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2. .

1. .

. ,
, .


1.1.1. .
- ,
They live in a lovely house.
Im reading a good book at the moment.
Shes expecting a baby.
, ,
, :
My brother is an engineer.
Thats an instrument for measuring distance.
- :
John Bolton, a student of our University, took the first place in the chess
- , ,
A computer can quickly make calculations, store and rearrange information.
- ,
, :
The room was in a mess. The books were on the floor and on the chairs
Where is the key?
Mind the baby! Shes near the fire.
- ,
(the Queen, the Earth, the Atlantic):
The sun was getting warmer.
When goods have been loaded on a ship, the captain signs a receipt called a bill of
- ,

2. .

I went to the theatre last night.

Im going to the library.
I have to go to the post office.
: There isn't a theatre in this town. Where is a post office?

The thermometer becomes useless if the fluid in it either freezes or boils.

The telephone was invented in the 19-th century.
The pine grows in northern countries.
, man.
woman ,
Woman is mans helpmate.
this that.
He is going to take a post-graduate course. I like the idea.
.1.1.1.a. ,

A dog is an animal.
A potato is a vegetable.
A pencil is like a pen.
A ruler is a thin rectangular wooden or plastic strip.
A test-tube is a hollow glass tube.
A writer writes a book.
The man who is sitting there is my friend.
The girl in that room is my sister.
The boy does his work well.

.1.1.1.b. ,

Horses are animals.

Boots are kinds of shoes.
Watches are small clocks.
Novels are books.
Children are not always good.
Stockings are long socks.
Schools are large buildings.

2. .

**.1.1.1.c. /an, .
a. I havent got computer.

e. Do you keep record of the results?

b. I am not chemist, I am biologist.

f. I work in theoretical research team.

c. You made very bad mistake.

g. Ive got very good idea.

d. It is convincing result.

h. It is standard method.

.1.1.1.d. the , .

Which city is ___ capital of ___your country?

What is ___largest city in ___world?
Our apartment is on ___third floor.
Help! Fire! Somebody, call ___fire brigade.
Who was ___first man to walk on ___moon?
Where is ___your dictionary? Its on ___top shelf on ___right.
We live in ___country, about five miles from ___nearest village.
___Prime Minister is ___most important person in ___British government.
I dont know everybody in ___this photograph. Who is ___man on ___left?
It was a very nice hotel but I dont remember ___name.
I didnt like her ___first time I met her.

.1.1.1.e. a/an, the , .

a. I turned off ___ light, opened ____ door and went out.
b. Excuse me, can I ask ____ question, please?
c. Alan is ____ best player in our football team.
d. How far is it from here to ____ airport?
e. Enjoy your holiday and dont forget to send me ____ postcard!
f. Have you got ____ ticket for ____ concert tomorrow night?
g. Yesterday I bought ____ jacket and ____ shirt.____ jacket was cheap but ____ shirt
was expensive.
a. What is ____ name of ____ director of ____ film we saw ____ last night?
i. Where are _____ children? Theyre in ____ garden.
j. My sisters _____ teacher in ____ school near Leicester. She has three children, two
girls and ____ boy. ____ girls are in her class at school, but ____ boy isnt old enough
for school yet.
k. Jane and Bill are ____ very nice couple. She has ____ clothes shop, and he works in
____ office in ____ centre of town.

2. .

l. Where are my shoes? On ____ floor in ____ kitchen.

m. How much are the driving lessons? Fifteen pounds ____ hour.
n. When you come to bed, can you put ____ cat out and turn off ____ light?
o. I went to ____ restaurant last night.
p. Whats _____ name of ____ restaurant we went to last night?
.1.1.1.f. the.
a. Potatoes / The potatoes are not expensive.
b. This is a good meal. Potatoes / The potatoes are very nice.
c. Everybody needs friends / the friends.
d. Jan doesnt go to parties / the parties very often.
e. Children / The children learn things / the things very quickly.
f. I enjoy eating in restaurants / the restaurants.
g. I enjoy taking photographs / the photographs. Its my hobby.
h. I must show you photographs / the photographs I took when I was on holiday.
**.1.1.1g. , method, theory, effect,
device .. ,
Seitzs hypothesis, Whipples model.
the Holl effect, the Boltzman factor, the Gerrish drive, the Coulomb field etc.
the, .
a. The DNA was examined by ____ Klein-Smith method.
b. ____ Wilsons model has been applied.
c. ____ Hodgkin-Huxley equations modified by Dodge have been solved.
d. The system is studied by ___ Smiths method.
e. Measurements performed on Bi-Te alloys are compared with Seeback coefficients
(S) using ___ Kelvins second relation P=ST.
1.1.2. .

He did not say a word.
A complete vibration or oscillation means a round trip.
The velocity of light is 186,300 miles a second.

2. .

The case weighs a (one) hundred pounds.

A stitch in time saves nine.
- : What a beautiful picture! What a
clever man!
- such,
quite rather:
It is rather a long story. She is such a clever girl!

, what, such, many, quite, rather, so too:
It is not so simple a problem as it is seems.
It is too urgent a matter to postpone.
Only later was it discovered what fruitful a theory it was.
: Such a laborious procedure is obviously not suitable for routine
- :
: a lot of, a great deal of, a good deal of, a great number of,
a good many, a great many; a few, a little;
: at a time when; at a time; for a long time; in a loud voice; on a large
scale; as a result of; as a matter of fact;
: to be a success / in a hurry; it is a pity; to have a mind / a
cold / a good time / a look / a headache; to take a seat; to go for a walk; to make a living
.1.1.2.a. a/an, .

It is ___ pleasure to do ___ business with such ___ efficient organization.

I have ___ headache.
I have ___ pain in my shoulder.
You must be strong in ___ mind and body.
If they had ___ mind to, they could easily get it published..
Oh, I know theres no danger, but Im ____ little frightened all the same.
___ Little of the equipment was standardized.
It is possible to make ___ very good living from being a businessman.
The quality of ___ urban living has been damaged by excessive noise levels.

2. .
j. He was one of ___ few men of science who never terrified me, probably because he

never behaved like ___ doctor.

1.1.3. .

The water inside the pipe does not meet the pressure of the air.
, :
: He knocked at the door of a very neat house.
The things that I have come to me quite by accident.
Show me the telegram which was received yesterday.
This is the book you asked for.
- :
A letter which is written in pencil is difficult to read.
Vessels built for the transportation of oil are called tankers.
- ,

some, any : I went to the door where
they were waiting for us.
Last summer I spent in a small village, which I thought to be a nice place to live in.
We have ordered some engines of 2,000 H.P. each.
+ of +
, ,
. :
a book of a student
the books of a student
a book of the student
the books of the student
the book of the student
the books of students

( - )
( - )
( )
( )
( )
( - )

.1.1.3.a. .

2. .

a. - ; - ; -
; ; - ; ;
b. ; ; ;
; ; (area) .
c. ; ; ; (degree)
; (vegetable life); (for)
; .
d. ; ; (perpose) ; (clerk)
.1.1.3.b. , .

___ chair on which you are sitting is not comfortable.

There is ___ man waiting to see Mr Smith.
___ man whom Mr Smith telephoned this morning is here now.
I should like to find ___ good book to read tonight.
___ book which I am reading now is a very good one.
___ book which gave me the greatest pleasure was War and Peace.
Have you ___ cigarette?
John threw away ___ cigarette he was smoking.
Peter put ___ letter he had just received into his pocket.
I must write ___ letter.

*.1.1.3.c. , .
a. Number ___ hundred and two, ___ house next door to us, is for sale. Its quite ___

nice house with ___ big rooms. ___ back windows look out on ___ park.
b. Professor Jones, ___ man who discovered ___ new drug that everyone is talking
about, refused to give ___ press conference.
c. Peter Piper, ___ student in ____ professors college, asked him why he refused to
talk to ___ press.
d. ___ ship you were speaking about has just come onto ___ port. She has been at ___
sea for ___ long time.
Look: ____ captain has just come on ___ deck.
**.1.1.3.d. , .
a. This is a rather crude criterion of ___ purity.
b. The technique of ___ paper chromatography was cited above.
c. The temperature of ___ solution should be controlled within half a degree or so.

2. .
d. Addition of, say, ___ halogen molecule to benzene leads to a dihydrobenzene

Proof of ___ formula for d-galactose is too involved to be given here.
The direction of ___ rearrangement will depend on two matters, which have to be
taken in order.
In the light of ___ present-day knowledge of ___ molecular structure, much of this
material is now incorrect.
The hypothesis of ___ intermediate compound formation traces its origin as back as

1.1.4. .
a) some any
- , : We cant live without
water. Gas is cheaper than electricity.
: Which do you prefer: tea or
- some any, -
: Bring me some water. Isnt there any sugar in the sugar
- ,
, ,
, , : I forgot to
pay the bill and now the gas has been cut off. The milk I bought yesterday has turned
sour. The ore discovered by the expedition is of a high quality. The nickel was
probably inessential in the reaction.
- , :
Could you give me a coffee and a sandwich?

: Silk which is used for the
aviation industry must be of the highest quality. Bulgaria exports tobacco, which is one
of the stable agricultural products of the country. This is the best wine I have ever
b) some any
, :

2. .

J.Bonner earned a BA in chemistry and mathematics from the University of Utah.

Do you play chess?
- , :
While there is life there is hope. Knowledge is power.
- , ,
- : He was the hope of his parents. I
like the music of this ballet.
- some any,
There is some difference between these two samples. He did not show any fear.
- ,
He has a cleverness quite of his own. He showed a patience that I had never
expected of him.
- , period,
population, distance, height, salary . of +
+ : He has been working here for a period of 2
c) .
- , : My room
is large. This book is interesting.
- ,
: This plant
is engaged in the manufacture of pumps. They are hard working students. Squares
have four sides.
These are such interesting books!
, ,
a medicine
a glass
an iron
an opera
a painting
a radio
a tin

2. .

Wheres coffee / the coffee? Its in the cupboard.

Tennis / The tennis is a very popular sport
We went for a swim in the river. Water / The water was very cold.
I dont like swimming in cold water / the cold water.
You must visit the art gallery. Paintings / The paintings are very beautiful.
Money / The money doesnt always bring happiness / the happiness.
English / The English is the language of international business.
Women / The women are often better teachers than men / the men.
In Britain coffee / the coffee is more expensive than tea / the tea.
We had a very nice meal in that restaurant. Cheese / The cheese was especially
Most people / The most people still believe that marriage / the marriage and
family life / the family life are the basis of our society.
They got married but marriage / the marriage wasnt successful.
I know someone who wrote a book about life / the life of Gandhi.
Life / the life would be very difficult without electricity / the electricity.
Do you know people / the people who live next door?
Are you interested in art / the art or architecture / the architecture?
Two of the biggest problems facing our society are crime / the crime and
unemployment / the unemployment.
I hate violence / the violence.

My daughter is at school.
The meeting will be held at the school.
He was rushed to hospital immediately.
Im going to the hospital to visit him.
, university, school, hospital,
church, prison .. , .
a, an the, .
a. Our children attend .. very good school.
b. Some people think they know about education just because they were once at
c. People who spend time in .. prison rapidly become institutionalized.
d. As soon as the riot broke out, police surrounded . prison.
e. A lot of people think prison should be just like any other building.
f. The trial attracted a lot of attention and . court was crowded.
g. A lot of people have been taken to . court for failing to pay local taxes.

2. .

h. Though its a small town, it has school, . church and court.

i. ____ youngest brother is at ____ school now.
j. She is at ____ school. If you go to ___ school by ____ tram, you will be just in ___
time to meet her.
**.1.1.4.c. a, an the, .
a. ___ thermometer is ___ instrument for measuring ____ temperatures.
b. ___ temperature to-day is not so high as it was yesterday.
c. ___ observation and ___ experience are two great teachers.
d. ___ air is necessary for ___ life.
e. ___ length, ___ breadth and ___ height of ___ cube are equal.
f. Every machine requires some sort of ___ power to operate it.
g. ___ history is his subject. Especially ___ history of ___ Middle Ages.
h. There was ___ expression in his eyes that I could not understand.
i. He finished his work without ___ difficulty.
j. ___ task presented ___ difficulty, which we could not overcome at first.
k. He was not discouraged by ___ difficulty of ___ task.
.1.1.4.d. .
: Ive got some cigarettes but I havent got light / a light.
Light / the light travels faster than sound / the sound.
a. Were having lamb / the lamb for lunch.
b. The sheep gave birth to lamb / a lamb in the middle of the night.
c. Would you like cake / a cake?
d. No, thanks. I dont like cake / a cake.
e. This suit is made of very fine cloth / the very fine cloth.
f. Can you get cloth / a cloth, please? Ive just spilt tea / a tea on your carpet.
g. I went to a talk / talk on Russian revolution / the Russian revolution last night. It
was very interesting.
h. There has been a talk / talk of redundancies at the British Shipping Company.
i. Service / a service in restaurants isnt as good as it used to be.
j. The Health Service / Health Service is suffering from severe cutbacks.
k. The Times / Times is one of Britains oldest newspapers.
l. Time / the time and tide / the tide wait for no man. ()
m. I dont usually like poetry / the poetry.
n. But heres a poem / poem I do like.
o. Do you want an ice / ice in your whisky?
p. Ice / the ice at the North and South Poles is said to be melting little by little.


2. .

.1.1.4.e. a(an) some, .

a piece of
a. Can I offer you _______ advice?
_______ suggestion?
b. Ive just heard _______ interesting news.
_______ interesting announcement.
_______ interesting information.
c. Theres going to be ________ thunderstorm.
________ bad weather.
d. She is carrying ______ luggage.
_______ suitcase.
e. Well need _______ accommodation.
_______ room for the night.
f. Hes got ______ strange equipment.
______ strange machine in his laboratory.
g. Do you mind if I put on _____ music?
_____ tape?
*.1.1.4.f. .
a. Is there life after death?

She has lived a life of misery since the death of her husband.
b. Theres a feeling of love, joy, beauty and peace.
My new cars a beauty. Its a real joy to drive.
c. That numerous people have had Near Death Experiences is not in doubt.
There is still a doubt in my mind about whether it was the right thing to do.
d. The future looks bleak - drought, disease and economic collapse.
The drought in Africa last year cost many lives.
There is a drought every year.
1.1.5. .
a) , ,
: Two men entered the room.
: the two - -
The close agreement of the six compounds is unlikely to be a coincidence.

2. .

. , ,
, .
A third man ( ) entered the room.
The same authors put forward a second correlation.
c) ,
I'm waiting for tram 55.
The deduction of the equation you'll find in chapter 8 of the book.
.1.1.5.a. , .
a. Of all those to whom he appealed one was actually not in ____ position to do




anything for him; another was afraid; ___ third was calculating eagerly to drive ____
hard bargain; ___ forth was too deliberate, anxious to have much time.
Two people would have to hold ___ chair, and ___ third would help him up on it,
and ___ forth would hand him ___ nail, and ___ fifth would pass him up ___
___ professor Earle Fox ignored for ___ second time ___ buzzing signal from the
secretary in ___ adjoining office.
Mr Pickwick was perfectly aware that ___ tree is ___ very dangerous neighbour in
___thunderstorm. He had ___ tree on his right, ___ tree on his left, ___ third before
him, and ___ fourth behind.
Our apartment is on ___ third floor.
You are ___ forth visitor asking where ___ room 40 is there.

**.1.1.5.b. .
a. In brominating the ketone a second bromine atom enters the nucleus.
b. The four centres lie in a plane.
c. A second smaller step is also produced just before the final increase in current.
d. All the three oxygen atoms lie in a plane with the carbon atom.
e. Of the two reactions the second goes about a thousand times faster than the first.
f. The close agreement of the six compounds is unlikely to be a coincidence.
g. A second notation uses the lower-case letters d- and l- to denote configuration.
1.1.6. .
, , :
The wounded were taken to the hospital.
The French are famous for their food.

2. .

.1.1.6.a. , the
a. Braille is a system of reading and writing by touch for ____ .
b. Many people were killed in the plane crush. The bodies of ____ were taken away.
____ were taken to hospital.
c. Every English child knows the story of Robin Hood. It is said that he robbed ____
and gave the money to ____ .
d. Those people with jobs have enough money but life is not so easy for ____ .
e. Agnes has been a nurse all her life. She has spent her life caring for ___ .
.1.1.6.b. ?


a Canadian
the Canadians

1.1.7. .
, .
, , , , , ,
, , , ,
, , , .
- : The Browns have left London.
: , , .:
the British Empire, the United Kingdom
- , , , : the Pacific Ocean, the Persian
Galf, the Volga
- : the Alps
- : the Bermudas
- , : the Titanic, the Daily World
- , , , , : the Savoy,
the Palace Theatre, the Odeon, the British Museum, the Tate Gallery.
- of: the Bank of England, the University of Salamanca.

2. .

- : the Constitution, the Magna Carta.

- , , , : the Hague
(), the Netherlands, the Ukraine, the Crimea, the Caucasus, the Transvaal,
the Congo, the Argentine, the West Indies, the Reviera, the Lebanon, the High
Street, the Mall, the Strand .
(Buckingham Palace, Lloyds Bank, Cambridge
University, Westminster Abbey)
.1.1.7.a. a, an the .
a. _____ Statue of Liberty was a gift of friendship from _____ France to _____ United

No one in ____ Spanish class knew _____ correct answer to _____ Mrs Perezs
____ Lake Erie is one of _____ five Great Lakes in ____ North America.
On our trip to _____ Spain, we crossed ____ Atlantic Ocean.
While we were in ____ Alaska, we saw _____ Eskimo village.
David attended _____ Princeton University.
Harry has been admitted to ____ School of Medicine at ____ midwestern university.
____ Queen Elizabeth II is _____ monarch of _____ Great Britain.
____ Declaration of Independence was drawn up in 1776.
____ Florida State University is smaller than ____ University of Florida.
____ Heathrow is ____ busiest airport in Europe.
We arrived in ____ Paris on ____ third of August.

.1.1.7.b. the, .
a. ____ Kevin lives in ____ Coronation Street.
b. Have you ever been to ____ National Theatre and ___ British Museum?
a. ____ Milan is a large city in ___ north of ____ Italy.
b. Have you ever been to _____ Hague ?
c. ____ Brussels is the capital of ____ Belgium.
d. ____ Manila is the capital of ____ Philippines.
e. There are two cinemas in our town - ____ Regan and ____ Plasa.
f. ____ Dr.Bradbury comes from a small village in ____ west of ___ Ireland.
g. ____ Rocky Mountains are in ____ North America.
h. ____ Texas is famous for oil and cowboys.
i. Where are you staying ? At ____ Intercontinental Hotel.
j. ____ National Gallery is in ____ Trafalgar Square in ____ London.
k. In ____ London, ____ Houses of Parliament are beside ____ River Thames.

2. .
l. ____ Panama canal joins ____ Atlantic Ocean and ____ Pacific Ocean.
m. If you sail from ____ Britain to ____ Denmark you cross ____ North Sea.

.1.1.7.c. , .
I. ____ (1) King Juan Carlos of ____(2) Spain arrived in ____(3) London today for
____(4) three day visit to ____(5) United Kingdom. He was met by ____(6) Queen and
drove with her to ____(7) Buckingham Palace. Tomorrow he will have lunch with
____(8) Governor of ____(9) Bank of England and in the evening he will have talks
with businessmen.
II. On the first morning we went to ____(1) British Museum and had lunch at ____(2)
MacDonalds in ____(3) Church Street. We looked in ____(4) Evening Standard
newspaper and found there was a good film at ____(5) Odeon (cinema) near ____(6)
Piccadilly Circus.
1.1.8. .
, ,
. .
: in the morning (evening, afternoon), the day before yesterday, in the
country, on the one (other) hand, on the whole, to play the piano (the violin), to tell the
truth, to run the risk, to catch the bus (to catch a train), to listen to the radio (to watch
: at home, by tram (train, bus, air), on foot, by heard,
by chance, by means of, in/on time, on sale, on credit, from morning till night .
.1.1.8.a. a, an the, .
a. I dont usually like staying at ____ hotels, but last summer we spent a few days at
___ very nice hotel by___ sea.
b. ___ tennis is my favourite sport. I play once or twice ___ week if I can, but Im not
___ very good player.
c. I wont be home for ___ dinner this evening. Im meeting some friends after ___
work and were going to ___ cinema.
d. ____ unemployment is very high at the moment and its very difficult for ___ people
to find ___ work.


2. .
e. There was ___ accident as I was going ____ home last night. Two people were taken

to ____ hospital. I think ___ most accidents are caused by ____ people driving too
f. Carol is ___ economist. She used to work in ____ investment department of ____
Lloyds Bank. Now she works for ___ American bank in ___ United States.
g. Whats ___name of ___ hotel where youre staying?
____ Imperial. Its in ___ Queen Street in ___ city centre. Its near ___ station.
h. I have two brothers. ___ older one is training to be ___ pilot with ____ British
Airways. ____ younger one is still at ___ school. When he leaves ____ school, he
hopes to go to ____ university to study ____ law.
a. Excuse me. Is there ____ post office near here?
b. A We havent got any money.
B Its all right. Im going to ____ bank.
c. My wife and I went out for ____ meal last night. ____ food was excellent. I dont
usually like ____ Chinese food, but ____ duck was superb.
d. Has ____ postman been yet? Im expecting ____ parcel.
e. Weve moved to ____ lovely house in ____ country. Its got ____ views of fields and
hills, and theres ____ garden at ____ back.
f. ____ government without ____ strong leader will not produce ____ good policies.
g. ____ government has introduced ____ law to ban ___ sale of ___ air guns to ____
people under ____ age eighteen.
a. In my job, I do____ business with people from all over the world.
b. Im going to do ____ shopping. Do you want anything?
c. I was late for ____ work this morning.
d. Can you keep ____ secret? Im getting married.
e. He got ____ sack because he was caught stealing money.
f. It isnt easy, but I think were making ____ progress.
g. I lost ____ control of the car and crashed into a wall.
h. Make ____ love, not ____ war.
i. If you make ____ promise, you must keep it.
j. When buying a house, you should take into ____ consideration how near it is to
public transport.
k. He set ____ fire to his factory so that he could claim the insurance.
l. You must make ____ effort to get to know your neighbours.
m. Ive been to all the countries of Europe with ____ exception of Albania.
n. If youre in Paris, take ____ opportunity to visit the Louvre.
a. ____ fog was so thick that we couldnt see ____ side of ___ road. We followed ___
car in front of us and hoped that we were going ___ right way.

2. .
b. I dont know what ____ price ___ owners are asking. But Dry and Rot are ___

agents. You could give them ___ ring and make them ___ offer.
c. ___ day after ___ day passed without ___ news, and we began to lose ___ hope.
d. Would you like to hear ___ story about ___ Englishman, ___ Irishman and ___
No, Ive heard ____ stories about ___ Englishmen, ___ Irishmen and ___
Scotsmen before and they are all ___ same.
But mine is not ___ typical story. In my story ___ Scotsman is generous, ___
Irishman is logical and ___ Englishman is romantic.
Oh, if its ___ fantastic story. Ill listen with ___ pleasure.
a. ____ worry about ____ state of his finances drove him to ____ despair.
b. He sauntered down ____ streets without ____ worry in ____ world.
c. ____ main worry of ___ most people is ____ good health.
d. ____ news is just coming into ____ studio of ____ fire at ____ home of Mr Paul
Beaston, ____ film Director.
e. I cant wait to go on holiday. ____ sea, ____ sand and ____ books - thats what I
f. I went to ____ theatre last night and saw ____ great play. I thought it was good,
anyway, but I read in ____ papers this morning that ____ critics had slammed it.
g. ___ Paris of ___ 1980s is nothing compared to ___ Paris of ___ 1968.
h. She was appointed ___ President of ___ National Union of ___ Printworkers.
i. ___ last year has been good for business.
j. ____ last year was good for business.
k. I decorated ___ childrens bedroom as fast as I could. In ___ week, I had finished.
l. I havent got time to phone him at the week-end. Ill do it in ___ week.
a. ____ temperature varies with ____ pressure.
b. ____ scientists believe to have discovered ____ new compound.
c. ____ holes were spaced at ____ 10 foot intervals.
d. ____ reaction is similar to that observed by us.
e. In 1812 Berzelius advanced ____ theory of ____ chemical combination.
f. No sooner had ____ reaction stopped ____ precipitate turned black.
g. Such ___ stage is known as ____ theoretical stage or plate.
h. ____ compound II can be hydrolyzed to yield ___ free amine.
i. When being pure, ___ water is ___ colourless liquid.
j. ___ benzene is ____ stronger acid than ____ ethane.
.1.1.8.b. a, an, the, some, .
a. There is ___ fly in ___ lemonade.

2. .

____ youngest brother is at ____ school now.

___ birds can fly very high in ___ sky.
___ book on that shelf is ____ interesting one about ___ history.
It is pleasant to play ____ game of ____ tennis on ____ summer afternoon.
He makes ____ toys in the evening.
___ butcher opposite ____ library always sells ___ good meat.
I am fond of ____ apples with ____ cheese.
____ honesty is ____ best of all ____ virtues.
I should like to have ____ house in ____ country.
___ car is ready.
Do you prefer ____ book of ____ poetry or ____ stories of ____ adventure?
Peter travelled in ____ third-class carriage with ____ Americans.

.1.1.8.c. a, an one, .
a. ___ of my friends advised me to take ___ taxi; another said that there was quite ___


good bus service.

___ friend of mine lent me ___ book by Meredith. Ive only ___ more chapter to
read. Would you like ___ loan of it afterwards?
No, thanks. I read ___ of his books ___ few years ago and didnt like it. Besides I
have ___ library book to finish. If I dont take it back tomorrow Ill have to pay ___
Most people like ___ rest after ___ hard days work, but Tom seems to have ___
inexhaustible supply of energy.
Ive told you ___ hundred times not to come into ___ room with ___ hat on.
Youve been ___ great help to me; ___ day I will repay you.
My car broke down near ___ bus stop. There was ___ man waiting for ___ bus so I
asked him for ___ advice.
He took ___ quick look at my car and said, Buy ___ new ___.
Most of the staff had been there for only ___ very short time, but ___ man had been
there ___ year and ___ half, so he knew ___ little more than the rest.
___ day a new director arrived. He was ___ ambitious, bad-tempered man, and the
staff took ___ instant dislike to him.

.1.1.8.d. a, an, the my, his, her, our, your, their, .

a. ___ most of ___ stories that ___ people tell about ___ Irish arent true.
b. ___ married couple with ___ children often rent ___ cottage by ___ seaside for ___

summer holidays.


2. .
c. ___ men hire boats and go for ___ trip along ___ coast; ___ children spend ___ days



on ___ beach and ___ poor mothers spend ___ most of ___ time doing ___ cooking
and cleaning.
When ___ Titanic was crossing ___ Atlantic she struck an iceberg which tore a huge
hole in her bow. ___ captain ordered ___ crew to help ___ passengers into ___ boats.
Everywhere ___ man has cut down ___ forests in order to cultivate ___ ground, or to
use ___ wood as ___ fuel or as ___ building material.
But ____ interference with ___ nature often brings ____ disaster. ___ tree-felling
sometimes turns ___ fertile land into a dustbowl.
___ people think that ___ lead is ___ heaviest metal, but ___ gold is heavier.
You can fool some of ___ people all ___ time, and all ___ people some of ___ time;
but you cannot fool all ___ people all ___ time.
Why are you standing here with ___ hands in ___ pockets?
At most meetings ___ people vote by raising ___ right hands.
The bullet struck him in ___ foot.
Someone threw ___ egg which struck the speaker on ___ shoulder.
He was ___ very tall man with ___ dark hair and ___ small beard, but I couldnt see
___ eyes because he was wearing ___ dark glasses.
She pulled him by ___ sleeve to attract his attention.
He is ___ thoroughly selfish man; he wouldnt lift ___ finger to help anyone.
We have a very good train service from here to ___ city centre and most people go to
___ work by train. You can go by ___ bus too, of course, but you cant get a season
ticket on ___ bus.
Id like to see ___ Mr Smith please. Do you mean ___ Mr Smith who works in
___ box office or ___ other Mr Smith?

.1.1.8.e. , .


Jane, has anyone ever told you that youve got some lovely fingers?
Im very interested in the history, especially the history of Western Europe.
What a lovely weather were having! Its such a nice day!
Were trying to sell our house. People came to see it on Saturday, and they were
quite interested, but some people who saw it on Sunday morning were very rude and
said they didnt like it at all.
Did you remember to buy a bread while you were out at some shops?
Crossing the English Channel can be quite unpleasant in the bad weather.
People who live on the floor above ours work in a government ministry.
Whats the government going to do about the unemployment?

.1.1.8.f. 10 the , 10 . .

2. .

He lived in United States for ten years.

John has cut the leg and needs the stitches.
The camera I bought yesterday doesnt work.
William Wordsworth is famous for his poems about nature.
It was first time I had crossed equator.
This is only one left but you can have it.
Frank does a lot of work for the disabled.
I will be visiting the Netherlands next month.
Society doesnt care enough for old people.
This is the same film I saw last week.
The worst thing was not knowing exactly what had happened.
Harder we work, more money we make.
Smiths are coming round to dinner tonight.
The aeroplane is one of the greatest inventions of the twentieth century.
Its very disappointing news but thats the life.
Eating the chocolate always gives me pimples on my face.
What is on radio this afternoon?
John plays the football very well.
The furniture was sold at auction.
He was sent to prison for life.

*.1.1.8.g. , .
a. What ___ strange feeling it was to be going home when it was not home, and to find





that every object I looked at reminded me of ___ happy old home which was like
___ dream I could never dream again.
___ one thing that really interested him in connection with his parents was ___
existence somewhere in ___ east in ___ small city called Lycurgus of ___ uncle,
___ brother of his fathers.
But ___ bed I made up for myself was sufficiently uncomfortable to give me ___
wakeful night, and I thought ___ good deal of what ___ unlucky Dutchman had told
___ English of ___ 14th century differs from ___ Modern English.
___ walls, down which ran ___ number and variety of ___ pipes and cables, were
painted in two contrasting of green - dark up to ___ height of five foot, lighter above
___ London train was on ___ point of ___ departure. It was yet ___ early morning,
___ hour of ___ milkmen and ___ postmen. ___ station had ___ chill, unused,
deserted look; ___ passengers were few.

2. .
g. And now he was in ___ large bedroom overlooking ___ Thames, ___ chamber with

___ writing table, ___ sofa, ___ telephone, ____ electric bells and ___ massive oak
door with ___ lock and ___ key in ___ lock.
h. ___ sun comes up from ___ East and goes down to ___ West.
i. Mr Skimpole could play ___ piano and ___ violoncello; and he was ___ composer,
had composed half ___ opera once, and played what he composed with ___ taste.
After ___ tea we had quite ___ little concert, in which Richard and Mr Jarndyce and
I were ___ audience.
*.1.1.8.h. , .
Lovesick teenager snatched from cliff.
____(1) lovesick teenager, threatening to jump seventy feet from ____(2) cliffs at
____(3) seaside resort, was saved by ____(4) human chain of ____(5) policemen today.
____(6) eighteen-year old had driven from his home in ____(7) Lake District to
Langhorn, near ___(8) Bouremouth, to talk his girlfriend out of breaking off their threemonth romance.
He threatened to jump off ____(9) balcony at her house, but when she dialled ____(10)
999 he dashed to ___(11) edge of ____(12) cliffs below ____(13) Metropole Hotel.
____(14) police found him sitting on ____(15) edge. They chatted to him for twenty
minutes in ____(16) darkness, then clung together and grabbed him.
He was later released after _____(17) treatment by ____(18) hospital doctor.
____(19) police spokesman said, There was ____(20) high wind, it was pitch dark at
about 2 a.m., and ___(21) grass on ____(22) cliff top was wet and slippery. It was
____(23) brave rescue.
It was ____(24) case of ____(25) unrequited love. The youngster was upset after his
romance broke up, but he has now recovered his senses.
You can't teach managers.
___(1) Harvard Business School is ___(2) ark of the tabernacle in ___(3) management
education. ___(4) many schools more or less ape the HBS, especially its case study
method of ___(5) instruction - though mulling over ___(6) out -of-date business
anecdotes is about as helpful in ___(7) actual management as waging war by tramping
over ___(8) old battlefields. ____(9) specific management element in these mindbending studies is hard to isolate. Although ___(10) managers should be numerate (and
many are not), they dont require ___(11) skills in ___(12) higher algebra; and ___(13)
many great businesses have been created by ___(14) men who all but count on their
___(15) fingers. ___(16) story tells of ___(17) two schoolboy friends, one brilliant at
___(18) maths, one innumerate to the point of idiocy, who meet much later when
___(19) first is ___(20) professor and ___(21) second ___(22) multi-millionaire. Unable

2. .

to control his ___(23) curiosity, ___(24) professor asks ___(25) figure-blind dunderhead
how he managed to amass his fortune. Its simple, replies ___(26) Midas. I buy
___(27) things at $1 and sell them for $2, and from that 1% difference make ___(28)
For most of ___(1) past two and ___(2) half million years ___(3) human beings left
their garbage where it fell. Oh, they sometimes tidied up their sleeping and activity
areas, but that was about all. This disposal scheme functioned adequately, because
___(4) hunters and ___(5) gatherers frequently abandoned their campgrounds to follow
___(6) game or find new stands of plants. ___(7) man faced his first garbage crisis
when he become ___(8) sedentary animal - when, rather than move himself, he chose to
move his garbage.
___(1) West Germany funds ___(2) large share of its social welfare outlays, as it did in
Bismarcks time, through ___(3) regressive payroll taxes. Like ___(4) Sweden, it uses
___(5) tax incentives to lower certain burdens on ___(6) wealthy. ___(7) capital gains
on ___(8) stocks and bonds, subject to ___(9) tax of up to 33 percent in ___(10) United
States, are exempt in ___(11) West Germany - as well as ___(12) Netherlands, ___(13)
Belgium, and ___(14) Japan. (But ___(15) United States, virtually alone among ___(16)
Western nations, leaves gains from ___(17) sale of ones home, in most cases,
untouched.) In ___(18) France, one of ___(19) most heavily taxed nations in ___(20)
Europe, ___(21) successive governments after ___(22) World War II clung to ___(23)
tradition of ___(24) indirect taxation. ___(25) France adopted ___(26) value added tax
(VAT), ___(27) consumption tax on goods and services, in 1954.
There are ___(1) several sources of ___ (2) funds. One source is ____ (3) commercial
bank such as ___ (4) Citibank, Chase, Chemical and ___ (5) others. Any money you
get from such ___ (6) source would be borrowed and only on ___ (7) short-term basis
___ (8) bank would become ___ (9) creditor of yours, not ___ (10) owner. Another
possibility is ___ (11) venture capital firm, whose sole purpose is to invest in ___ (12)
young, promising companies. To secure ___ (13) funds from such ___(14) firm, you
would have to prepare ___ (15) convincing business plan for ___ (16) expected
operation, showing ___ (17) return you expect on ___ (18) investment and how you
intend to make it. Among ___ (19) other requirements, ___ (20) venture capital firm
will expect you to incorporate. What does ___ (21) venture capitalist get out of ___
(22) investing in your company? ___ (23) sizable percentage of ____ (24) ownership.
___(25) third source of ___(26) funds is ___(27) investment banker, who can help you
raise ___(28) money through ___(29) sale of ____(30) securities, only if ___(31)
company is incorporated.


2. .

1.2. .
1.2.1. .
-s : car - cars, book - books.
- , -s, -sh, -ch, -x,
-es: bus - buses, dish - dishes, match - matches, box - boxes.
- , -o ,
-es : tomato - tomatoes, potato - potatoes, hero - heroes.
: photo - photos, piano - pianos.
- -y ,
-ies: baby - babies, family - families. -y
, -s: holiday - holidays,
key - keys.
- , f, f
v+(e)s: shelf - shelves, knife = knives.
.1.2.1.a. :
child, person, woman, tooth, wolf, sheep, mouse, foot, leaf, half.
boy, lady, day, potato, party, watch, glass, city, church, address, sandwich, key, video,
- . , class, team,
police, committee, audience, family, .. ,
, .
That class has its final test on Friday.
The class are working on their individual projects today.

2. .

- C,
. -s: species, series, means: That
species is rare. Those species are common.
-s: sheep, deer, fish. That deer is young.
Those deer are old.
.1.2.2.a. is
are . .

Several unusual species of birds _____ found in this area.

When a young deer ______ motionless, its coloring will hide it well.
The committee ______ ready to make its recommendations public.
Both apparatus ______ available for your use.
The family ______ fighting among themselves constantly.
The fish in the aquarium ______ waiting for their daily feeding.
All sheep ______ dipped in the spring to kill the parasites.
The press ______ requested to show their credentials to the guard.

1.2.3. , .
- : mathematics, physics, economics, statistics, ethics,
- : measles, mumps, herpes;
- : news, politics.
, ?
1.2.4. , , ,
, , , ,
Two weeks is enough time for a nice vacation.
Five hundred roubles is required as an entrance fee.
Twenty gallons of gasoline costs a lot of money.
, , , ,
The New York Times is a good newspaper.
Star Wars was a good movie.

2. .


News of the peace talks has not yet reached the island.
Politics usually attract ambitious individuals.
There were extra copies of the New York Times in all the offices.
Two weeks are ample time for a camping trip to the state park.
Two thousand dollars is a lot for him to pay for tutorial.
Jaws, a movie about sharks, was seen by a record number of people.
Both mathematics and physics are interesting.
Thermodynamics are beyond me.

1.2.5. .

. :
meat, tea, butter, bread, juice, weather, accommodation, advice, permission, behaviour,
chaos, damage, furniture, luggage, baggage, news, knowledge, scenery, traffic, work,
luck, research, progress, information, .
.1.2.5.a. , .
: There arent many jobs for school leavers.
There isnt much employment for school leavers.
a. He couldnt give me much information. (details)
b. When I moved into my flat, I had very few chairs or tables or anything. (furniture)
c. There arent many flats to rent in this town. (accommodation)
d. I havent got many bags. Theyre in the boot. (luggage)
e. I had a little time to spare, so I browsed round a bookshop. (minutes)
f. Very little research has been done to find out the cause. (experiments)
g. Its very quiet in my area. There arent many cars or lorries. (traffic)
1.2.6. .
(trousers, jeans, shorts, pyjamas, tights) ,
(scissors, tweezers) .
pair of (jeans).
, (several, many, both, few, a few),
, :

2. .

Only a few have passed the exam.

a number of , the
number of .
, .





-ix / -ex


basis, crisis, hypothesis,
thesis, axis
criterion, phenomenon
radius, alumnus, nucleus,
formula, vita
datum, medium, bacterium
index, appendix

.1.2.7.a. .
**.1.2.7.b. to be.

Alumni of the university ______ invited to the graduation ceremony.

These bacteria _______being studied by university scientists.
The criteria for promotion ________ clearly stated.
The appendices ________ usually found at the back of a book.
Supernatural phenomena ______ of great interest to many people.
The hypothesis _______ supported by the data.

**.1.2.7.c. .
a. This phenomena / phenomenon follows the Newton Law.
b. Data / datum speak in favour of this theory.
c. This hydrolysis / hydrolyses is taken to follow the above scheme.

2. .
d. Conclusive proof for the dioxane structure of IV was acquired through an

independent synthesis / syntheses.

This thesis / theses holds for more general cases of isomerisation.
The free proton resembles an- particle in that it consists of a nuclei / nucleus
without planetary electrons.
As long as the barrier to internal rotation is not too low, the molecule will remain in
one of these minimum / minima.
The motion of a valency electron in its orbital is equivalent to the flow of a current in
the loci / locus of its motion.
The equation will now be derived on a statistical basis / bases.
We still have a long way to go before we can claim to have solved the problem of
sexuality in bacterium / bacteria.
The equilibrium constant was found to equal 0.232 and the data to fit more
accurately into a formulae / formula.
This value may be subject to refinement when analysis / analyses are complete.
These workers have examined the spectra / spectrum of some seventy nitrides.

. ,
, - .
, ,
-s, .






a. Under the _________ of the contract, you are obliged to repay the loan within two




The car was a reasonable price, but wasnt in good _______ .
It has been an ______ to work with you. Ive been very proud of what weve
achieved together.
She has an _______ degree in geography.
I have a terrible ______ at the back of my neck.
He took great ______ to ensure his quests stay was pleasant.
After the accident, it took her a long time to come to _______ with the fact that she
would never dance again.
During his first _______ of office, the Prime Minister made many sensible decisions.
We need a person with relevant ________ to fill the post.
He wrote a book about his _______ whilst crossing Africa on foot.
The Vicar was a kind man, and did a lot of _______ during his life.
There is a wide range of electrical _______ on sale in our village shop.

2. .
g. The day return fare is only $12 a __________ of $8 on the full fare.



Mrs Higgins house was broken into the other day, and all her _______ were taken.
Officers dont live with ordinary soldiers. Their _______ are usually separate and
more luxurious.
Interest rates have risen to 8.25 per cent, a rise of a _______ of a per cent.
For some reason, he was ashamed of his working class background, and went to
great ______ to conceal the fact.
I can only swim one _______ of the swimming pool before I get tired.
Dont sit on the grass. The _______ is still very wet.
I trust John. I have good _______ for believing his version of events.
The storm caused a lot of ________ .
She was awarded four thousand pounds ________ in the libel case.
Two _______ were seen running away from the scene of the crime.
_________ has always been the time for rebellion.
1.3. .

a) , , the professors opinion, the managers
signature, readers conference;
b) , .
, :
an iron bridge -
light waves -
an institute building -
a particle model -
an exchange agreement -
war damage - , .

, , , ,
home market prices - ,
engine-driven generator - ,
permanent bar magnet - ,
a super high voltage transmission line - ,

2. .

a document-image-processing program - a program which processes images of

, ,
a five-pound note - ,
single circuit capacity - .
**.1.3.1. ,
belt elevator elevator belt
tube amplifier amplifier tube
spring balance balance spring
surface cooling cooling surface
maintenance equipment equipment maintenance
pressure gauge gauge pressure
tooth gear gear tooth
core transformer transformer core
ignition spark spark ignition
routine inspection inspection routine
heating furnace furnace heating
calorimeter test test calorimeter
pressure welding welding pressure
zone melting melting zone
application server - server application
call program program call
call library library call
array cell cell array
character identification - identification character
data group group data
library (sub)program - (sub)program library
bank credit credit bank
construction firm firm construction
consumption fund fund consumption
law firm firm law
business world world business
world market market world
quality standard standard quality
equipment safety safety equipment

2. .

sales discount discount sales

**.1.3.2. .
generation system analysts
gas turbine combined cycle
200-to-500 hours-per-year service range
mechanical design problem
liquid nitrogen temperature
lower melting point materials
large primary intermetallic compound particles
cubic centimeter plasma density
demonstration fusion power system
air quality standards emission regulations
super high-voltage supply transmission line
production engineering functional organizational chart
data processing equipment
battery-charging motor generators
automobile repair plant construction project
molten metal extraction technology
a four year degree course
fast growing peace market

**.1.3.3. .
a. a) section b) tissue c) cross
b. a) molecular b) spectrum c) emission
c. a) pulse b) electron c) energy
d) amplitude
d. a) strong b) coefficient c) absorption
e. - a)
term b) orbital c) stations d) long
e) research
f. a) term b) long
c) cooperation d) technical e) scientific
g. a) generator b) alternating
c) current
h. a) plant
b) power
c) water

2. .

a) station

b) gas

c) natural


a) action b) computers c)
a) collaboration b)
software c) group
a) worlds b) resources c) entire
d) fuel
a) price b) index

a) product b) national c) gross
5% a) quantity b) discount
c) 5 per cent
a) Stock b) Moscow c) Central
d) Exchange

**.1.3.4. .
: A device that scans bar codes is called a bar code scanner.
a. A unit that gives a visual display of information on a screen is called ..
b. A device that reads magnetic cards ..
c. A device that prints using a laser as the light source ..
d. A device that plots graphs ..
e. A unit that holds magnetic disks .
f. A device that prints using a jet of ink .
g. The rate of transmission of data ..
h. A package for making presentations using multimedia ..
i. A program which processes data in batches ..

An input device is ..
An optical character reader ..
A graphics stylus ..
A document sorter ..
A fibre optics transmission system
A sequence control register ..
A liquid crystal display ..
Network configuration information ..
A desktop document manager ..

2. .
j. A multimedia editing software package ..

2. .
- , .. ,
- , .. .
, ,
(newspaper, schoolboy, steamship, father-in-law, red-hot, to broadcast ..),



2.1. .


to answer
to class
to measure
to purchase

, :

to increase
to export
to import

, :

to clean
to empty
to free
, light , .

2. .

) , ;
) , ;
) , ,
(, ..)
1.Dream 2. Window 3. Seem 4. Live 5. Cigarette 6. House 7. Become 8. Eat 9. Can
10. Below 11. Laugh 12. Advice 13. Migrate 14. Passenger 15. Begin 16. Large 17.
Continue 18. Trip 19. Smoke 20. Warm 21. Air 22. Dress 23. Must 24. Long 25.


mittens warm the hands

the smoke rose to the ceiling
those dormitories house the men
her laugh hurt my ears
the will interests the lawyer
his cries fell on deaf ears
one can fell on the floor
the experiments require live organs
secretaries book appointments
her dreams came true

.2.1.3. ,

In the desert the need for water is of primary importance.

Out of darkness came a womans cry for help.
On a dark night dreams can seem larger than life.
A safe place for a will is in a bank deposit box.
Since few classrooms have clocks, instructors time exercises with a watch.
After a day on the slopes, skiers warm their feet by the fire.
An opossum mothers her young carefully during their first weeks.
At the last minute, a swift kick by one player tied the game.
For the engineering student recent studies are the most relevant .
Near the living room windows were stands for the houseplants.
When the weather turns warm, youngsters spring from their beds early.
When they are unable to reach an agreement, committee members table motion.
A countrys military might determines its international policies.
Although it takes more money, highway engineers bank sharp curves on all new
15. To ensure maximum growing time for young rosebushes, plant them in early
16. Unless you place a flat stone under one leg, the picnic table will rock.


2.2.1. .



1 depend
2 infer
3 accept
4 exist
5 correspond
6 prefer
7 occur
8 resist
9 appear
10 assist

- ment
1 conceal
2 move
3 agree
4 judge
5 advertise
6 encourage
7 require
8 measure
9 arrange
10 manage





11 accord
12 refer
13 perform
14 persist
1 press
2 expose
3 please
4 fail
5 erase
6 disclose

11 state
12 improve
13 develop
14 retire


.2.2.1.b. , .
1. The man was arrested because of his failure to pay income taxes.
2. The removal of his car was illegal.
3. His father is an art collector.
4. The paper he wrote shows his mastery of the subject.
5. We need your assistance before we can finish repairing this bicycle.
6. Eli Whitneys invention of the cotton gin brought about significant changes in
plantation life.
7. The departure of the airliner was delayed by stormy weather.
8. At the conclusion of the movie, please remain seated.
9. A group of volunteers will put up the party decorations tonight.
10.His proposal was approved by the head of the company.
.2.2.1.c. .
ment -al ( e
Verb: to aim, to arrive, to judge, to invest, to approve, to refuse, to announce, to
blame, to delay, to mistake, to rest, to survive, to develop, to propose, to trouble
.2.2.1.d. ion, -ment, -tion, -ance, -ssion, -age
, .
. :

Verb: explain, enjoy, pack, expect, achieve, use, avoid, require, admit, disappoint,
allow, excite
Noun: explanation
**.2.2.1.e. ,
, age, -tude, -ism.

A _____ in the hydraulic system was diagnosed. (leak)

In mathematics ________ is a one-to-one correspondence. (homeomorph-)
These systems are capable of performing ______ of different tasks. (multi-)
______ is a widespread phenomenon in animals and plants, determined by
differences in either genetic constitution, enviromental conditions, or both.
There has been a twenty per cent _____ in the steel industry in the past few years.
A decision of this _____ had to have national support. (magni-)
Dalton the physicist received lavish _____ in his formative years. (patron)
_____ is caused by the motion of atomic electrons, which, since they are charged,
constitute a current. ( diamagnet-)
Computers have a ______ capacity greater than the human memory. (store)

2.2.2. , ,
.2.2.2.a. 10 ,
. , .


Abstract noun.




Noun referring to people.


.2.2.2.b. .



2.2.3. .
.2.2.3.a. 15 .
, .
. 15
. .







.2.2.3.b. ian, -er, -ist ,

-y, -ics , .
, , ,
. , ,
. .






.2.2.3.. ness, -less, -ful
a) leaf
b) fear
c) power
d) doubt
e) wonder
f) white
g) kind
h) polite
i) nervous
j) pity
k) fruit
l) care
n) serious
o) respect
p) thought

.2.2.3.d. . .




to agree
to invent
to complain




silklike careless
The yearly cost of the insurance is $452.
1. Polyester is a __________ material.
2. Saturday was certainly an __________ day.
3. The car was badly damaged on the _________ road.
4. Sheila made some _________ mistakes on her income tax.
5. She liked silver and other _________ colours.
6. The _______ old man lived alone in his big house.
7. The piano is his favourite _________ instrument.
8. The seven-year-old boy still behaves in a ______ manner.
9. The __________ sky showed how near the hurricane was.
.2.2.3.f. -ly ,
. ,
. , -ly,
, .
worldly easily foolishly beautifully yearly
universally carelessly neighbourly cowardly shapely
seriously passively
nervously ghostly lovely friendly enjoyably gladly finally

, -ly

.2.2.3.g. , .
: We lost the match because we didnt play very good.
Ann has been working very hard recently. - .

- ,


Give my best wishes to your parents. I hope they are well.

The children behaved themselves very good.
I tried hardly to remember his name but I couldnt.
The companys financial situation is not well at present.
Dont walk so fast! Cant you walk more slowly?
These instruments are well suited for such measurements.
Amperometric titrations are almost carried out by making a few measurements
good before the equivalence point and a few more good after the equivalence

.2.2.3.h. ,

a) Whats the right time? b) Right you are! c) He turned right round. d) Is
the answer right or wrong?
a) Its high time to go. b) The cost of living reached a new high level last
month. c) If you dont fly high you wont achieve your targets.
early a) He is an early riser. b) Its better to be too early than too late. c) The early
bird gets the worm. d) Come as early as possible.
easy a) The article is easy to translate. b) Many people would like to live in easy
circumstances, but a few can. c) Take it easy!
a) My watch is five minute fast. b) Dont speak so fast! c) Her tears fell fast.
d) Jack is a very fast runner.
deep a) The lake was ten meters deep in its middle. b) He walked fast with his
hands deep in his pockets. c) Its a deep secret. d) Still waters run deep
(). e) He went on studying deep into the night.
a) She found it hard to make up her mind. b) Its hard for foreigners to
master English spelling. c) Regular physical exercises soon made the boys
hard. d) Students are sure that examiners are hard hearted people. e) He
tried hard to succeed. f) The widow was hard hit by her loss.
long a) Dont be too long about it, do it quickly. b) Stay as long as you like. c)
He wasnt long in making up his mind.
a) Dont be late for classes! b) The train was ten minutes late. c) Post
graduate students often keep late hours carrying out their experiments or
calculations. d) Better late than never.
a) This meat is half-cooked. b) Some students are half-dead having passed
the last exam.
quick a) If you havent enough time to eat, have a quick meal! b) Lets analyze the
projects and find a quick way to solve our problems. c) Cant you run quicker?
d) I dont know any get-rich-quick methods.


a) That clock is five minutes slow. b) We had to buy tickets for slow train
because we failed to book ones for an express train. c) How slow the time
passes! d) You ought to go slow until you feel really well again.
well a) Does this blouse go well with that skirt? b) Alls well that ends well. c)
These people are very well off.
2.2.4. .
.2.2.4.a. ,
black politic false tight character
wide normal empathy

sharp sympathy

loose local



**.2.2.4.b. ,
a. Dont ______ on things which will hardly save you any money. (economy)
b. With the aid of a screwdriver, _____ the two screws at each end. (loose)
c. The final division of Germany was _______ by the completion of the Berlin Wall.
d. This mathematical function is used to ______ the wave functions of elemantary
particles. (specific)
e. It is a systematic attempt to ______ our competitive ability. (strength)
f. I ______ with the philosophy students. (social)
g. The only way we are going to compete with the West is to ______ .(industry)
h. The subject is immensely complex, and hard to _____ . (simple)
i. The chalcopyrite structure compounds can _____ either in the ordered or
disordered states. (crystal)
j. 71 % of emploees are _____ in Belgium. (union)
2.3. , .
.2.3.1. (word families),
. , ,
. (
, ).

10 repeat




.2.3.2. .




to photograph
to invent


to analyse

Lonely Summary
1.The orientation session about hospitals was instructive. (-ive)


On the application, please include your name and _______________ . (-ity)

Weather in Austin, Texas is very ______________ . (-able)
Could you please _________________ (-ize) this information in your report?
Since his mother died, he has been overwhelmed by ________________ . (-ness)

.2.3.4. ,
. .
1. Useful (A) prizes will be awarded to students writing the most imagination (B)

2. Those who answer the questions successfully (A) will be moved into a more
rapidly (B) class.
3. Courses in comparison (A) linguistics are frequently (B) offered at the university.
4. After several years of unhappiness (A) the couple finally separation (B).
5. The firemens decision (A) action averted total destruction (B) of the building.
6. The family reported the mystery (A) disappearance (B) of their child to the police
7. All poisonous (A) wastes from the chemicals (B) plant were disposed of safety.
8. The builders (A) last house is a repetitive (B) of his first one.
9. The agriculture (A) development (B) of a country is a good measure of its
10. Fortunately (A), the mayor has comparative (B) few friends in the business
11. The author of this book is also a well-respected (A) lecture (B).
12. The troupe gave satisfactorily (A) performances of some classic (B) plays.
.2.3.5. .
a. Shakespeare ______________ in 1616.
b. Her fathers _______________ came as a great surprise. He was only 45.
c. Those flowers are __________ . Throw them away.
d. Every winter many birds ____________ in cold weather.
e. A Is Henry Jones still alive?
B Im sure hes ____________ . Didnt he _____________ about three years ago?
married get married
got married
f. A Are you ____________ ?
B No, Im single.
g. A Whatever happened to Ann?
B She _________ a man she met on holiday.


Im never going to ___________ again. I prefer being on my own.

How many times have you been ____________ ?
Darling, I love you. Will you ________________ me ?
We had a lovely wedding. We __________ in a small country church, and had the
reception in the local hotel.
l. Did you hear ? James and Henrietta ______________ last week.
.2.3.6. .
Economic, economical, economics, economist, economize, economy.
Business, on business, business address, business hours, business-like, businessman, get down to business, mind ones own business, mean business, send sbd
about his business, go into business.
a. If we want a holiday this year well have to __________________ . Were
spending too much.
b. Every country has its own _______________ problems.
c. Shes an _________________ lecturer at Glasgow University.
d. The most ___________ way of heating your house is by using solar energy.
e. The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the minister responsible for the _____ .
f. Naturally he has many professional _________________ to advise him.
g. The world ________________ situation gets more and more complicated.
h. It is usually more ________ to shop in a supermarket than in a small shop.
i. He presented himself very well at the interview. He was very professional and
_____________ .
j. Would you like a cup of coffee or shall we _____________ straight away?
k. A How much do you earn a year, Dad?
B Thats nothing to do with you. ______________________ .
l. Peters thinking of _______ the textile business when he leaves university.
m. I have to go abroad ________________ for at least two months a year.
n. In a hotel, it is a receptionists _________ to help clients and tell them which room
they are in.
**.2.3.7. ,
. , .

electron, electronic, electronics, electronically

An ________ pen is one example of an input device.
A computer solves problems _______ .
Many _________ students go on to work as engineers.
technology, technological, technologically, technologist
The computer is the greatest ________ invention of the twentieth century.



There are two ______ involved in a clipboard PC.

Todays computers are ______ far superior to those used a few years ago.
identify, identifying, identifiable, identity
The clipboards pattern recognition software immediately _____ the letters and
numbers written by the stylus.
Most computer companies will not allow people without an ______ card to enter
their promises.
A password is a mechanism for ______ the computer-user and allowing access.
compute, computing, computation, computerize, computerization
The ________ of the manufacturing division will be expensive in the short term,
but cost-effective in the long term.
We should be able to _______ our profit for next year fairly accurately with the
new program.
I could tell from all the _____ on the board that a maths lesson was in progress.
consider, considered, consideration, considerable, considerably
Well have to ______ using another company if they cant provide the software
we need.
The company has invited a _____ sum of money in ergonomic workstations.
The CEO has submitted this proposal for your ______ .
This computer is ______ faster than the old one.
apply, applying, application, applicant, applicable
We have interviewed five _____ for the new position.
The last part of the form is not _____ to foreign students.
My student is thinking of _____ for a government grant to continue his research.
The new book uses business ______ to teach computer studies.
explain, explained, explaining, explanation, explanatory
The package includes an _____ booklet.
The instructions are very clear and do not require any further _____ .
It will only take a couple of minutes to _____ how the program works.
If you are new to this system, almost everything will have to be _____ .
depend, depending, dependent, dependence, dependable, dependably
The company has supplied us _____ for over ten years.
We have to reduce our _____ on imported goods.
This is very _____ equipment, we have never had a serious breakdown.
Today, many companies ______ more on FAXes than on mail.
connect, connected, connecting, connector, connectivity, connection
_____ is an important concept in global communication.
He only got that contract because he has _____ in the government.
Make sure the _____ is not loose before you call a service technician.
Once the new telephone lines are _____ , our system should be more efficient.
create, created, creating, creation, creativity

a. The ______ of this database will give us a huge advantage over our competitors in

the long run.

The procedure for ______ a new file is very simple.
The new position we are advertising is going to require someone with enormous
______ .
generate, generated, generative, generation
Exercises can be quickly _____ using this program.
Our company is working on a new ______ of software products.
This development is sure to _____ great interest.
access, accessed, accessible, accessibility
All user requests to ____ a database are handled by the database management
_____ to the computer room is restricted to authorized personnel.
Those files are not _____ unless you know the password.
analyse, analysed, analysis, analyst
When a text is ______ , all pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, and verb forms
are automatically identified.
This _____ shows that most PC users are not aware of the full potential of the
software products they buy.
The DBMS first receives the request and _____ it for syntax errors.
correct, correctly, correction, corrective, correctness
If an error occurs, it is important to take ______ action immediately.
The spell check facility checks the _____ of your spelling.
The data were entered _______ , so the result must be accurate.
detect, detection, detectable, detective
There were ______ traces of radiation in the water sample.
The analyst could not _____ any errors in the system.
She tried to escape _____ by disguising herself.
sense, sensor, sensation, sensitive
An infrared ______ detects the presence of intruders in the building.
The probe is _____ to heat and light.
The new system caused a _____ when it was launched last month.

2.3. .

: ,

Time and Position

ad-, ac-, an-, ag-, af-, ap-, atab(s)anteapocatacircumcom-, con-, col-, cordediaen-, emex-, ec-, ef-, esextrain-, il-, im-, irinter-,
intro-, intraob-, opperipostpreprore-, retrotrans-

to, toward
before, in front of
away from, off
together with
away from, down
across, between


admit, accurate

Quality and Condition

anticontradisheterhomohypermalmispseod(o)Number and Amount
bindi-, dudemi-, semi- hemimon(o)multi-, politri-

in opposition to
opposed to




.2.4.1. , ,


a. worker in the same occupation

b. actively in opposition to
c. showing ill will
d. a choice between equally unacceptable alternatives
e. a long speech by one person
f. refusing to live within the established norms of
g. affecting both sides mutually

.2.4.2. , .
1. uni
a. versity
2. com
b. logy
3. super
c. media
4. sym
d. sphere
5. hemi
e. abundant
6. multi
f. metrical
7. tri
g. passion
**.2.4.3. :


Most people prefer a colour screen to a ____ chrome screen.
A _____ byte equals approximately one million bytes.
Once you finish your program, you will have to test it and ____ bug it to remote
all the mistakes.
The introduction of ____ conductor technology revolutionizes the computer
If a computer system has two or more central processors which are under
common control, it is called a _____ processor system.
The _____ imal system is a number system with a base of 10.
When the user and the computer are in active communication on a graphics
system, we refer to this as _____ active graphics.
All you have to do is to move the ____ imal point one digit to the left.
Large books and even sets of books can be put on a single _____ chip.
____ meter measures small length with great accuracy.
A ____ circle is one half of a circle.
Hydrogen was ____ stituted by oxygen.
The theory was thought to hold for ____ molecular compounds.
____ organisms, which are abundant everywhere, are of immense importance to
all living things.
____ rail systems are expensive to install and are currently only used for special
Many of the Wests large _____ national companies have substantial operations in
the poor African countries.
The company now has 40% of the American _____- computer market.
Both monetary policy and fiscal policy can be used to ____ flate the economy.
The ____ polist can obtain a high profit by restricting supply and demanding a
high price.
A ____ pression is characterized by low profits, investment and high

2.5. .

( ). :
attractive - unattractive ; advantage - disadvantage ; polite - impolite ; correct incorrect ; understand - misunderstand.
.2.5.1. in-, im- un-





.2.5.2. , ,
inunimdis___frequently, ___loyal, ___comfort, ___specific, ___real, ___probably,
___available, ___assemble, ___suitable, ___proper, ___fit, ___occupied, ___order,

honest ferrous legal to connect to pronounce to arrange regular
.2.5.4. , ,
maturity negotiable certified necessary
applicable employed manage stability effective informed active
expensive profitable


.2.5.5. ,
, :
to believe
to pack
to like
to appear
to approve
to lock
to connect
**.2.5.6. ,
, .

a. Floppy disks are inexpensive and reusable.

b. If a printer malfunctions, you should check the interface cable.
c. The multiplexor was not working because someone had disconnected it by

Improper installation of the antiglare shield will make it impossible to read what is
on the screen.
After you transfer text using the out and paste feature, you may have to reformat
the text you have inserted.
You can maximize your chances of finding a job if you are bilingual or even
Peripheral devices can be either input devices (such as keyboards) or output
devices (such as printers).
Your pay rise is retroactive to the beginning of June and you will receive a
biannual bonus.
The octal and hexadecimal systems are number systems used as a form of
shorthand in reading groups of four binary digits.

2.6. , .

, .

Latin Roots
act ,ag, ig
go, do, move
activate, agitate, navigate
anni, annu, enni
anniversary, annuity
aqua, aque
aquatic, aqueduct
arm, weapon
army, alarm
art, craft, skill
artificial, article
good, well
capit, capt
head, chief
capital, captain
ced(e), ceed, cess go, yield, surrender
proceed, success
clam, claim
cry out, declare

duc(t), duce
fort, forc
grad, gress
junct, join
luc, lumin
miss, mit(t)
mob, mot, mov
pend, pens
pon, pos(e)
vit, viv
Greek Roots
dog, dox
gram, graph

go, step, walk
middle, between
hang, weigh
put, place

conduct, reduce
gradual, progress
lucid, illuminate

ancient, chief
order, world, universe
teaching, opinion


phos, photo

world, speech, study
form, shape
rule, law
mind, spirit
art, skill


.2.6.1. .
1. immobilize
2. finite
3. fortify
4. commemorate
5. memorandum
6. pedestrian
7. revitalize
8. autonomous
9. dogmatic

a. controlled by a single teaching or doctrine

b. a person who is walking
c. having no specific or recognisable shape or
d. functioning independently
e. to prevent from moving
f. not nave; complex, as a piece of machinery
g. limited or bordered by time or any
h. to make stronger
i. a note or record of events written as a
j. to honour the memory of smth or someone
k. to put new life into

.2.6.2. /
1. bio

a. time

a. disport


ali, alter





.2.6.3. ,
One recent advance confirmed that Alzheimers disease is sometimes inherited.
a. made valid b. questioned c. diagnosed
d. made doubtful
Video compression is sending not a complete color portrait for each frame, but
rather a shorthand version that describes the difference between the current
frame and the previous one.
a. preceding
b. already seen c. viewed
d. following
The International Union of Biological Sciences met in Amsterdam to discuss
how many species there are, and how many there will be if the environment is
altered in various ways by man.
a. is changed
b. is polluted
c. is made worse
d. is affected
Almost half of U.S. newspaper editors say that dinosaurs and humans lived
b. for a short period of time
c. at the same time
d. destroying each other
Establishing an appropriate correspondence between time and the path position
parameter is an important condition in controlling the path of the robot arm.
a. approximate
b. proper
c. precise
d. the closest
It wasnt until language researchers began computer programs that the
importance of lexical ambiguity came to be understood.
a. having an emotional component b. having two or more possible meanings c.
having a pictorial component d. having an idiomatic character
The negative charge of an electron slightly distorts the lattice of the metal.
a. expands b. makes weaker
c. changes the usual form d. contracts

2.7. .
, .




imagine -ative
to form
to form
the opposite word the adjective

to form adjective
meaning without

.2.7.1. ,
: Artists are creative people. (create)
a. John is ___________________ hardworking. (extreme)
b. I did not like the food. I found it most _____________ .(pleasant)
c. She was arrested because she was driving _____________ .(care)
d. It was very ________________ of him not to help you.(kind)
e. My wife likes the colour blue, but I find it _____________ . (attract)
f. Hes a lucky man. Hes been _______ married for eight years. (happy)
g. I bought a new car because the old one was so __________ . (rely)
h. The dancer was superb. She gave a ____________ performance . (fault)
i. The passengers were frightened when the pilot flew _________ close to a
building. (danger)
2.8. .
.2.8.1. , ,
: Sorry. Eleven oclock is inconvenient time for me. (convenient)
a. It is more _______ to buy a big packet of cornflakes than a small one. (economy)
b. John Jameson is a famous _________ who stole five million pounds from a bank.
c. Im quite an _____ person. I play a lot of sport and go running every day. (energy)
d. ________ your own business can cause a lot of financial worries .(manage)
e. Churchill was not only a famous ________ but also a respected ________ .
(politics; history)
f. The surgeons tried to do their best to save his life, but unfortunately the operation
was _____________ . (success)
g. I understand _________________ what youre saying. (perfect)
h. Janes ________________ as director came as no surprise. (appoint)
i. A holiday in America can be _______________ cheap. (surprise)
j. The ________ of the Hollywood actor, Jimmy Halton, was announced last night.
k. My colleagues are very pleasant, but the manager is a little _________ . (friend)

l. I _____________ this morning, and was late for work. (sleep)

m. There have been great ____________ in medical care in the last twenty years.

n. _______________ is one of my favourite activities. (cook)
o. Some people have a great fear of ________________ by plane. (travel)
p. My car isnt very _____________. Its always letting me down. (rely)
q. I wrote ______________ letters of application, but got no reply. (end)
r. I apologize for my mistake made by my office. There appears to have been a slight
________ . (understand)
s. Burning coal is an __________________ way of heating a house. Gas is much
cheaper. (economy)
t. Ive just been told some ________________ news. (astonish)
u. In _________________ with most other countries, Britain has a very high rate of
heart attacks. (compare)
v. We have to keep our costs as small as possible. We have so many ____________
trying to take our customers away. (compete)
w. There are very few _____________ places left on earth. Man has been nearly
everywhere. (explore)
x. There is extreme _______________ in many Third World countries. (poor)
y. I recommend the _______________ of the house. Its delicious. (special)
z. He was dismissed for ___________ . He lost the order of a very important
customer. (care)
**.2.8.2. ,
a. A programmer designs, writes and tests programs for performing various tasks on

a computer.
A systems analyst studies organizational systems and decides what action needs to
be taken to maximize efficiency.
Laser printers are preferable to other types of printing devices because of their
speed and quietness.
The microcomputer we have purchased does not have a FORTRAN compiler. It is
programmable in BASIC only.
We decided to computerize the entire plant to give each division more
Spooling is a way of storing data temporary on disk or tape until it can be
processed by another part of the system.
Turning your office into a paperless environment may be expensive at the
beginning but can produce big savings in the long run.

h. Software developers are producing increasingly sophisticated applications for a

growing global market.

2.9. .
.2.9.1. .
, .
a. She sings lovely (A) and everybody (B) praises (C) her singing (D).
b. Interest in (A) automatic data processing has grown (B) rapid (C) since (D) the


first large calculators were introduced in 1950.

Ordinary (A) a tornado breaks up (B) suddenly and dissipates (C) less than four
hours after it has formed (D).
To the men who (A) worked so hard (B) on the project, the news was (C)
profound (D) disappointing.
This (A) is the mostly (B) beautiful girl I have seen (C) for a long time! (D)
Over (A) 50% of Ford Motor Companys (B) employers (C) and 45% of IBMs
(D) for instance, live outside of US.
The relative (A) rich countries that (B) belong to the Organization of Economic
Cooperation and Development comprise (C) 15 % of the world population but
enjoy (D) 75% of world output.
In order for one to achieve the desired results in this experiment, it is necessary
that he (A) work (B) as fastly (C) as (D) possible.
During (A) hibernation bears (B) lose (C) between fifteen and thirty percent of
their body weigh (D).

.2.9.2. .
a. As office manager of Commercial Manufacturing Corporation, Wayne Thomson is

responsible for _____________ twelve clerks and typists.

a) supervision b) supervisory c) supervising
b. The __________ rapid pace of technology transfer has led to a growing number of
firms possessing the same product or process technology.
a) increasingly b) increased c) increasing d) increase
b. Pollution is the presence in soil, water or air of substances ______________ to
health or to human beings or animals.
a) objective b) objectionable c) harmless d) harmful e) harming
b. The student must see that knowledge is _______________ to growth and change.
a) subjective b) subjected c) subject d) subjecting

b. Because money growth is a main determinant of inflation, a sharp expansion in a



countrys money supply, which tends to stimulate inflation, would cause its
currency to ___________ .
a) depreciate
b) appreciate
Conversely, monetary contraction would cause the currency to _______________ .
a) depreciate b) appreciate
The company dealing with tourism has hired some ______________ .
a) travel agents b) travelling agents
X-ray are able to pass through objects and thus make ______ details that are
otherwise impossible to observe.
a) it visible b) visibly c) visible d) they are visible
_____ of the state of a material, the molecules of this material are continuously
a) with regards to b) regarding c) regarded
d) regardless

.2.9.3. ,
, .
According to government research, more people are working
from home than ever before. (0) Consequently, there has been
an increase in (1) _____ among those people who no longer
have to travel to their place of (2) _____ . Office workers
spend their day (3) _____ by friends and colleagues, while
home-workers (4) _____ meet anyone face to face. The most
direct means of (5) ____ a home-worker has with the
world (6) _____ is the telephone. The tax and the internet are
two more (7) _____ links that can be used, although they
still rely on the written, rather than the (8) _____ word.
What a home-worker really wants is the (9) _____ of
a human voice, not the (10) ____ bleeps of a computer.

3. .
3.1. .


5 : (), ()
() ,
() .
.3.1.a. .
. . . . . .
1. I
2. _______ you(..) _______
3. _______ ________ his
4. she
________ _______
5. _______ ________ _______
6. we
________ _______
7. _______ ________ your(..) ________
8. _______ ________ _______
9. _______ one
3.1.1. .
- 2- ;
- : It was he at the door.
.3.1.1.a. ,

It was I whom called you last night.

It is true that I am taller than he.
It must have been he whom the police arrested.
If you were me would you lend him money?
My teacher thinks that I am more intelligent than him.

3.1.2. .
- ;
- ;
- .

.3.1.2.a. .

Our parents worry about my brother more than about ______ .

Mary asked us not to leave without ______ .
The doctor _______ he visited specialized in eye diseases.
If I see ________ tonight, I will tell him to call you.
No one likes that waitress because it takes _______ so long to bring the food.

.3.1.2.b. ,

The students whom live across the street make a lot of noise .
No one knows what happened except you, Flassy, and I.
It must have been he whom we saw at the movie.
This is a good picture of him.
I think that the teacher knows whom took these photographs.

3.1.3. .

( ) .
- ;
- to be , ;
- 2- , .
: It is her diskette. Yours is on the shelf.
Here is your CD, but where is mine?
I found an old resume of yours in this file.
Their PC can calculate derivatives faster than ours.
.3.1.3.a. .

He doesnt realize that ______ whistling annoys the class.

The person ______ car I just hit is going to be very angry.
Charlotte insisted the coat was ____ .
The queen greeted _____ subjects outside the palace.
I brought my car, but Phil refused to bring _____ .
The little boy dropped his ice-cream, so his mother gave him _____ .
I did _____ best on the homework.

h. Didnt you tell me that a friend of ____ is staying with you?

.3.1.3.b. ,

The student whom forgot his books is going to be unhappy tonight.

Her mother reminded her three times to do her homework.
Your cat is much larger than me.
The director has no idea whose car is blocking his.
If I can do my homework you should certainly be able to do yours.
George brought a friend of his to class yesterday.

3.1.4. .
- , ;
- by;
- , - : He used to talk to
.3.1.4.a. .
He knows it _________ .
I understand your interest for this work. Im so much interested in it _______ .
Jane is able to do it ________ .
Bring back the textbook. I need it ________ .
She has a habit of checking everything for ________ .
Boys, Im leaving. Finish the work by _________ .
Shell understand the situation _________ .
We shall do everything _______ .
Dont take any medicine. Your headache will pass by ________ .
Go there and youll see everything for _______ .
Hell get a ticket only for _______ .
John is making a mistake, I suppose. Later on hell be angry with _______ .
m. We prefer living by _______ .
n. The governor ________ will speak at the university.
o. That woman has put _______ in a difficult position.

3.1.5. .

.3.1.5.a. ,
a. The director will hire the person (who, whom) has the best credentials.
b. The first ones in line were Nancy, Jim and (he, him).
c. His shoes are much newer than (her, hers).
d. They offered their seats to you and (I, me).
e. It was (she, her) who asked the question.
f. No one was surprised at (him, his) winning the contest.
g. There should be no secrets between you and (he, him).
h. (Who, Whom) was it that asked that question?
i. Beverly is a good friend of (me, mine).
j. The picnic wont be any fun without you and (they, them)
k. I cant figure out (who, whom) is on the phone.
l. John did all the homework by (him, himself).
m. Everyone but (he, him) did well on the test.

, .
a. Jan Sibelius, a Finnish (A) composer (B), captured the spirit of him (C) country in

his music (D).

The injured (A) passengers on the airplane that (B) crashed found themself (C)
miles from the nearest (D) hospital.
Sequoya, whom English (A) name was (B) George Guess, invented (C) a syllabary
for the Cherokee (D) language.
Regarding (A) as the creator of the historical (B) novel, Sir Walter Scott captured
his (C) readers imagination with his (D) stirring tales.
At the age of (A) 26, William Shakspeare married (B) a woman who was eight
years older (C) than him (D).
The Queen of England she keeps (A) her (B) crown in the Tower of London where
(C) both tourists and English citizens can view it (D).
Faced with (A) the possibility of a water shortage during the summer month, the
city has asked it (B) citizens to limit (C) their use (D) of water.
As the population of Africa continues (A) to grow (B), animals will continue to
lose (C) theirs (D) native habitat.

3.2. .

1) , both - and ,
John, Mary and I are returning to our class.
Both John and Ann have passed their test.
each every,
Every man and woman is eligible to vote.
Each student and teacher has the textbook.
- body

some any no every



- one
no one

- thing


Everyone must do his homework.

He never puts anything back in its place.
Neither of these books is very new.
all, everybody,
.3.2.1. everybody all.
1. ____ are so happy today! . 2. _____ is so happy today! 3. _____ of them are bright
scientists. 4. ______ is present. 5. _____ of these research workers has his field of
research. 6. _____ the students have their holidays in July and August. 7. Where are
the children? _____ of them are outdoors. 8. ____ of them is so serious. 9. Where are
_____ the boys? 10. ______ is so busy at present.
.3.2.2. .
? .
Everybody, Somebody, Anybody and Nobody

This is a story about four people named Everybody, Somebody, Anybody, and
Nobody. There was an important job to be done and Everybody was asked to do it.
Everybody was sure Somebody would do it. Anybody could have done it, but
Nobody did it. Somebody got angry about that, because it was Everybodys job.
Everybody thought Anybody could do it but Nobody realised that Everybody
wouldnt do it. It ended up that Everybody blamed Somebody when Nobody did what
Anybody could have done.
.3.2.3. .
a. Anyone who wishes can bring ______ husband to the party.
b. You can tell from the blood on the bench that someone on the football team hurt

_____ .
c. Both the cat and the dog spend _____ days outside.
d. Everyone should sit quietly until _____ is asked to speak.
e. Anyone who turns in a paper late will have _____ grade lowered.
.3.2.4. ,

Everyone in the American literature class will receive their textbooks tomorrow.
Somebody put his cigarette out in the sink.
The queen and her daughter spend much of her free time on horseback.
My brother and I will spend my weekend at the lake.
It is surprising that no one turned in their paper on time.
Each fruit and vegetable were organically grown.
Every post-graduate want to pass the grammar test.
Everything in the house is for sale.
Everyone have to arrive at 8:30 in the morning.

3) either or, neither

nor, not only but also,

, :
Either the student or the teacher will give you his book.
Neither the professor nor the assistant-professors discuss their preparation for lectures
with students.
4) , group, team, family
, :
5) all of + noun ,
All of the money is in bank.

, :
All of the books have been thrown away.
6) several, many, both, few
7) both, neither, either
both books, neither student .. both of (neither of) the (these, those, my, Toms
) books ..
8) no
. No = not a not any:
I have no ticket = I havent a ticket.
I found no mistakes in your work. = I didnt find any mistakes in your work.
I have no time to study this approach. = I havent any time to study this approach.
- none,

, :
- Are there any defects in the sample?
- No, there are none.
.3.2.5. .
Neither the reporters nor the editor have received their paycheck.
Everyone have to use their identification number to activate the computer.
In the bus sit the musicians, each holding their instrument.
The boys new jeans is so old that they look like a rag.
Anyone who abuse their children should be punished for their actions.
No one are as ambitious as who want to be rich.
Both London and Paris is crowded in the summer because it is so famous.
The list of special courses are available at the front desk because they are requested
by so many students.
i. The hundred thousand dollars were found because the thief dropped them while

.3.2.6. .
. .
a. Each of the companies claims their products will outlast its competitors.
b. The recording equipment and their carrying case were never put back in their

proper place.
c. His family was shocked when James killed themselves.

d. That chain of discount stores will lose customers if it doesnt improve their service

The New York Times, renowned for their news coverage, recently increased its
Neither the students nor their teacher was happy with his test grades.
Just offstage stood the conductor and its assistants with their equipment.
The secretary put the letter back in her envelope and filed it.
Unlike his predecessor, the president feels it is in their countrys best interest to
reduce taxes.
Alaskas North Scope has found itself full of geologists and its seismic equipment.

3.3. . ,

3.3.1. ,
, ,
who, whom - ;
which - , ;
that, whose - .
.3.3.1.a. ,
. .
woman which
f. uncle which
musician whom
g. antelope whose
actress that
h. disaster whom
. silver who
i. arrival who
acrobat that
j. surgeon whom
k. The river which divides Texas and Mexico is the Rio Grande.
l. A friend recommended the doctor which is treating my son.
m. The beautician who does her hair is very good.
n. The senator which introduced the bill was defeated in the last election.
o. Tigers who live in Africa are endangered.
p. The artist whose works are on display is a native Texan.
q. The tape dispenser that Phyllis borrowed was mine.
r. The rain whom the crops needed never came.

s. The advantages of which he spoke are numerous.

3.3.2. .
, .
, ? ,
. ,
My wife and daughter are tall.
Who is tall?
This article and that story are very interesting.
What is interesting?
.3.3.2.a. who what .

Bob is an interpreter.
Bob is an interpreter.
Mrs Brown is a librarian.
George is a builder.

e. Its Novikov.
f. I have an Italian newspaper.
g. Lucy is a good journalist.
h. Mike is a bus-driver.



, ,
, . some
, any
, .
Some ( any) ,
, , ,
Would you like something to add?
Can I have some cold water?
Did someone just knock at the door?

.3.4.1. some, any

(something, somewhere, someone, anyone, anything).
a. A Did you buy _______ at the shops?



B No, I didnt have ______ money.

A Can I have ______ to eat, Mum? Im starving.
B Look at the fridge. I think theres _______ cheese.
A There isnt ______ in the fridge. Its completely empty.
A Did you meet _______ interesting at the party?
B Yes, I met _______ you know. Carlos, from Spain.
A I bought ______ meat and ______ grapes.
B Did you buy _______ cooking oil?
A I couldnt. They didnt have ______ .
A Have you got _____ scissors?
B Yes. They are _________ in the kitchen, but Im not sure exactly where.

.3.4.2. ,
some, any, no, every + one, body, thing, where.

Put the picture _________ .I dont mind where.

Does _______ want a game of tennis?
Whats the noise? Can you hear _______ screaming?
Im going to the shops. Do you want ______ ?
You look familiar. Havent I seen you ________ before?
She left the room without saying _______ .
Is there _______ quiet we can go to talk in private?
This doesnt look a very nice restaurant. Cant we go ______ else?
I must have asked fifteen people, but ________ knows the answer.
Midas was a king in Greek mythology. _______ he touched turned to gold.

.3.4.3. .
, .
any, anywhere, everywhere, somewhere, nothing, everyone / body, anyone /
body, someone / body, everyone / body, anything, no-one / body
Is ______ (1) here?, said Mrs Thomas to the students on the coach. Is _____(2)
missing? I think _____ (3) is missing , replied one student. Its Peter. Does
_____ (4) know where he is? asked Mrs Thomas. ______ (5) answered. Mrs
Thomas asked Mr Smith to go back into the museum to look for Peter. Ten minutes
later Mr Smith returned alone. I cant find him _____ (6), he said.

I looked _____ (7). Did Peter say ______ (8) to _______ (9)? said Mrs Thomas
to the students.
No, ______ (10) at all, muttered several students. _______(11) suggestions? said
Mrs Thomas.
I think ______ (12) should go and look for him. One of us is bound to find him ,
suggested another student. He must be ______ (13) But where? said Mrs
Thomas. He could be _____(14).
So _______ (15) got off the coach, went back to the museum and spread out to
search for Peter. After a few minutes _____ (16) found him, still engrossed by the
museum fascinating exhibits.
3.5. this, that (these, those) another,
this, that
these, those, another
. other
the others - , .
.3.5.1. (the) other, another,
(the) others.

I lost my watch, my pen and some _____ things.

The village is on ______ side of the river.
You are wet through. Change into ______ clothes.
I must put on ______ coat before going to the party.
Have you any ______ books on the subject? I am sorry, but there are no
______ .
Take this chair away and bring me ______ .
Give me _____ glove.
Is there _____ train to Kiev this evening? Yes, there is one that leaves at
midnight and there are two ______ that leave early in the morning.
He took two books and left _____ on the table.
I saw Michael just _____ day in Hyde Park.
Heather goes to her cottage in the country every _____ weekend.

3.6. much, many, little few.

: many: Do you study many plant much: I havent much work to do today.
: few: He has few friends.
little: I have very little time.
Much many
. much many
, very, rather, too, so, as,
how :
There are too many pages in this article.
Many people attended the meeting.
lot (of), lots, plenty (of) :
We have plenty of time.
Russia exports a great deal of timber.
A little , a few - , :
Please give me a little water.
We have a few experimental results.
The little , the few ,
Gold is one of the few metals which are found in a virgin state.
.3.6.1. , few, a few, little, a little.
a. Help yourself to a biscuit. There are one or two left in the tin.
b. My days are so busy that I dont have much time for relaxation.
c. Shes exceptionally generous. Hardly anyone gives more money to charity than

she does.
Theres a tiny bit of butter left, but not much.
He keeps trying, although he doesnt have much chance of success.
Im afraid you need three or four fillings, said the dentist.
He must have made a hundred clocks in his life, but only one or two of them ever
worked properly.
She wasnt very hungry. She just had one or two spoonfuls of soup.
3.7. .

.3.7.1. .
, .
a. The local soccer team has a season record that will put them in the final

b. Mary reads just as well as him.
c. Do you actually believe it is they who sent the letter?
d. The children were extremely boisterous, which annoyed their teacher.
e. When a person decides to move from the city to a farm, they should be prepared to
make some mistakes.
f. You will never be able to convince him or her.
g. Him that speaks before he thinks will get himself in trouble.
h. The last owner of this house obviously didnt enjoy working outdoors because
they neglected the lawn.
i. The coach appreciated them giving him a new jacket.
j. The crowd was so large that it took us a long time to get through them.
k. One or the other of these people must give up their turn to speak.
l. The engineers studied the data carefully, but it didnt seem correct.
m. I forgot my books, which will force me to return home to get them.
n. There is some disagreement among they who were at the meeting.
o. The teacher made all these improvements themselves.
p. She is very sad which makes me sad, too.
q. You cannot please both George and me.
r. Did you know it was him who started the fire in the wastebasket.
**.3.7.2. , .
I. Chinese people have made the most successful study of earthquakes because China
has had the worlds worst earthquakes. Two times in (1) _____ history, in 1556 and in
1976, more than half a million people lost (2) _____ lives in earthquakes. In the
winter of 1974-1975 there were readable signs twice. Almost (3) _____ the people
left the cities, but the earthquake did not happen. Two months later the experts again
warned the people. (4) _____ were unwilling to leave (5) _____ homes. (6) ______
thought (7) ______ was (8) ________ false alarm. However the police evacuated the
dangerous areas. This time a severe earthquake did happen. Thousands of lives were
a) it; b) their; c) its; d) all; e) some; f) another.
To know (9) _____ is going on in the world is (10) _____ persons right today, but it
was once the luxury of (11) _____ leaders. Even so, the knowledge of events was

slow in getting to the privileged class. Today, a world wide system of communication
makes news available quickly to nearly (12) ____ (13) _____ can read, to (14) _____
person (15) ______ has a radio, to (16) _____ (17) _____ can watch TV.
g) who; h) every; i) everybody; j) what; k) which; l) a few; m) little.
II. (1)____ years ago mathematicians (2) ____ over the world observed the 100th
anniversary of the first proof of the prime number theorem. (3) ____ famous theorem
tells (4)____ what proportion of the positive integers are prime numbers. The
emergence of number theory as a by-product of numerology is analogous to that of
(5)____ great science, astronomy, (6)____ owes (7)____ origins to a pseudoscience,
astrology. Numbers that arent prime are composite, except that the number 1 is
(8)____ prime ____ composite. This theorem has grown into a vast and beautiful
branch of mathematics that for centuries has attracted the attention of (9)____
amateur ____ professional mathematicians.
a) this; b) another; c) neither nor; d) which; e) some; f) both and; g) all;
h) its; i) us.
3.8. .
.3.8.1. (
, ).
a. Im going to a wedding on Saturday. ______ is getting married.


A a friend of me
B a friend of mine
C one my friends
What time shall we ______ this evening?
A meet
B meet us
C meet ourselves
They live on a busy road. ___________ a lot of noise from the traffic.
A it must be B there must be
C there must have
D it must have
Hes lazy. He never does ________ work.
A some
B any
C no
What would you like to eat? I dont mind ________ - whatever you have
A something
B anything
C nothing
We couldnt buy anything because ________ of the shops were open.
A all
B no one
C none
D nothing
When we were on holiday, we spent __________ money.
A a lot of
B much
C too much
__________ dont visit this part of the town.
A the most tourists
B most of tourists
C most tourists
I asked two people the way to the station but _______ of them knew .
A none
B either
C both
D neither
It was a great party. ________ enjoyed it.

A everybody
B all
C all of us
D everybody of us
k. The bus service is very good. Theres a bus ________ ten minutes.
A each
B every
C all
l. A black box is a device _______ internal workings are immaterial and
__________ behavior can be examined only at its input and output terminals.
A that
B those
C which
D whose
a. That tree looks terrible! The man cut off all ________ branches yesterday.
A it
B itself
C its
D their

a. The more (A) profits US corporations earn in another (B) countries, the less (C)


they need to care (D) about infrastructure and education in their country.
Any (A) material that (B) carries an (C) electric current even a straight wire exhibit (D) all the characteristics of the passive circuit elements: resistance,
capacitance and inductance.
We are not against him (A) being (B) present (C) at the coming (D) conference.
Both (A) of (B) airliners arrived (C) on (D) time.
Among pure pharmaceuticals (A), the earliest to be isolated from (B) natural (C)
sources they were (D) the alkaloids.
My friend makes (A) less (B) mistakes in English than (C) I do (D).

4. .

, ,
( )
. ,
, . .
: at the table, at 5 oclock, to laugh at smb.
: to look at smb. -; to
look for smb. -; to look after smb.- -.
: to

wait for smb.- -; to listen to smb.- -.

, ,
: to follow smb. - -; to enter smth.- .
(of, for, on), (below, between), (in
front of, out of).
, ,
, :
This is a picture on the wall.
What street do you live in?
This novel is much spoken about.
: on duty, on foot;
, ,
: (to laugh at, to listen to ..)
, , .

4.1. .
on on Sunday, on the tenth of February
in in two days, in September
at at 7 o'clock, at noon
by by 3 o'clock, by noon
from till from early morning till late at night
since since 5 o'clock, since midnight
for for an hour, for ages
during during the lecture, during the break
before before the bell, before winter
after after the break, after classes
till (until) till May, till the end of the year
between - between one and two oclock
.4.1.1. in, at on.

I get up early ____ the morning and go to bed late ____ night.
Im so bored. Theres nothing to do ___ weekends.
He went swimming ___ Sunday morning, and ____ the evening he play squash.
I love going for walks ____ summer. Its still light ___ nine oclock.
I take my annual holiday ____ June, but I have a few days off ____ Christmas.


He usually starts work ____ 9.30, but ____ Friday he starts ____ 8.30.
I was born ____ 18 January, 1954.
People exchange presents ____ Christmas Day.
This house was built ____ the nineteenth century.

.4.1.2. ?
In the morning

at night

on Sunday morning

.4.1.3. .
ago last in for at when on.
: I arrived home at six oclock last night.
I saw Jane - yesterday.
a. I was born in Africa _____ 1970.
b. My parents moved back to England ____ I was five.
c. We lived in Bristol ____ three years.
d. I went to college three years ___ .
e. I found a flat on my own ____ last year.
f. I usually go home ____ the weekend.
g. I didnt go home ____ weekend because some friends come to stay.
h. They arrived ____ three oclock ____ the afternoon.
i. ____ Saturday evening we went out to a concert.
j. ____ we got home we listened to some music.
k. We got up late ____ Sunday morning.
l. ____ the afternoon we went for a walk.
m. I bought a car a few weeks ____ .
n. I had an accident ____ last night.
o. It happened ____ 7.00 ____ the evening.
p. I took my car to the garage ____ this morning.
.4.1.4. .
____ February; ____ Monday; ____ 11 oclock; ____ night; ____ the daytime; ____
March; ____ an autumn day; ____ what time? late ____ the evening; ____ Friday;
____ the XYIII century; ____ June; ____ the afternoon; ____ 2 oclock p.m.; ____

the 1st Sunday; ____ a fine September day; ____ Friday evening; ____ noon; ()
____ a fortnight; ____ the 2nd ____ December; ____ midnight; _____ sunny summer
.4.1.5. While - ,
( + ). X happened while Y happened,
, X Y .
: I met Peter while I was studying at university.
During - . ,
while - , : during the film /lesson / afternoon / football match.
: I worked on a farm during the holidays.
while during When? - ?
for How long? - ?
: I lived there for three years / six months.
, a while - , :
for a while, for a long while.
while (1), during (2) for (3).

I fell and hurt myself ________ I was playing tennis.

It started to rain ________ the match.
We played tennis _______ two hours.
I worked in Italy ______ three years.
_____ the summer I stayed on a farm in Tuscany.
I learned Italian _____ I was there.
We went on holiday to Florida _____ three weeks.
______ the day it was very hot, but it was cool at night.
We went to Disneyland _____ we were there.
We had a lovely meal yesterday. We sat at the table _____ three hours.
_____ the meal we exchanged news.
_____ I was talking to Barbara, I learned that Tony was in hospital.

.4.1.6. Mrs Gibbs

Mrs Gibbs husband died about fifteen years (a) _____ and to help her get over his
death she decided to go abroad. She went to the Far East (b) _____ six months, found
she liked travelling and so planned to travel more on her own. (c) ____ the winter of
1976 she bought and equipped a small camping van. Next summer she set off for
Australia where she stayed (d) ____ two years. She went to America for the first

time five years (e) ____ , and is going back this year. She plans to travel round
Canada and America (f) ____ the next eighteen months. She says she has never been
frightened, but once, seven years (g) ____ , someone came into her van and stole
some papers. It happened (h) ______ she was driving through Zimbabwe. She heard a
noise (i) _____ the night, but paid no attention.
.4.1.7. :
a. Jack has gone away. Hell be back in a week.
b. Were having a party _____ Saturday. Can you come?
c. Ive got an interview next week. Its _____ 9.30 ________ Tuesday morning.
d. Sue isnt usually here ______ weekends. She goes away.
e. The train service is very good. The trains are nearly always ____ time.
f. It was a confusing situation. Many things were happening ____ the same time.
g. I couldnt decide whether or not to buy the sweater. _____ the end I decided not to.
h. The road is busy all the time, even _____ night.
i. I was woken up by a loud noise _____ the night.
j. I saw Helen _____ Friday but I havent seen her ____ then.
k. Brian has been doing the same job ____ five years.
l. Anns birthday is __ the end of March. Im not sure exactly which day it is.
m. Weve got some friends staying with us ____ the moment. Theyre staying ____
n. If you are interested in applying the job, your application must be received ____
*.4.1.8. .

I lived in Paris ________ five years, ____ 1970 _____ 1975.

Beethoven began his musical education _____ the age of five.
We never see our cat. _____ the day it sleeps, and it goes out _____ night.
I dont usually go out _____ the evening, except ______ Monday evening, when I
go to play snooker.
Generations of my family have lived in the same house ____ 1800.
A How long are you staying here?
B _____ the end of the month. Then I have
to go home.
I mustnt forget my library books. I must take them back _______ the 24th.
Im just going out to get a newspaper. If anyone rings, tell them Ill be back _____
a few minutes.
Are you going away _______ Easter, or are you staying at home?
I met my husband in Wales. ______ the time, I was working in a travel agents.

4.2. .
on on the desk, on the wall
in in the room, in the street
at at the window, at the meeting, at the table
near near the door, near the wall
by by the river
over over the table, over the sea
above above the sofa
beyond - beyond the lake, beyond the forest
across across the street
under under the table, under the bed
between between two chairs, between the doors
among among the students, among them
behind behind the house, behind the tree
across across the street, across the river
in front of in front of the house, in front of the column
through through the window, through the glass
to to the library, to the south, to the park
towards towards the forest, towards the house
from from the table, from the north
along along the street
into into the room, into the box
out of out of the house, out of the drawer
off off the table, off the wall
.4.2.1. .
1. a train ____ Moscow

A to
B for C on
2. a ticket ____ the plane
A on
B to
C for
3. the plans ____ the future
A for B on C to
4. He is ____ his sisters
A by B near C at

5. ____ the ten oclock show

A on
B in
C at
6. a visit ____ a college
A on
B at C in D to
7. ____ Johns birthday
A on B at C in
8. What are the office hours ____ you?
A at B by C near D with

.4.2.2. .

____ the South; ___ the stadium; __ the corner; ___the post-office; __ the factory;
____ the meeting; __ the sky; __ the hostel; __ the station; __ the fifth floor; ____ the
concert; ____ the picture; ____ the apple-tree; __ the forest; ___the newspaper; __
Ottava; __ the chemists; ____ the USA; ____ the air.
.4.2.3. .
above across
towards below
out of
a. The cowboy leant _____ the bar in the saloon, drinking a beer.
b. She took her purse _____ her bag and paid the taxi driver.
c. Our cat just loves to curl up ________ the fire and go to sleep.
d. The view from the top of the mountain was breathtaking. We could see the town
and the river ______ us, and people who looked like ants.
e. Last night the temperature fell to three degrees _____ zero.
f. The burglar heard a noise coming from upstairs, so he hid _____ the curtains.
g. The dog jumped _____ my lap, and settled down for a good sleep.
h. The hunter froze as the tiger started running ____ him. He had nowhere to hide.
i. She has beautiful works of art all ____ her house, even in the kitchen and the
j. These days, politicians like to walk ____ the crowds, shaking hands and saying
one or two words.
k. He climbed _____ the wall and ran _____ the field.
l. The plane took off and was soon flying _____ the clouds.
.4.2.4. .
a. Id love to be able to visit every country _____ the world.
b. Have you read any books _____ Margaret White? No, Ive never heard of

Is there a bank near here? Yes, theres one _____ the end of this road.
Tim is away at the moment. Hes ______ holiday.
Youve got a dirty mark ____ your cheek. Have a look _____ the mirror.
We went _____ a party ______ Lindas house on Saturday.
Bombay is _____ the west coast of India.
Look at the leaves ______ the tree. Theyre a beautiful colour.
Have you ever been _____ Tokyo? No, Ive never been _____ Japan.
Mozart died _____ Vienna in 1791 _____ the age of 35.
Are you _____ this photograph? Yes, thats me, _____ the left.
We went ______ the theatre last night. We had seats _____ the front row.

m. Wheres the light switch? Its _____ the wall _____ the door.
n. What time did you arrive _____ the party?
o. I couldnt decide what to eat. There was nothing ___ the menu that I liked.
p. We live _____ a tower block. Our flat is _____ the fifteenth floor.
q. What did you think of the film? Some parts were a bit stupid but ____ the

whole I enjoyed it.

r. When you paid the hotel bill, did you pay ___ cash or _____ credit card?
s. How did you get here? ____ the bus? No, _____ car.
t. A I wonder whats _____ television this evening. Have you got a newspaper?
B Yes, the TV programmes are _____ the back page.
4.3. , , .

by, on in . by
, (air, sea, car, bus ..),
, . on ,
(on the train, on my bicycle, on
his horse) ( - on foot ). in , on,
, (in the taxi, in your car).
*.4.3.1. .

I saw him riding into town on / by his bicycle yesterday.

Hed rather go on / by bus than drive there himself.
She sent him home in / by a taxi.
Thats much too far to travel on / in foot.
Did you take the tunnel to France, or did you go on / in the ferry?
She rode through town on / by her horse.
Lets go home in / by taxi - I cant be bothered to walk.
She sometimes gets sick when travelling on / by sea.
He flies round the world in / by his own private jet.
The quickest way to get there is on / by air.

.4.3.2. , ,
. ,
a. Air travel frightens many people.

plane Many people find travelling ___________ frightening.

b. The train is the quickest way to get to London from here.
on The quickest way to get to London from here ________ train.

c. Sometimes it is quicker to walk than to drive to work.

Sometimes it is quicker to go to _________ than to drive.
d. The bicycle is my favourite form of transport.
by I prefer __________ than any other way.
e. We used the car that belonged to my uncle to drive to Wales.
We _____________ my uncles car.

4.4. .
. .

I got a cheque _____ five hundred pounds in the post today.

There has been a rise _____ the number of violent crimes.
Have you seen this photo _____ my daughter? Isnt she beautiful?
The difference _____ you and me is that I dont mind hard work.
I can think of no reason _____ such strange behaviour.
It took a long time to find a solution _____ the problem.
Could you give me some information _____ train times?
Im having trouble _____ my car. It wont start.
Shes doing research _____ the causes of tooth decay.
This is a machine _____ grinding coffee.

.4.4.2. to
be . .
a. Who isnt present ____ the lesson?

A on
B at
C from
b. Why are you afraid ____ him?
A of
B C with
c. Are you angry ___ her?
A on
B at
C with
d. What is John ill ____ ?
A with B by
C e. John Smith is proud ____ his progress in Russian.
A with B of
C by
f. I am quite sure ____ good results of our research.
A in
B with
C of
g. The old woman is seriously ill. All are afraid ____ her.
A of
B for
C h. I am sorry ___ the girl. She isnt able to pass the exam.

A for

B about

C -

.4.4.3. .
a. The plan has been changed but nobody seems to know the reason ____ this.
b. Dont ask me to decide. Im not very good ____ making decisions.
c. Some people say that Sue is unfriendly but shes always very nice ____ me.
d. What do you think is the best solution ____ the problem?
e. There has been a big increase _____ the price of land recently.
f. He lives a rather lonely life. He doesnt have much contact _____ other people.
g. Paula is a keen photographer. She likes taking pictures _____ people.
h. Gordon got married ____ a woman he met when he was studying at college.
i. Hes very brave. Hes not afraid ____ anything.
j. Im surprised ____ the amount of traffic today. I didnt think it would be so busy.
k. Thank you for lending me the guide book. It was full ____ useful information.
l. Please come in and sit down. Im sorry ____ the mess.
a. She was angry ____ me _____ breaking her best plate.
b. Canterbury is famous ____ its ancient cathedral.
c. Bill is jealous ____ anyone who has something he hasnt.
d. Im very proud ____ my two daughters. They are so clever.
e. Youre very different ____ your husband. I thought youd be quite similar ____
each other.
f. Are you excited ____ going to Greece?
g. Many foreigners find driving in Britain quite difficult. Theyre not used ____
driving on the left.
h. Are you good ____ tennis?
i. You are responsible ____ your own actions.
j. Sweets are bad ____ your teeth, but fruit is good ____ them.
a. Im terribly short _____ time.
*.4.4.4. .
. ,
in x 3
on x3
out of x2
a. After running up the stairs he was __________ breath.
b. My sister and I are very different. We dont have much ______ common at all.
c. I dont want to go to Francos Restaurant again. We always go there. Lets go
somewhere else
_____ a change.


I dont dislike Jane. ______ the contrary, Im very fond of her.

_______ general I go abroad for my holidays, but occasionally I stay at home.
It always pays to buy high-quality goods. _____ the long run its cheaper.
You most certainly cannot borrow my car. Its completely ______ the question.
This is a very important decision. All our lives are _____ stake.
I went on holiday _____ my own because sometimes I like being _____ myself.
Ill do it tomorrow. No, _____ second thoughts, Ill do it today.
Ill love you _____ ever!
Thank you ____ advance.

*.4.4.5. .
a. At two thousand pounds, the car looks like a bargain. Its _____ very good

Dont talk to me at the moment. Five bills arrived in the post today. Im _____ a
bad mood.
____ average, I spend about thirty pounds a week on food.
The house was _____ fire, but the blaze was soon brought _____ control.
As Im the deputy, Im _____ charge of the office while the manager is away.
I can see the arguments for capital punishment, but personally Im not ____ favour
of it.
Dont give me any money for it. You can have it _____ nothing.
Its a good idea ______ theory, but I dont think itll work _____ practice.
When you go away, youll keep ____ touch, wont you? I want to hear all your
I dont think you dropped the vase _____ accident. I think you did it ____ purpose.

.4.4.6. :
; ; ; ; ;
; ; ; ( -);
-; ; ; ;
; ; (- ), .

4.5. .
, at the beginning (of the story)
. in the beginning at first
, , .
at the end (of the story)
. in the end
, .
finally eventually,
, .
at last .
a. John and Anita got married at the beginning of May.
In the beginning, the marriage worked well, but problems soon began to emerge.
b. At the end of the war, the soldiers all went home.
We had a long and bitter argument, but in the end I realized he was right after all.

c. I burnt the meat and dropped the vegetables, but the meal turned out all right in the

At last the waiter brought them their meal, but by then it was cold.
, .
a. After the operation, he went home to recuperate. ______ he made good progress,


but his condition soon began to deteriorate.

____ of the film, we are introduced to the two main characters, Bill and Sarah
Damain told me the other day that he wants to be an astronaut. I didnt believe him
______ , but then I realized he was serious!
She spent days trying to decide what to do. She _______ decided that the best
course of action was to do nothing.
Ive spent thousand of pounds trying to get my driving licence, and now, after
seventeen goes, Ive got it ________!
They tried hard to make the marriage work, but their hearts werent in it, and they
got divorced ________ .
The story jumps around from place to place, and there are characters introduced
who dont seem to be connected. ________ , you have very little idea of what it
was all about.
I had to wait weeks for the cheque to come, but it arrived ________ .

4.6. .
1. .
2. ,
, ,
() (phrasal verbs)

4.6.1. .
.4.6.1.a. .
I applied ____ the job that I saw advertised ____ the paper.
I think youre quite right. I absolutely agree _____ you.
They are arguing ____ whos going to win the World Cup.
Water consists ____ hydrogen and oxygen.
After six months of working overtime, she succeeded _____ paying off her debts.
It took him a long time to recover ____ the injuries he sustained in the car crash.
Id like to complain ____ the manager _____ the state of my room. It isnt very
h. Compared ____ many countries, the cost of living in Spain is quite low.
i. She was concentrating so hard _____ her book that she didnt hear me come into
the room.
j. Do you believe _____ reincarnation? I do.
k. Who does that car belong _____? Its in my way.
l. Could I speak ____ you for a moment ____ our plans for next month? Its rather
m. Gold is not affected ____ moisture.
n. The work was divided ____ four students.
o. The ship cruises ____ Odessa and Batumy.

.4.6.1.b. .

What are you worrying ____ ?

i. Who do you agree ____ ?
What do you hope ____ ?
j. Who did you cooperate ____ ?
What exam are you preparing ____ ? k. Who have you just danced ___?
Where are you hurrying ____ ?
l. What disease did she die ____ ?
Who are you waiting ____ ?
m. Who has it happened ____ ?
What are you listening ____ ?
n. Who have you learned it ____ ?
What railway station does this train arrive ____ ?
What have you congratulated John ____ ?

.4.6.1.c. ( ).
: Im waiting.
Who are you waiting for?
a. Sh! Im listening. What ____________ ?
b. Janes talking. Who _____________ ? What ___________ ?
c. Sh! Im thinking. What ______________ ?


Theyre looking everywhere. What ______________ ?

Shes going on holiday. Who _____________ ?
Im going out. Who _____________ ?
I had a dream last night. What ________________ ?
I had an argument with Bert yesterday.
What ________________ ?
Jerry s in love. Who _____________ ?
Sophies getting married. Who ___________________ ?

.4.6.1.d. .
: Who are you looking at? Im looking at that man.
a. ________________________ Shes talking about politics.
b. ________________________ Im waiting for the postman to arrive.
c. ________________________ He works for the American government.
d. _______________________ Im writing to the Prime Minister.
e. ________________________ She was angry with her husband.
f. ________________________ The house belongs to Mr Briggs.
g. ________________________ The letters for you.
h. ________________________ I stayed with some friends.
4.6.2. to be to get .
to be to get
, .
.4.6.2.a. .
out of
a. Many people are ________ work in the north-east of England.
b. Dont phone for the next few weeks. Ill be ________ on business.
c. I should be ________ on the 10th of March.
d. I was ______ all the night with the baby. She just wouldnt sleep.
e. It had been a long winter, but at last it was nearly ________ .
f. I phoned you, but there was no reply. You must have been _______ .
g. Are you sure? Ive been ______ all day, and I didnt hear the phone.
h. Were ____ sugar. Could you get some more when you go to the shops?
i. Im ________ to Italy tomorrow, so I wont see you for a while.
: Many people are unemployed in the north-east of England.
.4.6.2.b. to get :
to get back - to return
to get up - to climb (e.g. a wall)

to get in - to enter
to get smth off - to remove (e.g. a stain)
to get away - to escape
to get off - to leave (e.g. a train, a bus)
to get through - to pass with difficulty to get in touch with - to make contact (e.g. on
the phone)
The new manager is easy to get on with.
Fred didnt remarry. He never got over the shock of losing Jane.
The books are locked up and I cant get at them.
Dont let this cold weather get you down.
Hows Jim getting on at school?
, phrasal verbs

I must put this vase in a place where the children __________ .

I know I shouldnt let this comments ________ but I cant help feeling upset.
How are you ________ in your new job?
A How __________ with your flatmate?
B Not very well at all. He is a smoker, and I cant bear the smell.
Jims only just beginning to __________ his disappointment.
My house was burgled yesterday. The burglar managed to _______ .
The police were called, but the burglar ______ .
We were in the capital when war broke out. Naturally we _____ .
The journey was terrible. We didnt _____ until three in the morning.
Someone spilt wine on the carpet, but I _____ .
Ive been trying _____ to you for ages, but youre always engaged.

4.6.3. .
.4.6.3.a. look

forward to
Baby-sitters are people who _______________
I wonder what scratch means. Ill _________ dictionary.
A What are you doing on your hands and knees?
B I _________ my glasses. Have you seen them anywhere?
Look _________! That box is going to fall on your head!
Its a great pleasure to meet you. Ive heard a lot about you, and I ________
meeting you for a long time.
I looked these data ______ .
I looked some figures _____ in the textbook.

.4.6.3.b. , phrasal
verbs put. ,
The fireman soon put the fire out. Please put this call through to the manager.
Put your books / toys away. Put the rent up by 50p (a week). The mere smell of
garlic put him off his supper.

Im sorry. I didnt realize I couldnt smoke here. I ______________

Why dont you buy your car now? Theyre going to ____________ soon.
Hello, operator. Could you _________ extension 301, please?
Ill dry the dishes if you _________ . I dont know where they should go.
The violence in America _____________ going there for my holiday.

.4.6.3.c. to put
:He placed the money on the table.
He put the money down on the table.
a. It is difficult to extinguish electrical fires. __________________
b. I dont know how you can tolerate so much noise. ______________
c. Please replace the books on the shelves. ______________________
d. We have postponed the meeting until next week.________________
e. Could you please tidy all your clothes? ______________________
.4.6.3.d. to turn.

It grew dark and I turned ____ the light.

In heavy snowfall the truck turned ____ .
My tea was ready and I turned ____ the gas.
The lamp was too bright and I turned it ____ .

4.6.4. + .
.4.6.4.. , ( )
( ). .
, .
A fill give
look x3
B out back
away up x4 down x2 round
a. You look tired. Sit ____ and have a cup of tea.
b. Im looking for yesterdays newspaper. Did you throw it ______ ?
c. ______ on your warm coat. Its cold today.
d. Could I _____ on these shoes, please? Size nine.
e. Turn ____ the music! Its too loud!
f. Dont forget to _____ off the light when you come to bed.
g. I live in Bristol now, but I grew _____ in Leicester.
h. Have you heard? Tonys going _____ with an Italian girl called Sophia.
i. Could you _____ in this form, please, and sign it at the bottom?
j. Come _____ ! Hurry _____ ! Youll be late for school.
k. Im _______ forward to meeting her very much.
l. Pick ______ your litter! Dont drop it on the street!
m. Dont worry about the baby. Ill look _______ her while youre out.
n. What a pretty dress! Turn _____ ! Let me look at it from the back.
o. _____ out! The glass is going to fall! Oh! Too late!
p. John! Wake ____ ! Can you hear a noise downstairs?
q. Im _____ for the car keys. Have you seen them anywhere?
r. Im going to take these shoes _____ to the shop. The heel has broken already.
s. She _____ off her horse and hurt her wrist.
t. I used to smoke, but I ____ up last year.
.4.6.4. b. .

You should think the plan ____ .

Lets put it ____ for the next week.
Look this word ______ in the dictionary.
He rings her ____ almost every day.
I cant begin this work because it may take ____ a lot of time.
Its a nasty habit, believe me. You should give it ____ as soon as possible.
I want to buy this pair of gloves. Try them ____ first.
I just cant make _____ my mind about the trip.
How are you getting ____ ?
How are the young men getting ____ ?

i. Do you think John is able to do this work?

I think he is ____ to it.
j. After my disease I have to catch ____ with the group.
k. I dropped _____ at the photographers.
l. The Browns moved ____ last November. They live in a suburb now.
m. I picked Jane ____ on my way to the hostel.
n. We showed the stranger _____ .
o. Pick me ___ on your way to school.
p. Shall we drop ____ or pass ____ .
q. Ill be back in the town the day after tomorrow. Ill drop ____ at your place.

4.6.5. Phrasal verbs.

Phrasal verbs
. ,
4 :
1: phrasal verb : take off, (a) make a start in jumping. (b)
(of an aircraft) leave the ground and rise: The plane took off despite the fog.
2: : turn smth on, start
the flow of (liquid, gas, current) by ~ing a tap, switch, etc: T~ the light / radio on.
3: : look for smb / smth, (a) search for; try to
find: Are you still ~ing for a job? .
4: : look down on smb / smth, regard as
inferior: Why do the English look down on everything foreign?
.4.6.5.a. phrasal verb
. , (2 3) .
a. to talk over a problem
1. to recover from
b. to try out an idea
2. to experiment with
c. to go off a person / food
3. to cancel
d. to call off a meeting
4. to stop
e. to give up smoking
5. to discuss
f. to look into a problem
6. to care for
g. to get over an illness
7. to not accept
h. to turn down an offer
8. to not like any more
i. to look after a child
9. to investigate
j. to work out a sum
10.to solve
.4.6.5.b. it .

a. Jan had a problem with her finances, so we talked ___ over ____, and now its fine.
b. I had an idea for reorganizing the system. We tried ____ out ____, and it worked

I used to love ice cream, but since I found out how its made, Ive really gone ___
off ___ .
We were due to have a meeting on Thursday, but weve had to call ___ off ____
because the chairpersons ill.
I wish you wouldnt smoke. Why dont you give ____ up ____ .
Im sorry to hear about your problem with the Tax Office. I promise Ill look ___
into ___ as soon as possible.
The best thing for backaches is rest. Dont worry. Youll soon get ___ over ____ .
The job looks very attractive. Youd be a fool to turn ____ down ____ .
That ring is extremely valuable. Make sure you look ___ after ____ .
I need a calculator to see how much money Ive got in my account. I cant work
____ out ____ in my head.

.4.6.5.c. bring smb / smth

Bring smb / smth up, (a) educate; rear: She has brought up five children. If children
are badly brought up they behave badly. (b) vomit: ~ up ones dinner. (c) call
attention to : These are facts that can always be brought up against you, used as
evidence against you. These are matters that you can ~ up in committee. (d) (mil)
summon to the front line: We need to ~ up more tanks. (e) ~ for trial: He was brought
up on a charge of drunken driving. (f) cause to stop suddenly: His remarks brought
me up short /sharp / with a jerk.
(a),(b),(c),(d),(e) (f)
1. I thought you brought up a very interesting point at the end of the lecture
2. Her mother died in childbirth and she was brought up by her father.
3. The war is going badly. We need to bring up more soldiers.
4. The journey was so bumpy that the baby couldnt help bringing up her breakfast.
. phrasal verbs?
away with
on with down on
up to
back on
up against
in with
out of
away from
a. Weve run _________ sugar. Could you buy some more?
b. Please dont let me disturb you. Carry ___________ your work.
c. We must try to cut ________ the amount of money we spend. We just cant make
ends meet.



Keep _____ me! Ive got a terrible cold, and I dont want to give it to you.
When I look _______ my childhood, I realize what a happy time it was.
Shes such a snob. She looks ____ people who have to work for their living.
The only people she looks _____ are her grandparents.
Children grow __________ their clothes so quickly. It costs a fortune to clothe
them properly.
The government have come _______ a big problem in their economic policy. The
unions wont co-operate, and management doesnt approve of what theyre trying
to do.
Face _______ the facts, Joey, and stop living with your head in the clouds. Youll
never get anywhere if you dont work at it.
The antique table is very beautiful, but it doesnt fit _____ the rest of the furniture,
which is modern.
He tries to get ______ doing nothing around the house by charming everyone, but
theyve all learnt his tricks.

.4.6.5.e. phrasal verbs

. .
a. Id better write your telephone number _______ . Ive got a terrible memory.
b. Dont run _______ . Come here! I want to talk to you!
c. The birds cage wasnt closed properly. It managed to get _____ , and
unfortunately it flew ____ . We havent seen it since.
d. When Mrs Johnson died, she didnt have a penny. Shed given all her money
______ to charity.
e. I dont feel like cooking tonight. Shall we eat ______ ?
f. The soup doesnt taste very nice. If I were you, Id put some more salt _____ .
g. A button has come _____ my shirt. Could you sew it back ____ for me?
h. It has just started to rain, and the washing is hanging outside. Could you help me to
bring it ____ ?
i. Hello. Its Peter, isnt it? I hardly recognized you! Youve shaved ____ your beard.
j. Kates having a birthday party this afternoon. Could you help us to blow _____
some balloons?
k. I fell _____ my horse and dislocated my shoulder.
l. And my wife fell ____ stairs! One disaster after another!
m. The wind was very strong last night. It blew ____ a tree in our garden.
*.4.6.5.f. phrasal verbs .
Phrasal verbs ,
. phrasal

a. I was badly beaten up when I tried to break up a fight outside a pub last night.
b. You should tell the police that it wasnt your fault. Ill stick up for you, dont

c. Soon there will be no import duties within the Common Market. Theyre going to
do away with them.
d. Government forces in Walliland have put down a revolt by a group of soldiers.
e. The business went through a lean period at the beginning of the year, but things are
picking up now.
f. Looking after six kids all day has completely worn me out!
g. Many old people are taken in by bogus officials, who call their houses, find a
pretence for looking round and then steal their property.
h. I was told off for being late again this morning. If it happens again, my pay gets
i. Weve bought an old house which isnt in very good condition, but well do it up
bit by bit.
j. Dont believe her when she says shes got stomach ache. Shes putting it on. She
just wants to get out of going to school.
k. I had a very unhappy childhood, but the delights of being an adult and a parent
have made up for that.
l. I cant solve the riddle at all. I give in. Whats the answer?
m. The government is going to set up an inquiry into the condition of Britains
n. Police have ruled out murder, but are still holding several people for questioning.
o. Hes a great mate of mine. Hes the kind of friend wholl stand by you through
thick and thin.
1. compensate for ___________
9. establish_______________
2. exhaust _________________
10. exclude _______________
3. deceive _________________
11.improve _______________
4. defend __________________
12. decorate_______________
5. pretend _________________
13. surrender ______________
6. abolish _________________
14. support ________________
7. reprimand _______________
15. assault ________________
8. suppress ________________
*.4.6.5.g. ,
phrasal verbs
, The Independent

Phrasal verbs.
a) phrasal verbs, .
a. My sister has written, asking if we can put her up for a few days whilst shes in
b. Paul was left ten thousand pounds in his grandfathers will, so he set himself up as
a photographer.
c. This bad weathers really getting me down.
d. The flat isnt very nice, but I can put up with it until I find somewhere better.
e. The family dog was old and crippled, so they decided reluctantly that they had to
have her put down.
f. Lets meet on the 20th . Put the date down in your diary so you dont forget it.
g. James Gregory was sent down for ten years for his part in the robbery.
h. Peter thinks Im trying to get off with his girlfriend, but I dont find her very
attractive. Anyway, I wouldnt do a thing like that to a mate of mine.
i. Have you seen how Jane always putting him down? Either she criticizes him for
the way he dresses, or the way he eats or the way he speaks, and she makes him
feel such a fool!
j. Ive been set up, thought Alice. Joe told the director that I was incompetent,
than altered the accounts making it look like my handwriting, and now Ive been
accused of stealing money!
k. Jeremy, who is a very good mimic, was sending up the Director and the way he
screws up his face when he talks, when the Director himself came into the room.
You could have heard a pin drop!
b) phrasal verbs .
1. to depress, make miserable ____________
2. to send to prison _____________
3. to establish a business __________________
4. to prove a bed for someone for a short while _________________
5. to imitate someone in such a way as to make them appear foolish ________
6. to write down ______________
7. to kill (an animal) out of humanitarian reasons ______________
8. to tolerate _________________
9. to begin a romantic or sexual relationship with someone ____________
10. to make someone appear guilty in order to get them into trouble ________
11. to make someone seem foolish by criticizing and ridiculing them _______
c) .
Miles Kington
Could I say to the vet, Here is my cat, please have her sent up?
Learning English as a Second Language
Part 597: Dealing with political pollsters.

Please help me. What do I say if I stopped in the street by a man asking questions
about elections? This was happening to me all the time during the general election.
You say: Put me down as a Dont Know.
Put me down as a Dont Know, I see. What exactly does that mean?
It means you dont want any more questions.
I see. What does put me down mean?
It means, write me down on paper.
But in lesson 413, you told me that put down means to make a lot of fun of. Your
sentence was Every comedian thinks it is funny to put down Val Doonican.
Yes, well, it means that as well.
So maybe the man asking the questions will make fun of me?
No, no.
And in lesson 512, you said that put down also means to have your favourite
animal killed. Your sentence was: We are taking our cat to the vet for him to be put
Did I? Well, yes, it means that too.
So I am afraid that the man asking the political questions will have me painlessly
killed when I say Put me down as a Dont Know.
No, no, he wont do that, I promise.
If put down means to make fun of, suppose put up means to take seriously.
No, no. It means to accommodate for a few days. Here is another sentence for you:
My mother has written to say she is coming to stay with us, so we will have to put
her up for the weekend.
That is a bit like a sentence I remember from lesson 87. I do my best to put up with
your mother.
Ah, yes, thats put up with.
What does put down with mean?
Could I say Set me down as a Dont Know?
No. Set down means to let someone off a train at a railway station.
And set up means to let them on the train at the railway station?
Mmm, not exactly. Actually, it means something the police do when all else fails.
Here is another sentence for you. I spent three years in jail because the police set me
up for the Croydon job.
Would they do that?
Not if youd really done the Croydon job. Set up, by the way, also means to give
someone lots of money. For example, my parents set me up as a teacher of English as
a second language.
But the police would not give you lots of money for the Croydon job?
No, I think not.

Would it be possible to say to this man in the street: Sent me down as a Dont
Well, not really, Send down means to put someone in prison.
Oh, I see. The police set you up first and then they send you down.
Yes. Well, not quite. The police set you up, but the judges send you down.
This is all done to make more jobs?
Yes, I think so.
Well, if send down means to put you in prison, does send up mean get someone
out of prison?
Not exactly. In fact, not at all. Send up means to make a lot of fun of.
Ah, just like put down. So the sentence from lesson 413 could also be: Every
comedian thinks it is funny to send up Val Doonican?
Very good, absolutely right. Spot on.
And I could also say to the man in the street: Send me up as a Dont Know.
And I could say to the vet: Here is my cat - please have her sent up?
English is very difficult to learn as a second language.
Believe me, English is very difficult to teach as a second language. It gets me down
Get down? You mean, as in the phrase: Get down and boogie?
Where did you learn to speak like that?
In a disco in the West End, where I also learn English as a second language.
Ah, no, that is American as a second language. Oh, just look at the time. I think that is
enough for todays lesson. I must get off.
Get off with whom?
I will deal with that in our next lesson.
d) .
- ?
- Val Doonican ( )?
- ? - ?
- ?
2. ?
3. ,
4.6.6. ,

, .
.4.6.6.a. ,
- .

Keep your fingers crossed for me!

Im pulling your leg!
Its on the tip of my tongue.
Ill keep an eye on her for you.
I cant make head or tail of it.
I really put my foot in it, didnt I?

1. Ive nearly remembered it.

2. It makes no sense to me at all.
3. Im joking!
4. Ill watch her while youre out.
5. Wish me luck!
6. I said the wrong thing.

.4.6.6.b. ,
1. . 2. () . 3.

. 4. . 5.
. 6. . 7.
. 8. . 9.
.4.6.6.c. .
1.I hope, the change of the climate will ( ) 2. Ill visit them
(). 3. ( ) well have to check the state of things. 4. When shall I
see you )? 5. Lets meet (). 6. How old will he be next
year? 30 ( , ) 7. Everything will happen (
). 8. You may keep it ().

*.4.6.6.d. .
a. A The question is, who left the window open?




B For goodness sake, John. Stop splitting hairs! It doesnt matter who left the
window open.
The fact is that someone did, and thats how the parrot escaped.
He stole money from his wifes purse so that he could go out drinking. But she got
her own back by locking him out, so he had to sleep in the garden that night.
Dont worry about Josephine. She shouts a lot, but really she doesnt mean it. Her
bark is worse than her bite.
A My wife and I just cant control our finances. No matter how hard we try, were
always overdrawn at the end of the month.
B Jack and I are in the same boat. I think it must be the cost of living that has
gone up.
Were a team, and we have to work together, but I dont think Bill is pulling his
My father agreed to lend me his car for this evening, but when I asked for some
money for petrol, he put his foot down.
All negotiations in the miners pay dispute had broken down, and the strike was
due to start next day. Then, at the eleventh hour, the management made a new
Setting up your own business should be quite a simple affair, but there is so much
red tape involved, with tax offices, planning permission offices and so on, that it
can take years.

*.4.6.6.e. ,
a. He used the business profits to ___ his own nest. His employees gain nothing.
b. She is so quick to criticize other people. I think she should learn to set her own
____ in order first.
home business house
c. He paid an absolute fortune for a really tiny flat. Theres not enough room to
swing a _____ .
d. Dont be so impatient. You cant hurry the decorating if you want to do it well.
_____ wasnt built in a day.
New York
St Pauls
e. Friends may let you down, but your family will always stand by you. Blood is
thicker than ____ .

f. My car has just about had it. Its on its last ___ . Well have to get a new one.
legs life
g. Politics is a cut-throat business where your friends can be more treacherous than
your enemies, but, as they say, If you cant stand the heat, stay out of the _____ .
h. I dont know what shes got to be so cocky and self-important about. Someone
should put her in _____ .
i. I believed him! He looked so sincere. I feel such a fool now. He really led me up
the _____ .
garden path
wrong road
high street

4.7. .
.4.7.1. .

He invested all his money _______ stocks and shares.

Could you throw that book ______ me, please? Id like to have a quick look at it.
They thanked him ____ being so kind.
They invited us _____ their wedding, but we couldnt go.
I warned him _____ the dangers of driving without a seat belt.
They provided me ______ food and bed, which was very kind.
The smell of the food reminded me ______ when I was a child.
He spent all his money _____ fast cars and gambling.

*.4.7.2. .

When my grandmother was at school, she had to learn everything (a) _______ heart,
and even years later she could recite countless poems (b) _______ memory. She was
discouraged (c) _____ thinking (d) ______ herself, and concentrated simply (e)
______ learning facts. The teacher were very strict (f) ______ pupils in those days.
My grandfather confined (g) ______ me that he was expelled (h) ______ school (i)
______ playing truant just once.
It is always worthwhile for government to invest (j) _______ education. Nobody
should be deprived (k) _______ a good education, and everybody should benefit (l)
______ it. Nothing can compensate (m) ______ a bad start in life. Pupils (n) ______
public schools still account (o) _____ many of the students at Oxford and Cambridge
University. Until quite recently these universities seemed to be prejudiced (p) ______
pupils from state schools. Many people objected very strongly (q) _____ this and at
last things are changing.

I had no intention (r) ___ staying (s) ___ at university after I had finished my first
degree. I finally succumbed (t) ___ parental pressure, but only (u) __ protest, and
carried out research (v) _____ the life of Baudelaire.
**The urge to get interconnected.
Electronic intelligence is being built (a)____ more and more (b)____ the items we
use every day, (c)___ the office, (d)___ home, and (e)___ school. The utility of many
of these gadgets could greatly increase if, (f)____ addition (g)___ built-(h)____
intelligence, they were able to link (i)___ other devices to either pass (j)____
information or pick (k)____ control signals or data. An obvious example is the
notebook computer thats taken (l)____ the road and then brought (m)____ (n)____
the home or office. When getting ready (o)____ a trip, they might want to load some
information, such as background (p)___ sales prospects and perhaps directions (q)___
getting (r)____ their sites, (s)____ the device that they will be carrying so that they
can refer (t)____ it (u)____ the way.
Moreover, appliances (v)____ your toaster (w)____ your coffee maker will be linked
(x)___ your alarm clock, so that you are awakened (y)___ the smell of coffee.
(z)____ your evening commute home, you can signal your home to turn (aa)____ the
lights, start the evening meal (bb)____ the microwave, and so on. All of this will be
managed (cc) ____ a home control center or an entirely new system.

4.8. .
.4.8.1. .
a. Ill be in London next week. I hope to see Tom ________ there.


A while I will be B while I am C during my visit D during I am

Fred is away at the moment. I dont know exactly when hes coming back but Im
sure hell be back _______ Monday.
A by
B until
C on
D before
Ill be at home _____ Friday morning. You can phone me then.
A at
B on
C in
Im going away ______ the end of January.
A at
B on
C in
When we were in Italy, we spent a few days _______ Venice.
A at B to
C in
What time did they ______ the hotel?
A arrive to
B arrive at
C arrive in
D get to
E get in
Toms away at the moment. Hes _____ holiday in France.
A at
B on
C in
D for
We travelled ______ 6.45 train, which arrived at 8.30.
A in the
B on the
C by the
D by

i. Have you read any books ______ Agatha Christie?

A of
B from
C by
The accident was my fault, so I had to pay for the damage ___ the other car.
A of
B for
C to
D on
E at
Why were you so unfriendly ____ Tessa? Have you had an argument with her?
A of
B for
C to
D with
Im not very good ____ repairing things.
A at
B for
C in
D about
I dont understand this sentence. Can you _____ ?
A explain to me this word
B explain me this word
C explain this word to


n. If youre worried about the problem, you should do something _____ it.

A for
B about
C against
D with
Who is Tom Madely? Ive no idea. Ive never heard ____ him.
A about
B from
C after
D of
What time will you arrive? I dont know. It depends ____ the traffic.
A of
B for
C from
D on
I prefer tea ____ coffee.
A to
B than
C against
D over
They gave me a form and told me to ____ .
A fill in
B fill it in
C fill in it
They got ___ the train at Los Angeles.
A out of B from C off
D with
The force that holds neutrons and protons together in the atomic nucleus is one
manifestation of the
strong interaction ____ hadrons.
A among B between
C within
D throughout

The blue-and-white trains which run every half an hour ____(1) Tokyo and Osaka are
the fastest trains in the world. They are not only very fast but very comfortable. Only
those who have booked seats can travel ____(2) the train. It was not possible to run
more trains ____(3) the old lines so the Japanese build a special line ____(4) the new
fast trains. It is very good indeed. You can eat and drink ____(5) difficulty ____(6)
220 km an hour. You can know the speed because there is a speedometer ___(7) the
a) on b) between c) for d) without e) at f) inside g) along

5. .

5.1.1. .
, ,
26 (!) .


(A) My sister lives in

(B) (B) The sun rises in the east. seldom,
(C) I listen to the radio in

the mornings.
every day,
He generally buys a lot from time

of historical books.
to time,

(D) ,
(D) My flight leaves at
at times,


(A) Andrew is watching TV At the

(right now).

(B) ,
(B) My sister is living in

at present

He is writing a new


(C) He is taking his

examination on Friday.
(D) I am always forgetting

about his birthday.

(A)The mail came early in
the morning.
a minute


(C) ,




(B) ,




(A) ,


(B) John worked in

advertising for ten years. week )
last year
(C) We jogged every
morning before classes. week ),
the day
(D) She ran out of the house, before
jumped on her bike and yesterday
rode off.
(E) I was reading when the
telephone rang.

(F) We were discussing the

problem at ten oclock

last morning.
(G) She was looking very ill.

I was meeting lots of

people at that time.
(H) Nancy was leaving for

Chicago but had to make

a last-minute connection.

(A) She has never attended

an international
Im sorry. I have
forgotten your name.
(B) Have you ever organised since,

(C) ,

(D) ,

( for
(E) ,



(B) ,

(C) ,

(D) ,


press conferences?

so far,
this week /
(C) Hes just met Dr
month, year

up to now,
(D) Jacky has lived in Maine lately,
all her life.
Ive been here since
Hes known her for two
(E) We have flown across

the Pacific four times.

Ive failed my test
(A) Have you been ranking

the lawn? Theres grass

all over your pant legs.

(B) Laura has been studying

for two hours.

(C) Simon has been

smoking since he was

I have been phoning
you all morning.
(D) Ive been thinking
about going to college
next year.
(A) Tom had left hours

before we got there.


(B) ,

(B) I had finished it by 5


(A) I had been working for
an hour before you


, (B) He felt tired as he had

been looking through the

paper for several hours.



(A) ,



(A) Perhaps Ill call you

after lunch.
(B) You will pass the test.
Dont worry. (I think so.) I think,
I am sure,
I wonder
(C) If I dont feel better
soon, I will go to the
(A) At noon tomorrow, Ill
At noon,





(A) ,



be giving a lesson.
(B) Ill be preparing for my

examination in May.

(C) Hell be meeting us near

the laboratory.

(A) By next July, my

parents will have been
married for fifty years.
(A) By May, my father will
have been working at the
same job for thirty years.

at 5 o'clock,
at midnight,
at that


, , Past Simple Present
.5.2.1. , Past
Simple, - Present Perfect.
1. the day before yesterday; 2. a week ago; 3. in the past; 4. at that time; 5. lately; 6.
today; 7. a minute ago; 8. just; 9. since; 10. never; 11. this year; 12. so far;
13.yesterday; 14.just now; 15.ever; 16.last Wednesday; 17.last night; 18.not yet;
19.up to now; 20.last century; 21.this century.
.5.2.2. ) Past Simple ) Present Perfect
1. ... you ever (to visit) ... Hungary? 2. Our group ... (to tour) Yugoslavia this month.
3. The film ... (to produce) a good impression on me. 4. A fortnight ago the theatre
... (to produce) a new play.
5. When ... you (to finish) ... school? 6. I ... (to happen) to see John the other day. 7.
I (to start) writing my book two years ago. 8. I (to write) half of it since. 9. We
(to witness) great progress in space research this century.
.5.2.3. ,
a. So far no uniform international policy against terrorism is established.
b. Some of the city's swimming pools were closed since the end of last summer.
c. From time to time even the healthiest individual needs to have a complete
physical examination.
d. The city council is for some time now considering widening that street.
e. By this time next year, most students will leave school and return home.
f. Up until now, no cure for cancer is found.
g. It has been raining steadily since yesterday.
h. At the time of his death, John Kennedy has still been in his forties.
i. In the early part of the 20-th century, immigrants are coming to America in great

5.3. Present Simple Present Continuous.

, ,
, . ,
: know, realise, suppose, understand,
believe, remember, forget, think, assume, consider, expect, agree, mean, doubt .;
: like, dislike, love, hate, envy, prefer, wish, want, care .;
: have, own, belong, contain .;
: see, hear, smell, taste .
.5.3.1. ,
a. I get up at seven in the morning.
b. I'm liking black coffee.
c. He's speaking three languages.
d. I think Mexico's a beautiful country.
e. Restaurants are staying open late in Spain.
f. We usually eat at one o'clock.
g. He's having a flat near the centre.
h. What are you thinking of Shakespeare?
i. I'm so dirty I need a bath right now.
j. Peter's in the kitchen. He cooks breakfast.
k. What are you thinking about?
.5.3.2. ,
: Present Simple, - Present Continuous.
a. He ______ four cars, all of them Rolls-Royces.
b. I _______ lunch with my mother tomorrow.
a. What ________ you _______ of Stephen Spielberg's latest film?
b. You're day-dreaming. What ___________ you __________ about?
a. I ______ an important phone call from America. Could you tell me when it comes?

b. I _____ you're hungry after so much hard work. Shall I get you something?
a. He _________ to understand what you say to him, but when you ask him a
question, he isn't so sure.
b. Roy Pond _________ at Her Majesty's Theatre in the role of King Lear.

a. Something ___________ good in the kitchen. What's cooking?
b. Why __________ you __________ the meat? Do you think it's gone off?
a. I need to know how much the meat _____ to know how long to cook it for.
b. Why _____ you _____ yourself? Do you think you've put on weight?
a. I _________ what you mean, but I don't agree.
b. She ________ a solicitor about her aunt's will.
a. I usually pick up languages quickly, but I ____ difficulties learning Chinese.
b. He __________ more clothes than a department store.
a. It ________ as if it's going to rain.
b. What are you doing on your hands and knees? ______ you ______ for
a. What _________ you ________ of doing when you leave here?
b. How much ________ you _________ it would cost to fly to Australia?
.5.3.3. : hear, listen to, see, look at, watch
. hear see can can't.
a. I have a lovely view from my room. I _________ the whole city.
b. A What's Peter doing?


B He ________ music in his bedroom.

In winter I like ___________ the photographs of my summer holiday.
In the evening I usually __________ the news on television.
I find it difficult to sleep because I __________ the traffic all night.
Can you speak louder? You're speaking so quietly that I _______ you.
____________ that strange man over there! What's he doing?
Please __________ what I'm saying. It's very important.
A Where's Maria?
B Over there. She ________ the picture on the wall.
Oh dear! Where are my glasses? I __________ anything without them.

5.4. Present Simple .

if, when, as soon as, until, before, after, whenever, unless
. .

.5.4.1. , .
: She'll pay me back. She'll get some money. (as soon as)
She'll pay me back, as soon as she gets some money.
a. I'll wait here. You'll get back. (until)
b. Give me a ring. You'll hear some news. (when)
c. The TV programme will end. I'll do my homework. (after)
d. I'll go to work. I'll have a bath. (before)
e. She'll be in Paris. She'll visit friends. (while)
f. The lesson will end. I'll go home. (as soon as)
g. I won't leave the house. The postman will call. (until)
h. Can you feed the cats? I'll be away. (while)
i. I'll tell you about the holiday. I'll get back. (when)
j. I'll study English. I'll speak it perfectly. (until)

5.5. Past Continuons Past Simple.

Past Continuons Past Simple .
: We were playing in the garden when it started to rain.
While I was working for the Health service I decided to give up smoking.
.5.5.1. .
: The flight lasted / was lasting three hours.
a. It was 8.00 in the morning. A lot of people stood / were standing at the bus stop,
waiting to go to work.
b. A magnificent oak tree stood / was standing in the middle of the garden.
c. I studied / was studying politics at university.
d. He studied / was studying the effects of radiation when he suddenly died.
e. When I woke up this morning it rained / was raining.
f. It rained / was raining every single day of the holidays.
g. I asked him what he thought / was thinking about.
h. I thought / was thinking the play was extremely good.
i. A What did you do / were you doing with that electric drill?
B I was putting up some book shelves in my bedroom.

j. A What did you do / were you doing with that electric drill?
B I put it back in its box in the tool cupboard.
k. A What did you do / were you doing before you took this job?
B Nothing, actually. I only left school a few months ago.
l. A What did you do / were you doing in my bedroom just now?
B The light was on, so I just went in to turn it off.
m. The poor chap died / was dying. All we could do was comfort him.
n. The poor chap died / was dying early last morning.
(Past Simple or Past Coutinuons).
a. I _______ (watch) TV when Mark ______ . (phone).
b. What _____________ (you/do) at the time of the murder?
c. She _____________ (jump) into the river and ___________ (rescue) the

drowning boy.
I _____ (see) my first baseball game while I _______ (live) in New York.
Where __________ (you/go) when you ___________ (get off) the train?
We ________ (ring) the police because the neighbours _________ (play) their
music too loud.
He ____________ (write) the whole composition during the lunch hour.
She ___________ (write) to her brother when he ____________ (walk) through
the front door.
___________ (you/work) in Spain this time last year? Yes, I ___________ (go)
out there in '93.
Mum and Dad ______ (sleep) when I _________ (get) home last night.
What _____ (that news reader / say) just then? I don't know. I _______ (not /
Someone ________ (take) a photo of me while I ___________ (have) a bath.
__________ (you / see) the match last night? No. I ________ (try) to get
some work done.
We ________ (not/know) what to do when the omputer ______ (break down).
It __________ (rain) outside and the children __________ (cry), so we
___________ (decide) to play a game.

.5.5.3. ,
a. The kitchen caught fire while we were having dinner.
b. The sun shone so we decided to go for a walk.
c. I'm afraid I wasn't hearing what you said.


Alan read a newspaper when he heard a strange noise.

She was knowing she was being followed.
The boss walked in while I played a computer game.
I was walking home from work when a dog attacked me.
He was reading the entire book, from start to finish, in two hours.
What did you do when you saw someone trying to steal your car?
I didn't see the last goal because I looked at the sky at the time.

5.6. Present Perfect Past Simple?

.5.6.1. .
a. Barbara Lively________ (write) a lot of books. She ________ (write) her first

fifteen years ago.

______________ you ever ___________ (try) Indian food?
I _____ never _____ (be) to Japan. When _____ you _____ (go) there?
I ____________ (live) in London for eight years, and I don't want to move.
He __________ (live) in Oxford for two years, and then in 1995 he _________
(move) to London.
We ____________ (meet) Tim and Maureen three years ago. How long
_________ you _________ (know) them?

.5.6.2. .

ever, never, for, since, already, just, yet

He's worked there many years, 1986, I believe.
I have loved anyone as much as I love you.
We've known Paul two years. Have you met him?
I've known him we went to school together, but I've met his parents.
We have sold two hundred tickets and there is still a month to go before the
I have visited New York. Im looking forward to going.
Have you thought of learning to fly?
I have received my exam result. It came ten minutes ago.
Janet hasnt finished with the camera. She needs it tomorrow.

.5.6.3. , .
a. How long __________ you __________ (live) in your town?
b. ___________ you ever __________ (drink) champagne?

c. How many foreign countries ___________ you ___________ (visit)?

d. Where ___________ you _________ (go) on holiday last year?
e. How long ____________ you ____________ (know) your best friend?

.5.6.4. (Present Perfect

Past Simple).
a. Carlos _______ (come) to London before Christmas. When he ________ (arrive),

he ________ (go) to stay with some friends. He _________ (be) in London for
several months, and he's going to stay until the autumn.
b. A I'm looking for Susan. ___________ you ___________ (see) her?
B I _____ (see) her yesterday, but not today. _______ you ________ (look) in
the coffee bar?
A Yes. I ___________ (go) there before I _____________(ask) you.
c. A John, you know I ____________ (borrow) your bicycle last night. Well, I'm
afraid I ____________ (lose) it.
B That's awful! Where ______ you _______ (go)? What time ______ it
______ (happen)?
A Well, I ________ (leave) your house at 8.00, went home and _________
(chain) it outside my house. Someone must have taken it during the night. I
________ (phone) the police, and they're coming soon.
B OK. You can tell them what _______________ (happen).

.5.6.5. ,
A a) Jane's angry because.
b) Anne's disappointed because.
c) Julie's excited because.
d) Kate's jealous because.
e) Mary's worried because.
B 1) she hasn't heard from her parents for a long time, and hopes they're all right.
2) she's just seen someone in the kind of car that she wants to buy.
3) her boyfriend hasn't arrived and they're already late for the party.
4) she's just won first prize in a competition.
5) she's had to cancel her holiday, and she was so looking forward to it.

5.7. .

to be
(Past Participle).
, ,
, ,
, .
, ,
by ( with,
) :
The images are computed by a four-processor system.
Non-destructive observation of specimen surface microstructures down to 10 nm or
less can be carried out with an electron scanning microscope.
- , , ,
Business letters are usually written on special forms.
This educational networking project is designed for self-managing groups of
students, teachers and resource administrators.

. Future Continuous,
Perfect Continuous.




I am invited.


I was invited.


I shall be invited.

Future in the

I should be

I am being
I was being

I have been invited.

I had been invited.
I shall have been
I should have been

, , (
) (
) .
, .
.5.7.1. ,

The rule doesnt apply.

His dream came true.

The temperature was slowly rising during the experiment.

The government raised taxes on imported goods.
He succeeded in solving the problem.
We all breathe, eat and drink.
The conference opens at 9 a.m. on Monday.
The computer weighs some 1.5 kg.
It costs 1.3 thousand dollars.
The Australians dont like cold weather.
Babysitters look after children.
In the course of Soviet period people never really elected their authorities.
She made herself a cup of tea.
The teacher makes students prepare for every lesson.
The student put down an unknown word in his dictionary.
Our state will hardly pay off all its debts soon.
Look at the timetable to know when the train arrives at the station.

.5.7.2. ,
, .
1) You should open the wine about three hours before you use it.
2) Somebody had cleaned my shoes and brushed my suit.
3) We use this room only on special occasions.
4) You must not hammer nails into the walls without permission.
5) Someone switched on a light and opened the door.
6) Somebody had slashed the picture with a knife.
7) Why didn't they mend the roof before it fell in?
8) Someone will serve refreshments.
9) Someone has already told him to report for duty at six.
10) No one can do anything unless someone gives us more information.
11) People are spending far more money on food now that they spent ten years
12) The organizers will exhibit the paintings till the end of the month.
13) It is high time someone told him to stop behaving like a child.
14) They are pulling down the old theatre.
.5.7.3. ,
, , .
: They gave her a clock. She was given a clock.
12, 15,
1) Who wrote it?
2) Compare clothes which we have washed with clothes which any other laundry
has washed.
3) He expected us to offer him the job.
4) They showed her the easiest way to do it.
5) Lightning struck the old oak.
6) Titian couldn't have painted it as people didn't wear that style of dress till after
his death.
7) Did the idea interest you?
8) The lawyer gave him the details of his uncle's will.
9) They used to start these engines by hand. Now they start them by electricity.
10) Students are doing a lot of the work.
11) The Prime Minister was to have opened the dry dock.
12) They recommended opening new factories in the depressed area. (should)

13) Anyone with the smallest intelligence could understand these instructions.
14) We will not admit children under sixteen.
15) They suggested making the tests easier. (should)
**.5.7.4. ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
1) Dr Brown widely used statistical methods in his field.
2) I am going to submit a paper to the program committee.
3) Landau introduced the conception of energy density matrix in 1927.
4) We have processed the data obtained with the help of a computer.
5) This procedure reduces the energy losses.
6) Visualisation specialists often use conceptual illustration and data-driven
visualizations interchangeably.
7) They projected graphics in stereo onto three walls and the floor.
8) They are displaying both input circuit parameter values and output signal in the
same space.
9) A biologist can link sells together into networks, and even systems of networks, to
explore how the brain's circuits work.
10)People have used numbers for record-keeping and commercial transactions for
11)They maintained these conditions throughout the experiment.
12)No one can do anything unless someone can give us more information.
13)Everyone may use this program both to explore precomputed datasets and to
interactively steer supercomputer simulations.
14)Participants wear stereo glasses to view the images in 3D.
15) In a recent article in Science, authors have discussed the difficulty of evaluating
numerical simulations.
16) A group of researchers has created these models recently using General Neural
Simulation System, a versatile software package developed a decade ago.
17)Nobody can do science without computers.
**.5.7.5. ,
, .
a. You have sent us the wrong items again. (The wrong .. )
b. You should have delivered this consignment last week. (This consignment )

c. Someone broke two of the VDUs during transportation. ( Two .. )

d. You should have sent the documents by registered post. (The documents .. )
e. A faulty connection could have caused the problems with the hard disk. (The

problems .. )
f. You omitted the manuals from the order. (The manuals .. )
g. You delivered the printers over three weeks late. (The printers .. )
h. We will not pay the invoice until this problem is rectified. (The invoice .. )
.5.7.6. .
: "This door must be kept shut ( ) : "Students must keep this door shut.
1) Why don't you have your eyes tested?
2) This speed limit is to be introduced gradually.
3) The runways are being lengthened at all the main airports.
4) By tradition any sturgeon that are caught by British ships must be offered to the
5) Have a lift put in and then you won't have to climb up all these stairs.
6) Last year a profit of two million pounds was made in the first six months but
this was cancelled by a loss of seventeen million pounds which was made in the
second six months.
7) The ship was put into quarantine and passengers and crew were forbidden to land.
8) He was made to surrender his passport.
9) This scientific theory has now been proved to be false.
10) Why wasn't the car either locked or put into the garage?
11) It is being said that too little money is being spent by the government on roads.
12) Your money could be put to good use instead of being left idle in the bank.
.5.7.7. :
Castle fire.
Winton Castle (a) _________ (damage) in a fire last night. The fire, which
(b)__________ (discover) at about 9 o'clock, spread very quickly. Nobody
(c)____________ (injure) but two people had to (d) _____________ (rescue) from
an upstairs room. A number of paintings (e)_____________ (believe/ destroy).
It (f) _____________ (not/know) how the fire started.
Shop robbery.
In Paxham yesterday a shop assistant (a)_______________ (force) to hand over
$500 after (b) ______________ (threaten) by a man with a knife. The man escaped
in a car which (c)_____________ (steal) earlier in the day. The car (d)
____________ (later/find) in a car park where it (e) ____________ (abandon)

by the thief. A man (f)_____________ (arrest) in connection with the robbery and
(g)_____________ (still/question) by the police.
Road delays.
Repair work started yesterday on the Paxham-Longworth road. The road (a)
________ (resurface) and there will be long delays. Drivers (b)_________ (ask) to
use an alternative route if possible. The work (c)_________ (expect) to last two
weeks. Next Sunday the road (d)________ (close) and traffic (e)__________ (divert).
A woman (a)_____________ (take) to hospital after her car collided with a lorry near
Norstock yesterday. She (b)______________ (allow) home later after treatment. The
road (c)_____________ (block) for an hour after the accident and traffic had to
(d)______________ (divert). A police inspector said afterwards: The woman was
lucky. She could (e)_______________ (kill).
.5.7.8. .
: My car was stolen (steal) last night.
Joseph Ford, the politician who (a) __________ (kidnap) last week as he was driving
to his office, (b) __________(release) unharmed. He (c) _______ (examine) by a
doctor last night, and (d) _____(say) to be in good health. Mr Ford (e) _____ (find)
walking along a small country lane early yesterday evening. A farmer (f) _______
(see) him, recognized who it was, and (g) __________ (contact) the police.
When his wife (h) __________ (tell) the news, she said, "I am delighted and
relieved that my husband (i) ________ (find)." Acting on information received, the
police made several arrests, and a man (j) ________ (question) in connection
with the kidnapping.
.5.7.9. .
a. Someone will give you your tickets at the airport.
b. People asked me a lot of questions about my background.
c. Someone usually shows airline passengers how to use a life jacket at the
beginning of the flight.
d. If somebody offers you a cheap camera, don't buy it. It's probably stolen.
e. Someone will tell you what you have to do when you arrive.
f. My parents advised me to spend some time abroad before looking for work.
g. Pleased to meet you. People have told me a lot about you.
h. In a few years' time, my company will send me to our New York office.
*.5.7.10. ( )

. ,
, ,
, , , ,
, .
: We have awarded our staff a twenty per cent pay rise.
Unfortunately, the number of staff will be reduced by fifty per cent.
a. Someone built this bridge in 1901.
b. No one has seen the escaped prisoner since a guard was knocked out by him and
he ran away.
c. A secretary has invited me to Buckingham Palace to collect an award!
d. Someone wants you in reception.
e. The telephone, which was invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876,
revolutionized man's ability to communicate.
f. The closure of the workshops will make a lot of men redundant.
g. At interviews, people ask you quite searching questions.
h. Alexander Graham Bell was a scientist and inventor. The telephone was invented
by him in 1876, and he also worked on early radio transmitters.
i. Scientists working in California have discovered a drug which stops premature
aging. They will now manufacture the drug commercially, and it should be
available soon.
j. Nobody must take reference books out of the library.
k. The Health Service has prospered under this government. It is true that we have
closed hospitals and spent less money, but the system is now streamlined.
l. A tiger was found roaming in a suburban garden today. Mrs Ethel Templeton
found the tiger while she was hanging out her washing.
m. We broke a few cups while you were away. Sorry. They'll be replaced. Apart
from that, we didn't do much damage at all.
n. I'm a fantastically successful author. I have sold over one million copies of my
o. Doctors have given him six months to live.

5.8. Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Continuous.

, Present Perfect Continuous
, Present Perfect Simple

a. I've cut my finger!

I've been cutting my finger!
b. Have you heard Paul Simon's latest record? Have you been hearing Paul

Simon's latest record?

She's tired because she's shopped all day. She's tired because she's been
shopping all day.
Sorry. I've broken one of your glasses. Sorry. I've been breaking one of your
How long have you had this book? How long have you been having this book?
They have lived here for three years.
They've been living here for three years.

Ann's been sunbathing.
She's been shopping.
She's been working in the garden.
She's been reading for hours.
She's been watching a sad film.
She's been waiting for hours.
She's been doing the housework.
She's been decorating the bathroom.
She's been cooking.
She's been bathing the children.

She's furious.
She's got paint in her hair
She's crying.
Her back hurts.
She hasn't got any money left.
She's a bit burnt.
She's soaking wet.
The house smells of onions and garlic.
Her eyes hurt.
Everything's spotless.

.5.8.3. (Present Perfect

Present Perfect Continuons.)
a. I'm exhausted. I ________ (work) all day, and I ______ (not finish) yet.
b. I __________ (visit) many countries in the last five years.
c. Someone ___________ (take) my books. I ___________ (look) for them for ages,


but I can't find them anywhere.

I ______________ (shop) all morning, but I ____________ (not buy) anything
yet. I haven't seen anything I've liked.
The best book I _______________ ever ________________ (read) is One
Hundred Years of Solitude by Gabriel Marquez.
A You're filthy! What _____________ you ____________ (do)?
B I ____ (work) in the garden. I ___ (plant) all the vegetables for next year.
I _______ (wait) for two hours, but nobody _________ (arrive) yet.

.5.8.4. How long...?

, , Present Perfect Present Perfect
Continuous. , Continuous.
I live in the country.
How long ______________________ ?
I play a lot of tennis.
How long ______________________ ?
I know Jack well.
How long ______________________ ?
I work in Italy.
How long ______________________ ?
I have an American car.
How long ______________________ ?
Past Simple , .


When __________________ move __________________?

How old ___________ when __________ started _________ ?
Where __________________ meet __________________?
Why ___________________ decide ____________________?
How much _____________ pay _________________?

.5.8.6. : Present Simple,

Present Countinuous, Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Continuous.
: I have been learning (learn) Italian for the past three years, but there's still
a lot I don't understand (not understand).
a. A Oh dear! Look out of the window. It __________________ (rain).
B Oh no. I _______________ (not bring) my umbrella.

b. My uncle _______________ (know) everything about roses. He ____________






(grow) them for 35 years. Now he ______________ (try) to produce a blue one.
I _______________ (listen) to you for the past half an hour, but I'm afraid I
_______________ (not understand) a word.
A What's the matter, Jane?
B I _________________ (read) in my room and the light isn't very good. I
________________ (have) a headache. It's really hurting.
A What are you doing?
B I ________________ (write) a letter.
A You _______________ (sit) at the desk for hours. Is it a difficult letter?
B Yes. I ________________ (decide) to resign from my job.
A But how do you know you don't like it? You ________ only ______ (do) it
for a week.
B I do like it. But I _____________ (offer-passive) a better one, and I'm going to
accept it. It's in Brazil, and _________ always ___________ (want) to go to
Brazil. I ___________ (not like) living in cold climates.
A But how ___________ you _________ (know) if you'll like it there? You
_____________ never (be) out of England before.
B That doesn't matter. Some friends of mine _____________ (live) there at the
moment. They'll look after me.
A You're very lucky, really. I _______________ (try) to find a job for months. I
___________ (be) to endless interviews, and I ____________ (turn downpassive) each time, but you got two jobs in a week.
B Well, obviously you ______________ (apply) for the wrong kinds of job.
Don't worry. You'll find one soon.
I ______________(hope) so.

5.9. Past Simple Past Perfect.

Past Perfect ,
We carefully examined the samples which they had sent us.
When we arrived at the stadium, the match started. (
When we arrived at the stadium, the match had started. (
.5.9.1. : - Past
Simple, - Past Perfect.

: He died (die) after he had been (be) ill for a long time.
a. I ____________ (thank) her for everything she __________ (do).
b. When I got to the office, I _________ (realize) that I _________ (forget) to lock
the front door.
c. When they _______ (finish) their work, they _________ (go) home.
d. I _______ (call) you at 8.00, but you _______ just __________ (go) out.
e. I took my family to Paris last year. I _____________ (be) there as a student, so I
___________ (know) my way around.
f. When I _________ (listen) to the news, I ______ (go) to bed.
.5.9.2. ,
. Past Perfect.
: I had a bath. I went to bed.(after)
After I'd had a bath, I went to bed.
a. I read the letter, I threw it away. (when)
b. He passed his driving test. He bought a car. (as soon as)
c. I took the book back to the library. I finished reading it. (when)
d. I didn't go to bed. I did my homework. (until)
e. I spent all my money. I went home. (when)
f. I read the book. I saw the film. (before)
g. Her children left home. She started writing. (after)
.5.9.3. Past Simple Past Perfect.
: When we returned to the car we saw (saw) that someone had smashed
(smash) the windows.
1. I ________ (realise) I __________ (lose) my purse when I opened my bag.
2. He ________ (lose) the squash game because he _________ (never / play) squash
before in his life.
3. David ____________ (buy) his ticket the week before, so I dont understand why
he ___________ (try) to get in without paying.
4. By the time she __________ (be) eighteen she ___________ (visit) nearly every
capital city in the world.
5. Paula ________(drop) the cup she was holding and ________ (burst) into tears.

6. Why _____________ (you / not speak) to Jim at the meeting yesterday? Because

he _______________ (leave) by the time I got there.

7. Sally was upset when _________ (you / not / eat) any of her birthday cake. I
_______ (not / can) help it. I __________ (just / eat) a huge meal.
8. You _______________ (look) happy when you were talking to Jackie last night.
Yes. I _________________ (not / see) her for six years.
9. It _________ (take) nearly four hours to drive to the garden party, and when we
____________ (get) there they ____________ (refuse) to let us in!
Because we _______________(forget) to bring our invitations.
10. Johnny ___________ (spent) seven years of his life in prison before he ______
(realise) that the things he _______ (done) to get there were wrong. He
_______(rob) banks, he _______ (burgle) houses, he ________ (steal) cars. But,
fortunately , he ___________ (never / kill) anyone.
.5.9.4. , ,
1. Barry was very excited because it was his first time on television.
Barry _______________ before, so he was very excited.
2. The children ran over the bridge to see the fire engine, but it was no longer there.
The fire engine ___________________ time the children ran over the bridge.
3. He looked familiar to me, but in fact he was a complete stranger.
Although he looked familiar to me, I ___________________ before.
4. After they had had the contract read by a lawyer, they signed it.
They had the contract read by a lawyer ___________________ it.
5. Staying in a five-star hotel was a new experience for us.
We __________________ in a five-star hotel before.
6. They arrived at the cinema just in time to see "The End" come up on the screen.
The film __________________ by the time they arrived at the cinema.
7. He had to write over fifty letters to get an interview.
He got an interview only after ___________________ over fifty letters.
8. She left the office after turning off all the lights.

After __________________ all the lights, she left the office.
9. When we arrived at the house, Dan had just left.
Dan left the house and __________________ after.
10. I checked that I had my passport with me before I left for the airport.
I left for the airport ________________ that I had my passport with me.
.5.9.5. ,
Past Perfect.
: When I arrived home, I was starving. I hadn't had anything to eat all day.
a. Tom was furious with Alice because she ______________________.
b. James inherited a small fortune from his father, but a year later he didn't have a
penny. __________________.
c. She was fined $ 200 because she ____________________.
d. When I saw him, he was pale and shaking like a leaf. ______________.
e. He was two hours late for the wedding because ______________.
f. I didn't know her name, but the face was familiar. I was sure __________.
g. I couldn't answer any of the exam questions, although __________.
h. James was very proud of his eighteen-year-old son, who _________.
.5.9.6. .
: Everybody knew he had stolen / had been stealing from his employer for
a. I knew the facts of the case because I had read / had been reading the report.
b. My eyes ached because I had read / had been reading for three hours.
c. The children were filthy. They had played / had been playing in the garden, and
they were covered in mud.
d. I was very nervous at the beginning of the match. I had never played/ had never
been playing her before, and I didn't know how good she was.
e. Donald excelled himself as a cook. He had cooked / had been cooking a wonderful
Spanish dish.
f. Donald was very cross. He had worked/ had been working in the kitchen all
morning, and none had offered to help.
.5.9.7. , .
: Present Perfect, Present Perfect Coutinuous, Past
Perfect, Past Perfect Coutinuous.

: Ann is sitting on the ground. She's out of breath. (she / run) She has been
a. Where's my bag? I left it under this chair. (somebody / take / it)
b. We were all surprised when Jenny and Andy got married last year. (they / only /
know / each other / a few weeks)
c. It's still raining. I wish it would stop. (it / rain / all day)
d. Suddenly I woke up. I was confused and didn't know where I was. (I / dream)
e. I wasn't hungry at lunchtime so I didn't have anything to eat. (I / have / a big
f. Every year Bob and Alice spend a few days at the same hotel by the sea. (they / go
/ there for years)
g. I've got a headache. (I / have / it / since I got up)
h. Next week Gerry is going to run in a marathon. ( he / train / very hard for it)

5.10. "Used to" "would"

Used to , ,
, .
: Last winter I used to spend a lot of time in the library. (
He used to be very short-tempered. ()
would ,
. Would , .
( : He'd live in a lovely cottage.)
, ,
, Past Simple.

.5.10.1. .
used to.

I was very fit when I was young.

The teachers at my school were horrible.
My sisters room was so messy.
I had a dog when I was a kid.
My family had some lovely holidays.
When I was young we didnt have a car.
And we didnt have central heating.
My uncle was a pilot for British Airways.

It used to follow me everywhere.
___________ go everywhere by bus.
_______ freeze on winter morning.
___________ fly Concord.
______ never ______ tidy it at all.
___________ do a lot of exercises.
___________ hit the pupils.
_______ go camping all over Europe.

.5.10.2. used to.

didn't use to.
; This town's so ugly. It used to be so pretty.
There are so many tourists. There didn't use to be any tourists.
a. The houses are very expensive.
b. The streets are dirty.
c. There is so much litter on the streets.
d. The car parks are always full.
e. There is a lot of traffic on the roads.
f. It's noisy at night.
g. Andy's changed! He's so miserable!
h. And he's really mean.
i. He's badly-dressed.
.5.10.3. never used to, ,
: Jeremy drinks beer and whisky. (lemonade)
He never used to. He used to drink lemonade.
a. Henry drives like a maniac. (carefully)
b. Tessa spends a fortune on clothes! (very careful with her money)
c. The children fight a lot these days. (get on well)
d. I think Kate tells lies. (tell the truth)
e. Margaret gets up at 11.00. (the first one up in the morning)
f. The tape recorder keeps stopping. (work perfectly)
.5.10.4. , Past Continuous used to

: I haven't been to the cinema for ages now. We used to go a lot. (go)
Ann didn't see me wave to her. She was looking in the other direction. (look)
a. I ___________ a lot but I don't use my car very much these days. (drive)
b. I asked the driver to slow down. She _______________ too fast. (drive)
c. Rose and Jim met for the first time when they ______ at university. (study)
d. When I was a child, I ______________ a lot of bad dreams. (have)
e. When the phone rang, I __________________ a shower. (have)
f. "Where were you yesterday afternoon?" " I _________ volleyball." (play)
g. "Do you do any sports?" "Not these days. I _________ volleyball." (play)
h. George looked very nice. He _______________ a very nice suit. (wear)
*.5.10.5. . ,

(1) would used to?
(2) used to?
(3) Past Simple?
We (a) met while we were doing a course in London. It wasn't exactly love at first
sight, but I often (b) found myself looking in his direction, and he always
(c) smiled back, and his eyes (d) linger red just a little longer than was necessary. So
we (e) started having lunch together in a small cafe, and then, if the weather was fine,
we (f) went for a walk in the park, and (g) chatted endlessly about everything. He
(h) lived at one end of town, and I was miles away, but we often (i) met at weekends.
I (j) thought it would last for ever, but of course it didn't. Nothing does!
- , ,

5.11. .

shall will (,
Ill come, he said. (, ), Hell win, Im sure.
to be going to: We are going to play tennis. ();
Present Continuous: Shes meeting her publisher. (
Present Indefinite: My flight leaves at 10:00. ( ,

.5.11.1. will be going to. ,

a. Look out! We _____________ crash!
b. "There's the doorbell."
"I ______________ go."
c. We promise that if you vote for us we ______________ double your income in

twelve months.
d. "It's very cloudy, isn't it?" "Yes, I think it ________________ rain."
e. The next train to arrive at platform six _______________ be the delayed 7.32
service for Bristol.
f. I wonder what she __________________ do next.
g. "Can somebody answer the phone?" "I _____________________."
h. A Poor Sue went to hospital yesterday.
B I'm sorry to hear that. I ____________________ send some flowers.
i. A This room's very cold.
B You're right. I _________________ turn on the heater.
j. A Oh dear. I can't do this homework.
B Don't worry. I ________________ help you.
k. A It's John's birthday tomorrow.
B Is it? I can't afford a present but I _______________ buy him a card.
l. A How old are you?
B I'm 64. I _________________ retire next year.
m. A Why are you leaving so early?
B Because the teacher gave us a lot of homework and I _________ do it
very carefully.
.5.11.2. , will be going to
. .
a. A I've got to phone a Paris number. Do you know the code?
B No, _________________ in the directory for you.
b. A What are you doing over the Easter holidays?
B Absolutely nothing. We _________________ rest.
c. A Did you hear the weather forecast?
B Yes. _____________ cold at first, then _____________ a little warmer this
afternoon, and this evening _________________ some light showers.
d. A Why did you buy a house in such terrible condition?
B It was cheap. We _______________ modernize it from top to bottom, and
we _____________ into a restaurant. What do you think?
e. A If you are elected, what ________ your party ______ about unemployment?

B We have carefully considered this issue. When we are elected, as we most

certainly ________ be, we __________ create half a million new jobs.
f. A What are you doing here? Annie's expecting you for lunch.
B I completely forgot! I__________ a ring, and tell her I ____________ be late.
Thanks for reminding me.
g. A How will the proposed tax increase on petrol affect your business?
B To be perfectly honest, we haven't thought about it yet. We ____________
cross that bridge when we get to it.
h. .5.11.3.
: Hurry up! The plane arrives (arrive) at 7.30.
a. There's no point in running now. We ________ (miss) the bus anyway.
b. Yes, I'll come out this evening. I _______________(not/work).
c. You can relax. The match ______________ (not/start) until four o'clock.
d. I __________ (go) to the market this afternoon. Do you want anything?
e. Are you OK, Donna? You look like you ________________(faint).
f. You realise that the boss _______________ (not/like) this, don't you?
g. I ________________ (cook) dinner this evening - as usual.
h. She _______________ (look) for a new flat next year.
i. Don't worry. The shops _________ (not close) until eight o'clock tonight.
.5.11.4. ,
a. Simon intends to join the police force when he leaves school.
When Simon leaves school _______________ the police force.
b. He is such a bad driver that he is almost certain to have an accident soon.
I think _____________ an accident soon because he is such a bad driver.
c. The departure time for the train is 8.35.
The train _________________ 8.35.
d. I have arranged to meet my bank manager in the near future.
I _______________________ soon.
e. They say that if the cows are lying down, rain will soon follow.

They say that if the cows are lying down, it means that ________ rain.

f. What do you intend to do with all that money?

What _______________________ with all that money?
g. He has decided never to drink whisky again.
He ___________________ whisky again.
h. We have not arranged to do anything in particular this weekend.
We ___________________ anything in particular this weekend.
i. I do not intend to help him, even if he pays me.
Even if he pays me, I ___________________ him.
j. The film is scheduled to begin at four o'clock.
The film ___________________ until four o'clock.
.5.11.5. .
: I am going, I do, Im going to, do, will, wont, will (shall) be
I feel a bit hungry. I think ________________(I/have) something to eat.
Why are you putting on your coat? ____________ (you/go) somewhere?
What time _____________________(I/phone) you this evening? About 7.30?
Look! That plane is flying towards the airport. ________ (it/land).
We must do something soon, before _____________ (it/be) too late.
I'm sorry youve decided to leave the company. _______ (I/miss) you when
_________ (you/go).
g. ________ (I/give) you my address? If ______ (I/give) you my address, ______
(you/write) to me?
h. Are you still watching that programme? What time ________ (it/end)?
i. ____________ (I / go) to London next weekend for a wedding. My sister
________________(get) married.
j. I'm not ready yet. _________ (I/tell) you when __________ (I / be) ready. I
promise ________________ (I / not / be) very long.
k. A Where are you going?
B To the hairdresser's. __________ (I / have) my hair cut.
l. She was very rude to me. I refuse to speak to her again until ______________
(she / apologise).
m. I wonder where ______________________ (we/live) ten years from now?
n. What do you plan to do when ______ (you / finish) your course at college?

.5.11.6. .
: When you have read my book, could you give it back to me?
Of course. As soon as I've finished it, I'll give it to you.
a. I ____________ (not be) in touch unless there __________ (be) something urgent
to tell you.
b. The children _______ (not go) to bed until they ____ (have) a glass of milk.
c. You _________ (phone) me before you ________ (go) away, won't you?
d. A When __________________ you (go) to the pub?
B When I ______ (finish) this work. It _______ (take) about another hour.
e. If you ________________ (not hurry) up, we ______________ (be) late.
f. I ___ (come) to London as soon as you _____ (find) somewhere for us to live.
g. I'm sure you _____ (feel) a lot better after you ______ (take) your medicine.
h. We _______ (have dinner) as soon as all the guests _______ (arrive).
i. You _________ (not forget) to lock the door if you ______ (go) out, will you?
j. I ______________ (not let) you go until I ____________ (tell-passive) the truth.
Which of you did it?
.5.11.7. : Future Simple,
Present Simple Present Perfect.

When we (pass) our exam we'll have a holiday.

When I (finish) the book I'll lend it to you.
After I (be) here for a year I'll ask for a rise.
Don't drive at more than 50 k.p.h. till your car (do) 4,000 kilometres.
When you (do) 4,000 kilometres you can drive it at 70 k.p.h.
When we (see) the cathedral we'll go to the museum.
He (not let) you out till you have finished your homework.
Hotel receptionist: When you (sign) the hotel register the porter will show you
your room.
By the end of the month 5,000 people (see) this exhibition.
By next April I (pay) $3,000 in income tax.
I suppose that when I come back in ten years time all these old houses (be)
pulled down.
The strike leader said, "By midnight 500 men (come) out on strike."
At your present rate you (burn) all that coal by the end of the month.
The treasurer said, "By the end of the year all our debts (be paid) off.


, take, make, do, have,

( ),
.5.12.1. , make do.
1 ___ a mistake 6 ______ a will
2 ___ nothing
7 ___ friends with

3 ___ a noise

8 ____ sense

11 __ a complaint
16 __ progress
12 __ up my mind to 17___ a speech

13 __ business with 18 ____ a mess

4 ___ ones best 9 ____ my homework 14__ a phone call

19 ___ sure that

5 ___ money
10 ___ the housework 15__ an exam
20 ___ someone a
a. Could you ______ ? Could you give me a lift to the station?
b. At first I found English difficult, but now Im beginning ________ .
c. Customer to waiter: I think you _____ . My bill should be $5, not $15.
d. I _______ a lot of ______ with the Chinese. They are good customers of mine.
e. Can you understand these instructions? They _______ to me.
f. It took me a long time to decide, but I have finally _______ to accept the job.
g. Sh! Dont _______ . The babys asleep.
h. Hello. Id like ______ . Theres no hot water in my room.
i. Before going on holiday you should _______ all windows and doors are shut and
j. A You must try harder.
B Im _______ .
A Well, its not good enough.
k. Yesterday the Prime Minister _______ in the House of Commons.
l. It took me hours to clean your room. If you ______ again, you can clean it up
*.5.12.2. make do.
a. You cant rely on him. He is always ______ excuses for never getting things done.


Just a minute, I have to ____ a call.

The recent cable break has ____ a lot of damage.
You either know the answer or you dont. Its no good ____ guesses.
Which modern languages are you ____ ?
We _____ an agreement and youve broken it.
Ive got a lot of jobs to ____ this morning.

h. I shouldnt employ him. Hes always ____ trouble.

i. Weve been studying this radiation for a year, but we havent ____ much progress.
j. A car that size only ____ about 10 miles to the gallon.
.5.12.3. have +
. ,
have breakfast / lunch ( have a
drink row look swim bath

breakfast word day

game time supper

: Would you like to have a drink ?

Yes, please. Im very thirsty.
a. Did you watch TV last night?
No, I _________ and went straight to bed.
b. Did you _______ a good _______ of tennis?
Yes, I won 6-0, 6-2.
c. Bye, Mum. Im going out now!
Goodbye, darling. _______ a nice ______ !
d. Did you ______ ______ this morning?
No, I got up too late. I just had a cup of coffee.
e. Im going to ______ a ________ and wash my hair. I feel dirty.
f. I have a swimming pool at home, so if you want to _______ a ________ , just
come round.
g. Did you ______ a good ______ at the office, dear?
No, I didnt. The boss was very angry with me.
h. Peter and I always argue. We dont agree about anything. Yesterday we ______ a
______ about politics.
i. Ive got my holiday photographs. Do you want to ______ a _______ ?
j. John! Could I ______ a _______ with you for a minute? Theres something I want
to ask you about.
.5.12.4. , ,
have + a + noun .
, - . , :
Talking to someone about a problem usually helps to solve it.
I had a talk with Susan last night.
, have + a + noun.

6. .
6.1. .
, ,
, ,

. , ,
, , ( ,
) (
, , ),
2. .

3. ,
, ,
4. ,
, : would rather (do), had better (do), its high time to do.

6.2. ,




. Must (

Had to:

): I must work
Have to (
): To
become Doctor of Science
every post graduate has to
defend his thesis.


I had to work hard to pass the

1st Certificate English exam.
Why did you have to re-sit
your exam in economics?

Should, shouldnt, ought to, Should, ought to + have done:

(had better): You should
You should have listened to my
avoid doing some things
contradicting common
Is (am, are) to:
Was (were) to:
The train is to arrive at 7
He was to come but he failed.
If we are to profit we have
to develop our own ways to



Mustnt, cant:
You mustnt tell somebody
the news. Its a secret.
You cant smoke here. Its
not allowed.


Dont have to, neednt:

Students dont have to learn
any tables by heart. They
have to be able to find
necessary information
I neednt go out tonight.

Didnt have to, neednt + have

There is no queue in the bank
this morning so I didnt have to
Neednt + have done
( ,

): You neednt
have bought the book. We have
got enough copies in the
Didnt need to (do) (


I didnt need to do any
shopping because I was invited
to a dinner that night.
Can, cant:
She can read English
quickly but she cant speak
English fluently.

5. ,


Can, may, could:

When youve finished you
can go home.
May I ask you a question?
Could I use your dictionary
for a moment?


Will, wont:
Is that the phone? Itll be
John. He said hed ring
around now.
Dont take the cake out of
the oven. It wont be ready

Must, cant, couldnt:

You must be joking. I dont

She could play the piano when
she was three.
Was (were) able to, managed
to ( ,

): A.S.Griboedov was
able to enter Moscow
University when he was 13.
Was (were) allowed to:
I was allowed to do whatever I
wanted when I was young.

Will (would), wont (wouldnt)

+ have done:
You say you stayed in a hotel
near the lake? That would have
been my parents hotel! What a
It wont have been Peter you
met at the party last night. He
was ill in bed.
Must, cant + have done:
He must have got lost. He
cant have known the way.







7. .

believe you.
She cant be well today.
She had a sore throat and
high temperature yesterday.

Should, shouldnt:
We should be moving into
our new house soon (as
long as all the arrangements
go smoothly).
This homework shouldnt
take you too long (if you
ve understood what you
have to do)
May, may not:
We may go to Greece for
our holidays, but we may
not have enough money to
go abroad this summer.
Might, might not, could:
You could (might) be right
but I doubt it.
The American film could
be worth seeing but it
might not be admirable.

Should + have done:

Wheres Henry? He should
have been here ages ago!

May, may not + have done:

Where is Ann? She may have

Might, might not, could + have

She might have decided not to
She might not have forgotten.

8. .

Could, can, would, will:

Can you lend me 5 pounds
until tomorrow?
Will you give me a lift?
Could (would) you explain
this rule for me?
--Will, shall:
- What shall I do for you?

9. ,

10. .

- I want someone to do a lot

of typing for me.
- Will I do?
Will, wont:
Ill pay back tomorrow.
The car wont start.
Might, could:
He could be more
You might at least offer her

He was angry because she
wouldnt lend him any money.
Could (might) + have done:
You could (might) have done it
He could not (might not) have
sent this cable.

6.3. , .
, mustnt
- , neednt
dont have to.
.6.3.1. mustnt neednt.

You ___________ give Freddy any more sweets or he wont eat any tea.
The doctor said I _______________ go back to the hospital; my leg is all right.
You ___________ make any sandwiches for me. Im not hungry.
She ___________ fill in a new application form, we have the other one.
You ___________ mention this to Kate, or shell get upset.
She ____________ bring a doctors certificate, she was only away for one day.
You ____________ take any more aspirins, youve had four already.
Tell her she ______________ open any letters marked personal.

Must / mustnt / neednt / ought to / had better
a. Theres a fantastic film on at the Odeon. Advise your friend to see it before its too
b. Tell your friend not to drive her car till its insured.
c. You are going to play tennis with a friend at the tennis club. Tell him it isnt
necessary for him to bring any tennis balls as the club supplies them.
d. Your friend has just received his bank statement. Hes sure its incorrect. Advise
him to telephone the bank.
e. Tell your Venezuelan friend that she needs a visa to get into France.
.6.3.3. have to, dont have to should
, .
When you go to America
a. you ________ get a visa.
b. you ________ apply for a visa at least one month before you go.
c. you ________ book a hotel room before you go, because there are usually a lot of
d. you ________ get a work permit if you want to work there.
e. you _______ visit San Francisco, because many people think it is the most
beautiful city in America.
f. you _______ change your money before you go, because there are a lot of 24-hour
g. you _______ hire a car, because its the easiest way to travel, and petrol is cheap.
h. you _______ have special injections before you go.
must, have to, had to, have had to, should.
I really do think you ___________ get your hair cut.
Careful, darling. You ___________ play with matches. Theyre too dangerous.
My wife suddenly became ill in the middle of the night and I ____ call the doctor.
Im overweight. The doctor said I _________ eat too many sweets or potatoes.
I like Saturday because I ___________ get up early.
A. Why have you got so much money on you? You _______ keep it in the bank.
B. I know. But todays the day I _________ pay my employees.
g. Its my mothers birthday next week. I _______ remember to buy her a present
and a card.

h. No one likes __________ work at weekends.

i. You _______________ come with me if you dont want to. I dont mind going on

my own. You stay here if you like.

j. I have a really bad memory for phone numbers. I ___________ look them up in the
book every time.
k. When I was at school we __________ wear a uniform. Everybody hated it.
l. You ______________ touch electrical appliances if youve got wet hands. You
could kill yourself.
m. She has a private income. She ______ never ______ do one days work in the
whole of her life.
.6.3.5. ,
to be to
, .
a. He was to give a talk on the properties of the Moon minerals.
b. Petrov was to meet an American businessman at 2 p.m.
c. The engineers of the team were to design and construct a new machine for

d. I was to fly to Sverdlovsk the other day.
e. The undergraduates were to have a class in the gym.
f. We were to write a test and hand it to the teacher.
.6.3.6. was, were + to.

The meeting ____ to begin at 6.

The meeting was to begin at 6, wasnt it?
They ___ to have their exams on Wednesday.
Lucy ___ to speak at the meeting
He ____ to show the guests round.
Bob ___ to come back by Friday.
They ___ to produce the new machine two months ago.
The competition ___ to go on for at least 4 days.

.6.3.7. had better + to ,

. , had better (not) .
Its too late. You had better go home now.
a. John has a bad toothache. He __________ .
b. The undergraduates are having a test today. They ___________ .
c. Its raining cats and dogs ( ). You ___________ .
d. Bob wants to study German but he doesnt know what to begin with. Bob,
_________ .
e. Olgas English pronunciation isnt too good, she has a thick accent. What to do
about it? ______ .
*.6.3.8. ,
must, need have to.

a. A. What time _________ we ____________ leave for the airport?

B. Its only a thirty-minutes drive, so we _______ go until about 3.30. I

__________ do my packing I havent start yet!

b. I have an interview for a job next week, but before the interview I _______ have a
medical examination.
c. How did you damage your bike? You ______ learn to look after your toys. When I
was your age, I ____________ clean my bike every night.
d. Theres a new Indian restaurant just opened that you should go to. Its wonderful!
You ____________ book, though, because its so popular already.
e. Im sure she didnt mean to upset you. You _______ take things so personally.
f. I hate __________ get up on cold, winter mornings.
g. I hate _________ tell you this, but youve just got a parking ticket.
h. I have perfect teeth. I ____________ never __________ have a single filling.
i. I think Ive put on weight. I ___________ watch what I eat in future.
j. I dont think a career in the army would suit me. I ______ wear a uniform, for a
k. You _____________ worry about me. I can look after myself.
l. The doctor said Ive got conjunctivitis. I ______ put drops in my eye three times a
m. What a wonderful meal that was! You _____________ gone to so much trouble!
n. I got something for my cough from the chemistss, so I ______ go to the doctors.
o. I was very concerned about how my daughter would find going to her new school,
but I ____________ worried, because she loved every minute.
p. You _________ take out travel insurance, but its a good idea, just to be on the safe



can, could, to be able to. ,
- , could .
was able to managed to . Can could
may , -
. may .

In my country you ____________ get married when you are 16.

Women ___________ vote in England until 1922.
Last night I __________ get into my house because I had forgotten my key.
I phoned the Gas Board because I thought I ___________ smell gas, which is very
Hello. Is that the dentist? ___________ I make an appointment to see you, please?
Im learning car mechanics because I want ___________ to service my own car. It
costs a fortune if you send it to the garage.
Many night animals ______________ see very well, but they have a highly
developed sense of smell.
If you __________ do this exercise, youre very clever!

.6.4.2. ,
, . Mr Roberts Mr
Thomas ,
. , .
- .

But Im taking Dave to see his girlfriend in hospital.

Yes, what is it?
I told you. I need it.
Its not a very convenient time at the moment.
Well, as you know, my father cant walk very well, and he needs to go into
hospital. I was wondering if I could have a day off work?
Thank a lot, Dad. I wont be home late.
Oh, please. He wont be able to go if I dont give him a lift.
Thats very kind. Ill make up the time, I promise.
No, you cant. I need it.
Mr Roberts? Could I have a word with you?
Id be terribly grateful. He wouldnt be able to go if I werent there to help him.

l. All right. I suppose I can walk. The exercise will do me good.

m. Well, if thats the case I suppose you should.
n. Dad, can I have the car tonight?

- Mr Thomas:
- Mr Roberts:

- Son:
- Father:

.6.4.3. .
can may
might must dont have to neednt ought
rather want
Foreign students in Britain (1) ________ usually stay with family or they (2)
_______ be able to find a cheap hotel if theyd (3) ________ be on their own. Those
who (4) _______ to improve their English very quickly normally stay with a family.
Students who come to Britain for more than three months (5) _______ register with
the police. If you stay for less than three months, you (6) ________ register at the
police station. All foreign students (7) ________ to register with a doctor although it
is not compulsory. You (8) ________ need medical help during your stay. If you fall
ill, you (9) _________ go directly to a hospital unless it is a serious emergency.
Phone your doctor first.


.6.5.1. , might
: Take your umbrella because . (rain)
Take your umbrella because it might rain.
a. Shes not sure what to do when she leaves university(have a holiday / look for
a job).
b. They dont know where to have a holiday..(Spain / stay at home).
c. Write my telephone number in your book.(forget it).
d. Ill try to arrive at 8.00, but .(be late) if the traffic is bad.
e. Im going to Paris for a meeting next week. (stay the night / come back the same
day). It depends how long the meeting goes on.

. 6.5.2. ,
} do, be doing
a. Theres no point in phoning him this afternoon. He _________ (work) in the
garden, and he __________ (not hear) the phone.
b. Dont forget your umbrella. You never know, it __________ (rain).
c. A I hope we ___________ (not disturb) Pat when we drop in tonight.
B Dont worry. She _____ (not work). She told me yesterday she never works in
the evening.
d. Its a crazy idea but it _____________ (work).
e. A I have invited Jane to the party on Saturday.
B She ____________ (not come). She hates parties.
f. A Ive bought three kilos of cheese for the party.
B Thats rather a lot, isnt it? They ___________ (not like) cheese.
g. A Why havent you gone to the airport? I thought you were going to Rome.
B Im sure the plane _____________ (delay - passive). The weathers too bad.
h. Be careful with the dog. She turns a bit nasty sometimes, and _______ (bite) you.
i. I dont know why I bother with my girlfriend. I know exactly what ______
(happen) tonight. I ______ (go) round to her house to pick her up, she ________
(have) a bath or ___________ (do) her hair as she always is, and I ________ (have
to) wait three hours for her to get ready.
j. I have nothing to wear for this party. All Ive got is this old black dress, and Suzy
___________ (wear) something spectacular, as usual.
.6.5.3. 1, must
cant, , 2.
: A Is Jane married?
B She cant be married. Shes only fifteen.
1. Is Jane married?

a. I saw her looking at wedding ring


2. I saw Alice in town yesterday.

b. Ive just seen her playing tennis.
3. I was served in a restaurant by Tessa. c. Shes only fifteen.
4. Is Sheila thinking of moving?

d. Theres a strong smell coming from

next door.

5. Did Anita get engaged to Alan?

6. Has Pat hurt his leg?
7. Is Jenny going out with Tom?
8. Is Mary having her flat decorated?

e. She went abroad last week.

f. She told me she did not like him.
g. Shes a school-teacher.
h. Theres a For Sale notice up outside
her house.

.6.5.4. , must, cant might

: Im sure Harrys at least sixty.
Harry must be at least sixty.
Perhaps hes having a party.
He might be having a party.
a. Im sure he hasnt retired yet. He still leaves the house every morning.
b. Im sure he isnt very well off. His house is in a terrible mess.
c. Perhaps he spent all his money when he was younger.
d. Im sure he does a lot of gardening. His garden looks beautiful.
e. Im sure hes read a lot of books about gardening. Hes certainly expert.
f. Im sure hes working in his garden now. I can hear someone digging.
g. Now I can hear voices. Perhaps hes talking to Miss Appleby.
h. No, Im sure it isnt Miss Appleby. Its two mens voices.
i. Theyre shouting. Perhaps they are having an argument.
j. Theyre talking about money. Perhaps Harry owes the other man some money.
k. Now I cant hear anything. Im sure theyve gone inside.
l. My God! A gun shot! Im sure Harry killed him!
m. No, theres Harry outside, so it wasnt Harry who was shot.
n. Theres a siren. Im sure this is the police arriving.
o. Look at all those lights and cameras. Ah! Now I understand. They were making a

.6.5.5. ,
I wonder how the thief got in. He (a) __________ used a ladder or he (b) ________
had a key. Ah! Whats this? Broken glass by the kitchen door, and the door has
been unlocked. He (c) _________ broken the window, put his hand inside, and
turned the key. That (d) __________ made a noise. I wonder if the neighbours
heard anything?
(He goes next door to talk to the neighbours, and knocks on the door.)

There is no reply. I suppose they (e) _________ be on holiday, or they (f)

___________ watching television.
(He listens at the letter-box.)
I can hear voices. Someone (g) _________ in. Rather odd.
(He goes back to the Smiths house.)
Now I wonder what was stolen. I dont think the Smith family is terribly well off, so
the thief (h) _________ found a lot to steal. It was clever of him to come in just after
Mrs Smith went shopping. He (i) ___________ known she would be out. What was
that noise? It came from upstairs. The burglar (j) _________ not _______ left the
house yet! He (k) __________ hiding upstairs! Id better go and see.
.6.5.6. , ,
. 2 5 ,
a. It is possible that you gave her the wrong number.

You __________ the wrong number.
It is not possible that Richard knew about this.
Richard ________ about it.
Perhaps Susan didnt want to come to the party.
Susan ________ to come to the party.
There is a possibility that Mary forgot about the meeting.
could: Mary _______ about the meeting.
I am certain that he wasnt telling the truth.
He _______ lies.
He might have seen the film already.
Perhaps ________ the film.
The police say his death was definitely not an accident.
been: The police say his death ______ an accident.
There is no doubt that he was driving too fast at the time.
must: He ________ too fast at the time.
Perhaps Colin was in the bath when you phoned.
Colin ________ in the bath when you phoned.
It is possible that she did not receive my letter.
may: She ________ my letter.

.6.5.7. ,
a. Im not certain, but it might / must have been half past four.
b. You must / cant have been sunbathing all week - you havent got a tan.


Why dont you sit down? You may / must be exhausted after such a long journey.
She cant / must have gone on holiday. Shes got too much work to do.
It cant / must have been Tom who left the lights on. Hes always doing that.
Laura may / cant have tried to phone earlier, but I dont know for sure.
He must / might have picked up this gun because his fingerprints are all over it.
She cant / could have eaten that whole cake herself - it was huge!

6.6. .
.6.6.1. . ,
: a. She can dance but she cant sing. a. 8.
1- request; 2- offer; 3- intention; 4- strong obligation; 5- mild obligation; 6prohibition; 7- no obligation; 8- ability; 9- permission; 10- certainty; 11- possibility.
a. Could you do something for me? I have a problem.
b. I think you should write and apologize.
c. What time do you have to start work?
d. She could read when she was three.
e. Will you lend me some money?
f. Ill pay you back tomorrow.
g. Could I use your phone for a moment?
h. You must hold it very carefully. Its very fragile.
i. You mustnt drive if youve been drinking.
j. Give me your suitcase. Ill take it to the car.
k. Thank you, doctor. Shall I come in a week?
- Only if absolutely necessary.
l. They must have been arrived. Their car is in the drive.
m. They must be in bed.
n. They cant be out at this time of night.
o. You cant consult your neighbour at the exam.
.6.6.2. , can, could, might, must, should,
would .
. - .
a. A Im hungry.

B But youve just had lunch. You cant be hungry already. (be)
b. A I havent seen our neighbours for ages.
B No They must have gone away. (go)
c. A Whats the weather like? Is it raining?



B Not at the moment but it ______________ later. (rain)

A Where has Julia gone?
B Im not sure. She ___________ to the bank. (go)
A I didnt see you at Johns party last week.
B No, I had to work that evening, so I ___________ .(go)
A I saw you at Johns party last week.
B No, you didnt. You _____________ me. I didnt go to Johns party. (see)
A When did you post the letter to Mary?
B This morning. So she ______________ it tomorrow. (get)
A When was the last time you saw Bill?
B Years ago. I _______________ him if I saw him now.(recognise)
A Did you hear the explosion?
B What explosion?
A There was a loud explosion a few minutes ago. You ____________ it.(hear)
A We werent sure which way to go. In the end we turned right.
B You went the wrong way. You ___________ left.(turn)

.6.6.3. .
a. Dont phone Ann now. (she might / have / lunch)

She might be having lunch.

I ate too much. Now I feel sick. (I shouldnt / eat / so much)
I shouldnt have eaten so much.
I wonder why Tom didnt phone me. (he must / forget)
Why did you go home so early? (you neednt / go / home so early)
Youve signed the contract. (it / cant / change / now)
Whats Linda doing? Im not sure. (she may / watch / television)
Ann was standing outside the cinema. (she must / wait / for somebody)
He was in prison at the time the crime was committed, so (he couldnt / do / it)
Why werent you here earlier? (you ought / be / here earlier)
Why didnt you ask me to help you? (I would / help / you)
Im surprised nobody told you that the road was very dangerous. (you should /
George was in a strange mood yesterday. (he might not / feel / very well)

.6.6.4. ,
a. Nissan is to announce on Monday a further modest rise in jobs at its plant in the

north east England city.

A The aim of Nissan is to announce on Monday a further modest increase in jobs at its plant.

B Nissan must announce on Monday a further modest rise in jobs at its plant.
C Nissan announced on Monday a further modest rise in jobs at its plant.
b. If the new investment project is to be adopted, it must be approved by the Board.
A No doubt the project has been approved by the Board.
B If the project is adopted it must be approved by the Board.
C For the project to be adopted it must be approved by the Board.
*.6.6.5. ,
, . ,
a. She can ski really well.
She _______ really well when she was five.
b. I can finish it by Friday but it won't be easy.
I __________ it by Friday but it wasn't be easy.
c. John can't live here. It's the wrong street.
Shakespeare ________ in that house. It wasn't built until 1840.
d. May I leave the room? I don't feel well.
I ______ the room because I didn't feel well.
d. I must check the oil before we leave.
I ______ check the oil before we left.
e. It must be raining. Everyone has their umbrella up.
It _______ . The ground is wet.
f. Thank you very much. You needn't give me a lift, but it's very kind.
You ________ me a lift, but it was very kind.
g. He needn't collect me from the station. I'll walk.
He ________ me from the station. I walked.
h. Why don't you take the exam? You might pass.
Why didn't you take the exam? You _______ .
i. He should stop smoking before it's too late.
He _______ stop smoking before it was too late.
j. I could visit you next Sunday.
I ________ you last Sunday. Why didn't you ask me?
k. There's the phone. It'll be Paul.
Did he have a deep voice? It ______ Paul.
l. He'll sit in the armchair for hours, staring into space.
He ___________ in the armchair for hours, staring into space.
m. Let's take the map. We may get lost.
I wonder where they are. They _______ .

*.6.6.6. , will, wont, must, cant, should

A. OK. Dont worry about the phone. Ill answer it. It _____(a) (be) David ringing
me about tonights meeting.
Hello. 37885.
Hello John. Its David. I tried ringing you earlier, but I got no reply. You (b)
___________ (be)
I havent been out all morning. You (c) ____________ (get) the right number. Never
mind. Whats about the meeting? How many people can we expect?
There (d) ____________ (be) quite a few, judging by the number of enquiries weve
been having. One things worrying me. I havent heard from the speaker, Joan
Bakewell. Im sure she (e) __________ (forget), but it isnt like her not to get in
touch. Shall I give her a ring?
Not now, no. She (f) ___________ (teach). Youd better wait an hour or so.
Ive bought twenty bottles of wine for the party afterwards. That (g) __________
(be) enough, dont you think?
Yes, plenty. Ill see you later, then. Bye.
B. You (h) ___________ (be) very excited about your new book.
Yes, I am. It (i) ____________ (sell) quite well if the publishers research is
It (j) ____________ (take) you a long time to write.
About three years, yes.
What about your first book?
Im not terribly sure, but it (k) ____________ (do) very well, because it hasnt been
reprinted, and the first print run was only five hundred copies.
Better luck with this one!
C. My bank statement says Im overdrawn. There (l) __________ (be) some
mistake. I (m) ______________ (get) through a whole months salary already!
We (n) ____________ (spend) too much money on the house lately.
But how come Im overdrawn?
It (o) ____________ (be) the desk we bought. It was over eight hundred pounds.
How much have you got ?
About four hundred pounds.
Oh, well. That (p) _____ (get) us through to the end of the month if were careful.
D. Do you think Joey (q) ____________ (get) my letter yet?

She (r) ___________ (receive) it by now. I havent heard of any hold-ups with the
post. When did you send it?
Last week. I just wonder why she hasnt rung to tell us how she intends to pay us
back the money she owes us.
She (s) ____________ (think) up a good excuse as to why she cant, I bet.
.6.6.7. , may, might could
. .
I. I wonder why Alan didnt buy me anything for my birthday. I suppose he (a)
________ (forget). Or he (b) _______ (think) that now Im getting on. I dont like
to be reminded of my advancing years. On the other hand, he (c) _________ (not
forget)! He (d) __________ (give) me a present this evening when I see him. Oh
no! He (e) _______ (plan) a surprise party, as he did last year. What a disaster that
was! I hope he isnt doing it again!
II. Every time I phone Jane, its engaged. Its very annoying. I suppose she (f)
____________ (try) to phone me while Im phoning her. Ill wait a while.
III. I cant help worrying when Jack is late back home. I always think that he (g)
__________ (have) an accident, and that he (h) __________ (lie) on the side of the
road with ambulances and police cars all about him. I know its irrational. Wait a
minute! Its Tuesday today, isnt it? He works late some Tuesdays. He (i)
___________ ( not leave) the office yet. Ill give him a ring.
VI. I wonder why Helen has got all these books on Greece from the library. I
suppose she (j) __________ (think) of going there on holiday. On the other hand, she
(k) __________ (not get) them out for herself. They (l) ___________ (be) for Henry.
He (m) ____________ (write) a project on Greece for his geography course.
*. 6.6.8. could, managed to
be able to.
a. Whats forty-eight divided by eight? I ______ never ____ to do sums in my head.
b. ___________ drive has changed my whole life. Now I can go wherever I want
without having to worry about public transport.
c. I had a row with Sheila last night about nuclear arms. I __________ understand
the point she was trying to make, but I still didnt agree.
d. A girl was drowning, but I jumped in and I __________ save her. I ___________
swim since I was six.

e. The view was breathtaking. You ___________ see right across the valley to the

hills in the distance.

f. Why dont you stop smoking? You __________ do it if you tried.
g. Anns operation was very successful. The doctors say she _________ walk again
in few weeks.
h. Im learning Russian because I want ______ talk to people when I go there next
**.6.6.9. , could, may, must, have to, should


Einstains theory predicted that the universe was not static, but _____ (be) either
expending or contracting.
Because the universe is expanding it ______ (cool), which means that it _____
(be) much hotter when it was young.
Therefore, a significant fraction of the universe ____ (consist) of nonbaryonic
There were no longer free electrons to absorb and scatter light, and photons
_____ (travel) freely through the universe.
These fluctuations _____ (cause) by something that happened even earlier.
We _____, however, (be) careful about taking these models too seriously; they
all _____ (be) wrong.

6.7. .
.6.7.1. . ( )
a. The fire spread through the building quickly but everybody ______________ .



A was able to escape

B managed to escape
C could escape
The phone is ringing. It ______________ be Tom.
A might
B can
C could
Why did you stay at a hotel when you went to New York? You ____________
with Barbara.
A can stay
B could stay
C could have stayed
Ive lost one of my gloves. I ___________ it somewhere.
A must drop B must have dropped C must be dropping
D must have been dropping
Take an umbrella with you when you go out. It _____________ rain later.
A may B might
C can
D could
What was wrong with you? Why _______________ go to hospital?
A had you to
B did you have to
C must you

g. Theres plenty of time. You __________ hurry.

A dont have to B mustnt C neednt

h. It was a great party last night. You __________ come. Why didnt you?
A must have B should have
C ought to have
D had to
i. I think all drivers _________________ seat belts.
A should wear
B had better wear
C had better to wear
.6.7.2. , , ,
a. The author ________ extremely ambitious indicating only desirable targets instead
of attainable ones.
A must have been B ought to have been C should have been D was to have been
b. The company is considering whether any new products ____________ to the line

for sale in foreign countries.

A need to be added B should be adding C need add
D ought to add
c. Price restrictions __________ prevent firms from using the strategies they
consider optimal in achieving their ends.
A may B should C must
D ought to
d. If you have a high blood pressure, you __________ stop eating salt and go on a
saltless diet.
A had better
B are better C need better
D may better
f. You _________ go out without coat.
A are better not B were better not
C better not
D had better not
g. When _________ we ________ expect you?
Soon after half past five.
A are ____ to
B must ___ ___ C do ______ have to D need _____
h. Dont contradict her. You _________ respect her old age.
A are to
B have to
C should
D ought to
i. All the samples of new products must be ready by Friday because the exhibition
__________ on Saturday.
A is to open B has to open
C should be open
D should open
j. Travelers __________ their reservations well in advance if they want to fly during
the Christmas holidays.
A had better to get B had to get better C had better get D had better got
k. Thanks to a letter of credit the importer is able to buy without ________ in
A having to pay B having paid C have paid D have to pay
l. Because of variety of developing countries participated in OPEC, their potential
impact ___________ no longer _________ .
A had _____ ignored B could _____ be ignored C had ____ to be ignored

D should _____ have been ignored

m. I am going to visit Ann.
You __________ to telephone her first
A ought
B might
C should
D must
n. The Ford theatre where Lincoln was shot _________ .
A must restore
B must be restoring
C must have been restored
D must restored
o. If we __________ succeed, we need to change the structure of our company.
A have to
B must
C should
D are to
p. No two corporations have the same name. For example, if the companys name is
Maxwell Manufacturing, no other company _____________ under that name.
A must get incorporated
B should become incorporated
C need be incorporated
D may incorporate
q. If you have a credit card you __________ carry a lot of cash with you.
A must not
B do not have to C have not
D might not

r. This rule _____ here. Its an exaption.

A doesnt apply
B is not apply
D must not have been applied

C shall not be applied

.6.7.3. , ,
a. Black box is a device whose (A) internal workings (B) are immaterial: its ()

behavior must (D) be examined only at its input and output terminals.
b. Whoever (A) inspected this (B) radio should have put (C) their (D) identification
number on the box.
c. When a patients blood pressure is much (A) higher than (B) it should be (C), a
doctor usually insists that he will not (D) smoke.
d. The more (A) profits US corporation earn in another (B) countries, the less (C)
they need to care (D) about infrastructure and education in their country.
7. . . .
. .

7.1. .

Present Simple (I live)
Present Contin. (I am living)
Present Perfect (I have lived)
Present Perfect Contin.(I have
been living)
Past Simple (I lived)
Past Contin. (I was living)
Going to (Future) (I am going to
Will Future (I will live)
Can (I can live)

Past Simple (He said he lived)
Past Contin. (He said he was living)
Past Perfect (He said he had lived)
Past Perfect Contin. (He said he had
been liveng)
Past Perfect (He said he had lived)
Past Perfect Contin. (He said he had
been living)
Was going (He said he was going to
Would (He said he would live)
Could (He said he could live)

May (I may live)

Must (I must live)

Might (He said he might live)

Had to (He said he had to live)


That day
That night
tomorrow (night)
The next / following day (night)
next week
The following week
last week
The previous week
The previous day
Previously / before
. 7.1.1.b.
a. Ive attended two conferences this year.
b. Ive visited several genetic laboratories.
c. Ive seen a lot of interesting things.
d. Ive given two lectures at Prinseton University.
e. Im planning to visit Oxford.
f. Im hoping to go to Scotland.
g. Im writing my thesis now.
h. Im studying an interesting problem.
i. Ill start my next paper with the statement of the problem.
j. My paper will consist of four sections.
k. In the introduction Ill outline the present state of research in the field of
a. I can ring the Bank Manager.
b. I may go abroad.
c. We must observe the experimental conditions.

d. I cant promise you my assistance in this matter

e. I may not be able to send you a copy of my paper shortly.
f. I must think about it.
g. I cant do anything about it tonight.
h. I must write an account of my work.
We are going to play tennis. ()
Shes meeting her publisher. ( )
Ill come, he said. ( )
Hell win, Im sure, I thought. ()
a. Henry! Good Lord! I forgot you _____________ (come) for supper. I havent
bought anything to eat at all! Never mind. Come in.
b. The start of the film was dreadful. I hoped it ___________ (get) better, but in fact
it got worse as it went on.
c. I went to bed early as I ___________ (leave) for New York the next day, and I
wanted to feel refreshed when I arrived.
d. She didnt worry about her son, Tom. He was a sensible boy, and she knew he
__________ (take) care of himself.
e. I had invited Pat and Peter for supper at 8.00, but I didnt start getting things ready
until 7.30 because I knew they __________ (be) late. They always were.
f. Arent you Annie Beecroft? Do you remember me? Last time I saw you, you
___________ (emigrate) to Canada! Did you?
7.1.2. O .
- ,

Present Future: My brother told me about the book which you are
reading. He was not able to translate the article because he does not know
English well enough. He refused to go to the theatre as he will have an
examination in Economy in a few days. It was not so cold yesterday as it is today.
- must ( ), should ought
: He tells (told) us that we mustnt
cross the road against the red light. He says (said) that I ought to send her a
telegram at once. I tell (told) him that he should consult a doctor.

, : It is (was)
necessary that he send us the documents.

: Galileo proved that the earth moves (moved) round the
to believe, to
assume, to suggest, to express, to maintain, ..,
: The author suggested that the main valency chains
of lignin are built up by a repeating 2-ring system.

**.7.1.2.a. .
a. They held that this observation _____ (show) the reaction to be intermolecular.

b. Kelner discovered that visible light ____ (have) the remarkable ability of restoring
c. It was noticed that some water ____ (distill) at the beginning of the distillation.
d. It was supposed that hydrate formation ____ (play) a part in the aqueous
e. He was modeling the simplest possible chemical reaction hydrogen exchange, in
which a hydrogen atom ____ (slam) into a hydrogen molecule and _____
(replace) one of its two atoms.
f. It was found that other derivatives ____ (not result) in higher yields.
g. He established the formula of the alcohol and suggested that saponification of the
ester (under rather drastic conditions) _____ (proceed) as follows.
h. It was shown that the velocity constant ____ (be) unaffected by an increase in
viscosity of the reacting mixture of over 2,000 fold.
i. Gauss deduced the fundamental theorem from Proposition 30 in Book 7 of
Euclids Elements, which ____ (state) that if a prime ____ (divide) a product of
two integers, then the prime must also divide at last one of the factors.


do not

- if: Will you move over please, Jim? He asked Jim if he would
move over.

- to: He asked Jim to move over.

.7.2.1. ,
to tell to ask .
: Come into the sitting-room.
She told (asked) me to come into the room.
Dont go there.
She told (asked) me not to go there.
a. Dont sit down by the window.
g. Ask at the station.
b. Ring me this evening.
h. Have another piece of cake.
c. Look in the cupboard.
i. Write to Head Office about it.
d. Take a couple of aspirins.
j. Take it back to the shop where you
bought it.
e. Pour yourself another whisky.
k. Explain to them what happened.
f. Dont be late, please.
l. Dont open the book.
*.7.2.2. .
a. If you see him ask him to ring me, she said.
b. When you are driving away look into your driving mirror before turning right,
said my instructor.
c. Get the car off the road or to the verge if you have a puncture. Dont leave it on
the road, said my father.
d. If the lift should stop between two floors press the emergency button, he said.
e. If you dont like the programme switch to another channel, I said to her.


, ,
. ,
to beg, to instruct, to claim, to demand, to offer, to promise, to refuse, to
threaten, to admit, to suggest, to scream, to whisper, to stammer, to mumble to swear,
to yell, to boast, to sigh .
.7.3.1. to say, to tell, to speak, to talk to address
a. The boy _______ me his name.

b. The head of the state _______ on the television last night. He _________ all the

She _________ it in French. She _________ good French.
John and I ________ on different subjects.
I _______ Good-bye to them and left.
Professor Sedov _______ at the congress.
The friend _______ about their future investigation.
The foreigner ________ us in Italian.
Bob ________ me the time.

.7.3.2. ,
a. Im going to Paris soon.
She said _________________________________________________
b. Its time to start revising for the exam, said the teacher.
The teacher told _________________________________________
c. The film will be interesting.
I thought _______________________________________________
d. I cant help you because I have too much to do.
She said _______________________________________________
e. Anne has bought the tickets.
I was told ______________________________________________
e. It took me three hours to get here because the roads are flooded.
He told me _____________________________________________
e. I think its a crazy idea. It wont work.
She said _______________________________________________
e. Breakfast is served between 7.00 and 9.00.
The receptionist explained _________________________________
speak talk
I met Mr Brown in the street the other day, and we stopped and (a) _______ for a
He (b) ________ me that his wife had been taken into hospital. When I asked him
how she was, he (c) __________ that she was getting better.
He wondered why I hadnt been to the tennis club for a few months, so I (d) _______
that Id been very busy lately and just hadnt had time.

There is something you must (e) ___________ me, he said. How many languages
can your son (f) _________ ?
Four, I (g) ________ . Why?
I know your son has some very funny stories to (h) ___________ about learning
languages and living abroad. Were having a meeting of the Travellers Club next
week, and Id like him to (i) _________ at it.
I (j) ___________ I would (k) __________ to my son about it, and promised to get
back in touch.
Then we (l) _________ goodbye and went our separate ways.
.7.3.4. ,


ask tell warn urge remind invite persuade

I think you should accept the pay rise, Sir Albert Pringle said to the
shipbuilders leader.
We really must stay united, Peter Arkwright said to his members.
Dont forget to come to the meeting, Sir Albert said to his secretary.
Be careful of the press. They often make mistakes, said a colleague to Peter
I think we should return to work, said Peter. Well, if you think its a good idea,
we agree, said shipbuilders.
Please reconsider this offer, Sir Albert said to Mr Arkwright.
Stop work! Peter Arkwright said to the builders.
Have lunch with me, said Sir Albert to Peter.


: ;
, ;

; .
- if
whether . ,
.7.4.1. .

: Where do you live? Mrs Mawby asked.

She asked (me) where I lived.
a. How many bedrooms are there? Sally asked.
b. When do you want to move in? Mrs Mawby asked.
c. What sort of heating is there? Sally asked.
d. How often do you want the rent? Sally asked.
e. How far is it to the shops? Sally asked.
f. What do you think of the flat? Mrs Mawby asked.
g. Where have you been today?
h. What have you been buying?
i. Where do you intend to go tomorrow?
j. Why dont you learn Spanish?
k. Where are you going for your holidays?
l. When I see him, what shall I say?
.7.4.2. .
: Are you a student?
She asked me if I was a student.
a. Do you want to go abroad?
b. Do you think it will be possible to get a job abroad?
c. Do you intend to go to Germany?
c. Are you going to answer any advertisements?
d. Is there a chance you might continue with your studies?
e. Is John trying to get a job?
f. Have you been to the Labour Exchange?
g. Arent you tired of doing nothing?
h. Havent you got any plans at all?
i. Are you definitely going to leave home?
**.7.4.3. .
a. I cant turn this screw, said Ann. Will you do it for me?
b. Would you like to tighten the bolt? said Ann, handling me a spannel.
c. Would you mind discussing this question at the seminar?
d. Shall I explain my recent results?
e. Will you help me with translating the article please?
.7.4.4. .
The job interview.

The interviewer asked Bill why he wanted to change his job.

a. First the interviewer wondered if Bill is pleased with his job.
b. He needed to know what sort of translation Bill had ever been engaged in.
c. He was interested in how much Bill would like to get for his job.
d. He asked why Bill thought the company might be interested in hiring him.
e. He wanted to know what Bills career goals were.
f. He doubted if Bill was qualified enough for the job.
g. He asked if Bill could prove his experience with letters of recommendation from
his previous job.


.7.5.1. , ,
I had a most strange experience a few weeks ago. I was sitting at home, when at
about nine oclock there was a knock on the door. I wasnt expecting anyone, so I
wondered (a) _____________ . I opened the door, and there was this man, wearing an
old raincoat. I asked him (b) ____________, but he didnt tell me at first. He wanted
to know (c) ___________________ in the house, which I thought was an odd
question. Anyway, I said I was, because everyone else had gone out for the evening.
Then he asked (d) ________________, so I said that I wanted to know who he was
before Id let him into my house, which is only natural, after all. Anyway, he didnt
answer, but looked up and down the street. By this time I was getting a bit worried,
and I wondered (e) ______________ , because this chap seemed a bit suspicious. But
he told me (f) _____________. He was a policeman, and he showed me his card to
prove it. He said that the police were watching the people who lived in a house a few
doors away, and he asked me (g) ___________________ .
I said I didnt. Id seen them a few times, but I hadnt spoken to them. Then he
wanted to know (h) __________________ , so I said a few weeks. Id seen their
furniture van on the day they moved in. Then he explained (i)
_____________________ . He asked me if he could stay in my front room and watch
the street for a while, so I showed him in. I asked him (j) _________________ , and
he said it was because they suspected of being drug smugglers. I couldnt believe it.
He stayed for three hours, and then left. Anyway, a few days later, I read in the paper
that the police had arrested them.

if I knew them
if he could come in
why he was watching them
who it could be

5 who he was
6 what he wanted
7 if I should call the police
8 if I was alone
9 what he wanted to do
10 how long theyd been living there
**.7.5.2. , , ,
to ask, to tell, to say, : to
accept, to accuse, to admit, to advice, to agree, to apologize, to assure, to beg, to call,
to complain, to congratulate, to deny, to exclaim, to explain, to give, to hope, to insist,
to introduce, to invite, to offer, to point out, to promise, to refuse, to protest, to
remark, to remind, to suggest, to thank, to threaten, to warn, to wish.
a. He said, Dont touch the cable until youve switched off the power; it isnt safe.
b. You press the wrong button. Dont do it again. You might have a nasty accident,
said the mechanic.
c. Ill drop you from the team if you dont work harder, said the supervisor.
d. Never operating a cutting machine until youve oiled it and checked it, he said.
e. Youd better twist electric wires together using a pair of scissors, said John.
f. I wish the procedure would reduce the energy losses, he said.
g. Mr Brown, this is Mr White, he said.
h. Please, dont tell my colleagues, he said. I wont, I promise, I said.
i. Hurrah! Ive passed the first exam! he said. Congratulations! I said, And
good luck with the second!
j. You are in a difficult position for you cannot explain this result, said my
colleague. It is, I said.
k. I am sorry I am late, she said. My car broke down.
l. He expects a lot of work for very little money, said one of the engineers. Yes,
he does, said the other.


.7.6.1. .
a. How often do you attend your English classes? - I ask John.

A I wonder how often does John attends his English classes.

B I wonder how often John attends his English classes.
C I wonder how often attends John his English classes.
D I wonder how often John attend his English classes.
b. She has been unwell this week, hasnt she?

A I wonder if she has been unwell this week.

B I wonder if hasnt she been unwell this week.
C I wonder whether has she been unwell this week.
D I wonder has she been unwell this week.

c. It takes me twenty minutes to get to school.

A I wonder how long it takes you to get to school.

B I wonder how long does it take you to get to school.
C I wonder how long does you take to get to school.
D I wonder how long do take you to get to school.
d. They say John was in Japan in September.
A Where they say John was in September?
B Where do they say John was in September?
C Where do they say was John in September?
D Where they say was John in September?
e. It was a long conference, wasnt it?
A I wonder was the conference long or short.
B I wonder whether the conference is long or short.
C I wonder if it was a long conference.
D I wonder a long or short conference was.
f. The Consumer Price Index lists
A how much costs every car
B how much does every car cost

C how much every car costs

D how much are every car cost

g. Hello, Jim. I didnt expect to see you today. Sonia said you ______ ill.
A are
B were
C was
D should be
h. Ann ___________ and left.
A said goodbye to me
B said me goodbye

C told me goodbye

j. I dont understand this sentence. Can you ______ .

A explain to me this word
B explain me this word
C explain this word to me
1. .
.1.1.1.c. a. I havent got a computer. b. I am not a chemist, I am a biologist. c. You
made a very bad mistake. d. It is a convincing result. e. Do you keep a record of the results?
f. I work in a theoretical research team. g. Ive got a very good idea. h. It is a standard

.1.1.1.d. a. the,-; b. the, the; c. the; d. the; e. the, the; f. -,the, the; g. the; h. the, the, the;
i. -, the, the; j. the; k. the.
.1.1.1.e. a. the, the; b. a; c. the; d. the; e. a; f. a, the; g. a, a, the, the; h. the, the, the, -;
i. the, the; j. a, a, a, the, the; k. a, a, an, the; l. the, the; m. an; n. the, the; o. a; p. the, the.
.1.1.1.f. a-potatoes; b-the potatoes; c-friends; d-parties; e-children, things; frestaurants; g-photographs; h-the photographs.
.1.1.1.g. a. the; b. -; c. the; d. -; e. -.
.1.1.2.a. a. a, -, an; b. a; c. a; d. -; e. a; f. a little; g. -; h. a; i. -; j. -, a.
.1.1.3.a. the (a) work of an author; the knowledge of a subject; the (-) articles of a
scientist; the data of the authors; the students of a university; a man of science; the (a)
teacher of mathematics.
b. the mountains of the Crimea; the metals of the Urals; the electric power stations on the
Angara; the Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine; the forests of Siberia; many areas of our
c. the history of Art; the progress of science; the importance of education; the doctor's
degree; the forms of vegetable life; the interest for ecology; the population of the planet.
d. the (-) cars of the (a) train; means of transport; the purpose of the visit; the clerks of the
(a) hotel.
.1.1.3.b. a. the; b. a; c. the; d. a; e. the; f. the; g. a; h. the; i. the; j. a.
a. Number hundred and two, the house next door to us, is for sale. Its quite a nice house
with big rooms, the back windows look out on the park.
b. Professor Jones, the man who discovered the new drug that everyone is talking about,
refused to give a press conference.
c. Peter Piper, a student in the professors college, asked him why he refused to talk to the
d. The ship you were speaking about has just come onto the port. She has been at sea for a
long time. Look: the captain has just come on deck.
.1.1.3.d. a. -; b. -; c. the; d. a; e. the; f. the; g. the, -; h. -.
a. Wheres the coffee? Its in the cupboard.
b. Tennis is a very popular sport
c. We went for a swim in the river. The water was very cold.
d. I dont like swimming in cold water.
e. You must visit the art gallery. The paintings are very beautiful.


Money doesnt always bring happiness.

English is the language of international business.
Women are often better teachers than men.
In Britain coffee is more expensive than tea.
We had a very nice meal in that restaurant. The cheese was especially good.
Most people still believe that marriage and family life are the basis of our society.
They got married but the marriage wasnt successful.
I know someone who wrote a book about the life of Gandhi.
Life would be very difficult without electricity.
Do you know the people who live next door?
Are you interested in art or architecture?
Two of the biggest problems facing our society are crime and unemployment.
I hate violence.

.1.1.4.b. a. a; b. -; c. -; d. the; e. a; f. the; g. -; h. a, a, a; i. the, -; j. -, the, -, -.

.1.1.4.c. a. a, an, -; b. -; c -, -; d -, -; e. the, the, the, a; f. -; g. -, the, the; h. an; i. -; j.
the, -; k. the, the.
a. Were having lamb for lunch.
b. The sheep gave birth to a lamb in the middle of the night.
c. Would you like a cake?
d. No, thanks. I dont like cake.
e. This suit is made of very fine cloth.
f. Can you get a cloth, please? Ive just spilt tea on your carpet.
g. I went to a talk on the Russian revolution last night. It was very interesting.
h. There has been talk of redundancies at the British Shipping Company.
i. Service in restaurants isnt as good as it used to be.
j. The Health Service is suffering from severe cutbacks.
k. The Times is one of Britains oldest newspapers.
l. Time and tide wait for no man. ()
m. I dont usually like poetry.
n. But heres a poem I do like.
o. Do you want ice in your whisky?
p. The ice at the North and South Poles is said to be melting little by little.
a. some advice; a suggestion
b. news; an interesting announcement; some interesting information.
c. a thunderstorm; some bad weather.
d. some luggage; a suitcase.
e. some accommodation; a room for the night.
f. some strange equipment; a strange machine in his laboratory.

g. some music; a tape.

a. Of all those to whom he appealed one was actually not in a position to do anything for
him; another was afraid; a third was calculating eagerly to drive a hard bargain; a forth
was too deliberate, anxious to have much time.
b. Two people would have to hold the chair, and a third would help him up on it, and a
forth would hand him a nail, and a fifth would pass him up a hammer.
c. Professor Earle Fox ignored for a second time a buzzing signal from the secretary in the
adjoining office.
d. Mr Pickwick was perfectly aware that a tree is a very dangerous neighbour in a
thunderstorm. He had a tree on his right, a tree on his left, a third before him, and a
fourth behind.
e. Our apartment is on the third floor.
f. You are the forth visitor asking where room 40 is there.
.1.1.6.a. a-the blind; b-the dead, the injured; c-the rich, the poor; d-the unemployed; ethe sick.
2. A German, the Germans
3. A Frenchman (woman), the French
4. A Russian, the Russians
5. A Chinese, the Chinese
6. A Brazilian, the Brazilians
7. an Englishman (woman), the English
.1.1.7.a. a.. the, -, the; b. the, the, -; c. -, the, -; d. -, the; e. -, an; f. -; g. the, a; h. -, -, -;
i. the; j. -, the; k. -, the; l. -, the.
.1.1.7.b. a. -, -; b. the, the; c. -,the, -; d. the; e. -, -; f. -, the; g. the, the; h. -, the, -; i. the,
-; j. -; k. the; l. the, -, -; m. -, the, the; n. the, the, the; o. -, -, the.
.1.1.7.c. I. 1. -; 2. -; 3. -; 4. a; 5. the; 6. the; 7. -; 8. the; 9. the.
II. 1. the; 2. -; 3. -; 4. the; 5. the; 6. -.
.1.1.8.a. I. a. -, a, the; b -, a, a; c. -, -, the; d. -, -, -; e. an, -, -, -; f. an, the, -an, the; g. the,
the, the, -, the, the; h. the, a, -,the, -, -, -, -.
II. a. a; b. the; c. a, the, -, the; d. the, a; e. a, the, -, a, the; f. a, a, -; g. the, a, the, -, -, the.
III. a. -; b. -; c. -; d. a; e. a; f. -; g. -; h. -, -; i. a; j. -; k. -; l. the; m. the; n. a.
IV. a. the, the, the, a, the; b. a, -, -, a, an; c. the, the, -, -;
d. Would you like to hear a story about an Englishman, an Irishman and a Scotsman?
No, Ive heard stories about Englishmen, Irishmen and Scotsmen before and they are all
the same.

But mine is not a typical story. In my story the Scotsman is generous, the Irishman is
logical and the Englishman is romantic.
Oh, if its a fantastic story. Ill listen with pleasure.
V. a. -, the, -; b. the, a, the; c. the, -, -; d. -, the, a, the, the; e. -, -, -; f. the, a, the, -; g. the, the,
the, -; h. -,the, -; i. -; j. the; k. the, a; l. the.
VI. a. -, -; b. the, a; c. the, -; d. the; e. the, a; f. the, the; g. a, a; h. -, a; i. -,a; j. -, a, -.
.1.1.8.b. a. a, the; b. the, -; c. -,the; d. the, an, -; e. a, -, the; f. -; g. the, the, -; h. -, some;
i. -,the, -; j. a, the; k. the; l. a, -, some, -; m. a, some.
.1.1.8.c. a. one, a; a; b. a, a, one, a; c. a, -, an; d. a, a, a; e. -, one; f. a, a, -; g. a, a, one; h.
a, one, a, a, a; i. one, an, an.
a. Most of stories that people tell about the Irish arent true.
b. A married couple with (their) children often rent a cottage by the seaside for their
summer holidays.
c. Men hire boats and go for a trip along the coast; children spend days on the beach and
their poor mothers spend most of the time doing cooking and cleaning.
d. When the Titanic was crossing the Atlantic she struck an iceberg which tore a huge hole
in her bow. The captain ordered the crew to help the passengers into the boats.
e. Everywhere man has cut down forests in order to cultivate the ground, or to use wood as
fuel or as a building material.
f. But interference with nature often brings disaster. Tree-felling sometimes turns fertile
land into a dustbowl.
g. People think that lead is the heaviest metal, but gold is heavier.
h. You can fool some of the people all the time, and all the people some of the time; but
you cannot fool all the people all the time.
i. Why are you standing here with your hands in the pockets?
j. At most meetings people vote by raising their right hands.
k. The bullet struck him in his foot.
l. Someone threw an egg which struck the speaker on his shoulder.
m. He was a very tall man with dark hair and a small beard, but I couldnt see his eyes
because he was wearing dark glasses.
n. She pulled him by the (his) sleeve to attract his attention.
o. He is a thoroughly selfish man; he wouldnt lift his finger to help anyone.
p. We have a very good train service from here to the city centre and most people go to
(their) work by train. You can go by bus too, of course, but you cant get a season ticket
on the bus.
q. Id like to see Mr Smith please. Do you mean the Mr Smith who works in the box
office or another Mr Smith?
a. Jane, has anyone ever told you that youve got lovely fingers?

b. Im very interested in history, especially the history of Western Europe.

c. What lovely weather were having! Its such a nice day!
d. Were trying to sell our house. Some people came to see it on Saturday, and they were


quite interested, but the people who saw it on Sunday morning were very rude and said
they didnt like it at all.
Did you remember to buy some bread while you were out at the shops?
Crossing the English Channel can be quite unpleasant in bad weather.
The people who live on the floor above ours work in a government ministry.
Whats the government going to do about unemployment?

a. He lived in the United States for ten years.
b. John has cut his leg and needs some stitches.
c. It was the first time I had crossed the equator.
d. This is the only one left but you can have it.
e. The harder we work, the more money we make.
f. The Smiths are coming round to dinner tonight.
g. Its very disappointing news but thats life.
h. Eating chocolate always gives me pimples on my face.
i. What is on the radio this afternoon?
j. John plays football very well.
a. What a strange feeling it was to be going home when it was not home, and to find that
every object I looked at reminded me of the happy old home which was like a dream I
could never dream again.
b. One thing that really interested him in connection with his parents was the existence
somewhere in the east in a small city called Lycurgus of an uncle, a brother of his
c. But the bed I made up for myself was sufficiently uncomfortable to give me a wakeful
night, and I thought a good deal of what the unlucky Dutchman had told me.
d. The English of the 14th century differs from Modern English.
e. The walls, down which ran a number and variety of pipes and cables, were painted in
two contrasting of green - dark up to the height of five foot, lighter above that.
f. The London train was on the point of departure. It was yet an early morning, the hour of
milkmen and postmen. The station had a chill, unused, deserted look; the passengers
were few.
g. And now he was in a large bedroom overlooking the Thames, a chamber with a writing
table, a sofa, the telephone, electric bells and a massive oak door with a lock and a key in
the lock.
h. The sun comes up from the East and goes down to the West.
i. Mr Skimpole could play the piano and the violoncello; and he was a composer, had
composed half an opera once, and played what he composed with taste. After tea we had
quite a little concert, in which Richard and Mr Jarndyce and I were the audience.

,1.1.8.h. I. 1. a; 2. the; 3. a; 4. a; 5. -; 6. the; 7. the; 8. -; 9. the; 10. -; 11. the; 12. the; 13.
the; 14. the; 15. the; 16. the; 17. -; 18. a; 19. a; 20. a; 21. the; 22. the; 23. a; 24. a; 25. -.
II. 1. a; 2. the; 3. a; 4. a; 5. -; 6. the; 7. the; 8. -; 9. the; 10. -; 11. the; 12. the; 13. the; 14. the;
15. the; 16. the; 17. -; 18. a; 19. a; 20. a; 21. the; 22. the; 23. a; 24. a; 25. -.
III. 1. the; 2. a; 3. -; 4. -; 5. -; 6. -; 7. -; 8. a.
IV. 1. -; 2. a; 3. -; 4. -; 5. -; 6. the; 7. -; 8. -; 9. a; 10. the; 11. -; 12. the; 13. -; 14. -; 15. the;
16. -; 17. the; 18. -; 19. the; 20. -; 21. -; 22. -; 23. the; 24. -; 25. -; 26. a (-); 27. a; 28. -.
V. 1. -; 2. -; 3. a; 4. -; 5. -; 6. a; 7. a; 8. the; 9. a; 10. an; 11. a; 12. -; 13. -; 14. a; 15. a; 16.
the; 17. the; 18. the; 19. -; 20. the; 21. the; 22. -; 23. a; 24. -; 25. a; 26. the; 27. the; 28. the;
29. the; 30 -; 31. the.
,1.2.1.a. children, people, women, teeth, wolves, sheep, mice, feet, leaves, halves.
.1.2.1.b. boys, ladies, days, potatoes, parties, watches, glasses, cities, churches,
addresses, sandwiches, keys, videos, ways.
.1.2.2.a. a-are; b-is; c-is; d-are; e-are; f-are; g-are; h-are.
.1.2.4.a. b-attracts; d-is; h-is.
a. He couldnt give me many details.
b. When I moved into my flat, I had very little furniture.
c. There isnt much accommodation to rent in this town.
d. I havent got much luggage. Its in the boot.
e. I had a few minutes to spare, so I browsed round a bookshop.
f. Very few experiments have been done to find out the cause.
g. Its very quiet in my area. There isnt much traffic.
.1.2.7.b. a-are; b-are; c-are; d-are; e-are; f-is.
.1.2.7.c. a-phenomenon; b-data; c-hydrolysis; d-synthesis; e-thesis; f-nucleus; gminima; h-locus; i-basis; j-bacteria; k-formula; l-analyses; spectra.
.1.2.7.d. a-conditions, condition; b-honour, honours; c-pain, pains; d-terms, term; eexperience, experiences; f-good, goods; g-saving, savings; h-quarters, quarter; i-lengths,
length; j-ground, grounds; k-damage, damages; l-youths, youth.
.1.3.3. a. tissue cross section; b. molecular emission spectrum; c. pulse amplitude
electron energy; d. strong absorption coefficient; e. long term orbital research stations; f.
long term technical and scientific cooperation; g. alternating current generator; h. water
plant power; i- natural gas transmission station; j. continuous action computers; k. group

collaboration software; l. entire worlds fuel resources; m. consumer price index; n. gross
national product; n. quantity 5 per cent discount; m. Moscow Central Stock Exchange
.1.3.4. a. a visual information display; b. magnetic cards reader; c. a laser printer; d.
graphs plotter; e. magnetic disks holder; f. jet printer; g. a data transmission rate; h. a
multimedia presentation package; i. a batch data processor.
.2.1.1.a) seem, become, eat, migrate, begin, continue;
b) window, cigarette, below, advice, passenger, large;
c) dream, live, house, can, laugh, trip, smoke, air, dress, warm .
.2.1.2. 1, 2, 3, 9.
.2.1.3. 5,6 (warm),7,11,12,14 (plant),16 (place, rock).
.2.2.1.b. 1-fail; 2-remove; 3-collect; 4-master; 5-assist; 6-invent; 7-depart; 8-conclude;
9-decorate; 10-propose.
.2.2.1.c. aim; arrival; judgement; investment; approval; refusal; announcement; blame;
delay; mistake; rest; survival; development; proposal; trouble.
.2.2.1.d. enjoyment, package, expectation, achievement, usage, avoidance, requirement,
admission, disappointment, allowance, excitement.
.2.2.1.e. a-leakage; b-homeomorphism; c-multitude; d-polymorphism; e-shrinkage; fmagnitude; g-patronage; h-diamagnetism; i-storage.
.2.2.2.a. , :
Servant, employee, alcoholic, servant, racketeer, innovator, youngster, authoress, carpenter,
.2.2.3.a. : comfortable, careless, heroic, foolish, wooden, Texan,
deathly, truthful, famous, troublesome, statuesque, active, traditional, supplementary, easy.






.2.2.3.c. a) leafless, b) fearless, c) powerful, d) doubtless, e) wonderful, f) whiteness,

g)kindness, h) politeness, i) nervousness, j) pitiful, k) fruitful, l) careless, m) hopeless,
n)seriousness, o) respectful, p) thoughtful.
base (basis)

to agree
to invent
to complain
to discover
to prepare



.2.2.3.e. 1-silklike; 2- eventful; 3- rocky; 4-careless; 5-metallic; 6-penniless; 7-musical;

8- babyish; 9-stormy.
.2.2.3.f. : worldly, yearly, costly, womanly, stately,
cowardly, shapely, ghostly, lovely, friendly.


.2.2.3.g. 1-.; 2-., well; 3-., hard; 4-., good; 5-.; 6-.;
7-., well.
.2.2.4.a. blacken, politicise, falsify, tighten, characterise, sharpen, sympathy,
localise, shorten, purify, widen, normalise, empathise.


.2.2.4.b. a-economise; b-loosen; c-symbolised; d-specify; e-strengthen; f-socialise; gindustrialise; h-simplify; i-crystalise; j-united.


base (basis)
10 repeat



economic(al) economically

to industrialize
to invent
to compete
to criticize
to mechanize
to specialize
to politicize
to nationalize
to analyze
to activate

.2.3.3. 2-nationality; 3-changable; 4-summarize; 5-loneliness.

.2.3.4. 1- imagination-imaginative; 2- rapidly-rapid; 3- comparison-comparative; 4separation-separated; 5- decision-decisive; 6- mystery-mysterious; 7- chemicals-chemical;
8- repetitive-repetition; 9- agriculture-agricultural; 10- comparative-comparatively; 11lecture-lecturer; 12- satisfactorily-satisfactory.
.2.3.5. a-died; b-death; c-dead; d-die; e-dead, die; f-married; g-married; h-get married;
i-married; j-marry; k-got married; l-got married.
.2.3.6. a-economize; b-economic; c-economics; d-economical; e-economy; feconomists; g-economic; h-economical; i-business-like; j-get down to business; k- mind
ones own business; l-going into business; m-on business; n- business.
.2.3.7. 1.a-electronic; b-electronically; c-electronics;
2. a- technological; b-technologist; c- technologically;
3. identify, identifying, identifiable, identity
4. computerization, compute, computation
5. consider, considerable, consideration, considerably

6. applicants, applicable, applying, application

a. explanatory, explanation, explain, explained

8. dependably, dependence, dependent, depend

9. connectivity, connectors, connection, connected
10. creation, creating, creativity
11. generated, generation, generate
12. access, accessibility, accessible
13. analysed, analysis, analyse
14. correction, correctness, correctly
15. detectable, detect, detection
16. sensor, sensitive, sensation
.2.4.1. 1-e; 2-d; 3-f; 4-c; 5-b; 6-g; 7-a.
.2.4.2. 1-a; 2-g; 3-e; 4-f; 5-d; 6-c.
.2.4.3. a-mono; b-mega; c-de; d-semi; e-multi; f-dec; g-inter; h-dec; i-micro; j-micro; ksemi; l-sub; m-multi; n-micro; o-mono; p-multi; q-mini; r-de; s-mono; t-de.
in- : invalid, insane, inexact, invisible, inappropriate, indirect, inactive, inconvenient,
inaccurate, incomplete, insignificant, insufficient, inflexible
im- : impatient, impossible, impure, imperfect, implausible, impractical
un- : unlikely, uncertain, untrue, unequal, unusual, uncommon, unsuitable, unable,
unstable, unreasonable, unpleasant, unfriendly, unidentified, uncontaminated, unmistakable,
unsatisfactory, uneven, unknown, unfavourable, undetermined, unusable
infrequently, disloyal, discomfort, unspecific, unreal, improbably, unavailable, disassemble,
unsuitable, improper, unfit, unoccupied, disorder, undistinguished
.2.5.3.dishonest nonferrous illegal to disconnect to mispronounce to disarrange
irregular disagree nonfatal
.2.5.4. unacceptable immaturity nonnegotiable uncertified unnecessary dishonoured
disagreement inapplicable unemployed mismanage instability ineffective uninformed
inactive incompetent
inexpensive nonprofitable
.2.5.5. to disbelieve useless unimportance to unpack unreliable inefficiency to dislike
painless senseless to disappear inexperienced immaterial to disapprove untidy
improbable to unlock immature irresponsible to disconnect harmful
.2.6.1. 1-e; 2-g; 3-h; 4-j; 5-i; 6-b; 7-k; 8-d; 9-a; 10-c; 11-f.
.2.6.2. 1-d, d; 2-g, f; 3-a, e; 4-e, a; 5-b, c; 6-c, g; 7- f, b.

.2.6.3. a. confirmed - made valid; b. previous preceding; c. is altered - is changed d.

contemporaneously - at the same time; e. appropriate proper; f. ambiguity - having two or
more possible meanings ; g. distorts - changes the usual form.
.2.7.1. a. extremely; b. inefficient; c. carelessly; d. unkind; e. unattractive; f. happily; g.
unreliable; h. faultless; i. dangerously.
.2.8.1. a. economical; b. criminal; c. energetic; d. managing; e. politician, historian; f.
unsuccessful; g. perfectly; h. appointment; i. surprisingly; j. death; k. unfriendly; l.
overslept; m. improvement; n. cooking; o. traveling; p. reliable; q. endless; r.
misunderstanding; s. uneconomical; t. astonishing; u. comparison; v. competitors; w.
unexplored; x. poverty; y. specialty; z. carelessness.
. 2.9.1. a. well; b. rapidly; c. ordinarily; d. profoundly; e. most; f. employees; g.
relatively; h. fast; i. supervising; j. weight.
.2.9.2. a-c; b-a; c-d; d-b; e-a; f-b; g-a; h-c; i-d.
3. .
.3.1.1.a. b,c,d.
.3.1.2.a. a-me; b-her; c-whom; d-him; e-her.
.3.1.2.b. c,d.
.3.1.3.a. a-his; b-whose; c-hers; d-her; e-his; f-hers; g-my; h-yours.
.3.1.3.b. b,d,f,g.
.3.1.4.a. a-himself; b-myself; c-herself; d-myself; e-herself; f-yourselves; g-herself; hourselves; I-itself; j-yourself; k-himself; l-himself; m-ourselves; n-himself; o-herself.
.3.1.5.a. a-who; b-he; c-hers; d-me; e-she; f-his; g-him; h-who; i-mine; j-them; k-who;
l-himself; m-him.
.3.1.5.b. a-C; b-C; c-A; d-A; e-D; f-A; g-B; h-D.
.3.2.1. 1-all; 2-everybody; 3-all; 4-everybody; 5-everybody; 6-all; 7-all; 8-everybody; 9all; 10-everybody.
.3.2.2. 29 (+4).

.3.2.3. a-her; b-himself; c-their; d-she, he; e-his, her.

.3.2.4. a, b, h, i.
.3.2.5. a. has received; b.has to use his; c. his; d. are; e. his; f. is, wants; g. are, they are;
h. is, it is; i. is, it.
.3.2.6. a. their its; b. its; c. themselves himself; d. their its; e. their its; f. his
their; g. its his; h. her its; i. their his; j. its their.
.3.3.1.a. b,c,e,g,j,k,p,q,s.
a,f,l,n-who,that. n,i,o,-which, that. d-that, whose.
.3.4.1. a. anything, any; b. something, some; c. anyone, someone; d. some, some, any,
any; e. some (any), somewhere.
.3.4.2. a-anywhere; b-anyone; c-someone; d-anything; e-anywhere (
), somewhere ( ); f-anything; g-anywhere; h-somewher;
i-nobody; j-everything.
.3.4.3. 1-everybody; 2-anybody; 3-somebody; 4-anybody ; 5-nobody / no-one; 6anywhere; 7-everywhere; 8-anything; 9-anybody; 10-nothing; 11-any; 12-everyone
(), everybody ( ); 13-somewhere; 14-anywhere; 15-everyone / everybody
; 16-someone / somebody.
.3.5.1.a-other; b-the other; c-other; d-another; e-other, others; f-another; g-the other; hanother, others; i-the others; j-the other; k-other.
.3.6.1. few, a few, little, a little.
a. There are a few left in the tin. b. I have little time for relaxation. c. Few people give
more money to charity than she does. d. Theres little butter left, but not much. e. he has
little chance of success. f. Im afraid you need a few fillings, said the dentist. g. but
only a few of them ever worked properly. h. She just had a few spoonfuls of soup.
.3.7.1. a. them-it; b. him-he; e. they-he; g. him-one; h. they-he; i. them-their; j. them-it;
k. their-his; l. it-they; n. they-them; o. themselves-himself; r. him-he.
.3.7.2. I. 1-c; 2-b; 3-d; 4-e; 5-b; 6-d; 7-a; 8-f. 9-j; 10-h; 11-l; 12-i; 13-g; 14-h; 15-g; 16h/i; 17-j. II. 1-e; 2-g; 3-a; 4-i; 5-b; 6-d; 7-h; 8-c; 9-f.
.3.8.1. a-B; b-A; c-B; d-B; e-B; f-C; g-A,C; h-C; i-D; j-A,C; k-B; l-D,D; m-C.
.3.8.2. a-B; b-D; c-A; d-B; e-D; f-B.
4. .

.4.1.1.: a-in, at; b-at; c-on, in; d-in, at; e-in, at; f-at, on, at; g-on; h-on; i-in.
.4.1.2.: in the afternoon / the evening / spring / 1998 / 14-th century; at 3.30 / Christmas
/ my / weekends; on my birthday / Christmas Day / workdays.
.4.1.3.: a. in; b. when; c. for; d. ago; e. -; f. at; g. last; h. at, in; i. on; j. when; k. on; l. in;
m. ago; n. -; o. at,in; p. -.
.4.1.4.: in February; on Monday; at 11 oclock; at night; in the daytime; in March; on an
autumn day; at what time? late in the evening; on Friday; in the XYIII century; in June; in
the afternoon; at 2 oclock p.m.; on the 1st Sunday; on a fine September day; on Friday
evening; at noon; () in a fortnight; on the 2nd of December; at midnight; on sunny
summer morning.
.4.1.5. a-1; b-2; c-3; d-3; e-2; f-1; g-3; h-2; i-1; j-3; k-2; l-1.
.4.1.6. a-ago; b-for; c-during; d-for; e-ago; f-for; g-ago; h-while; i-during.
.4.1.7. b-on; c-at, on; d-at; e-on; f-at; g-in; h-at; i-during/in; j-on, since; k-for; l-at; m-at,
until; n-by.
.4.1.8. a-for, from, to; b-at; c-during, at; d-in, on; e-since; f-until; g-by; h-in; i-at; j-at.
.4.2.1. 1-A; 2-C; 3-A; 4-C; 5-C; 6-D; 7-A; 8-D.
.4.2.2. in the South; at the stadium; in/at the corner; at the post-office; at the factory; in
the meeting; in the sky; in the hostel; in/at the station; on the fifth floor; at the concert; in the
picture; in the apple-tree; in the forest; in the newspaper; in Ottava; at the chemists; in the
USA; in the air.
.4.2.3. a-against; b-out of; c-beside; d-beneath; e-below; f-behind; g-onto; h-towards; iover; j-among; k-over, across; l-above.
.4.2.4. a-in; b-by; c-at; d-on; e-on, in; f-to, at; g-on; h-in/on; i-to, to; j-in, at; k-in, on; lto, in; m-on, by; n-at; o-on; p-in, on; q-on; r-in, by; s-on, by; t-on, on.
.4.3.1. a-on; b-by; c-in; d-on; e-on; f-on; g-by; h-by; i-in; j-by.
.4.3.2. a-by plane/on a plane; b-is on the (train); c-work on foot; d-travelling by bicycle;
e-drove to Wales in.
.4.4.1. a-for; b-in; c-of; d-between; e-for; f-to; g-about; h-with; i-into; j-for.
.4.4.2. a-B; b-A; c-C; d-A; e-B; f-C; g-B; h-A.

.4.4.3. I. a-for; b-at; c-to; d-to; e-in; f-with; g-of; h-to; i-of; j-at/by; k-of; l-about.
II. a-with, for; b-for; c-of; d-of; e-from, to; f-about; g-to; h-at; i-for; j-for, for; k-of.
.4.4.4. a-out of; b-in; c-for; d-on; e-in; f-in; g-out of; h-at; i-on, by; j-on; k-for; l-in.
.4.4.5. a-in; b-in; c-on; d-on, under; e-in; f-in; g-for; h-in, in; i-in; j-by.
.4.4.6. a solution to the problem; on the contrary; in general; on average; in the end,
after all, at last; by himself; by chance, by accident; on purpose; to be responsible for; in
favour of; for ever, for good; in theory and in practice; to differ from; to have much in
common; to be terribly short of time, to be pressed with time; to be good in something; in
.4.5.1. a-in the beginning/at first; b-at the beginning; c- in the beginning/at first; dfinally, eventually; e-at last; f-in the end; g-at the end; h-in the end, eventually.
.4.6.1.a. a-for, in; b-with; c- about; d-of; e-in; f-from; g-to, about; h-with; i-on; j-in; kto; l-to, about; m-by; n-among; o-between.
.4.6.1.b. a-about; b-for; c-for; d-to; e-for; f-to; g-at; h-on; i-with; j-with; k-with; l-of; mto; n-from/through.
.4.6.1.c. a-What are you listening to?; b-Who is Jane talking to? What is Jane talking
about?; c-What are you thinking about?; d-What are they looking for?; e-Who is she going
on holiday with?; f-Who are you going out with?; g-What was your last night dream about?;
h-What did you argue about?; i-Who is Jane in love with?; j-Who is Sophie getting married
.4.6.1.d. a. Whats she talking about? b. What are you waiting for? c. What does he
work for? d. Who are you writing to? e. Who was she angry with? f. Who does the house
belong to? g. Whos the letter for? h. Who did you stay with?
.4.6.2.a. a-out of; b-away; c-back; d-up; e-over; f-out; g-in; h-out of; i-off.
.4.6.2.b. a-cant get at it; b-get me down; c-getting on; d-do you get on with; e-get over;
f-get in; g-got away; h-got away; i-get back; j-got stains off; k-to get in touch with you.
.4.6.3.a. a-look after babies while parents are out; b-look it up in the (dictionary); c-am
looking for; d-out; e-have been looking forward to; f-through; g-up.
.4.6.3.b. a-Ill put my cigarette out; b-put up the price; c-put me through; d-put them
away; e-put me off.
.4.6.3.c. a-put out; b-put up with; c-put them back; d-put it off; e-put them away.

.4.6.3.d. a-on; b-over; c-off; d-down.

.4.6.4.a. a-down; b-away; c-put; d-try; e-down; f-turn; g-up; h-out; i-fill; j-on,up; klooking; l-up; m-after; n-round; o-look; p-up; q-looking; r-back; s-fell; t-gave.
.4.6.4.b. a-over; b-off; c-up; d-up; e-up; f-up; g-on; h-up; i-on; j-along; k-up; l-up; m-in;
n-out; o-up; p-round; q-up; r-in, by; s-in.
.4.6.5.a. A a b c d e f g h i j
B 5 2 8 3 4 9 1 7 6 10
2 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 2
.4.6.5.b. a-talked it over; b-tried it out; c-gone off it; d-call it off; e-give it up; f-look
into it; g-get over it; h-turn it down; i-look after it; j-work it out.
.4.6.5.c. 1-c; 2-a; 3-d; 4-b.
.4.6.5.d. a-out of; b-on with; c-down on; d-away from; e-back on; f-down on; g-up to;
h-out of; i-up against; j-up to; k-in with; l-away from.
.4.6.5.e. . a-down; b-away; c-away, out; d-out; e-up; f-in; g-off; h-in; i-off; j-up; k-off; ldown; m-away.
.4.6.5.f. a-15; b-4(14); c-6; d-8; e-11; f-2; g-3; h-7; i-12; j-5; k-1; l-13; m-9; n-10; o-14.
.4.6.5.g. a-4; b-3; c-1; d-8; e-7; f-6; g-2; h-9; i-11; j-10.
.4.6.6.a. a-5; b-3; c-1; d-4; e-2; f-6.
.4.6.6.b. 1-to be short of; 2-will do; 3-to take up; 4-small change on/about somebody; 5high time, to hold a meeting; 6-to finish, to be through with, piece of job/work, at the latest;
7-to drop in/at; 8-to be up to; 9-to take place.
.4.6.6.c. 1. to do somebody good; 2. later on; 3. first of all; 4. next; 5. the day after
tomorrow;6 f. at the most; 7. in its turn; 8. for ever.
.4.6.6.d. a-to hold (carry on) the investigation (inquiring); b-to revenge herself for; cshe is bad tempered but not dangerous; d-to have the same dangers (problem) to face; e-to
do ones share to work properly; f-to refuse to do something; g-when almost too late; hintricasy.
.4.6.6.e. a-feather; b-house; c-cat; d-Rome; e-water; f-legs; g-kitchen; h-place; i-garden

.4.7.1. a-in; b-to; c-for; d-to; e-about/of; f-with; g-of; h-on.

.4.7.2. Education: a-by; b-from; c-from; d-for; e-on; f-with; g-to; h-from; i-for; j-in; kof; l-from; m-for; n-from; o-for; p-against; q-to; r-of; s-on; t-to; u-under; v-into.
The urge to get incorporated: a-into; b-of; c-in; d-at; e-at; f-in; g-to; h-in; i-to; j-on; k-up;
l-on; m-back; n-to; o-for; p-on; q-for; r-to; s-into; t-to; u-along; v-from; w-to; x-to; y-by; zon; aa-on, off; bb-in; cc-by.
.4.8.1. a-B,C; b-A; c-B; d-A; e-C; f-B,D; g-B; h-B; i-C; j-C; k-C; l-A; m-C; n-B; o-D;
p-D; q-A; r-B; s-C ; t-A.
.4.8.2. 1-b; 2-a; 3-g; 4-c; 5-d; 6-e; 7-f.
5. .
.5.2.1. 1.Past Simple.; 2.Past Simple; 3.Past Simple; 4.Past. Simple; 5.Pres.Perf.;
6.Pres.Perf.; 7.Past Simple; 8.Pres.Perf.; 9.Pres.Perf.; 10.Pres.Perf.; 11.Pres.Perf.;
12.Pres.Perf.; 13.Past Simple; 14.Past Simple; 15.Pres.Perf.; 16.Past Simple; 17.Past
Simple; 18.Pres. Perf.; 19.Pres.Perf.; 20.Past Simple; 21.Pres.Perf.
.5.2.2. 1.Pres.Perf.; 2.Pres.Perf.; 3.Pres.Perf.; 4.Past Simple; 5.Past Simple; 6.Past
Simple; 7. Past Simple; 8. Pres. Perf.; 9.Pres.Perf.
.5.2.3. a. Present Simple / Present Perfect. b. . Present Perfect. d.
. Present Perfect. e. . Future Perfect. f. .
Present Perfect; h. . Past Simple; i. . Past Simple.
.5.3.1. :b,c,e,g,h,j.
.5.3.2. a. He has; I am having. b. What do you think; What are you thinking.
c. I'm expecting; I expect. d. He appears; Roy Pond is appearing. e. Something smells; Why
are you smelling. f. the meat weighs; Why are you weighing. g. I see; She's seeing. h. I'm
having; He has. i. It looks; Are you looking. j. You're guessing; I guess. k. What are you
thinking; how much do you think.
.5.3.3. a. I can see; b. He's listening to; c. I like looking at; d. I usually watch; e. I can
hear; f. I can't hear; g. Look at; h. listen to; i. She's looking at; j. I can't see.
.5.5.1. a. were standing; b. stood; c. studied; d. was studying; e. was raining; f. rained;
g. was thinking; h. thought; i. were you doing; j. did you do; k. did you do; l. were you
doing; m. was dying; n. died.

.5.5.2. a. was watching, phoned; b. were you doing; c. jumped, rescued; d. saw, was
living; e. did you do, got off; f. rang, were playing; g. wrote; h. was writing, walked; i. were
you working, went; j. were sleeping, got; k. did the newsreader say, wasn't listening; l. took,
was having; m. did you see, was trying; n. didn't know, broke down; o. was raining, were
crying, decided.
.5.5.3. : b,c,d,e,f,h,j.
.5.6.1. a. has written, wrote; b. have tried; c. have never been, did you go; d. have
lived; e. lived, moved; f. met, have you known.
.5.6.2. a. have you lived; b. have you ever drunk; c. have you visited; d. did you go; e.
have you known.
.5.6.3. a. came, arrived, went, has been; b. have you seen, saw, have you looked, went,
asked; c. borrowed, have lost, did you go, did it happened, left, chained, phoned, happened.
a. He's worked there for many years, since 1986, I believe.
b. I have never loved anyone as much as I love you.
c. We've known Paul for two years. Have you ever met him?
d. I've known him since we went to school together, but I've never met his parents.
e. We have already sold two hundred tickets and there is still a month to go before the
f. I have never visited New York. Im looking forward to going.
g. Have you ever thought of learning to fly?
h. I have just received my exam result. It came ten minutes ago.
i. Janet hasnt finished with the camera yet. She needs it tomorrow.
.5.6.5. a-3; b-5; c-4; d-2; e-1.
.5.7.7. Castle fire: a. was damaged; b. was discovered; c. was injured; d. be rescued; e.
are believed to have been destroy; f. is not known.
Shop robbery: a. was forced; b. being threatened; c. had been stolen; d. was later found; e.
had been abandoned; f. has been arrested; g. is still being questioned.
Road delays: a. is being resurfaced; b. are asked / are being asked / have been asked; c. is
expected; d. will be closed; e. will be diverted.
Accident: a. was taken; b. was allowed; c. was blocked; d. be diverted; e. have been killed.
.5.7.8. a. was kidnapped; b. has been released; c. was examined; d. is said; e. was
found; f. saw; g. contacted; h. was told; i. has been found; j. is being questioned.
a. You will be given your tickets at the airport.

b. I was asked a lot of questions about my background.

c. Airline passengers are usually shown how to use a life jacket at the beginning of the

If you are offered a cheap camera, don't buy it. It's probably stolen.
You will be told what you have to do when you arrive.
I was advised by my parents to spend some time abroad before looking for work.
I have been told a lot about you.
In a few years' time, I will be sent to our New York office.

.5.7.10. a, b, c, f, i, j ,k, m, o.
d ,
l , ,
Mrs Ethel Templeton found the tiger. The tiger was found by Mrs Ethel Templeton.
n , .
.5.8.1. a-1; b-1; c-2; d-1; e-1; f-2.
.5.8.3. a. have been working, haven't finished; b. have visited; c. has taken, have been
looking for; d. have been shopping, haven't bought; e. have ever read; f. What have you
been doing, have been working, have planted; g. have been waiting, has arrived.
.5.8.4. a, b, d Present Perfect Cont.; c, e - Present Perfect.
.5.8.6. a. It is raining, I haven't brought; b. has known, has been growing, is trying; c.
have been listening, haven't understood; d. have been reading, have (have got); e. I am
writing; f. have been sitting, I have decided; g. have only been doing, have been offered,
have always wanted, don't like; h. do you know, have never been, are living; i. have been
trying, have been, have been turned down, have been applying; j. hope.
.5.9.3. 1. realised, had lost; 2. lost, had never played; 3. had bought, tried; 4. was, had
visited; 5. dropped, burst; 6. din't you speak, had left; 7. didn't eat, couldn't help, had iust
eaten; 8. looked, hadn't seen; 9. took, got, refused, forgot / had forgotten; 10. had spent,
realised, had done, had robbed, had burgled, had stolen, had never killed.
.5.9.4. : 1. Had never been on television; 2. Had gone / left by the;
3. Had never met him; 4. Before they signed; 5. Had never stayed; 6. Had just finished; 7.
He had written; 8. She (had) turned off; 9. We arrived soon; 10. After I had checked.
.5.9.6. a. had read; b. had been reading; c. had been playing; d. had never played; e. had
cooked; .f had been working.

.5.9.7. a. Somebody has taken it. b. They had only known each other (for) a few weeks.
c. It has been raining all day. / It has rain all day. d. I had been dreaming. e. I had had a big
breakfast. f. They 've been going there for years. g. I've had it since I got up. h. He has been
training very hard for it.
.5.10.4. a. used to drive; b. was driving; c. were studying; d. used to have; e. was
having; f. was playing; g. used to play; h. was wearing.
.5.10.5. a-3; b-1; c-1; d-1; e-3; f-1; g-1; h-2; i-1; j-2.
.5.11.1. Future Simple: b,c,e,g,h,I,j,k.
.5.11.2. a. I'll look; b. are going to; c. It'll (is going to), it'll (is going to), there'll be; d.
are going to, are going to; e. will (is), do (going to do); will, are going to; f. I'll give, I am
going to; g. will; h. are you going to.
.5.11.3. a. are going to miss; b. am not working; c. doesn't start; d. am going; e. are
going to faint; f. isn't going to like; g. am cooking; h. is going to look; i. don't close.
.5.11.4. a. he is going to join; b. he is going to have; c. leaves / depart at; d. am meeting
my bank manager; e. it is going to; f. are you going to do; g. is never going to drink; h. are
not doing; i. am not going to help; j. does not begin.
.5.11.5. a. I'll have; b. Are you going; c. shall I phone; d. It's going to land; e. it is; f. I'll
miss / I'm going to missyou go / you have gone; g. Shall I giveI givewill you write;
h. does it end; i. I'm going is getting; j. I'll tellI'mI won't be; k. I'm going to have /
I'm having; l. she apologises; m. we'll be living; n. you finish.
.5.11.6. a. I won't bethere is; b. won't gohave had; c. you'll phonego; d. are you
going, I've finishedIt'll take; e. don't hurrywe'll be; f. I'll comeyou find / have found;
g. you'll feelyou've taken; h. we'll have arrive / have arrived; i. won't forgetgo; j.
won't letI've been told.
.5.11.7. a. have passed; b. have finished; c. have been; d. has done; e. have done / do; f.
have seen; g. won't let; h. sign; i. will see; j. will pay; k. will be ; l. will come; m. will burn;
n. will be paid.
.5.12.1. 1. Make a mistake; 2. Do nothing; 3. Make a noise; 4. Do one's best; 5. Make
money; 6. Make a will; 7. Make friends with; 8. Make sense; 9. Do my homework; 10. Do
the housework; 11. Make a complaint; 12. Make up my mind to; 13. Do business with; 14.
Make a phone call; 15. Do an exam; 16. Make progress; 17. Make a speech; 18. Make a
mess; 19. Make sure that; 20. Do someone a favour.
a 20; b 16; c 1; d 13; e 8; f 12; g 3; h 11; i 19; j 4; k 17; l 18.

.5.12.2. a. making; b. make; c. done; d. making; e. doing; f. made; g. do; h. making; i.

made; j. does.
.5.12.3. a. I had supper. b. Did you have a good game of tennis? c. Have a nice time! d.
Did you have breakfast? e. Im going to have a bath. f. If you want to have a swim. g. Did
you have a good day? h. We had a row. i. Do you want to have a look? j. Could I have a
word with you?
.5.12.4. .
Horse riding is a hood fun. I had a ride on Janes horse.
Drinking too much alcohol is bad for you. Would you like to have a drink?
Looking for a job may be very frustrating. Have a look this photograph. Do you recognize
who it is?
My little son enjoys washing. Ill just have a wash, then Ill be ready.
Try to avoid quarreling with anybody. Whats the matter? Have you had a quarrel?
Walking in the early morning is one of lifes great pleasures. We had a lovely walk this
.5.12.5. Take: a trip, medicine, an airplane, place, part, a turn, a bath, a bus, your seat,
your temperature, the floor.
Have: a rest , dinner, lunch, a chance.
Make: a comparison, a suggestion, arrangements, a favour, a proposal, an experiment, an
appointment, a good job, friends, sure, advances, a speech, an effort, money, a bet, notes, a
promise, progress, a recommendation, a reservation, research, difference.
Do: housework, my best, homework, an exam, research, a hard time, a cold, a headache, a
cough, heart trouble.
.5.12.6. a. is done is taken; b. to do to make; d. have been done have been made;
e. take time have time; f. making doing; g. to do to make; h. to do to make; i. have
been done have been made; j. has been done has been made.
.5.13.2. a. raised; b. risen; c. rose; d. sat; e. set; f. set; g. lain; h. laid; i. laid; j. lying.
. felt; 2. fell; 3. filled; 4. felt; 5. felt; 6. feel; 7. fell; 8. fall; 9. feeling.
.5.13.4. 1. laid, lies; 2. lay; 3. laid; 4. lie; 5. lie; 6. lay; 7. lies; 8. laid; 9. lies; 10. lie; 11.
lies; 12. laid.
.5.13.5. 1. rises; 2. rose; 3. raised; 4. rose; 5. rose; 6. raise; 7. rose; 8. raised; 9. rose; 10.
rises; 11. raised; 12. am raising.
.5.13.6. : b (lain); c. (setting); f. (were raised); j. (laid); k. (rise); m. (set); p.

.5.14.1. a. havent had; b. didnt go; c. is wearing; d. has grown; e. havent decided; f. is
being; g. wasnt reading; h. didnt have; i. is beginning; g. found; k. wasnt; l. youve been;
m. Ive been going; n. didnt she go; o. Ive been playing; p. do you come; q. since I saw
her; r. for 20 years.
.5.14.3. a. I'll get a cloth; b. What will you do / are you going to do / are you doing; c.
I'm going back to university; d. Will I disturb / be distubing you; e. I'll miss my
appointment; f. I'll do / I'm going to do a retraining scheme.
.5.14.4. a. I'm coming; b. I'm going to see / I'm seeing; c. Will you be / are you; d. I
won't be; e. I'm going; f. are you going; g. is opening; h. are you going; i. I'm not back / I
won't be back; j. does your plane get in; k. I'll be / I could be; l. I'll see; m. we'll have
finished; n. I'll see you.
.5.14.5. a. are getting / are going to get; b. starts; c. will have; d. is being given / will be
given; e. will be / is; f. will have; g. are having / are going to have; h. are going; i. are
staying / are going to stay; j. is going to start / will start; k. will have cost; l. are you going to
get; m. will arrive / will be arriving / is arriving; n. does the play start; o. will get; p. will
have; q. are we doing / are we going to do; r. is taking / is going to take; s. will we get / will
we be getting; t. will have.
.5.14.6. 1. b; 2. a; 3. a; 4. b; 5. b/c ; 6. b; 7. a/b; 8. b; 9. b/c; 10. b;. 11. a/b; 12. a; 13. b;
14. a; 15. a.
.5.14.7. 1. Mr Brown is leaving at 3 pm this afternoon. Hes catching a flight to London
at Hellenikon Airport at 6 pm. 2. Mrs Curtis has ordered a taxi for 10.30 am. She will meet
her brother at the entrance to the Akropolis at 11.00 am. 3. Miss Wiseman has cancelled her
order for the Times newspaper. She would like to order the International Herald Tribune
instead. 4. Mr Drew, who made a booking for three nights in a single room with bath from
21 March 1997, has sent a letter confirming the booking. 5. Mrs Payne called the doctor at 9
am because her husband was ill. The doctor sent Mr Payne to the City Hospital at 11 am. 6.
John Adams left a message for Mr Authur at midday that he would not be able to meet him
in the Diplomat Bar at 7 pm this evening.
.5.14.8. A car. 1. began; 2. had shown / showed; 3. was built; 4. needed; 5. was
provided; 6. patented; 7. were selling / sold; 8. were registered; 9. has been; 10. include; 11.
are diminishing; 12. has risen; 13. will hold out; 14. is found; 15. be better managed; 16.
will become.
The microwave background radiation. 1. calculated; 2. would be; 3. was ignored; 4. was
finally discovered; 5. were measuring; 6. had made; 7. looked; 8. found; 9. expected; 10.
had discovered / discovered; 11. have been; 12. has been; 13. know; 14. varies; 15. has
made; 16. tells; 17. look; 18.compare; 19. will be.

.5.15.1. Present and Past. a. A; b. B; c. C; d. B, C; e. C; d. A.

Present Perfect and Past. a. B; b. C; c.A; d. C; e. A; f. B; g. A; h. D; i. A; j. A; k. A; l. C;
m. B; n. C. Future. a. A; b. C; c. A,C; d. B; e. C; f. A.
.5.15.2. a. C; b. A; c. B; d. C; e. C; f. D; g. A; h. A; i. B; j. A; k. C; l. C; m. A; n. A; o.
C; p. A; q. D; r. B/D; s. D; t. B.
6. .
.6.3.1. a. mustnt; b. neednt; c. neednt; d. neednt; e. mustnt; f. neednt; g. mustnt; h.
.6.3.2. a. ought to; b. mustnt; c. neednt; d. had better; e. must.
.6.3.3. a. have to; b. have to; c. dont have to; d. have to; e. should; f. dont have to; g.
should; h. dont have to.
.6.3.4. a. should; b. shouldnt; c. had to; d. mustnt / shouldnt; e. dont have to; f.
should, have to; g. must; h. having to; i. dont have to; j. have to; k. had to; l. mustnt; m.
has have to.
.6.3.8. a. do we have to; dont have to / neednt, must; b. have to;c. must,; d. must, have
to / need to; e. mustnt; f. having to; g. to have to; h. have had to; i. ll have to / must; j.
would have to; k. dont have to / neednt / mustnt; l. have to; m. neednt have ; n. dont
/didnt have / need to; o. neednt have ; p. dont have / need to.
.6.4.1. a. can; b. couldnt; c. couldnt; d. could; e. could; f. to be able; g. cant; h. can /
ve been able to.
.6.4.2. 1: j,b,e,d,k,m,h. 2: n,i,a,c,g,l,f.
.6.4.3. 1. can; 2. may; 3. rather; 4. want; 5. must; 6. mustnt; 7. ought; 8. might; 9.
.6.5.2. a. will be working, wont hear; b. may / might / could rain; c. wont disturb,
wont be working; d. might / could work; e. wont come; f. may / might not like; g. will be
delayed; h. may / might bite; i. will happen, Ill go, shell be having, doing, Ill have to; j.
will be wearing.
.6.5.3. 2-e; 3-g; 4-h; 5-a; 6-b; 7-f.
.6.5.4. a. He cant have retired; b. He cant be very well off. c. He might have spent;
d. He must do a lot of; e. He must have read; f. he must be working; g. He might be
talking; h. It cant be Miss; i. They might be having; j. Harry might owe; k. The

must have gone; l. harry must have killed; m. It cant have been Harry; n. This must
be; o. They must have been making .
.6.5.5. a. might / could have; b. might / could have; c. may / could have; d. must have;
e. might / could; f. might / could be; g. must be; h. cant have; i. must have; j. might not
have; k. may / might / could be.
.6.5.6. a. might have given; b. cant have known; c. may not have wanted; d. could have
forgotten; e. must have been feeling; f. he has already seen; g. cant have been; h. must have
been driving; i. might have been; j. may not have received.
.6.5.7. a. might; b. cant; c. must; d. cant; e. must; f. may; g. must; h. cant.
.6.6.1. a-1; b-5; c-4; d-8; e-1; f-3; g-1; h-4; I-6; j-2; k-2; l-10; m-10; n-10; o-6.
.6.6.2. c. could / might rain; d. might / could have gone; e. couldnt go; f. could / cant
have seen; g. should get; h. wouldnt / might not recognised; i. must have heard; j. should
have turned.
.6.6.3. c. He must have forgotten; d. You neednt have gone home so early; e.
It cant be changed now; f. She may be watching television; g. She must have been waiting
for somebody; h. He couldnt done it; i. You ought to have been here earlier; j. I wouldnt
have helped you; k. You should have been warned; l. He might not have felt very well.
.6.6.4. a-B; b-C.
.6.6.5. a. could ski; b. managed to finish; c. cant have lived; d. had to leave; e. had to
check; f. It must have been raining; g. neednt have given; h. neednt have collected; i.
might have passed; j. should have stopped; k. was able to; l. It would have been; m. would
sit; n. may have lost.
.6.6.6. a. will be; b. must have been; c. can have got; d. should / will be; e. wont have
forgotten; f. will be teaching; g. should / will be; h. must; i. should; j. must have taken; k.
cant be doing; l. must; m. cant have got; n. must have been spending; o. will / must be; p.
should / will get; q. will have got; r. should / must have received; s. will be thinking.
.6.6.7. a. may / might / could have forgotten; b. may / might think / have thought; c.
may / might not have forgotten; d. may / might / could give / be giving; e. may / might /
could be planning / have planned; f. may / might / could be trying; g. may / might / could
have had; h. may / might / could have had; i. may / might not have left; j. may / might /
could be thinking; k. may / might not have got; l. may / might / could be; m. may / might /
could be writing.

.6.6.8. a. have never been able; b. Being able to; c. could; d. manage to, have been able
to; e. could; f. could; g. will be able to; h. to be able to.
.6.6.9. a. had to be; b. must be cooling, must have been; c. may consist; d. could travel;
e. must have been caused; f. must be, may / might / could be.
.6.7.1. a. A,B; b. A,C; c. C; d. B; e. A,B,D; f. B; g. A,C; h. B,C; i. A.
.6.7.2. a. A; b. A; c. A; d. A; f. D; g. A; h. D / C; i. A; j. C; k. A; l. B; m. A; n. C; o. D; p.
A; q. B; r. A.
.6.7.3. a. D; b. C; c. D; d. B.

7. .
.7.1.1.c. a. were coming; b. would; c. was leaving; d. would; e. would; f. were going to.
.7.1.2. a. showed / shows; b. has; c. (should) distill; d. (should) play; e. slams, replaces;
f. (should) result; g. (should) proceed; h. (should) be; i. states, divides.
.7.3.1. a. told; b. spoke, addressed; c. said, spoke; d. talked; e. said; f. spoke; g. talked;
h. addressed; i. told.
.7.3.2. a. he was going; b. the students that it was time; c. the film would be; d. she
couldnt help me; e. that Ann had bought; f. that it had taken him; g. she thought it was; h.
that the breakfast was served.
.7.3.3. a. talked; b. told; c. said / replied; d. explained; e. tell; f. speak; g. said / replied;
h. tell; i. speak; j. said; k. speak; l. said.
.7.3.4. a. ask tell warn urge remind invite persuade
a. Sir Albert Pringle advised to the shipbuilders leader that he should accept the pay rise.
b. Peter Arkwright persuade his members that they really must stay united.
c. Sir Albert reminded to his secretary didnt forget to come to the meeting,.
d. A colleague warned Peter Arkwright to be careful of the press.
e. Peter persuaded that he thought they should return to work. Shipbuilders said they
agreed if he thought it was a good idea.
f. Sir Albert asked Mr Arkwright to reconsider that offer.
g. Peter Arkwright told the builders to stop work.
h. Sir Albert invited Peter to have lunch with him.

a. Ann said that she couldnt turn that screw and asked me to do it for her.
b. Ann asked me to tighten the bolt handling me a spannel.
c. He asked if I would mind discussing this question at the seminar.
d. I asked if I should explain my recent results.
e. She asked me to help with translating the article.
a. Is you pleased with your job?
b. I want to know what sort of translation youve ever been engaged in.
c. How much would you like to get for your job?
d. Why do you think the company may be interested in hiring you?
e. I want to know what your career goals are.
f. I doubt if you are qualified enough for the job.
g. Can you prove his experience with letters of recommendation from his previous job?
.7.5.1. a-4; b-6; c-8; d-2; e-7; f-5; g-1; h-10; i-9; j-3.
a. He advised me not to touch the cable until I had switched off the power; it wasnt safe.
b. The mechanic explained that I pressed the wrong button. He warned me not to do it
again as I might had have a nasty accident.
c. The supervisor threatened that he would drop me from the team if I didnt work harder.
d. He advised (warned, reminded) me never operating a cutting machine until I had oiled
and checked it.
e. John suggested (advised) me to twist electric wires together using a pair of scissors.
f. He wished the procedure would reduce the energy losses.
g. He introduced Mr White to Mr Brown.
h. He beged me not to tell my colleagues. I promised I would not.
i. He exclaimed that he had passed the first exam. I congratulated him and wished him
good luck with the second.
j. My colleague remarked that I was in a difficult position for I couldnt explain that result.
I agreed.
k. She apologized being late and explained that her car had broken down.
l. One of the engineers complained that he expected a lot of work for very little money.
The other agreed.
.7.6.1. a-B; b-A; c-A; d-B; e-C; f-C; g-B; h-A; i-C.

T 1
I. ,
1 a ) phenomena b) phenomenon 2 a) analyses b) analysis 3 a) criterion b) criteria
4 a) theses b) thesis 5 a) nucleus b) nuclei 6 a) hypothesis b) hypotheses

II , "" ""
smoke or not to smoke ?
The problem of smoking is ... 7 under discussion. Some people smoke, ... 8
don't. ... 9 of those smoking wish to give it up, and a great... 10 heavy smokers
often make ... 11 attempts before they give up either smoking or the attempts. It
requires not a... 12 will power and ... 13 of determination. So only ... 14 succeed.
And those... 15 say that they have felt so .. .16 better ever since.

a) much b) a great deal c) many d) some e) few f) most g) several h) little

17. be a successful scientist one ) at the very least b) to ask questions.
18. A good experimenter be a jack of all trades.
19. To be a great scientist one solve a great many problems.
20. Most people ) question the uncertain, only few b) question the obvious.
21. An individual scientist ) be highly moral. Scientific community as a whole b)
to be.

IV ",
"". 22 ), b), ), d), ), f).
Never before have the scope of research and the number of the people occupied in it increased as
rapidly as they are doing today. The magnitude of certain projects and the size of some installations
are often breath-taking, while the bulk of the information accumulated can hardly be even roughly
estimated, let alone digested. And yet the extent to which processes occurring naturally can be
controlled and regulated by man is very limited.

V. .
23. If this discovery in the XVII century, it would not have been recognized by
contemporary scientists.
a) was made b) had made c) would have made d) had been made
24. Some people easily by other peoples opinion.
a) are influencing b) is influenced c) are influenced d) have influenced
25. He doesnt appear with the problem.
a) to concern b) concern c) to be concerned d) having concerned

26. A few more functional elements, germanium perhaps .. a good candidate, may
be discovered in the future.
a) having b) is c) having been d) being
27. The history of last 30 years shows him very well.
a) to have done b) to do c) to be done d) was doing
28. No physicist untrained in biology would have ever solved the problem, would a biologist,
without a sound physics background.
a) either b) so c) neither d) no
29. It has been suggested that an end to the barbarous treatment of nature.
a) has put
b) should be put
c) will be put
d) is being put

VI. .
Scientific attitude
What is the nature of the scientific attitude, the attitude of a man or woman who studies and 30
physics, biology, chemistry or any other 31. What are their special 32 of thinking or acting?
What qualities do we usually expect them to 33?
To begin with, we expect a 34 scientist to be full of curiosity he wants to find out how and why
the 35 works. He usually directs his attention towards problems which have no 36 explanation.
He is a good observer, 37, patient and objective.
He is to be highly imaginative since he often looks for 38 which are not only complex, but also

a) possess
b) f) accurate

a) b) successful
b) g) methods

a) c) applies
b) h) data

a) d) incomplete
b) i) universe

a) e) science
b) j) satisfactory

Titanic Disaster.
Titanic Disaster is one of the worst maritime disasters in history. The British luxury liner Titanic
(46,000 gross tons) of the White Star line, on its maiden voyage from Liverpool to New York City,
.. .40 (strike) an iceberg about 153 km south of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland on April 14,
1912. Of the more than 2220 persons aboard, about 1513 died, .. .41 (include) the American
millionaires John Jacob Astor, Benjamin Guggenheim, and Isidor Straus. The ship ... 42 (proclaim)
unsinkable because of its 16 watertight compartments, but the iceberg punctured five of them, one
more than had been considered possible in any accident, and the Titanic ... 43 (sink) in less than
three hours. Subsequent investigations found that the ship ...44 (steam) too fast in dangerous waters,
that lifeboat space ... 45 (provide) for only about half of the passengers and crew, and that the
Californian, close to the scene, ... 46 ( not come) to the rescue because its radio operator was off
duty and asleep. These findings led to many reforms, such as lifeboat space for every person on a
ship, lifeboat drills, the maintenance of a full-time radio watch while at sea, and an international ice
The sinking of the Titanic ... 47 ( be) the subject of several books and films since then, but not until
September 1985 was the actual wreck found and the area .. .48 (photograph), by a joint French-U.S.
expedition, through the use of robot submersibles equipped with television cameras. In July 1986
the U.S. researchers explored the Titanic in the three-person Alvin submersible; they ... 49 (take)
pictures of the interior, but recovered no artifacts. The following year a controversial French salvage
effort retrieved dishes, jewels; currency, and other artifacts, which ... 50 (exhibit) in Paris in
September 1987.

I. c
1. a) phenomenon b) thesis ) criterion d) datum
) hypothesis
f) radius g) axis
h) analysis

II . ,
2. The number of insect species is greater than that of all other animal species.
a) exceeds b) equals c) augments d) predicts
3. A chance sample can often provide information about a large population.
a) prudent b) genuine c) random d) modified
4. Microprocessors, unlike computers, are programmed to complete defined tasks.
a) specific b) different c) several d) similar
5. Since research studies have shown a relationship between cancer and cigarette smoking, many
people have cut down.
a) ceased smoking b) become frightened
c) decreased the number of cigarettes d) got sick
6. In order to be issued a passport, one must either present legal documents or call a witness to give
evidence concerning one's identity.
a) investigate
b) falsify c) testify d) evaluate
7. Americans have been criticized for placing too much emphasis on being on time.
a) activity b) importance
c) bother d) assistance

III 4 ", "

8 ) b) ) d)
The language is perpetually in flux: it is a living stream, shifting, changing, receiving new strength,
losing old forms. The current of time continuously brings about a fresh flow of words.

"...9 is worth doing is worth doing well". ...10 said this originally was perfectly right. For ...11 and
...12 we come across upon something that is not done properly we feel annoyed no matter what it is:
an ugly building, a tasteless dinner or inaccurate measurements. ...13 would seem to agree with
this, as far as ...14 else's work is concerned. But are we equally critical of ...15 done by ourselves?
a) everybody b) somebody c) everything d) whatever
e) whenever f) wherever g) whoever

Computer virus.
A virus ...16 of a set of instructions that ...17 itself to other computer programs, and ...18 part of
them. In most cases, the corrupted programs continue ...19 their intended functions but
surreptitiously.... 20 the virus's instructions as well. A virus is usually.... 21 to execute when it is
....22 into a computer's memory. The virus .... 23 its host program .... 24 the viral code into, or
"infect", any number of the programs and files .... 25 in the computer. The infection can then .... 26
itself to files and code on other computers. The replicating viruses often .... 27 until they.... 28 data.
A virus may simply.... 29 a harmless joke or cryptic message....30 on a computer user's video
monitor each time he .... 31 on his computer. A more damaging virus can .... 32 an extremely large
computer system within a matter of minutes or hours.
a) instructs
e) turns
i) crash
m) consists
r) destroy

b) transfer
f) becomes
j) execute
n) multiply

c) cause
d) designed
g) loaded
h) stored
k) to perform I) attaches
o) to copy
p) to appear

33. Mendeleev's ....a periodic law of nature has entered his name into the history book of world
a) being established
b) having established c) having been established
34.They considered all water on the surface of this planet... by volcanic action.
a) having liberated b) to be liberated c) to have been liberated
35 .Molecular biology ... to dominate other sciences .
a) expects
b) is expected
c) is expecting
36. Such phenomena should ... as early as the 18 century.
a) know
b) have known
c) have been known
37. If the distance to the star...., its light power would be judged from its brightness.
a) is know b) was known
c) were known
38. Newton suggested that the light... as a stream of particles.
a) is interpreted b) be interpreted c) was interpreted
39. The instruments were packed carefully lest they ... during transportation.

a) will be damaged b) would be damaged

c) should be damaged

Tunguska event.
The remote site of the explosion ...40 (investigate) from 1927 to 1930 in expeditions ...41 (lead) by
Leonid A.Kulik. Around the epicentre he ...42 (find) splintered trees ...43 (lie) radially for some 15
to 30 km; everything ...44 (devastate) and very little ...45 (grow) two decades after the event.
Eyewitnesses who ...46 (observe) the event from a distance ...47 (speak) of a fireball lighting the
horizon, ...48 (follow) by trembling ground and hot winds strong enough ...49 (throw) people down
and ...50 (shake) buildings as in an earthquake.

flect, flex
mob, mot
pend, pens

a) hang
b) speak
c) move
d) lead
e) city
f) come
g) end
h) bend
i) letter

a) preventive
b) motivation
c) suburbs
d) suspension
e) jurisdiction
f) flexible
g) education
h) illiterate
i) infinite

II. . .
2. a) chronicles; chronometer; synchronize; chronology; chromosome
b) dogma; dogged; dogmatism; paradox; orthodox
c) diagram; telegram; geography; anagram; gram
d) barometer; perimeter; isometric; meteorite; geometry

III. , .
3. multilateral
4. semiskilled
5. homogenize
6. peripheral
7. synthesis
8. decelerate

a) combining of diverse elements into one entity

b) slow down
c) having many sides or participants
d) doing work requiring only limited training
e) make uniform throughout
f) of minor or secondary importance

IV. .
a) complement b) compliment
Education should 9 ones natural abilities.

The dean will 10 the honor students for their high grades.
a) farther
b) further
I live 11 from campus than I used to.
This matter will require 12 study.
a) formally
b) formerly
13, these proceedings were conducted more 14.
a) quiet
b) quite
The library wasnt 15 16 enough for the head librarian.
a) adapt
b) adopt
If you 17 a child, the family will need time to 18 to a new person.
a) thorough
b) through
The supervisors made a 19 inspection as they walked 20 the plant.
IV. .
21. John Burton ( arrest) if he hadn't fled the country.
22. The books are certainly missing. They (might steal).
23. The works of art have not been seen for decades. They (must destroy) during the war.
24. The acrobats performed a dangerous trick. They (could kill).
25. I bought a copy of Parade's End that (sign) by the author in 1930.
26. Seven candidates (interview) so far.
27. The test results (analyse) at this very moment.
28. Everyone (send) a copy of the agenda before next Monday's meeting.
29. Those documents (should not give) to the press, said the minister. My secretary made a
mistake when he released them.
30. These scales are supposed (check) every month.

V. .
31. The technique allowed us (obtain) results predicted by theory.
32. Unless immediately (stop) the environmental pollution may become irreversible.
33. It was suggested that the atmospheric and temperature ranges of those planets (be) different
from those of the Earth.
34. Some experiments prove that it is physically possible for the ground ice of Alaska (form) by a
process of segregation.
35. If the Earth (be) stationary, the movement of the atmosphere would be controlled almost
entirely by temperature differences
36. The dean would rather that students (make) appointments instead of dropping by.
37. The hypotheses which (propose) agreed with the experimental observation.
38. When Professor Jones retires next month, he (teach) for 45 years.

The Natural World.
Whenever we read about the natural world nowadays, it's generally to be 39dire prediction about
its imminent destruction. Some scientists go so 40 as to assert that from now on, the world can no
longer be called natural, insofar as future processes of weather, 41, and all the interactions of
plant and animal life will no longer carry on in their time-honoured way, unaffected by 42. There
will never be such a thing as natural weather again, say such writers, only weather 43 by global
warming. It is hard to know whether to believe such .prophets of doom, possibly because what they
are saying seems too terrible to be44. There are other equally influential scientists who argue that
climate, for example, has changed many times over the 45, and that what we are expecting now
may simply be part of an endless cycle of change, rather than a disaster on a global 46. One
cannot help wondering whether these attempts to wish the problem away simply underline the
extent to which western industrialised countries are to blame for upsetting the worlds 47. It is
not our fault, they seem to be saying, because everything is all right. One certain 48 which is
chilling in its implications, is that there is no longer anywhere on the earths 49, whether in the
depths of the oceans or in the polar wastes, which is not stained by polluted air or 50 with empty
cans and bottles. Now we are having to come to terms with understanding just what that means, and
it is far from easy.

a) made
a) much
a) change
a) beings
a) built
a) stopped
a) top
a) sense
a) future
a) fact
a) planet
a) even

b) given
b) often
b) atmosphere
b) man
b) manufactured
b) true
b) again
b) form
b) ecology
b) must
b) atmosphere
b) recycled

c) told
c) really
c) climate
c) people
c) affected
c) guessed
c) centuries
c) scale
c) balance
c) fault
c) anywhere
c) littered

d) granted
d) far
d) even
d) humans
d) organised
d) here
d) world
d) existence
d) population
d) and
d) surface
d) bothered

1 firm
2 labor
3 rect
4 stru(ct)
5 prim

a) build
b) first
c) strong
d) work
e) straight

a) instructional
b) confirm
c) elaborate
d) primary
e) rectify--

. ,
Since the late 6..., thousands of artificial satellites have been put in
the Earths orbit. Many are now out of 7..., just scrap metal in
space, which may be involved in 8... with useful satellites
Some satellites provide 9... information for weather forecasting
Others can measure 10 ... in the earth's crust which may indicate
earthquake 11... in the near future. There are satellites which can
indicate the exact 12 ... of forest fires long before they could be
spotted by 13... on Earth. Some satellites have sensitive
photographic 14... which can show how well crops are growing
in the fields and make 15... of rivers and deserts. In the future,
satellites, in the form of giant mirrors, could provide 16... for
cities and roads by reflecting the sun's rays onto Earth's nightside.


17. ... his colleagues opposition, he decided to continue his research.

a) Although b) However c) Despite d) Owing to
18.... my car dates from 1981, yours is brand new.
a) Nevertheless b) In spite of c) Although d) Whereas
19. Tom is not suitable for the job. He's too old. ..., he isn't interested.
a) Besides b) In addition to c) As well as d) And
20. ... there are no more questions to discuss, we can finish the meeting.
a) As b) Because c) So that d) Unless
21.I did not support his view. ..., I disagreed strongly.
a) On the contrary b) Otherwise c) By contrast d) Conversely

IV. .
We regret (22) (inform) you that your application has been unsuccessful.
We know him (23)... (object) to this style of research on previous occasions.
It (24).. .(announce) that the proposed new office block (25).. .(now not build) because of the
current economic situation.

Pictures of the surface of the planet Venus (26)... (receive) yesterday from the space probe 'Explorer'
which (27)... (launch) last year
No decision (28) ... (make) about any future appointments until all suitable candidates (29)
We expect an announcement (30)... (make) next week.
The problem seems (31)... (occur) during the night.
If we had paid our workers better, they (32)... (leave) the company.
The meeting has been going on for two hours, so they could (33)... (decide) by now.
My colleagues suggested that I (34) ... ( get) this job in a bank.

V. a) everywhere b) each c) everyone d) every day e) everything f) every

35..... in this workshop has done an apprenticeship with an engineering company.
36. More than 400 machine tools are produced here ..., except Saturday.
37. ... production line runs continuously, for 24 hours.
38. ... eight hours a supervisor checks the level of output.
39. ... is maintained by our own team of fitters.
40. All the production is distributed to agents ... in Europe.

VI. .
a) fewer b) less
41. There are ... exploited workers than there used to be.
a) impossible b) impossibly
42. The problem appeared ,
a) arose b) rose
43. A discussion ... about the best way to pay.
a) beside b) besides
44. .. literature, we have to study history and philosophy.
a) hard b) hardly
45. I've ... learnt anything this year.
a) effective b) efficient
46. The German telephone system is highly .

V. .
47. Mary specializes ... designing theatres and concert halls.
48. This number refers ... the next page of the article.
49.1 count... nothing in this company, unfortunately.
50. Damage to the building resulted ... an unusually high wind.

1 b
2. b
3. a
4. b
5. a
6. a
7. a
8. d
9. f
10. c
11. g
12. h

13. b
14. e
15. e
16. a
17. a) must b) be able
18. has to
19. need not
20. a) can b) can
21. a) may not b) ought
22. a) scope b) number c)
magnitude d) size e)

bulk f)
23. d
24. c
25. c
26. d
27. a
28. c
29. b
30. c
31. e
32. g

33. a
34. b
35. I
36. j
37. f
38. h
39. d
40. struck
41. including
42. had been
43. sank

44. had been

45. had been
46. had not come
47. has been
48. photographed
49. took
50. were

1. a) phenomena b) theses c) criteria d) data e) hypotheses f) radii g) axes h) analyses
2. a
3. c
4. a
5. c
6. c
7. b
8. a) flux b) stream c) current d) flow
9. d
16. m
23. a
30. p
37. c
10. g
17. l
24. o
31. e
38. b
11. e f
18. f
25. h
32. i
39. c
12. e f
19. k j
26. b
33. b
13. a
20. j k
27. n
34. c
14. b
21. d
28. r
35. b
15. c
22. g
29. c
36. c
40. was investigated
44. had been devastated
47. spoke
41. led
was devastated
48. followed
42. found
45. was growing
49. to throw
43. lying
46. had observed
50. (to) shake

1. duct d) g)
liter i) h)
fin g) i)
dict b) e
flect h) f)
mob c) b)
2. a)chromosome b) dogged c) gram d) meteorite
3. c
6. f
9. a
4. d
7. a
10. b
5. e
8. b
11. a
21. would have been arrested
22. might have been stolen
23. must have been destroyed
24. could have been killed
25. had been signed
26. have been interviewed
27. are being analyzed
28. will have been sent
29. should not have been given
30. to be checked
39. b
41. c
40. d
42. b

pend a) d)
urb e) c)
ven f) a)
12. b
13. b
14. a

15. b
16. a
17. b

18. a
19. a
20. b

31. to obtain
32. stopped
33. (should) be
34. to have been formed
35. were
36. made
37. were proposed
38. will have taught will have been
43. b
44. b

45. c
46. c

47. a
48. d

49. c
50. c

1 c) b)
6. fifties
2. d) c)
7. action
3. e) e)
8. collisions
4. a) a)
9. reliable
5. b) d)
10. movements
17. c
18. d
19. a
22. to inform
23. to have objected
24. has been announced
25. will not be built
26. were received
27. was launched
28. will be made
29. have been
30. to be made
31. to have occured
32. wouldnt have left
33. could have decided
34. ( should) get

11. activity
12. location
13. observers
14. equipment
15. measurements
20. a

16. illumination

21. a

35. c
36. d
37. b
38. f
39. e
40. a
41. a
42. a
43. a
44. b
45. b
46. b
47. in
48. to
49. for
50. from

1 b; 2 a; 3 b; 4 b; 5 a; 6 a; 7 d; 8 c; 9 b; 10 a; 11 a; 12 d; 13 f; 14 c; 15 g; 16 h; 17 b;
18 e; 19 e; 20 a; 21 a) must, b) be able; 22 has to; 23 need not; 24 a) can, b) can;
25 a) may be, b) ought to; 26 a) scope, b) number, c) magnitude, d) size, e) bulk, f)
extend; 27 d; 28 c; 29 c; 30 d; 31 a; 32 b; 33 c; 34 b; 35 c; 36 e; 37 g; 38 a; 39 b;
40 j; 41 h; 42 k; 43 f; 44 i; 45 d; 46 struck; 47 including; 48 had been proclaimed;
49 had been considered; 50 sank; 51 had been steaming; 52 had been provided; 53
had not come; 54 has been; 55 photographed; 56 took; 57 exhibited.

I. 1. a) phenomena b) theses ) criteria d) data ) hypotheses f) radii g) axes h)
analyses; II. 2 a; 3 c; 4 a; 5 c; 6 c; 7 b; III.8 flux, stream, current, flow; IV. 9 d; 10 g;
11 f; 12 e; 13 a; 14 b; 15 c; V. 16 m; 17 l; 18 f; 19 k; 20 j; 21 d; 22 g; 23 a; 24 o; 25 h;
26 b; 27 n; 28 r; 29 c; 30 p; 31 e; 32 i; VI. 33 B; 34 A; 35 B; VII. 36 b; 37 c; 38 b; 39
c; 40 a; 41 c; 42 c; 43 b; 44 c; VIII. 45 was investigated; 46 led; 47 found; 48 lying; 49
had been devastated (was devastated); 50 was growing; 51 had observed; 52 spoke; 53
followed; 54 to throw; 55 (to) shake.

I. 1. cred b-g; duc/t e-i; fin h-k; flex i-h; fus, fund k-b; jac j-l; liter l-j; dict c-f; mob d-c;
pend a-e; urb f-d; ven g-a; II. 2. a) chromosome, b) dogged, c) gram; d) meteorite; III. 3 c;
4 d; 5 e; 6 -f; 7 a; 8 b; IV. 9 a; 10 b; 11 a; 12 b; 13 b; 14 a; 15 b; 16 a; 17 b; 18
a; 19 a; 20 b. V. 21 would have been arrested; 22 (might) have been stolen; 23 must have been
destroyed; 24 could have been killed; 25 had been signed; 26 have been interviewed; 27 are
being analyzed; 28 will have been sent / will be sent; 29 should not have been given; 30 to be
checked. VI. 31 to obtain; 32 stopped; 33 (should) be; 34 to have been formed / to be formed; 35
were / was; 36 made; 37 were proposed; 38 will have taught / will have been teaching. VII. 39 b;
40 d; 41 c; 42 b; 43 b; 44 a; 45 b; 46 c; 47 c; 48 a; 49 b; 50 a; 51 d; 52 b; 53 c.


I. 1 - c-b; 2 d-c; 3 e-e; 4 a-a; 5 b-d. II. 6 fifties; 7 action; 8 collisions; 9 reliable; 10
movements; 11 activity; 12 location; 13 observers; 14 equipment; 15 measurements; 16
illumination. III. 17 c; 18 d; 19 a; 20 a; 21 a. IV. 22 having established; 23 to have
objected; 24 has been announced; 25 will not be built; 26 were received; 27 was launched; 28
will be made; 29 have been interviewed; 30 to be made; 31 to have occurred; 32 wouldnt have
left; 33 could have decided; 34 get / should get. V. 35 c; 36 d; 37 b; 38 f; 39 c; 40 a. VI. 41 a;
42 a; 43 a; 44 b; 45 b; 46 b; VII. 47 in; 48 to; 49 for; 50 from.