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1

.
1
1.1
1.2
1.2.1
1.2.2
1.2.3
1.2.4
1.3
1.4
1.4.1
1.4.2
1.4.3
1.4.4
1.4.5
1.4.6
1.4.7
1.4.8
1.5
1.5.1
1.5.2
1.5.3
1.6.
1.6.1
1.6.2






f-k-

1
2
5
10
13
18
27
43
44
45
47
49
50
50
52
52
52
61
62
63
65
69
74
85

2
2.1
2.2
2.2.1
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.6.1
2.6.2
2.6.3
2.6.4
2.7
2.7.1
2.7.2
2.7.3
2.7.4
2.7.5

87
95
101
102
104
107
110
113
116
116
119
125
128
131
139
143
144

2.7.6
2.7.7
2.8
2.8.1

148
157
159
165
170

2
3
3.1
3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.2.4
3.3
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3
3.4
3.4.1
3.5
3.5.1
3.5.2
3.5.3
3.6
3.6.1
3.6.2
3.6.3


-





,






,

( -)

1
5
8
9
12
13
16
19
25
35
36
49
59
59
62
63
77
80
82
85
91

4
4.1
4.2
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.3
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.3
4.3.4
4.3.5
4.3.6
4.3.7
4.4

1
10
14
23
28
34
35
43
59
71
79
84
89
90

4.4.1
4.5

( , )

96
110
117

3
5

5.1
5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2

1
2
10
12
15
20
21
24

6
3-D
6.1

34

6.2
6.3
6.3.1
6.3.2
6.3.3
6.3.4
6.3.5
6.4
6.4.1
6.4.2
6.5
6.5.1

3-D
3-D





3-D


3-D
3-D ,

3-D
3-D (datuming)

3-D

35
37
37
41
42
42
44
46
46
52
55
55

6.5.2
6.5.3
6.5.4
6.6
6.6.1
6.6.2

59
62
65
71
71
72

7.1
7.2
7.2.1
7.3
7.4
7.5

83
86
91
94
101
103

8

8.1
8.2
8.2.1
8.2.2
8.3
8.3.1
8.3.2
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.8.1
8.8.2

.1
.2
.3
.4
.5
.6

.1
.2
.3
.4
.5
.6
.7
.8


f-k
t-x







2-D

2-D

110
111
111
117
124
124
126
131
138
144
146
151
153
154
157

159

161

161
163
164
166
168
175

177



-
F-k-



3-D

177
186
190
192
195
196
197
199

202

204

205

3 , ,

3.1
,
. ,
, .
,
, , , , ,
, , , , . ,
, . , . , ,
, , ,
(. 3.4), .
.
:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.




()

.
.3.1 , Bedford . , ,
. , . :
,
(.3.1).
, .
,
. , . .3.1 , - S . . , .3.1 .
-, ( ?).
- - . , -
, , , . S- , , ..
.

Berea , (.3.2). .
.3.1 . -

2
, . , , .
, ,
.
. . ,
, .
.3.3 . , , , . , 1.5 2.5/ , 4.5 5.5/ 5. , 3 6/. ,
. , ,
.
. , . ,
(
) (.1.34).
( 3.2). .
, ,
(NMO velocity).
(). ,
. ( ). .
, . -
. ,
. ,
, , , , . , , .

.3.1 - S- ,
Bedford
.
.
S = , D = , vP = -,
vS = S- (Nur, 1981).

.3.2 - S-
,
Berea . . vP = , vS = S- (Nur, 1981).

( ) , .

(Taner Koehler, 1969; Al-Chalabi, 1973), , .
, .
. 3.3 . (t2, x2). ,
,
(t2, x2) .
. , ,
. , ,
.
, CVS. ,
, .

.
.
, . ,
.
.
, , -

4
, . , .
-
. , . ,
3
. 3 (..
. 3.6). , .
,
. . 3.4. 3.5.
, , , -
. , ,
, , . , , . 4.5 .

.3.4
[ (3.1)].
.3.3 . (Sheriff, 1976;
American Association of Petroleum Geologists).

.3.3: Tertiary Clastics ; High-Porosity Carbonates ; Paleozoic Clastics


; Salt ; Low-Porosity Carbonates .

3.2
.3.4 .
S
D G t(x). , :

5
t2(x) = t2(0) + x2/v2

(3.1)

x ; v ; t(0)
MD. D .
. (3.1)
. .3.5
( ). ( ), .. -,
D. .3.5 0
3150 50. 2264/. . t(x) t(0) . (3.1)
, ,
t(x) t(0).
, , (.3.6). ,
,
.
.3.7. ,
, . t(0), x vNMO t(x) (3.1).
, 1003. 4,
(sample index), 250.25. ,
, .
t(x) t(0):

(3.2)

.3.6 [
(3.2)]
t(x) t(0). () ; (b) .

.3.5 , .3.4.

, .

3.1

.

.3.7
. t(0),
t(x),
(3.1). t(x), ,
.
t(x) ( ), , t(x).
t(0) ( ) .

.3.8 () , 2264/; (b) ,


; ()
(2000/); (d) -
(2500/c).

3.1 ; , ..
. , . , .
, ,
, . .3.8 ,
, (2264/), . . ,
, . .3.8 .

(3.2). , , -
,
. , .

3.2.1 -
,
(.3.9). ,
.
(v1, v2, , vN), N . S D R,
. Taner Koehler (1969)
:
t2(x) = C0 + C1x2 + C2x4 + C3x6 + ,

(3.3)

C0 =t(0), C1 = 1/v2rms, C2, C3, - , . vrms , D, :


2
v rms
=

1 N 2
vi t i ( 0 )
t (0) i =1

(3.4)
i

ti i- , , t (0) = t k .
k =1

(
), (3.3) :
t2(x) = t2(0) + x2/v2rms

(3.5)

(3.1) (3.5) , , - ,
, ,
.
,
(3.3)? .3.10 , .3.11.
(Grant West, 1965), - . , t(0) = 0.8,
, ,
.. 2264/. , (3.5), .3.10b. t(0) = 1.2 1.6 .3.10 3.10d. , .3.10b, c d . .3.10 ?
, t(0) = 0.8 1.2
, , 3. , - (small-spread hyperbola).

.3.9 - [
(3.3)].

3.2.2
.3.12b .3.10
, (3.5)
, .3.11. , . .3.13. ,
,
. , . :
f/f = tNMO/t(0)

(3.6)

f , f , tNMO (3.2).
(3.6) 3.14.

.3.10 () , , .3.11; (b), (), (d)


, ( ),
, . ()
- .
3.2 .
3.2

( %),
-

10
, 3.1. , . , 30
2000 t(0) = 0.25 10 .
,
(.3.12b)
. , .
, (3.6). .3.12 d
.3.11 ,
.3.10.

.3.12 () , .3.10, (b)


, .3.11; () (d) , 50 100% .

11
: 50%, - 100%. 50 . 100%, .. , . / . , / , . , / , . .3.14.
.

.3.13 ()
(b) > .


. .3.15
, . .3.15b
,
(.3.15),
, .
.. ( ). .

, , -

.3.14 ; () ;
(b) ; () .

12
, .3.15b. .3.15 ,
(.3.15). .
.
.
.

3.2.3
.3.16 .
S D G.
. - . () , . . D
, . ,
.3.16, Levin (1971) , :
t2(x) = t2(0) + x2cos2/v2

(3.7)

,
, :
vNMO = v/cos

(3.8)


, . Levin ,
.3.17. , , :
vNMO = v/(1 sin2 cos2 )1/2

(3.9)

-
(.3.17).
:
sin = sin cos

(3.10)

, , (3.8), :
vNMO = v/ cos

(3.11)

(3.8) ,
. , (3.11)
, (3.8) .

13
Levin (1971) vNMO/v [ (3.9)]
. .3.18. .
, ; , 90. vNMO/v ,
. Levin
(1971) vNMO/v
. .3.19.
15, vNMO/v . , 15, vNMO
v 4%.
,
( ) . ,
. .3.20.

3.2.4
.3.21 , , .
S D G; .
(D), D - , D. D. Hubral Krey (1980) t(x) SDC:

(3.12)
:

(3.13)
.3.21. (3.13) (3.8). - (3.13) (3.4). ,
, [ (3.5)],
, , [ (3.4)].
3.3 ,
.

:
t2(x) = t2(0) + x2/v2NMO

(3.14)

,
.
:

14
2

t st(x) = t st(0) + x2/v2st

(3.15)

vst ,
tst(x) . , (3.14).

.3.16
[. (3.7)].

.3.15 .
, ( ), (b).
,
().
.
, . (b) .
() ,
(). (b) ().

.3.17
,
[. (3.9)], = ,
- (Levin, 1971).

15

.3.18
3-D ,
.3.17, = , = . ,
( = 90).
( = 0)
(Levin, 1971).

.3.19
3-D ,
.3.17 ( = 0)
( = 0-15) (Levin, 1971).

.3.20 ()
, (b). (), , ,
(b).
(3.7).

.3.21

[. (3.12)]
(Hubral Krey, 1980).

16
3.3 .

, .
,
.


.
.3.22
, [.
(3.14)]. ,
,

[. (3.15)]. () ; (b) ; ()
,
(Hubral Krey, 1980).

3.4 .3.23

(. .3.22). = t(0)
(3.14) = tst (0), , [. (3.15)]. , , , ,
. vst
vNMO
(Al-Chalabi, 1973; Hubral Krey, 1980). (3.14) (3.15) ,
,
, , vst vNMO.

3.3
. , ,
,
. (3.15)
, .

17
2

(3.15) t (x), x2. 1/v2st, ,


= 0, t(0).
.3.23 .3.11.
.3.23 (t2, x2). , , , .
( ) .

. 3.4.
t2 x2 . , . .3.23
( ); .
.3.24. , t2 x2, . t2 x2
.
Claerbout (1978) . .3.25. , ( 1).
( 2).
1 2. /.

.3.23 (t2 x2), , , .3.11. , (3.19).

. .3.26 , 5000
13600/. , , . -

18
. , .
, 8300/; ,
8300/ .
, 8900/. ,
,
.
, . ,
, .
.3.27. , 24 ( 24 48, )
.
24- ,
. (CVS) , .
, . 3.6
. , . ,
.
,
CVS. , , : (1) , (2) . ,
,
, .
,
, . , tNMO, vNMO. . (tNMO)

1/3 (Doherty, 1986, ). - , . , .
CVS ( 3.7), (
). .

19

.3.24 (t2 x2), .


( ) (3.19) ,
, .

.
CVS, ,
.
, .

3.3.1
.3.28
. 3000/. , 2000 4300/. .3.28b . (Taner Koehler,
1969).
(.3.28)
(.3.28b).
3000/.
, .
, (Sherwood Poe, 1972).
, .

20
, , .3.29.
,
(.3.28b): 2700, 2800, 3000/.
,
.
,
( 8.2).
, .3.28b 3.29b . /
.
, . Neidell Taner (1971)
,

.
(.3.30). :
.3.25
, , .
, .3.10. 50, 1 =
3150/0.43, 2 = 550/0.44, , ,
0.8 1.2
3026/.

S t = f i ,t ( i )

(3.16)

i =1

fi,t(i) i-
t(i).

. t(i)
:
t(i) = [t2(0) + x2i/v2st]1/2

(3.17)


NS =

| st |
| f i ,t ( i ) |
i

(3.18)

21

22

23

.3.27 24 (5000 13000 /).

.3.28
. [v, = t(0)] (b)
(), .

.3.29
. [v, = t(0)] (b)
(), .

NS 0 1. (3.18), , , - .
, ,

24
. :
CC =
=

2
M

1 M
2
f
i ,t ( i ) f i ,t ( i )

2 t i =1
i =1

1 2

st f i ,2t ( i )

2 t
i

(3.19)


. ,
:
NCC =

M 1 M k
f i ,t ( i ) f i + k ,t ( i + k )
2

1/ 2
M ( M 1) t k =1 i =1

2
2
f i ,t ( i ) f i + k ,t ( i + k )
t
t

(3.20)

, , :
ECC =

2
( M 1)

CC
M

f
t

i =1

2
i ,t ( i )

(3.21)

[1/(M1)] < ECC 1. , ,


, :
1
NE = 2
M

s
t
M

f
t

.3.30 . fi,t(i)
,
[. (3.17)],
,
st [. (3.16)].

2
t

i =1

(3.22)
2
i ,t ( i )


NE ECC:
ECC =

1
( M NE 1)
M 1

(3.23)

NE 0 1.
3.5 , (3.18)
(3.22) , :
f1,t = f t

(3.24)
f 2 ,t = af t

25
, 3.5, . .
, . (3.23), , .
, .3.28b.

(.3.31),
. , , - ,
.3.31. ,
, .

3.3.2 ,
:
1.
2.
3. /
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

26

27

.3.32 .
, .

.3.32 ,
.

,
.
,
, .
, ( 3.1). .3.33 ,
. ,
,
. / .
.3.34. .
, ? , . , ,
, .
.3.35, . ( ) , . ,
, . ,
1.2.4 , , .

28
.
120, 240 . ,

. ,

. , 64 16
.

;
, .
.3.36 32, 16 8.
.
32 16, , 8 . , , .

.
(.3.37). .3.38 , ,
.3.39.
(.
/, 3 .3.38).
.
/ (. .3.38 .3.39 /, 1: 0.8 ,
).

.3.33 ,
.

29

.3.34 , , , , .
( ).

.3.35 .
.

30

.3.36 . , , ,
. 8- .

.3.37 , , .3.11
.
.

31

( 3.2.2), , ( ). ,
, . , (.3.14). ,
, , (. .3.40).
. ,
.
tNMO. . , .
. .3.41 , .
.3.42 . ( 20
40). (
),
.
, :
, , . ,
, .
.
, .
( )
. ()
, , /. .
.3.43 . ,
.3.44. .
(. .3.44b).
, .3.44. , .
, . , , , . ,
.3.44b, .3.44. .3.43 ,
. .

32

.3.38 , .3.37; .

.3.39 , .3.37; .
.3.38.

33

.3.40 : () ; (b) ;
() .

34
.3.41 ;
.

.3.42 , .3.41, ( ).

.3.43 , .
.

, . (
). ,

( ). . . , ,
(. .3.45). ,

.

35

. ( 3.6).

.3.44 () , ( 1) .3.43; (b) , ; () , . (b) , ().

3.3.3
,
, , . (Horizon Velocity Analysis HVA).
( , . , .
, ,
. ,
, .
. .3.46 3.47
HVA . ,
.
, HVA
, .
( 5.2). , .. HVA , , ,
. , HVA
, -

36
,
. .3.48, S.
S , , .
( 3.16) HVA.

3.4
.

(.3.49). ,
,
.
.
.
, , 3.
.3.50 3.51
( ),
,
.3.45 ,
(.3.52).
,
.
.
, 188 , . 188
(.3.50).
, (.3.53), , 101 245.
(.3.54), .
3.6
(Schneider, 1971).

100%

NMO
: 100-
10000
1000-
10000
:
400- 10000

2-10

__
__

0.5
0.7

10

0.1

37
, ,
.
(.3.50b); ,
, (.3.51b).
(.3.53b) (.3.54b)
, (. 101 245).

.3.46 .

38

.3.47 , .3.46.
.

.3.48 ,
, , ()
HVA (). HVA S .

39

.3.49 .
.

.3.50 : () ; (b)
. .3.49. NMO , .3.52. .3.53.

40

.3.51 , .3.50 () , (b) . , , , .3.50. NMO , .3.52.

41

.3.52 ( ) , .3.53.


(.3.55). .3.52 3.55 ,
.
NMO
.3.56 3.57,
.3.56b 3.57b. ,
, .
,
, .3.58, .3.59.

. ,
. ( 25) .
3.60 -,
, . -
. . . ,
(.3.61 3.62 ). ,
. (.3.63);

(.3.64) . , ()
. .3.63 3.64 ,
, .

42

.3.53 , .3.50 3.51. () , (b)


. ,
.3.52.

43

.3.54 , .3.53 . () (b).

44

.3.55 ( ) , .3.53.
.3.56 3.57 .

45

.3.56 , .3.58.
() (b). .3.49 .
, .3.55.

46

.3.57 , .3.56 () , (b)


. , ,
.3.56. , .3.55.

47

.3.58 , .3.56 3.57. ()


.3.55(b).

48

.3.59 , .3.58 : () , (b) .3.55.

49

3.4.1
.3.65 .

. , . ,
,
. .3.66 ,
.
, , , (Hileman ., 1968; Taner ., 1974). ,
, ,
. , , -, .
3
, . ,
.
tijh, j- , i-
k- [k = (i + j)/2] h- , :
tijh = sj + ri + Gkh +Mkhx2ij

(3.25)

sj , j- ; ri , i- ; Gkh ( 1) k- h- .
. Mkhx2ij - , h-
. : /2.
, (3.25), , NS , NR , NG . NF. ,
, () (tijh)
, (3.25).
( ) NG NF. NS
+ NR + NG + NG. NG NF > NS + NR + NG + NG; . ,
tijh t ijh:

50
)2
E = (t ijh t ijh

(3.26)

ijh

:
1. tijh
2. tijh : , ,
.
3. , ( sj ri)
NMO.

.3.60 - .

tijh . . , , (pilot trace scheme). ,


(), ;
. k-
(.3.65). , /.

51

.3.61 , , ,
.3.49. () ; (b) .

52

.3.62 , ,
.3.61. ( ) ; (b) .

53

.3.63 . () (b)
. 151 243.
,
,

54

.3.64 . () , (b)
. , .

h. . tijh, . .
,
tijh. () , tijh.

. -

55
, .
tijh , [. . (3.25)].
. , . , . , (). ,
,
(). ,
, , ,
. ,
, . 3.5.

.3.65 , .

.3.66 , [. .(3.25)]. =
; = 3; D =
; R = ; j =
; i =
; k = ; xij = -.

tijh. ,
. , ti, xi, i = 1, 2, 3, 4. t(x) = a + bx, , . :
t1 a + bx1
t 2 a + bx2

t3 a + bx3
t 4 a + bx4

(3.27)

a b . [. . (3.25)]. ei,

56
t1 + a + bx1 = e1
t 2 + a + bx2 = e2

t 3 + a + bx3 = e3
t 4 + a + bx4 = e4

(3.28)

E = ei2

(3.29)

i-
(3.28):
ei2 = (ti + a + bxi ) 2

(3.30)

(3.29) i = 1, 2, 3, 4,

E = ti2 + 4a 2 + b 2 xi2 2a ti 2b xi t i + 2ab xi


i

(3.31)

, , a b , . , a b ,
E / a = 8a 2 ti + 2b xi = 0

(3.32)

E / b = 2b xi2 2 xi t i + 2 a xi = 0

(3.32b)

,
:
4

xi
i

x a t
=
x b x t
i

2
i

(3.33)

i i

a b. .
a b (3.31).
,
3.7.

57
3.7 ti
i

3.7,
(3.33) :
4 10 a 13
10 30 b = 35.4

(3.34)

(3.34): a = 1.8; b = 0.58. , .


, .
. .5 , , . .
, , .
8, 2D , .

( F).
(3.26).
tijh (3.25)
E / si = E / ri = E / Gk = E / M k = 0

(3.35)

(NS + NR + NG + NG) .
, NS, NR, NG NG.
. , (3.34), . ,
, .
(3.35) Wiggins . (1976) - (Gauss-Saidel). ,
, (3.34)
b. (3.34)
4 + 10b = 13

(3.36)

10a + 30b = 35.4

(3.36b)

= 3.25 2.500b

(3.37)

58
b = 1.18 0.333a

(3.37b)

- , . , a = b = 0. b = 0
(3.37), = 3.25. (3.37b) b =
0.0977. = 3.25, b = 0.0977. b
= 0.0977 (3.37) = 3.0075. = 3.0075
(3.37b) b = 0.1785. 3.8.

, = 1.8 b = 0.58. ,
- ,
, .. . (3.18) (3.19). -
.
: ?
. ,
.
(3.35)
sj = ri = Gkh = Mkh = 0, . , , , . , , :
G, , , S, ,
r.
G , . . , ,
, .
( 2 3) , -. ,
, -.
3.8 -
(3.34) b ( ).


,

, , ,
. ,
/

,
. , , , . .

, (3.25) .
, . ,

0. (3.25) :
tij = sj + ri

(3.38)

: sj, j = 1,2 ri, i = 1,2. :

59
t11 = s1 + r1
t12 = s 2 + r1

t 21 = s1 + r2
t 22 = s 2 + r2

(3.39)

(3.39), ,
t11 + t22 = t12 + t21
, (3.39) . ,
(3.35) . , , , -, . . , , Gulunay (1985)
.
:
. , ,
, .
, ; .

3.5

: , .
. tijh,
? .
, .

3.5.1
.3.67.
.
.
, (.3.67) , . + 32 32. ,

. 0
. .3.68 , .
(.3.67)
.3.68. ,

60
.3.67. .3.68
.
: (24 .3.69),
(80 .3.70)
(192 .3.71). . ( ). ,
.3.67, 64.
( 64), (.3.69)
, (.3.67). , , .3.67, , .3.68.

.3.67 . , ,
.
. , , .

.3.69 2 .
,
. .3.67.
24.


,
(.3.70)
,
,
.3.67. , (.3.70) ,

(.3.68). (. 3.71)

61

( 192). , ,

.
. ,
.3.68 3.71, , , , , . , ,
/, , .

.3.68 1,
, 2 (.3.67) ,
1 ,
.

.3.70 2
. ,
,
. .3.67.
80.

.3.71 2 . ,
,
. .3.67.
192.

, ,
. . , . , .3.67, , ; 24 ( ). .3.69.
( ). .
() (.3.67) , 80 (.3.70).

.3.49 3.64. .3.73

62
.3.53.
(. , 24 40
.3.73). (120 160)
. (.3.74) , (.3.75) . , .
.
.3.76 ( ) , , .

3.5.2
(.3.53) ( ).
, .
80. .3.77 ,
, (400 1200), . , .
,
, .
, (800 2300),
(1700 2300), (1400 2800)
(1500 1700) . , ,
/ . .3.78 3.79. .3.80. ,
, ,
(400 1200).
/. .3.53. .3.81 3.83. , , ,
(. .3.77), (.
.3.81).
. , ,
(, 1500 1700)
. (.3.82) (.3.83) . (.3.84) , .
.3.85 (
377). , ,
, . , ()
, (b)
.

63

3.5.3

.3.86 , .3.67,
.
, .3.67. v1(t),

v2(t) v1(t). (.3.87)
( .3.70).

. .3.72 2 , . ,
.
.
.
.3.69. 24
.
, .
/ , . ,
,
.
, .
. .3.88 3.89
, . ,
, .3.90 3.91 ,
. , , /
. .
, ,
.

64

.3.73 . ; . .3.76 .

65

.3.74 (.3.73); ,
.

66

.3.75 (.3.73); ,
.

67

.3.76 : , .

68

.3.77 : , .

69

.3.78 (.3.77); .

70

.3.79 (.3.77); .

71

.3.80 : ,
.

72

.3.81 : ,
.

73

.3.82 (.3.81); , .

74

.3.83 (.3.81); , .

75

.3.84 : ,
.

76

.3.85 () , ()
80 400 1200.

77

.3.86 .
, , ,
, , 2
.3.67, .

.3.87 , 3 (.3.86).

78

3.6 ,
, , .
.3.92 .3.67, , . .3.67 3.92. .3.92 , . , , .3.70 3.93.
, 3.4,
; .
(.3.94). ( , 3.4),
(.3.95). ( ) , ,
. ,
(.3.95) . , . , .
.3.95, .
, .

.3.88 , . () , ; (b) ;
.

79

.3.89 , .3.88.
. () , ; (b) ; .

.3.90 , ,
.3.88.

80

.3.91 , ,
.3.89.

.3.92 , .

.3.93 ,
4 .3.92.

81

.3.94 ,
(Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij B. V.)

.3.95 , .3.94 ,
( 3.4) (Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij B. V.)

, . ,
, , .
,
,
. ,
, ,
, . , , , , .

3.6.1
(.3.96).
(S) , , , , tD = tS + tR,
tS tR D.
.3.96, :

82
tD =

2 E D ( E S DS ) ( E R D R )
tUH
vb

(3.40)

ED ; ES ER
; DS
; DR ; tUH
, (, DR
.3.96); vb ( ),
.
,
. ,
. ,
, .
,
.

( ). , ; , .
,
( , ) tD
.
.3.97 .
, ,
. (Dobrin, 1960; Grant West, 1965) ,
, , vb. ,
,
, vw. , , ( =
0). , :
zw =

vb v w t i
2(vb2 v w2 )1/ 2

(3.41)

3.21. , vb >
vw. zw :
tD =

2 z w 2( E D E S + z w )
+
vw
vb

(3.42)

ES .
, , . ,
(3.42).
[ (3.42)] , ,
, . , .

83
,
.

.3.96 ,
. S =
; ES = ; R
= ; ER =
; = ; =
; D = ; ED =
; vw = ; vb = .

.3.97 . = ; =
; D = ; =
; =
.

3.6.2 ( -)
,
. , , , , . , . ,
(.3.97),
. vw
- .
Hagedoorn (1959) ( ). , (.3.97) .
. .3.98 ,
- AD, DG AG. Hagedoorn
:
t+ = tABCD + tDEFG tABFG
(3.43)

t- = tABCD tDEFG + tABFG

(3.43b)

84
() , .3.98.
,

,
(.3.22). , Hagedoorn :

.3.98 () )
-. (b)
GRM ( . .3.96).

tD =

1. .
2. [.
(3.43) (3.43b)].
3.
.
4. .
5. zD
D (.3.98) (3.41).
6. :

zD ( ED ES + zD
+
vw
vb

ES ED D
(.3.98).
-
(uphole correction) .
,
D. Palmer (1981) Hagedoorn (.3.98). Palmer,
(generalized reciprocal method GRM)
D1 D2:
t + = t ABCD2 + t D1 EFG t ABFG D1 D2 / vb

(3.44)

, (3.43),
(3.43b) (3.44) ,
D1 D2. , D
-. ,
. , ,
. (LMO). LMO
. , , .
( )
.

85
.3.94. , . .3.99
GRM. .3.94 3.99.
, , . - GRM
, . , . ,
, 3.4. , .3.100 ( .3.95).

.3.99 , .3.94 , GRM. (Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij B. V.)

.3.100 , .3.99, , . (Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij B. V.)


, . ,
. , .
. Hampson Russell (1984) (generalized linear inversion GLI). ,
, .

86
. .
, ,
.

3.6.3
,
, , .
.

.3.101 .

.3.98, j- () i-
(D). tij
(Farrell Euwema, 1984):
tij = sj + ri + xij/vb
(3.45)
xij = AD
sj =

z S (vb2 v w2 )1 / 2
vb v w

(3.46)

87
ri =

z R (vb2 v w2 )1 / 2
vb v w

(3.46b)

(zS)
(zR). sj ,
, j- , rj
, i- .

(LMO) ,
(3.45) LMO.
(3.45) , .
,
[ (3.25)].
,
:
1. , .
2. ,
- .
, (3.45)
, -
GRM.
.3.101 , .
, ,
. (.3.102)
(.3.102b). , , ,
( ), .
.3.102. , ,
( .3.85).
, (.3.102b) ,
, [
(3.45)].
, , .3.102.
(.3.102) , , ,
(.3.102d). , (.3.103) ( .3.101).
,
(.3.104), , , , .
, (.3.105).

88

.3.102 () , .3.101; (b)


; () , ; (d) ,
().

89

.3.103 ( .3.101).

90

.3.104 (
.3.101).

91

.3.105 (
.3.101, 3.103 3.104).

3-1.
(4.5 5.5 /c)?

92
3-2. , 1 3
.3.5. ,
2264/. , t(0) .
3-3. .3.25
t(0) = 0.4 0.8 t(0) = 1.2 1.6, (Clearbouts straightedge method). ,
.3.11.
3-4. .3.8. .3.8 . ,
2000 (.3.8b) 2500/ (.3.8)?
3-5.
.3.26.
3-6. CVS .3.27. .
3-7. CVS .3.106.
3-8. Levin [ (3.7)]
(.
.3.16).
3-9. . ,
?
3-10. : ?
3-11. (3.3)
?
3-12.
, (3.4).
3-13. Levin , .3.17.
3-14. , (3.6).
3-15. . vavg,
- , :
N
N

v avg = vi t i t i
i =1
i =1

ti = zi/vi, zi = , vi = .
(3.4).

200

/
2000


/c
*

/
*

300

3000

400

4000

350

3500

93
500

5000

3-16. , .3.48 , HVA S.


.

.3.106 CVS (. 3.7).

94

.3.106

95

.3.106

96

.3.106

97
3-17. ,
t(x) = a + bx + cx2. :
i
1
2
3
4
5

xi
0
1
2
3
4

ti
0.4
1.1
3.5
7.9
14.4

.
a, b, c.
3-18.
x1 2x2 = 1
x1 + 4x2 = 4
-. , , : 1 = 2 2 = 0.5.
3-19.
x1 + 4x2 = 4
x1 2x2 = 1
-. ,
3-18, . . ,
, .. .
-.
3-20. (3.38) (3.39) i = 1,2,3 j = 1,2,3.
, .
3-21. .3.97,
[ (3.41)].
3-22. 3.98, , , (3.43)
, .
3-23.
, ?
3-24.
: ( ) ?
3-25.
?

4.1
()
, , .
, . .4.1
.
. , ;
D, ,
. , , .
.4.2 . 1. , , . ,
1. , . . 3
, .
,
().
.4.3 , .
. , , .
, . .4.4 ,
, , , .
, . ,
,
. (.4.1 4.4) , ;
, .
,
, . . , ,
, . ,
.
, .
,
, . , . , ,

2
(time migration). , 4, .

.4.1 () ; (b) ; () D
() () . , , D .
.

,
,
(depth migration) ( 5.2), . (.4.5). . . , () ,
. ,
,
.
, ,
.
, . , 2-D
3-D . .4.6 3-D . 4.6b 2-D , .4.6 3-D . ,
. 2-D ,
- , (sideswipe).
6.5.
( ). ,
. . ,
. . -

3
, .
,
(Loewenthal ., 1976). ,
. , .
.
(exploding reflectors model), . , ,
: ( ), ( ,
, ). ,
,
. , ,
(Kjartansson Rocca, 1979).

.4.7. ,
. .
130 , . ,

, ,

(
). , .4.7,
2, , .
,
(.4.8).
, ,
(.4.9).
.4.2 (b) () (Taner Koehler,
1977; Seiscom-Delta, Inc.)

,
(.4.10).
.4.11, (.4.8, 4.9, 4.10) . .4.11b. , , , . , , , . -

4
, (.4.11b),
.4.12. ( 2
.4.11) ( 3
4) .

.4.3 () ; (b) . .

5
, ?

. , ,

.
. .4.13 ,

.4.11. ,

(.4.13); ,
(.4.13b).
(.4.12),
.4.4 () ; (b) .

.
,
,

(Taner
Koehler, 1977; Seiscom-Delta,
,
Inc.)

( 4.4). 4.4
, .
4.1 ,
(2-D, 3-D, , ).
, .
(
) . , , .
, , , . , .
( 4.2). . (semicircle superposition
method), . , ,
. , (Schneider,
1978), ,
, . , ( 1.5), ( -

6
) ,
( 4.2.1).

.4.5 (); (b).


, , ;
( 5.2).

(Clearbout Doherty, 1972) ,



,
(). ,
( ) . , , t = 0, . 0 , , , , , . , t =
0 ,
. , ,
t = 0.
t = 0.

7
4.1

,
.


, .

,


.
, .

.
,

.
,
(PSPM)
. , . PSPM [,
(DMO)]
,
. , PSPM , .



.
.
, ;

. , (, ).
PSPM
.

, .
3-D
,


, (, ). 3-D .

.4.6 2-D ()
3-D . ,
,
. (b) , 2-D
. ()
, 3-D
( 6). ( Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij B. V.)

8
3-D

.
, PSPM
,
,
.

, , 3-D .



3-D

.
,
,

3-D

(finite-difference migration) ( 4.2.2). Clearbout


(1985)
.
,
Stolt (1978) ( 4.2.3).
(
) ( , )
. Stolt ; , Stolt ,
, . Stolt Benson (1986)
.
(Gazdag, 1978) (
4.2.3). ,
.
.
4.3
, (Stolt ). , (.. , ), / ,
. .
,
, . 4.5.

.4.7 - ()
(), . (A, B, C, D, E)
130 .

.4.8
.
, .. .

.4.9
.
, ..
.

.4.10
.
, ..
.

10

.4.11
,
, .4.8, 4.9, 4.10.
() ().

().

.4.12 () ,
.4.11b; (b) ,
, .4.13.
( Deregowski Barley; British Petroleum).

4.2
CD () .4.24.
. - (s, g) . v = 1,
.
(.4.14b).

CD. , D
.4.14b. ( CD ).
.4.14, , .4.14b, . CD . ,
CD D.

11

.4.13 , - .4.11. ()
; (b) . .4.11
( Deregowski Barley; British Petroleum).

, D CD. (.4.14) :
1. ,
; ,
.
2. , , , , .
3. .
.4.1 . ,
() () ,
.
,
, .
, t, . z = v/2. , .
,
D CD . (.4.15). ,
.
( ) d x dt t ( -

12
)
v, t t ( ). Chun Jacewitz (1981) :
d x = (v 2 t tan t ) / 4

{ [

(4.1)

) ]

d t = t 1 1 v 2 tan 2 t / 4

[ (

1/ 2

(4.2)

) ]

tan t = tan t / 1 v 2 tan 2 t / 4

1/ 2

(4.3)

t = t / x , .
4.2.

.

.4.14 : CD (b) , ,
CD (). (Chun
Jacewitz, 1981).

.4.15 .
C. ,
dx, dt

(4.1), (4.2) (4.3). = AD, t = BD.

, . , , . , , t/x
(10 , 25). -

13
(4.1) (4.3) dx dt ( ) . 4.2.
, ,
. , ;
, 4 4 , 1.6. (4.1) , dx
t. , dx .
, , 20%, 44%. d t .
.4.14 , . ,
CD .
,
. : , ,
.
, . , 3-D . ,
, . , . ,
(.4.14), CD CD. .4.1. , 6
.
, , (.4.16) . , ( ). , .
.
, (.4.17). . . , .4.14, , (). , ,
. ,
, . ,
, . ,
D . ,
.
;
; , .
? .4.18, .
.4.18 , (.4.18b). ,
. 2 4 , 3

14
,
. , .4.18b.
.4.19 4.20 , . .4.19 , , . .4.20 ,
, .
.

4.2.1.
Clearbout (1985)
(.4.21). , z3 (storm barrier), . , . ,
, , . , , . .4.22 . (point aperture), ,
. , , , , . .
, , ,
(x, z). (x, t) (.4.23).
, ,
. .4.24 ,
. , (
)
(.4.25). , , , . ,
.4.25, ; ,
.

15

.4.16 () (
3000/) (b) ( 25).
. 4.2.

16

.4.17 ( ) () ; (b) . . . ( Union Oil Company.)

17

.4.18 () , , ; (b)
. .

.4.19 () ; (b) . ,
().

18

.4.20 () ; (b) . .

.4.21 ,
, , (
Clearbout, 1985).

.4.22 ,

( .4.21), .

19

.4.25 (b)

().
.4.23 ,
() (b).

,
.4.22 .

.4.24 (b) ().

.4.26 ,
. () (
25; 2500/), (b) .
()
(b).

, , . ,
.
(),
.

(x, z) (x, t). . .4.26
, . (.4.26b). .4.26 , , , ,
(.4.26b). , .4.26b (migration

20
impulse response). ,
, , (.4.27b).
, .
, , (diffraction summation method),
. , ,
(x, t) (x, z). . , (x, t) , ,
( ) (x, z).
(x, t) , (x, z). (x, z).
, . .4.27. - ,
, , t(0) (. 3.2.1).
(.4.27) :
t2(x) = t2(0) + 4x2/v2rms

(4.4)

t(x)
, = t(0)
. 3.2.1 . ,
(.. ) . ,
, , , . .
, . .4.21 ,
, ,
, . ,
, z ,
, z. , ,

21
.
. .4.27 , .
.
.4.21
, , . ,

, .4.27 , ,
. ()
. ( 25; (1/r2), r 2500/); (b) .
;
(4.4).
(1/r).
, , 1/r.
, , , .
. , .4.25 , . , . , , , , .
:
1. ( ),
z.
2. , (1 / r ) 2 2-D (1/r) 3-D
.
3. , 45- , 2-D . 3-D
90 .
1

,
, .
, . , (4.4).
= t(0), . ,
.

22
, , . (4.4), , ,
. .
( ). ,
,
. ,
Berkhout (1980), Schneider (1978) Berryhill (1979).
Pout (x, z, t) (x, z),
Pin (xin, z =
0, t), (z = 0). , , :

v (x, z); r = ( xin x ) + z 2 - (xin, z =0) (x, z) . (4.5)


z.
,
(4.5) z = v/2 , t = 0 .
[ (4.5)] t = 0 . ; .
(1/r2), ,
, (1/r).
.
90 (. , .
-1). 2-D (half-derivative) .
45
, . ,
( ) vr = v2t ( ) .
(vr)1/2
2

23

.4.28 (.4.21) . .

4.2.2
,
.4.21. ,
, ,
, .4.27. . ,
(.4.28). , 1250. 250. . .4.28b.
500 , .4.28, 750
(.4.28d). , 1000 ,
.4.28. , .
. (125 ) t = 0.
. , , .4.28
, , , .
, . , , , t = 0.
.

.4.29 , .4.28. . , z =
0.

24
, , . ,

.

( ) ,

(.4.29).

,
.4.30 ()
.4.29; (b)
,

, .
.

. , , .4.29. , .
. (.4.29f) 1250 t = 0.

t = 0. ( ) , . ,
(), .
.4.2 (.4.29) .
.4.28 , .4.29
( ). ,
(.4.28)
. ,
.4.29.
, , .
, , . ,
(.4.29), , .4.30. , ,
,
(.4.30b). (time retardation).
(.4.29). , 1000
. .4.29, (.4.29). , ,
, (undermigration). ,
. ,
, . ,
z3 (.4.21). ,
(.4.29f) ,
.4.29-. , .

25
(overmigration),
. ,
(Doherty
Claerbout, 1974).
, ,
.
.4.29? 4.3.2.
, ,
(finite-difference migration).
. (Clearbout, 1985). , $100. 10%,
$110. , , :

-1.1
1.0

100

.
.
.

100 :
(1)() + (-1.1)(100) = 0

(4.6)

, , . 100 .
(4.6.), :
-1.1
1.0

100

(1.0) + (-1.1)100 = 0, = 110

-1.1
1.0

100
110

(1.0) + (-1.1)110 = 0, = 121

-1.1
1.0

100
110
121

(1.0) + (-1.1)121 = 0, = 133.1

..

, . (4.6) :
(1)(t + 1) + (-1.1)P(t) = 0
(4.7)
:
(t + 1) P(t) = (0.1)P(t)

(4.8)

t , . , ,

26
t. , . (4.8) :
P(t + t) P(t) = aP(t)

(4.9)

:
P(t + t) P(t) =

a
[P(t + t) + P(t)]
2

(4.10)

(4.9) (4.10) (4.6):


P(t + t) + (-1 a)P(t) = 0

(4.11)

(1 a/2)P(t + t) + (-1 a/2)P(t) = 0

(4.12)

(4.11) (4.12), P(t) :


-1 a
1

P(t)
P(t + t)

-1 a/2
1 a/2

P(t)
P(t + t)

, P(t + t) , (explicit operator). ( )


.
,
(4.10) - (Crank-Nicolson). ,
(, , .2)
. , , .. .
t (4.11) :
P(t + t ) P(t )
= aP(t )
t

(4.13)

(4.13) dP/dt. (4.13) , :


dP
= aP(t )
dt

(4.14)

27
,
[ (4.14)]. . (4.14)
(4.13),
. (4.11) (4.12) , .
, .
, . ,
, , . . Claerbout (1976, 1985) .
.2 , 15
[ (.39)]. , . (.39) :
2Q v 2 2Q
=
t 8 y 2

(4.15)

Q ; t ; - ; y .
(4.15) , 15. (. .2) , . , (4.15) .
(4.15)
(diffraction term).
,
.
(.35). 5.1. , . , (.35),
:
1
Q
1 Q
= 2

z
v( z ) v( y, z ) t

(4.16)

, ,
(.35),
, . , ,
Q.
. ,
, , .. . ( 5.2) ,

28

.
4.3.2, 15- 35.
-
. 45
.3,
4.3.4.
- ,
- .

. (z = 0). ,
0 ,
. ,
.
(x, z, t) (x, t), (x, z). ,
(x, t) z t = 0 (.4.31). ,
(reverse time migration) (Baysal ., 1983), (x,z) , P(x,z = 0,t) ( z =0)
. t = 0 (x,z)
P(x,z,t = 0) (.4.32).
, ,
.
. , . . .

4.2.3
(Frequency-Wavenumber Migration)
Stilt (1978) .
.
Gazdag (1978) ,
.
(f-k-)
, . Chun Jacewitz
(1981) .

29

.4.31 , (x, t) (z = 0),


.
.
(x,z) t =0 (
).

.4.32 :
(x,z)
t = 0,
(x,z) .
; .
(x,z) (
t = 0 ). (x,z) t =
0 ( ).

.4.33 (t,x) () (f,k) (). , , . 4.14.


3500/.

1.6 , (t,x)
f-k . ,
. .4.33
. ,

. . -

30
, , .

f-k
.4.34.
; kz, . 4.14.
,
1.
(,kx) (kz,kx). , .

kx . ,

; , , ().


(kz,kx).
.4.34 (f,k). ()


(f,k). (b)
f-k-. .4.35

, .
. (t,x) (f,k). ,
f-k-
()
, , , D, .
(b). (Chun Jacewitz, 1981.)
,
. (f,k)
, , , D ,
. ,
. , 90
. fk, kx .
, .4.35,
.
. ,
.4.36.
, .
, .4.37, . .4.36?
, .4.37.
, .4.36. -

()

31
(t,x) ,
. F-k- ,
(.4.36),
42, f-k-
(.4.37) . .

(.4). .4.38 - ; (.7).
exp (-ikzz). z , z. , (t = 0), . t = 0 .

[. (.52)].
,
.

.4.35 (f,k) ( ).

32

.4.36 (t,x) () (f,k) ().

(Gazdag, 1978) ,
. Gazdag Squazzero (1984)
,
.
, ; .
.
(phase-shiftinterpolation).

.4.37 (t,x) () (f,k) ().


; (.4.36). .

33
, kz
(Stolt, 1978) (.4.34). .4.39 - Stolt; .
.4.
Stolt
, (.35).
kx kz (f,k). , , - , .
Stolt ( .4). Stolt (1) ,
; (2) , (. .4.39); (3)
. , ,
(. .4), ,
.
W. W=1.
( 4.3.3 .5).
Stolt = 2z/v ( ). f-k (,kz) (,kx), (kz,kx), -
kz, v/2. (.52) (.55)
Stolt ,
z; (.53) (.38).
, , .
(.38) , kx >; , . ,
, .. ( 3.2.2).

34

.4.38 -
Gazdag.

.4.39 - Stolt .

4.3
, , . , , .
. Stolt .
. , ,
.
.
, , . . ,
; , ;
90 , .

4.3.1

35
,
. ,
. . , .4.40d. ,
90 . . (.4.40).
, .
,
. . .
(migration aperture) ,
.
. .4.41 ; .4.41b
. . : . , ,
, .
, (
.4.41). , . , , , (.4.41). ,

.

.4.40 , . ,
. .


. .4.42
( 8/ ) ,

36
. , . ,
( 256 ).
.4.43 ,
0 45
5. ,
[ (4.1)]. , NX = / . ,
2NX + 1. .4.43
, . ( 35 )
.

. ,
, .. .
, . , , 45,
(4.1) : v = 3500/; t/x = 12
; t = 2. 118 ,
237 . (
).
(.4.41), v(z),
. , . .4.43
150 ; 300 .

37

.4.41 () (2000/); (b)


(4000/); () , . .

.4.42 .
.


, , .4.44. ( 40 )
. .
. , 160 .
.4.45 , .
.

.4.44 4.45 , .4.45 . , .4.43 - . ,


, . ,
.


? , , (.4.46). , , . , , .
-, , ,
. -, , , .
,
, .

38
.4.46. .4.46b,
, CD
, (). ,
, , . , , .. , ,
.

.4.43 .
.

.
. , ,
, .
, ,
/. ,
.
, . .
, , . , .
, . ,
, [ (4.1)].

39
,
. , , . .4.47
. 4 , . 8 .
12 , , ..
.
, [ (4.1)], .
.4.40 , .
, .
, . , , , .

.4.44 . .

40

.4.45 .
, .

.4.46 . , ().
,
(60 ); .

41

.4.47 , . , , .

.4.48 , . . ,
.

42

.4.48. , 2 . 8 .
, , . , ;
.

.
.4.49 ,
2500/ , 5, 10 20%.
, .. . ,
(.4.50). - , , .4.51 4.52 . 3500/.

. , . . ,
, [. (4.1) (4.2)].

.4.49 . , , , , , .

43

.4.53 4.54. .4.53 ,
, . .4.54 , , (. ). .4.54 , , 20% ;
.

4.3.2
4.2.2, [ (4.11) (4.12) ].

,
( .2). ,
, 15. , , 35.
, ,
(.4.55). ;
( 90). 15 (Clearbout, 1985), .4.55. ( ). .
, (Clearbout,
1985).

.4.50 . , , .

44

.4.51 . ,
, .

.4.52 . ,
, .
, , 20%, .

45

.4.53 . , , , , (.. ).

46

.4.54 . , , , , (.. ) ( Meridian Oil Inc.)

47

.4.55 , 15, .
4. (
) ( ).
.
(
4) , 15.

.4.56 20 80
, 15.
.

.
z. z ,
(.28) . ,
, . , , 15,
. , (.4.56).
4- (.4.55) ,

.
. 35.
, , 15,
35 .
, , , 15 ,
, .
. .4.57. , D ,
.4.58 . , , , .

4.3.4. 45 (45-degree approximation to the scalar wave
equation) - .

48
.3.
( 4.3.4), ( 5.2) ( 6.5).

, ,
. ( 4.2.2).
.
. .4.59
, .
( 60 80). , , 20
40, . (.4.60).
. , , . (Clearbout, 1985). , . , (4.13) (4.14) t.
, , . ,
, .

49
.4.57 () ; (b) ; () , 15. , , .
20 . .4.58.

.4.58
D () () .4.57.
FD-B =
; FD-D = .

50
.4.59 20 80 , 15, .

.4.60 4 16 , 15
.

.4.61 , , . .

51

.4.62 - . -
.4.61. () ; (b) ; ()
, 15.

. .4.61. , , .4.62.
,

(.4.62).
,
; , , 15 .
.4.63 , 4 .
.
:
1.
.
2.
.
3. , , . .
,
. ,

. ; ,
, . , (.4.64). , , -

52
, .
.
.4.63 , 20 , ..
. . , .4.64 , 4(..
) , ,
. , , , .
.4.65 4.66 ,
.4.57, .

.4.63 20 80 , 15 .

53

.4.64 4 16 , 15 .

.4.65 . , . .4.57

54

.4.66 . , . .4.57; .4.65.

.4.67 , , , , , 15 (15-degree approximation). , (.4.49). 20.

55
, , ,
20, ( ). , . , (.4.59).
.
, , .
. , , , .
. ,
, , , , , (Yilmaz , 1983).

, . , (, )
. Diet Lailly (1984) , , . , :
. (.. 20 40) .

. .4.67 ,
2500/ , 5, 10 20%.
15- (15-degree approximation), , .
. , (.4.50)
(.4.68). , ,
, .. , , . , 15- (15-degree finite-difference scheme),
. ,
, ?
.6 .

56

.4.68 , , , 15- (15-degree finite-difference migration). (.4.50). = 20.

.4.69 , 3500/ , 5, 10 20%.



. , , .
, . (.4.70)
(.4.52) ,
, ,
. , (steep-dip algorithm), f-k0,
, , ,
, 15 (15-degree finitedifference method).
, (.4.70;
20%).
. , , , , 10% (. .6).
.4.71 4.72. .4.73
- .
, , , , , 90, ( .4.72 4.88). ,
, , 15,
, ( .4.71 4.87).

57
,
. ,
.4.73 ,
, 10%. ( ) , .

.4.69 , , , ,
15. , (.4.51). 20.

58

.4.70 , 15.
, (.4.52).
= 20.

.4.71 , 15.
.4.57. .4.73.

59

.4.72 , 15.
.4.57. .4.73.

4.3.3

. Stolt ,
. Stolt

(
, ).
W Stolt

.4.73
4.71 4.72. =
; = ; D = ;
D = ; L = ; =
( ).


Stolt.
4.2.3, Stolt ,
Stolt. , ,
( ).
,

60
,
. Stolt .
90 . .
W. Stolt
(1978) W. W
,

( .4). W 0 2.
, .4.74, .4.74 W
, 90. . W =

1
Stolt.
Stolt . W<1, ; W>1
. , W Stolt. W 1, . W<1 ;
W>1 , . 1, Stolt
(Stolt, 1978),
. , Stolt ,
.

61

.4.75 . W < 1 ; W > 1 ( Union Oil Company).

.4.75.
W = 1 , ..
. 0 < W < 1 ; 1 > W > 2 .
.4.74. W = 1.95 wraparound.
Stolt W = 1 , . ,
, . .4.76
W. t = 0 t = 4 2000/c 4000/. W , , . , , W=1 . .4.76
W = 0.6. , ,
W 1. , W
. , .4.76, , Stolt , . W,

62
, Stolt.
.4.77 4.78 , .4.57
W. . .4.79 D , . Stolt W = 0.5.

.4.76 , .

Stolt , . ,
(.4.80). .4.61.
, (.4.80b).
, 15 ?
, (Rothman ., 1985). Stolt , v(z) 2000/. .4.80d. (.4.80),
(residual) ( .5) 15. (.4.80b),
. ,
(.4.80). .5
.

63
.4.81 , .4.82
. (.4..58). Stolt 1500/c, , , .
,
Stolt ,
15.

.4.77 . .4.57.

,
. .4.81,
(.
.4.82). , , , ,
. , . (.9b) , , ,
, . ,
, (.63), ( ), .

Gazdag, f-k- ( 4.2.3). -

64
, 90. .4.83 . ,

.
, . , ,
. , .
, 2
(.4.83). (.4.84), 2 , , , , .

.4.85 , .
[ (.28)] , . , , .
. ,
; ,
(.4.85). , . 20 ; .
, , , ,
, 20.

65
.4.78 W . .4.57.
.4.77.

.4.79
.4.77 4.78. = ; = ; D D -
Stolt .
W.

66

.4.80 . () ; (b) 15; () , ; (d)


Stolt v = 2000/; () (d) , 15.

67

.4.81 , . : Stolt (1500/); : , 15 .


.

68

.4.82
.4.81. ; D = ; 1, D1 = ; 2, D2 = .

.4.83 f-k-
, . f-k-.

.4.84 .
.

69

.4.85 20 80
.

.4.86 20 80 .

70
.4.86. , . ,
, - , . , z, .
, .. 20 40,
, .

,
.
(.4.49
4.52). .4.87 4.88 ,
. .4.89 . ,
. ,
. .4.89 4.73 ,
, , f-k-, , ,
(, , ). , 20%
(.4.89), .

.4.87 ;
. .4.57.

4.3.4 -

71
, f-k-.
. ,
90,
. , , 35. , , . , , ,
.
,
. .3. (hybrid domain) (, ); ,
- f-x . ,
15 (15-degree equation), [ (.29)]. -x [ (.42)], . Kjartansson (1979) ,
45 .
65; ( .3).
, , 45 (,
1981) (Lee Suh, 1985) (.4.90).

.4.88 ;
. .4.57.

72

.4.89
.4.87 4.88. ; D = ; L = , ; = ,
.


4.3.2,
,
,
.
, ( ), , ,
.
, 15, ,
, 45
.
,
( 4.3.2), , 15.
f-x,
65,
.4.91 4.96.

(.4.91), 15 (.4.59). (4 16)


(.4.92) , 15 (.4.60).


(.4.93), 15
(.4.63).
AB
,
.
(4 16) (.4.94),
, 15 (.4.64). ,
, ,

(.4.91 4.93).
15 (.4.59 4.63)
.4.90
, ,
(
.3).
, 45
, , 15. , , , . , ,
45, , , 15. -

73
, (Diet Lailly
1984). ,
.

, , , , 65,
, 15. ,
20 ;
. , ,
, 65, , ,
15 ( .4.59 .4.91, .4.63 .4.93;
20).
.4.95 .
(15, 45, 65) - .
. .4.57b.
, t-x-, 15 (.4.57) -, 15
(.4.95).
-. , ,
(.4.96), , , 15 (.4.67). ,
, (.4.97)
, , 15 (.4.68).
, , ,
.
(.4.98 4.99; .4.69 4.70).
65,
- .
80.

, , . ,
, , , [ (4.16)],
. , , ( 5.2) ( 6.5 .8).
- , . ,
; ,
/ , . ,
- . ,
.
,
,
.

74

.4.91 20 80 , 65 . .

75

.4.92 4 16 , 65
.

.4.93 20 80 , 65 . .

76

.4.94 4 16 , 65 . .

.4.95 - .4.57. .4.57b.


, : () 15; (b)
45; () 65.

77

.4.96 ,
65; , .

.4.97 ,
65; , .

78

.4.98 , 65; , .

.4.99 , 65; , .

79

4.3.5
1.6.1.
.
.
.
f-k- .4.33. .
50. f-k- (.4.100) ,
. (45)
24. f-k; , ,
, , . ,
,
, . .4.100
; .
, ,
.
. ,
, .

100 (.4.101).
(
12 ), , .
.
. . , , .
, .
.4.102 . . ,
, , . : , .

80

.4.100 (t,x) () (f,k) (). .4.33 4.101.

.4.101 (t,x) () (f,k) (). .4.33 4.100.

81

.4.102 .

, , , ( 4.3.2). , (Clearbout, 1985),


.4.103.
50 , (precursors) ,
; .4.100. .4.103
50 .
(, 25). ,
15
(.4.104). ,
15, , , , .
.4.105 4.106.
.
(.4.106).
, ? .4.33, 4.100 4.101
. , .
, ,
. -

82
, ,
, , .
. (.4.107)
,
. ( ,
). .4.107
,
, :
fthreshold = v/(4 sin ),

(4.17)

v = ; = , = .
4.3 (4.17) . (4.17) 2 . , 30. 4, 125 . 90 ,
0.75 . 12.5.
(
), . . , ..
( 8.3). . 6.5.4
. 1.6.1 , ,
(.1.77) , , . .4.108. , , ON , N .
1 2 AS .
DOB,
. 1

ON. 2 BV . , , .
, , , , DOB 2. ,
, ,
.

83

.4.103 (15) ,
.

84

.4.104 (15) , , . ,
.

, , . 12.5, (.. ) 100. ,


. ; ,
, (4.17). 6.5.4
.
. ,
. .
,
, .

4.3.6
,
. .4.109 ,
, , .
2000/ ( ) 4000/ (
). ,
.
.4.109, , -

85
. , .

, . ,
/ . .4.110 .
, .4.110
,
. ,
.
(.4.46). .

(.4.84).

86

.4.105 .

87

.4.106 .4.105.

88

.4.107 [ (4.17)].
, (/2).

.4.108 (f,k).

.4.109 . () v(z); : (b) f-k; (c) ; (d) .

89

4.3.7
- , .
,
(.4.111). BD CD
, ,
. ,
. , . ,

. , . , . .4.110 (b) -
()
,
().
(.4.14). 3D
, , ( 6.3.1). 3D ,
.
, , .
.
, , , . , .
. ,
, , (Clearbout Engquist, 1980).
.4.112 ,
. , , , . , , .4.112.
.
, .. .

. / .
(.4.112), ,
.

90
.

4.4
, . ,
.
.

.4.111 .

.4.112 . () ; (b) .
D? () , .

91

.4.113 , ( Western Geophysical).


.

.4.113. , .
, . , , . .
.4.114 ( .4.113)
2.35,

.4.114 , .4.113,
(a
b) ( Western Geophysical).
.
.
, , .
, .
,
. .4.115
.
(.4.115b). , (.4.115). ,

(.4.115).

92
, , .4.116. , D,
,
(.4.116). . ,
(.4.116b),
(.4.116d). , .
(.4.116d)
D.

.4.115 (3000/)
.4.119. () ; (b) (NMO velocity) 3000/;
() 3000/.


, (.4.116). ; 3.2 ,
Levin. ,
,
, .
, .. , (.4.115).
, , .
,
,
. ? .1 , [ (.21)].
,
.
DSR (Clearbout, 1978). (.4.115), (.4.120). ,
.
; . -

93
, .4.113, .4.117.
, ; . .117 (.4.118).
- :
DSR :


, , . -, . 48- 48 . , , . -,
, ,
, . , .. ,
. , ( ).
, , . , .

,
.

94

95

.4.117 ( ) .4.113. ( Western Geophysical.)

.4.118 ( ) .4.113. ( Western Geophysical.)

96

4.4.1 ( , )
,
, .. ?
-, -
:

PSPM? , (Levin, 1971) :


t 2 ( x) = t 2 (0) +

x 2 cos 2
v2

(4.18)

- ; v ; - (.3.16).
, :
t 2 ( x) = t 2 (0) +

x 2 x 2 sin 2

v2
v2

(4.19)

(NMO), , (DMO). ,
, ,
, . , ,
, (PSPM). ,
, , ,
, , , .
(4.19) ,
. -, ( = 0)
. -, , . , , . , , , ..

97
. ,
, .
. Doherty (1975)
. Sherwood . (1978)
. , DSR , Yilmaz
Clearbout (1980) PSPM ,
. . , . Deregowski Rocca (1981) PSPM
, , (dip moveout DMO). PSPM DMO . Ottolini (1982) PSPM (Snell midpoint coordinates),
( ).
, . ,
. , (Rocca ., 1982);
.. , .. .
Hale (1983) DMO f-k.
,
. Fowler (1984)
(v, ky, ). , French . (1984) , -, , , .
, . , PSPM , . 5.
Hale . . PSPM (Deregowski Rocca, 1981). . ,
DMO , Hale.
(4.19) :
t 2 ( x) = t n2 (0) x 2 p 2

(4.20)

t n2 ( x) = t 2 (0) + x 2 / v 2 , = sin/v . f-k p = kx/20, 0


, t(0). , ,
, DMO x2p2. , f-k , ,
, .
.4.119 , DMO .

98
,
( 32). , ,
.4.120. 50 1550 50. .
.4.119 .4.120b.
, ,
.
, ( 32) ,
.

DMO :

.4.119 , ( ).

1. .4.120 , .
(3000/)

DMO ( ,
) [
(4.19)].
31

, , 32
( ), .
2. ,

(.4.120), .4.121b.
,
. . , .4.121.
3. , (.4.120)
DMO. .4.120d
4. , (.4.120). DMO:
a. DMO . ,
, . DMO (.4.121).
b. , DMO
.
c. DMO .
, DMO .

99
d. , ,
, .
5. , , (.4.120f);
(.4.120). , , ( 32 ), , ( 32). .
, , , ,
.
, , ,
63

100

.4.120 DMO ,
.4.119.

6. , , (.4.120f), (.4.12),
(.4.121),
, (.4.121b).
.4.121.
.

101
7. , .4.121, .4.122. DMO (.4.122b). , , , . , , + ,
+ +
.

.4.121 () , .4.119; (b) ,


.4.120; () DMO, .4.120f.

.4.122 , .4.121.

.
, DMO . .4.61 , .
, 32 - .
,
, .4.123 4.123b.
, (.4.120). (.4.123) ,
,
.4.61. ,
, .4.124, ,

102
, .4.61. , (DMO) (.4.123f) DMO ( .4.124b
4.124). , .4.123f,
Hale. Hale (1983)
,
DMO .
,
? DMO ,
[ (4.19)]. v(z)
, .
, .. . ,
, .
, , , DMO.
.4.119.
, , ,
20% , (.. ).
.4.120b , (3600/). .4.125.
, ,
. , , , .4.125.
DMO (.4.125d). , ,
, , , , .4.125. .4.126.
, , DMO. .
(.4.125)
,
(.4.125). , ,
, (.4.125f).
(.4.127).
,
.4.127b, 3000/.
, DMO
. -
DMO (.4.128).

103

.4.123 DMO ,
.4.61.

104

.4.124 ( ) , .4.61; (b) ,


.4.123; () , .4.123

. .4.129
, , 0
45 5. (3500/).
(.4.130) ,
. ;
.4.131. , . , , ,
(.4.129b). ,
(.4.129). DMO .
, , (.4.129), . ,
, , , (.4.129d). DMO (.4.129).
DMO ,
. .4.131b. , 3500/ ( ).
.4.129 .4.130. (.4.129) (.4.130) , , DMO,
.

105

.4.125 DMO ,
.4.119.

106

.4.126 () , .4.119; (b) ,


.4.125; () DMO, .4.125d.

.4.127 () , .4.119; (b) ,


.4.125; () DMO, .4.125f.

.4.128 - DMO.


.4.113. , , 2.35 , ..
, .4.114b. PSPM .4.132. (.4.133) (.4.117). DMO (
.4.113 4.132),
(.4.114b),
(
.4.118 4.133).
(.4.117).

107

.4.129 DMO . () ; =
3500/c; (b) , (.4.131); () ,
; (d) DMO.

108
.4.130 : () ,
.4.129; (b) , .4.129b; ()
, .4.129; (d) , .4.129d;()
.

.4.131 : () DMO; (b)


DMO. .4.129 b.

Levin (3.9) , ,
. - . , DMO (Jakubowich ., 1984).
DMO . DMO (. 4.5). , , ,
(Black ., 1985).
( ), .
DMO , , ,
. PSPM (Hale, 1983), Yilmaz Claerbout (1980) Sherwood .
(1978). , , ,
. ( .4.117
.4.133). PSPM (DMO) .

109

.4.132 PSPM; .4.113. ( Western Geophysical).

.4.133 .4.132. .4.117 4.118. ( Western Geophysical).

110

.4.134 () , ; (b) ,
; ()
,

, (b). (b) ,
() (Yilmaz
Chambers, 1984).

.4.135 .4.134 : () ,
; (b) .
wraparound (),
. (Yilmaz Chambers, 1984).

4.5
,
. , : .
, . , (Clayton, 1978; Yilmaz Claerbout, 1980).
,
(Taner Koehler, 1069; Gardner ., 1974).

. .4.134 . , . (v, ), .4.134. (v, ) .

, .
. - ,
.4.134, . ,
,
, , .4.134 -

111
. , ,
. .4.135
.4.134. (.4.135) ; , . (.4.135). , ,
, , , (.4.135b).
?
, .

. (. .4.134b).
.4.134b 4.134 . , , , -
.

- (.4.134). , ( ) . (Levin, 1971), , ,
(Hubral Krey, 1980). , , ,
. , ,
,
.
, , . .
,
.
, , Doherty Clearbout (1974). , 15 (15degree finite-difference migration) .
Gonzalez-Serrano Clearbout (1979) , (linearly moveout-corrected). ,
, , (DSR) (Yilmaz Clearbout, 1980).
.7. (.77), P(y,h = 0,,t) (t, ) ( ) (v,t = ), = . .
(y, , v). , .. , .

(, 20). .4.136 ,
, .

112
, .4.136,
DSR. .4.137
,
(v = 3000/). . (ve = 3000/). , 1
5 .4.137, .4.138.
(. .7) (v, )
(.4.139). (3000/). ,
1, . , .4.138 , 1;
( 5) .
?
,
= t ( ). .4.138,
3000/ (.. , .4.137).

, , ,
.

(v, ) (.77).


.4.140,
. .4.141b , . ,
, (ve = 3000/) , , .
.
, , , ,
. (v, ) .4.142.
2700, 2850
.4.136 , 4.5 (Yilmaz Chambers, 1984). .7.

3000/, , .4.142b 2500, 2800 3000/.


, ,
8%.

113

.4.137 , ,

1; () ; (b) .

.4.138 ,
1 5, .4.137, ()
5; (b) 1 (Yilmaz Chambers, 1984).

.4.140 ,
- , 1 . () ; (b)
(Yilmaz Chambers, 1984).

.4.139 (v, ), 1 5. .4.138, () 5; (b) 1


(Yilmaz Chambers, 1984).

.4.141 ,
1 5, .4.140, ()
5; (b) 1 (Yilmaz Chambers, 1984).

114

.4.143 () 1,
.4.140; (b) () ,
, .4.134b
4.134 (Yilmaz Chambers, 1984).

.4.142 (v, ), 1 5. .4.141, () 5; (b) 1


(Yilmaz Chambers, 1984).


,
,
. .4.143
1 , ;

.4.140.
(.4.134b)
P(kh,, = 0)

= t ( ).

.
.4.143b

, . ,
.4.142,
[ (.77)].

.4.144 .
.4.145, 4.146 4.147 (Yilmaz Chambers,
1984).
, , , .

1
.4.143 . . (.4.143b 4.143) .

115

.4.145 , , .4.144 (Yilmaz Chambers, 1984).

116

.4.144 ,
.
7000 (64 , 48 ).
, 1024 50-
. .4.145.
, . , . , . , ,
, 24 , , 80 , .
.4.146b. ,
, .4.146. (v, ).
, .
, ,
. , , , , .

. .4.147
, .4.147. , ,
(v, ), . .4.141b.
, .4.146b 4.146. , ( 4.5%),
, .
, ,
. , . , , .

117

.4.146 () , .4.144; (b) , , .4.136 .4.145; () , 3.1 (Yilmaz Chambers 1984).

.4.147 () , .4.144; (b) , , .4.136, ; ()


, 3.1, (Yilmaz Chambers 1984).

118

.4.148 ( 4.8).

4.1. , 90 .4.14.
.
4.2. (t/x) (.4.16b)
1.5. (4.1), (4.2), (4.3),
, . .
, .
4.3.
. , . , (x, z) , (x, t); .
4.4. .4.50?
4.5. , (DMO) .

119
DMO:

4.6.
: ?
4.7.
: ?
4.8.
(.4.148).
4.9. (x, t) (x, z). (x, ), = 2z/v?
4.10. (.38) (.38b) .2.
4.11. .4.26. , (b),
(). , (), ? (. ..2).
4.12. , . : ?
, ( ).
?
4.13. , : ?
4.14. .4.33. , ?
4.15.
d x dz ( z ) , . .4.14 t =2z/v, tan t = (2 tan z)/v (4.1), (4.2)
(4.3).
4.16. ,
.

120
: () ; (b) ?
4.17. .4.59, , 15 (15-degree phase-shift migration algoritm)?