounced with
out aspiration.
port tar car no
Pete table cable o
power tower cow o
pit tip cat nap
2. Describe the diIIerence In the transition Irom /p/ to S in the words port
and spot.
154
3. Read the pairs oI words, describe the mechanism oI voiceless Iortis, voiced
lenis diIIerence, which is Iunctional here.
plightblight try dry crate great
Iound bound tunedune piece bees
pennyBenny parkbark twelvedwell
4. Describe the mechanism oI the articiilatory diIIerence between the /e/ in
hen, hell and between the t$l in tool, tune.
5. Read the word combinations below. Observe and eplain the mechanism oI
articulation oI two plosionless stops.
help Peter con nmt club
building y t noo at
times oy good day no
omom black coIIee o
6. hat mechanism is aIIected by assimilation in the pronunciation oI /r/ in
the words string, strike, oI /m/ in the words smell, smoke or 1>1 in
the words student, suit
7. Eplain the mechanism oI /k/ to // transition in the combination like
that. hat mistake can be made by the Russian students in the articula
tion oI /3/
8. Pronounce the words and word combination. Underline the sounds aIIected
by assimilation, describe its type.
breadth, wealth, at that, aIraid, apron, thrive
9. Pronounce the words correctly, underline the two plosives, eplain the ar-
ticulatory diIIerence in the C transition in English and in Russian.
apt n helpedoou Iact
shopkeepermn beggedo
10. Arrange these English and Russian words under the headings: A/> aspi-
ration, no aspiration; (2) palatalization a) loose CV transition, b) close
CV transition; (3) labialization, labialization with the lip protrusion.
top, bee, pit, built, port, meal, cope, deep, beauty, tarn, corn,
music, pepper, onion, peace, come, lean, car, cable, lion, dean, ont,
no, , Kox, co, ot, c, om, o, t, nt, cot, x,
n, en, y, o, m, nt, no, om, yo, coop, tool, tall,
call, gorge, goose, doom, dawn, room, thorn
11. Arrange these words under the headings: (1) lateral plosion, (2) nasal
plosion, (3) loss oI plosion (two plosionless stops).
actor, curdled, muddle, needless, mottled, Britain, begged,
oughtn't, at last, what kind, admit, back to back, madness, witness,
big books, partner, slept, cotton, great number, sudden, captain, top
coat, red light, black goat, ripe cheese, huddle, at night, good looks
12. Eplain how assimilation aIIects the place oI articulation in the vowels,
/ta:ka:, ki:ka-, ku:lki:n, esipu'.te, 1:1ki:p/
155
13. Transcribe these words and word combinations. Read them. Eplain
possible mistakes in the close CC transition.
anecdote, birthday, blackboard, medicine, this book, let's go,
what's the time, sith, his thing, pass them, is that, IiIths, Smith's
there, soothes them, in the
14.ive your own eamples and eplain the diIIerence between the English
and Russian articuiatory transitions in cases oI (1) aspiration, (2) pala
talization, (3) labialization.
15.ive your own eamples and eplain the diIIerence between the English
and Russian articulatory transitions in cases oI assimilation aIIecting (1~
the work oI the vocal cords, (2) the place oI articulation and the active
organ oI speech, (3) the manner oI noise production, (4) the position oI
the soIt palate.
16.ive your own eamples and eplain the diIIerence between the English
and Russian articulatory transitions in cases oI the (1) nasal plosion, (2)
lateral plosion, (3) loss oI plosion.
J7. ive your own eamples to illustrate rI'IIerent cases oI elision.
X. ENGLISH PHONEMES IN YRITING
Language perIorms its Iunction as a means.oI intercommunica-
tion not only in oral but also in written Iorm. ThereIore it is impor -
tant to establish the relationship between orthography and pronuncia-
tion, that is letters and sounds, which represent them.
English dictionaries usually indicate the pronunciation oI each
individual word, because the English spelling system is very diIIi -
cult. This is because 1) it represents two diIIerent languages, one oI
Romance and the other oI Teutonic origin; 2) the English spelling
has remained essentially the same since the days oI Caton and the-
other early printers. As a result oI this 60 symbols are used to repre-
sent vowels and diphthongs and 44 symbols are used to represent con-
sonants in the written language. These symbols are separate letters-
or combinations oI letters, which correspond to vowel and consonant
phonemes. They are called graphemes. raphemic symbols are includ-
ed into angle brackets.
raphemes Ior the system oI vowels are the Iollowing:
a, e, i , y, o, u oa, oe, oi, oy, oo, ou, ow, oe
ar, er, i r, yr, or, ur ue, ui, uy
aa, ae, ai, ay, au, aw, + aer, air, ayr
ea, , ei, ey, eu, ew ear, eer, eir, eyr, eur, ev(e)r
te, ye iar, ier, yer
oar, oor, our, owe)r, uer igh, aigh, eigh, ough
raphemes Ior the system oI consonants are the Iollowing:
b, c, ch, d, dg, I, g, gh, gn, gu, h, , k, 1, m, n, ng, p, ph, , u,
r, s, sc, sch, sh, si, ssi, sei, ti, ci, ce, t, tch, th, u, v, w, wh, , c
T
V, z, zi
There are very Iew sounds which have one-to-one graphemic reI -
erence, e. g. w), (b), () in 5a'* -a'* li(* are single-valued graph-
emes.
As a rule, one grapheme has many phonemic reIerences, e. g;
+ banana o: thought
ei baby u: through
a~ae back ough~ou though
a? bask + borough
+: ball
D wash
raphemes may be simple (a) and comple (ough).
A grapheme, which consists oI one letter, corresponding to one pho-
neme is called a monograph; two-, three- and Iour-letter graphemes,
which correspond to one phoneme are called digraph, trigraph'
and polygraph accordingly, e. g. (a), b~ are monographs, ng),,
Caton . (1422-91) the Iirst English printer.
157
ck~ are digraphs, (tch), (sch) are trigraphs, eigh~, ough) are poly-
One and the same phoneme may be derived Irom both: simple and
ucomple graphemes, e. g, the phoneme lei is derived Irom (e~: t$t*
e!!F Irom (ea): rea('* $eat. /n* ir./ are pronounced only in comple
graphic contets, e. g.
book, cook, look, shook, took
good, hood
bull, bullet, bullock, bully, Iull, pull
bush, cushion, push
could, should, would
However: -oso$* 5ol6* 5o$an.
II we analyse a word Irom the viewpoint oI orthographic u pho-
nemic and graphemic reIerence, the discrepancy between them will
be almost universal. For eample, the word stretc& consists oi:
5 phonemes /s/ E/ /r/ /e/ /tI/
5 graphemes s t r e tch
7 letters s t r e t c h
The word $out& consists oi:
3 phonemes /m/ /au/ /0/ 3
graphemes m ou th , 5
letters m o u t h
From the phonological point oI view, a grapheme has a consider -
able number oI allophonic reIerences, due to the complementary dis-
tribution or Iree variation, in which a phoneme occurs. For eample,
uthe grapheme o~ in -ox is in reIerence with a more Iront allophone
l;4 than in cot* where I is more back. The grapheme (t) in t5ice
is in reIerence with a rounded allophone oI B and with It post-alveo-
3ar in tree.
Morphemic reIerence oI graphemes is many-sided. Any graphic
-diIIerence must be considered as having an independent morphemic
reIerence. E. g.
boys /bolz/ boys' /bolz/ boy's /blz/
s, s
(
'shave diIIerent morphemic reIerence: s indicates the plural
'Iorm, s' indicates the plural Iorm, possessive case; 's indicates the pos-
sessive case oI the singular Iorm.
The knowledge oI orthography is very important because changes
in orthography are much slower than changes in phonology. ThereIore
there are a large number oI rules oI reading in modern English. iven
below is a simpliIied table oI some grapheme-phoneme correspond-
ences, illustrated by typical contets.
In Phonemic reIerences only vowel phonemes are singled out
to revise their spelling correspondences.
J58
Ta-le
raphemes
Phonemic
reIerences
Eamples
a a a ae ai au, aw ey ar
are, air all aim wa,
ua a aI, am, ance,
mand, ant, ask, asp,
ass, ast, ath
UaU
/ei/
/ei/
S
/ei/
/C/
)
)
)
)
V
Iat Iate Iast anaemic wait, daisy cautious,
law, hawk day Iar Iare, Iair tall, all calm,
palm watt, suash China, semolina aIter,
craIt, draIt; drama, eample; chance,
dance; command, demand; chant, grant;
ask, task; grasp, gasp; brass, class;
Iast, cast, bath, Iather
e ea
eigh, ey
ew eu er
ear, eer
/e/
)
1t /
/
)
/Jo/ /
a:/
U&U
UqU U
5NU
bed, setting heading,
meadow heed, meet
weight, whey, they
blew, shew euphemism,
Ieudal reverse, serve
hammer hear, beer,
gear, dear bear, tear,
pear earth, dearth
i i
ia ie
ir ier
' ire
A/ /1'/
/m/
U&U
U9U
/ai/ /
/ //
//
it, bitter police,
marine dial,
diary India,
Sylvia relieI,
thieI tie, pie
birth, sir, whirl
easier Iire, mire
Orthography helps to diIIerentiate homophones, e, g.
sight /sart/ ; n
cite /sait/ ccttcx, nnot, ont
site /sait/ mconoox
There are also cases when words coincide in their plural and sin-
gular Iorms so Iar as the spelling and pronunciation are concerned.
They may be distinguished only by the abbreviated Iorms, e. g. s.e@
cies /'spi:Ji:z/ A8* 8>? the singular and plural oI this word
159~
are pronounced alike. The abbreviation sp stands Ior the singular and
spp stands Ior the plural.
raphemes in the English language may indicate the phonemic
reIerence oI a preceding, or the Iollowing grapheme. They perIorm
diacritic Iunction. E. g.
1. The doubling oI consonants:
(a) indicates the shortness oI the preceding vowel md diIIerenti
ates the meaning oI words:
planed planned
noted knotted
(b) diIIerentiates the meaning oI words:
assenta cent appeara pier
arrivala rival occura cure
(c) lengthens the preceding vowel:
barred, stirred, Iurred
2. The use oI a mute e or r:
(a) indicates'the alphabetical reading oI the preceding vowel and
perIorms diIIerentiatory Iunctions:
rat rate
pet Pete
Iin Iine
(b) diIIerentiates homophones:
bornborne pleasplease step
steppe do /deu/
1
doe
(c) indicates the lengthening, or the diphthongal nature oI a preced-
ng vowel:
are toe awe pore mere
were due cure Iury sire
There are twonotions in phonological literature which reIlect the
-connection oI orthography with syllables and morphemes: (a) syllabo-
graph and (b)morphograph. The parts oI a word which represent syl-
lables graphically are called syllabographs. They may consist oI a
vowel, or a combination oI vowels and consonants which corresponds
to a syllable or syllables within the graphic norms oI the analysed
word, e. g.
mor(s 1'lla-o!ra.&s
higher high-er
barring T-ring
bankrupt bank-rupt
reIinement re-Iine-ment
1
rt is a noun denoting a musical note, but not the verb (o*
160
A morphograph is that part oI a word which represents a morpheme
graphically, e.-g. the suIIi -ing is a morphograph in the word sin!in!F
the suIIi -ed is a morphograph in the word lon!@le!!e(* etc,
Sounds are indicated in writing by means oI transcription. It is
especially useIul in studying English, where the interpretation oI the
orthography can be complicated and misleading.
Transcription is uite indispensable in transliteration oI names oI
persons, geographical names, magazines, names oI ships, etc. Trans-
literation is writing a word, or words, oI one language in the letters
oI some other language.
Transliteration diIIers Irom transcription: it is simpler and may
use additional symbols. E. g. Kat& is transcribed as /ba0/ but trans-
literated as 5am (the length oI "a" and the sound /6/ are ignored).
iven below is a list oI Russian euivalents Ior English letters
and letter combinations and phonetic renderings.
En!lis&
2ussian
En!lis
&
2ussian
a , , , o, +, + 1 ; o n-
ae
, y, +, ,
cx
ai , + m
au
y, o, oy, oo
n

aw
R 07 00
ng

ay
, , +
0
o, y, +, , oy
b ; o n-
o
o, oy
cx o o, y, oy
c
-, c, m
00
, o, y, yy
ch , x, u, m
0U
, y, oy, y
d ough
e , , +; o
0Y
y, oy
ncx n; o n-
ea , , cx
, ph -
ei , , +,
..., .TV-
eig , +,
eo ,
S
x, c, m
eu m, tm sh m
ew
m, tm
t

ey , , + u , , y, m; o
I
- ncx
g , x, x; o
ui
, y
ncx
ur
, +
gg ,
X
n
h
x; o n- w n, y; o n-
cx cx
i H, , , +
wo
' V+
ia , , x
I R rs7 #7 tu
ie , , V
, y, ,
io
o, o
z
6182
161
` RDv
K; o n-
cx
For eample:
eact /igizaekt/ +
Emoor /leksraua/ 3cmy
Levy /H,i:vi/ n
Dyson /idaisn/ co
Byrd /ba:d/ F
Vyrnwy /iv3:nwi/ y
oi thing /Iw8:8ig/ V+, o
Urban /1+:+n/ 3
histler /iwisb/ Vc
Furness /iIa:nis/ ucc
Proserpine /'prusapain/ Hocn,
Hon A.>
(n cy)
Louth /Iau9/ y
Southend /'sauend/ y
Highmoor /lhaimua/ Xmy
iven below are several diIIicult Russian letters, which are
transliterated in English in the Iollowing way:
msh Sholokhov
xzh hukov
u tch, ch Chekhov, Tchaikovsky,
Cheboksary
mshch Shcherba
ty Bykov
kh harkov
x ya Yalta
uestions
I. hy is it important to establish relationship between sounds
and letters hat is a grapheme 2. hat are the types oI graphemic
reIerence 3. hat are the single-valued graphemes hat is a mono-
graph 4. hat are the multi-valued graphemes hat is a digraph,
tigraph, polygraph 5. hat are the simple and comple graphemes
6. ive eamples oI /ae, e, u, u:/ connection with simple and comple
graphemes, 7. ive eamples oI orthographic-phonemic-graphemic
reIerence. 8. How are graphemes connected with phonology 9. How
are graphemes connected with morphology 10. ive eamples oI
phonemic reIerence oI some graphemes. 11. How is orthography con-
nected with leicology, grammar 12. hat is the importance oI ortho-
graphy in diIIerentiating homophones 13. hat diacritic Iunctions-
oI graphemes do you know 14. hat is a syllabograph 15. hat is a
morphograph 16. hat is the diIIerence between transcription and
transliteration
162
Eercises
I. ive graphemic symbols oI the phonemes:
/s/ in the word cit' /k/ in
the word cat /J7 in the
word oceanic /()u:/ in the
word -eaut' // in the
word coura!e /3/ in the
word -orou!&
2. ive some eamples oI English graphemes.
3. Analyse these words Irom the viewpoint oI the inventory oI graphemes,
phonemes, letters.
baobab, vest, duly, ship, dish, awIul, dawn, light, high, work
t
archaic, airy, laugh, watched
4. ive eplanation oI the phonemic reIerence oI the graphemes r), (our),
(ear) in the words;
right, aIraid, pray, try, tour, tear, very, dry
S. ive the phonetic reIerence oI the tnorphograph -ed in the words:
worked, limited, pinned, begged, added, liked, barred, cared
6. Transcribe these homophones. Translate them into Russian to prove the
diIIerentiator
1
Iunction oI graphemes.
pactpacked
barredbard pair
pare pear
IrancIrank
uwearwhere wea
t herwhether
sceneseen
uberthbirth
ceilingsealing
solesoul bare
bear pray u prey
rain reign pail
pale airheir
Iined Iind pains
panes teas
tease peace
piece
6*
IeatIeet witch
which dear
deer bow
bough
breadbred
rightwrite
rite peer
pier beach
beech hearhere
IurIir tale
tail malemail
sunson beat
beet break
brake maize
maze weak
week currant
current serial
cereal
vainvein
vane sell
cell sail
sale
compliment comple-
ment
hairhare
blueblew
seasee meat
meet healheel
IareIair cent
sent scent
roderoad team
teem hoarse
horse berry
bury gategait
plainplane
keyuay
163
-S. D%W%4e 9:e0e V2140 %392 Ea' 0.lla+281ap:0 a34 E+' m21p:281ap:0.
(a) meter, caring, beauty, sourly, surely, teacher, crying, sity
(a) prays, praise, child's, readable, misrule, penniless, unknown,,
dislike, immortal, irrational
-8. Expla%3 9:e 4%a/1%9%/ ;)3/9%23 2; 9:e 81ap:eme0 me'7 E1p7 m00'7 m11'7 m99p7
E33' +. /2mpa1%38 9:e0e pa%10 2; V2140.
a) manmane hearhe popepore
metmete her hen bar bare
sit site sir sit sort sour
b) tonybonny lazy lassy
car carry notedknotted
m ar merry wrotero tten
her hurry later latter
cut cutter Iuse Iussy
-$. T1a30l%9e1a9e 9:e0e 3ame0 +. R)00%a3 le99e10.
Abel, Andrew;, Ann, Baldwin, Bernard, Dorothy, Esther, erald
Hugo, Ira, Jean, Jeremiah, eith, Lionel, Mabel, Martha, Pius
Control Tasks
hI. D%W%4e 9:e0e V2140 %392 m21p:281ap:0.
Iace, Iacing, nicer, choicest, racy, princess, age, raging, larger,
urgent, bulgy, burgess, raged, changeling, outrageous, Iaced, nicely.
hugely, engagement, changeable
-6. D%W%4e 9:e0e V2140 %392 a' m21p:281ap:07 +' 0.lla+281ap:0. T1a30/1%+e
9:em 92 %ll)091a9e p:23em%/ 1e;e1e3/e0 92 0.lla+281ap:0.
curing, Iires, cheerless, cured, occurred, stirring, stirred, pining,
pined, worker, working, worked, thoroughly, culture, nation, city,
redder, cheering
-#. T1a30/1%+e 9:e0e V2140. S:2V 9:e p:23em%/ 1e;e1e3/e 2; 4%81ap:0 a34 p2l.-
81ap:0.
aid, Iairy, said, Iountain, portrait, villain, straight, August, sauce,
laugh, authority, taught, east, tea, delay, beige, threepence, leopard
r
people, Ireight, weigh
-d- F%ll %3 9:e +la3P0 V%9: ;:e app12p1%a9e :2m2p:23e.
(seal i ng, cei l i ng) 1. e had di I I i cul t y i n . . . t he l eak. 2. The
spi der made i t s web on t he . . . . 3. The . . . oI t he oc i s hi gh.
(sole, soul ) 1. My ol d boot s need new . . . . 2. He was t he. . . ee-
cut or named i n t he wi l l . 3. e had a ni ce . . . I or l unch. 4. He has a
hard ob t o keep body and . . . t oget her. 5. He put hi s heart and . .
-i nt o work.
(bare, bear) 1. In wi nt er t he garden l ooked . . . . 2. The pai n was-
al mos t mor e t han he coul d . . . . 3 . 1 can' t . . . t hat man. 4. He moved
wi t h t he gr ace oI a t r ai ned . . . . 5. The i ce won' t . . . your wei ght ,
&?d
(pear, pair) 1.1 have bought a . . . oI shoes. 2. Please give me a. . .,
I preIer them to apples. 3. They went away in . . . .
(right, write) 1. Don't . . . on both sides oI the paper. 2. hat's
the . . . time 3. In England traIIic keeps to the leIt side oI the road,
not to the . . . as in other countries. 4.1 hope you know the diIIerence
between . . . and wrong.
(vain, vein, vane) 1. AH our work was in ... .2. She is a ... young
girl, always giving herselI airs. 3. One oI the . . . oI the propeller was.
broken. 4. They Iound a. . . oI gold in the rock. 5, He became so angry
that the . . . on his Iorehead swelled.
5. State a) which consonants are silent; b) which oI the words have /6/..
a) ehaust diaphragm cupboard subtle
shepherd Thomas debt tomb
listen sign comb hustle
limb isle gnarl light
heirloom Tham.es knick-knack
b) wroth worthy method
throat bathe ethos
sooth loath Smith
thieI moth pith
clothes strength smooth
with wealthy Plymouth
6. ive sentences with the contrast homophones.
hideI'd hallall
hitches uitches harmIularmIul
hairheir handyAndy
hedgeedge unharmedunarmed
7. Single out words with the author's individual spelling used to sustain the
humour, consult the dictionary Ior correct spelling.
O the harbor oI Fowley Is
a beautiIul spot And it's
there I enowey To sail in a
yot
Or to race in a yacht Rounda mark or a buoy Such a
beautiIul spacht Is the harbor oI Fuoy ... But the wave
mountain-high And the violent storm Do I risk them
Not Igh But preIer to sit worm
ith a book on my knees
By the library Iire hile I
list to the brees Rising
hire and hire
165
And so whether I weigh Up
the anchor or not, I am
happy each deigh In my
home or ray yot;
Every care I resign
Every comIort enoy,
In this cottage oI mign
By the Harbor oI Foy
by 1ir Mrt&ur Quiller@Coac&
8. Lea13 9:e ex91a/90 +. :ea19. T:e. %ll)091a9e 4%;;%/)l9%e0 2; E38l%0: p123)3-
/%a9%23. T1a30/1%+e 9:e0e ex91a/90.
Blood and Ilood are not like Iood Nor it
mould like should and would Banuet is
not nearly paruet hich is said to rhyme
with darky.
Rounded, wounded; grieve and sleeve
Friend and Iiend; alive and live; Liberty,
library; heave and heaven Rachel, ache,
moustach, slaven.
e say hallowed but allowed People,
leopard; towed but vowed Mark the
diIIerence moreover
Between mover, plover, Dover
Leeches, breeches, wise, precise;
Challice, but police and lice,
XI. S,LLABLE
Though the basic phonological elements are phonemes, human in-
tercommunication is actualized in syllables.
The syllable as a unit is diIIicult to deIine, though native speakers
oI a language are usually able to state how many syllables there are
in a particular word.
According to J. enyon the syllable is one or more speech sounds,
Iorming a single uninterrupted unit oI utterance, which may be a word,
or a commonly recognized subdivision oI a word.
The syllable can be a single word: c&air /tIea/, a part oI a word:
En!lis& /'in-gliJV, a part oI the grammatical Iorm oI a word: later /ilei-
ta/.
The syllable can be analysed Irom the acoustic and auditory, ar-
ticulatory and Iunctional points oI view. The syllable can be viewed
in connection with its graphic representation.
Acoustically and auditorily the syllable is characterized by the
Iorce oI utterance, or accent, pitch oI the voice, sonority and length,
that is by prosodic Ieatures.
Acoustic properties oI syllables are studied with the help oI intono-
graph and spectrograph. Electroacoustic analysis made it possible
to Iormulate some rules oI syllable division (see below). Spectrograms
oI Russian syllabic structures show, that such syllables are char-
acterized by some noise in the beginning oI the vowel and by a vowel-
like termination oI the consonant:

, it is oI great importance Ior


syllable division.
Auditorily the syllable is the smallest unit oI perception: the lis-
tener identiIies the whole oI the syllable and only aIter that the sounds
contained.
The articulatory energy which constitutes the syllable results
Irom the combined action oI the power, vibrator, resonator and ob-
structor mechanisms.
Phonological y the syllable is regarded and deIined in terms oI
its structural and Iunctional properties.
Syllables in writing are called syllabographs and are closely con-
nected with the morphemic structure oI words.
A syllable can be Iormed by a vowel: (V) in English, () in Rus-
sian; by a vowel and a consonant: (VC) in English, () in Russian;
by a consonant and a sonorant (CS).
, V types oI syllable called uncovered open,
, VC types oI syllable called uncovered closed,
, CVC types oI syllable called covered closed,
, CV types oI syllable called covered open.
. P. Torsuyev suggests a diIIerentiation oI the Iollowing types
oI syllabic structures:
, V type: Iully open,
, CVC type: Iully closed,
, CV type: initially covered,
167
, V type: Iinally covered.
The structure oI the English and Russian syllable is similar.
2ussian
n
no
nont
c
x
nom

cn
nt
moc
o
Dwx
m
c
The peak or the crest oI the syllable is Iormed by a vowel or a so-
norant. The consonants which precede the peak and Iollow it are
called slopes.
Vowels /+, , , ;* a*?* o:, ei, ai, , +, oi/ constitute almost
always the peaks oI prominence, /+, i, u, +/ occur, as a rule, in
unaccented syllables.
The consonant /r/ never begins, /w/ never terminates the syllable.
The sonorants /w, r, / Iunction as consonants, because they
occur only beIore vowels: SVC structural type, e.g. /wi5, rait, es/.
The sonorants /1, m, n/ can Iorm syllables in terminal position,
when preceded by a consonant, e.g. /' pi:pl, iga:dn, S* ' 9
/
The structural patterns oI syllables Iormed by sonorants with a
preceding consonant in English are similar to V-I patterns: CS
5ritten /intn/.
According to . P. Torsuyev's data the syllabic structure in the
English language oI the combination consonant (or consonants) a
sonorant is characterized by the Iollowing data:
CS type 40 combinations, CSC type 90 combinations, CSCC
type 15 combinations, CCSCC type 1 combination.
1
Syllable-Iorming sonorants in the combinations oI the CS type are
terminal /m, n, 1/. E. g.
earthen channel prism eual
people garden oIten nation
1
ic ^ j. \. o co oot n com xt.
-1976.
168
/ 0. !
En!lis&
X err r
cvc
pit
crc
cvcc
Iact
cvccc
lapsed

ccvc
plan

cccvc
spleen
CCVC
twist

ccvccc
stamps

cccvcc
spleens

cvcccc
tets

cv
dew
ccv
spy
ccr
cccv
straw
cccr
vc
eat
vcc
act
vccc
asks
written eagle even decision taken
Iortune listen rhythm able angel
season camel
The combinability oI syllable Iorming sonorants is the Iol-
lowing: /1/ combines with all consonants ecept /6, 5/; /n/ com-
bines with all consonants ecept /m, r, n/; /m/ combines only with
/6, 6, s, z, p/.
The distribution oI consonants in the syllables oI the CSC type
is characterized by the Iollowing Ieatures: initial consonants may
be represented by /p, b, t, d, k, g, I, v, 6, d, s, z, J
1
, 3, tI, cIc,
m, r, w, n/; the medial sonorants may be represented by /n, m, 1/;
Iinal consonants are represented by /t, d, s, z, 6/. E.g.
opens vacant goggles ovens patient
marbles enables merchant arrivals angels
patterns mortals urgent heathens eualled
coupled student soItened rhythms motions
peoples gardens servant decent whistles
oIIicials leventh present persons
panelled
The distribution oI consonants in the syllables oI the CCC type
is characterized by the Iollowing Ieatures: the initial consonant
may be represented by /p, d, t, tI, dg, I, v, s, z, J 5, r/. The
peak oI syllable is represented by the sonorants /n, 1/, they are
immediately Iollowed by /t, d, s/; Iinal consonants are represented
by /t, s, z/. E.g.
innocents agents patents tangents parents
serpents students servants pheasants errands
patients scaIIolds licensed merchants heralds
The syllables oI the CSVSCC type: entrants /lentrants/, e$i!rants
emigrants/, $instrels /'minstrels/, &'(rants /lhaidrents/ can
5
be
pronounced without (V)CSSCC type, e.g.
emigrants /'emigrnts/ entrants /lentrnts/
minstrels /immstrlz/ hydrants /'haidrnts/
Russian terminal sonorants do not Iorm syllables witlIconsonants,
which precede them. However in some special cases: Ior stylistic
purposes, or Ior the sake oI rhythm, they maybecome syllabic; e. g.
c@`]a* @]a* @ea* 8o@. Compare:
1. Ft n Oc m.
t, uco o
1. Ft n Oc m,
t, Tt
nno
In the second variant the Russian /p/ is made syllabic Ior rhyth -
mical purposes.
169
There are diIIerent restrictions on the possible consonant clusters
in English and in Russian.
Final clusters in English are much more comple than initial
ones. They epress diIIerent grammatical meanings: plurality, tense,
number, e.g. texts* $ixe(* !li$.se(.
The structure oI the Russian syllable is characterized by more
comple and numerous initial clusters, they represent grammatical
preIies, e.g. ddca* ]dca* |* d.
Syllables oI the initial CC type constitute more than 50 combina-
tions in English (ecept aIIricates and double consonants). Syllables
oI the initial CC type in Russian constitute 236 combinations (aIIri--
cates and double consonants including), e.g. s.ea* G^.
Syllables oI the initial CCC type constitute H combinations in
English and 97 in Russian, e.g. street* dca.
A number oI combinations oI the initial CCCC type constitute
syllables only in Russian, there are no similar combinations in English,
e.g. ]dca* |Y]q8* |8Yca.
The clusters/mh, sr, s, Is, hr, stl/ never occur initially in English,
compare with the Russian: e* |c* Ra* * ec* ]a.
The clusters /gr, str/ can occur only initially, /tn, dn, stl/ occur
only Iinally, compare with the Russian: 8* ]a. The cluster
(TH) does not occur in Russian Iinally or initially.
In Russian structural types oI syllables are more common than
type. syllabic types constitute more than halI oI all the struc-
tural types in Russian. together with types constitute 85.
In the Russian tets open syllables occur 3 times more oIten than
closed ones. The most Ireuent pattern in English is CVC.
English VC, CVC structures are much more common than the Rus-
sian structural type. prevalence in the Russian syllabic struc-
ture results in the appearance oI the vocalic element oI /, t/ type in-
side or beIore the CC clusters.
They most commonly occur in /, / combinations, e.g. ,
oy.
Similar clusters in English are pronounced with the loss oI plosion,
e.g. !oo( (a'* t&at cat.
THEORIES OF.S,LLABLE FORMAT`yN AND S,LLABLE DIXISION
There are diIIerent points oI view on syllable Iormation which
are brieIly the Iollowing.
1. The most ancient theory states that there are as many sylla
bles in a word as there are vowels. This theory is primitive and insuIIi
cient since it does not take into consideration consonants which also
can Iorm syllables in some languages, neither does it eplain the
boundary oI syllables.
2. The epiratory theory states that there are as many syllables
in a word as there are epiration pulses. The borderline between the
syllables is according to this theory, the moment oI the weakest e
piration. This theory is inconsistent because it is uite possible to
&S0
pronounce several syllables in one articulatory eIIort' or epiration,
e.g. seein! /Isi: 15/.
3. The sonority theory states'that there are as many syllables in a
word as there are peaks oI prominence or sonority.
Speech sounds pronounced with uniIorm Iorce, length and pitch,
diIIer in inherent prominence or sonority. For eample, when the Rus-
sian vowels /, o, +, y, / are pronounced on one and the same level,
their acoustic intensity, or sonority is diIIerent: the strongest is /a/,
then go /o, +, y, /,
0. Jespersen established the scale oI sonority oI sounds, that is,
the scale oI their inherent prominence. According to this scale the
most sonorous are back vowels (low, mid, high), then go semi-vowels
and sonorants, then voiced and voiceless consonants.
Scale oI Sonority
1. low vowels /a:, 0:, ;* as/
2. mid vowels /e, +:, +, /
3. high vowels /i:, 1, u:
t
u/
4. semi-vowels /w, /
5. sonorants /1, r, m, n, n/
6. voiced constrictive consonants /v, s* g, 8/
7. voiced plosive consonants /b, d, g/
8. voiceless constrictive consonants and aIIricates //, tI

CI5, I,.
s, h, 6/
9. voiceless plosive consonants /p, t, b/
Sounds are grouped around the most sonorous ones, which Iorm
the peaks oI sonority in a syllable. Two points oI lower sonority con-
stitute the beginning and the end oI one syllable.
Compare $elt and $etal? in the Iirst word /e/ is the most sonorous
sound, the only peak oI sonority, it is a one-syllable word. In the
word $etal there are two peaks oI sonority /e/ and ///* it is a two-syl-
lable word.
In the word su((en the most sonorous is the vowel //, then goes
the nasal sonor ant /n/ which Iorms the second peak oI prominence,
/s/ and /d/ are sounds oI low sonority, they cannot be considered as
syllable Iorming sounds.
In the Russian word q there are three peaks oI sonority
and accordingly three syllables.
The sonority theory helps to establish the number oI syllables
in a word, but Iails to eplain the mechanism oI syllable division be-
cause it does not state to which syllable the weak sound at the boundary
oI two syllables belongs.
a
4 The arc oIloudness or arc oI articulatory tension theory is
based on L. V. Shcherba's statement that the centre oI a syllable is
we syllable Iorming phoneme. Sounds which precede or Iollow it
constitute a chain, or an arc, which is weak in the beginning and in
the end and strong in the middle.
II a syllable consists oI a vowel, its strength increases in the begin-
ning, reaches the maimum oI loudness and then, gradually decreases.
raphically it can be represented by
an arc oI loudness or an arc oI ar-
ticulatory tension.
Consonants within a sillable are
, , , characterized by diIIerent distribution
oI muscular tension. Shcherba distinguishes the Iollowing types
ot consonants:
Iinally strong (initially weak), they occur at the beginning oI the
syllable;
.Iinally weak (initially strong), they occur at the end oI a closed
usyllable;
double peaked (combination oI two similar sounds): in their ar-
ticulation the beginning and the end are energetic and the middle is
weak .Acoustically they produce an impression oI two consonants:
Ilpen naiI/, /igud 'dei/.
For eample, in the words ca-* | the consonants /k/ and //, that
begin the syllables, are Iinally strong, that is their articulatory
strength increases to the end oI /k/ and// (they are also called initially
weak). These consonants begin the arc oI loudness
In the words eat, | the Iinal consonants /b/ and /n/, that end the
syllable, are Iinally weak, that is their articulatory strength de-
creases to the end oI /b/ and /a/. These consonants terminate the
arc oI loudness or the arc oI muscular tension.
In terms oI the arc oI loudness theory there are as many sylla-
bles in a word as there are arcs oI loudness and the point oI syllable
division corresponds to the moment, when the arc oI loudness begins
or ends, that is: initially weak consonants begin a syllable, Iinally
weak end it. (Finally strong consonants begin a syllable, initially
strong end it.) For eample, the word $istae consists oI two arcs oI
loudness in which /m/ and /t/ are Iinally strong consonants and /s/ and
S/


1y
-
s/

consti
tutes the end oI the arc oI loudness, /t/
constitutes the beginning.
II rI nSL
1

0

the

d
,
U
/
b
l
e

peaked

/ss/

occurs

at
the unction ol two
syllables. The sound /s/ is strong at both ends and weak
335 ASS
gl c a l l y

$ns )s 0
X
172
A syllable can be deIined as a phonetic unit, which is pronounced
by one articulatory eIIort accompanied by one muscular contraction,
which results acoustically and auditorily in one uninterrupted arc oI
uloudness.
The eperiment carried out by N. hinkin showed that it is the
pharyn, which is responsible Ior the variations in the loudness oI
the syllable. Perceptually the peak, or the crest oI the syllable, is
louder and higher in pitch than the slopes.
On the acoustic level it is characterized by a higher intensity than
the slopes, and in many cases by a higher Iundamental Ireuency.
None oI the theories mentioned above are reliable in the deIinition
oI the syllabic boundary. To deIine the syllabic boundary it is neces-
sary to analyse the syllable on two levels: articulatory-auditory
phonetic-phonological), to take into consideration the structural
pattern oI the syllable.
DiIIerent languages are characterized by diIIerent types oI their
syllabic structure.
In the Russian language syllables oI - type have their bound-
ary aIter the vowel: @]@d* @d@].
There are similar cases in'English: mm/:-+/, ar$' /'a:-mi/,
.art' /lpa:-ti/.
In the Russian words with structural type, the place oI the
syllabic boundary depends on the character oI C cluster. II it occurs
initially, it may beging syllable: d @Ga* but ]@n*
since ] does not occur initially.
A similar distributional dependence oI the syllabic boundary on
the nature oI the CC cluster eists in English. E.g.
greatagree /+-igri:/, breakabrupt /a-'brApt/
However there are eceptions e.g.
speak /spi'.k/despite /dis-ipait/
sky /skai/escape /is-ikeip/
twice /twais/saltwort /iso:lt-wa:t/
There is a tendency in Russian to begin non-initial syllables
with the sound oI minimal sonority: 8@V8* d@]* but @d*
d]@e|.
Electroacoustic analysis makes it possible to Iormulate the Iol-
lowing rules oI syllable division in English:
1, In aIIial words the syllabic boundary coincides with the
morphological boundary: (is@.lace* -e@co$e* un@a-le* counttess.
1
There are other opinions on this point.
173
2. In words with CVCV structure the syllabic boundary is aI
ter the long accented vowel: 6ar$er /iJa:-ma/.
3. In words oI CVCV structure the syllabic boundary is withm the
intervocal consonant, which terminates the short accented syllable:
cit' /isrti/, .it' /ipiti/.
4. In words oI CSCV structure the syllabic boundary is within the
intervocal sonorant: inner /Una/, cine$a /ismime/, ene$'* /lenimi/.
5. Compared with the Russian acoustic connection, English
CV cluster is close, Russian syllabic cluster is loose, compare;
cit' /'siti/, lil' /Uili/, $one' /1m/ and @* ]@]* 7@.
6. English diphthongs are unisyllabic, they consist oI one vowel
phoneme, English triphthongs are disyllabic, because they consist
oI two vowel phonemes: science /'sai-sns/, 6lo5er /B+-+/.
FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE S,LLABLE
The syllable as a phonological unit perIorms three Iunctions:
constitutive, distinctive, identiIicatory. They are closely connected.
1. Constitutive Function
Syllables constitute words, phrases and sentences through the com-
bination oI their prosodic Ieatures: loudness stress, pitch tone,
duration length and tempo. Syllables may be stressed, unstressed,,
high, mid, low, rising, Ialling, long, short. All these prosodic Iea-
tures constitute the stress pattern oI words, tonal and rhythmic struc-
ture oI an utterance, help to perIorm distinctive variations on the
syllabic level.
2. Distinctive and DiIIerentiator Function
II we compare the words: li!&tenin! ^^^ and li!&tnin!
]q* we may observe that their syllabicity is the only min-
imal, distinctive Ieature: /UaitIltn vs. Uaitnm/.
It is an eample oI the word-distinctive Iunction oI the syllab-
icity oI /n/.
There are rather many combinations in English distinguished
Irom each other by means oI the diIIerence in the place ol the syllabic
boundary: a na$eBan ai$* ice crea$/ screa$* 5e loan 5e:ll
o5n? /ataeim//an leim/, /iais'kri:m//ai iskrhm/, /wi- Uaun/ ,/wil
isun/.
The distinctive, diIIerentiator Iunction oI the syllabic boundary
makes it possible to introduce the term uncture. Close uncture or
conuncture occurs between sounds within one syllable, e.g. a na$e*
/ screa$? in the Iirst eample the close uncture is between /n% and
/ei/, in the second between /s/ and /k/. Open uncture, disuncture,
or internal open uncture occurs between two syllables. II we mark
open uncture with /-I / then in our eamples it will occur between
a $$e* / screa$. American scientists H. A. leason, L. S. Har-
&Sd
ris and . Pike consider the open uncture a separate segmental
phoneme. They include // into the inventory oI phonemes as a
separate diIIerentiatory unit.
3. IdentiIicatory Function
This Iunction is conditioned by the pronunciation oI the speaker.
The listener can understand the eact meaning oI the utterance only
iI he perceives the correct syllabic boundary syllabodisuncture,
e.g. .ea stals ^`]c Ye.eace tals ^ ^^YF
$' train n ^|8 B $i!&t rain |V^ 8V8a.
The eistence oI such pairs demands special attention to teaching
not only the correct pronunciation oI sounds but also the observation
oI the correct place Ior syllabodisuncture.
RAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYLLABLE
The auditory image oI a syllable can be shown in transcription:
unno5n /1n-1nn/, liner /Uai-n+/, $aer /imet-+/. Parts oI ortho-
graphic and phonetic syllables do not always coincide. E. g.
mor( N&onetic s'lla-les lrt&o!ra.&ic s'lla-les
A1'lla-o!ra.&s>
table /Itei-bl/ ta-ble
laden /Uei-dn/ la-den
Spanish
/Ispga-ni/
Span-ish
It is very important to observe correct syllable division when
necessity arises to divide a word in writing. Division oI words into
syllables in writing (syllabographs) is based on morphological prin-
ciples. The morphological principle oI word division in orthography
demands that the part oI a word, which is separated, should be
either a preIi, or a suIIi, or a root (morphograph): un@(i;i(e(* utter@
ance* .un@is&
s
-e@6ore.
However, iI there are two or three consonants beIore -ing, these
consonants may be separated in writing, e. g. !ras@.in!* .us@slin!.
ords can be divided in writing according to their syllabic struc-
ture, e. g. un@in(:0@ness. They can also be divided according to their
meaning, e.g. s.ot@li!&t.
There are si rules to help with dividing a word in writing:
1) Never divide a word within a syllable.
2) Never divide an ending (a suIIi) oI two syllables such as -able,
-ably, -Iully.
3) ith the eception oI -ly, never divide a word so that an end
ing oI two letters such as -ed, -er, -ic begins the net line.
4) Never divide a word so that one oI the parts is a single letter.
5) Never divide a word oI one syllable.
6) Never divide a word oI less than Iive letters.
1
II we compare the system oI syllable division and syllable Iorma-
1
OIord Advanced Learner's Dictionary oIi Current English by A. S.
Hornby Moscow, 1982, P. IV.
175
tion in Russian and in English, we can draw the Iollowing conclu-
sions:
1) Similar syllabic structural types can be Iound in both languages.
2) In both languages the single intervocal consonant between two
phonetic syllables belongs to the net vowel:
morning /lIIlo:-mn/mo-
cozy /'+-zi/no-x
occasi on /+-'1-n/n-o-om
The checked vowels constitute an eception, e.g. cit'* .it'.
There is a tendency in the Russian language to accomplish syllable
division beIore a sound oI minimal sonority, e. g. ]@* :ydn#.
da@d* `G@d* etc.
3) All consonants may begin a syllable in English, the only e
ception is the sound /r/. In the system oI the Russian language all
consonants may begin a syllable.
4) The structure oI the Russian syllable is characterized by more
comple initial clusters. The structure oI the English syllable is char
acterized by more comple Iinal clusters.
5) Initial CCCC type clusters constitute syllables only in Russian.
6) Russian words oI Ioreign origin with the suIIies -x, -x,
corresponding to English words with the suIIies -tion, -y, have one
etra syllable: ^]oq re;olution* ^8^q ten(enc'.
7) English diphthortgsDelong to one syllable, triphthongs may be
divided into two parts.
uestions
1. hat is a syllable 2, hat are the lines along which a syllable
can be analysed 3. hat is the structure oI the syllable 4. DeIine
the peak and the slopes oI the syllable. 5. hat is the role oI sonorants-
in syllable Iormation 6. hat do you know about diIIerent structural
types oI the syllable 7. hat do you know about structural diIIerences
oI English and Russian syllables 8. Speak on the theories-oI syllable
Iormation. 9. hat do you know about syllable division' 10. How
does the syllable perIorm constitutive and distinctive Iunctions 11.
hat is disuncture (internal open uncture), close-uncture
(conuncture) 12. ive eamples to prove the importance-oI the
ident'iIlcatory Iunction I the disuncture. 13. hat are the principal
diIIerences oI syllable Iormation and syllable division in; English and
in Russian
Eercises
=-!. G%We 0.lla+%/ 091)/9)1al pa99e130 2; 9:e ;2ll2V%38 E38l%0: a34 R)00%a5g
V2140L /:a1a/9e1%Ge 9:em ;12m 9:e W%eVp2%39 2; 9:e%1 091)/9)1eN 2pe37 /2W-
e1e47 e9/.
(l)pit, pat, pot, bet, tip, ten, top, took;
no, , o, uc, no, co, , oc (2) Iact,
taken, rhythm, prism, region, bacon, listen;
nont, nnt, xn, n, m, m, n, 3:
176'
(3) depths, lapsed, boed, lisped, liIts, busts;
c, xn, oct, mct, Mc, m
(4) 3, price, shriek, Iret, smoke, twice;
nx, nn, x, ct, , c
(5) do, go, so, dew, he, pea, pie, boy;
, t, , c, , y,
(6) spy, stay, blue, brew, pray, dry;
o, ny, nc, no, o
;
n
(7) ought, eat, orb, oak, eight, out, art,
o, c, , , yx, ox, o, x
(8) splay, spray, straw;
mc, m, tc, m
(9) ebbed, act, ask, else, aunt, apt
, , , , oct, t
(10) aked, aunts, asks, eights, acts, elks
c, c
(11) spleens, springs, sprawls, sprains, strains, screams;
ncott, ncct, nt, nn
(12) serpents, patents, students, servants, licensed;
moc, xcn, cn, mcn, uyncn
(13) spleen, split, street, struck, sueek, scroll;
nom, nt, cn, ct, nmx, ntn
(14) twiddle, trance, plosion, Ilask, Ilint, thrust;
nct, , nyt, mn, cu
(15) stamps, tramps, twelIth, cleansed, clenched, nX;
cn, cc, cc
2, (a) Divide these words into phonetic syllables, (b) ive their syllable
structural patterns.
people, bugle, satchel, triIle, rhythm, April, eual, happens, mar -
bles, patterns, dragons, urgent, servant, listened, heralds, errands,
parents, tangents, patients, scaIIold
3. DeIine the number oI syllables in these words according to the sonority
theory.
alone, Iemale, unIortunate, insuIIicient, machine, unimportant,
yesterday, aristocracy, appetite, remarkable, solecism, misunder -
stand, inIeriority, window, tomato, satisIactory, electriIication
4. Mark initially strong consonants with a single line and initially weak con
sonants withtwo Tines.
, la-n, ii:-te, llai-n+, 'sek-ta, 'bu-tl, U:-gl, ,
'-bi, 'mi-dl, 'wm-ta, 'n-n+n, msep, Iilm
S. Supply each word oI eercise 4 with the corresponding arc oI loudness.
a. Read these eamples to prote the semantic importance oI the correct syl -
lable boundarv. Mark dose uncture by pluses,
a nationan Asian see Mableseem able
a nice housean ice house it swingsits wings
the tall boysthat all boys x c yxox cyxo
o o no mmmnomm m
177
7. Analyse these words Irom the viewpoint oI phonetic and orthographic
syllable division; transcribe and divide them into syllabographs.
work, working, worker, pined, pining, stirring, occurred, cured,
cheerless, curing, cheering, Iiring, redder, nation, culture, thoroughly
Control Tasks
1. Arrange these words into three columns according to the type oI syllable
structure: (a) closed uncovered, (b) closed covered, (c) open covered.
took, pray, liIts, at, straw, boy, aunt, tets, clenched, tip, pea,
struck, strays, elks, thrust, bet, Iact, Iret, asks, ebbed, price
m, , , 3, o, o, oct, , c, cu, ntn,
ncct, cc, uyncn, co, Mc, nc, ct, , uo
2. rite out: (a) initially weak (Iinally strong) and (b) Iinally weak (ini -
tially strong) consonants.
sit, lame, back, miss, sack, grave, tip, tide, top, late, mad, made,
nine, till, cake, thick, bat, pin, pine, hate, act, ice, plot, Iace, hid,
Iate, stamp, spot, pile, land, mist, mole, mark, gold, cap, nose, Ii,
harm, merry, horn, start, Iorm
3. Divide these words into phonetic syllables.
comIortable, cottage, orchard, ground, kitchen, pantry, study, sev-
eral, upstairs, bedroom, nursery, bathroom, Iurniture, modern, own,
electricity, January, February, August, September, October, Novem-
ber, December, ednesday, Tuesday, Thursday
4. Divide these words into syllabographs (where possible).
parents, Iire, plural, rural, dinner, marry, disappear, speaking,
writing, playing, walking, standing, passing, breakIast, potatoes,
tomatoes, coIIee, cabbage, bananas, berries, pudding, pears, beer,
shopping, ironing, housework, mistake, Iishing
S. Mark with // open Juncture in the eamples below. Turn them into eam-
ples with close uncture.
a name Ior it; a black tie; not at all; that's tough; I saw her rise;
the waiter cut it; Isawthem eat; why choose; my train; keep sticking;
gray day
VII. STRESS
Any word spoken in isolation has at least one prominent syllable.
e perceive it as stressed. Stress in the isolated word is termed word
stress, stress in connected speech is termed sentence stress. Stress is
indicated by placing a stress mark beIore the stressed syllable: 1t.
Stress is deIined diIIerently by diIIerent authors, B. A. Bogorodi-
tsky, Ior instance, deIined stress as an increase oI energy, accompanied
by an increase oI epiratory and articulatory activity. D. Jones de-
Iined stress as the degree oI Iorce, which is accompanied by a strong
Iorce oI ehalation and gives an impression oI loudness. H. Sweet also~
stated that stress is connected with the Iorce oI breath. Later, however,
D. Jones wrote, that stress or prominence is eIIected . . . by inherent
sonority, vowel and consonant length and by intonation.
l
A, C, im-
son also admits that a more prominent syllable is accompanied by
pitch changes in the voice, uality and uantity oI the accented
sounds.
II we compare stressed and unstressed syllables in the words.
contract /'kuntrsekt/ 8Y* to contract /ta kan'trsekt/ |d]oGa
8Y* we may note that in the stressed syllable:
(a) the Iorce oI utterance is greater, which is connected with more
energetic articulation;
(b) the pitch oI the voice is higher, which is connected with strong
er tenseness oI the vocal cords and the walls oI the resonance chamber;
(c) the uantity oI the vowel /se/ in /ksn'trsekt/ is greater, the
vowel becomes longer;
(d) the uality oI the vowel /se/ in the stressed syllable is diIIer
ent Irom the uality oI this vowel in the unstressed position, in which
it is more narrow than /'se/.
On the auditory level a stressed syllable is the part oI the word,
which has a special prominence. It is produced by a greater loudness
and length, modiIications in the pitch and uality. Their physical
correlates are: intensity, duration, Ireuency and the Iormant struc-
ture. All these Ieatures can be analysed on the acoustic level.
ord stress can be deIined as the singling out oI one or more syl-
lables in a word, which is accompanied by the change oI the Iorce oI
utterance, pitch oI the voice, ualitative and uantitative charac-
teristics oI the sound, which is usually a vowel.
In diIIerent languages one oI the Iactors constituting word stress
is usually more signiIicant than the others. According to the most
important Ieature diIIerent types oI word stress are distinguished in
diIIerent languages.
1) II special prominence in a stressed syllable or syllables is
achieved mainly through the intensity oI articulation, such type oI
stress is called dynamic, or Iorce stress.
1
fones J. An Outline oI English Phonetics. 9th ed. Cambridge,
1960,P. 247.
&S$
2) II special prominence in a stressed syllable is achieved mainly
through the change oI pitch, or musical tone, such accent is called
musical, or tonic. It is characteristic oI the Japanese, orean and
other oriental languages.
3) II special prominence in a stressed syllable is achieved through
the changes in the uantity oI the vowels, which are longer in the
stressed syllables than in the unstressed ones, such type oI stress is
called uantitative.
4) ualitative type oI stress is achieved through the changes in
the uality oI the vowel under stress.
English word stress is traditionally deIined as dynamic, but in
Iact, the special prominence oI the stressed syllables is maniIested in
the English language not only through the increase oI intensity, but
also through the changes in the vowel uantity, consonant and vowel
uality and pitch oI the voice.
Russian word stress is not only dynamic but mostly uantita-
tive and ualitative. The length oI the Russian vowels always
depends on the position in a word. The uality oI unaccented
vowels in Russian may diIIer greatly Irom the uality oI the same
vowels under stress, e.g. /a/ in * a:1* qn is realized
as /a, 5, /. /, o, +/ undergo the greatest changes, /y/ and / /
are not so much reduced when unstressed.
Stress diIIiculties peculiar to the accentual structure oI the
English language are connected with the vowel special and inher-
ent prominence. In identical positions the intensity oI English
vowels is diIIerent. The highest in intensity is /a/, then go / +:, :,
i:, u:, se, u, e, u, i/.
The uantity oI long vowels and diphthongs can be preserved
in (a) pretonic and (b) post-tonic position.
a) idea /ai'dra/ b) placard /iplsekad/
sarcastic /saiksestik/ railway /ireriwei/
archaic /aikeuk/ compound /iIcmpaund/
All English vowels may occur in accented syllables, the only
eception is /+/, which is never stressed. English vowels /i, u, +/
tend to occur in unstressed syllables. Syllables with the syllabic /
1, m, n/ are never stressed.
Unstressed diphthongs may partially lose their glide uality.
In stressed syllables English stops have complete closure, Irica-
tives have Iull Iriction, Ieatures oI Iortis/lenis distinction are
clearly deIined.
tress can be characterized as Iied and Iree. In languages with
Iied type oI stress the place oI stress is always the same. For eample
in Czech and Slovak the stress regularly Ialls on the Iirst syllable.
In Italian, elsh, Polish it is on the penultimate syllable.
In English and Russian word-stress is Iree, that is it may Iall on
any syllable in a word:
180
on the Iirst#$ot&er mm
on the secondoccasion nomoxoct
on the third(emnation ox
Stress in English and in Russian is not only Iree but also
shiIting. In both languages the place oI stress may shiIt, which
helps to diIIerentiate diIIerent parts oI speech, e.g. Ensultto
* E$.ortto i$1.oE. In Russian: H|d* d]* ] are
adectives, c|d* d]* ] are adverbs, G* dd* dY8 may
be pronouns and conunctions: G G^G G^F dd
R^]dd R^]F dY8 c^e]dY8 c^e].
In English #-illo5 is dn ]* -e0o5|. Similar cases
can be observed in Russian: cPdcd* |d|d* dcVd
dcVd.
hen the shiIting oI word-stress serves to perIorm distinctive
Iunction, V. Vassilyev terms this suprasegmental phonological
unit Iorm distinctive accenteme, when it serves to distinguish the
meaning oI diIIerent words, its term is word-distinctive accenteme.
Stress perIorms not only distinctive Iunction, it helps to constitute
and recognize words and their Iorms (constitutive and recognitive
Iunctions).
Strictly speaking, a polysyllabic word has as many degrees oI
stress as there are syllables in it. American and English phoneticians
give the Iollowing pattern oI stress distribution in the word exa$ina@
tion. They mark the strongest syllable with primary accent with the
numeral 1, then goes 2, 3, etc.
It is more convenient and vivid to represent this pattern oI stress
distribution in the Iollowing way.
i g, m r n ei
3 2 4 i
1
,0 p 8 t l U i n i t I
1
Z
1 5 3
1
i )
Z
\
Z U
W
ZU
d`
X
The number oI lines corresponds to the number oI syllables in a
word. The primary strongest stress mark is placed on the highest line,
the second strongest one is placed on the second line, the other stress
marks are distributed on the appropriate lines according to accentual
sonority. The vertical lines, drawn perpendicularly to the lowest line
vividly show the degree oI accentual sonority oI the syllabic phonemes
and the height oI the voice pitch, which is bigger within the strongest
syllable, smaller within the second strongest syllable, etc.
The least strong syllable has the lowest sonority and pitch (5 in
181
our eamples). Such graphs help to visualize the greater intensity
oI syllables with primary and secondary stress compared to other,,
less prominent syllables.
There is some controversy about degrees oI the word-stress termin-
ology and about placing the stress marks. Most British phoneticians
term the strongest stress primary, the second strongest secondary and
all the other degrees oI stress weak. The stress marks placed beIore the
stressed syllables indicate simultaneously their places and the point
oI syllable division: exa$ination.
American descriptivists (B. Bloch, . Trger) distinguish the
Iollowing degrees oI word-stress: loud /i/, reduced loud //, medi -
al /V, weak, which is not indicated. H. A. leason deIines the
degrees oI stress as primary 1t* secondary ""* tertiary /7, weak //,
(H. Sweet distinguishes weak /
v
/, medium, or halI-strong A?<*
strong /7 and etrastrong, or emphatic stress /;/.
V. A. Vassil yev, D. Jones, R. ingdon consider that there
are three degrees oI word-stress in English: primarystrong, secon-
darypartial, weakin unstressed syllables. For eample: certi6@
ication /S3:tiIiikeiJn/the second and the third syllables have
weak stress, which is not marked.
Most English scientists place the stress marks beIore the
stressed syllables and don't mark monosyllabic words.
Some American scientists suggest placing the stress marks above
the vowels oI the stressed syllable, e.g. -lac-ir( /I:/. They
place the stress marks even on monosyllabic words, e. g. cat* .en
u
$a..
In the Russian word-stress system there are two degrees oI word
accent: primary and weak. The stress marks in the Russian pho-
netic tradition are placed above the vowels which are the nuclei oI the
syllable, e. g. c^8^n dV8 8^ Y]qVc ]a.
The dictionary oI accent Ior TV and radio workers gives some
words with two stresses /7-primary, /7secondary ( noouo),
e.g. d8* 8]n* ``]^d^8^^* Y^^]Yq.
Some scientists distinguish between stressed and accented syl -
lables. O' Connor states: Accent . . . is indicated by stress and
pitch combined. II a stress occurs . .. without a downward step
in pitch, the word concerned is not accented. Stressed syllables
in the tet have the symbol /i/, accented syllables have the sym-
bol ":". For eample: 3Mre 'ou (o$in! 3-ac a!ain on6iun(a' On
tonograms stressed and unstressed syllables, according to O'Connor,
correspond to big and small dots.
imson suggests marking accentual elements in the Iollowing
way:
a black dot with a downward curve corresponds to the
syllable, receiving primary accent.
1
l:Connor /. J.* Mrnol( 0. ,. Intonation oI Collouial English. L.,
1959.P. 18.
18a
,a black dot, or a white dot correspond to the syllable
receiving secondary accent.
.a tiny dot corresponds to the unaccented syllable. Here are
some accentual patterns Ior 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6- and 7-, 9- syllable
words according to imson's representation:
1
unknown ; Iemale, window D
u uantity, yesterday; tobacco, tomato u ' C
u remarkable, impossible; conterattack ~ u
a
............ aIIiliation, consideration;rehabilitate ~
C u characteristically
unilateralism; internationalization u u
In spite oI the Iact that word accent in the English stress
system is Iree, there are certain Iactors that determine the place
and diIIerent degree oI word-stress. V. A. Vassilyev describes
them as Iollows:
(1) recessive tendency, (2) rhythmic tendency, (3) retentive tend-
ency and (4) semantic Iactor.
(1) Recessive tendency results in placing the word-stress on the
initial syllable. It can be oI two sub-types: (a) unrestricted reces -
sive accent, which Ialls n the Iirst syllable: 6at&er /'IaSs/, $ot&er
/'3+/ and (b) restricted recessive accent, which is characterized
Ty placing the word accent on the root oI the word iI this word
Jias a preIi, which has lost its meaning: -eco$e /1/, -e!in bi
(2) Rhythmic tendency results in alternating stressed and un
stressed syllables, e.g. .ronunciation /+1B151

1,+~n/.
(3) Retentive tendency consists in the retention oI the primary
.accent on the parent word, e.g. .erson.ersonal /ip3:sn

ps:snl/.
More commonly it is retained on the parent word as a secondary
accent, e.g. si$ilarBsi$ilarit' /'stmibisnniHaentr/.
(4) Semantic Iactor.
iven below are the rules oI word-stress in English:
1. In words oI 2 or 3 syllables the primary stress mostly Ialls
on the Iirst syllable, e.g. terror* Ca-inet* #sensi-le.
2. In preIial words the primary stress typically Ialls on the
syllable Iollowing the preIi, e.g. i$.ossi-le* recall* -e&in(.
3. In preIial words with preIies having their own meaning,
the place oI stress is on the preIi, e. g. #anti@ca.italist* 3non@Nart'*
#ex@$inister* m ice@.resi(ent* #ultra@6as&iona-le*
4. In preIial verbs which are distinguished Irom similarly
spelt nouns and adectives, the place oI stress is on the second
syllable, nouns and adectives have their stress on the initial syl-
al~le, e.g.
;er- noun a(=ecti;e
to compound 'compound
to in'crease I increase
1
Li$son M. C. Op. cit.
163
5. SuIIies: -esce, -esue, -ate, -ize, -Iy, -ette, -iue, -, -eer,
-ade have the place oI stress on the preceding syllable or en them
selves, e.g. I.ictureswue* 3Ci!airette* tec&niwue* 3re3e3ree* 3^^Y*
3tnarZna(e* 6luam6'*
t
s.eciatise* (ictate.
6. SuIIies: -ical, -ic, -ion, -ity, -ian, -dent, -ieticy, -eous,
-ual, -uous, -ety, -itous, -ive, -ative (-Hive), -itude, -ident, -inal,
-ital, -wards have the place oI stress on the preceding syllable,
e.g. econo$ic* !ra$$atical* .osition* $a=orit'* #s.ecial* etc.
7. In words oI Iour or more syllables the place oI stress is'on
the antepenultimate syllable (third Irom the end), e.g. E$er!enc'
6
caEa$it'* &istorical.
In compound words the Iirst element is stressed when:
1. compounds are written as one word, e. g. la..letree* #-e(roo$
#caretaer* :5atc&(o!* #(o5ncastF
2. nouns are compounded oI a verb and an adverb, e. g. a '.ic
u.* a #$ae@u.F
3. nouns in the possessive case are Iollowed by another noun
e. g. a 3(oms &ouse* Ea(':s $ai(.
In compound words the second element is stressed when:
1. Iood items have the Iirst element which is oI a material
used in manuIacturing the whole, e. g. a..le Eart:*
2. names oI roads, parks and suares are implied, e. g. Ca0&e@
(ral i2oa(* Nar mace (but CaE&e(ral street>F
3. parts oI the house and other buildings are implied, e.g.
6ront i(oor* itc&en #5in(o5F
4. adectives with past participles characterizing'personsi e.g..
t&ic@sinne(* col(@-loo(e( (but 3(o5ncast>F
5. compound nouns ending in -er or -ing are Iollowed by an
1
adverb, e.g. passer i-'* su$$in! '.
Two eual stresses are observed: (a) in composite verbs, e.g to
i!i;e 3u.* to 3co$e II;
(b) in numerals Irom 13 to 19, e.g. 3sixteen* i6i6Eeen.
The semantic Iactor is observed in compounds:
(a) when compound nouns denote a single idea, e. g. #-lacs$it&
(y), #5alin! stic (n, oct); 3(ra5in! roo$ (oc
x);
(b) when the Iirst element oI the compound is most important
e. g. 3-irt&(a' (t oxx), 3(arnin! nee(le (montx ;
M$. co);
(c) when the Iirst element oI the compound is contrasted with
some other word, e.g. 36lute .la'er (c), not S .la'er
(cnu);
(d) when a compound is very common and Ireuently used it
may have a single stress, e.g. 3$i(su$$er (c
1
-
1
); #$i(
ni!&t (noout).
The rhythmic tendency is very strong in modem English. Due
to its inIluence there are such accentual variants as: ca.italist
/utoepitehst/, /katprtelist/, &os.ita-le /Urespitebl/, /hesipitebl/, etc..
In sentences words with two eual stresses can be pronounced
?d
with one single stress Runder the inIluence oI rhythm, e. g. 0&ir@Eeen*
but: Eer #nu$-er is 0irteen #&un(re(.
Under the inIluence oI rhythm a shiIting oI word-stress can be
observed in words with secondary stress, e. g.: Iwuali6icationl=ust
wuali6ication#wuali6ication (emphatic variant).
The rhythmic stress aIIects the stress pattern oI a great number
oI words in the English language. This results in the secondary
accent, e. g. re6u!ee* e$.lo'#ee* en!ineer* .ictureswue* occu.ation*
reco$$en(ation* etc.
Under the inIluence oI rhythm compounds oI three elements
may have a single stress on the second element; e.g. &ot i5ater
-ottle Y^]d* 5aste '.a.er -aset d| 8]q ^cVe `cY
A3&oi 35ater -ottle* 35aste 3.a.er -aset may also occur.).
In everyday speech the Iollowing variants oI stress patterns
can also be observed:
J. stylistically conditioned accentual variants, e. g. territor'
/teriib:n/ (Iull style)/itentri/ (rapid collouial style);
2. individual, Iree accentual variants, e.g. &os.ita-le" ihospitabl/,
i t ebl /
uestions
1. How is stress deIined by diIIerent authors 2. hat is stress on
the auditory, articulatory and acoustic level 3. hat types oI word-
stress do you know 4. To what type oI word-stress does the English
accentual structure belong 5. To what type oI word-stress does the
Russian accentual structure belong 6. hat is the diIIerence between
stressed vocalism in English and in Russian 7. hat is the diIIer-
ence between Iied and Iree type oI word-stress 8. hat is the shiIting
oI word-stress 9. How does stress perIorm constitutive, distinctive
and recognitive Iunctions 10. How can the stress patterns be represent
ed graphically 11. hat is the terminology suggested by diIIerent
authors to distinguish betwen diIIerent degrees oI word-stress 12.
How is stress represented in written Iorm 13. How does imson mark
accentual elements 14. hat Iactors determine the place and diIIer-
ent degree oI word-stress 16. hat rules oI word-stress do you know
a) Ior preIial words, b) Ior compound words 16. How does theseman-
185
p
Similar cases can be observed in Russian, e. g. ""Y]* which
is pronounced in Iull style, and ""R]* pronounced in rapid col-
louial style. iY /n/, /n/both variants are correct.
Free accentual variants should not be conIused with orthoe-
pically incorrect accentuation.
According to the data given by Soviet and Ioreign phoneticians-
the most common types oI English stress pattern are:
in two-syllable words , e.g. a6ter
1, e.g. -e6ore
in three-syllable words ------, e.g. 6a$il'
/B, e.g. i$.ortance
tic Iactor aIIect the place oI word-stress 17. How does the rhythmic
tendency inIluence word-stress system in modern English 18. hat
are the most common types oI English stress patterns
Eercises
I. Read these compound words with two eual stresses and translate them.
unaided /lAn'eidid repack /irkipaek/
tmalienable n'n+I/ prepaid /' prUpeid/
unaltered /' n'+:1I/ misspell /imis'spel/
unarmed /Uniarad/ misuse /imis'u:z/
unaspirated /lAn'sespireitid/ misrule /'mis'ru:l/
unclean /'n'Bn/ misuote /'mis'kwaut/
anticyclonic /lantisai'kkmik/ misplace /'misipleis/
anti-national /isentilnae9nl/ under-dressed /Undaidrest/
non-payment /'mm pennant/ underoiIicer AndatoIisa/
non-resident /'monirezidsnt/ underpopulated / ' d '
non-stop /inon'stup/ leitid/
e-minister /leks
1
minis tg/ vice-adrairal /ivais'eedmiral/
reopen /''++n/ vice-consul /'vais'konsal/
reorganize /'1:'+:+n/ pre-history /iprh'histan/
ultra-modern / '
2. Read these compound adectives with two eual stresses and translate them.
igood-ilooking,

old-Iashioned, 'bad-'tempered, labsent-iminded


6
Ibare-'headed, inome-imade
Note. hen a compound adective has a synonym to its Iirst element,
the stress is on the Iirst element:
oval-shapedoyal Syellow ish-
ookingyellowish Jsuare-sha
pedsuare Igreenish-
Iookinggreenish
3. Read these composite verbs with two eual stresses,
'carry 'out ntnoxt igo 'on nooxt
'come a

cross ncut ' point ' out ytnt


iget 'up ncnt 'put ion nt
'see 'oII nonoxt i si t idown ctcx
'set lup ycnnt Hake 'oII cmt (oxy)
iIall 'out ccotcx; ntnt iIall 'back ocynt
imake 'up mtcx iget 'back nonmtcx
'blow 'out ntntcx ibring 'Iorth nonot
Ipick 'out ntt 'Ii lup ycnt
4. Read these compound words with one single stress on the Iirst, most im-
portant part oI the compound, and translate them.
apple-tree, bystander, daybreak, birthday, sheep dog, pillow-
case, school-boy, suit-case, time-table, inkpot, hair-do, housewiIe, eve-
rything, Iire-place, broadcast, Iountain-pen, anyone
B
5. Read these compound nouns with one stress denoting a single idea and
translate them.
butterIly, newcomer, butter-Iingers, blacksmith, greatcoat, air-
plane, bluebottle, butter-boat, butterdish, bookmark
6. Read these pairs oI words. Translate them into Russian, mind the seman-
tic importance oI word-stress (distinctive and recognitive Iunction).
blackboard'black 'board 'overwork'over 'work
'blackbird'black 'bird 'yellow-cup'yellow 'cup
'strongbo'strong 'bo 'tallboy'tall 'boy
7. Read these pairs oI words. Translate them into Russian, mind the impor
tance oI the Iorm-distinctive accenteine.
'abstractto ab'stract 'desertto de'sert
'communeto co'mmune 'Iorecastto Iore'cast
'compoundto com'pound 'importto im'port
conIlictto conIlict 'outgoto out'go
'contestto con'test 'produceto pro'duce
8. Translate these words. Mind the position oI secondary stress on the Iirst
syllable in the (a) column and on the second syllable in the (b) column.
(a) ,modiIication (b) ad,minis'tration
,oma mentation a,I Iiliation
,ualiIication assimilation
,represenitation consideration
,archaeo4ogical e,ami'nation
,tempera' mental pro,nunci 'ation
,aristo'cratic an,tago'nistic
,mathematician academician
9. Mark the accentual elements oI these words according to imson's accen
tual patterns. Read them.
b@s'tta-le 5or(s? Iemale, window, proIile, over, under, cotton,
table, husband
r@s'lta-te 5or(s? important, ecessive, relation, appetite, photog-
raph, telephone
t@s'tla-te 5or(s? unimportant, insuIIicient, melancholy, caterpil-
lar, criticism, capitalize
W:1'tta-le 5or(s? satisIactory, aristocracy, administrative, empi-
ricism, consideration, circumlocution
X@s'tla-te 5or(s? variability, meteorological, autobiographic,
identiIication
v@an( h@s'lla-le 5or(s? unreliability, industrialization, impenetra-
bility, unilateralism, uninteligibility
10. Read the sentences below to prove the distinctive Iunction oI the stress.
Translate them into Russian.
1. 'Contrast makes it seem better. 2. 'Eport is Iorbidden.
Contrast Tom with his sister. E'port cotton goods.
It's because oI 'contrast. These goods the cities e'port.
It's because they con'trast,
187
3. This 'Iorecast was wrong. 4. A ipreIi is added.
I like his iIorecast. Pre'Ii a paragraph to Chap-
ter I.
It's what they Iorecast. It's a 'preIi.
It's a paragraph they decided
to pre'Ii.
5. He is a 'suspect. 6. They gave way without pro-
He is the man we susipect. test.
The 'suspect is here. They decided to pro'test.
e susipect this man. This iprotest was wrong.
Protest against it.
11. Put down the stress marks in the words below. Read them according to the
model.
M24elN ualiIication lust ualiIication (emphatic variant)
centralization, modiIication, composition, nationalization, orga-
nization, anticipation, intercession, overbalance, ustiIication, hos-
pitality, satisIactory, sentimentality, impossibility, idiomatic, ar-
tiIicial, unaccountable, Iundamental, distribution, representation,
characteristic, ornamentation, interrogation, administration
2. Put down the stress marks in the words below. Tran late them into Rus
sian and read according to the stress pattern.
ascertain, acuiesce, grotesue, cigarette, antiue, saloon, emplo-
yee, career, lemonade, atomic, phonetic, phonological, Iamiliarity,
proletarian, beneIicial, eIIicient, aueous, residual, impetuous, pro-
priety, active, relative, gratitude, attitudinal, sagittal, upwards
C23912l Tasks
1. Provide these words with necessary stress marks.
;ir-raid, birdcage, coalmine, teapot, washstand, mail-bag, dance-
music, grandIather, handwriting, shopkeeper, ladybird, oIIice-boy,
waiting-room, dinner-acket, tape recorder, labour echange, ground
Iloor, knee-deep, cross-uestion, Ilat-Iooted, shop-window, hot-water-
bottle, waste-paper-basket, post-graduate, vice-chancellor, second-
hand
2. Transcribe the words and put down stress marks in these verbs and nouns.
Translate them.
absent nabsent ; combine ncombine ;
compress nP compress ; concert nconcert ;
consort nconsort ; desert ndesert ;
produce nproduce ; outlay noutlay ;
inIi ninIi ;
3. ive eamples to show the eistence oI word and Iorm-distinctive accen-
tcmes in English and in Russian.
4. ive eamples oI the most common stress patterns in English,
188
T. G%We example0 92 %ll)091a9e 9:e 1)le0 2; V214-091e00 ;21 a' p1e;%xal V2140L
+' /2mp2)34 V2140.
?. G%We example0 92 p12We 9:e %mp219a3/e 2; a' 9:e 1:.9:m%/ 9e34e3/. a34 +p
9:e 0ema39%/ ;a/921 ;21 9:e 0.09em 2; E38l%0: V214-091e00.
T. U0e 9:e V2140 +el2V %3 9:e example0 2; .2)1 2V3.
I importim 'port ' transporttransport
'increaseinJcrease 'obectob'ect
1
protestpro 'test I IorecastIore least
1
recordre'eord icontrastconl tr ast
8. P)9 42V3 091e00 ma1P0 %3 9:e 0e39e3/e0 +el2V. T1a30la9e 9:em %392 R)00%a3-
1. The abstract is short. Abstract this theory. 2. This accent is on.
the Iirst syllable. Mark it with a weak accent. He accents the word
It's the word son you are to accent. 3. A conIlict took place. They
conIlict with this theory. It's Iinished in a conIlict. Still, they con-
Ilict. 4. The contest wasIriendly. They contest this statement. It's a
contest. They contest it. 5. The contract was signed. They contract
serious diseases. It's a contract. These diseases they contract.
9. Read the Iollowing compounds. Translate them into Russian.
'throw-back, Uook-out, IIlashbacki ie-idown, 'look-iround, lali
iin, 'head 'Iirst, 'head-'on, iknocker-lup,ilooker-'on, 'runner-lup, iwash-
ing-'up, 'pick-up
XIII. STRONG AND EA FORMS.
UNSTRESSED XOCALISM
In actual speech there is a great number oI words which are pro-
nounced in the weak or contracted Iorm. They are more common than
non-contracted or Iull Iorms. It applies to all styles and diIIerent manner
oI speech Iormal or inIormal, slow or rapid tempo.
iven below are the lists oI essential weak and contracted Iorms.
The Use oI eak and Contracted Forms
1. II a word is stressed the strong Iorm must be used.
2. Strong Iorms are used at the end oI the intonation group
even iI the word is unstressed, e.g.
here did Mary come irom /Iwss did imsan
4
In~m/
The only eceptions are pronouns. They retain the weak Iorm
in Iinal position, e.g.
John suspects her./idstm saspekts +/
e adore them, /wi- s
v
do: 5+/
3. Demonstrative pronoun 9:a9 always has the strong Iorm (even
iI not stressed), e.g.
That's eactly what I want. /Basts igizaekth wot ai ,wont/
That play I saw was wonderIul. /9set iplei ai iso: wsz d
4. eak Iorms ending in /+/ are not used beIore vowels (see
table Ior special Iorms).
5. The weak Iorms oI words beginning with /h/, e. g. have, has,
lie, him, etc. may or may not be preceded by /h/. The /h/ is in
variably used Iollowing a pause, Ior eample at the beginning oI
a sentence. In other cases the use oI the /h/-Iorms is in Iree varia
tion with /h/-less Iorms.
6. HaWe as a main verb is usually in the strong Iorm, s de
laines contracted Iorms with have may be used: I've, we've, they've
never he has, she has), e.g.
'I've, 'we've, ithey've a 'bit oI a problem, /'aiv, 'wi:v, iSeiv +
' bit 9v +
u
I/
7. Scnorants /1, m, n/ in contracted Iorms are typically syllabic.
e.1.
I John
1
11 come. /1(on1
x
/
ibread and
v
buiter /'oread n
8. ls~ is pronounced as /z/ aIter all lenis (ecluding /z, 5,
and aIter vowels:
T i - s v
Essential eak Forms
Class ord eak Forms
articles
a an
the
/+/ not beIore vowels /+n, n/
only beIore vowels /a, IIi/
beIore vowels
conunctions
and as
than
that
but or
/and, an, n/ /az/ /San/; /IIsen/ is
hardly ever used /Sat/ /bat/ /o-, a/
beIore consonants /+, or/ beIore
vowels
particles
there
to
/IIa/ beIore consonants /
0+/ beIore vowels /ta/
beIore consonants /tu/
beIore vowels
prepositions
at Ior
Irom oI
t o' into
through
/at/ /Ia/; /Iar/ beIore vowels
/Iram/ /av/: /a/ oIten used
beIore // /ta/; /tu:, tu/ used
beIore vowels /mta/; /intu/ beIore
vowels /Bra/
verb be
am ('m')
are ('re) is
('s) was
were
/ +, / /a/; /ar/ beIore vowels
/s, z/
/wa/; /war/ used beIore vowels
auiliary ;#r&
have
has ('s)
have ('ve)
had (d)
/az, s, z/
/av, V/
/ad, d/
other auiliary
and modal verbs
do does
can will
shall
would
should
must
could
/da, du/
/dA/
/+n/
AM/'' /ad, d/
/sd, d/
/mast, mas/
/kud, kd/
I9L
\8]V^^
Class ord eak Forms
pronouns
them
us our
you he
she we
me her
/3+, EFm/ /as/ /a-/ (is also used in
stressed contets)
/uV. /Ju/ /hi, hi, t, i/
/. / /wi, wi/ /mi, mi/ /ha, :/; /+/
beIore consonants
negatives
not
nor
/not, at/ /no/ beIore
consonants /n+/ beIore
vowels
Essential Contracted Forms
Deriva-
tion
Full Form
ritten Con-
tracted Form
Spoken Con-
tracted Form
Comments
be I am
you are
he is she
is it is
we are
they are
I'm
you're
he's
she's
it's
we're
they're
/aim/ /o:,
ua/
/hIcz/
/
/its/ /'wte
/ /3+/
, uar/ beIore
vowels
/wIcar/ 1 beIore /3+/ /
vowels
have
I have you
have
he has she
has it has
we have
they have
I've
you've
he's
she's
it's
we've
they've
/aiv/
/Jv/
2i l l 32
/its/
/wkv/ /
9eiv/
Not necessarily used iI
have is a main verb.
Cannot be used iF
have is a main verb.
Not necessarily used
iI have is a main
verb.
shall
will
I shall
you will
he will
she will
I'll
you'll
he'll
she'll
/ail/
zU
These may be contracted /tiB, Jiz, w, Juv, wiv, Jul, wid, Jud/,
102
\8]V^^
Deriva-
tion
Full Form
ritten Con-
tracted Form
Spoken Con-
tracted Form
Comments
it will we
shall/will they
will
tIii
we'll
they'll
/'Itl/ /
i:l/
/Ioil/
had
should/
would
I had (should)
would you had
(should) would he
had/would she
had/would it
had/would we
had/would they
had/would
I'd
you'd
he'd
she'd
it'd
we'd
they'd
/aid/
/ad/
/hi;d/
AIIcd/
/itad/ /
wIcd/
/Seid/
Contet usually makes it
clear whether had or
should/ would is
meant.
not
are not
were not
do not
shall not
will not
cannot
must not
dare not
aren't
weren't
don't
shan't
won't
can't
mustn't
daren't
/d;nt/1
/wa:nt/
/daunt/
/Jamt/
/waunt/
Aant / /' n
usnt/
/desnt/
Also used in aren't.
All auiliaries may
combine with n't to
Iorm contracted Iorms
and only the most
signiIicant and/or
irregular are given
here. There are many
more such as
isn't, wasn't,
couldn't, shouldn't
/iznt, woznt,
kudnt, 'Judnt/.
let let us let's /lets/
Only as auiliary
verb.
there
there is there
are
there wil
there would
there's
there are
there'll
there'd
/3+, ,
3+/ /+,
3+/
/3, +1/
/Dead, iIed/
/'IIearer, '3+/ beIore
vowels
The older /2391a/9e4 ;21m 2; a1e3*9 a34 I03*9 was )l3*9. This I0 9%2V heard only In
7-182
193
iBob' s
v
here. / o b
t
/ iVan's
,come. /ivsenz
u
/ Boy's
gone, /tboiz
v
gon/
is~ is pronounced as /s/ aIter the Iortis (ecluding /s, , tI/)
Uack's here, /'dsseks
v
hi3/
(Robert's gone, /irrbsts

gon' I
Pete's come. /ipi:ts
4
/
is~ is pronounced as /iz/ aIter /s, z, J
1
, g, t)7, has~ is pro-
nounced as /3z/, e.g.
Ma is coming later, /imseks iz ikAmir Jeite/
Mr. Hodge has arrived, /miste 'trad + a,raivd/
Jones has decided to leave, /icIceunz ez diIsaidid ta

li:v/
9. Some common grammatical words do not have a regular weak
Iorm, e.g.
on, up, when, then, one, what, where
As has already been mentioned, unstressed vowels in English
may either change their uality and uantity or remain unchanged.
For eample the indeIinite article a may be pronounced as / +/,
which diIIers Irom "ei" ualitatively. Ee may be pronounced as /hi'/
which diilers Irom /hi:/ uantitatively. In the word .otato the Iinal /
9U/ remains unchanged though it occurs in an unaccented syllable
/pa'teitsu/.
The maor role in the system oI unstressed vocalism in English
belongs to the neutral vowel /a/. It originated as a result oI the
development oI the analytical grammar structures, which led to
the reduction oI some vowels not only in inIleions but also in
other parts oI leical and grammatical words.
According to the data oI modern phoneticians /i, +, u, ou/ are
always unstressed, /ei, ai/ are unstressed rather oIten, /D:, , 3: au,
is/ are rarely unstressed, =a.* u:, i:, 01, +, +/ are practically never
unstressed.
The neutral vowel // may alternate with any vowel oI Iull
Iormation, e.g.
/i://+/ the /5i:/ the lesson /3+ Uesn/
/e//9/ pence /pens/three pence /trepans/
/se//+/ land /lsend/England /lirgIend/
/a//3/ particle /ptttikl/particular /psltikula/
SB a combine /+ ikombain/to combine / +' /
///+/ Iully /iIult/playIully /ipleiIah/
/://+/ to hi m /tu- hi m/to the table /ta T Iteibl/
///3/ some Mm/tiresome /itaiasgm/
/3.7/+/ herd /ha:d/shepherd /

ep3d/.
/ei//+/ Iace /Ieis/preIace /ipreIas/
/ai//+/ shire /J
1
m/Yorkshire /io:kty
// mouth /mau0/Plymouth /' +O/
194
/+//+/ Iolk /Iouk/NorIolk /'n+:+/ //
/+/ revere /nivis/reverence /irevarens/ /+/
/+/ there's /eaz/there's S
On the phonological level the uestion arises about the phonemic
status oI the neutral vowel /+/. Is it an independent phoneme, or a va-
riant oI the phoneme with which it alternates This uestion can be
answered in terms oI the distinctive Iunction oI the phoneme. In pairs
like, Ior eample, so$e /+/ so$e /sam/ /3/ perIorms distinctive
Iunction. In the sentence / rea( so$e // -oo so$e means a certain.
In the sentence / rea( so$e /sam/ -oos so$e means several. Similar
pairs in which the members diIIer in uality prove the independent
phonemic status oI the /+/ phoneme.
From the position oI the Moscow and Leningrad phonological
schools the relations between the vowel oI Iull Iormation and /+/ in
the pairs mentioned above should be viewed diIIerently.
The representatives oI the Moscow phonological school consider
such relations to be interaHophonic, because S is considered by them
in the pairs like /sAm/ /ssm/ to be an allophone oI the // phoneme,
or hyperphoneme.
The representatives oI the Leningrad school state that in the
above eamples /3/ and // undergo interphonemic changes and that
they are separate phonemes.
In the Russian language vowels in unstressed syllables may
coincide in speech. E.g. /0, a/ in the Iirst pretonic syllable are
both pronounced as //: // * /~ ]^a.
The peculiarity oI the unstressed vocalism oI Russian is that an
unstressed vowel never preserves its Iull Iorm. Cases like .otato
/pa'teitgu/, artistic /o:itistik/ are very common in English, e.g. /IB/
paragraph /ipasragroI/
conservatoire /kanJseivatva:/
radar /ireida:/, /ireida/ /1/
graduate /tgrseduit/
surIace /'seihs/
eIIect /liIekt/
ticket /itikit/ /+/ also
/ID:IS9U/ zero /tziaru/
// tumult /ltu:mAlt/
There are some digraphs in English which are pronounced in
unstressed syllables either as /+/ or /1/, e. g. er teacher /ItiitIa/ ar
mortar /'mo:to/ ormotor /imauts/ etIoreign /iIorm/ ir
eliir /iihksa/ iehobbie /Ihobi/ ou(s)Iamous /iIeimas/
7
195
uestions
1. Are weak and contracted Iorms common Ior actual speech
2. ive eamples in which articles, conunctions, particles and preposi-
tions are pronounced in the weak Iorms. 3. ive eamples in which the
verbs to -e* to &a;e and the negatives not* nor are pronounced in the
weak Iorms. 4. ive eamples in which auiliary verbs are pronounced
in their weak Iorms. 5. hat are essential contracted Iorms Ior
the verbs to -e* to &a;e* s&all* 5ill* &a( s&oul(* 5oul(* Ior the nega-
tive not* particles let* t&ere[ Use them in your own eamples or in the
eamples taken Irom literature. 6. hat rules Ior the use oI weak and
contracted Iorms do you know 7. hat role does the phoneme / +/
play in the system oI unstressed vocalism 8. ith what vowels oI
Iull Iormation does &i alternate 9. hat phonological status does
S possess 10. hat are the peculiar Ieatures oI English unstressed
vocalism
Eercises
1. Transcribe these words. Single out the pairs oI phonemes in which /+/ al-
ternates with t&e vowel oI Iull Iormation in the unstressed position.
armour (ox) army (mx)
allusion (m) illusion (mx)
tell 'em (cx m) tell him (cx my)
sitter (xnx y) city (oo)
Iorward (n) Ioreword (ncon)
eperiment (ont) eperiment (+cnmo
nt)
some (ooo oucno) some (oot, o-o)
that (oot, oocto that (o, yto m-
mcom) com)
variety (oo) various (ut)
estimable (ocot ynxx) estimate (ont)
Db. Transcribe these words. Underline the vowels oI Iull Iormation in the un-
stressed position.
protest n* content n* comment n* abstract a(=* asphalt n* cannot,
epoch, blackguard, eport n* humbug, epert n* institute
3. Transcribe these words. Read them. Mind the dropping oII oI &i in the
unstressed position.
oIten, session, special, diIIicult, some, can, conIerence, dictionary,
April, have
4. a) Transcribe these words and underline the sounds oI Iull Iormation in
the pretonJc syllables, b) ive eamples oI Russian vowel reduction in a
similar position.
emission usurp aorta
eleven Uganda oil-painting
ensign upturn coyote
abstract urbane aerologist
obective idea hereunder
orchestral outwit Eurasian
S. Read the eercise. Pay attention to the strong and weak Iorms which are
singled out.
Red and white. /Ired (3)n,wait/ That man said: That's good.
/'Sset imaen
v
sed iSssts gud/ Let's do it tomorrow, /llets Idu: it
ts.nrarau/ I ' m a student, /aim +
v
studsnt/ These boys are naughty.
/Ji:z 'boiz +
4
no:ti/ These books are interesting. /I8i:z ibuks +
k
in-
tnstir/ These bags are black. /'i:z ibsegz + Jilgsk/ hich is cor-
rect /iwit iz kaekt/ I have many books, /ai lhaev ' mem
v
buks/
He needs some books, /hi 'ni:dz ssm
v
buks/ I want some book, /ai
iwont isAra ,buk/
Come Ior the ticket. /1 6a 5 tikit/ Come Ior a change, /1
Iar 3
v
Ieind5/ ould you like to stay /iwud u Uaik ta
4
stei/ Do
you want to argue /Idu u iwrnt tu ,agu:/ You shouldn' t have
done it /u Iudnt av
k
dAn it/
Control Tasks
1. Transcribe these words. Use them to illustrate the peculiar Ieature oI the
2 English unstressed vocalism,
latchkey, simplicity, protest n* skylark, pantheon, bulldog, out-
door, dining-room, into, mildew, woodcut, heart-burn, humpback,
highway, simpliIy, highbrow, convoy, rainbow, raincoat, underwear,
armature
2. Li;e so$e eamples Irom the En!lis& language to illustrate the ualitative
and uantitative changes oI vowels in the unstressed position.
3. Prove the Iunctional independence oI the i( phoneme in the English language.
4. Transcribe the passage below. rite out some eamples oI the strong and
weak Iorms. Mark them with SF, F, accordingly.
The Luar(ian newspaper is Iamous Ior its misprints. hy, there
is even a Luar(ian* misprint preserved in brass Ior posterity. Some
years ago the El Vino wine bar decided to put up a plaue in honour
oI Philip Hope-allace, its most IaithIul and probably wittiest habit -
ue. And so, mentioning his eminence as a wit, raconteur and critic,
it was duly placed above his usual seat on the wall and unveiled at a
small ritual.
'I don't want to seem ungrateIul,' said the recipient, peering at
it closely, 'but there's only one 1 in Philip and you've put in two.'
'How can that be' gasped the management. 'e were careIul to
check with the Luar(ian.:
I. INTONATION
Intonation is a comple unity oI non-segmental, or prosodic Iea-
tures oI speech: 1. melody, pitch oI the voice; 2. sentence stress; 3.
temporal characteristics (duration, tempo, pausation); 4. rhythm;
5. tamber (voice uality).
Intonation is very important. It organizes a sentence, determines
communicative types oI sentences and clauses, divides sentences into
intonation groups, gives prominence to words and phrases, epresses
contrasts and attitudes. The two main Iunctions oI intonation are:
communicative and epressive.
There are two main approaches to the problem oI intonation in
reat Britain. One is known as a contour analysis and the other may
be called grammatical.
The Iirst is represented by a large group oI phoneticians: H. Sweet,
D. Jones, . Palmer, L. Armstrong, I. ard, R. ingdon, J. O 'Con-
nor, A. imson and others. It is traditional and widely used. Accord-
ing to this approach the smallest unit to which linguistic meaning
can be attached is a tone-group (sense-group). Their theory is based
on the assumption that intonation consists oI basic Iunctional blocks.
They pay much attention to these blocks but not to the way they are
connected. Intonation is treated by them as a layer that is superim-
posed on the leico-grammatical structure. In Iact the aim oI commu-
nication determines the intonation structure not vice versa.
The grammatical approach to the study oI intonation was worked
out by M. Halliday, The main unit oI intonation is a clause. Intona-
tion is a comple oI three systemic variables: tonality, tonicity and
tone, which are connected with grammatical categories. Tonality
marks the beginning and the end oI a tone-group, Tonicity marks the
Iocal point oI each tone-group. Tone is the third unit in Halliday's
system. Tones can be primary and secondary. They convey the atti-
tude oI the speaker. Halliday's theory is based on the syntactical
Iunction oI intonation.
The Iounder oI the
T
American school oI intonation is . Pike. In
his book The Intonation oI American English he considers pitch
phonemes and contours to'be the main units oI intonation. He des-
cribes diIIerent contours and their meanings, but the word meaning
stands apart Irom communicative Iunction oI intonation. A. Anti-
pova in her System oI English Intonation characterizes the approach
oI the American school to the study oI intonation system as mechani-
cal.
MELOD,
Speech melody or pitch oI the voice is closely connected with sen-
tence stress. Crystal states that the only realizations oI stress, which
are linguistic, which are capable oI creating an eIIect oI relative pro-
minence, oI accent, are those which are eIIected with the comple
&$8
help oI pitch, uantity and uality variations. The most important
is pitch.
L
Successive contours oI intonation singled out oI the speech Ilow
may be deIined diIIerently: sense-groups (semantic approach),
breath-groups (etra-linguistic approach), tone groups (phonological
deIinition)
a
intonation groups, tone (tonetic) units, pitch and stress
patterns. Each tone unit has one peak oI prominence in the Iorm oI a
nuclear pitch movement and a slight pause aIter the nucleus that end
the tone unit and is usually shorter than the term pause in pausation
system.
The tone unit is one oI the most important units oI intonation
theory. It contains one nucleus, which is oIten reIerred to as nuclear
tone, or peak oI prominence. The interval between the highesIand
the lowest pitched syllable is called the range oI a sense-group. The
range usually depends on the pitch level: the higher the pitch, the wid-
er the range. High, medium and low pitch oI the voice is shown on
the staves. The change oI pitch within the last stressed syllable oI the
tone-group is called a nuclear tone. It may occur not only in thenu-
cleus but etend to the tail terminal tone.
The inventory oI tonal types given by diIIerent scholars is diI-
Ierent. Sweet distinguishes 8 tones: - level, ' high rising,, low ris-
ing,

high Ialling, low Ialling,


;
compound rising,

compound
Ialling, - rising-Ialling-rising. Palmer has Iour basic tones: Ialling,
high rising, Ialling-rising, low rising. He also mentions high-Iall -
ing and low level and describes coordinating tonal seuences
( identical tone groups), and subordinating tonal seuences A:
dissimilar tone groups). ingdon distinguishes high and low, normal
and emphatic tones and gives rising, Ialling, Ialling-rising (divided
and undivided), rising-Ialling, rising-Ialling-rising and level tone
(the latter is not nuclear). O'Connor and Arnold give low and high
Ialls and rises, rise-Iall, Iall-rise, and a compound Iall 4- rise (the
latter is considered a conIlation oI two simple tunes). Halliday
recognizes seven maor types, ', ,,

,
v
,
4
,
/
.
Vassilyev gives ten tone units. He states that tones can be moving
and level. Moving tones can be: simple, comple and compound. They
are: Low Fall; High ide Fall; High Narrow Fall; Low Rise; High
Narrow Rise; High ide Rise; Rise-Fall; Fall-Rise; Rise-Fall-Rise.
The most common compound tones are: High Fall High Fall; High
Fall 4- Low Rise. Level Tones can be pitched at High, Mid and Low
level.
Methods oI indicating intonation are diIIerent: wedge-like symbols,
staves with dots and dashes, which correspond to unstressed and
stressed syllables within the voice range, tonetic stress marks, numeri-
cal system, etc. The system oI staves is the most vivid, the system oI
1
Cr'stal J. Prosodic Systems and Intonation in English. Cambridge,
1969, P. 120.
2
Crystal's terminology.
199
tonetic symbols is the most economical and vivid, that's why they are
most popular in our tetbooks.
'The tonetic units that constitute the total tone pattern (contour)
are the Iollowing:
1. unstressed and halI stressed syllables preceding the Iirst stressed
syllable constitute the prehead oI the intonation group;
2. stressed and unstressed syllables up to the last stressed syllable
constitute the head, body or scale oI the intonation group;
3. the last stressed syllable, within which Iall or rise in the intona
tion group is accomplished, is called the nucleus; the syllable marked
with the nuclear tone may take a level stress;
4. the syllables (or one syllable), that Iollow the nucleus, consti
tute the tail, e.g.
It's been a 'very igood , even ing Ior me.
6
prehead scale nucleus tail
The most important part oI the intonation group is the nucleus,
which carries nuclear stress (nuclear tone).
According to the changes in the voice pitch preheads can be: rising,
mid and low:
rising mid
t I
low
Scales can be: descending, ascending and level.
According to the direction oI pitch movement within and between
syllables, descending and ascending scales can be: stepping, sliding
and scandent;
descending stepping
descending sliding
descending scandent
7 *
t *\
4

I - *
ascending
stepping
ascending
sliding
ascending
scandent
nmminiS 1
the
I

ds

m

the
descending scale is made specially
SB5 th/I
1C
4
arr
rJ
s
P
aced

beIore
the dash-mark which indicates
the stressed syllable on the staves, or beIore the word
200
made specially prominent in the tet63" accidental rise, e.g. 'John
is very
t
busy. This type oI scale is called
up broken descending scale.
The Ialling tones convey completion and Iinality, they are categor-
ic in character. The rising tones are incomplete and non-categoric.
OI all the level tones mid level tone is used most Ireuently. The level
tones may epress hesitation and uncertainty.
Attitudinal Iunction oI intonation can be observed in utterances
consisting oI one word and in utterances consisting oI more than a
single word. In the latter cases it is not only that the type oI the nu-
cleus is important but also the pitch oI the utterance preceding the nu-
cleus: prehead and head. The attitudinal Iunction oI diIIerent tonal
types in statements, special and general uestions, commands and in-
terections is accurately and thoroughly described in the Intonation
oI Collouial English by J. D. O'Connor and . F. Arnold and in
our tetbooks on phonetics.
SENTENCE STRESS, OR ACCENT
Sentence stress is a greater prominence oI words, which are made
more prominent in an intonation group. The special prominence oI
accented words is achieved through the greater Iorce oI utterance and
changes in the direction oI voice pitch, accompanied by changes in
the uantity oI the vowels under stress (in unstressed position vowels
may undergo ualitative changes, see unstressed vocalism).
The diIIerence between stress and accent is based on the Iact that
in the case oI stress the dominant perceptual component is loudness,
in the case oI accent it is pitch. Degrees oI stress in an utterance cor-
relate with the pitch range system. Nuclear stress is the strongest
it carries the most important inIormation. Non-nuclear stresses are
subdivided into Iull and partial. Full stress occurs only in the head
oI an intonation group, partial stress occurs also in the prehead and
tail. Partial stresses in the prehead are most Ireuently oI a low va-
riety, high partial stress can occur beIore a low head. ords given
partial stress do not lose their prominence completely, they retain
the whole uality oI a vowel.
In tone-groups stress may undergo alternations under the inIlu-
ence oI rhythm, but there are some rules concerning words that are
usually stressed or unstressed in an utterance.
iven below is the list oI words that are usually stressed:
Nouns.
1
Adectives. Numerals. Interections. Demonstrative pro-
nouns. Emphatic pronouns. Possessive pronouns (absolute Iorm). In-
terrogative pronouns. IndeIinite pronouns: so$e-o('* so$eone* so$e@
t&in!* an'-o('* an'one* an't&in! (used as subect). IndeIinite neg-
ative pronouns: no* none* no one* no-o('* not&in!. IndeIinite pro-
Such as thing, person, place are unstressed.
201
nouns so$e* an' (epressing uality). IndeIinite pronouns: all* eac&*
e;er'* ot&er* eit&er* -ot&. IndeIinite uantitative pronouns: $uc&*
$an'* a little* a 6e5. Notional verbs. Auiliary verbs (negative con-
tracted Iorms). Two-word prepositions. Two-word conunctions. Par-
ticles: onl'* also* too* e;en* =ust.
The words that are usually unstressed:
Personal pronouns. ReIleive pronouns. Reciprocal pronouns.
Relative pronouns.
1
Possessive pronouns (conoint Iorm). IndeIinite
pronouns: so$e-o('* so$eone* so$et&in!* an'-o('* an'one* an't&in!
(used as obect). IndeIinite pronouns so$e* an' (when epressing uan-
tity). Auiliary verbs
2
(aIIirmative Iorm). One-word prepositions
and conunctions. Articles. Particles: t&ere* to. Modal verbs (contract-
ed Iorms and general uestions are eceptions).
The meaning oI the verbs $a'* s&oul(* $ust changes depending on
whether they are stressed or unstressed, e. g. uou :C$a' !o B possi-
bility. uou $a' :!o permission.
Stresses in an utterance provide the basis Ior identiIication and
understanding oI the content, they help to perIorm constitutive, dis-
tinctive and identiIicatory Iunction oI intonation. These Iunctions
are perIormed ointly with the pitch component oI intonation.
RHYTHM AND TEMPO
Rhythm is the regular alternation oI stressed and unstressed syl-
lables. Itis' so'typical oI an English phrase that the incorrect rhythm
betrays the non-English origin oI the speaker even in cases oI cor-
rect pronunciation.
The'phenomenon oI rhythm is closely connected with the phonetic
nature oI stress.
The units oI the rhythmical structure oI an utterance are stress
groups o rhythmic groups. The perception oI boundaries between
rhythmic groups is associated with the stressed syllables or peaks oI
prominence.
Unstressed syllables have a tendency to cling to the preceding
stressed syllables enclitics, or to the Iollowing stressed syllables
proclitics. In English, as a rule, initial unstressed syllables cling to
the Iollowing stressed syllables, non-initial unstressed syllables are
enclitics:
DD#P# usual rhythm pattern, .T~, eceptions with the
initial unstressed syllables.
Each sense-group oI the sentence is pronounced at approimately
the same period oI time, unstressed syllables are pronounced more
1
The pronoun 5&ic& in non-deIining clauses is usually stressed, e.g. /
!a;e &i$ a s.a(e* 5&ic& tool &e &i( in t&e -arn.
2
In general uestions the aIIirmative Iorms may be stressed and unstres
sed.
202
rapidly: the greater the number oI unstressed syllables, the uicker
they are pronounced. Proclitics are pronounced Iaster than enclitics.
Rhythm is connected with sentence stress. Under the inIluence oI
rhythm words which are normally pronounced with two eually strong
stresses may lose one oI them, or may have their word stress realized
diIIerently, e. g.
'Picca'dilly-'Piccadilly 'Circus'close to Picca'dilly
I princessa 'royal prin'cess
lindiarubbera 'piece oI india'rubberan Hndiarubber
v
ball
PAUSATION AND TAMBER
Pausation is closely connected with the other components oI into-
nation. The number and the length oI pauses aIIect the general tempo
oI speech. A slower tempo makes the utterance more prominent and
more important. It is an additional means oI epressing the speaker's
emotions.
Pauses made between two sentences are obligatory. They are
longer than pauses between sense-groups and are marked by two paral -
lel bars /H/. Pauses made between sense-groups are shorter than
pauses made between sentences. They are marked / l
t
/ 3 l * / 3 3 U
Pauses are usually divided into Iilled and unIil ed, corresponding
to voiced and silent pauses. Silent pauses are distinguished on the ba-
sis oI relative length: brieI, unit, double and treble. Their length is
relative to the tempo and rhythmicality norms oI an individual. The
eception is end-oI-utterance pause, which length is controlled by
the person who is about to speak.
Another subdivision oI pauses is into breathing and hesitation.
Pauses play not only segmentative and delirnitative Iunctions,
they show relations between utterances and intonation groups, perIorm-
ing a uniIying, constitutive Iunction. They play the semantic and
syntactic role, e. g. T&ere 5as no lo;e tost -et5een t&e$ (they loved
each other). T&ere 5as no lo;e lost -et5een t&e$ (they did not love
each other).
Attitudinal Iunction oI pausation can be aIIected through voiced
pauses, which are used to signal hesitation, doubt, suspence. Such
pauses have the uality oI the central vowels /+, s:/. They may be used
Ior emphasis, to attach special importance to the word, which Iollows
it.
The tamber or
T
the voice uality is a special colouring oI the speak-
er's voice. It is used to epress various emotions and moods, such as
oy, anger, sadness, indignation, etc.
Tamber should not be euated with the voice uality only, which
is the permanently present person-identiIying background, it is a more
general concept, applicable to the inherent resonances oI any sound.
It is studied along the lines oI uality: whisper, breathy, creak, hus -
ky, Ialsetto, resonant, and ualiIication: laugh, giggle, tremulousness,
sob, cry (the list compiled by CaIIord and Laver).
203
ST,LISTIC USE OF INTONATION
There are Iive verbal Iunctional styles (also reIerred to as registers
or discourses): 1. the belles-lettres style, 2. publicistic style, 3. news-
paper style, 4. scientiIic prose style, 5. the style oI oIIicial documents.
In the case oI oral representation oI written tets we speak about into-
national peculiarities oI: descriptive and scientiIic prose, newspapers,
drama, poetry, tales, public speeches, spontaneous speech and phatic
communion. They are brieIly the Iollowing:
1ense@!rou.s. In reading descriptive and scientiIic prose, tales
or newspaper material they depend on the synta or the contents.
They are shorter in drama than in descriptive and scientiIic prose,
they are normally short in public speeches. In poetry the main unit
is the line, which corresponds to a sense-group and consists oI more
than si syllables.
Tones. Mostly Ialling with a High Narrow Fall in non-Iinal sense-
groups oI descriptive and scientiIic prose (High, Mid, Low Falls in
Iinal sense-groups, a Fall-Rise in non-Iinal sense-group). Abrupt in
reading newspaper. Simple and comple in Iinal and non-Iinal sense-
groups in reading drama. Mostly slow Ialling, rising and level (the
Level Tone is oIten combined with the High Level Scale). Compound
tones: Fall Fall, Fall Level, Rise Fall in reading poetry.
The Rising Tone is more Ireuent in reading non-Iinal groups oI tales
than in the descriptive prose. Comple tones are oIten used in the dia-
logical parts. The tonetic contour oI tales is characterized by pitch
Iluctuations. In public speeches Falling Tones in non-Iinal sense-
groups are more abrupt than in Iinal sense-groups. Compound tunes
are Ireuent. They are mostly Fall--Fall. In solemn speeches Level
Tones combined with the High Level Scale are oIten used to convey
the attitude oI the speaker.
Nitc&. In reading descriptive and scientiIic prose and in newspaper
material it is mid. It is rather wide in public speeches narrow in
reading poetry. It Iluctuates in reading tales. It is wider in reading
drama, than in reading the descriptive and scientiIic prose.
1tress. It is mostly decentralized in monologues and narrative
parts, centralized in dialogues and emphatic parts.
2&'t&$ic or!anisation. In reading tales it depends greatly on the
syntactical and compositional structure. In public speeches it is based
on the rhythmic organization oI rhythmic groups and sense-groups.
Te$.o. The tempo is moderate, mostly constant in reading des-
criptive and scientiIic prose and in newspapers, it is uicker in paren-
thetic and absolute constructions. It is changeable and moderate in
drama. It is constant and slow in poetry. The tempo oI public speeches
depends on the size oI the audience and the topic. The clima oI a
speech is characterized by a change in tempo, range and loudness.
Nauses. They are mostly logical, In poetry the line usually ends in
a pause (iI there is no enambement). In reading drama pausation de-
pends on the structure and rhythmic organization. In public speeches
pauses not only divide the utterance into sense-groups, but make cer-
204
tain units prominent. There are hesitation pauses..Long pauses oIten
anticipate the main inIormation and isochronous units lines. It
is the main leico-grammatical and intonational unit oI poetry.
Lines constitute a stanza. Poetry is characterized by the Iollowing into-
national peculiarities: 1. A wide use oI simple tones. The Level Tone
is oIten combined with the High Level Scale. 2. The most typical
tones are: Fall Fall, Fall Level, Rise Fall.
uestions
1. How is intonation deIined 2. hat are the main approaches to
the study oI intonation 3. Speak on: a) the melody or the pitch compo-
nent oI intonation; b) sentence stress; c) rhythm and tempo; d) pausa-
tion and tamber. 4. Speak on the stylistic use oI intonation.
Eercises
1. Read these words with the si main tones: (1) low Iall, (2) low rise, (3) high
Iall, (4) high rise, (5) Iall-rise, (6) rise-Iall.
Model:
v
deed, ,deed, 'deed, 'deed,
v
deed
s

A
deed
Ieed, cord, window, something, matter, uarter
2. Read these words and word combinations (a) with the undivided Ialling-
rising tone, (b) with the divided Ialling-rising tone.
(a) cousin, husband, country, London, midday, blackboard, uin
sy, bedroom, bathroom, modern, cottage;
(b) sit down, good morning, good day, go on, come up, what's up
3. Read these words and word combinations (a) with the undivided rising-
Ialling tone, (b) with the divided rising-Ialling tone.
(a) please, read, begin, listen, bad, thank, well, what, right, come,
Ioreign, wrong, dear;
(b) put down, write down, clean the board, not large, behind Tom,
long ago, poor thing
4. Read these sentences. Observe (a) the low Ialling tone and (b) the high Iall
ing tone.
(a) She is ,cold. (b) She is 'cold.
She is at the .hospital. She is at the 'hospital.
'Father is at
v
home. 'Father is at 'home.
'Don't go alone. 'Don't go a'lone.
'Don't I take the Jamp. 'Don't 'take the 'lamp.
He is inot
4
well. He is 'not 'well.
'hy are you
4
Iate 'hy are you 'late
'Betty is in
v
bed. 'Betty is in 'bed.
'Mother is
v
busy. Mother is 'busy.
5. Read these sentences. Observe the tone marks.
1. I hen are you .coming 2. You can 'have it. to,morrov.
3. I hen did you 'last 'see your , parents 4. She 'never 'really
205
ooks very
v
welL ,
l
My books are Iairly ,new. 6, It's 'easier to
ispeak than to (understand. 7. 'hat did you -say 8. You might
have
v
warned me. 9. ,How long do you want to 'keep it 10. She
' won' t Ido it any ' better than , you. 11. ould you Hike a' nother
I lump oI 'sugar 12. You ican't go to the Iparty idressed like
v
that,
13. ill you Iwait till I' ve lhad itime to ' look Ior it. 14. I t ' s
'always the ,same.
6. Read the Iollowing communicative types with the appropriate attitudes:
(a) categoric statements (cool, reserved, indiIIerent, grim attitude)
low Iall
1. I ' want to
v
talk to you. 2. I hat
k
country are you Irom
3. I Ican' t ispeak Spanish. 4, I was Jbusy that day. 5. You iknew
he .was there.
(b) disunctive uestions (statement oI a Iact
provoking the listener's reaction) They
4
know about it, ,don' t they
1. He 'read this book, ,didn't he 2. She (worked

hard at her
English, ,didn't she 3, They are in the Vater, ,aren't they 4. iTom
is already 4en, ,isn't he 5. Your isister (wants to Istudy 'erman,
.doesn't she 6. I can 'do something, ,can't I 7. It's (Iive o'clock,
.isn' t it
They
N
know about it, don't they
(You are sure that the listener agrees with what you say.)
Read the same uestions with the above shown seuence,
(c) commands (Iirm and serious attitude)
iShow me your

ticket.
1. iTurn ion the Ilight, 2. 'ash and 'iron your
4
dress. 3, 'Leave
the idoor .open. 4. iDon't (go to the .concert. 5. lHang up the
time-table. 6. Reipair the .tape recorder. 7. ' Finish this
4
worlc
8, ' Sew the ibutton on to your coat.
(d) eclamations (weighty and emphatic)
iHow ridiculous
1. I ' m Iso ,happy 2. The iweather is Jovelyi 3. It' s tall .over
now 4. iStop iteasing your
v
sisterl 5. How Iuick the (young (people
206
are 6. 'hat a itidy room 7. 'Lovely weather 8, I onderIul
'language laboratory 9. iSuch IselIish lyoung men
(e) special uestions (serious, intense, responsible)
hat's the time
1. I hen did you Icome
v
home 2. 'hat do you ,do 3. hat
did you Mo in the ,evening 4. iHow did you 'spend the 'time
yesterday 5. ho is igoing to do the shopping
Pronounce the saroe uestions with the low rising tone to show interest.
hat's all this ,Iuss about
Pronounce the same uestions with the rising nuclear tone, Iollowing the in-
terrogative word to show disapproval.
,hen di d you come there
Pronounce the same uestions with the high Ialling nuclear tone to show
business-like interest.
hat's the 'time
Pronounce the same uestions with the high rising nuclear tone to ask Ior a
repetition.
'hat's the 'time
Pronounce the same uestions with the Ialling-rising nuclear tone to plead Ior
sympathy. Make the uestions warm, aIIectionate, weary.
hat's the ,time -v
Pronounce the same uestions with the rising-Ialling tone to make it challeng-
ing, antagonistic.
'hat's the ,time
(I) alternative uestions (the Iinal Iall shows that the list is complete)
207
1. ould you like ,bread or
v
meat 2. ould you like ,Iish
or
4
meai 3. 'ould you like ,Iish or
4
eggs 4. 'ould you like
potatoes or tomatoes 5. ould you like carrots or
4
cabbage
6. (ould you like ,cucumbers or
t
beets 7. ould you like ,coI-
Iee or cocoa
(g) statements containing an implication. hat is implied is clear Irom the
situation, it may be: suggestion, concern, polite correction, reluctance,
careIul dissent, grateIul admittance.
am 'not
,late.
J
1. I
v
hope I am ' not ,late.

2. You are ' not .right. 3. 1


'work systematically. 4. I have no
1
time Ior ,lunch today. 5. I
' should have ,done it. 6. I Van' t answer this uestion. 7. You
'can sing ,perIectly.
(n) reuests (pleadingly, reproachIully, reassuringly)
Z J
1. ' Cheer ,up. 2. ' Do Ior, give me. 3. ' Don' t ,do it. 4.
4
Come
in. 5. ' Don' t do it a, lonel 6. ' ill you in, vit e me 7. ' o , on.
7. Read these sentences. Make the auiliary and modal verbs that begin sen
tences stressed to show greater interest.
1. iDoes it ,matter Does it ,matter 2. l l s he going to ,come
Is he Igoi ng t o , come 3. i Do you l i ke , oranges Do you ' l i ke
, oranges 4. I Can you have an aIternoon ,oII Can you have an
laIterinoon ,oII 5. iCould they ,help it Could they ,help it
8. Read these sentences. Make the possessive pronouns that are used as predic
atives stressed.
1. IThis (thing was .mine. 2. IThis I thing was Jhis. 3. ' This
ithing was
v
yours. 4. IThis 'thing was
s
ours. 5. IThis 'thing was
theirs.
9. Read these sentences. Make the Iinal prepositions strong.
1. i Not hi ng t o be aIrai d oI. 2. hom are you
t
t al ki ng to
3. ihat do you
4
want it Ior 4. It was iMary he was looking Ior.
5. It was 'Bess he was
v
there with. 6. ihere did she
t
come Irom
7. hat is she
4
here Ior 8. It ' s a it hi ng unheard oI. 9. ' Thi s
Iboy should be
v
sent Ior. 10. IThis 'letter was much talked about.
10. Read these sentences. Don't stress the correlative conunction as , . . as-
1. I ' l l Icome as ' soon as he pleases. 2. I' ll iread as Hong as
the Ichild Jikes. 3. It' s tnot as ' si mple as
v
that. 4. (Jane was as
/-/ the high
prehead
1
/-
(pale as
v
ghost. 5. lUria was as 'slippery as an eel.'6. iDid'you
say: As I snug as a I bug in a ug
11. Read these sentences. Don't stress (or make weakly stressed) combinations:
or so, or something, each other, one another. Don't stress the sub-
stitute word one.
1. He will 'come in an
v
hour or so. 2. This iIruit will be Ired
in a
4
month or so. 3. e'll ibuy a ,coat or something to proect
you Irom the
4
cold. 4. He 'said ood

morning or something,
and (ent onwith his
4
work. 5-. He' 'really 'wanted a 'couple oI
books or so. 6. He was a bootmaker and a
v
good one. 7. e have
'never uarrelled with each other. 8. The Ipassengers 'seemed to
Jike one another.
2. Read these rhymes. Observe the regular alternation oI stressed and un-
stressed syllables according to the given stress tone marks.
Uack and EJ%ll went Iup the ,hill. To I
Ietch a %pa%l oI water. Jack Iell ,down
and I broke his ,crown, And 'Jill came
'tumbling
v
aIter.
'Twinkle, itwinkle, 'little ,star,
'How I 'wonder iwhat you
4
are. I
Up albove the I world so ,high
'Like a'diamond Jin the
v
sky.
* * *
In 'winter 'I get lup at

night And I
dress by I yellow 'candle light. In
'summer uite the 'other
v
way I
bave to f!o to J~bed by

day.
Y
C23912l Ta0P0
1. Transcribe and intone the sentences below. Pay attention to the diIIeren-
tiatory Iunction oI stress in the italicized words.
1. a) He spoke with no trace oI accent* b) The way you accent these
words tells me you were not born in England. 2. a) That's very a-@
8#
what I call a sil;er:ti. thVta'i-dr'iversaid contentedly, b') This is
obviously a sil;er ti.F no other metal would have been strong enough
Ior the ob. 5. a) You will need a .er$it in order to visit that place,
b) The ob has to be done very uickly; it does not .er$it oI any delay.
1
The mark /=l indicates a stressed accented syllable In the scandent
scale.
Ii182
209
6. a) e entered a very (ar roo$* b) A (arroo$ is a room Ior photo-
graphic processing. 7. a) ho is going to re6un( our losses b) The re@
6un( did not amount to too much but it was etremely welcome. 8.
a) This is all the s.en(in! $one' you'll get Irom me Ior this month.
b) 1.en(in! $one' is easy, making it may prove more oI a problem.
2. Read this tet s a radio commentator: I).Add etra loudness to your voice.
2) atch the tempo oI speech. 3) Articulate clearly and distinctly.
A orld ithout ars, ithout eapons is the Ideal oI
Socialism
The international policy oI the CPSU proceeds Irom the humane
nature oI socialist society, which is Iree Irom eploitation and oppres-
sion and has no classes or social groups with an interest in unleashing
war. It is inseparably linked with the basic, strategic tasks oI the
Party within -the country and epresses the common aspiration oI
the Soviet people to engage In constructive work and to live in peace
with all the peoples.
The main goals and directions oI the international policy oI the
CPSU:
Provision oI auspicious eternal conditions Ior reIinement oI
socialist society and Ior advance to communism in the USSR; removal
oI the threat oI world war and achievement oI universal security and
disarmament;
Constant development and epansion oI cooperation between
the USSR and the Iraternal socialist countries and all-round promotion
oI consolidation and progress in the world socialist system;
Development oI relations oI euality and Iriendship with
newly-Iree countries;
Maintenance and development oI relations between the USSR
and capitalist states on a basis oI peaceIul coeistence and business
like mutually beneIicial cooperation;
Internationalist solidarity with Communist and revolutiona
ry-democratic parties, with the international working class movement
and with the national liberation struggle oI the peoples.
A,ro$ the draIt new edition oI the
CPSU Programme)
3. Read this tet as a dictation: observe correct rhythmic groups andsenten
stress.
Cutting oII with a Shilling
Sheridan, the Iamous English playwright, wanted his son Tom to
rry a young woman oI a large Iortune. The youth was in love with
a penniless girl and reIused pointblank to obey his Iather.
Out oI patience with his son, Sheridan threatened him: II you don't
immediately obey me, 1 shall cut you oII with a shilling. hen you
210
marry
really make up your mind' to cut me oII with a shilling, said the
youth, you will have to borrow it Iirst, sir,
Sheridan burst out laughing and dropped the subect altogether.
d. Rea4 9:e0e `2Pe0. De;%3e V:a9 %3923a9%23 pa99e130 0:2)l4 +e )0e4 92 /23We.
:)m2)1.
Asking Too Much
An Englishman was driving along a country road in Ireland and
met a man carrying a heavy bag.
Can I take you into town the Englishman asked.
The Irishman said, Thank you, and got into the car.
In a Iew minutes the driver saw that the Irishman was sitting with
the heavy bag still in his hand.
hy don't you put your bag down he asked.
ell, answered the Irishman, you've given me a ride in your
car. I can't ask you to carry my bag as well.

You say that I am the Iirst model you ever kissed
Yes.
And how many models have you had beIore me
Four. An apple, two oranges, and a vase oI Ilowers.
* * *
1o.&? But I don't think I deserve ariabsolute zero.
Nro6F Neither do I, but it is the lowest mark that I am allowed to give.
* * *
A young writer sent a number oI manuscripts to a celebrated news-
paper columnist, asking his advice as to the best channel Ior mar-
keting the writings. The manuscripts came back with'this curt note:
uThe one channel I can conscientiously recommend as the greatest
outlet Ior articles oI this type is the English Channel,
T. Rea4 9:e0e 9ex90 a0 %; .2) Ve1e 1ea4%38l9:em 92 a' /:%l41e3L +' 09)4e390.
Lea13 9:e p2em +. :ea19.
a) The Rooster
-' Hilda I. Rostron
hat would we do,
I'd like to know,
ithout that bird
That loves to crow
ho wakes him up,
I'd like to know, To
tell him when It's
time to crow.
8

I'll get up early One


day, too, And shout
out: Cock-a-doodle-
doo-oo.
b) Still not PerIect
A small schoolboy oIten wrote: I have went, instead oI I have
gone. At last his teacher said:
You must stay aIter school this aIternoon and write 'I have gone'
a hundred times.. Then you will remember it.
hen the teacher came back he Iound a letter Irom theboy on his
desk. It said: u
Dear Sir,
I have wrote I have gone a hundred times, and now I have went.
I. RECEIXED AND GENERAL AMERICAN
PRONUNCIATION
The English language is spoken in reat Britain, the United States
oI America, Australia, New ealand and the greater part oI Cana-
da. It is native to many who live in India, Israel, Malta and Ceylon
All the national varieties oI the English language have very much
4n common but they diIIer Irom standard pronunciation. Standard
pronunciation is the pronunciation .governed by the orthoepic norm.
It is the pronunciation oI the educated circles. It is used by radio and
television, and is regionally neutral.
In the British Isles the regional types oI the English language are:
(1) the Southern English, (2) the Northern English and (3) the Stand-
ard Scottish.
In the United States oI America the regional types oI the American
variant oI the English language are: (1) the Eastern type, (2) the South
ern type, (3) the eneral American type (Northern, Midwestern,
estern). '
The social standard within Britain is the so-called Received Pro
nunciationor RP. It is the teaching norm at schools and higher learn-
ing establishments oI the Soviet Union because oI (1) the degree oI
understandability in English-speaking countries, (2) the etent oI
RP investigation, (3) the number oI tetbooks and audio-visual aids'.
In the United States oI America the most wide-spread type is
eneral American. Like RP in reat Britain A in America is the
social standard: it is regionally neutral, it is used by radio and TV,
in scientiIic and business discourse, it is spoken by educated Americans'.
Since RP and A are the most widely accepted types oI pronuncia-
tion the learners oI English should know the principal diIIerences
between them.
THE ST;STEM OF AMERICAN ENGLISH CONSONANTS
The total number oI RP and A consonants diIIer in one phoneme,
it is the A /. The rest oI the RP and A inventory oI consonant
phonemes coincides.
The main peculiarities in the pronunciation oI A consonants
concern the Iollowing phonemes.
/ r /
This sound is one oI the most characteristic oI A pronunciation.
In its articulation the tip and blade oI the tongue are turned upward,
toward the hard palate, the tip pointing to the area immediately be-
hind the alveolar ridge (it does not touch it) a retroIle position.
Its pronunciation is accompanied by some slight protrusion oI the
lips.
The sides oI the tongue are in contact with the bicuspid and
molar teeth, as Ior /n/ or /d/. /r/ is more sonorous in A than in
6&#-
RP. hen preceded by /t, d, 9, J7, /r/ is pronounced with an
audible Iriction.
A /r/ is pronounced not only initially but also beIore a con-
sonant and in the word Iinal position, e. !. /Ia
r
m, be
r
d. sistsV.
American scientists consider that / x,

/ and /+, 7 are tense


and la allophones oI /r/ phoneme in /Iaa
r
/, /

y, /Iia7-
N
There are two allophones oI /1/ phoneme in A: dark and light,
but most oI the A speakers use the dark /// in all positions: initially,
.medially and Iinally.
Clear or light allophone oI /) is commonly used in the South Atlan-
tic regions oI the USA.
The dark/1/is pronounced when the maor portion oI the tongue is
raised to the velar part oI the mouth cavity.
/t/
This phoneme is highly variable in AE.
(1) A voiced variety oI /t/ is used in a) intervocalic position beIore
an unstressed vowel as in -utter* S &i$ in* S anot&erF &> preceding a
syllabic /1/ as in -eetle* su-tleF c) between a nonsyllabic /1/ and an un
stressed vowel as in $alte(* alto!et&er* salte(F d) between /n/ and an
unstressed vowel as in t5ent'* 5ante(* se;ent'* 5ant to seeF e) between
unaccented vowels as in at anot&er .lace* i6 it is con;enient.
/t/ is not voiced initially or terminally, or when it precedes syl -
labic /n/ as in -utton.
(2) An unconsciously inserted /t/, or /d/ (ecrescent /t, d/) is
recognized to be standard in such words as (ense* $ince* .rince* which
become homonyms oI (ents* $ints* .rints.
(3) In careless or indistinct speech /t/ and /d/ may be lost a) as in
ei!&t&* 5i(t&* -rea(t&* lists* .ostsF b) aIter /n/ and beIore an unstressed
vowel as in 5ant to* t5ent'* 6in( anot&er* centre* 5on(er6ul* -lin(in!*
stor$* lan( o6 .lent'.
(4) /1/ is dropped and a glottal plosive is inserted, when it is
immediately preceding a syllabic /n/ or /I/ as in itten /ki

n/,
$itten /mi

n/, -ottle /b

l/, settle /se

l/.
The l ottal St op //
I i It results Irom the compressionand sudden release oI air at the
glottis. It is produced when the compressed air is pushed through the
separating vocal bands. This sound is known as laryngeal stop, it is
voiceless and unaspirated. It is used by A speakers beIore initially
stressed vowels (sometimes between vowels) when the second vowel
begins a stressed syllable, and as a transition sound Irom a Iinal to an
initial vowel as in triu$.&ant* a#orta* /n(ia6o66ice* / (i(.
1
1
Used Ireuently, it interrupts phrasing and distorts the rhythm oI speech,
or. these reasons, it is usually counseled against.
214
/m/ a34 /hw/
Either oI these symbols represent the pronunciation oI words spelt
with the initial wh as in 5&ere* 5&en* etc, hwl is an aspirated on-glide
to the /w/ sound. / is a voiceless, Iricative, labiovelar or a voiceless
/w/. Either oI them is the norm, but /hw/ is the predominant lorau
N
The glottal, Iricative or whispered A /h/ is similar to the RP /h/.
However the A /h/ is Ireuently voiced in intervocalic position as in
.er&a.s I6I4. /h/ is lost when used initially in unstressed or weak Iorms
within a phrase, as in:
has here has he gone
have I have gone to the store,
had He had twenty oI them,
his I saw his car. he Did
you see how he ran
/h/ has an independent phonetic value used initially beIore stressed
syllables as in:
he He gave John the bag.
whose hose book is this
whole The whole group came.
/h/ is omitted in a stressed word in: Co$e &erel
&i
I
'/w~ & r/ are called, glides because the initial area oI their
Iormation is closely, associated with a Vowel: /w/ begins at or near
I;* ul; /r/near Ic
r
, a
r
; //-at or near i, i3 position, the
glides appear only prevocally.
// is the Hngua-palatal glide which in A hasseveral modiIi -
cations:
(1) The u variants are pronounced in words like tune* (ut'*
when u, iew eau are preceded by /p, b, I, v, m, k, h/ as in .ure*
-eaut'* 6e5* ;ie5* $usic* cu.i(* &u$an.
(2) A slightly Ironted u may be heard in all other instances
as in tune* ne5* (ut'* suit* ent&use.
(3) AIter 6a J
1
, t d3/ or a consonant /l/~ u, Ironted u or
iu are used by A speakers as in ru$or* s&oe* c&e5* fune* 6le5*
-lue.
(4) In &u!e* &u$an type oI words /h / combination is pro
nounced as the erman ich laut 9. The words &u!e* &u$an*
&u$ane* &u$or* &u$orist* &u$oristic and &u$orous can be pro
nounced with the initial (hu) or u.
(6) It, dl u are assimilated in A into ' tI and dg as
in tune tIunl, (ue dsub e(ucation d k
1
The /hw/ is usual in Scotland, Ireland and in the North oI England,
is more usual in SouthernEngland.
215-

This sound is vocalized in Iinal unstressed syllables ending in


-ion, -ia.as in ;ersion %mHn"* Msia /eiga/. /J7 is not vocalized in
(e.ressi.n* as.ersion.
Nasals /m, n, g/
A common characteristic oI A is the so-called American
twang, which is the nasalizing oI a vowel beIore a nasal conso-
nant which results Irom the lowering oI the soIt palate,while the
vowel is being spoken as in can(' .kdi, $anner n+

, $an
msen, 6ine Iam.
/n* m/ may be omitted Iollowed by /I, v/ as in so$e ;ines
sAvamz, co$e 6urt&er kI3
r
a
r
, one 6ine (a' IR. Iai dei.
Sometimes syllabic (g is substituted Ior $ or +n1 as in taen
teikg, sicen sikn, c&icen tikn.
A speakers may pronounce beikn Ior -acon* ai kg gau Ior
/ can !o* baeg g bsegidg Ior -a! an( -a!!a!e* brsukn glaes Ior
-roen* !lass* keit Ior fac an( +aie.
English Pronouncing Dictionary by D. Jones notes that in
the words listed below Americans use /n/, while RP speakers use
both /n/ and /n/:
concave
congratulate
encourage
engrave
incapable
inchoate
incognito
nonconIormist
Principal Peculiarities oIA Consonants
1. Voiceless, Iricative, labiovelar /m/.
2. The A /r/ is more sonorous than the RPJ/r/. It is retroIle
3. /1/predominantly dark.
4. /t/short, voiced, intermediate between /d/ and /t/ and a
one tap /r/. /t/ may be omitted in t5ent'* .lent'. It may change
into a glottal stop: t&at one* or turn into silence; t5ent'.
5. lottal stop //.
6. /h/voiced in intervocalic position; lost initially in un
stressed or weak Iorms within a phrase.
7. /u/ may change into a) Ironted a in tune* (ut'* b)
/as/ in due, tune* c) ich laut in &u!e* &u$an.
8. /vocalized in ;ersion* Msia.
9. Nasal twang as in $an.
b1X
conclude conglomeration
enclose encompass
encrust engraIt
engulI enuire
incapacitate incline
inclement ingratitude
inglorious synchron ic
panchromatic
T:e T238)e a34 L%p P20%9%230 2; 9:e Ame1%/a3 E38l%0: X2Vel0
Front Central Bad: -
&
b
R& m &
{| . - Y
Tense 1 1 X
& *
3'
o 0x 3 e 1 + '
.
1 Tense (
IIi
) 1 >
&&
0
& | Z
; ; %
. Z -

THE S,STEM OF AMERICAN ENGLISH XOYELS
' The articulatory and distributional diIIerences between A and
RP are the Iollowing.
Front Vowels
U=U
This phoneme does not diIIer greatly in A and RP. It is
diphthongized in the Iinal position in A- and RP, as in see /sii/,
Diphthongization is less noticeable beIore voiceless stops as in -eat
/bit/, $eat /rait/.
N
This phoneme is a little more open in A than in RP. In A
it is uuoIten obscured, when Iollowed or preceded by /x. & v/ orM
asin 5ill* 6ill* ri;er* -ear*
/ /
It is lower than the RP /e/ and resembles //. // maybe
diphthongized beIore /p
t
t, k/, e. g. !et /gs't/, -et /bi
a
t/.
- / /
In 3A /e/ is long, tense and nasalized beIore /d, m, n/, e,g~
5nM/, answer/iIIi:ns3/. The A m diIIers Irom the RP /as/
distnbulionally: ( l ) i t is used in words in which the letter a is
Ioltpwed by a consonant other than r* as in ans5er /ins~/, dx13
aur0 /ant/; (3) 'in A /e/ is used instead oI /a/ in B words like,
cc/Ti /iken/, marry /imen/, .arrot /iperat/.
:
'
The

Kon1nBn
oI American,.'Engt).,
High i '~
- 8S- 95
* 3
u O. -O
|
Mid . 2 u
3 @
Low
Central Vowels
UAU
It is stressed, unrounded, mid-open, produced with the middle
oI the tongue slightly raised. The position oI the tongue is close to
low back /, +/. hen unstressed / / may be replaced by + or
p, as in su-scri-e sabiskraib, stb.. . J-
Speakers oI New York City and some in Eastern New England
use 4i3ri instead oI /1nn/. In collouial speech A, AV,
H- can be used instead oI ImJQ4* t~v, Irom.
N
/3/ and its variant

are tense, stressed and usually long


vowels.

variant is the more common oI the two. It results


Irom a retroIleion oI .the tongue-tip toward the hard palate, a
greater retraction oI the tongue or a combination oI both, e.g.
-ir( /ba
r
d/, 6ir ".
9
r
is the sound oI suns tressed syllabic /r/ in such words as
6at&er* (oer* -etter. The r-coloured, la, central vowel is heard
throughout the JJSA, ecept in the r-less areas, such as the South,
Eastern New England, New York City. +

and its variant 9 vary


as do the //, /

/.
,

are used to represent stressed er, ur, ear, or, as in 6ern* -urn*
learn* 5orst.
+

, + are used to represent unstressed er, or, oar, a, ir, ur, lire
yr, re, as in -etter* actor* cu.-oar(* 5isar(* ta.ir* .ressure* &$r$ur*
sat'r* sce.tre.
N
The unstressed, central, la vowel that can occur in any position
oI a word. It is the most commonly used vowel because oI the eten-
sive use'oI uastressed syllables, /+/ is used in deIinite and indeIinite
articles, monosyllabic prepositions, conunctions, pronouns and auil -
iary and modal verbs, as in a* an* t&e* -ut* or* 6or* 6ro$* o6* &er* t&e$*
s&all* 5as* can.
,N
High, central, unrounded. The lips are in the neutral position.
The central part oI the tongue is high, the bulk oI the tongue retract -
ed Irom .the
c
position Ior i, 1, It is known as the barred Z and used
in .the words like sister* t&in!* 6ist* 6is&* c&i.s. This sound is rarely
heard in A, but in collouial speech it is Iound in all dialects oI Amer -
ican English. It is used in both syllables oI the word c&il(ren. It
varies withVi/ in the words'me, :see. The unstressed &i is common in
words like .arte(* &orses* in the words can and =ust in the phrases:
, t e ,,x', +, are considered to be allophones oI the &i phoneme, see
CKr$sit-DM:. f* The Pronunciation oI American English. Prentice Hall,' 1960
(central vowels).
/ can (o it* fust a $o$ent /km/, /eiset/. Many American scientists
are convinced that the three high vowels /i, i* u/ are as phonemically
distinct Irom each other as the three mid vowels /s, , o/.
Emphasized w, Ate, triIt, Ie, i/, ItIe are pronounced with p. Most
people do not hear this sound because it hasno special Iorm which
can be associated with it.
N
The A /a/ is more Iront than the RP /a/. It is central, or
mied and low, broad variation. In contrast to the RP z the
A /a/ has a diIIerent distribution. It is used a) in words like &o.*
ro-* not* locF (olt* sol;e* onF b) in words beIore velar /r/, /g/
both /a/ and /o/ can be used as in lo! /lag//log/, 6ro! /Irag/
/Irog/, etc.
Back Vowels
N
It is a back, low, la vowel. It is used as a variant oI z in
&ot* sto.* and oI /D/ in rIog, cou!&. For those who distinguish
between (bam, bum, In~0, Irod, hug, hok // is separatepho-
neme, diIIerent Irom /a/ or /o/ in ca/m, I, la5* 6all.

The A /o/ is intermediate in uality between theJRP /o;/ and


//u In the production oI the A /a/ the lips are considerably less
rounded than in artculating/o:/. This sound is commonly spelled
with an a or o. Other spellings are ail, aw, al, oa, ou, as in a,
-or(er* 6ault* 6a5n* &alt* -roa(* -rou!&tD
/ /
It is a high, back, tense vowel. The lips are rounded and may~
be slightly protruded, as in -oot. It is diphthongal in character,
especially when stressed and lengthened uu. Slightly Ironted I4
may be heard in tune* ne5* (ut'* suit. The Iorms with u
t
I
are also possible.
N
It is a slightly lower and Ironted sound when compared with
/u/. The lip rounding is less than Ior /u/. It is spelled oo, u, o,
ou, as in -oo* 6ull* 5ol6* coul(. The A /u/ sounds like RP //
As a variant it can occur Iinally in the word into.
A Diphthongs
Soviet phoneticians distinguish Iive diphthongs in A: /ei, ai, oi ,
au, ou/ .
1
1&a&-a!o;a J* M. Varieties oI English Pronunciation,M., 1982.-
P. 27.
/$!/
u It diIIers Irom the RP /ei/ in diphthongization. It mostly occurs
in word Iinal position, or beIore voiced consonants, as in &oli(a'
/'hahdei/, !a$e /geim/, !ra(e /greid/. A monophthongal variant oI
/ei/ may occur beIore voiceless consonants as in !ate /get/, (ate
/det/. It may be reduced to /e/ in unstressed syllables, as in ;a@
cation /veikein/, c&aotic /keiatik/. In American books on phonetics
and in dictionaries it is transcribed as /e/.
Ua%U7 U#%U
These diphthongs are practically identical in RP and A.
In A the nucleus oI the diphthong is aback mid-open vowel,
in RP it starts Irom the tongue position Ior the RP /a:/. It is,
thereIore, transcribed by some British phoneticians as /+/. In A
the glide oI the diphthong may be reduced to /o/ beIore voiceless
Consonants and in unstressed syllables, as in -oat /bot/, ra(io
/'reidio/. It is transcribed as "o6 by American phoneticians.
//
This diphthong may be realized as /au/ and //, the Iirst va-
riant usually predominates. In RP the starting point is the posi -
tion oI the tongue Ior /a/.
/*t/, /://, /;/, /</, /<</, /3</
In A these monophthongs and centring diphthongs are pro-
nounced respectively as: /ar/, /or/, =it"* /er/,/
u
r/.
Principal Peculiarities oI A Vowels
1. No opposition between historically long and historically short.
2. /i/ may be obscured as in 6ill* ri;er.
3. /e/lower than the RP /e/.
4. /ge/long, mostly nasalized, may turn into /e/ as in $arr'*
carr'* /a/ may be used instead oI /a/ as in as* .ast* (ance.
5. /3/retroIle in medial and terminal position as in -ir(*
-etter.
6. )Bbarred /i/ in sister* .arte(* &orses* in emphasized in*
&is* 5it&.
7. /a/ instead oI /D/ as in (olt* &o.* ro-.
8. "o" instead oI /+:/ as in la5* wualit'.
9. In A the distinction between monophthongs and diphthongs
is not very consistent.
10. ithin the orthoepic system the pronunciation oI words in
A is close to the reading rules and is thereIore diIIerent Irom that oI
RP.

THE ACCENTUAL STRUCTURE OP ORDSJN AMERICAN ENLISH


The maor diIIerences in the accentual structure between RP and
A are mainly with the use oI the tertiary stress (the primary stress
isonic, the secondary stress is pre-tonic, the tertiary stress is post-
tonic, unstressed syllables are weak).
The tertiary, or post-tonic stress in A Ialls on the suIIies -ary,
-ery, -ory
I
-mony, -arily, -ative, -on, e. g.
LM 2N
'dictionary /en/ 'dictionary /+n/
I territory /+n/ 'territory /+n/
I monastery /en/ 'monastery /+n/
1
testimony /mouni/ 3testimony /+/
'ordinarily /enh/ 'ordinarily /arili/
ad'ministrative /eitiv/ administrative
The suIIi -ile is an eception, e. g. A 3a!i /il/, /+1/, /, RP
a!ile /ail/.
Other diIIerences between British and American word-stress com-
prise a) two, b) three, c) Iour, d) Iive syllable words:
LM EN
a) Mbrate viibrate
b) conIiscate (conIiscate
c) primarily 'primarily
d) 'custoimarily 'customarily
In Iive syllable words the American secondary stress may Iall earli-
er than the British:
LM 2N
igesticu'lation gesticulation
There are eceptions:
LM 2N
a'ristocratic (aristocratic
The maor diIIerences in the accentual types oI compound words
in A and RP are the Iollowing:
i) In RP compounds with two primary stresses are more common
than in A:
LM 2N
New I York iNew 'York
1
1
Eceptions are RP: 3rain.roo6* mest$inster* 3$i(su$$er.
2) Tertiary stress diIIerences comprise compound place names end-
ing in -borough, -burgh, -bury, -ehester, -gate, -ham, -moor, -shire
4
-stead, -heath, -land, -mouth, -wood, -worth, e.g.
LM 2N
iBirraingham 'Birmingham
Tertiary stressdiIIerences also comprise words with the second
component -berry,-body, -land, -penny, e.g.
LM 2N
lanyibody 'anybody
' Sunday ' Sunday
INTONATION IN AMERICAN ENLISH
American English intonation diIIers Irom British English intona-
tion mainly in tmemphatJc, or emotionally neutral speech. Pretenni-
nal pitch contour in RP is gradually descending stepping, in A it
is mid-level or mid-wavy-level. The unstressed syllables in A Iall'
to a lower pitch, inRP unstressed syllables gradually descend. Ameri -
can English intonation produces an impression oI level or monotonous
melody. The A and RP diIIerences in the direction oI the voice pitch
may lead to Iunctional or attitudinal diIIerences. For eample, low
head in RP conveys detached, reserved, dispassionate, unsympathet -
ic, unemotional, sometimes cold or dull attitude oti the part oI the
speaker. In A sentences like: Lo out* 1it (o5n* etc. pronounced with a
low head and lowIall would sound uite normal. - The A general
uestions take a Ialling tone, in RP they are pronounced with the
rising tone. The rising tone'in'A general uestions is used to show
politeness, e. g.
usual Iorm Ars you Veady polite Iorm
The monotony oI A intonation is eplained by the Iollowing Iac-
tors: 1) pitch characteristics, 2) narrow range oI the utterance, 3) slow
tempo, 4) more complicated than RP rhythmical structure oI intona-
tion (RP unstressed vowels are characterized by ualitative reduction,,
in A sounds in unstressed syllables are lengthened).
The diIIerences between A and RP sound, accentual structure-
uand intonation do not aIIect the main language structures, thereIore-
A is only a variety oI the English language and cannot be considered.
American language as some oI the American linguists claim,
iven below are the diagrams in which vowel phonemes in Cana-
dian English, eneral American and RP are summarized.
1
The norms oI A and RP pronunciation arehighly variable. The-
Variability oI standard pronunciation should be taken into consider -
ation when teaching spoken language.
1
For details see: 1&a&-a!o;a J. M. Op. eit. 222
Ta-le 1
C2mpa1a9%We C:a19 2; X2Vel P:23eme0 %3 Ca3a4%a3 E38l%0:7
Ge3e1al Ame1%/a3 a34 RP
CE GA RP Eamples
i i

Seat
e, e e e, e set
x sat
% % %
sit

#
1
aN
bird, Hurry
+

, a

+ centre, data
a a dot
a, } (ar)ae : dance
+
0
+: sort, shawl
Q
boot

[
but
V
book
ei
er
ei
bake
SI a% ai
bike
au au now
ou ou ou go
DI 0&
boy
E%1'
(ir)
1
&
here
(er)
E?r'
^9 there
(or) (ar) ++ more
() (or) + sure
&
Iq`. lea}7 ~0$}7 E)q} /211e0p234 92 9:e yA Bn u Eq'7 ~01`. ~01`7
223
There are three main types distinguished within RP pronuncia-
tion; 1) conservative used by older generation, by certain proIes-
sions or social groups, 2) the general RP used by the BBC, and 3) the
advanced RP, used by young people, or in some circles Ior prestige
purposes.
The main diIIerences between standard and advanced RP are the
Iollowing:
1) The closing diphthongs are pronounced with the weakened or
lost glide, e. g.
/tel/ instead oI /teil/
/ou/ turns into "a?"* e. g. /:n/ instead oI /boim/ /ai/ turns
into /a
3
/ or /a/, e. g. /ba
3
d/, /bad/ instead oI /baid/ // turns
into /a
a
/, or /a/, e. g. /ta
a
/, or /tt/ instead oI / /oi/ turns into
/o:/, e. g. /bo:/ instead oI /boi/ <tall* call are eceptions)
2) The centring diphthongs are levelled with monophthongs:
/o+//o:/
/ia/, /F3/ turn into /e:/ or long /x/, - g. -are(* 6are(* .are(
are pronounced as /bs:d/, /Is:d/, /pe:d/
/is/ is opposed to /+/ in open syllables, e. g. &earB&air*
6ear6air. This opposition does not occur beIore voiceless, or
beIore /1/.
// turns into /a/, e. g. /san/ instead oi /sAn/
3) The glottal stop is used between words and syllables, e. g
/niehti/, /6i ~a:nt/, /Oet'eib1/t&at ta-le.
4) /r/ is pronounced like the A retroIle /r/.
uestions
1. hat is standard pronunciation 2. hat are the main diIIer-
ences between the RP and A a) systems oI consonants; b) system
oI vowels; c) accentual structure and intonation 3, hat is advanced
RP
Eercises
1. Read the words below according to the A standard.
Iarm, bird, sister, leave, let, late, berry, merry, very, Bett y, .bottle
little, city, certainly, that one, mountain, which, what, when, due,
1
new, suit, ecursion, version, Persia, man, name, noun, nationa
2. Read the words below
(a) with the vowel /i/ obscured:
will, Iill, building, river, spirit, miracle, beer
(b) with the vowel lei lower than the RP /e/:
bell, well, best, lest, nest, hell
c) with the vowel "el diphthongized /, /a/:
bet, get,-det
r
met,.neck,-check,iet
;
-
3. Read the words below
(a) with the OA S more Irnt arid longer than the RP /e/:
ask, dance, last, answer,' halI, aunt
(b) with the RP /se/ nasalized beIore / M* m, n/:
bad, man, land, answer
4. Read the words below according to the A standard.
hurry Nmi=* current /

+n1:/, courage /idg/, worry /


l
3
r
i/,
Iurrow /'+

+/, suirrel /~skw3


r
3l/, stirrup /I+

+/, clerk //

derby / bi /
5. Read the words below with the /r/-colouring terminally.
winter, perceiver, doctor, mister, sister, ebster
6. Read the words below according to the A standard-
not, crop, dock, nod, Iather, palm, balm, calm
6. Read the words below according to the A standard,
hop, rob, not, lock; doll, solve, on; Irog, log, long; law, court
8- Read the words below. Compare the pronunciation oI theJRP and A diph-
thongs, oI the Jong monophthongs /:, a/.
gate, date, late, ate, mate, make; radio, goat, coat; Iar, Iorm
r
Iare, bare, poor, mare, near, door
* Read the words below. Mind the tertiary stress diIIerences in RP and OAl
2N LM
'dictionary idictionary
iFerbuary ~FebrUary
'ordinary 'ordinary
'category icateigory
territory lterritcry
'cemetery 'cemetery
'monastery 'monastery
'matrimony 'matrimony
'testimony 'testimony
'necessarily 'necessarily
'ordinarily 'ordinarily
10. Read the words below. Mind the place oI primary stress on thesecond com
ponent in RP and on the Iirst component in A compounds.
2N LM
'apple'source 'appleisource
'beeIsteak 'beeIsteak
'elseiwhere 'elsewhere
iIarraJhouse 'Iarmihouse
'mean'time 'meanitime
hite 'House hite iHouse
225
J-mid
I
Jay
'working 'man
'midday
'working
11. Read the place names below. Mind a single primary stress in RP and a
primary and a tertiary stress in A.
2N
Birmingham
'Bloombury
(Buckingham
iDartmor
) Moorgate
'NewIoundland
'Peterborough
'Devonshire
'E moor
'Emouth
Hampstead
'Highgate
'Hollywood
'Manchester
12. Read the A general uestions with a Jailing tone (the counterpart tone
In RP would be rising).
Are you going Does he care
13. Read the A casual reuests with the Ialling tone (this intonation in RP
would suggest a command).
Come in, Sit down. Shut the door. Oen the book.
A
iBirmingham
'Bloombury
k i h
gi
iDartinoor
'Moor gate
NewIoundland
'Peterborough
i D h i
`
E
(
mouth
iHampistead
'Highgate
l l
.` ' Man
(Chester
EY TO EERCISES
Eercises p. 14
1. witches /wit, -iz/, glasses /glas, -iz/, Ioes /Itks, -iz/, gases /gaes, -iz/V
udges /dgAc, -iz/, crashes /kra, -iz/, calves /kaI, -vz/, elves /elI, -vz/, halves
/haI, -vz/, knives /naiI, -vs/, leaves /ItI, -vz/, lives /laiI, -vz/, loaIs /lauI, -vz/,
selves /selI, -vz/, sheaves /JiI, -vz/, thieves /6l:I, -vz/, wives /waiI, -vz/, wolves
/wulI, -vz/, actresses /Isektns, -iz/, hostesses /Ihaustis, -iz/, mistresses /Imistns, -iz/,
usculptresses /IskAlptns, -iz/, waitresses /Iweitns, -iz/, lionesses /Harems, -iz/
2. begged /begd/, lived /ivd/, opened /laupand/, travelled /Itrsevld/, cancelled
/Usensald/, compelled /kamlpeld/, recognized /Irekagnaizd/, arrived /alraivd/,
rained /rerad/, inIormed /mlIoimd/, stopped /stupt/, wrapped /rsept/, helpedi
/helpt/, asked /a;skt/, discussed /dislkAst/, worked /werkt/, passed /past/, shipped
/Jtpt/, packed /psekt/, looked /lukt/, nodded /InDdid/, permitted /palmitid/,,
waited /Jweitid/, epected /ikslpektid/, invented /inlventid/, rested /Irestid/,.
.loaded /llsudid/, depended /dilpendid/
3. /IneiIcnInseanl/, /greivIgnsviti/, /pratvaukpralvukstiv/, /zIcl
Jzebs/, /su(:)lprtaisulprenrasi/, /alkg.' alkArsns/, /adlvaisadlvaiz/, /us
tz/, /haushauz/, /ikslkirs ikslkua/, /dilvaisdilvaiz/, /ILSbz/,/kiaus
rauz/
4. /Jredbrest/ mon; /Iblitbe/oootu; /IbbsIeun/mt ynooc;-
/ibmlamz/ not , ym c cn m m; /lbtobDtl/
nc; /Iblaekait/ uoymu, mc; /IblsekIeis/ A]Y.> xt
m; /lba:dzai/ nnon; /lbred3n(d)tbAte/ c, mt, t;
/Ibreikipromis/ xox cnomy cony, xt uon;/Iheviweit/ oc,
o xxoo nc; /Iredbuk/ cx ; /tbluitsbkir/ c uyo;
/iblumauz/ co ox; /Iblmkaut/ yumcx n mo x tx; co;
moc; /Iblitbtinit/ ctx; mo; /Ibtekhaul/ m., ,
ynnx; /Iblakrnss/ nm
5, /stil/ nonxt, cnoot; /sti:l/ ct; /pml/ yx, /pul/ xyt;
/,Iip/ ot; /II/ on; /sit/ ct, /sIct/ mco; /til/ noxt, "" uyn
cnont; /liv/ xt, /liiv/ not; /il/ oto; /1:1/ yot; /slip/ om,
/slip/ co; /sei/ nont, /seil/ nox; /Imudl/ mot, /Irraudi/ mott;
/so:/ n, /sau/ , m oom; /IpauhJV notc, /IphJ/ oc, x;
/m/ ox, cx, /gaid/ nono, ; /8:6/ oct, u, /3:s/
Xym, m xyx; /tiu-9/ nn, "tiixs" nm; /bAt/ cmum,
om, /9/ n; /breD/ tx, /bred/ m; /Idaian/ n, /Idean/
mcoox; /suit/ yonnoxt, /swtt/ cn; /paltreul/ nyt, /ipetr(s)l/
n; /+/ m+, /Imeid-sa/ mo; /raut/ y, no, /rust/ mmy
8. Rhythm.
9. To give particular importance to the word t&in.
, .
i0
; (
a
) Tne sounds /s, J/ are repeated to epress the idea oI sea movement.
Thls
,
h
I
I
P
e

hel
P
s

to
Practise their diIIerentiation.
A-> The sounds /u, ae, i, / are repeated in the rhyme to practise thei
pronunciation and diIIerentiation.
.11. /bau-wau, mJiE-mur, grAnt-grAnt, skwi:k,;tuihu:, kau-kau, kwIIik-kwIIikrmu;/.
Onomatopoeia.
Control Tasks p. 17 3
4. very vary /Iveri Ivean/; 2. personal personnel /Ipaisnal tpa:saln el
1
/;
tI. suitsuite/sutswH/; 4. patrolpetrol /paltraulIpetral/; 5, mayormaor
/ +- imei dsa/ ; 6. ri ot -rout -rout e / Irai at raut -mt /; 7. bear- beer
/

8313
'
;

8
/ ( ) / 9 /kik / 10 d i t
'227
s / ; ri ot rout rout e / rai at r aut mt / ; 7. bea
/

83
1
13
''
;

8
-, yearear /s:(is)ia/; 9, uayueue /kisk.is/t 10. admit
admittance /adlmit-adlmibns/; II. aIIect-eIIect /elIekt-ilIekt/t 12. draught-
drought /draItdraut/,- 13. hairhareheir/heaheaea/ 14. pourpoor
paw /x +x/; 15. couragecarriage /IkindgIkscii/; 16. inuire
acuire /mlkwaiselkwaia/
6. wolves /wulI, -vz/, wives /waiI, -vz/, lives /laiI, -vz/, leaves /li:I, -vz/,
knives /naiI, -vz/, sheaves /IcI, -vz/, halves /hccI, -vz/, selves /selI, -vz/, elves
/elI, -vz/, loaI /lauI, -vz/, calves /kaI, -vz/, echoes /lekau, -z/, potatoes
/palteiteu, -z/, hostesses /lhaustas, -iz/, tigresses /Itaigras, -iz/, bases /ibeisis, -Iz/,
theses /lIcsu, -Icz/, crises /Ikraisis, -i:z/, analyses /alnselasis, -Icz/, men /msnmen/,
Ieet /IletIit/, geese 8gIcs/, mice /mausraais/, baths /ba:9, -8s/, houses
/haus, -iz/, classes 6lalas* -iz/, boes /bioks, -iz/, dishes /di, -iz/, inches /rat, -iz/,
phenomena /Iclnomman, -+/, Ioci /IIaukas, -sai/
./+D,3-9/;/eia.zs/;/39/;/tuu, zs/; /vS/; /i,vI/;
/v-I/; /v-I/
7. /ImsiltinlsAlt/ ocoocoxt; /lbdgiktabtdsekt/ n
mnoxt; /lautgau lauttgau/ yxo, ntxonnocxot; /Iprudus
praldt/ noyxnxnxt; /lsAbd3ikt sabldgekt/ nmnouxt,
nooxt; /lautgreuO lautlgrau/ ooconct; /lautiei autIlei/
x, cxott, cxoont; /laut(l)9reuautlrau/ nxo
ct tm (oo-,); /Iprezntpnlzent/ noonnooct, t;
/Iprsutest' praltest/ nocnocont; /itoimsnttalment/ myu
myut
8. Alliteration, rhyme, rhythm.
9. Through the repatition oI the sounds /u:, ei, ai, A/, syllabiIication and
pausation.
Eercises p. 33
8. In the articulation oI /p, t, k/ the vocal cords are taken apart and do
not vibrate. In the production oI /b, d, g/ the vocal cords are drawn close
together and vibrate. In the /p, t, k/ articulation the Iorce oI ehalation is much
greater than that in the production oI /b, d, g/, thereIore /p, t, k/ are voiceless
Iortis and /b, d, g/ are voiced lenis.
4. In the articulation oI /m, n, r/ the soIt palate is lowered. In the articu
lation oI /i/ it is not only lowered, but Iorms a complete obstruction with
the back part oI the tongue. The air escapes through the nasal cavity.
5. In the articulation oI /b/ the noise is produced when the Ilow oI air
breaks the complete obstruction Iormed by both lips, /b/ is an occlusive plosive
stop noise consonant. In the articulation oI &i the noise U produced when the
Ilow or air passes through the incomplete obstruction Iormed by the lower li p
and the edge oI the upper teeth, &i is a constrictive noise consonant. In the ar
ticulation oI/tI/ the noise is produced by the Ilow oI air Iirst breaking a complete
obstruction between the tip oI the tongue and the teethridge and almost imme
diately passing through the narrowing Iormed between the tip oI the tongue
and the teethridge, /tI/ is occlusive-constricttve, or aIIricate.
6. In the articulation oI /w/the active organs oI speech are the lips, which
Iorm a round narrowing. In the articulation oI // the active organ oI speech is
the middle part oI the tongue which is raised to the hard palate and Iorms a
narrowing with it, through which the air goes out rather Ireely. In the articu
lation oI /h/ the walls oI the glottis are slightly contracted when the air goes out
through it almost without any Iriction, /w/ is bilabial, // is medlo-lingual,
/h/ is glottal.
8. The place oI articulation (Iocus) in the production oI /s/ (lenis) its be -
tween the teethridge and the Iront part oI the tongue. There is groove-shaped
depression in the Iront part oI the tongue, through which the air passes with
Iriction: it passes through a round narrowing. The place oI articulation (Iocus)
in the production oI /// is between the lower iip and the edge oI the upper teeth.
The air passes through this narrowing with Iriction. The narrowing in /// ar-
ticulation is more or less Ilat.
228
10. /Iptpl/, /Ipeipa/, /lpa:p3S/, /Ipusabl/, /put/, /pens/, /Ipiti/, /pua/,
/Iptsiz/, /pst/, /Ipeni/, /tk/, /taim/, /taun/, /taiz/, /items/, /tuk/. /Iteeksiz/,
/hl/, /itIctaz/, /ta:nd/, /Itsutl/, /tus/, /tm/, /Unz/, /to:ts/, /kauid/, /IkeaIul/, /kcu/,
/, /IkAirad/, /kst/, /kist/, /Iksmpas/, /lke:tli/, /Ikutwig/, /IkAraits/, /)1+/
Eercises p. 44
4. Cardinal vowel No. 1 is pronounced with the position oI the tongue
higher than Ior the Russian accented // in such words as ]* `]* ]].
Cardinal vowel No. 2 is pronounced with the position oI the tongue narrower
than Ior the Russian /e/ in the words ^a* ^a.
Cardinal vowel No. 3 is similar to the Russian /+/ in the words e* 9.
5. For instance: /td/bitbid, batbad, debt dead; /kg/ duck dug,
Dick dig, tuck tug; // oo, nono; // oo; /c/
oco, oco.
H. The beginning oI the articulation oI Au~/ coincides with that oI /i u/
12. (a) /si :msins/
/mi:lmil/ /mi:n
mins/ /sli.-p-
slip/ /Ibst list/
(c) /ttmtim/
/ B- I i l / / bt o

/
/ 3 dgtm/ /IIMin
IIilir/ /Ict -it/ /slits
sits/ (g) / Itv-l w/
/IIIcveIhIti/ /Iblikan
bil/ /t-Icktm/
/bttbit/
33. (a) /bedbed/ /9en
3n/ /tplenti
plasn/ /elsIIIilis/
/Itetedsede/
(c) /Irent
1
-ran/
/penspsents/
/IbenalIbawau/
/Itwenti twIIin/
/I memImaetg/
(e) /deddeed/ /leni
telrs/ / IJ eb-
Jal / /)men
Imasrid/ /Ihenn
lhaepi/
Ii) /Iheti-hat/
/IsentralIsaandi/
/ltevt- lt, Ienl/
/Iraemrneep/
/iveslIvslus/
/leldah lenkIts/
t4. (a) /kam/
/ I S a 1n/
(b) /riidnd/
/StIel Stil/
/krIckknk/ /slIctsht/
/sIcksik/ (d) /sIcn
sm/ /IdtbIdina/ /htt
hit/' /bbt+%9U
(I) /I:Iiz/
/mtmist/ /JIIcz
9is/ /sttpstik/
(h) /hthim/
/lim9in/
/sIetssits/
/Sti:p StlI/
/Jpt pl-pit/
(b) /hedhad/
/tentsen/
/(eItIsed/
/=$t#!*$k/
/sillektnllseks/
(d) /endand/
/SenSeen/
/leniweiIIsmih/
/bedbsek/
/Ihelpin Ihspi/ (I)
/tentsen/
/menman/
/sedssed/
/bedbsed/
/t Jest-t Jap/
(h) /lern teokbs/
/betbIIik/
/IplentiiplIIltIo:m/
/Iie-IlIIi/
(b) /antUnda/ /had
Hundred/
229
/ /
(e) /diddid/
/ d d
/ban IbAtn/
/ I ak- Uk/
/Iklasiz IbAsiz/
(c) /Imaval 1mm/
/ltIIIAVII/ /past
IpAzhr/
/'makit/
/lastHn+n/
(e) /Ianld 13+/
/Imasta ImAgki
/Istatid IsUdi/
/ l l d l t
/lastl (g) /Irans
IrAnt/
/lhabazIrAndnd/
/adlvccntidsal /
/haItut/
/postbAt/ (i)
/stIIlstAn/
/kamt/
/hadJut/
/ItccgittApans/
/mask inAst/
15. /bid-bed-bIIid/
/ndredrat/
/milmenman/
/stdsedsaad/
/pitpetpat/
/bIctbetbast/
16. /+:1-:1JIIil/
/ko:tka:tka
/wD;k3 :k waek/
o:-Ia: Iat/
/wimw:mtwsen/
/o:lms:si+n/
/Ian1lsed/
Control Tasks p. 57
2. The allophones oI the /t% phoneme are Ior eample: labialized in: rocr roo6*
roo* ra5F devoiced in: .resent* .ractice* .ro-le$* .rotractF aIIricated in: tree*
tri$* troo.* tr'* (rain* (r'* (ro.* (ra5F single tap in; t&ro5* t&ron!* t&ree.ence*
t&rust.
3. As a result oI palatalization in the Russian language consonants alwy
occur soIt phonemes and the vowel phonemes turn to the //V positional
allophone oI the vowel phoneme.
4, The eamples may, Ior instance, be as Iollows: complementary distribu
tion oI /u/: .ool* 6oo(* s&oe* 'out&* cool* 5&o* stoo.* tu-e* &oo6* -oot&* -oot* rou!e*
(ue. (Each word is given as an eample oI diIIerent /u/ environment, which
cannot be observed in other words.); contrastive distribution oI /u/: -ooB-ea*
6ootB6it* -ooB-ac* -ooB-ec* -ooB-ar* .utB.ot* .utB.ortF Iree varia
tion in the pronunciation oI the words: (eca.itation /Iiiktepittei'an, dUksept-
Iteran/, (eci(uous /dilslduas, dtlsidwgs/.
Eercises p. 62
1. ork oI the vocal cords: voiceless Iortis vs. voiced lenis: .inB-in*
.acB-ac* .ieB-'e* tieB(ie.

/dak / /'baskit
+'y/ /lakIlAI/
(d) /dandAn/ /bat
bAt/ /katkAt/
/matI mAtI/
(I) /lhadli nm/ /
13+rAbd/
/lastlAk/
Ih) /am133/
/lhadli I h /
/IstatidistAdid/
/matInutI/ /haI
strAk/
/tl;mtentsen/
/hidhed hed/
/liItleIt-ted/
/litlettek/
/m tnImem
/tornte:nteen/
/x1:1kIIii/
/badbs:dbsed/
/ t k t : t r J t / r /ss
S3:sad/ / I k
Ik3:tnkset/
Active organ oI speech and the place oI articulation; labial, bHabial vs.
Singual Iorelingual apical alveolar; .enten* -eenB(eanF labial bilabial vs.
lingual backlingual: .oleBcoal* -aitB!aitF labial, labio-dental vs. labial bi -
labial: 6eeB5e* 6elt5ellF labial, labio-dental vs. pharyngal:/ee&eF lingual,
Iorelingual apical vs. lingual Iorelingual cacuminal: so-Bro-* sealreal* .soleB
role* si.ri.* si!&tri!&t.
Manner oI noise production: occlusive vs. constrictive: .it'cit'* .a' sa'*
.allsail* .oleBsole* .eelseal.
Voice or noise prevalence: occlusive noise (plosives) vs. occlusive sonorants
i(nasal): .ineB$ine* (e-tnet* iczicF constructive noise (Iricatives) vs.
constrictive sonorants: 6ellB5ell* t&oseBrose* soulrole* si.ri.* si!&tBri!&t.
The number oI noise producing Ioci: unicentral vs. bicentral: 6ell5ell* 6eeB
5e.
The shape oI the narrowing; constrictive with a Ilat narrowing vs. constric-
iive with a round narrowing: 6ailsail* 6eesee* 6ootsoot* 6atsat* 6ellBsell@
3. Ia) The Iorce oI articulation rather than the presence and absence oI
uvoice: /p b, t d, g/,
(b) Manner or noise production: occlusive /p/ vs. constrictive E/* /t s/,
/d z/.
Active organ oI speech: bilabial /p/ vs. backlingual /k/, backlingual /k/
vs. Iorelingual apical /t/.
(c) Manner oI noise production: occlusive /t/ vs. occlusive-constrictive /tY
or /d/ vs. /ds/; constrictive /J7 vs. occlusive-constrictive /tI/.
(d) Place oI articulation and the nurober oI Ioci: interdental /6/ vs. apical
/, alveolar /z/ vs. palato-alveolar /3/, alveolar /5/ vs. palato-alveolar /J/.
Manner oI noise production: plosive /t/ vs. constrictive /3/.
(e) Position oI the soIt palate: oral noise /b/ vs. nasal sonorant "$"* or /d/
vs. /n/, or /g/ vs. /n/.
4. The sub-minimal pairs: $arr' $easure* !enre =ar* teasure
le(!er. All the other pairs are minimal.
Control Tasks p. 63
1. (a) man nap, coming cunning, seem seen; (b) wield yield,
wail Yale; (c) pat cat, supper succour, leap leak
2. (a) less yes, drew due, clue cue, rung young; (b) tame
ame, rudder rugger, sinner singer, bitter bicker, bad bag bat
&ac* day,- gay
3. (a) pine Iine, bee thee, came lame; (b) Iare chair, work
erk; (c) boat moat, seek seen, kick king, deed need, vain lane,
sicksing; d) Iare chair, thine wine, vain lane; (e) thine wine,
lame - same
5. /I, r, / aIter /p/ are devoiced; aIter /t/ the position oI the tongue Ior &i
in tr' is not so cacuminal and &i is aIIricated; /i/ aIter /t" in tu-e is devoiced;
/w/ aIter /t" in t5el;e is devoiced; /1, r, I, w/ aIter /k/ are devoiced in clean* crea$*
cue* wuite.
Eercises pi 67
1. () /nx/. Both are back vowels, but /13/ is an open vowel oI broad
variation and /a:/ is a mid vowel oI broad variation.
(b) /ese/. Both vowels are Iront, but /e/ is a mid-open vowel oI narrow
variation and /se/ is a low (or open) vowel oI broad variation.
(c) /9: D:/, /3:/ belongs to the group oI central mid-open vowels oI narrow
variation, /0:/ belongs to the group oI back, Iully back mid-open vowels oI
broad variation.
(d) /m u/, Both vowels belong to the group oI back high vowels, but / m/
belongs to the subgroup oI narrow variation and is Iully bade, whereas /u/belongs
to the subgroup oI broad variation and is a back-advanced voweL
231
(e) /seei/, //
1
is a Irnt open vowel o broad variation. The nucleus oI
the diphthong /ei/ is /e/ which is a Iront mid-open vowel oI narrow variation.
m /x+/. /o:/ is a raid Iully back vowel oI broad variation. The nucleus oI
the diphthong /+/ is a central mid-open vowel.
3. () / ai / , / +/ ; ( b) / n+/
4. The phonemes /Ic,ei, ac.a:/ in the Iirst row oI each column are the longest,
they are shorter in the second, and the shortest is the third row.
5. Stability oI articulation.
Control Tasks p. 68
1. (a) /tea/ beadbedbad, deed deaddad; (b) / +:A/
cabcurbcub, bad birdbud, tanturnton, hathurthut
2. cartcard Bozbars dondown
wartwhat caughtcot cordcod
3. a) known noun, phoned Iound, hay high, bay buy, no
now, hoe how, tape type
(b) hear hair, beer bear, ear air, Iear Iair, rear rare, tear
tear
Eercises p. 74
5. (a) kJ:p, ipi-siz, Itl-IIaz, IpIcpl, Iparpas, Iksitn, ta:nd, lka:li, kt, kts,.
pats, pz, teik, taim, taiz, tiaz, keuld, Iteutl, ksa, Ipranr;
(b) til, kist, tin, Ipiti, Ipeni, tel, Items, Ipendsltan, Iksempes, Iksembnan,
Iteksi, put, tuk.'kuk, IkArants, 11+, pAmpt, nlpAblik, IkAvad, tAnz, Ipnsrbl,
k-ost, Ikulid, tos
(c) spent, stei, staun, IstAdi, stik, Istatid, (splendid, iIcslprerrans, iks'tensivh,
Ibaskit, Iklismr, ikslplem, pleis, n, Iklasiz, plem, krIck, krept, , IplaitIwm,
a3kt, kept, lukt
6. Iptpl, pet, Ipa:msn3nt', Itti; kamp, Ikitan; Ibilsdz; Iditarsnt, aildia; get,
algein, ga:lz ~
ipsigativ, lepildemik; lkEepsu:Iz; bed; ibeta; IdiIrant
lpi:siz, pens, IpeitIerz; Itventi, Isikslttn, Itainir; IkeaIli; beidz, big, (Anbilltvablr
IdiIrsnt, daunt; Iginrz, Igivir, gauz
Ipiisiz, nlpead, Ipaipss; tiez, teik, te:nd; btn, big, bed, bsek, +8; aildia,
dilsaidid, Ididnt, dei; get, gest, geilz, Igsuir
Iptktg, (ptanad, ikslpekt, pee; iIttIcn, misted, Icttsst, ktp, Ibaskit, vslkeient
Iksempes; S* said, imbserasin IstAdi, deps, deiz, Idsedr; Igigl,, gets, :1,
+ ,
pirk, ikslpranans, Ipei, peit tin, Iwnntid, teik, ternd; Idrinkir, keim,.
Iksandid, lIce:li; btri, Ibiikan, bit, basd, Iba'.tn; kanldign, Inwdid, aildra; giv, get,
ga:Iz
islpeeli, Ipsetan; stil, plteiteuz, Itielip; kbp, glkeisenl, kaen, lukIupai; bt,.
IJugabM, Ibakbaun; dt; dra, imAdi, da-.t; givz, Uuggast, Iregiul
IIm, peid, Ipurplz, Ip3:Iikt; t:t stik,- ltu;zdi, tiaz; ki:p, llukir, Iksrid3,
keuld; bt, albeid, bask, baut; mldIcd, Idim, ldu;h, deit; Igivn, gest, algen, .algaU'
Iptenin, pit, nlpeid, Ipaesmd33; stiI, Isiti, greulteak, ta:nz; ktp, Ibreikin,
kserid3, ksuld; Ibbin, best, bsek; 1:1+; di:l, Iditiz, die, ded; tgetir, geiv, gaui
7. IhIIipi, Iliikap,' IkAbad, nu(:)lmaunJ8, 1m, 11+, bum, Itpmas,
Ihsn, Swtsl, Ibukei, lharkatIiI, iwmza, Ikemist, laarks, Ibsnkwit, iklsept, I
gaust, no:, sain, 1n, IdaisIrsem, sai, pla, eit
Eercises p. 77
6. anAn. nxxMOOOH
'6in TOHKHnmt
IgivlraIgivir ycyntriaxnon
ldraiv'mw.ldraivir T
232
1m1 1m nxotnxo
SAHx o conont
klIcn klm uctnnt
inutlBir 1nB nmtuo
(+In Igauir nxot o
+n 1+m cocnto
sein Iseii omttnocon
brerk/in I breikrg ntntcxomox
Uuklmllukir tct nxcmoxm
6. brig, 1, 'iggland, IJAgga, Iem8in els, lnA6ir av 9a' Ikamd, Iwihrli,
tteikir it, Imiagld, Isttpig, 6io, UiArgn, IIiir, Imocmr, Idramrl nn, Hm+, IJ
A
Og
s
Jt mn, sprig, IsIcir + IIrend InI, Iklaspir 1+9 Ihsendz
7. Iraitir, Irtdir, Igamr, gtm, wen, sAg, Hn, sAk, Btr, H%;/7 ihaera,
, rsk, kaum, 1+;, liogii, Imiggld
Eercises p. 84
4. thin sin TOHKH x thick sick TOTIH ~
oto thought sought ym c Forth
Iorce nn c mouth mouse o mtmt
thumb some otmo n o-yt
worth worse oct xym thick tick
oct t thought taught ym yu
three tree no seethe seize nt
xnt lathe laze ot co t
then den o oono though dough xox
co seethe seed cmx cmx heath
heat nycomt x both boat o o
;219: Iought nn oocx clothe close
ont tnt breathe breeze tmt
there dare m non other udder
yo ntmx worthy wordy ocot
moocont months mcxt
the eighth zone noctmx o
withstand nonocoxt clothes
ox sith mco is thin
o it' s this +o who' s that
o +o
6. Iaundieauzand, Ia:st63:st, Iat9si, IrkOr, Imz6inz, deIdep
II. o:lhal nct 13hia yxo
ctmt aut-haus nm
om athat cyccnoc
athut cono t oxu
ishiz cto austhaus
ntoxt-om ithit +o
y ilhil oto xom sez
1n m
233
sed - hged ontm and
hsend y amham y
n adzhasndz onx
y ++ noyx-nooct
14. sheep, sheet, sheen, ship, should, shook, shed, shell, shake, shave, shade,
shame, shape, shy, shine; election, condition, delegation, competition, organiza-
tion, station, pleasure, leasure, decision, vision, occasion, measure
16. \* Jtp, At, Ii, bri, lam;, JIi/ra, Ispeal. Isteisn, Iusual
(1+, Jup, 'Juga, Jud, H/, IbntiJ, lingli, laenkas, Isenkash, islpeali,
1 l k l
16, pas, isertnh, Isimk, sai3, liest, ail, lhauziz, IhAzband, diz9:t,
IIiziks, IssIata, ilnAI, draIt, leI I tenant, mevu(:, Imseou:, lgaczws:9i, ig
Ivuik, IJepad, I Jugs, alira, Ivsian, Inauan, Isaual, Ik on Jans, IJivaln, tIeiz,
11+, dl 1
Eercises p. 90
2. right, ride, ripe, cry, crisis, price, gray, bread, read, reap, reason, reach,
ri dge, risk, Iri end, France, ring, rod, ran, rang, rot, wrong, great, t ry, rule,
rooI, room, red, rest, ready, press, present, rash, rag, treason, written, row,
road, present
3. reits, red, ram, reust, raund, rsuz, lreko:d, ireg-ula, Ireilwei, 1mn, Inalr,
Imsari, Inuend, Irendz, Ikrasau, draiy, Ipraisiz,. tr, draund, Idresig, IwAri, IIwid,
IhAndnd, IterapritIa, Ikssnd, Ipiarrad, Iburaud, IkArents, tdiIrent, IIlva, IkAmIst,
lhi;9a, 3:ld, almenka, istgslret, Imtidn, Inrats, 1(+, wa:, Iwran, Istneri, 1:,
IkAlad, Ineva, Ia, Iststn, IIiga, 3:k, da:z, pat, &?* ka
5. /x, u:Il, a:, e:, et, Iestadi, lust tu, nnz, Ihuansn, mu(:)lziam, su:I t
Itt, rilvus, u;zd, Ikaepsuiiz u -
9. The English /r/ is a cacuminal sounds the Russian /p/ is a trilled one.
"0 is pronounced with the middle oI .the tongue raised not so high as Ior
the Russian //, which results in the more noisy character oI the /It/ articu-
lation.
/1/ is light, it is pronounced with the Iront secondary Iocus. The Russian
"]" is pronounced with the back secondary Iocus,
"i" is dark because it is pronounced with the back secondary Iocus. The
Russian / '/ is veiy soIt which is the result oI the Iront secondary Iocus in
its articulation.
/w/ is biiabial and bicentral, it is pronounced with the back secondary Iocus.
The Russian /n/ is labio-dental and unicentral.
10. For instance: t, noHot, oot.
11. /v/, /eae/, /Ici/, /ree/ are separate phonemes.
12. Jes, alpmen, Unan, ttlnait, mut, Intute, Iuarap, Isu(;)id5, wud, to:k,
Iauk, bctm, llinkan, witI, AHS, Ikwaia, hu:z, talwo:dz, sad
Eercises p. 93
2
dg/ are pronounced as indivisible clusters oI two sounds and represent
single phonemes / and /d5/. The combinations /tr, dr, ts, tz, te, dIlI/ consist
3 /
e n d 6 n t

p h o n e m e s

e a c h :
/ V / d / / / / t / / / t / / / / i / / 6 A
3. chin, check, chess, chain, China, child, rich, much, chop, watch, chalk,
coach, Jim, inn, Jimmy, age, page, change, Jenny, Jack, Jane, eorge, ermany,
June
4. tI:p, tJ4:k, pI, t/m, ItIIlnl, IdsentI, ld3enti, dgstmz, Istreindge,
ritI, witI, sAtI, mAtI, lAntI, DtI, eidg, pd3, lad, lkDlid3, Ibtids,
234
ImaentIista, itnanulIsekt'araz, mldpimant, 9remd3mant, mlgeidmant, diltstIt,
ItempritIa, InselIaral
6. tIaild, IneitIa, IkwestIen, Irait/as, ImtstIiI, d50i, dsem, dips, n,
lbAd3it, nM, Igrsenda, Isauld33, Id
Control Task p. 105
(a) sit-down, read,tet 1, writedown, net,time, gladto see you,
whatcan I do, liketo have it, what.country, good,time, tea andcake,
don'tJike, I'd.like, mashedpotatoes, mustardp lease, gotto eat, thatpub,
uworknow, diIIicultto deal, silkdress, butgood, hitnose;
(b) repeatthe noun, inthe noun, atwthe blackboard, cleanthe board,
online seventh, rounds,the city, andthe guest, onthis, on,the boy's plate,
ustthirsty, tellthe girl;
(c) willyou read louder, willyou please, willyou tellrae, tell,the girl
Eercises p. 115
I.
, (a) si:, wi;, trt, I:, mi, hi, It;
(b) sl;m, rIcd, klIcn, sIcn, dtl, lpi:pl, IBIII;
(c) tIcp, swi:p, tItI, trtt, lIcst, krtk, wik
2. HT* lv, IkDnkrIct, Itt, mit, nts, nlsIcv, IaltIcg, IIcsBiit, kIc, kIc
3. m, il, big, wirgz, pit, stik, kliIs, n, Bio, sik, nst, Isih, Ibtldtg, ig
kig, lbuE, Igimz, Ikvli, Ibizi, Imimts, tgauin, ldiz, btlgmz, Iknhds, Iwimin,
kalmit, lrna:si, ibritsn, Iwtndau, Imtsiz, Isimptamz, Jhtrlidi, Imtnstid, iklsaitid,
' ( n ) , Iheziteit, Ipnvilid3, Ikntisizm, ilnitnt, Imedsin
4. did, lid, IglEdli, IIrMi, lirks, 1n, Ivilid, IDJI, lrL3is, Ibuksiz,
, Ikrpiz, llaudid, IIatmtin, Ibiskit, IIraidr, sl:y, lletis, IItnd, lIo;Iit, 1n
5. bed, sed, help, tel, et, hed, Items, Iwe3a, Imemba, lleta, drest, (sets,
pii, Ismwei, lenvid, 11+, IIrendh, Idresir, Idessht, Iseprit, Iheziteit, raailselI,
nlmemba, inldevs, hau I tel, misted, Iat get, illevn
6. rsd, get, tent Isevn, hed, ded, et, 9+ temz, Ibercal
7. glsed, baad, plsen, kasn, swaem, blok, dragk, sakt, sset, IIaensi, Iglsadli,
IJsetau, IIIidid, Isepkas, Ibsedli, itraeJik, B+n, Idsadi, IsIIidms, bilgsen, iglzaekth,
ilmsedm, vslkaebularr, IpraugrEem, Isaenwid3tz, imBenulIselctIaz, Ibsslkara, IsseknIais
8. Iksen, laempl, hav, Isaeman, plsed, Jsemlpem, laebssluitli, laebstrakt, I
9. C, ba:, Ia;, ka, a:m, ask, ka:d, past, Iam, hctI, po:t, lads, Irctns, gras,
dak, gad, peck, stctt, sma;t, Ia:st, ha:d, niisk, Idccnsin, Ibctskio, IICUFEI, 1EO3,
lhadl, Ihaiba, Ictnsa, leItist, IIa9, Ibaskit, lldasiz, la:tklz, la:keind)3(3)I,
dilpata, mllctd, stllaist
10. ma-st , l ansa, l a: st , t a, pi t , l cuI, Ibakh, l haIad, hat
10. un, nod, wuz, rod, wiont, nn, d3Db, tot, Ion, sun, 1n3+, Ibunit,
Idukta, (mdl, Ihiostal, ionist, Inudid, Ibudi, luIa, Ihnland, Iruki, Isphd, Ikaemit,
lkupai, Ikotid3z, Iprsparas, d3lumitn, IInlsuitt, Ihulidi, iDznt, lsi:n 3;i
12, ht, Ision, IIwm, Ikwohbi lomaritek, Iso:sid3, 'no11, 'pt
13. :, dro:, o:l, +:1, bo:, Dit, ho:s, to:k, so:t, bo:t, d3s:d3, Jo:, -?3$s*
d lwo:ta, Ivraikin, 1+:, bilIo:, 1+:1+, lekspo:ts, rmlpoitans, bau,
, b:kistra, lo:talgeSa, aI tko:s, rIo:tlIo:
14. port, Io;t, Ilo:, do:, kD:st ko:t, Io:, +:, +:, wo:, bro:d, bo:tI :0, :1,
o:n, pa:, 9+:
235
15. gud, rum, wud, kuk, Iut, tuk, put, sut, Juk, lukt, Iburz, imanulIektaz,
Iwudn, Ikudnt, Iwudnt, Iwudland, IrestIul, Iwuman, I put laut, I put Itm, gud I bar
IiIIitroli, tnkalpituleit, IksaIli
16. put, pu
1
, pul, Iwustid, wulI, luk, stud, tuk, kud, ud, Ikurra
17. Ilu, tt, tit, hu:, tlS, JUS, tS, Iu:, tru, /u:d, SlMl, skis, uIl, mU:V, H:,
hu:d3, nu:, Iusuah, Isbsslicth, Inu(:)lmaun3, Immvir, Isevinu:, +
IburIiIul, rilvu:, irumd, Isusaid, IvIIilu:, Iregitla, Ipulz, Ihttmsn, I k t l t
18. blu:, md, $l* d3:n, kitl, turn, gru:p, wund, bru:z, bru:, malnurva
19. tun, Ihunra, its, ku:, Ituzdi, sust, Inista, Iu-., Ibir-tt, huz
18. An, n, kn, An, bAs, IIlAtJ, tAn, JAO, , 13+, 1m+,
1m9+, +1n3+, IkArgnts, tAkl, IwAn, lhAndrad, 1n8), 1m, IIAm, Ikvli,
IkAntn, IkAtnpas, mAst, d3Ast, ItrAbl, IwAndaIul, IwAndslaend, mlstrAkta, intra-
I d k J Ii
21. mAst, And3Ast, d3Ads, B, dAz, IrAnt, +15/1m, IlAd, ikApJ,
TAI, UI
22. wa:, hsid, wa:d, lws:kaz, ISarti, sta:, ta:nd, lte:nn, lbs:tn, hs:, J3:z, iba:bu,
ga:lz, ba:dz, wstk, Itaiki, lka:tn, Ia:st, wsd, wa:s, 1+:1+, Isa'.tnh, 3:6, da:t,
lpa:Iikt
23. sts:, iIIla:tl, lka:nl, |?8* Iwarks, lta:na, ns;s, a:
24. glgen, BUTJJ slbaut, alkros, elbei, glpDn, Ialget, sslpraiz, sigalret,
ipikaldili, kgnlIes, pslhseps, salpauz, kanldian, pglsent, hslselI, ts ipli:z, ta 'step,
3+ Isg, ta Idu;, te IIiJ, 0+ lga:lz, 1n:m+n+n1, Iprnbebli, IIamsli, iwAndalsend
Iwudlsnd, idekareit, ighmarm, Imseniists, Idesalit, Irekagnaiz, Itrsevls, Ibselksni
Eercises p. 134
1. (a) hen preceded by /w, I, 0, s, d, tI, r, , h, m, n/ the /i:/ phoneme is
pronounced: as labialized in /wi:/; with the labiodental, position. Ior /I/ in
/IIi:v9/; with the interdental position oI the tip oI the tongue in /6i:m/; with
the apical constriction (round narrowing) in /si:/; with the apical occlusion Ior
/d/ in /di:l/; with the cacuminal position oI the tip oI the tongue Ior /r/ in
/&'. .slF with the palatal position oI the bulk oI the tongue Ior // in /i:Id/;
with the glottal (pharyngal) narrowing Ior /h/ in /hi:/; as nasalized aIter /m, n/
in /mi:lz, mi:, ni:dnt/.
(b) hen Iollowed by / b, v, 3, t, 1, J
1
, tI, , , m, n/ the /i:/ phoneme is
pronounced:
1
with the bilabial release in /gri:b/; with the labio-dental release
in /li:v/; with the interdental release in /Ji:6, bri:S/; with the apical occlusion
in the Iinal stage in /i:t, Ii:l/; nasali' ed beIore /m, n/, with the velar closure
in /bi:k, Itg/; retracted.
tongue in /IiJV; with the interdental position oI the tip oI the tongue in /irks, 9ir/;
with the apical position oI the tip oI the tongue in /dsd, sit, liIt/; as retracted
in /Igiva/; with the cacuminal position oI The tip oI the tongue in /ntJV; as
retracted Jn /kil/; with the glottal (pharyngal) narrowing Ior /h/ in /hid/.
(b) the /r/ phoneme is pronounced: as nasalized in /him/;
2
with the labio-
dental release in /iI, hv/; with the interdental release in /mi6, wiS/; with th
1
That i s t he Ii rst st age and t he begi nni ng oI t he medi al st age oI t he
vowel are aIIected.
a
Thai i s t he Ii nal st age ' i s aIIect ed.
236
apical release in /iz, bil/; as nasalized in /tin/; with the palato-alveolar position
oI the tip oI the tongue in the Iinal stage in /n/; as retracted in /pik, big/.
Control Tasks p. 136
1. Vowel No. I /i:/, uantitative changes: it is the longest in: sea* 5e* tree**
&e. It is shorter in: easil'* $eals* 6e;er. It is the shortest in: c&ea.er* sleet* s.eaer*
teac&* ee.* s&ee..
The uality oI the vowels depends on the articulatory characteristics oI
the consonants which precede or Iollow them. E. g. in sea /:;.l is modiIied under
the inIluence oI the Iorelingttal, apical, alveolar, voiceless, Iortis, constrictive
/s/; in 5e under the inIluence oI the bilabial, constrictive sonorant /w/; in
$eals the nasal, -ila-ial* occlusive sonorant "$lF in c&ea.er the lingua,
Iorelingual, apical, palato-alveolar, voiceless Iortis constrictive/t/; in tree
the lingual, Iorelingual, cacuminal, post-alveolar, constrictive sonorant &"F.
in 6e;er the labial, labio-dental, voiceless, Iortis, constrictive /ZF in sleet
the lingual, Iorelingual, apical, alveolar, constrictive light /J/; in s.eaer
the labial, bilabial, voiceless, Iortis, occlusive /p/; in &e the pharyngali
(glottal) voiceless Iortis, constrictive /h/; in teac& the lingual, Iorelingual,
apical, voiceless Iortis, ocelusive ///F $ s&ee. the lingual, Iorelingual, apica,
palato-alveolar voiceless Iortis constrictive ~1. Etc.
Control Tasks p. 143 1.
Ue%U
A. (1) a) pay, make, pain, weigh, way, waste, pale, ales, paint; b) Iace;;
(2) b) lake, lay, day, late, lain, David, sane, taken; c) shape; d) rain, ray; (4
game, case, gave.
B. (I) a) game, Iamous, able, shape; b) David, gave; (2) b) again, pain, case,
rain, late, -waste, pale, sane, ales, Iace; c) age; (4) make, lake, ache, taken-
/au/
A. (1) a) boating, poker, motor, poet, motive; b) Ioe; (2) a) though; b) don't,,
total, social, son, nose, noticed; c) shoulder, okes; d) road, bureau; (3) yolk;.
(4) go, gold, cosy; (5) hope, hotel, hold.
B. (1) a) hope; b) over; (2) a) both; b) boating, hotel, hold, only, Iollow,
road, shoulder, gold, don't, old, cold, motor, poet, motive, total, nose, cosy,,
noticed; c) social; (4) poker, yolk, okes.
F/ai/
A. (1) a) why, wild, mild, while, my, Michael; b) proIile; (2) b) die, nine,,
silence, side, like, climb; d) right, rise, bright; (4) kind, kindly, kite; (5) high.
B. (1) a) climb; b) wiIe; (2) b) kind, wild, mild, nine, while, silence, proIile,,
right, side, kindly, isles, eyes, idea, uite, bright; (4) like, Michael.
/au/
A. (1) a) pound, mouth; b) Iound; (2) a) thousand; b) south, now, down,,
sound, loud; d) round, drown; (4) couch; (6) how.
B. (2) a) south, mouth; b) drown, out; thousand, down, round, pound,,
Iound, loud; c) couch.
U0&U
() ) y, p o i t ; (2) b) oil, employ,
d) destroy; (4) coin.
B. (2) b) oin, point, coin, soil, noise, oint.
//
A. (I) a) Crimea; b) severe; (2) b) dear, near, idea, museum; (3) year; (5)
here.
B. (1) museum; (2) b) accordeon, ears, real, realize, period; d) weary.
23?
A. (1) a) boy, point; (2) b) soil, employ, noise; c) oin, enoy, oint;
t ; ( 4) i b)
/89/
A. (I) a) parent, anywhere, bare, despair, pair. Mary; b) various, Iarewell;
(2) a) there; b) stare, stairs, dare; (4) care, suare, careIully.
B. (1) b) careIully; (2) b) stairs; d) parents, various, Mary.
UU$U
A. (1) a) poor, moor; (2) b) tour, during; c) sure, usual.
B. (2) b) usual; d) during, Europe,
2. sau, smlsiak, (stremdgli, Ialsiliteitid, Iwamdir, +, IIraIeuin, Imlaiz,
4mauta, lhaitn, palteitauz, lamralnait, Iiata, Id3uanst, Imsen, Imaikal, lamdgilau,
uJd3em Isa, ml dormant, ItaiIbid, luarsp, c+
Eercises p. 152
1. a) /LE/ beIore the mediolingual sonorant // is a a advanced variant oI
t he Iully back / LE/, t he back part oI the t ongue moves Iorward cl oser to t he
position Ior the mediolingual //,
b) /e/ beIore the dark /1/ is more open.
c) /k, g/ Iollowed by /LE/, /:/ are slightly rounded. They are slightly pal
atalized beIore /, /se/.
d) /Pit.g/ Iollowed by /vu/, / x/ are labialized, /p, t, g/ palatalizedeIore /i:/.
2. Alveolar /t, d, n, 1/ become dental Iollowed by / 3, 9/.
3. Post-alveolar /r/ becomes alveolar aIter /6, S/, /r/ is devoiced preceded
/& i. t, 6/ , l abiali zed Ioll owed by / D:, +" .
4. In (a) /d, g, g/ are non-labialized, in (b), (c) /d, 3, 1, g/ are labial ized
'.Iollowed by /w/
5. Sonorants /w, , 1, r/ are devoiced most noticeably in the initial clusters
0.4* pr, tw, tr, kw, kl, kr/ when Iollowed by a stressed vowel. In the clusters
): tJ k, . Ir, I, 9r, , w, sw, si, s, sm, sn/ devoicing is less noticeable.
8. Assimilation oI place in Iinal alveolars:
a) / I/ t o / p/ b) / d/ t o / b/ c) / t / t o / k/
/braip blui/ /0: pat/ /ak keik/i
/dap bo:d/ /heb boi/ /braik grtn/
/waipwo/ /reb rai:t/ d)/d/ to "!"
/hctb walk/ /haig kss/
/heg ge:l/
e' In/ 92 U2U ;' U
0
U 92 UJU
/in IktudiI/ /Ikrismo IJpin/
/'sAr glcusiz/
g) reciprocal assimilation beIore //
/igetIa: Ikaut/ /Iwaunta/
/ai Ih3:d5i kAmlm/ /Ikudntu-/
/IbleJ Jtt/ /IJudntJiE/
/tkbu3 +: ibuks/ /Ikantus/
) /3/ is assimilated, Iollowing /n, 1, s, sF
/in n+ 1o;n+/ /Iwots ss Ipumt/ /II
la Ibuks/ /Iwesz za ibrednaiI/
u9. a) /kieI Ipeeldt/ /1 ItelaIaun/
/weis Ipeipa/ /,n ntI iIedsUIs/
ItIl L
str

bnz/
/
l d
I I e /
ItIl L L
L
z /
/
lnd
3 IserIes/
/Iba O+ Jbeibi/ /idaiv biIlau/
238
b) / Itrap bai / /kJau l
/lkra~k iputs/ UI+;;/ IdJpli/
/idAb IIitm/ c) /Islaem 9+ Ida:/
/Iheabrem IskIcm/
/istrir Imuizikl instranrant/
Control Tasks p. 155
10. (I) Aspiration in all English words beginning with /p, I, k/. No aspi -
ration in Russian words beginning with / n, , /.
(2) Short English vowels are not aIIected by loose V transition in /top/,
/pit/, /Ipepa/, etc.close CV transition.
a) Russian soIt initial / , c, , p/ result Irom the loose CV transition in
* ]* 8^a* q8* etc.
(3) Labialization with the lip protrusion in: `cd* 8c]. Labialization with
no lip protrusion in: a* ]^* ]q* ]a* ]* d* ]a* ]* d. English
consonants Iollowed by /o:, u:/ are pronounced with slight labialization (no lip
protrusion).
1). (1) lateral plosion: cur(le(* $u((le* nee(less* $ottle(* at last* re( ti!&tD
&u((le* !oo( loosF
(2) nasal plosion: Kritain* ou!&tn:t* a($it* $a(ness* 5itness* .artner* cotton*
!reat nu$-er* su((en* ca.tain* at ni!&tF
(3) loss oI plosion: actor* -e!!e(* 5&at in(* -ac to -ac* -i! -oos* sle.t*
to. coat* -lac !oat* ri.e c&ee.e. C ;
12. /a/more back in /ka/; // more high in /lpu:ta/; /t/ more back
In
13. Care should be taken 1) to avoid regressive voicing or devoicing oI the-
sounds given in bold type: /laenikdaut/,- /IbatIde/, /Iblakbsd/, /Imedsm/, /10
Ibuk/, /llets Igou/, /Iwuts o+ Itaira/; 2) to pronounce alveolar /s, z, 6, 1/ as-
dental, since they are Iollowed by-the interdental /9, 3/: /stks, hiz in, Ipcts-
3, liz IIlaet, IiI8sI Isims lea, lsu:3z am, ttel 9+, Im 9+/.
Eercises p. 163
1. c, c, c, eau, ou, ough
3. Lra.&e$es N&one$es Uetters
b-a-o-b-a-b /Ib-ei-a-b-as-b/ b-a-o-b-a-b
v-e-s-t /v-e-s-t/ v-e-s-t
d-u-l-y /ld-ui-1-i/ d-u-I-y
sh-i-p -1-/ s-h-i-p
d-i-sh /d-i-J/ d-i-s-h
aw-E-u-1 /la-I-u-1/ a-w-I-u-1
d-aw-n /d-a:-n/ d-a-w-n
1-igh-t /1-ai-t/ 1-i-g-h-t
h-igh /h-ai/ h-i-g-h
w-or-k /w-3:-k/ w-o-r-k
ar-ch-a-i-c /a-lk-ei-i-k/ a-r-c-h-a-i-c
ai-r-y /lea-r-i/ a-i-r-y
1-au-gh /1-cc-I/ 1-a-u-g-h
w-a-tch-ed /w-D-tJ-t/ w-a-t-c-h-e-d
4. r~ /r/ in rait, alIreid, prei, trai, tven, drai; our~/ua/ in tourT
ear~/ra/ in tear.
5. ed~ indicates the past indeIinite morpheme -ed which is pronounced
6 t * i d, d, d, i d, t , d, d/ .
6. psekt, bad, +, Irank, weg, IweSa, sl;n, bs:8, IsIchr, ssul, bsa, prei r
rein, peil, +, Iarad, pemz, tIcz, pi:s, IIct, wit/, die, bau, bred, rait, pra,
239
3~:t hra, Iar, teil nidil, sAri, bIct, breik, meiz, wi:k, IkArsnt, IsIerral, vein, sei,
-seil, Ikumphnrentr'hea, bb, sIc, mit, hil, Iea, sent, raud, tIcrn, ho:s, Iben, gert,
uplem, kl:
oono -
1
ynont, no noom con, n not,
ut ym, c, oct , noo , c
ynt, o ox, nooo cnt nutm, noom
ym, ot mnt, noct, ymoxt otu, oxt -
cnon, no t, noyx c, omont -
xot, cx, yt oot c, u t, m yco,
non o, oytx oot, ooo ot, yt cy,
x nocnt, nnt nct ox, mox, onx m-
u5, nxx y, ctmt ct, mx nx, t, cc xnoc,
myxco nou, co ct, t cn, omt omo, yy-
y , ct x, cmoo u, ct
oncx, yyyt xontx, mt n m, nont
uxu, nyc nox, omnm ono, nooct x,
oyo y, mo nt, mxco ncut, cxt nx,
n no xm, noct nx, x nxom
oo, mt, xnt omt, xo xoot, no-
o noxo, xct cmo, mu xx
7. () me-ter, ca-ring, beau-ty, sour-Iy, sure-ly, tea-cher, cry-ing, si-ty;
i(b) pray-s; praise, child-'s, read-able, mis-rule, penni-less, un-known, dis-like,
im-mortal, ir-rational
8. Mute (r), (e) indicate historical length or the diphthongal nature oI the
preceding vowel phonemes (second columns a); (nn), (ss), (tt), (rr) indicate the
short character oI the preceding vowel phonemes (second columns ->.
9. 3, 3m, 3, Foy, F, oo, 3c, xt,
.Xtoo, , x, xm, K, o, M, M, H
Control Tasks p. 164
1, Iace, Eac-ing, nic-er, choic-est, c-y, princ-ess, age, rag-ing, 1 arg-er,
urg-ent, bug-y, burg-ess, rage-cl, change-ling, outrage-ous, Iace-d, nice-ly,
huge-ly, engage-ment, change-able
b)
2. a) cur-ing Iire-s
cheer-less cure-
d oc-curr-ed
stirr-ing stirr-
ed pin-ing
pine-d work-er
work-ing work-
ed thorough-ly
cult-ure nat-
ion cit-y redd-
er cheer-ing
3. ai/er, + , , +/; /eid, IIesri,
/streit/; au /o:, cc/r/lagast, SD:S, S*
u/; ay, ei /ei/; /Ml, /; , o
B "k%"? /Ireit, wei/.
/Ikua-nr/
/1>2)1+<?/
/Itia-lis/
/kuad/
/alka:d/
/sta: -no/
/sterd/
/lpai-mn/
/pamd/
/ I k /
UIY#N-P%1`U
UY#pP9U
U-r8-&&U
/IkAl-tJa/
/Inei-Jan/
/Isit-i/
/lred-+/
/tfra-nn/
sed, IIauntin, (poitnt, Ivilan/; aigh/e/:
"i* e/: /IpIcpl, Jerepans, 'lepad/; eigh
4. sealing, ceiling, ceiling; soles, sole, sole, soul, soul; bare, bear, bear,
'bear, bear; pair, pear, pair; write, right, right, right; vain, vain, vanes, vein,
vein
240
/'
cu-ring
Iires
cured
o-ccurred
stir-ring
stirred
pi-ning
pined
wor-ker
wor-king
worked
tho-rough-ly
cul-ture
na-tion
cit-y
red-der
chee-ring
Eercises p. 177
1.(I) CVC, ; (2) CVCC, ; (3) CVCCC, ; (4) CSVS,
CSVS,
; (5) CV, ; (6) CCV (CSV), ; (7) VC, ; (8) CCCV (CCSV),
;
(9) VCC (VSG), ') VCCG (VSCC), ; (11) CCSVSC, ; (12)
CVC (V) SCC, ; (13) CCCVC (CCSVS), ; (14) CSVCC
(CSVSC),
; (151 CCVCCC (CSVSCC),
2. (a) lpI~pJ, Ibtc-gl, Isse-tIal, Itrai-Il, In-m, lei-pnl, ib-kwal, B+-+n,
Imai-blz, Ips-tanz, idrse-gnz, Is:-d3ant, Isai-vant, ili-snd, Ihe-raldz, le-randz,
Jpsa-rents, Itaan-d39nts, Ipei-Jants, iskse-Ialds
(b) CV CS, CV CS, CV CVC, CV CS, V CSVS, V
CSVS, CV CVSC, SV CSC, CV CVSC, CSV CSC, V CVSC, CV
CVSC, SV CSC, CV SVSCC, V SVSCC, CV SVSCC, CVC
CVSCC, CV CVSCC, CV-CVSCC, CCV-CVSCC
3. 2, 2, 4, 4, 2, 4, 3, 5, 3, 4, 3, 4, 6, 2, 3, 5, 6
7. 1'lla-les 1'lla-o!ra.&s
3:k
work
=V21-P%38
1y:-+ wor-ker
pamd pined
Ipa%-m
pi-ning
J09aL1l%`
stir-ring
3-llgid
o-ccurred
kuad cured
(tIis-lis cheer-less
lkua-n cu-ring
I tIta-rtr chee-ring
lIa(i)9-ni
li-rtng
lred-(d)a red-der
(net-Jan na-tion
ikAt-tIa cul-ture
J$A-1$-I%
tho-rough-ly
Control Tasks p. 178
1. (a) at, aunt, elks, asks, ebbed
(b) took, liIts, tets, clenched, tip, struck, strays, thrust, bet, Iact, Iret,
price
(c) pray, straw, boy, pea
(a) , o, c
(b) , 3, oct, cu, ntn, ncct, cc, uyncn, co, Mc,
nc, ct,
(c) m, o, , uo
2. ) ) ) ) I ) ) I ) ) ) ) I ) ) I ) )
s t l m b k m s s k g v t p etc.
3. IkAm-Ie-ta-bl, /@o@&(s* bi-IIad, graund, Ikt-tIan, Ipaen-trr, IstA-dr, isev-ral,
tAp-lstsaz, lbsd-ru:m, Inaisa-rr, 19-m, IIai-m-tIa, Imai-dan, 9un, illek-ltn-si-ti,
Idsae-nue-n, lIeb-m+-n, Is-gast, sap-ltem-+, +-lteu-ba, nau-lvem-ba, di-lsem-+,
Iwen-zdi,' Itu-zdi, 10s:-zdi
4. pa-rents, Iire, piu-ral, -ral, din-ner, mar-ry, dis-ap-pear, speak-ing,
writ-ing, play-ing, walk-ing, stand-ing, pas-sing, break-Iast, po-ta-toes, to-rna-
toes, coI-Iee, cab-bage, ba-na-nas, ber-ries, pud-ding, pears, beer, shop-pmg,
iron-ing, house-work, mis-take, Iish-ing
5. an aim Ior it; a blacked eye; not a tall; that stuII; I saw her eyes; the way
to cut it; I saw the meat; white shoes; might rain; keeps ticking; grade A
9-182 241'
Eercises p. 136
1. mt nomom, ouyxt, mt, nooyxt,
cnont, uct, nonoot, ott,
yn, ooo, ocono, tnm mc, nont otnt,,
oont, nnont, onut , nct c oou
cm omm, nnto nm, noxo nn, nnto,
ont, nooxt o mco, ot cmom noco, mm o
, moct, n-m, n-ocy, ntcox, ytcon
mt
2. cnt, comot, o (xtt), ccxt, c
noto oono, ommo oonx
4. xox, cnt, ccn, t oxx, onu, noou,,
mot, umo, cnc, ut, nuc, ommxx xox,,
nce, m, (o)nm, noyu, mo
5. ou, nont ntnm, cxn, y, myxco nto (m
t), cmo, nc, coyc, mc, x
6. ccx oc ux oc; o ux n; c nou
x oo; nyomtcx cnx ot (x); m xx
um; ntco omo (o ntcoo ox) ntco mtu
Control Tasks p. 188
1. lair-raid, Ibirdcage, Icoalmine, Iteapot, Iwashstand, Imail-bag, ldance-rnu-
sic, (grandIather, I hand writing, Ishop keeper, Uadybird, loIIice-boy, Iwaiting-room,
I dinner-1 acket, Itape recorder, I labour echange, IgrornidUloor, Iknee-ldeep, Icross-
Iuestion, IIlat-lIooted, Ishop-lwindow, hot-iwater-bottle, waste-lpaper-basket,
Ipost-lgraduate, Ivice-1 chancellor, Isecondhand
2. lebs(a)ntablsent ocycnymmyoxtcx
I k u mpreskaml pres omncccxmt
IkDnsDitkanlSDt cyny Q"c$.> B omtcx
Iprodurspraldtns noyxnxnxt
linIiksmlItks c <Y*>Bntt, ncnxt
Ikumbamkamlbain omoxt
lknnsa(:)t-kanlsa:t o, cocoonntcx
Idezat dilzs:t nyctxoct, not
lautleiautllei x t
Eercises p. 196
1. /lamalami/ /+i/; /ikslpenmsnt ikslpenment/ /+/; /+11;+n
111:/ /+i/; /samsAm/ /+/ /Itetemltel(h)im/ /+i/; "SB8V
/+/; /Isite Isiti/ /+i/; /vslraiatiIvesnss/ /++/; /lIaredIoitaraid/
/++:/; /lestimabl lestimeit/ /+ei/
2. Iprautest, Ikuntent, IktHnent, labstreekt, IsesIselt, Ikaenut, Ibpuk, lblga:d,
lekspoit, B, lekspait, Imsti'tutt
3. lo:In, Isean, Ispeel, IdiIikalt, 5+, +n, IkunIerans, IdikIansn, leipral,
hav
4. a) /iilmin/
/u:lza:p/
/u:lgand3/
/eilo:ta/
/lllevn/ /Itil/pemtir/
/enlsam/ Mpltain/ /Ikoiaut/
/sebsltrskt/ /:1/
/ubldsektiv/ Ua%l4%eU /hrarUnda/
/orlkestral/ /autlwit/ /ualrei3J3n/
> n// x//xy n//n
// c//c
n//ne
//
DU"UBl
n//my
//n n//x /t
n
/
242
// c// /'

/nx
// n//n /n'

/cet
C23912l Tasks p. 197
1. llatkIc, simlphstti, Iprautest , Iskailik, paniOten, Ibuldug, lautda:
(damtgrum, Imtu, Imildu:, IwudkAt, lhatbam, IhAmpbsk, Ihaiwei , IsimpliIai
4 haibrau, Iktmvoi, Irembau, Iremkaut, Undswea, tomatua
4, 3+ Igcudian Inuspeipar izIeimas Iar its misprints l wai 13saz i:vn + Igadian
uimisprmt pralza:vd in Ibras Ia prlstenti +: ++ BIi el vinau Iwam
ba dalsaidid ta Iput a Iplaak m innar av IItiip haup Iwnhs its moust
JIeiI l ip iprobabh Iwitnst halbituei Isau Imennn) iz lemmens + + Iwit
uIrsekanlts: T Ikntik i it waz Idirii ipleist J +1y iz lugual stt ~n n+ lwo:l +n
l l d et + lsmo:l IritIual J ai daunt IwBnt + sta At)lgreitI sed 9a relsipiant at
it Ikbusli bat ez aunlr liwin el in Iilip p Ju:v put in Jti lhau t bi: l
Igaspt 9+ Imsenid3mant wi wa lkeaI ta I tIek wt0 9a Igadian
LOSSARY OF PHONETIC TERMS
ACCENT /'IIikssnt/ is stress and pitch combined. II a stress occurs in the
stepping head without a downward step in pitch, the word concerned is not
accented. Stress in such words is usually weakened because there is no change
oI pitch accompanying them. See STRESS.
ACCENTEME /' aksentIcm/. The distinctive Iunction makes word accent a
separate suprasegmental, or prosodic phonological unit, e.g. primary and weak
word accentemes perIorm word distinctive Iunctions in English: :-illo5* -e:lo5*
in Russian: cd* cPd. It also perIorms Iorm-distinctive Iunctions in Englishr
:i$.ort to i$:.ort* and in Russian: cd A.i>* cd (genitive).
ACCENTUAL NUCLEUS /a5k'sentu3l 'ntrkhss/ that syllable in the
word which is eIIected by a change in pitch direction.
ACCIDENCE/'eksidens/ grammatical rules about the changes in the
Iorm oI words connected with diIIerent modiIications oI their sound nature. For
eample: 6oot 6eet* &a;e B &as B &a(.
ACCOMMODATION /e,kuma'deien/ adaptation to diIIerent adacent
sounds, e.g. in /tut/ /t/ is labialized under the inIluence oI / / and S1 is a little
bit advanced under the inIluence oI /t/.
ACCURACY OF PRONUNCIATION /'aekurasi av pre,nAnsi'eiJan/ - cor-
rect and distinct pronunciation.
ACOUSTIC PHONETICS /a'kuistik Iau'netiks/ a branch oI phonetics
which deals with physical properties oI sounds.
ADJACENT SOUNDS /a'eisant 'saundz/ sounds that Iollow each other.
AFFRICATES /'teInkits/ the sounds Iormed during the separation oI
the articulating organs: in their articulation the complete closure gradually and
uninterruptedly opens into a Ilat-slit narrowing: /tI, #0
ALLOCHRONES /'telekraunz/ uantitative variants oI a phoneme-
The term is used by D. Jones and other Ioreign phoneticians.
ALLOPHONES /'selaIaunz/ ualitative variants or members oI one
and the same phoneme, which never occur in identical positions, but are said
to be m complementary distribution.
ALLOPHONIC TRANSCRIPTION i$mt;$ trens'knpenl - this type
oI transcription is based on the principle one symbol per allophone. Tin
transcription provides a special sign Ior each variant oI each phoneme. A pho-
2TvJ
S

re
I
te

in
.
th

s
transcription as a unity oI all its allophones. The sym- ets 1
H

allophomc

trans
cription are usually placed between suare brack-
th, S
N
AT
I0N

,

S0U
NDS t6llmiua1$ ev 'saundz/ - changes o IH

m

IIerent

denvat
~ves Irom the same root or in diIIerent grammatical
aEatnHa,-' Z
n
c$@lltr
rZ&1

I

the

Same

mOrP
the }u1m
C0NS
,9NANTS 8. 'bns
3
nants/ - articulated by
Ior eallS /t
d
gU
s'
hIch

makeS

a

com
Plete obstruction with the alveoles,
ALVEOL ItIIl
18
' Pnt/ - the central point oI the upper N
JppeTterth /el'viele 'ri-dsen/ - bow-liIie prominence behind
1##isse!iDD
A

ne

liti
244
ALVEOL ItIIl P p
the JppeTterth /el'viele 'ri-dsen/ - bow-liIie prominence
V' T
1

or
ALVEOLI /el' vielai/ - depressions in the
8
/
oc
tbe upper teeth.
0
ARTICULATORY PHONETICS /o/tiktiteitan Isu'netiks/ the de-
scription and classiIication oI speech sounds articulated by the speech apparatus,
ASPECTS OF A PHONEME /'espakts sv + 'IaunIcm/: a phoneme is a dia
lectical unity oI three aspects: I. material, real and obective; 2. abstractional
and generalized; 3. Iunctional. . . . . . ]
ASPIRATION /,sespi'rei - a slight puII oI breath which is beard
aIter the eplosion oI /p, t, k/ in initial position.
ASSIMILATION /9,simi'leiy9n/ the result oI adaptation oI one sound
to another. It can be progressive, regressive or reciprocal. Most commonly the
sounds which undergo assimilation are immediately adacent in the stream oh
speech. For eample in 8] /( is voiced under the inIluence oI SF in &otse.@
s&oe /s" is pronounced as // under the inIluence oI ~1 which Iollows it,
ATTITUDTNAL FUNCTION /, eeti'tudinl 'IArk this Iunction Is
perIormed by intonation when the speaker epresses his attitude to what he is
saying by intonation alone.
B
BAC-/bask/ the term is used in phonetics to characterize the vowels,
which are Iormed with the bulk oI the tongue in the back part oI the mouth
cavity, when it is raised towards the unction between the hard and the soIt
parts oI the palate; back vowels are: /u-, ;* o:/ and the nuclei oI the diphthongs
/oi, ++/.
BAC ADVANCED VOELS /'bak ad'vcwist 'vauslz/ - the term char-
acterizes vowels, which are Iormed with the back-advanced position oI the bulk
oI the tongue: /u, at* / and the nuclei oI the diphthongs /+, +/.
BAC SECONDARY FOCUS /'bask 'sekenden 'Isukes/ - it is Iormed by
raising the back part oI the tongue towards the soIt palate (velarisation); e.g.
/w/ and dark 1 are pronounced with the back secondary Ioci.
BICENTRAL /bai'sentral/ Iormed with two places oI articulation,
BICENTRAL CONSONANTS /bai'sentrsl 'kunstlents/ consonants ar-
ticulated with two centres oI complete or incomplete obstruction: /w, I, =g 3i
t1* /. E.g. English dark 1 is bicentrai, because one place, or centre oI articu-
lation is Iormed by the sides (or one side) oI the tongue, which are lowered.
The other centre oI articulation is Iormed by the back oI the tongue raised to
the soIt palate, which produces the eIIect oI hardness.
BILABIAL /bai'leibial/ articulated by the upper and the lower hp.
Bilabial consonants are: /p, w, b, $l.
BLOC bluk/ to prevent the air Irom Ilowing out oI the mouth cavity
when the soIt paiate is lowered and the air passes out oI the nasal cavity. The air
passage through the mouth cavity is blocked in the articulation oI /m, n/.
BLO /blau/ to'direct the air Irom the mouth or nasal cavity.
BODY /'b-odi/ - the whole.
BODY OF THE TONUE /'budi sv 5a 'Ur/ the whole oI it.
BREATH /breOA the process oI blowing the air out oI the mouth or
nasal cavity through the bronchi and the wind-pipe, or blowing it into the
lungs,
BRONCHI /'brarkai/ two main divisions oI the trachea, leading into
the lungs,
BUL /bilk/ see BODY.

CACUMINAL /b'ku-mmsl/ articulated by the tip and the blade oI


the tongue raised against the back slope oI the teethridge. /;l is.a cacuminal
sound.
CARDINALS /'ka-draelz/ an international standard set oI artiIicial
vowel sounds which, according to D. Jones, can be produced with the bulk oI
the tongue at the Iour cardinal points in the Iront part oI the mouth cavity and
at the Iour cardinal points in the back part oI the mouth cavity.
245
CARRYIN POER /' '+/ inherent properties oI sounds
connected with their sonority, which are due to their individual articulatory
and acoustic characteristics.
CENTRAL VOELS /'sentral 'vauslz/ vowels Iormed by the central
part oi the tongue; a central high vowel is the Russian vowel / t/ and a central
low vowel is the Russian vowel /a/.
CENTRIN DIPHTHONS /'sentnr 'diIDrz/ &a* +, +, +/ Ialling
diphthongs, which glide to &i which is considered to be central. Russian
phoneticians reIer &i to mied vowels.
CHECED VOELS /'tIekt 'vaualz/ short stressed vowels pronounced
without any decrease in the Iorce oI articulation and immediately Iollowed
by consonants, e.g. &i in the word cit'.
CHEES /tIIcks/ - sides M the mouth cavity.
CHRONEME /'krauntm/ a unit, which shows that length is phonem-
icaliy relevant (there are three chronemes in the Estonian language and only
one in English and in Russian.
CLASSIFICATION /,klassiIi'keiIan/ the method which studies common
properties oI the investigated phenomena and which is used to arrange them
systematically.
. CLASSIFY /'klaesrIai/ to arrange the common properties oI (phonetic)
phenomena according to their typical characteristics.
CLAUSE TERMINAL /'kbas :+H this term is used by American
descriptivists. According to H. A, leason there are three clause terminals in
English: Iading //, rising /"/* sustained /--/.
CLEAR SOUND /'klia 'saund/ the sound which is made soIter due to
additional articulatory work, E.g, the raising oI the middle part oI the tongue
to the hard palate (Iront secondary Iocus) soItens, or clears /// in initial posi-
tion, compare: lil'* li!&t and -ill* &ilt.
CLOSE NEUS /'klaus 'neksas/ close connection between a short
checked vowel and a consonant which Iollows it. For eample: /it/ in the word
cit'.
CLOSE TRANSITION /'klaus trsn'si3an/ articulation oI two neigh-
bouring sounds when the Iirst stage oI the second sound takes place already
during the medial stage oI the Iirst sound, e.g. palatalization in the Russian
word ]* labialization in the word t5o /tu:/.
COALESCENT /,keus'lesnt/ bilateral assimilation oI two sounds when
in the result they give a new sound. For eample: /s/ /7 @/1/ in $ission
/'misen/ - /'mi.
COMBINATORY ALLOPHONES /kam'birotan ' IIllauIsunz/ variants
oI a phoneme which appear in speech as a result oI assimilation and adaptation
or oI the speciIic ways oI oining sounds together.
COMMUNICATIVE CENTRE /ka'murmketiv 'sentg/ a word or a group
oI words which conveys the most important point oI communication in the sense-
group or sentence,
COMMUNICATIVE TYPES /ka'mmnikativ 'taips/ - the types oI sen-
tences which are diIIerentiated according to the type oI intonation. V. A. Vas-
silyev gives the Iollowing communicative types: 1. Categoric and non-categoric
statements. 2, Disunctive uestions. 3. Commands, 4, Eclamations, 5. Spe-
cial uestions. 6. Alternative uestions. 7. eneral uestions and 8. Reuests.
COMMUTATION METHOD /,komar'teien 'meed/ one oI the basic
methods oI phonemic investigation, which consists in the discovery oI minimal
pairs.
COMPARATIVE PHONETICS /ksm'paarstiv Iou'netika/ - this branch
oI phonetics studies the correlation between the phonetic system oI two or more
languages,
COMPLEMENTARY DISTRIBUTION /,komplementr /hstn'bu-
arrangement oI allophones oI one and the same phoneme, which occurs
in diIIerent contets, but in a deIinite set oI them.
COMPLETE ASSIMILATION /kam'plIct 9,sirm'lei - assimilation
when one oI the two adacent sounds Iully coincides with the other. For eample:
less su!ar /le 'Jugs/.
246
COMPONENT /kam'psunant/ a part oI the whole.
CONSONANT /'krnssnsnt/ a sound oI noise, which is Iormed by M
complete or incomplete obstruction. As a rule, consonants are non-syllabic,
CONSTITUTIVE FUNCTION OF SPEECH SOUNDS /'kunstittttiV
'IArkJsn ev 'spirtI 'saundz/ the Iunction to constitute the material Iorms oI
morphemes, words and sentences.
CONSTRICTIVE FRICATIVE SOUNDS/ksn'stnktiv'Irikativ'saundz/
in the articulation oI these sounds the air passage is narrowed or constricted to-
such an etent that the air passing through it produces noise or Iriction. No
5
resonance is possible in the production oI pure Iricatives /I, 6, s, J
1
, h/. Voiced
Iricatives are produced with an admiture oI musical tone, they are: /v, -r
z, 3/.
CONSTRICTIVE SONANTS /kan'striktiv 'saunants/ (resonants) in
the articulation oI these sounds the narrowing Ior the air passage is not wide
enough to eliminate the noise or Iriction completely; on the other hand it is
wide enough to make the cavity Iunction as a resonator. They are: /w, 1, r, /.
CONTACT /'kntsekt/ a closure made by the organs oI speech.
CONTIUOUS /ksn'tigues/ adacent or neighbouring syllables or
sounds (usually consonants).
CONTINUANTS /kan'tmuants/ consonants that can be prolonged dur-
ing the stop-stage oI their articulation. For eample: i$* n, 1, r, 3/.
CONTOID /ken'toid/ the term is used by the American linguist . Pike
to characterize noise consonants.
DAR SOUND /'dak 'saund/ the sound which is made harder due to
additional articulatory work the raising oI the back part oI the tongue to
the soIt palate back secondary Iocus), w and 1 dark are pronounced with
the back secondary Iocus.
DEFECTS OF SPEECH /di'Iekts ev 'spltI/ drawbacks in pronuncia-
tion.
DEFINITION OF A SOUND /,deIi'man av a 'saund/ the description
oI the comple oI properties characteristic oI a sound, which helps to attribute
this sound to a certain type,
DENTAL CONSONANTS /'dentl 'ktnsgnents/ consonants produced
with the tip and the blade oI the tongue placed against the upper Iront teeth.
For eample: /t* d, n/,
DEPRESSION OF THE TONUE /di'preen ev 6a 'ton/ low position
oI the tongue in the mouth cavity.
DESCENDIN SCALE /di'sendir 'skeil/ gradual lowering oI the voice
pitch.
DESCRIPTIVE PHONETICS /dis'knphv Ieu'netiks/ studies the con-
temporary phonetic system oI a language, i.e. the system oI its pronunciation,
and gives a description oI all the phonetic units oI this language,
DEVOICE /di'vois/ to pronounce with the vocal cords switched cut.
Voiced consonants are gradually devoiced in the terminal position and under
the inIluence oI the adacent voiceless consonant (not so much as in the Russian
language).
DIACHRONIC APPROACH /,daie'krtmk a'prgutI/ analysis oI the
phenomena which reIer to diIIerent periods oI development,
DIACRITIC MARS /,daie'kriIik 'masks/ additional symbols used to
characterize separate phonemes or their allophones. For eamples, the Russian
, the erman . Diacritic marks help to use the inventory oI the letters oI the
alphabet, without enlarging it.
DIALECTOLOY 7,daialek'tolEd3i/ the branch oI phonetics which
studies the dialectal diIIerences in pronunciation.
DIAPHONE 'daiaIaun/ allophone oI one and the same phoneme, pro-
nounced by diIIerent people.
DIAPHRAM /'daiaIram/ that part oI the power mechanism which
separates the cavity oI the chest Irom the abdominal cavity.
247
DICTAPHONE /'diktaIsun/ the apparatus that records and reproduc-
es oral speech.
DICTION /'dik a way oI speaking. The selection and control oI
words to epress ideas (command oI vocabulary, grammatical correctness, aIIec-
tive word order, etc.).
DIRAPH /'daigrcuI/ combination oI two letters euivalent to one
phoneme. For eample: /Ic/, sh /J/, th /0, 5/.
DIMINUTION OF INTENSITY /,dimi'nu~Jan sv m'tensiti/ lowering
oI the voice intensity, which results Irom the gradual weakening oI the vocal
cords vibration.
DIPHTHON /'diISDr/ a vowel phoneme which consists oI two ele-
ments: a nucleus and a glide. The Iirst element oI a diphthong is more loud and
distinct, the Iormation oI the second element oI a diphthong is not accom-
plished. English diphthongs can he normal this term is used because they are
similar to the diphthongs normally occurring in other languages: /ei, ai, 01,
, au/ and centring: /ia, +, ++, ua/ they are called so because their glide
/a/ is considered to b a central vowel.
DIPHTHONIATION //B ongai'zeiJan/ slight shiIting oI the or-
gans oI speech position within the articulation oI one and the same vowel (these
organs are mostly the tongue, the lips and the lower aw). Diphthongization
changes the uality oI the sound during its articulation,
DIPHTHONOIDS /'diIargoids/ diphthongized sounds. In English
they are /:/ and lal. The /I;/ articulation begins with /i/ which glides up to the
l:3l position and ends up in the // position. The /it/ articulation begins with /u/
which glides up to the /u/ position and ends in the /w/ position.
DISCREPANCY /dis'krepansi/ non-coincidence, divergence oI proper-
ties.
DISJUNCTIVE UESTION /dis'dsAnktiv 'kwestan/ a uestion which
consists oI two parts, characterized by the succession oI Ialling and rising tones
(nuclear or terminal), used to epress alternative ideas.
DISSIMILATION /,disimi'lei substitution oI one sound Ior anoth-
er, similar in tamber but diIIerent articulatorily: ]c`a* ]a instead oI
c`a* a.
DISTINCTIVE FUNCTION OF SPEECH SOUNDS /dis'tirktiv nX+n
av 'spJitI 'saundz/ it is maniIested most conspicuously in minimal pairs
when the opposition oI speech sounds is the only phonetic means oI distinguish-
ing one member oI that pair Irom the other.
DISTRIBUTIONAL ANALYSIS /istn'butIangl a'nalisis/ this meth-
od helps to establish the distribution oI speech sounds, i.e. all the positions
or combinations in which each speech sound oI a given language occurs (or does
not occur) in the words oI the language.
DISYLLABIC /'disi'lIIibik/ - consisting oI two syllables.
DORSAL CONSONANTS /'dasl 'konsanonts/ pronounced with the blade
the tongue against either the upper teeth or the alveolar ridge. For eample:
Russian /T/.
DORSUM /'do:sam/ back.
DORSUM OF THE TONUE /'dasam 9G + 'Ur/ the middle and back
parts oI the tongue.
DOUBLE STRESS /'diibl 'stres/ two stresses within one and the same
word, e.g. (isa!ree /'diss'grt/.
DRAL /drwl/ to pronounce slowly.
DURATION /dua'reiIan/ - length.
DYNAMIC ACCENT /dai'nasmik 'IIiksant/ Iorce accent based mainly
on the epiratory eIIort.
EAR TRAININ /'la'tremin/ - training oI the ear in diIIerentiating and
distinguishing phonetic phenomena.
EDES OF THE TONUE /'etIeiz av 5a 'Ur/ the rims ol the tongue.
243
ELISION /i'Ii3sn/ dropping oII oI a vowel in initial or terminal posi -
tion. For eample: :tis instead oI iI is* t&: eternal instead oI t&e eternal.
EMOTION /i'msuan/ display oI ecitation, irritation, oy and other
Ieelings. In speech they are epressed by diIIerent phonetic and leicostylistic
means, such as emphatic stress, emphatic intonation, etc.
EMPHASIS /'emIesis/ combination oI the epressive means oI the lan-
guage to single out emphatic words, groups oI words or whole sentences.
EMPHATIC /im'IIIitik/ that which reIers to emphasis,
ENCLITIC /m'khtik/ unstressed word or syllable, which reIers to the
preceding stressed word or syllable. For eample: -e* not in :$a' -e* :cannot
Together with the stressed word enclitics Iorm one phonetic unit.,
EPENTHESIS /e'penssis/ the occurrence oI a sound in a word, in
which it is not pronounced. For eample: len!t& may be pronounced as/Ier(k)8/,
!li$.se as /ghm(p)s/ with the epenthetic /k/ and /p/.
EHALATION /kshe'leien/ breathing the air out oI the lungs and
the mouth cavity.
EHALE /eks'heil/ to breathe theair out oI the lungs and the mouth
cavity.
EPERIMENTAL PHONETICS /eks,pen'mentl Isu'netiks/ the branch
oI phonetics which studies phonetic phenomena through observation and cal-
culations with the help oI diIIerent apparatus and devices'.
EPIRATION /.ekspai'reien/ breathing the air out. 1ee EHALA-
TJON. .
EPLOSION /iks'plsussn/, or plosion /' n/-noIse made by the
air, when it is suddenly released through a ccmplete obstruction. The sounds
/p, t, k/ are pronounced with a plosion, or eplosion.
EPRESSION /iks'pre thoughts and emotions epressed by words
end i tonation.
FACULTATIVE PHONEMES /'IsIcsltativ 'Iaunlmz/ such phonemes
inJEnglish are S and /++/. They are not used in all idiolects, where they are
replaced by /w,/. But in those idiolects in which they are used they may dis-
tinguish words in minimal pairs, e.g. 5&ic& B oot, 5itc& - ntm,
$ore otm, $a5 nct.
PALL /I/ lowering oI the voice pitch within a stressed syllable,
FAMILY OFSOUNDS /'Iamuli ev 'saundz/ D. Jones' term in his pho-
neme deIinition,
FAUCAL CONSONANTS /'Iokal, 'knssnants/ occlusive noise conso-
nants which are articulated by the soIt palate raised against the back wall oI
the pharyn, which is accompanied by a nasal plosion and results in opening
the nasal cavity Ior the Ilow oI air. Combinatory allophones,articulated in that
manner are t in the word -utton or the Russian 6 in `.
FIED ORANS OF SPEECH /'Iikst 'otgsnz'av 'sp/, they are: the
upper teeth and the teethridge, the hard palate and the pharyngeal wall.
FIED ORD,ACCENT /'Iikst 'ws:d 'absent/ this type oI accent is
characterized by the Iied position, oI stress. ' ' .
FLAPPED CONSONANTS /'Ilsept 'komssnents/ articulated by a single
tap oI the tip oI the tongue against the teethridge. For eample: r in sorr'* ;er'.
FLAT NARROIN /'Ilset 'naramr/ passage Ior the Ilow oI air, which
is

m
less Ilat. The sounds /I, v/ are pronounced with the Ilat narrowing.
FLO OF AIR /' Ilau sv the stream oI air.
FOCUS /'Isukss/ A.i. FOCI /'Isusai/) the place in the mouth cavity,
in which the obstruction (complete or incomplete) is Iormed in the articulation
oI a consonant. Front secondary Iocus is Iormed by the middle part oI the tongue
raised against the hard palate. Back secondary Iocus is Iormed by the back part
oI the tongue raised against the soIt palate.
FORELINUAL /'blingwal/ articulated by the tip'oI the tongue raised
agams,t the upper teeth or the teethridge. For eample: /t, d, n/are lore-
lingual consonants.;
249
FORMANTS /'Ioments/ the regions oI the spectrogram, which are cor-
related with the ualities oI vowels or their tembral characteristics.
FORTIS /'Ioctia/ strong.
FORTIS CONSONANTS I:te&s 'kpnsanants/ voiceless plosives and
constrictives, which are pronounced with strong muscular tension and strong
epiratory eIIort (compare with Ienis consonants). The consonants /I, p, i6
are Iortis.
FREE ACCENTUAL VARIANTS /'Irt ak'sentual 'vsariants/ they
are variants oI individual pronunciation interidmlectal variants. E.g. :&os@
.ita-le* &os:.ita-te*: * .
FREE VARIATIONS intraidiolectal and interidiolectal variations
which are spontaneous, unintentional, non-Iunctional, non-distinctive.
FREE ORD ACCENT /'Frt 'wa:d 'asksant/ the type oI accent which
is characterized by the Iree accidence oI the word accent; in diIIerent words oI
the language diIIerent syllables can be stressed the Iirst, the second, the third.
Free word accent has two subtypes: a) constant, which always remains on the
same morpheme: 5on(er* 5on(er6ull' and b) shiIting, which changes its place:
8* 88.
FRICATIVE CONSONANTS /'Inkativ 'knsanants/ - produced by Iric-
tion oI the Ilow oI air through the narrowing Iormed by articulatory organs.
For eample: /v, s. z/.
FRICriONLESS /'Irik/anlrs/ produced without any audible Iriction.
FRICTIONLESS CONTINUANTS /'InkIanlis kan'trauants/ the term
may be used in reIerence to constrictive sonants /w, r, /, which are pronounced
with little noise and can be prolonged or continued. A consonant having the
articulation oI a Iricative but pronounced with weak Iorce so that little or no
Iriction is audible. (D. Jones)
FRONT OF THE TONUE /'IrAnt sv 9+ n/ the blade and the tip oI
the tongue. The blade and the middle oI the tongue in the terminology oI Eng-
lish phoneticians,
FRONT-RETRACTED VOELS /'IrAtit n'trsktid 'vaualz/ produced
with the Iront but a bit retracted position oI the bulk oI the tongue. The
vowel /i/ is a Iront-retracted sound. It is retracted in comparison with the
vowel /k/ which is Iully Iront. The nucleus oI the diphthong /au/ is also Iront-
retracted.
FRONT VOELS /'Imnt 'vaualz/ vowels articulated when the bulk
oI the tongue moves Iorward and its Iront part is raised highest towards the hard
palate: /Ic, i, e, ae/ and the nuclei oI the diphthongs /ia, ei, +, ai, au/.
FULLY VOICED /'Iuh 'voist/ consonants pronounced with the vocal
cords vibrating Irom the Iirst to the last stage oI their articulation.
FUNCTIONAL /'lAnkJanl/ phonological, connected with diIIerentia-
tory Iunction.
FUNCTIONAL PHONETICS /'IAukJanl Iau'netiks/ - the branch oI pho-
netics which studies the purely linguistic aspect oI speech sounds,
FUNCTIONS OF A PHONEME /'lAnkJanz av + 'IaunIcm/ in speech
a phoneme perIorms three Iunctions: 1. distinctive, 2. constitutive and 3. re-
cognitive; they are inseparable.
FUNDAMENTAL FREUENCY /n da'mental 'Irtkwansi/ - the Ire-
uency oI the vibrations oI the vocal cords over their whole length.
FUNDAMENTAL TONE /,knda'raentl 'taun/ - the sound wave which
results Irom the vibrations oE the whole physical body and which has the lowest
Ireuency.
G
ENERAL AMERICAN, .A. /'cIcenaral e'raenkon/ - the most wide-
spread type oI educated American speech.
ENERAL PHONETICS /'dgeneral Iou'netiks/ analysis, description,
and comparison oI phonetic phenomena in diIIerent languages.
ENERAL PHONOLOICAL RULES /'n++ yIauna'bdgrksl 'rulz/
these rules make it possible to establish the phonemic status oI sounds without
direct reIerence to their distribution; they are; 1. the law oI great phonemic
dissimilarity; 2. the law oI conditioned allophonic similarity.
250
ENERAL UESTION /'cIcenaral 'kwest the type oI a uestion
which demands a 'es or no answer, it is pronounced with the rising tone.
LIDE /glaid/ that part oI a diphthong which constitutes its additional
element, the Iull articulation oI which is not accomplished. For eample: &i
and &i in /ai, ei, is, +/ are gldes.
LOTTAL SOUND /'glutl 'saund/ when the glottis is narrowed during
ehalation, the air, passing out oI the mouth cavity, produces an /h/ like sound;
that is why /h/ is considered by ProI. A. L. Trakhterov and British and Ameri -
can phoneticians to be a glottal or laryngeal consonant (not a pharyngeal one).
LOTTAL STOP /'glut 'sttp/ a sound which reminds a slight cough
and is articulated by the vocal cords, beIore a vowel sound is heard, in cases oI
emphatic speech.
LOTTIS /'gltitis/ the space between the vocal cords, which is the en-
trance to the trachea, or the windpipe.
RAPHEME /'grssIIcm/ an orthographic unit with which a phoneme
can be correlated, e.g. t, e, n are graphemes in ten.
ROOVE-SHAPED DEPRESSION /'gruv 'eipt di'preen/ is Iormed in
the middle part oI the blade oI the tongue in the articulation oI /s* z/.
H
HARD PALATE /'had : .$&tl P the rooI oI the mouth.
HEAD /hed/ stressed syllables preceding the nucleus together with the
intervening unstressed syllables.
u HEIHT /halt/ the width oI the resonating cavity in the articulation oI
vowels.
HEIHT OF THE TONUE /'hait av + ' the height to which
the bulk oI the tongue is raised and which determines the level oI the raised
bulk oI the. tongue: high, mid, or low.
HETEROENEITY /.hetarabi'nIciti/ mutually diIIerentiating pro-
perties
1
in the sounds which are compared.
HETERORAPHY /,het9'rt graIt the use oI similar letters Ior diIIer -
ent sounds, Ior eample the letter c corresponds to the sound /k/ in the word
can and to the sound /s/ in cit'.
HIATUS /hai'eitas/ combination oI two vowels which belong to diIIer -
ent syllables, For eample: doirtg/'dmr/ internal hiatus, to or(er /tu 'o:ds/
eternal hiatus.
HIEROLYPH /'haiaraghI a written sign which may be euivalent
to a sound, syllable, or a whole notion.
HIH-PJTCHED SOUND /'hai 'pitt 'saund/ a sound, which is high
in tone.
HIH POSITION OF THE TONUE /'hai ps'zian sv a 'tAr/the
position when the dorsum and the Iront part oI the tongue are raised high to
the rooI oI the mouth, but not so high as to produce an audible Iriction. High
narrow vowels /'hai 'nasrau 'vauslz/ /:, , t, y/ are pronounced with the bulk
oI the tongue raised more higher than Ior /i, u/, which also belong to the group
oI high vowels but to their broad variety.
HIH SPEED -RAY PHOTORAPHY /'hai 'spM 'eks'rei B++I
-one oI the methods used in eperimental phonetics, wnich consists in the pho-
tography oI -rayed organs oI speech in the process oI articulation,
HISS /his/ noise produced when the air passes through a round narrow-
ing and produces hissing noise. The sounds /s, J
1
/ are hissing consonants.
HISTORICAL ASSIMILATION /his'tunksl aimi'leien/ sound chang-
es, which are the result oI the historical development oI the language.
HISTORICAL PHONETICS /his'tunkal Iau'netiks/ - that branch oI
phonetics, which studies phonetic components on the diachronic level; it is a
part oI the history oI a language, which studies the history oI the development
oI the phonetic laws,
HOLD /hsuld/ the second stage oI a single sound articulation (retention,
central, medial stage).
HOMOENEITY /hum9d3'nhti/ articulatory similarity oI two
usounds, which is based on similar articulatory work oI the speech organs. The
251
sounds /p, b/ are homogeneous because they are both plosive and bilabial noise
consonants.
HOMORAPHS /'hnmagrcuIs/ words'.that are similar in orthography
but diIIerent in pronunciation and meaning For eample: tear /tea/ |a
and tear /tia/ ]^|.
HOMOPHONES /'hnmaIaunz/ words that are similar in pronunciation
but diIIerent in orthography and meaning. For eample: air &air |8ce B
]F -u' -'e dca G@]. ]V^F ni!&t ni!&t a B
GaF not not ^ y; or ore ]` c8.
HYPHEN /'haiIan/ a graphic sign which serves to show syllabic bound-
ary.
IDEORAM /'ida(u)graem/ 1. a symbol or a picture which represents
and conveys an idea oI an obect without using its name, Ior eample: a numeri-
cal or a pictorial road sign; 2. a symbol representing a word, but not the sounds
which constitute it.
IDIOLECT /'idraulekt/ the individual speech oI a member oI a language
community.
IDIOPHONE /,idia'Ioun/ one and the same speech sound which is pro-
nounced diIIerently in diIIerent idiolects.
IMPEDE /im'plid/ hinder or bar (articulation, a stream oI air, etc.).
IMPLOSION /im'plsu3an/ the Iirst stage oI a single plosive Sound
articulation.
INALIENABLE (INDISPENSABLE, CONCOMITANT) FEATURES
/m-'eilanabl, ,irtdis'pensebl, kan'komitant 'IIct these Ieatures are always
present in all the allophones oI a phoneme, e.g. two Ioci in /J, 3, w, 1/ articula-
tion, lip rounding in /us/ articulation. They may be distinctively relevant and
irrelevant, e.g. see$ vs. t&e$e* /s9/ are opposed due to the Ilat, round narrow
ing diIIerence, in sa$e vs. 6a$e the shape oI the narrowing is irrelevant, /sI/
are opposed due to the place oI articulation diIIerence.
INHALATION /inha'lei breathing the air in.
INITIAL PHASE /t'ntal 'Ieiz/ the Iirst phase oI a sound articulation. -
INSTRUMENTAL PHONETICS /,mstru'mentl Iau'netiks/ diIIerent
techniues and devices used In eperimental phonetics.
INTERALLOPtION 1 ALTERNATION /
r
intergle'ieunik,oiIt9:'iHH,ren/
alternation between diIIerent allophones oI one and the same phoneme, e.g. /n/
alveolar alternates with /n/ dentaI /n nine nint&.
INTERCOMMUNICATION /'intako.muaii'kei giving or passing
inIormation by means oI oral speech.
INTERDENTAL ARTICULATION /.mta'dentl o.-,tik4i'lei artic-
ulation characterized by the interdental position oI the tip oI the tongue in
articulating/9, 5/. In speech these sounds are oIten pronounced as dental, with
the tip oI the tongue placed behind the upper teeth.
INTERIDIOLECTAL PHONETIC VARIATIONS /
7
inta(:),idiau'Iekt9l
Iau'netik Vsan'etJsnz/ variations in the pronunciation oI one and the same
phoneme, word oI sentence in the same phonetic contet and the same style oI
speech by diIIerent speakers oI the language.
INTERMITTENT CLOSURE /;Tnta'mitent '+/ - this type oI clo-
sure is Iormed when the tip oI the tongue is rapidly tapping against the teeth-
ridge as in the articulation oI trilled, or rolled /p/.
INTERPHONEMIC ALTERNATION /.mteIau'niimik /Its:'net Jan/ -~
alternation between diIIerent phonemes, which are represented by their diIIer -
ent ailophones, e.g. /as/ alternates with /e/ in $an $en.
INTONATION /,tnteu'neiI9n/ a component oI the phonetic structure
which is viewed in the narrow meaning as pitch variations, or speech melody.
It maniIests itselI in the del imitative Iunction within a sentence and at its end;
see PROSODIC FEATURES.
INTONATION ROUP /.mteu'neien 'amp/ an actualized sensa group.
INTONEME /'rnbtmIcnt/ a phonological unit created by two or more
252
components oI intonation, or by a combination oI various types oI tonemes or
accenteraes, e.g. m&at (i66icult' m&at (i66icult'" These two sentences are pro-
nounced with two diIIerent intonemes.
INTRAIDIOLECTAL PHONETIC VARIATIONS /'intra,idiau'Iektel
Iau'netik /vsan'eianz/ variations In the pronunciation oI one and the same
speaker, i.e. within one and the same idiolect. They are oI two types: Iree va-
riations and those conditioned by diIIerent styles oI pronunciation stylistic
Variations.
INTRUSIVE SOUNDS /m'trissiv 'saundz/ alien to the word. For
eample: /'himpudant/ instead oI /'impudant/; /'pleiir/ instead oI /'plenr/;
(''dra-msr and 'muszik/ instead oI /'drcuma and 'mttzik/.
INVENTORY OF PHONEMES /'mventn av 'Ieuntmz/ in the English
language the inventory oI segmental phonemes consists oI 25 consonant and
21 vowel phonemes. In the Russian language there are 36 consonant and 6 vowel
phonemes.
IRRELEVANT FEATURES /I'reltveni 'tttIez/ diIIerent articulatory
and acoustic Ieatures oI speech sounds, which do not make them allophones oI
diIIerent phonemes, e.g, partial devoicing oI terminal voiced consonants, varia-
tion in the positional length oI vowels.
JABREAER /'dbrerka/ a word, which is diIIicult to pronounce.
JAS /d3o;z/ parts oI the mouth, which bear teeth and by means oI which
the mouth can be opened and closed.
JONES' VOEL TRAPEIUM /'d39Unzi2 'vaugl tra'pIczam/ Jones
system oI vowels based on 8 cardinalpoints oI articulation; see CARDINAL
VOELS.
JUNCTION /'drken/ the oining oI two sounds or words.
JUNCTURE /'nB+/ the place, where two sounds .or words are
oined together,
JUNCTURE PHONEME /'ctArktIa 'bunIcm/ the syllabic boundary
at the unction oI words or morphemes that can be characterized by distinctive
diIIerence, e.g. a na$e B an ai$. Open or plus uncture is marked by //:
a na$e* an -I- ai$
t
INETIC /kai'netik/ relating to motion, producing motion.
YMORAPH /'kaimagra-I/ the apparatus used to record speech
sounds graphically. ymograms help to ascertain the uality oI various sounds
L
LABIAL /'Ieibial/ relating to the lips.
LABIAL SOUNDS /'leibial

saundz/ articulated by the Hps. For e-


ample: /p, b/.
LABIALIATION /,Ieibiatai'zei 0. rounding.
LABIALIED VOELS /'leibialaizd 'vaugla/ vowels produced with
a more or lessJip rounding. For eample: /o, y, N, , u, u/.
LARYNEAL /,lserin' I, 1'nn+1/ - oI or pertaining to the laryn.
LARYNOSCOPE /U'ringaskaup/ -- laryngeal mirror, which helps to
LATERAL SOUNDS
ch the air passages (or
... the same time the con
1
... ,e Ul,uc
the teethridge as In /I/ articulation. '
LA OF CONDITIONED ALLOPHONIC SIMILARITY /'la av ken'di-
Jand ,sels Inik Simi'lsenti/ two more or less similar sounds, which are at
253
observe the vocal cords epiglottis, and the glottis.
o LARYN /'Ianrks/ an organ oI the respiratory tract above the wind-
pipe. It consists oI an elaborate arrangement oI cartilage and muscles and con-
tains a pair oI vocal cords.
LATERAL /'lateral/ having to do with the sides oI the tongne.
LATERAL SOUNDS /'lastaral 'saundz/ - sounds in the articulation oI
which the air passages (or passage) are Iormed at the lateral sides oI the tongue.
At the same time the contact is made by the tip oI the tongue pressed against
the same time more or less diIIerent, are allophones oI the same phoneme, iI
their diIIerence is due to non-distinctive Iactors.
LA OF REAT PHONEMIC DISSIMILARITY /'lar. av 'greit Iau'nimik
disimi'lsnti/ entirely diIIerent sounds such as a vowel and a consonant
cannot be allophones oI the same phoneme.
LAS OF PHONEMIC AND ALLOPHONIC DISTRIBUTION /'bz sv
Iau'nIcmik and ,aela'Iiomk ,distn'bu:3ri/ 1. iI diIIerent speech sounds occur
in the same phonetic contet', they are allophones oI diIIerent phonemes; 2. iI
similar speech sounds occur in diIIerent positions and never occur in the same
phonetic contet, they are variants oI one and the same phoneme.
LA VOELS /'lseks 'vauslz/ vowels in the articulation oI which the
muscular tension oI the tongue, lips, and the walls oI the resonating cavities is
not so great as in the articulation oI tense vowels. Compare: /i, u, m/ and /tI
u* o:/.
LENTH OF THE SOUND /'Ier9 av 8+ 'saund/ length oI the sound;
waves in the articulation oI a sound.
LENIS /'Itais/ A.i. LENES /'li:ni:z/) pronounced with weak articula-
tion: /b, d, z, 9, v, , 3, 03/.
LENITION /li'man/ gradual weakening in the articulation,
LESSEN /'lesn/ to make less. For eample, lessen the length, lotidness or
tension oI sounds.
LETTERS /'letsz/ printed or written symbols oI an alphabet used in
representing speech sounds.
LEVEL TONE /'levl 'tsim/ tone neutral in its communicative Iunction,.
which is used mostly in poetry.
LIAISON /lIc'eizur/ in the English language cases oI liaison are the
intrusive /r/ or the pronunciation oI /n" in an indeIinite article when it is Iol-
lowed by a vowel: an a..le /an 'sepl/.
LIHT /lait/ in phonetics this term Is euivalent to clear.
LINUAL /'hrgwal/ articulated with the help oI the tongue. For
eample, /t% is a lingual sound because it is articulated with the tip oI the
tongue pressed against the teethridge.
LINUAPHONE /'hngwsIaun/ having to do with teaching languages-
with the help oI phonetics.
LINUAPHONE CLASS /'lirgwaIaun 'klcus/ class euipped with mag-
netic tape recorders, gramophones and earphones used Ior listening and repro-
ducing Ioreign tets.
LINUISTIC FUNCTIONS /hr'gwistik 'Unkanz/ - in phonetics they
are connected with phonemic, signiIicative properties oI sound, syllable, stress,
and intonation.
LIP POSITIONS /'lip pa'zianz/ diIIerent positions oI Hps, which change
the articulation oI sounds and their tamber. The main positions oI the lips
are: rounded, as in S articulation, unrounded, as in &i articulation, protruded,
as in /y/ articulation, non-protruded as in /e/ articulation, spread as in /i/ ar-
ticulation, neutral as in /+/ articulation.
LIPS /lips/ two muscular Iolds bordering the mouth; in articulatory
phonetics reIerred to as upper and lower lip.
LIUID CONSONANTS /'Iikwrd 'ktmssnants/ some phoneticians use
.this term to characterize the sounds /3, r/.
LISP /hsp/ to pronounce /8/ instead oI /s/ and // instead oI /z/. LITERARY
PRONUNCIATION /'htaren pr,rAnsi'eiJen/: RP PRONUNCIATION
(RECEIVED PRONUNCIATION) or PUBLIC SCHOOL PRONUNCIATION
the pronunciation oI educated people in Southern England. LOCAL
DIFFERENCES /'Isukel 'diIarsnsiz/ dialectal diIIerences im the
pronunciation oI the same sounds or words.
LOICAL STRESS l:l;({isl 'stres/ the singling out oI the word, which
seems to be most important in the sentence.
LOORAM /m++/ an arbitrary symbol (in shorthand, Ior in-
stance) representing a complete word.
LOOPAEDIC //bgeptdik/ - having to do with the correction oI
speech deIects.
254
LOOPAEDICS /,kig3(u)'pl:diks/ a branch oI phonetics, which studies
speech deIects and the ways oI correcting them.
LON VOELS /'1 'vaualz/ in English they are /I:, ^* , :, $l.
LOOSE NEUS /'Ins 'neksas/ loose connection between a long monoph-
thong or a diphthong and a consonant which Iollows it. For eample: /t --z/
an the word -ees*
LOOSE TRANSITION /'lus tren'si3an/ articulation oI two neighbour-
ing sounds -when the Iinal stage oI the Iirst sound is not aIIected by the initial
stage oI the second sound, e.g. /'aisbwg/ compare with the Russian o
lose transition.
LOSS /IDS/ in phonetics it is absence oI some articulatory work. Loss
oI plosion, sound, etc., e.g. act loss oI plosion in /k/.
LOUD /laud/ producing a powerIul stimulus on the ear.
LOUDSPEAER /'laudspIcka/ a device that converts electrical impulses
into sounds loud enough to be heard some distance away,
LOER TEETH, LIP, JA /'1++ 'ti:9, 'lip. '(:/ all these organs are
umore active and important in the process oI articulation than the upper aw,
lip, teeth.
LO LEVEL TONE /'lau 'levl 'taun/ characterizes unstressed but
prominent syllables oI parenthetic groups or long tails.
LO-NARRO VOELS /'1+ 'n++ 'vaualz/ these vowels are
*U"7 xNU.
LO PITCH /'1+ 'pit
1
/ low tone. It is usually used in the narrow range
oI tone-pitch.
LO VOELS /'1+ 'vaualz/ vowels pronounced with the low position
oI the bulk oI the tongue. For eample: "as* * , ,o.-/./, / belong to low vow-
els oI narrow variety, /se, a(i, ), c, u/ belong to low vowels oI broad variety.
/EB, a(i, u)/ are low Iront vowels, /, o:, c, are low back vowels.
. LUNS /Unz/ the source oI the air stream that makes it possible to
produce sounds. The latter also regulate the Iorce oI the air pressure and produce
uvibrations in the intensity oI speech sounds.
@
MANETIC TAPE RECORDER /mseg'netik 'teip n'tada/ the appa-
ratus that converts sounds into electrical signals and then into variations in
ihe magnetization oI a wire or tape oI magnetic material. A similar system has
been devised Ior operation with a television camera, recording television pic-
tures as magnetic inIormation which may be used later to reproduce the images
(videotape).
MEDIA /'mirds/ tot. MEDIAE) /'medls/ see LENIS.
MEDIAL./'mIcdsl/ passing through the middle oI the air-passage.
MEDIAL SONANTS /dal 'sounants/ sounds articulated with the air-
passage through the middle part oI the tongue. For eample: /w, r. /.
MEDIOLINUAL CONSONANTS /'mi:dJ9(u)hna.wal 'knsanants/ con
sonants articulated with the help oI the middle part oI the tongue. To this group
belong English /J/ and Russian //, , .
MELODY /'metsdi/ changes in the voice pitch in the process oI speech.
MEMBERS OF A PHONEME /'membaz av a 'IeunIera/ - positional and
combinatory allophones belonging to the Iamily oI one and the same sound
uD, Jones),
MERIN OF STAES /'ma:d3in av 'steicIeiz/ - coincidence oI the last
ustage oI the Iirst sound in the articulation oI a word with the Iirst stage oI the
-second sound. Merging oI stages usually takes place when sounds oI a diIIerent
nature are oined, Ior eample /I i t/ in the word lit. , , ,.
METHOD OF MINIMAL PAIRS /'meOad av 'minimal 'psez/ - the dis-
covery oI as many pairs oI words as possible, that diIIer in one phoneme. It is
based on the substitution oI one sound Ior another, commutation.
METHOD OF DISTINCTIVE OPPOSITIONS 'mead av dis'tinktiv
' J ' / thi t h d b t h h t i d i I I n c e
ISTINCTIVE OPPOSITIONS mead
Upa'ziJ'anz/ this method enables to prove whether the phonetic diIIerence
is relevant or not.
255
METHODS OF PHONETIC ANALYSIS /'meadz av Iau'netik a'nssh-
sis/ diIIerent methods used in the stuJy and investigation oI diIIerent pho
netic -phenomena. '
METRONOME /'metranaum/ -/a clockwork device with a moving;
audible indicator, which can be regulated to diIIerent speeds and used to mark-
eual periods. It is used in phonetics to teach rhythm.
MICROPHONE /'maikrsIatm/ an instrument, which ampliIies and
transmits sounds.
MID /mid/ neither high nor low position oI the bulk oI the tongue when,
it moves in the vertical direction. In Jones' classiIication mid corresponds ta
hall-close and halI-open. Mid vowels are: /e, :, +, +(), (+/.
MID BAC VOELS /'mid ' 'vauslz/ the nucleus oI the diphthong,
/ou/ and the Russian "o6.
MID CENTRAL VOELS /'mid 'sentral 'yaualz/ S and /a/ in'the-
terminology given by British phoneticians. Russian authorities deIine them as-
mid, mied.
MID FRONT VOELS /'mid 'Irint 'vau9lz/ - /e/, the Iirst element o
the diphthong /+/ and the Russian /+/.
MID NARRO VOELS /'mid 'nrau 'vauslz/ /e/, S and the Iirst
element oI the diphthongs /+/ and le.il.
MID IDE VOELS /'mid 'waid 'vaualz/ / +/ and the Iirst element
oI the diphthong /(+)/.
MIDDLE PART OF THE TONUE /'midl 'pcut av + 'tAn/ the centrar
part oI the dorsum oI the tongue which is opposite the hard palate. It lies be -
tween the blade and the back oI the tongue. This term is widely used in our ter-
minology. The middle oI the tongue plays an important role in the process oI.
palatalization. In the terminology given by some Ioreign phoneticians the term
middle is used in reIerence to the border between the predorsal (that is Iront~
and dorsal (that is middle and back) part oI the tongue; according to their ter-
minology the middle part oI the tongue corresponds to the term Iront part oI
the tongue,
MIDDLE PHASE /'midl 'Ieiz/ the second phase oI articulation, or the hold-
MINIMAL DISTINCTIONS /'minimal disMink-gnz/ - the smallest diI-
Ierences, that help to recognize and diIIerentiate words.
MINIMAL PAIR /'minimal 'pea/ a pair the distinctive diIIerences
between the members oI which are based upon one distinctive diIIerence. The
pair .ill -ill is minimal, because its members are diIIerentiated due to
/p b/ phonemes, their Iortis /p/ lenis 1S distinctions.
MISPRONOUNCE /'mispra'nauns/ to pronounce sounds or words with-,
mistakes.
MISTAES IN PRONUNCIATION /mis'teiks in prs,nAnsr'eiJan/ diI-
Ierent deviations Irom the teaching norm in the pronunciation oI a Ioreign lan-
guage. Academician L. V. Shcherba suggested that mistakes should be divided
into 1. phonological (altering the meaning oI words) and 2, non-phonological,
(that do not aIIect the meaning oI words).
MIED VOELS . P. Torsuyev deIines them in the Iollowing way:
o xt nnoxo, num ncx cn xt x mcmto-
noco. They are /;, +/.
MODIFICATIONS IN CONTET /mudiIi'keiIanz in 'ktsntekst/ sound'
changes in contet. Positional and combinatory modiIications oI phonemes in.
connected speech,
t MONOPHTHON /'nnnn/ a vowel sound in the articulation oi
:
which the articulating organs are more or less stable, which results In the sta-
tionary nature oI the vowel, English monophthongs are /i, e, +, c, * H* u, ,,
:, /.
MONOPHTHONIE /'mtinaIe-ongaiz/ to acuire eual uality.
MONOSYLLABISM /'muna'silabizm/ linguistic phenomenon characterized by
monosyllables. Monosyllabism is characteristic oI the English language..
MONOSYLLABLE /'imma'silebl/ a word consisting oI one syllable..
MONOTONE /'munatsun/ eual tone, lacking the necessary variations
in the voice pitch.
556
MONOTONOUS /ma'ntitsnas/ pronounced with eual tone.
MORA /'more/ A.i. MORAE /:;$ti> the length oI one short syllable
uwhich was considered the unit oI length in the antiue versiIication; so the
length oI a long syllable was eual to two rooras. . . . .
MORPHORAPH /'maIsgraI/ separate graphemic unit which is a
graphemic reIle oI a morpheme.
MORPHOPHONOLOY /.nraIuIs'nulaIei/ this branch oI phonology
studies the distribution oI morphologically correlated sounds in order to es -
tablish their phonemic status.
t MOUTH /mau6/ the cavity in the head containing the teeth, the tongue
and the palate with the uvula.
MOUTH CAVITY /'mau8 'kseviti/ the cavity between the teeth and
the pharyn, ,
MOUTHPIECE /'mauOpiis/ the part oI the kymograph which is applied
to the mouth. ,
MOVABLE ORANS OF SPEECH /'nravabl 'tcgenz av 'spIctI/ the or-
gans oI speech that move during articulation: the lips, the lower aw, the
tongue, the soIt palate with the uvula, the back wall oI the pharyn.
MURMUR /'ma:ma/ soIt speech, sometimes indistinct.
MURMURED VOELS /'m8:mad 'vaualz/ obscure vowels.
MUTATION /mu:'teian/ umlaut.
MUTE LETTERS /'mwt 'letez/ letters, or letter combinations which
are not pronounced, but remain in words due to traditional spelling rules.
MUTUAL ASSIMILATION /'mtttIual simi'leien/ B bilateral assimi-
lation, when two assimilating sounds eually inIluence each other. For eample,
bilateral assimilation oI /s/ /J/ results in /J/: issue /'isu '1B 'i.
MUTUALLY DISTINCTIVE SOUNDS /'mJtrtiiBli dis'tinktiv 'saundz/
-the sounds that belong to diIIerent phonemes and are realizations, variants or
allophones oI diIIerent phonemes, e.g. /b, p/ in .ar -ar* r i
MYOINETIC ANALYSIS /'maie(u)kai'neIik e'nehsis/'a comple
oI. diIIerent analyses that are carried out to study muscular kinetic work oI
speech organs,
N
NARRO /'naersu/ the variety oI high, mid, and low positions oI the
bulk oI the tongue when it moves in the vertical direction. 1ee HIH-NARRO,
MID-NARRO, LO-NARRO.
NARRO PASSAE /'m-au 'pesb/ the term is conventional and
characterizes the state oI the passage Ior the Ilow oI air in the articulation oI
vowels or consonants. For eample, the air passage is narrow in 1S articulation
and it is also narrow in /s/ articulation. . , ,
NARRO RANE /'n+ 'reindg/ Asee IDE RANE, MEDIUM
RANE) iI the range oI the voice pitch is represented by two horizontal
parallel lines 10 mm wide, then the head syllable oI the) wide range utterance
will be arbitrarily represented by a dash 2 mm Irom the top range line. The
head syllable oI the narrow range will be repreaenied by a dash 2 mm Ircm
the bottom range line. The head syllable oI medium range will be represented
by a dash 6 mm Irom the bottom range line.
,
NARRO TRANSCRIPTION /'m ,tr sens'Imp the system oI
transcription signs into which additional symbols are included which corres -
pond to allophones oI seme phonemes.
NARROIN /'nserauin/ a passage oI small width or length. Narrow-
ings can be Iormed by the lips, or the tongue and the palate (its Iront, mid or
back part).
NARROIN THE RANE /'nasreuin 8n 'renuIe/ characterizes em-
phatic speech which is uttered within the limits oI narrow range.
NASAL CAVITY /'neizl 'ksaviti/ immovable cavity inside the nose and
the nasopharyn; it is separated Irom the mouth cavity by the upper aw with
the teethridge and the palate,
NASAL SONANTS /'neizl 'saunents/ they are articulated with the
blocked passage Ior the Ilow oI air through the mouth cavity. This is eIIected
by lowering the soIt palate. Nasal sonants are /$* a* r/,
257
NASAL PHARYN /'neizl 'Iaenrks/ (nasopharyn) the upper part oI
the pharyn 4 cm long. It is situated above the soIt palate.
NASAL PLOSION /'neizl '+n plosion Iormed when the soIt pal-
ate is separated Irom the back wall oI the nasal pharyn and the air uickly
escapes through the nasal cavity; it takes place in the combinations like /tn, dn/.
NASAL TAN /'ne:zl 'twser/ is characteristic oI American pronuncia-
tion and results Irom the laness oI the soIt palate which does not cover the
nasal cavity completely and the air escapes partly through the narrowing
Iormed.
NASAL VOELS /'neizl 'vaualz/ vowels articulated when the Ilow oI
air is directed Irom the lungs both through the mouth and the nasal cavity.
Nasal vowels eist in the French language.
NASALIATION /,neiatai'zeian/ nasal twang.
NEIHBOURIN SOUND /'neibanr 'saund/ adacent sound, that
uwhich Iollows.
NEUTRAL POSITION /'nistrsl pa'zign/ the position when the
tongue is eually removed Irom Iront, back, high, and low positions.
NEUTRAL VOEL /'nutral 'vaual/ a mied vowel oI mid-open po-
sition, broad variety /+/.
NEUTRALIATION /(nictralai'zei'an/ the loss oI ualitative and
tembral characteristics oI vowel sounds in unstressed positions.
NEUS /'neksas/ articulatory dependence between a vowel and conso-
nant. 1ee CLOSE NEUS, LOOSE NEUS.
NOISE /noiz/ characterizes consonants, which are Iormed when the Ilow
oI air passes through a narrowing and produces audible Iriction. Voiceless con-
sonants are pure noises, and voiced consonants are a combination oI noise
and voice, produced by the vocal cords, which are drawn together and vibrate.
NON-DISTINCTIVE SPEECH SOUNDS /'nmdis'tirktiv 'spttI 'saundz/
similar sounds which occur in diIIerent positions and are incapable oI being
opposed to each other in minimal pairs, e.g. /k/ in cool* sc&ool* looe(.
NON-FINAL /'non'Iaml/ not terminal, Iollowed by a sound, a word,
a group oI words.
NUCLEAR TONE /'nulia +n/ the tone associated with the nucleus
oI a sense-group is a nuclear tone. In RP they are the Iollowing: the high Ialling,
the low Ialling, the high rising, the low rising, the rising-Ialling, the Ialling-
rising, the rising-Ialling-rising, the level tone.
NUCLEUS OF A DIPHTHON /'ntckhas 9V + 'diI8r/ A.l. NUCLEI
/'nakliai/) that part oI the diphthong, which is more prominent. For e-
ample, the nuclei oI /ai, ei/ are /a, e/.
NUCLEUS OF A SENSE-ROUP /'nuklias av a 'sens'gricp/ the last
stressed syllable oI a sense-group.
OBSOLETE /'ubsalIct/ not used nowadays.
OBSTRUCTION /ab'strAkJan/ in articulation it is either a narrowing
(incomplete obstruction) or a complete closure oI the speech organs (complete
obstruction).
OCCLUSION /+'1m+n/ a complete obstruction made by the speech
organs, as in /p, t, k/.
OCCLUSIVE /o'klissiv/ the sounds pronounced when the air on its way
out breaks up a complete obstruction. Occluslve consonants are 1. /p, b, t, d,
k, g/ stop or plosives and 2. sonorants /m, n, n/ nasals Asee
PLOSIVE CONSONANTS).
OCCURRENCE /s'kArans/ Ireuency with which sounds, phonemes,
or words are used,
OFF-LIDE /'o:I,glaid/ a short and not deIinite vowel, which is heard
aIter terminal consonants (according to H. Sweet). Some authors consider that
it is a neutral vowel, which is heard between sounds. For eample: @is$ /iz(9)m/.
ONSET /'unset/ the Iirst stage oI a sound articulation (initial phase,
ecursion, Iirst stage).
258
ORTHORAPHIC SYLLABLE /ee'gneItk 'siiebi/ - a unit into which
words are divided in writing or print, e.g. ran!@in!* al@ien. They do not always
coincide with phonetic syllables.
ORTHORAPHY /'BugreIi/ the system oI spelling rules,
OSCILLORAM /s'silsgram/ a record made by an oscillograph or by
an oscilloscope. , , ,. ,.,
OSCILLORAPH /o'silsgrasI/ an instrument which makes it possible
to record speech in the Iorm oI graphs. , ,.
OVERLAP /.suve'Isep/ - the term is connected with the phases oI articu
lation which partly coincide in the neighbouring sounds. The result oI sucti
overlapping is partial or complete assimilation. . . . i
OVERTONE /'suvstsun/ one oI the tones above the Iundamental
tone in a harmonic series. They are produced when only parts oI the vi om
mechanism oscillate.
P
PALATALIATION /,paletdai'zei soItening oI consonants, which
results Irom the secondary place oI articulation Iront-secondary ipcus. 11
takes place when the middle part oI the tongue is raised to the hard palate ana
the air passage is narrowed or constricted, which gives the consonant sou colour
ing. All consonants, with the eception oI medio-lingual, can be aIIected Dy
palatalization when they are Iollowed by /I-, i, e or4". Palatalization is phonemic
in the Russian language (compare: ] ]a>. In the English language P
ala
l
talization is non-phonemic, and when it takes place in the articulation ot
sounds other than /1, J
1
, 3, tI, cIc/ under the inIluence oI the Russian language it
is a mistake. . , ...
PALATAL SOUND /'psektl 'saund/ B the sound that is connected with
the palate articulatorily. .,
PALATE /'pasbt/ - the rooI oI the mouth, separating the mouth cavity
Irom the nasal cavity. In articulatory phonetics it is divided into the Hard pai-
ate, the soIt palate with the uvula and the teethridge,
259
OPEN /'oupsn/ characterized by the low position oI the bulk oI the
tonus
OPEN SYLLABLE /'aupsn 'silebl/ the type oI syllable which ends I
a vowel CV-type. , , . ,
OPEN VOELS /'++n 'vauslz/ the group oI vowels which are pro-
nounced with the open, or low position oI the bulk oI the tongue. Open or low
vowels in English are: /+, , -D, a(i, ), m, ;=.
OPPOSITION /,-Dp3'zi.Isn/ comparison oI sounds, words or morphemes-
along the lines oI their ualitative and uantitative characteristics which re
sults in singling out their minimal distinctive Ieatures, that are phonologically
relevant or irrelevant. For eample, the opposition between /kab / is-
based on voiced lenis voiceless Iortis distinctions in /b p/ which is-
their minimal distinctive relevant Ieature (other Ieatures, which characterize
these sounds are irrelevant). , , . , ,.
ORAL METHODS /'o:+ 'me0adz/ diIIerent methods oI teaching a
Ioreign language, which are carried out Ior retention oI oral speech habits.
ORAL SOUNDS /'oral 'saundz/ the sounds which are produced with the
raised soIt palate, thus the air goes out oI the mouth cavity.
ORATORICAL STYLE /+mn+1 'stall/ the type oI speech with
which orators address large audiences. It is characterized by slow rate, elouent
and moving traits, , ., , , .. ...
ORANS OF SPEECH /'o:ganz av 'sptt/ the organs that together witIt
biological Iunctions, such as breathing, Ieeding, smelling and tasting, serve to-
carry out intercommunication through the elaborate work oI the Iour mechanisms:,
the power, the vibrator, the resonator and the obstructor.
ORTHOEPHY /oi'euipi/ the correct pronunciation oI the words oI a
language. The interpretation oI the rules oI reading cannot be done without
good command oI phonetics. This Iact makes grammar and leicology dependent

n
ORTHORAPHIC SYLLABLE /ee'gneItk 'siiebi/ - a unit into which
d d i i d d i iti i t h d t ls
PALATE ARTIFICIAL /';I .ati'Ii
1
/ is made oI metal or vulcanite
Ior each eperiments tor individually and corresponds eactly to the shape oI
-is palate. The underside oI the artiIicial palate is sprinkled with some tine
white powder and then careIully Iitted into the mouth, aIter this a sound is
articulated. During this process some-oI the powder is licked oII ai the points
oI the tongue palate contacts. AIter this the artiIicial palate is removed and
careIully eamind.
PALATO-ALVEOLAR CONSONANTS /'pal stsu'al vials 'kionsanants/
the consonants articulated by the tip oI the tongue raised against the teethridge
(there is a narrowing between them) and the middle part oI the tongue which is
-simultaneously raised to the hard palate, Palato-alveolar consonants are / J, 3/-
PALATOORAMS B+/ the drawings oI the tongue pal-
ate contacts.
PARENTHESIS /pa'ren9asrs/ a word, .phrase or sentence usually hav-
ing its own complete meaning, inserted into a sentence which is grammati -
cally complete without this insertion, and marked oII Irom it by punctuation.
For eample: I shall not go there, he replied. I ask you, she demanded, to
!o there immediately. In speech it is epressed by lowering the pitch oI the
voice.
PARENTHETIC /,+n'8B constituting a parenthesis, containing
a parenthesis.
PARTIAL TONES /'+1 'taunz/ partial waves which result Irom the
vibrations oI the parts oI the vibrating body are perceived as partial tones,
or overtones, or harmonics.
PARTIAL AVES /'paral 'weivz/ waves produced by the vibrations
o6 the parts oI the physical body. Most sound waves are comple: they consist
oI the Iundamental and partial waves. The sound waves produced by the vibra-
tion oI the whole body are called Iundamental.
0 PASSAE FOR THE AIR STREAM /'psid3 I 81 ' 'strbm/ the way
through which the uIlow oI air goes out oI the mouth or nasal cavity.
PASSIVE ORANS OF SPEECH /'psesiv 'wganz av 'spIctI/ the organs
that are either constantly immovable, such as the hard palate and the upper
teeth, or such that are Iied but can be movable, Ior eample, the back part oI
the tongue in the articulation oI /r/ is Iied and in /k, g/ it is active and moving
to the soIt palate, with which it Iorms a complete obstruction.
PAUSE /pas/ a short period oI time when sound stops beIore starting
again. Pauses are non-obligatory between sense-groups and obligatory between
sentences.
PEAS OF PROMINENCE /'pIcks av 'prpmmans/ the points oJ maimal
acoustic activity oI tone.
PECULIARITY /pi,kNli'IIinti/ a Ieature which characterizes some pho-
netic phenomenon.
PENULTIMATE /pi'iultrmit/ - the last but one syllable.
PERCEPTIBILITY /p9,sepU'bihti/ in phonetics it is usually connect -
ed with hearing.
PERIODICITY /,ptana'disitr/ the uality or Iact oI recurring at con-
stant intervals.
PHARYNAL(-EAL) /Ia'nnggl, nn'OI/ connected with the
pharyn.
PHARYNOSCOPE /I a'rrngasksup/the apparatus which is used Ior
the observation oI the pharyngaI cavity,
PHARYN /'Izennks/ .the cavity between the mouth and the oesoph-
agus communicating with the nasal passages and ears.
PHASES OF ARTICULATION /'Ieiziz av as,tiku'leien/ - three phases
in the articulation oI a single sound: initial, medial (or central), and Iinal,
TheyImay be called diIIerently: ecursion, stop stage and recursion.
PHONATE /I3u)'neit/ to pronounce outlou( with the vocal cords
vibrating and producing voice.
PHONEMATIC /,Iaunl:'mastik/ possessing Iunctional properties.
PHONEME /'Iatinlim/ the shortest Iunctional unit oI a language. Each
260
phoneme eists in speech in the Iorm oI mutually non-distinctive speech sounds,
its allophones. Each speech sound is an allophone oJ some phoneme.
PHONEMIC COMPONENT /Isu'niimik kam'paunant/ this component
oI the phonetic structure maniIests itselS in the system oI separate phonemes and
their allophones.
PHONEMIC TRANSCRIPTION /Iau'nIcmik trsens'kripJan/ this type
oI transcription is based on the principle one symbol per phoneme. A phoneme
is reIlected in this transcription as an abstraction and generalization. The sym-
bols oI a phonemic transcription are placed within two slanting lines / /.
PHONETIC PRINCIPLE OF ORTHORAPHY /Ieu'netik 'prmsapl av
3'9DgraIi/ is a one-to-one correspondence: one grapheme corresponds to one
phoneme, or seuence oI phonemes. This principle is realized in phonemic tran-
scription.
PHONETIC SUBSYSTEM /Ieu'netik sab'sistim/ the speech sounds
which occur in interections and borrowed words, e.g. nasalized vowels pro-
nounced in some words borrowed Irom French,
PHONETIC SYSTEM /Iau'netik 'sistim/ a systemic combination oI
iive components oI the language, i.e. the system oi segmental phonemes, the
phonemic component, the syllabic component, the accentual component, in-
tonation.
PHONETICS /Isu'netiks/ the science that studies the sound matter oI
the language, its semantic Iunctions and the lines oI development.
PHONIC /'Iaunik/ acoustic, connected with voice or sounds.
PHONORAPH /'IaunsgrarI/ machine invented by Edison Ior record-
ing and reproducing sounds (1877).
PHONOLOICAL MISTAES 7,Iauna'Iud3ik9)l mis'teiks/ mistakes
connected with the alteration oI the meaning oI words, which prevent communi-
cation. For eample, mispronunciation oI /9/ may lead to the conIusion oI
t&ou!&t 6ou!&t* t&in sin* $out& $ouse* etc.
PHONOLOICAL OPPOSITION /Ieuns'lodgikal , +'+n/ - a pair
oI words in which any one phoneme is usually opposed to'any other phoneme in
at least one leical or grammatical minimal or subminimal pair, e.g. /t d/, /k
g/ in ten (en* coat B !oat.
PHONOLOY /I'nolad3i/ the science that deals with phonemes and
their seuences. It is Iunctional phonetics since it investigates the Iunctional
side oI phonemes, accent, syllable, and intonation.
PITCH /pitI/ the degree oI highness or lowness varying with the number
oI vibrations oI a note. V. A. Vassilyev deIines it as perception oI the Ireuency
oI repeated
1
pressures on the ear-drum.
PLACE OF ARTICULATION /'plets av a,tiku' tei the place,
wiiHie a complete or incomplete obstruction is Iormed in the articulation oi
consonants,
PLOSION /'1++n/ an abrupt separation oI speech organs at the place
oI articulation.
PLOSIVE CONSONANTS /'plausiv 'konsanants/ - the consonants that
are articulated by Iorming a complete obstruction which bars the Ilow oi air
sent Irom the lungs through the mouth or nasal cavity. The organs oI speecti
that Iorm the obstruction produce a kind oI eplosion on their abrupt separation.
Plosive consonants are /p, b, t, d, k, g, m, n, n/. 1ee PURE PLOSIVES.
POINT OF ARTICULATION /'point av cutriku'leiIan/ this term te
used by Amerieanlinguists instead oI the term Iied or passive speech organs .
POSITIONAL ALLOPHONES /pa'ziIanl 'telaIaunz/ variants oI a pho-
neme which are used in deIinite positions due to the tradition oI a language
pronunciation, e.g. dark and light /I/.
POST-ALVEOLAR CONSONANTS /'paust ' sei v als 'konsanantsl' - con-
sonants that are articulated by the tip oI the tongue which moves behind tne
back slope oI the teethridge, as, Ior eample /t/ /d/ in the words tree B ar'.
POST-CONSONANTAL SOUND/poustktnee'nenU 'saund/ - the sound
which Iollows a consonant.
261
POST-POSITION /'paustpa'zi/an/ the position oI some phonetic ele-
ment aIter a word; when unstressed, this element may be termed enclitic aIter
a stressed word.
POST-TONIC STRESS /'psust'timik 'stres/ tertiary stress is deIined
as post-tonic, e.g. /kan'grsetuleit/.
PRACTICAL PHONETICS /'+ Iau'netiks/ teaching to pro-
nounce sounds correctly.
PRE-DORSAL CONSONANTS /'prIc'dosl 'ktmssnants/ this term is
connected with the term dorsum. Pre-dorsal consonants are articulated by the
blade and the tip oI the tongue, e.g. /s* z/.
PRE-TON 1 STRESS /'prIc'tmik 'stres/ secondary stress is deIind as
pre-tonic; /,83tu'meiten/.
PRE-VOCAL /'pri'vauksl/ a consonant that stands beIore a vowel.
PRIMARY PHONEMES /'praiman 'Iauntmz/ the term is used by those
scientists who consider phonemes proper primary distinctive nits and open
transition //, stresses /' /, pitches / 1 2 3 4 / , clause terminals /- " /
are viewed by them as secondary distinctive units.
PRIMARY STRESS /'praiman 'stres/ the stress which is the strongest
compared with the other stresses used in a word.
PRINCIPAL ALLOPHONE /(typical) /'pnnsipal 'aslauIeun/ that
variant oI a phoneme which is considered to be Iree Irom the inIluence oI the-
neighbouring sounds.
PROCLITIC /pra(u)'khtik/ a monosyllabic word or particle with no~
accent oI its own, which is pronounced with the Iollowing pre-tonic or accented
syllable as one phonetic unit. For eample, articles beIore nouns, the particle
to beIore verbs in the inIinitive, or cases like 6or!i;e lis:ai;"* -e!in /bi'gin/.
PRORESSIVE ASSIMILATION /pra'gresiv s,sim/lei9n/ the pro-
cess when the iirst oI the two neighbouring sounds inIluences the second and
makes it similar to itselI. For eample, the pronunciation oI the suIIi @^n o
regular verbs is based on progressive voicing and devoicing: it is pronounced
/t/aIter voiceless consonants (ecept /t/, /d/), aIter vowels and voiced conso-
nants (ecept /d/), /id/ aIter /t/, /d/: (ro..e( /drupt/, re$aine( /n'memd/, ex@
ten(e( /iks'tendio/.
PROMINENCE/'prummans/ singling out acoustically, which produces,
the eIIect oI greater loudness.
PRONOUNCE /pra'nauns/ to articulate.
PROSODIC FEATURES OF THE SENTENCE /pra'stidiJc 'IiitIsz sv
'sentans/ they are: speech melody, the pitch (Iundamental Ireuency), ac-
cent, tempo, rhythm and pausation, tamber; they constitute intonation in the
broad sense prosodation or prosodization.
PROTRUDE /pra'imd/ to move Iorward. In phonetics this term is-
connected with the protrusion oI the lips.
PUFF /pAI/ a short light gust oI air blown out oI the mouth cavity.
PULSATION /pAl'seiJan/ regularly recurring beats. In speech they are
connected with acoustic prominence.
PURE PLOSIVES /'pU9 'ptsusivz/ voiced and voiceless occlusive con-
sonants pronounced with distinct and uick separation oI the obstruction;
they are: /p, b, t, d, k, o/. La separation oI the articulating organs results-
in aIIricated plosion which characterizes indistinct collouial speech and dia-
lects.
PURELY DISTRIBUTIONAL METHOD /'pueh distri'bisenl 'mesd
is based on the Iact that it is possible to establish the phonemic status oI any-
sound oI a given language without knowing the meaning oI words, on the know-
ledge oI the distribution oI the sounds.
y
UALITATIVE /'kwnhietiv/ connected with the tamber oI the sound,,
that is with its spectral characteristics.
UANTITATIVE /'kwuntitetiv/ - reIerring to the length oI the sound,
i.e., its positional and phonemic length.
262
UASI-HOMONYMS /'kwcuzi'tiDtnanimz/ tnis is L. V. Shcherba's
ter$ whan hs speaks oI ths mambers oI a minima pair, which are almost
homo-.tiyras, near-homonyms.
UESTION /'kwest the communicative type oI a sentence in which
udoubt, supposition or want oI some inIormation is epressed in the Iorm oI a
uuestion: interrogative, alternative, general, or special.
A
RECEIVED PRONUNCIATION /n'stvd pra,nAnsi'ei the type oI
pronunciation which is the most widely understood one in England and in
uEnglish-speaking countries. It is the teaching norm in England and in most
countries where English is taught as a Ioreign language including the Soviet
Union.
RECESSIVE STRESS /n'sesiv 'stres/ stress that Ialls on the Iirst syl -
lable or the root oI the word iI it is preceded by a preIi that has lost its mean -
ing, e.g. :i$.ort* -e:6ore.
RECESSIVE TENDENCY /n'sesiv 'tendsnsi/ the tendency which con-
sists in gradual shiIting oI word accent to the Iirst syllable (which is usually the
oot oI the word).
RECIPROCAL ASSIMILATION /n'sipraksl 8,sitni'leian/ - bilateral
.assimilation, when the neighbouring sounds are eually aIIected by assimila-
tion. For eample, in the word t5ice ill is labialized under the inIluence oI /w/,
and /w/ in its turn is de voiced under the inIluence oI /t".
RECITE /ri'sait/ to repeat outloud something memorized, especially
beIore an audience. In studying a Ioreign language recitation plays a very im-
portant role.
RECORD PLAYER /'reload ,pleig/ an instrument Ior playing gramo-
phone records by means oI a pick-up and one or more ampliIiers.
REDUCE /n'duis/ to make smaller or less. For eample, to reduce the
intensity oI a sound, to reduce the uantity oI a sound.
REDUCED FORM /n'dicst 'Io:m/ a word, which sounds weaker in the
uprocess oI speech. Thus the verb to (o can be reduced and pronounced as /du,
c+/ or even /d/. The same can be said about the verb to &a;e /hav, av, v/. Arti-
cles, conunctions, prepositions and pronouns are mostly aIIected by reduction.
RERESSIVE ASSIMILATION /n'gresiv a,simi'leion/ - the process
-when the second oI the neighbouring sounds inIluences the Iirst one and makes
it similar to itselI. For eample, in the combination /n t&e /n/ is regressive I y
assimilated by /6/ and becomes dental and is pronounced with the tip oI the
tongue against the upper teeth (its Iree variant is pronounced with the tip oI
the tongue against the teethridge).
RESONANT /'reznant/ the term is used by H. leason Ior vowels and
sonorous consonants,
RETENTION /n'ten/+n/ the ability to preserve the most stable pro-
perties in spite oI assimilation or reduction.
RETENTIVE TENDENCY /n'tentiv 'tendonsi/ this tendency is char
acterized by the retention oI accent in the derivative on the same syllable on
uwhich it Ialls in the parent word, e.g. :si$itar* as:si$ilate. *
RETRACTED POSITION /n'treektid pa'zt the position oI the
bulk oI the tongue when it is in the Iront or in the back part oI the mouth cavity
but a bit retracted in the horizontal direction, Iorward back-advanced, or
backward Iront-retracted: /u, i/. , ,
RETROFLEED VOELS /'retra(u)Ilekst 'vauaiz/ the vowels that
are articulated by the tip oI the tongue curled back behind the back slope oI
the teethridge irrespective oI the articulation oI the vowel itselI: this results
in a special tembral colouring oI the retroIleed vowel, e.g. American 6tl.
RHYME /raim/ the repetition oI identical or similar terminal sounds,
sound combinations or words.
RHYTHM /nra/ rhythm is a Ilow, movement, procedure, etc., char-
acterized by basically regular recurrence oI elements or Ieatures, as beat, or
accent, in alternation with op posite or diIIerent elements or Ieatures (ebster s
New orld Dictionary). Rhythm in speech is the periodic recurrence oI stressed
263
syllables. Rhythm eists both in prose and in erse. It can be regarded as one
oI the Iorms in which a language eists.
RHYTHMIC STRESS /'nmik 'stres/ the term reIers to the cases when
there are eual number oI unstressed syllables between two beats. For eample,
: telt t&e$ to : !o t&ere at : once.
RHYTHMIC TENDENCY /'rimik 'tendensi/ the tendency to alter-
nate stressed and unstressed syllables. This tendency gave rise to the origin oI
the secondary stress, especially in Iour-syllable words oI Ioreign origin. For
eample, ex.lanation /.ekspla'nei, con;ersation /,Imva'sei,Isn/.
ROLLED CONSONANTS /'rauld 'kimsansnts/ such consonants are
pronounced when the tip oI the tongue (or the uvula) vibrates in the How oI air
and interrupts it repeatedly, so that the Ilow oI air is momentarily obstructed
by the vibrating organ (or organs). The Russian sonant /p/ is a rolled consonant,
ROMAN ALPHABET Ireumen 'aelIebit/ Latin alphabet.
ROMIC /'rgumik/ the term is used in connection with the use oI Latin
letters, Ior symbols oI phonetic transcription.
R ONT E NO RAM /rant' gen sgraem/ a photograph made with the help
oI -rays. Rontgenograms help to observe directly the ork oI speech organs in
the process oI speech.
ROOF OF THE MOUTH /'ru-I ev 6+ 'mau0/ Ior purposes oI consonant
analysis and description it is conventionally divided into: 1. the gums; 2. the
teethridge; 3. the back slope oI the alveolar ridge; 4. the soIt palate (velum)
5. the uvula,
RULES OF READIN /'mlz ev 'rIcdir/ the system oI rules dealing with
the correspondencies between the reading matter oI the language and its pro
nunciation.
SAITTAL /'sauIcitl/ the sagittal division oI the articulatory apparatus
into right and leIt halves makes it possible to represent the position oI speech-
organs in the production oI sounds.
SANDHI /'saaidhli/ B the term is connected with diIIerent modiIications
oI the sound, caused by assimilation.
SCALE /skeil/ the arrangement oI stressed and unstressed syllables o
a syntactic whole.
SCALE OF SONORITY /'skeil av ss:n;nti6 the arrangement oI pho-
nemes according to their degree oI loudness. According to this scale the most so-
norous are Iront low vowels, then go sonants and voiced consonants. Voiceless-
consonants are characterized byl minimal sonority, '@
SCHA VOEL /'Jwcu 'vauel/ the neutral vowel S.
SECONDARY ACCENT /'seksndgri 'aekssnt/ this type oI accent ap-
pears in words oI Iive or more syllables. It Ialls on the'second pretonic syllable,
e.g. *&os.i:talit'*
SEMENT /'segment/ in phonetics it is the shortest part oI speech
continuum a sound or a phoneme.
SEMENTAL PHONEME /seg'mentl 'Isimian/ the shortest part oI
speech continuum that is capableoI diIIerentiating words.
SEMANTIC FUNCTION /si'msentik 'IAnkJen/ in phonetics the term
is used in connection with the diIIerentatory Iunction (semantic role) oI pho-
netic means,
SEMANTIC TENDENCY /si'msentik 'tencEensi/ according to this type
oI tendency words with separable preIies and compound words have two eual-
ly strong stresses, e.g. :tin:no5n* :sit :(o5n* : t5ent'@one# :e'e@5itness.
SEMI-VOELS /'semi'vauslz/ the term is almost out oI use nowadaysv
It reIers to /, w, r/,
SEMI-EA VOELS /'semi'wtk 'vauelz/ - the vowels weaker in tam-
ber which is the result oI ualitative reduction: intermediate between Iull and
1
neutral phonation oI the vowel.
SENSE-ROUP /'sensgrup/ a word or a group oI words that conveys
some idea.
264
SENTENCE ACCENT /'sentsns 'sIcsant/ a constituent part oI the pho
netic structure oI the spoken sentence and one oI the components oI intonation
In the broad sense oI the term Asee PROSODATION). ,, ,,
SENTENCE STRESS /'sentans 'stres/ the greater degree oI prominence
given to certaitIwords in a sentence. These words are usually nouns, adeciyes,
notional verbs and~dverI, interections, numerals, demonstrative, possessive,
emphasizing pronouns, interrogative words and two-syllable prepositions Ar-
ticles, partIcles to and t&ere* auiliary, modal, and connective verbs, personal
reIleive and reciprocal pronouns, one-syllable: prepositions, conunctionsand
conunctive words - are, as a rule, unstressed. The distribution oI sentence
stress is determined by the semantic Iactor.
SHADE /Jeid/ a slight variation. ,
SHAPE /Jeip/ Iorm, the shape oI the mouth cavity, the shape, Iormed
by the lips.
SHARP /cup/ strong and shrill. i,,.moiiBr
SHORT VOELS /'Jat 'vaualz/ - the vowels having a relatively smaller
length, or uantity in comparison with the long vowels other conditions re-
maining the same). Short English /// and /u/ diIIer Irom the long E/ and /u/
alS
SIBILANTS /'sibilants/- the sounds oI a whistling or hissing nature.
In English sibilants are /s* z, J, 3/. , ,, , ,. bllI ,1 nm
SILENT LETTERS /'sadaot 'let/ - letters that are spelt but not pro-
C S N N N T S /swIt kunsanants/ palatal
SOFT PALATE /'st)It 'palit/ - the back, soIt part oI the hardIt'alate-.
SONOR ANTS /se'narwrts/ - the sounds in the production oI which voice
prevails over noise. Sonorants in English are /m n, r, I J~
w
~
r/

SONORITY /sa'nonti/ a degree oI loudness. d


SOUND /saund/ - a material unit, produced by speech organs. A souna
can be viewed Irom the articulatory, acoustic, auditory.and Iunctional pomw
uoI view, . , .& ai
SOUND SPECTRORAPH /'saund 'spektr9grcuI/T an apparatus tnai is
used in phonetics Ior purposes oI spectrographic analysis pI
s
P
ee
etra a
spectrogram it is possible to see diIIerent conIiguration oI the vreu speciI.
DiIIerent vowels have diIIerent arrangement oI Iormants on the
s
P
ec
I' .
SOUTHERN ENLISH PRONUNCIATION /' +o+n 'ingli +,nnt
I
ei3n/ see RECEIVED PRONUNCIATION, or RP.
SPECIAL UESTION /'spesl 'kwestsn/ the type oI a 4tsHoii
begins with the interrogative words 5&o* 5&at* 5&ere* 5&'* etc.,
inIormation reuired. Special uestions may reIer to any part oI the They
are pronounced with the Ialling tone.
SPEECH MELODY /'spMJ 'irieledi/ - variations in the pitch oI the voice
in connected speech.
SPIRANT /'spaierent/ see FRICATIVE. u
SPREAD LIP POSITION /'spred 'lip +'xJen/ - the pos.on when tne
corners oI the lips are widened in the horizontal direction, the teeth are siignuy
265
n0Ut
SILENT STOP/'sailant 'stop/ - the medial stage in /p, t, /(JJ that
is characterized by the loss oI plosion in cases like: .ast .er6ect*
-oar(* ei!&t (a's.
SIMILARITY /'swii'lIIlnti/ likeness. .
SINLE STRESS /'sing 'stres/ - only one stress in awora.
SINLE TAP /T" /'sirgl 'tap 'r/ - pronounced with the single beat oI
the tip oI the tongue against the teethridge. -,,Hnna mis-
SLIP OF THE TONUE /'slip sv + ' a small unintentional mis
take.
SLIT /sht/ a Ilat narrowing. . . . n i
SLOPE /sleup/ - an incline. The back slope oI the teethridge - an in
cline at the back part oI the teethridge. , , chnha
1

SLO STYLE/'slau ' stall/- corresponds to Acad. L. V. Shcherba s


CSNSONANTS /'swIt 'kunsanants/ palatalized
/' / th bk It t I t
visible, and the lips come close to the gums. This position oI the lips can be ob -
served in the articulation oI S.
STABILITY OF ARTICULATION /sta'biliti ev o,tiku'lei is the-
state when the shape, volume and oriIice-size oI the mouth resonator are stable.
According to the stability oI articulation English vowels are divided into:
monophthongs, diphthongs and diphthongoids.
STATISTICAL METHOD /sta'tistikal 'meOsd/ the method which-,
helps to establish Ireuency, probability and predictability oi occurrence oI
phonemes and their allophones in diIIerent positions.
STAVES /steivz/ two parallel lines Ior intonation recording by means-
oI special symbols).
STRESS or ACCENT is a greater degree oI prominence which is eIIected
mainly by pronouncing the stressed syllable (a) on a diIIerent pitch or with }
change oI pitch direction in it; (b) with greater Iorce oI ehalation and greater
muscular tension. The greater Iorce oI articulation is accompanied by an increase-
in the length oI the sound in the stressed syllable, especially vowels. Vowels
in the stressed syllables are not reduced.
STRON FORMS /'stn~n 'Iamz/ the Iorms that can be observed in ac-
cented words.
STRON VOELS IN EA POSITIONS /'strun 'vaualz in 'r.k
pa-'zienz/ vowels the uantity oI which is not reduced in unstressed
positions. For eample, S in -lac-oar( /'blsekbwd/, /se/ in cli$ax
/'klaimaks/.
STRUCTURALISTS /'strAktIaralrsts/ those scientists who analyse
phonetic phenomena without recourse to meaning, which they consider to be
eternal to linguistics (R. Jacobson, L. BloomIield, L. Helmsley, E. Nida).
Structuralists consider the sound structure as a system oI relations between
phonemes. They carry out the investigation oI the phonetic structure without
recourse to history and' to the material aspect oI phonemes, which are realizedl
as distinctive units in words, phrases and sentences. All this makes their de -
tailed analysis oI phonemes abstract and schematic.
STYLES OF PRONUNCIATION u /' stailz av pr 9/ nAnsi' eiJan/
L. V. Shcherba suggested two types oI style in pronunciation: Iull style and col-
louial style. According to D. Jones, there are the Iollowing varieties oI style:
rapid Iamiliar style, slower collouial style, slow conversational style, natural
style, acuired style, Iormal style.
SUB-PHONEMIC VARIANTS /'sAbIs(uyntmik 'variants/ see SUBSI-
DIARY MEMBERS.
SUBSIDIARY MEMBERS (allophones) /ssb'sidsn 'membsz/ variants-
oI phonemes that appear under the inIluence oI the neighbouring phonemes
with which they are in complementary distribution. They are subdivided into
I. combinatory and 2. positional.
SUBSTITUTION METHOD /,SAbsli'tu;.Ian 'me6sd/ the method oI
replacing oI one speech sound by another in the same position to see whether it
results in a minimal pair, e.g. .en* ten* (en.
SYLLABEME /'silabtm/ a unit which is responsible Ior a Iew minimal
and sub-minimal pairs, e.g. li!&tenin! li!&tnin! diIIer only due to /n/ syl-
labicity in the Iirst word.
SYLLABIC /si'laebik/ capable oI Iorming a syllable.
SYLLABIC SOUNDS /si'isebib 'saundz/ sounds that can Iorm the peaks
oI prominence, they are vowels and sonants other than /i, w/.
SYLLABICATE /si'laebikeit/ to divide into, syllables.
SYLLABLE /'silabl/ shortest segment oI speech continuum. Syllables
are material carriers oI words. They constitute words and their Iorms, phrases
and sentences. According to J. enyon the syllable is one or more speech sounds,
Iorming a single uninterrupted unit oI utterance, which may be a word, or a
commonly recognized and separable subdivision oI a word.
SYLLABLE DIVISION /'silgbl di'vi3an/ - division oI the word into
arcs oI articulatory eIIort (N. I. hinkin's theory). A strong-end consonant
begins the arc oI loudness and a weak-end consonant terminates it. Compare
(a'* ai(F in the Iirst word /d/ constitutes the beginning oI the arc oI loudness,
or the beginning oI a syllable, it is progressively voiced. In the second word /d/
266
ce.
TEMPORAL COMPONENT OF INTONATION /temper+1 paunant
av .inteti'nei it consists oI pauses, duration, rhythm.
TENSE VOELS /'tens 'vaualz/- these vowels are articulated wt
muscles oI the lips, tongue, cheeks and the back wall oI the pharyn made hard
er by tensing, Traditionally they are long vowels: /b, cu, ;* 5* s?l* ail snori
vowels are considered to be la. , , ,. 5,,4.:nn
TERMINAL TONE /'tammel 'taun/ - a change oI pitch at the unction
oI two sense-groups. The American descriptivists use the term: clause terminal .
TIMBRE /'timba/ see TAMBER, TAMBRE .
TONE /teun/ - sounds may be periodical and non-periodical. v
brationsoI a'physical body are rhythmical, the auditory impression oI periodic
waves is a musical tone, or in speech a speech-tone. .
TONEME /'teuntan/ - the toneme oI a sentence or oI a mn-grottp n
separate phonological unit, because it perIorms distinctive Iunction, e.g.
3once never, :not "once many times . 4tunsst-
TONETIC STRESS MARS /teu'netik 'stres , - Ihe marks suggest
ed by R. i ngdon. The y ar e pl ac ed be I or e t he s t r es s e d ' eJ S
in the same positions as the ordinary stress marks used in pbonetic nnserg
tions. They indicate the intonation as well as the stress. The advantage om
system is that it indicates high and low Ialling and rising
t on
nw el
and emphatic tones) in the tet proper which enables the pupil to do without
StaV
TONETie TRANSCRIPTION /teu'netik trens'knpen'- tone and
stress indicators shown by placing special signs on an inlmed sea,
between or beside the line oI the tet, These symbols are diIIerent, dashes ana
dots, small and big dots, wedge-like signs, etc. ,-In orIian.
TONUE / - the most important and movable

.
1
'
c

1
X4 dlIIV
TONUE TISTERS /' Ur ' twist s/ - short rhymes 1 /
cult sounds and sound combinations are included. They are used as trainmB
eercises in teaching pronunciation. .
TONORAM /'taun3,grssm/- graphic representation oI
,TRACHEA /trg'kIca/ see INDPIPE.
/ t ' k / th system
oI sig
constitutes the end oI the arc oI loudness, or the end oI the syllable, it is progres-
S
'
Ve
SYLLABLE PATTERN /'silgbl 'psetsn/ the type oI syllable most
common Ior the language. English and Russian are characterized by CV syllabic
pattern,
T
TABLE OF CONSONANTS, TABLE OF VOELS /'teibl av 'ktnsanants,
'teibl av 'vau9lz/ an orderly arrangement oI consonants or vowels in verti -
cal and horizontal columns. It helps to visualize the system oI vowels and con-
sonants and to compare them with the similar systems oI the mother tongue.
TABULATE /'tIIibuleit/ - to arrange in tabular Iorm
TACTILE /'tektail/ - oI, relating to, or perceived by the sense oI touch.
TAIL /teil/ unstressed or partly stressed syllables (or syllable) that
Iollow the nucleus oI the intonation group.
.
TAMBER /'tsernba/ the uality oI a musical sound, depending on what
overtones are present and their respective amplitudes.
TEETHRIDE /'thnto/ see ALVEOLES
uor linguistically broad, transcription is based on the P
CI
P
e
hltantlng
phoneme. The symbols oI phonemic transcription are placed between slanting
inIiS
ii t i t i o n is bon prin-
An iilophonic, or linguistically narrow transcription is
ciple one symbol per allophone. The symbols oI an alloph are
usually placed between suare brackets . In i
It
e
tta

transcription is more convenient. An altophonic transcripti to
scientiIic phonetic work.
267
TRANSLITERATION traenzlita'reian/ the representation oI the
sounds oJ one language as nearly as possible by the letters and letter combina
tions oI another language. For-e ample, the Russian x is represented in English
by the letter combination zh. . ,
TRIPHTHON /'tnIr/ a vowel sound that consists oI three elements,
the Iirst element is a diphthong and the second a neutral vowel /a/. In slow,
style they are pronounced as a two-syllable unit: /aus/ /au/ / +/.
TUNE ONE /'tim 'JUI/ a Ialling tone.
TUNE TO /'trai :S B a rising tone.
TAN /twasr/ a sharp nasal uality oI a vowel sound.
TYPICAL TONEMES /'tipikal 'tsunIcmz/ they are hypothetical the
Iollowing: terminal tnernes, pre-head tnernes, head tnernes, scale tnernes,
pitch-level and pitch-range tonemes, rate-oI-pitch-change tonemes.
UNACCENTED /'Anak'sentid/ unstressed.
UNDERTONE /'tndateun/ a low tone oI voice.
UNICENTRAL CONSONANTS /'ttni'sentrsl 'ktinsanants/ conso-
nants pronounced with a single articulatory obstruction (complete or incom-
plete); e.g. /t, d, k, g, p, b, s, z, I, v, r, h/.
UNILATERAL /' mil'lateral/ .the lateral sonant 71/ pronounced with
only one side oI the tongue lowered (usually it is the leIt side oI the tongue).
UNROUNDED VOELS /'m'raundid 'vaualz/ vowels in the articu-
lation oI which the lips are not rounded la* e, i, aV.
UTTERANCE /'Atarsns/ v.ocal epression oI some idea. '
UVULA /'ttvuJa/ a Ileshy conical body suspended Irom the soIt palate
over the back oI the tongue.
VARIANTS CONDITIONED BY DURATION /'vsanants ken'diend bai
due'reian/ uantitative variants oI phonemes (positional and combmatory
allophones diIIerent in length).
VARIANTS CONDITIONED BY STRESS /'vesnants ksn'diynd bai
'stres/ variants oI phonemes which depend on positional (accentual) condi -
tions, e.g../'peer ant/ /pe'rentl/.
VARIANTS FREE ryeansnts 'IrIc/ two diIIerent allophones oI a pho-
neme pronounced in identical positions by one and the same or diIIerent speak-
ers,
VARIATIONS STYLISTIC /.veari'eienz .stai'hstih/ variations in
the pronunciation oI speech sounds, words and sentences oculiar to diIIerent
styles oI speech.
VARIETY /va'raiati/ the term is used in connection with the vowels
oI low and broad variety.
VELAR /'vMa/ the term is used in the classiIication o Consonants which
are articulated with the help oI the soIt palate: velar nasal sonoIant /r/, velar
stops /k, g/.
VELARIATION /,vtlorai'zeiIon/ - Iormation oI the back-secondary
Iocus which makes the sounds dark in tamber /w, r, l and the Russian /x, m/.
VELUM /'vIclem/ the soIt palate. hen the soIt palate is raised the air
passes out oI the mouth cavity, when the soIt palate is lowered the Ilow oI air
is directed through the nasal cavity.
u VIBRATION OF THE VOCAL CORDS /vai'breien av + 'vsukl 'ko:dz/
... when the glottis is narrowed so that the tensed vocal cords approach escb
other or touch lightly, these'may be set in vibratory motion by the outgoing
breath pressure and brought together again by their own elasticity and by mus
cular tension (V. A. Vassilyev). B
. VISUAL AIDS /'vizu9l 'eidz/ devices which serve to assist understand
ing or memory by displaying what is to be understood or memorized in a vi
sible Iorm: charts, diagrams, tables, pictures, Iilms.
263
VOCAL BANDS /'vault 'baendz/ elastic Iolds oI membrane inside the
laryn which vibrate to produce voice, see VOCAL CORDS.
VOCALISM /'vsukshzm/ the system oI vowel phonemes.
VOCOID /'vokoid/ the term is used by the American linguist . Pike
to epress the articulatory closeness oI sonorants to vowels. Unlike contoid, a
vocoid may Iorm a syllable.
VOICE /vois/ vocal tone produced by the regular vibrations oI the vocal
cords.
VOICED CONSONANTS /'voist 'tomsansnts/ the consonants which
are produced with the vocal cords brought together and vibrating.
VOICELESS CONSONANTS /'VDISIIS 'kunsanants/ the consonants
which are produced with the vocal cords taken apart and not vibrating.
VOLUME /'vrclum/ Iorce or Joudness oI sounding speech.
VOEL DIARAMS /'vaual 'daiagrsemz/ schematic representations-
oI the system oI vowels which are based on physiological principle (genetic prin-
ciple) and which represent ualitative diIIerences in the articulation oI vowels.
VOEL MUTATION /'vauel mu'tei/+n/ umlaut, or modiIication oI
a vowel caused by assimilation to a vowel or semivowel (now generally lost)
in the Iollowing syllable, a vowel resulting Irom such assimilation has a mark
placed over it.
B
EA VOELS /'wIck 'vaualz/ the vowels which are shorter and less-
distinct, sometimes they are reduced to the neutral vowel "si. eakening or
reduction oI vowels is a characteristic Ieature oI Russian and English. There are-
languages where vowel reduction does not take place (Japanese, Italian, Polish).
IDENIN THE RANE /'waidmr a 'remcIe/ one oI the emphatic-
means which consists in deliberate, widening the pitch-levels oI sense-groups.
INDPIPE /'windpaip/ trachea or air passage.
ORD /ws:d/ in phonetics the term reIers to the word as a phonetic
unit.
ORD-STRESS or ORD ACCENT - every disyllabic and polysyllabic
word pronounced in isolation has word-stress. It is a singling out oI one or more
oI its syllables by giving them a greater degree oI prominence as compared with-
the other syllable or syllables in the same word,
ORD TONEME /'vraid 'tsunIcm/ a distinctive movement or change oS
pitch within the syllable. It eists in the so-called tone languages.
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Cr'stal J. Prosodic Systems and Intonation,Cambridge, 1969.
Ja;i(o; ). Z.* E!oro; L. , English Phonology. M., 1971.
,r' J. K. Acoustic Phonetics. Cambridge, 1976.
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CLleason#E. M. An Introduction to Descriptive Linguistics.N. Y., 1961.
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fones J. The Pronunciation oI English.- Cambridge, 1967.
+en'an f* 1. American Pronunciation.Ann Arbor, 951.
+in!(on /. English Pronunciation Practice. Longmans, 1960.
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Uie-er$an N&. Intonation. Perception and Language. Massachusetts,
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l:Connor f. J.* Mrnol( L. F. Intonation oI Collouial English.2nd
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1&a&-a!o;a J. M. Varieties oI English Pronunciation.M.( 1982.
15eet E. The Sounds oI EnglishOIord, 1929.
Zassil'e; Z. M. eta%. English Phonetics.M., 1980.
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G^`^ |8^
y^] ^8 ^a^
TEOETEK uOHETK
HHKOO 3IK
(H HHKOM 3IKE)
3nymmx . 3. oon
o M. . omon
Mm o 3. u. Rcy
Xyoxcnt o . . Hoomo
Xyox . . Kyon
Txuc o 3. M. xnc
m oo H. . Kxyon
F N 6510
. Y -3. o n o 26.03.87. Hon. n nut 14.09.87. uom
6090/16. Fym. oc. s i. y yx. Hut ntcox.
Om 17. yc. nu. . 17, yc. .-o. 17,61 yu.-. .
Tx 11500 +. 3. D 667. H 90 on.
tcno tcmx mo, 101430, Mocn, H-4, Hx y.,
D. 6$U&d.
uHo n o Oxtco nom o Tyonoo Kcoo
3m M.HO Hnx Oonx nox m . . Xon
uom+nonom n ocycnom om no
tcn, no xo oon. 113054, Mocn, o-
nx, 28. Onuo n Moconco no JIt 8 omnonom
n ocycnom om no m tcn, no
xo oon. 101898, Mocn, H, Xoxonc n., 7. 3. 182,

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