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2017
811.111
81.432.1
39

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39 - : / .. -
, .. . : , 2017.
432 .

ISBN 978-5-4365-1975-3

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811.111
81.432.1

.. ,
.. , 2017
ISBN 978-5-4365-1975-3 , 2017

0. ...................................................................... 12

-? ........................................................................ 12
............................................. 14
? ...... 14
........................................ 16
. .................... 18
? .............................................................................. 19

. .............................................................. 20
: ................................. 21
? ...................................................... 23
? ......................................................................... 24
1. ..................................................................................... 25
..................................................... 25
............................................. 26
................................................. 27
......................... 29
.................. 30
......................................................................................... 31
..................................................................................... 34
.................................... 34
:
- .......................................................................................... 37
2. Tenses ................................................................................................ 39
............................................................................ 39
.............................................................................................. 45
........................................................................ 45
, -? .................... 48
Continuous ................................................................. 52
Continuous in Passive .................................................................. 55
Perfect Continuous ............................................... 56
GET .................................................................................... 60

3

Getting Get Continuous Tense ............................................... 61
Got Get .............................................. 62
Get/got ...................................................... 63
Get to , .......................... 63
Simple ...................................................... 65
............................................................. 65
: ............................. 67
(Historical Present Tense): ...................... 68
2.1 Tenses ...................................................................... 70
-ed - ing ................................................... 70

: ........................................................................................ 71
: ................... 73
Perfect ................................................................ 75
Perfect Continuous: ........................................... 77
Continuous: ............................................................. 79
Continuous Perfect
continuous: .............................................................................................. 79
Simple
Continuous: ............................................................................................ 80
Continuous : .................... 82
get: ..................................................................... 84
Simple: ............................................................... 87
2.2 Tenses : .................................................. 89
-ed - ing: .................................................. 89

: ........................................................................................ 91
: ........................ 94
Perfect ................................................................ 98
Continuous: ........................................................... 105
Continuous Perfect
continuous: ............................................................................................ 105
Simple
Continuous: ...................................................................................... 108
Continuous : ....................... 113

4

Perfect Continuous:............................................... 116
get ......................................................................... 121
Simple: .................................................................. 128
............................................................... 131

....................................................................................... 132
Tense .......................... 139
................................................... 140

.................................................................................... 141

.................................................................................... 145

.................................................................................... 146
(Subjunctive Mood) ........ 146

.......................................................................... 150
.................................................... 153
....................................................... 153
............................................................... 155
.......................................................... 156
.................................................................... 157
.............................................................. 158
....................................................................... 159
........................................................................ 159
( ) ...... 162
............................................................. 165
............................................................... 165
..................................................... 166
...................................................................... 167
W- (w-questions) .......................................................... 169
............................................................ 170
................................................................ 171
W-: ....................................................................... 172
() (-) .................................... 173

5

( )..................... 175
- ........................................................................ 175
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......................................................................................... 177
: ........ 177
: ............................................... 178
:.............................................. 179
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3.1 ................................ 183

to be: ....................................................................................... 183

:............................................................. 184

3- :......................................................... 185

............................................................................. 185
: ............... 186
: ..................... 187
:................................................................ 189
: ..... 190
:.......................................... 191
3.2 ............. 194

to be: ....................................................................................... 194

:............................................................. 196
3-
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............................................................................. 199
: ............... 201
: ..................... 203
:................................................................ 207
: ..... 209

6

:.......................................... 212
4. .............................................................................. 215
?.......................................................... 215
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.................................................... 232
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4.1 ....................................................... 235
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-s
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:.......................... 238
, : ..................... 239
on: ........ 239
................................. 241
............................... 242
: ................................. 243
............................. 244
................................ 245
.......................... 245
............................................... 246
4.2 c .................................... 248
: ....................................... 248

7

-s
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:.......................... 253
, : ..................... 257
on: ........ 258
: ................................ 262
............................... 264
: ................................. 266
: ............................ 267
................................ 270
.......................... 272
............................................... 273
5. ..................................................... 276
Can ............................................................... 277
To be able to , can .............. 280
May ............................................................... 281
To be allowed to ,
may ............................................................................. 283
To be permitted to ,
may ............................................................................. 284
Could ............................................................ 284
To be managed to ,
could............................................................................ 285
Might ............................................................. 286
To be unlikely to ,
might ........................................................................... 287
Must .............................................................. 287
Have (Got) to , must ...................... 289
Should ........................................................... 290
Ought to , should ........................... 291
Shall .............................................................. 291
To be to , shall ............................... 292

8

Would ............................................................ 292
Will ................................................................ 293
To be meant to ............................................. 294
To be supposed to ....................................... 295
Need (to) ....................................... 296
Dare (to) ........................................ 297
.............................................. 299
There is (There are) ......................................................................... 299
That is This is ............................................................... 300
It is ...................................................................................... 301
, ............................................ 302
To be going to .................................................................................. 302
To be about to .................................................................................. 303
, ...................................... 306
Used to ....................................................................................... 306
To be used to .............................................................................. 306
Get used to ................................................................................. 307
To be getting used to .................................................................. 308
....................................... 308
............................................................. 309
.................................................................. 310
....................................................................... 311
been ........................................................................... 312
GET ....................... 313
5.1 ........................... 315
, : ................. 315
, , ,
: .................................................................. 319

-: .................................................................... 321
Will, Shall , To be to, Dare: ................................... 322
To be about to: ................. 323
to be meant to: ................. 325
to be supposed to: ........... 326

9

There is / There are: ............................................. 327
This is / That is: ................................. 328
It is ......................................................................... 328

:.............................................................................. 329

: ............................................................... 331

: ............................................................. 335
5.2
....................................................................... 336
, , ,
: ........................................................................................ 336
, , ,
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-: .................................................................... 352
Will, Shall , To be to, Dare: ................................... 354
To be about to: ................. 357
to be meant to: ................. 360
to be supposed to: ........... 363
There is / There are: ............................................. 365
This is / That is: ................................. 367
It is ......................................................................... 368

:.............................................................................. 370

: .............................................................................. 375

: ............................................................................ 379
6. . ................................................... 381
. ..................... 382
1 ...................................................................................... 387
Tenses - .................................................. 387
2 ...................................................................................... 388
................................................. 388

10

3 ...................................................................................... 412
, ................................................. 412
, : ....... 412
, : ............................................ 423
() .............................. 427

11

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Shehasnothadababy(
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These girls are not beautiful (
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Isntshetootall??

29

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31

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Soap ( : ), Soup ( :
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32

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34


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35

James, while John had had had had had had had had had had
had a better effect on the teacher / ,
had, had had; had had
1.
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2. , -
( Tense).
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1. DO, DID, DOES: : .
, .
2. BE, IS, ARE, AM, WAS, WERE: . -
Continuous.
3. HAVE, HAS, HAD: . -
Perfect.
4. BEEN, BEING: : .
Perfect Continuous.
5. GET, GOT: . -,
..
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6. WILL, WOULD/SHALL, SHOULD: , .

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36

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: dont, havent, cant, couldnt ..
() : nothing, no, no
one, nobody, neither nor.

37

) :
(indirect question)
W (wquestion):

(general question) +

(tagquestion)
) ( Do
Does)
) Tense -
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(he, she, it)
4. , .
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38

2. Tenses

-
Tense.
, Tense , + .
, : ,
. , -
.
?
.
,
:
/Ididnteatyesterday(Simple).
, ,
:
/Ihaventeatensinceyester
day(Perfect).
:
/Iwasnteatingatthelunch
timeyesterday(Continuous).
:
,/Iha
ventbeeneatingthecakeforthesetwohoursyesterday,Ihavebeen
takingaphotoofit(PerfectContinuous).
, -
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( ),
( ), -
, (
).

39

, ,
1 , -
.
( Simple, Continu-
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9 , Per-
fect Continuous . .
Tense
( ). 12 -
: 24 (!!!). ! -
26 32!
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. .

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speaker, ,
Tense .
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Simple, Continuous Perfect, -
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.


1
, , ..

40

,
-
( ).
.

:

I was running (I was running 100 meters after the


tramyesterday/100.).
I have been running (I have been running after you
for15minutes,butyouhaventnoticedme/
15,).
Ihadbeenrunning(Ihadbeenrunningafteryoufor
15 minutes yesterday/ 15
).
I ran (I ran with dishonor from the battlefield /
).
Iran(Iranlikethewindinmyyouth/
,).
I was running (I was running back and forth around
thetownlookingforyouforallyesterdayeveningand
youwerewaitingmeatyourhome!Unbelievable!/

, !
!).
I am running (I am running a marathon tomorrow
(now)/()).
, -
-
, .
Irun(Iruneverymorning/).
I will (Hope, I will run a marathon! /,
).

41

Igetrun(Havingheardtheshots,Igetrun/
,).
I have run (I have run all my life /
(<>)).
Iwasrunning(Iwasrunningbyyourhousewhensaw
you came/ ,
).
Ihaverun(Ihaverunmorethan5thousandkilome
tersformylife/<>
5).
Ihadrun(Ihadrunaround2kilometersbeforethey
stopped me yesterday /
<> 2 ,
).
Having run (Having run 100 meters, Im feeling
myself perfectly/ 100 ,
).
Havingbeenrun<>
(Having been run to you, I dont notice anything
around me/ ,
).
Running (Running man is my neighbor/
).
Was running (The man, who was running along the
street, was my neighbor / ,
,).
Running (Running in the mourning child is brilliant
minded/
)1.
Running (Running in the mourning is good for your

1
,shiftyeyes.

42

( health/).
) Run(Idecidedtobeaprofessionalsportsmen,todo
that I've already got the run and situps /
,
).
Running out (Running out by the rider horse/
() ).
Gettingrun(Gettingrun,herememberedthatpleas
ant feeling/ ,
).
Get running (Get running out of my house, I am
switchingthetrackonmyIPod/,
).
,(,
),
:
Get run out of my house, I switch the track on my
IPodusually..
Having run up (Having run up home, I locked all
doors/,).
Run up (Run up home, I am heading to the shower
firstly/ ,
).
Havingbeenrunning(Havingbeenrunningadistance
of3kilometers,Ifeltproblemswithbreathingonthe
secondone/3,
).
! Letsgetrun!Comeon!/!!
,
:Letsrun!/!
! Run(Run,Forest,run!/,,!).

43

Run!!
! Runaway(Runaway,sonny!/,!).
Runningaway(Runningawayfromthedogs,Idecid
ednevercomebackhere/,
).
Havingrunaway(Havingrunawayfromhome,Priscilla
realizedthatshehasnothingtoeat/,
,).
Willhaverun(Lockthecage,otherwisethehamster
will have run (away)/ ,
()).
Turn off the oven, otherwise the milk will have run
over/,().
Will run (He will run on this competition/
).
(Hewillgetrunbytheendofthesummer,forsure!/
,!).
Willberunning(Ifyouputhamsterinawheel,itwill
be running nonstop/
,).
(Itlookslikeshewillhasbeenrunningfrompoliceall
herlife/
.:).

. , ?
,
, , -
,
. -
Simple, Perfect Continuous (Perfect Continuous).
,
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, , ,
, . .

44

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, Perfect (),
:
Have/has/had + -ed (V3)


1
:
, Creating :
: creating man / (
) ( ).
-ing-: Drinking water/ , Flashing
light/ .
: Creating the future /
: Creating of sense /
,
Creation of world.
( , "", )
: . : /
. creating
creation .

45

Have/has/had + been + -ed (V3) 1
-? :
, . ,
, , .
, , -
.
(), -.
- , -
().
:
I have drunk this glass of vine / : <>
.
Ihavedonethis/:<>.
Ihaverememberedthis/:<>.
I have versed in this issues / :
(
).
.
. ,
, , -
, .
-
, , , :
Ihaveheard/.
< >. (
,).
,
have (has, had), -ed,
. ,
, -ed , -
(-

1
: , - ;
, - . -
.
V3 , -
, (. 2).

46

2 ). ,
.

:
Ihaveheardmymom'swords/<>
..
Ihaveeaten/<>().
Ihaveseen/<>().
Ihaveknown/<>().
I had known / < > (
)..
I have been in London / < >.
.
I have decided to fly to London / <> ()
.
I will have finished this article about London by Christmas /
<>
.
.
! , (
Perfect, Perfect Continuous)
, -
. -,
1, -, -
, ,
.
: , .
, .
-

, .

.


1
, I have known all the capitals of the world /
?

47

, Past Perfect:
Ihadneverbeenherebefore/.
, Perfect Continuous:
He has been at the forefront of UK techno since 1994 /
<>()1994.
,
.

, -
?
, -? -
, , , -
I was running, I have run I have been running?
-, , ? -
(), -
?
.
Present Pefect Past Simple:
Ihaveheardyou/:<>(
:)..
I heard you / .
.
Past Perfect Contin-
uous ( ) Past Continuous.
I had been running / <
()>,
.
I was running /
,
.
, -
.
:
1) , ,
. .., , , -

48

(), -
( ), I was running.
.
: I was running when you called me. Thats why I
couldntansweryou/,.
.
2) ,
(), , ..
I had been running.
Perfect Continuous.
: Ihadbeenrunningforseveralhourswhenyoucalled
me.ThatswhyIwasnotabletoansweryou/
,.
.
, ( -
) , -
. , , , -
,
-.
, ,
have ( ) had (
).
have had -
: have ,
, had ,
.
:
IwasdreamingaboutGoaatthatmoment/
.
IhadbeendreamingaboutGoafor2years/
2.
? , .
, , -
: I was dreaming about Goa at that moment so I didnt even think
about Australia / ,
.
, : I had been dreaming about Goa for 2
years and finally I am here! / < > ()
2 ! ( ).

49

:
I am learning English in my own way /
.
IhavebeenlearningEnglishfor5years/<>
5.
, -
, Perfect ( Continuous) . -
,
Perfect.

:
Whyareyounervous?Imfeelingsomethingwrong.Thatswhy
Icannotenterthedealnow/?,
..
For last 3 days I have been feeling something wrong so its a
goodideatovisitadoctor/,3
,.
:
ThisprogramwasmadebyIvanovin2009hencethatyearhe
was working as ITspecialist /
2009,,
( 2009
).
This program has been made by Ivanov so he has all author
rights/,
( ,
).
:
The ship arrived to the port yesterday, but he left the port at
night / ,
(:).
Theshiphasarrivedtotheportyesterday,soyoucanobserve
it,ifyouwant/,
,(
).

50

:
The kitten suffered a lot when it was living on a street/
,(
).
The kitten had suffered too much before I found it /
( ) ,
().
, . , -
: , - ,
( -
), -
.
, , -
.
,
. . ,
, . , -
. , . -
. .
,
( ) -
:
Ihaveslimedup/:<>.:
.
Ihavefedup/:<()>.:
.
, , -
- ( ). , -
,
, -
, , -
.
, -
, . . -
,
.
, .

51

Continuous
.
Continuous? ?
- .
, , Continuous:
To be + -ing
To be + being + -ed
, -
, Continuous -
.
:
Wearearriving/<>().
,
,
. , - -
. :
Iamwriting/<>().
Youarejoking/<>().
Sheiswhistling/<>().
. , Continuous -
, , .
. , .
!
, -
: Contin-
uous Perfect Continuous. ()
?
. , (-
), Continuous,
(
) Perfect Continuous.
,
Continuous, . -
Continuous, ( ,
) Perfect Continuous.

52

, ,
:
I am writing / < > (
?).:(,).Present
Continuous.
I was writing / < > (
?). : (, ,
).PastContinuous.
Ihavebeenwriting/<>(?).
: / ( ). Perfect
Continuous.
:
Are you reading? Its too quiet in your room! No, mom. I am
writing a school report on Biology / ?
! , .
(,..Continuous).
Ihavebeenwritingfortwolasthoursalready.Ithurtsmyeyes/
<:>.
( , Perfect
Continuous).
:
6 8 .
? Continu-
ous Perfect Continuous?
Perfect Continuous: She had been planting the flowers
from 6 till 8 p.m. yesterday / : <>
6 8 .
? .
, , , -
-
, Continuous. ,
: < 6 8 >?
: , 6 8 .
:
Whatwereyoudoingonthestreet?Wasntitmoreinteresting
to be at home with a computer and videogames? / (

53

)?c
?
Whathadyoubeendoingonthestreet?Youshouldhavebeen
athome,itstoolate!/:<>?
(,,,)
, ! :
?,
!
IwasflyingintoThailandwhentheideacametome/
, .
Continuous.
I have been flying on wings of love since she said yes /
: <> , c ,
.:
,1.
I have been coming to Moskovskiy railway station from 4 to 5
P.M.; will you catch up with me for a lunch at the French cafe? /
: <> 4 5 ,
? :
4 5,
?
??,
/Whereareyou?Whatrailwaystationareyou
coming to? In a train, I am coming to Ladozhskiy railway station.
.Continuous.
, ,
,/People,whohavebeensufferingfromobesi
ty, is attend to spend more money, than others.
..PerfectContinuous.
: Present Continuous
(, )
.


1
,
.

54

-
, :
, ,
, .. -
.
:
,
/ Im not sleeping at home on the coming weekend,
dontwaitmeIwillbackonMonday.,Pre
sentContinuous,.
,
/ImflyingtoRussiaontheWednesdaysothatIhavetocan
celourmeeting.
,
/Thisyearwerego
ingonfamilyvacationtoBaliandnextyearwearehopingtotravelto
SriLanka.

Continuous in Passive

, -
, .
Continuous, Perfect
Continuous. Passive Continuous
being (
) to be ,
. Perfect Continuous in
Passive .
PassiveContinuous:
To be + being + -ed (V3)
:
Our house is being repaired now /
.
Iwillbebeingtaughtathome/.

55

Perfect
Continuous in Passive:
Thedinnerhasbeenbeingcookedfor4hoursby6peopleitis
an insane! / 4
!
, Passive Perfect Continuous -
-
,
.

Perfect Continuous
, -
Perfect Continuous
, -
. , - .
, Tense ,
, -
( , )1. ,

( Perfect
Tense) . -
.
, -
Perfect Continuous Tense, -
,
.
PerfectContinuous:
Have+been+ing
Have+been+being+ed
:
The cat, which has been eating Whiskas, always outstands
withstrandedmuzzle/


1
, .. - , -
.

56

(
Continuous,).
Thecoldrain,whichhasbeenfinishing,alwaysbringsbitofjoy/

(,,).
Theman,whohasbeendreamingaboutitsolong,wouldnever
give up so fast / , ,
().
, ,
/OnlywhenIamhadbeenwalkingalongthe
nightbeach,IhavebeenunderstandingthatIcanachieveeverything.
(,,.PerfectContinu
ous)
, ,
/ Only when I was walking along the night beach, I
realized that I can achieve everything. ( . Past
Continuous)
, Perfect,
, -
Continuous Perfect Continuous
, -
. (
).
( ) .
, ,
:
Aboyrunningalongthebeach/,
(.Continuous).
Aboyhas beenrunning along the beach/:
, . : ,
(.PerfectContinuous).

Continuous Perfect Contin-
uous .

57

:
The man is dreaming about it /
(Continuous).
The man has been dreaming about it / ,
.:<>(
. . Perfect Con
tinuous).
I am hearing these words now /
(Continuous).
Ihavebeenhearingthesewordsagainandagainfor2minutes
already/ 2 .
: <> 2 .
(PerfectContinuous).
hadbeenspeakingfor10minuteswhenwecame/
10 , . :
10, (PerfectContinuous).
, Perfect Continuous
. , -
,
. 1.
, Perfect Continuous -
, , . -
, , () -
Perfect Continuous Continuous. -
, 100% .
, -
, .
, .
() ,
(, / Frisbees have been flying in the park Per-


1
, , -
, -
, , .
, , .
, .

58

fect Continuous), + -
( / Flying saucers).
.
:
/wavyhair
/ sharp objects, thrust and cut
tingobjects
Per-
fect Continuous Continuous:
, ,
50%,, /On
average,people,whohavebeenbuyingfoodinshops,earnupto50%
lessthanpeople,whoeatinrestaurants.PerfectContinuous.
, ,
/ People who are buying food at the
nextcashier,seemtomeallegedlyfamiliar.Continuous.
, ,
,/People,whohavebeensuf
feringfromobesity,statisticallyliveforseveralyearslessthanslender
ones.PerfectContinuous.
,
/ Opposite me in bus were standing people, suffering
fromobesity.Continuous.
, ,
/Women,whohavebeenreadingromancenovels,statis
ticallyareverygullible.PerfectContinuous.
, , ,
/ The woman, who is reading a romance
novel,sittingonaparkbench,isbitingandapplesoenthusiastically.
Continuous.
, , (), -
.

59

( )
.

GET
GET.
, , -
, to be, have/has do/does.
, -
Get -
: , ,
get -
, -
, . ( -
) get gote get-
ting :)
Get -, -, -
-. , get, have,
Perfect. Perfect,
have? : have -
. get - -
.
-, -, - .
Perfecta Get:

Get + -ed (V3)

:
Getslimed/<>
Getstunned/<>
Getfinished/<>
Getfelt/<>
Getdrunk/<>
Getexhausted/<,>.
, get

60

(-ed), (, -
-er).
:
Getsmarter/
Getbetter/
Getstronger/
Getwhite/().
Get ,
Got Continuous-
Getting.
.

Getting Get Continuous Tense

getting , -
.

Getting + -ed (V3)

, Getting = ():
It'sgettingdark.
Gettingdrunk()/:<
>
Getting slimed ( ) / : <
>
Gettingwet/:<>
Gettingunderstood/:<
>.
- . Getting
,
. -
, () -
.

61

Got Get

Got , -
.
PerfectaGot:

Got + -ed (V3)

Finally, she got finished the report last night /


.
Myhusbandgotexhaustedbytheweekendsothatwedecided
tostayhomeandchilloutabit/,
.
Gotscared/:<>
Gotengaged/:<>
Gotslept/:<>.
, got -
, , -
had + -ed (V3). :
,
had + -ed , -
, -
. ,
? -
Got + -ed (V3):
Last month Tom got infected and I had to work more / -
,
( , -
).
Tom had left the company before I came, so that I have never
seenhiminperson/,,
(
,,).
Thanks God, I had finished before my mom came home yester
day/,,
.

62

ThanksGod,Igotfinishedwitheverythingyesterday/
,.
He had done plenty mistakes before he met you, but now he
doesloveyouanddeservessomehappiness/
,
.
Everythinggotdrainedthatsummerof1988/
1988.
, got , ,
, .

Get/got

get (got)
, :

Get/got + + -ed (V3)


:
Igotmyeyesclosed/.
Shegotthecarrepaired/.
His uncle got this case closed with just one call /
.
We got the company opened after 2 days /
2.
Hegotkickedoutofthere/.
- . -
.

Get to ,


get:
Get/got somebody (to do something),
, -.
- ( -
). ! - make someone

63

(to do something). get somebody -
, .
IgotMatttofixmysink/,
.
Ive got him to refund / ,
.
Shegothimtomarryher/,
.
:
Ive got him to refund / ,
.
Ive made him to refund threating by a knife /
,.
, . :
Shemadeherdaughtertowashthedisheswiththreating,yell
ing, pushing her to the sink /
,,.
Shegotherdaughterfillingenoughguiltytowashthedishes/
,
.
, getting somebody to do
something , - -
.
, -:
I am getting Remzi to set up our washing machine /
,.
SheisgettinghimtomarryAnna/,
.
, gotting
. ,
, ,
, -
was (were) getting (have been getting), -
will be getting (will have been getting):

64

Iwillbegettingthisguytosellmethecartomorrowevening/
.
Iwillhavebeengettinghimtotellmethetruthfortheendof
times,forsure!/
.
I was getting her boss to increase her salary yesterday/
.
I had been getting his client to buy that house for 4 hours /
4.

Simple
, . Simple
.
? -
, .
.
Simple.
:


(historical presence time)
.

, Simple . . ,
,
. , , Simple
. , -
.
Iworkatthefactory/(PresentSimple).
I shopped every single day / (Past
Simple).
You will be the greatest musician /
(FutureSimple).

65

ShewillbeinSpainnextsummer/
(FutureSimple).
WeliveinAustraliaandourfriendsinNewZeeland/
,(PresentSim
ple).
IlivedinRussiabeforemovingtoAmerica/
(PastSimple).
Shewillbeaprofessionaldancer/
(FutureSimple).
Ihadashower/(PastSimple).
: had ,
.
Shewilllikehim/(FutureSimple).
Iknowyourmother/(PresentSimple).
My husband speaks English well /
(PresentSimple).
, -
, .
. Simple ,
, ..
:
Present Simple.
- .
:
AneveningplanetoColognetakesoffat23.40/
23.40.
EveryMondaythebusfromSidneyarrivesat2p.m.andevery
Wednesdayat3.30p.m./
2,3.30.
I pass my exams in January and in June /
.
5 ,
, ! / The train comes tomor

66

rowat5oclocktotheCentralrailwaystation,Imlookingforwardthe
momentwhenIhugthedaughter.
, ,
/OnthesummerexamswepassPhilology,Sociol
ogy,Macroeconomics.
,
, / Moms weekend comes
nextsothatweshouldthinkofwheretogoforthetime.
,24/His
birthdayisonthenextweek,onthe24thday.
The restaurant opens at 10 a.m. and closes at midnight /
10.
The train to Madrid leaves in 15 minutes /
15.
, ,
.

. -
Present Simple. -
, , .
, Present Simple .
.
, -
. , -
, .
-
1 , . -
-
. , ,
. -
, .
- .


1
, : -
, , .

67

:
TheSunrisesintheEast/.
TheSunishot/.
TheEarthisround/.
Twotimestwoequalsfive/.
LondonisthecapitalofGreatBritain.
Waterboilsat100degrees/100.
, water ( -
, )
, ,
(
).
:
Hygieneistwothirdsofhealth/.
-
(can, must, may, might). , to be
supposed to to be able to, , -
, .
, .
Flyingfoxescaneasilyflyfromoneislandtoanother/
.
Youcandoit/.

(Historical Present Tense):

,
.
, ,
: -
, !!!.
.
Simple Tense.
:
Frankie goes to Hollywood / .
Heroisback/.

68

Thingsgobad/.
Taxes are on the rise in our country /
.
,
,
, , -
:
!/ThegeneralInspectorcomestous!
!/Christmascomestous!
Saleisback!/!
,
- -
:
AirplanecrashesinPakistan/()
.
Election campaign gains momentum /
.
Putingoesonathirdterm/.
, -
Tense -
, Tense. -
.
.

69

2.1 Tenses
,
. ,
. :
-. , , -
-
-
. .
-
( ?)
.
(, Tense
)
.
, -

.
. , -
,
. .
.
:

-ed - ing

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

70

13. ()
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30. .

1. ,!
2.
.
3. , , ,
.
4. , ,
,
.
5. ,,.
6. .
7. ,,
.
8. , ,
.

71

9. .
10.
.
11. .
12. , 10% ,
.
13. , ,
.
14. ,,
,
.
15. , ,
.
16. , , 20%
,.
17. ,,.
18. .
19.
.
20. .
21. ,,
.
22. .
23.
.
24. .
25.
.
26. .
27. .
28. ,
.
29. .
30.
,.

72

:

1) , -
, :
1. ?.
2. ,!
3. ,!
4. .
5. .
6. ! , ,
.
7. ,.
8.
.
9. .
10. .
11. .
12. :
!
13. .
14. .
15. !!
16. 4.
17. .
18. :.
19. .
20. ,.
21. ?
22. ?
23. ..
24. .
25. .....
26. ,!,!
27. .
28. ?
29. .
30. ,?

73

2) ,
:
1. .
2. ,.
3. ,.
4. .
5. ,.!
6. !!
7. ,.
8. ,,.
9. .
10. ,.
11. .
12. ,.
13. !!
14. .
15. ,.
16. , ,
.
17. .
18. ,:100
,,.
19. ,.
20. ,.
21. .
22. .
23. .
24. .,,.
25. ,.
26. .?
?
27. .!?
28. ..
29. ,,,
.
30. .!

74

Perfect

1. ,?5?
2. 5.00,5.30.
3. .,

4. !?
5. .,
,.
6. ,!,,.
7.
.
8. ,,.
9. .?
10. ?,.
11. !?
12. !?,().
13. !?
14. ,4!,,
.
15. .4
!
16. ,.
17. , 20
.
18. .,,.
19. .
20. ?,.
21. ?.
22. ,,15..
23. ,.
24. ?,.
25. ?.
26. ..
27. , ,
.

75

28. ,.
29. .
30. !,
.
31.
.
32. !!
33. ?
34. ?
35. ?,
.
36. ?!
37. ?,
.
38. ?
,
.
39. ,?,
.
40. ,.
41. .
42. .
43. ,
,,
.
44. ?
.
45. ?
46. ,
!
47. .
48. ,.
49. , ,
.
50. 10
.

76

51. .
52. ,,
,.
53. .
54. .
55. .
56.
.
57. :
.
58.
2015,34.
59. ,!
60. .

Perfect Continuous:

1. .
2. ,
.
3. ?! , ,
.
4. !,,
!
5. ?
?
6. ?
()?
7. .
8. . , .
9. . !
10. , ,
,.
11. .
12. ,
.

77

13. .
14. ,
.
15. ,
.
16. ,.
17.
.
18. .
19.
,
.
20. ,
.
21.
.
22. 10,
,.
23.
.
24. 5.
25. ,!
26. ,!
27. ,
.
28. 16 ,
.
29. .!
30. ,!
31. , ,
4.
32. 20,,?
33. 15,,
.
34. , ,
!

78

35. ,
.
36. 68,
,
.
37. 15 ,
.
38.
,!
39. 150!
40. ,
?

Continuous:
Continuous
Perfect continuous:

1. .
2. ?.
3. ??
4. .
5. .
6. ,.
7. ,.
8. ,
9. .
10. ,
.
11. ,
:,,.
12. ,
.
13. ,.
14. ,
.

79

15. , , .
.
16. ?
17. ?
18. .,
.
19. .
.
20. ,.1,5
..
21. . ,
.
22. ,.
23. .
.
24. ..
25. ..
26. ??.
27. . ,
.
28. .
29. ,.
30. ,.


Simple Continuous:

1. .?
2. .
3. ?
?
4. ??
5. ,.
6. .
7. 2.
8. 4.

80

9. ,.
,.
10. ,

,.
11. . ,
.
12. .,.
13. . ,
.
14. .
.
15. ..
16. , .
,.!,,!
17. ,!,!
18. ,
.
19. 6,
8.
20. ? ,
,,
.
21. ,?!!
22. ,!
23. !.
24. .
25. ,,.
26. ?
27. ,..
28. . , ,
.
29. ..
30. , .
.
31. .,?

81

32. ?
33. ,?
34. ?!
35. ??
36. .
37. ,.
38. ,.
39. ,.
40. ?
5 6,
.
41. .
,.,
.
42. ,.
43. .
,.
44. ,,
,,
, ,
.
45. 1013,,!
46. .
47. 100.
48. ,.
49. ,!!
50. .!
51. ..
52. ! - !
53. !
54. ,,.
55. ,.

Continuous :

1. .

82

2.
,?.
3. 15
.
4. 4
.
5. .
!
6. .
.
7. ?
.
8. ,
..
9. !.
10. ,
,.
11. ,,.
12. ,
.
13.
.
14. 2 !
!
15. ,
!
16. !
?
17. 11.20,
13, ,
.
18. 5
,.
19. ,!
!
20. ?

83

21. ,.
22. !3!
23. ?!
?!
24. .
25. ,15.
26. ,,.
27. , 5
!
28. , ,
.
29. ,
.
30. ,,
?

get:

1) :
1. getknow
2. gettoknow
3. gotknow
4. gotknown
5. getknown
6. getfat
7. getfatted
8. getonphone
9. getperfect
10. getmet
11. getpuzzled
12. havegotanewcup
13. getmarried
14. getrich
15. getreached
16. gettired
17. getsleep
18. getslept

84

19. getrained
20. getbluecolored
21. gotinfected
22. willgettrained
23. willnotgetfailed
24. willgetobserved
25. Itsgotrejected.
26. Wecangogetdressedup,letsgetepic!
27. Ifweevergetbored,ifweevergetrestless.
28. I'mupallnighttogetfunky.I'mupallnighttogetlucky.
29. GetlostinsideyourtearsandthereisnothingIcandocauseIget
lostinsidemyfears.
30. IwonderIwillgetangrytoo?
2) :
1. !
2. !
3. ,.
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. .
8. ,.
9. .
10. ,
.
11. ,?
12. .
13. ,,.
14. ..
15. 40
.
16. .,.
17. ,!
.
18.
,.

85

19. , ,
..
20. ,.
21. ,.
22. ,
.
23. ,!
24. ,!
25. .
3) , get, getting, got
:
1. ,.
2. ,,!
3. , ,
.
4. .
5. ?!!
6. ..
7. ?!
8. ?
.
9. ,..
10. .
11. ,
.
12. . ,
?
13. .
14. ,.
.
15. ,.
16. ..
17. ?
18. ,!
19. ,.
20. 10.

86

21. ,
.
22. .
23. !
24. ().
25. ! ,
!
26. ,,
..
.
27. .
28. ,!
29. ,
.
30. ,
.

Simple:

1. 100.
2. ,.
3. .
4. ,
.
5. ,,.
6. !
7. .
8. ,.
9. .
10. ,.
11. .
12. .
13. .
14. ,7.
15. .
16. !

87

17. !
18. .
19. ,.
20. .
21. ,.
22. .
.
23. !!
24. .,.
25. .
26. ,..
27. , , ,
.
28. ?
29. !
30. ,!
31. AirAsia7.
32. :1115.
33.
30.
34. !
35. ,.
36. ,.

88

2.2 Tenses :
-ed - ing:

1. Crackedcup

Scatteredonthefloorthings
2.
Floorscatteredthings

3. Addedelement

Openedwindows
4. Open windows

5. Jumpingboy

Scorchingsun
6.
Blazingsun

7. Recruitingagency

Carelessman
8.
Easygoingman

9. Reading an Albert Einsteins


bookstudent

10. Thinkslowly

11. Singcheerfully

12. Jumpforjoy
13.
Joyfuljumping
()

89

14. Walkingthoughtfully

15. Cherishahope

Slowly recover myself/himself


16.
(herself/itself)

Seldom exert himself (her


17.
self/itself)

Twist myself/himself (her


18.
self/itself)intheinterestingway

19. Gonewiththewind

20. Jumpinghigh

Having jumped from the rock


21.
(cliff)

22. Havinglookedthroughthemail

23. Suppingthetea

24. Funnykoala

25. Cheerful(funny)kangaroo

26. Drinkingwater

27. Criesofjoy

28. Momentsofglory

29. Nice(pleasant)moments

30. Unfinisheddialog

90


:

1. ,
Well,askyourpuzzlingquestion!
!
2. This is the question, which has
been puzzling more than one
. generationofresearchers.
3. ,
The man, who is giving a jacket
,
toyounow,isJohnWaker,afa
,
mousHollywoodactor.
.
4. ,
, A man, who has been giving a
jacket,insteadoffindingaprop
erjobantakingaworthyplacein
, life, dont deserve a high social
position.
.
Aman,whohasbeenwellversed
5. ,
in economics, is always like hot
,.
cakes.
6. Themelody,whatisbeingplayed
. now,hascreatedbymyfather.
7. , The scene, what is being per
formed in front of my eyes,
,. causesashock.
8. , A man, who likes a fried corn,
, never be content with a boiled
. one.
9. A man in love is extremely dan
. gerous.
10. Water, has been pouring from
the tap, wastes you budget

91

. amazinglyfast.
11. Falling from the sky water give
. mefreshness.
12. , People, who have spent on the
10% , food less than 10% from their
income,arecertainlyhigherthan
. povertyline.
13. , Awoman,whoisspendingmon
ey on gaming machines, is my
,. neighbor.
14.
As a result of the survey it is
,,
found out that the music, that

has been certainly entertained a
,
guests,musthasahighbitrait.
.
15. , The hostess, who is entertaining
the guests with such a strange
, method, provoked bewildered
. viewsofsurroundingpeople.
16. ,
Thefood,hasbeenbeingbought
, 20%
in supermarkets, is about 20%
,
cheaperthanthefood,whichhas

beenbeingboughtingroceries.
.
17. , , The book, which is being bought
. byyou,isnotreallyinteresting.
18.
The solution, is being offered by

you,iscompletelyunsuitable.
.
19.
The advert, has been being of

fered to our viewers, is always

checkedbeforebroadcasting.
.
20. The fish, which has been being

92

. eaten by a (the) cat, fall in the
stomach.
21. , The fish, is being eaten before
, our eyes, represents a heart
. breakingspectacle.
22. Abandoned houses are gaping
. withbrokenwindows.
23. Abandoned houses in Detroit
have been gaping with broken
. windowsfortwoyearsalready.
24. Anopenwindowisoftenariskto
. catchflu.
25. The window opened by me be
cameareasonforthismisunder
. standing.
26. Preparedpresentationisakeyto
. success.
27. The room (has been) lighted by
candle is full of mysterious he
. roes.
28. The words have been shouted
, sometimes hurt less, than ones,
whathavebeentoldwithacalm
. voice.
29. Highlighted text sometimes is
. easytolearn.
30. The highlighted text tells about
thelifeofasmallboyfromIndia,
who got (has gotten) into Aus
, tralia.
.

93


:
1) , -
, :
1. ?. Wonna(Wantone)?Iwill.
2. ,! Idosee!
3. ,! Iwantnotthis,butthatone!
4. . Dontwantto.
5. . Wantnothing.
6. !
Idontwantcrackededge!Give
, ,
me,please,agoodglass.
.
7. Sandedfloorisbetter,thanwet
,. one.
8.
Cut wallpapers are possible to

useforfillingboxes.
.
9.
Toweledcatdoesntscratch.
.
10. Closed door prevents gust of
. wind.
11. . Restcalmed(assured).
12. The little monster, created by
: me,issofunny:itlaughsallthe
! time.
13.
Thisdogkeepsjumped.
.
14.
Thedogstaysmotivated.
.
15. Cracked just before our eyes!
! Momsfavoritecap!

94

!
16. The cup cracked yesterday
4. about4P.M.
17. The cup was standing cracked
. alldaylong.
18. : (The)birdshavebeensingingall
. nightlong:from1to5A.M.
19. 19.
Flyingcraneisbeautiful.
.
20. , Ineedakitchen,equippedwith
. astove.
How many times should I re
21. ?
peat?
22. ? HowlongshouldIrepeatyou?
23. . Idontstrivetostreet.Ifeelmy
. selfbetterhome.
24. . Ifeelcold,
25. .... A night. A street. A lamp. A
drugstore. A meaningless and
. dismallight.
26. , ! , I have eaten already. Get off,
! please!
27. . Comehere.
28. ? Haveyouthrownthegarbage?
29. . Letsgoforawalk.
30. ,? Seeyoutomorrow,ok?
2) ,
:
1. . Ilikeit.
2. , Hecanseeallaroundtherebet

95

. ter,thanhere.
3. , They had to walk, the car got
. broken.
4. . Weneedtobuysomefood.
She has to go to work, and he
5. ,
hastogotoschool.Everybodyis
.!
hurryingup!
6. ! Ourfamilyneedsacat!Onlycat
! canfixeverything!
7. He needs something hot to get
,. warm.
8. They dont like your toy, they
,,. say,itisdangerous.
9.
Itshardformedoitbymyself.
.
10. , She doesnt understand how to
. dothisexercise.
11.
Idontwanttodoanything.
.
12.
Its too far for him to walk, it is
,
bettertogobytaxi.
.
13. ! They are lucky indeed! Living in
! suchaplaceitisadream!
14. Its very important to him to
. sleepmore.
15.
Ipreferreadingoverwriting.
,.
16. , I dont understand, why do I
have to write by a hand, every
, body types on a computer for
. longtime.

96

17. I want to go to the cinema to
. day.
18. ,
Ihaveafeeling,suchafeeling:if
: 100
I pour 100 grams, it will tie two
,
livestogetherliketwostrings.
,.
19. , Ibelievethatbrandnewtomor
. rowwillcome.
20. , I wouldnt want to discuss this
. question.
21. . Sheneedstohemthebag.
22. . Theydontneedliberty.
23. . Ineedahousewithfireplace.
24. . , He doesnt see. Bring the chair,
,. please,
25. , They cannot understand how
. difficultitis.
26.
She doesnt need a foreign lan
. ?
guage.Why?Toworkinavillage

grocery?
?
27.
He wants to know everything
.
aboutdinosaurs.Sowhynot?!
!?
28.
Mother needs to control every
.
yourstep.Every.
.
29. School teachers dont need to
, know, what do you want, they
, , need you to be quite and dont
break the rules, which set by
. them.

97

30. I really want to try this dessert.
.! Badly!

Perfect

Yes, I have done everything! Shall


1. , ! wemeetat5?
5? Yes,Ihavedoneall!Meetat5?
Yes,Ihavedone!At5?
I had made the dinner up by 5
o'clock, at 5.30 I have left the
2. 5, house/home.
5.30. I had cooked the dinner by 5, at
5.30Ihaveleftthehouse/home.
I cooked the dinner by 5, at 5.30,
at5.30Ileftthehouse/home.
3. .
Ihavereadthebook.Ithinkitisa
,
geniuspiece

I have finished the training! Let's
4. (letus)goanywhere?
!
? I have finished up the training!
Let's(letus)goanywhere?
I have lost the keys and now can
5. notenterhome.Iamstanding,like
afool,onthestreetintherain.
. , , I have lost the keys and now can
. not get into my house/ flat/
apartment. Stand, like a fool, on
thestreetintherain.
6. , ! ,
Ouch,Ihavecutmyself!Givemea
,.
bandaid,please.

98

Ouch, I have cut myself! Gimme a
bandaid,please.
Police has arrested two men
onsuspicionofthiscase.
7. Police have arrested two men on
suspicionofthiscase(,
. ,).
Police arrested two men
onsuspicionofthiscase.
8. , Yes,hehastoldmehisname,butI
,. haveforgottenit.
I cannot find the keys. Have you
9. . seenthem?
?
Icannotfindthekeys.Didyousee
them?
10. ?, Are you hungry? No, I have just
. takenasnack.
11. ! Hey!Haveyoujustarrived?
? Hey!Didyoujustarrive?
12. ! ? ,
Hi!IsSashahere?No,shehasjust

steppedaside(left).
().
I cannot find my bag. Have you
13. ! takenit?
? Icannotfindmybag!Didyoutake
it?
14.
Dont forget to call Mark; he has
, 4
called four times already! Yes, I
! , ,
know,wehavetalked.
.
15. DontforgettocallMark.Hecalled
.4 four times and came twice yester

99

! day!
16. , I have written an article, but have
. notpublishedityet.
17. ,
Iwrotethearticle,didnottypeit

itwasmorethan20yearsago.
20.
Sergeyisonvacation.Hehasleft,I
18. . think,toItaly.
,,. Sergey is on vacation. He left, I
think,toItaly.
HerEnglishhasbecomemuchbet
19. ter.
.
HerEnglishgotmuchbetter.
20. ? Ishestillwithabeard?No,hehas
,. shavedit.
Hashecalled?
Hehasntcalledandhasntwrit
tenformorethanamonth.
21. ?
Hashecalled?

. He hasnt called or written for
morethanamonth.
Did he call? He hasnt called or
writtenformorethanamonth.
Wait for 15 minutes, please. I
22. , , haven'tfinishedyet.
15.
. Wait for 15 minutes, please. I did
n'tgetfinishyet.
DontputtheplatesawayIhavent
23. , finished.
. DontputthedishesawayIhavent
finishedup.

100

DontcleanthetableIhaventfin
ishedupwiththefood.
24. ? Shall I call to a doctor? No need, I
,. havecalledalready.
25. Whereareyougoingforthevaca
?. tion?Haventdecidedyet.
Oleg has stepped aside. He will
26. .
come back approximately in one
.
hour.
27. ,
IhavebeenoncetoCanada,twice
,
to Australia, but never been to

SouthAmerica.
.
28. , No,Ihavenevertriedblackcaviar.
. No,nevertriedblackcaviar.
29. Wehaveneverhadasportcar.
. Weneverhadasportcar.
30. .
What a boring movie. The most
,
boring one that I have watched in

mylife.
.
31.
For several last days I have met a

plentyofpeople.
.
32. !
Heythere!Haventseenforages!
!
33.
Haveyoueverriddenahorse?
?
34.
HaveyoueverbeentoCalifornia?
?
35. ? Is Sergeys sister beautiful? Have
, noideaIhavenevermether.
. Is Sergeys sister beautiful? No

101

idea,nevermether.
Areyouenjoyingthevacation?Itis
36. ? thebesttripinmylife!
Have you been enjoying the vaca
! tion? It has been the best trip in
mylife!
Is Cambodia an interesting coun
try?Ihavenoanyidea;Ihavenev
37. erbeenthere.
?,
. Is Cambodia an interesting coun
try? No any idea, never been
there.
Istodriveasportmotorbikehard
38. eroreasierthananordinaryone?I
have no any idea; I have never
? drivenasportmotorbike.
, Istodriveasportmotorbikehard
. eroreasierthananordinaryone?
Noanyidea;neverdriventhat.
39. , Do you think can we climb that
?, roof? I dont know. I have never
. tried.
I saw Natalia yesterday, but ha
ventmettodayyet.
40. ,
I had seen Natalia yesterday, but

haventmettodayyet.
.
I had seen Natalia yesterday, but
dontgetmeettodayyet.
Mansion was built up in the Ba
41. roque.
. Mansionhasbeenbuiltupininthe
Baroque.

102

The house was destroyed to the
42. ground.
. The house has been destroyed to
theground.
I had been a quickwitted enough
43. togetthejob,butafterIhavetook
, a decision that I dont want to
, wastemyyouthonofficemuck.
,
I was quickwitted enough to get
thejob,butafterItookadecision
. that I dont want to waste my
youthonofficemuck.
44.
Why the trench hasnt been dug
?
outstill?theMajoriswondering.
.
Why havent you still finished up
45. translatingthetext?

? Whydidntyoustillfinishuptrans
latingthetext?
46. ,
What a pity that summer days

have finished and never come

back!
!
47. . Thetalkisover.
48. ,
The talk has been over so you are

latewithyourarguments.
.
49. , The skin, which is hanging on the
, wall, was made out with a great
. skill.
50. The skin was made out by the
10 house owner 10 years ago with a
. greatskill.

103

The house owner made out the
skin10yearsagowithagreatskill.
Theskinhadbeenmadeoutbythe
house owner 10 years ago with a
greatskill.
The house owner had made out
the skin 10 years ago with a great
skill.
51. Theskinwasmadeatfactory.
. Theskinhasbeenmadeatfactory.
52. ,
The unfinished house was finally
,
builtupanditbecameevidentthat
,
itisBaroque.
.
53. Mychildrenhadbeengrownupat
. thenursery.
54. Childrenhadbeengrownupbyme
. personallyatthenursery.
The population has been unhappy
55. withthepresidentpolicy.

. The population is unhappy with
thepresidentpolicy.
Theplanehasbeeninterceptedby
56. TurkishRAFandwasforcedtoland
inIstanbul.
TheplanewasinterceptedbyTurk
. ish RAF and was forced to land in
Istanbul.
57. : It should be reminded, that the
plane was intercepted by Turkish
RAFandforcedtolandinIstanbul.
. It should be reminded, that the

104

plane has been intercepted by
Turkish RAF and forced to land in
Istanbul.
58. Deterioration of Russian Turkish
relationsstartedonthe31stofNo
31.11.15 , vember2015whenourSU34was
34. shotdown.
59. , Thedinnerhasbeeneaten,thereis
! nothingleftforyou!
60.
The dinner was eaten by the fa

thercooksomethingelseforyou.
.

Continuous:
Continuous Perfect con-
tinuous:

1. . Heistakingashowernow.
2. ? Howisyourmood?Iamen
. joyingtheparty.
3. ? What is going on here? Whats
? happened?
She has dressed in bright blue
4. dresstoday.
. She is wearing a bright blue
dresstoday.
5. She is looking fantastic (gor
geous)inthispurplesuite.
.
6. IwanttoimmigratetoAustralia,
, for this purpose I am learning
. English.
7. I am enjoying cup of herbal tea

105

, sittinginfrontoffireplace.
.
8. , Iliketoreadlyinginabathroom.
.
9. My English is getting better day
. byday.
10. Ihavebeenworkinghardonmy
, pronunciation, repeating and
repeating different texts after a
. nativespeaker.
11. , HavingwatchedTV,Iamusually
doing a lot of useful and un
: pleasant things: cleaning the
, , flat, washing the dishes, fixing
. thethings.
12. , Having run on a jogging track, I
amoftenwatchingnewsoredu
cational programs or talking on
. telephone.
13. , Itsgettingdark;sunrapidlysets
beyondthehorizoninthisarea.
.
14. , Theydonthaveaplacetolivein
now,thatswhytheyarestaying
. withtheirfriendsforsometime.
15. , , Turn down the sound, please! I
. amtryingtoconcentrate.
.
16. What are doing these days on
? vacation?
17. Doyouliketolearnpsychology?
?
18. The population of Europe is in
. creasing rapidly. Mostly, by ref

106

,. ugees.
19. Costoflivingisrising.Pricesare
. risingeveryday.
.
20. , Readingthebook,Iforgotabout
. 1,5 the kettle. It was boiling for 1,5
. hour and totally boiled out. I
. havetoputitagain.
21. She is working extremely hard
. , today.Yes,todayisthefirstday
ofhernewdifficultproject.
.
22. , Thinking about you, I was going
. fromKievtoLvov.
23. . There is a flooding at this place
now.Everyoneistryingtogoas
. farasItpossible.
24. . Ilostmypenagain.Iamloosing
. thingsallthetime.
25. He has never satisfied. Moaning
.. allthetime.
26. Are you seeing that man?
??. Where?Overthere.
27. Ihavebeenhearingverystrange
. sound. It repeats every time,
,. whenIamgettingintothecar.
28. Thissoupisreallygood.
.
29. , Dont put away the dictionary, I
. amusingit.
30. , Dont put away the milk, I need
. it.

107


Simple Continuous:

1. . Listen to those people. What


? languagearetheyspeaking?
All this time she was speaking
2. Hebrew.
. Allthetimeshehasbeenspeak
ingHebrew.
3. Will I be speaking in English
? freely?WillIbenotinterrupted
? byanyone?
4. Will I speak English fluently?
?? Right?
Iwaslivingwithmyfriendsuntil
5. ,
I have found an apartment for
.
me.
He was living not long in the
6. town,justacoupleofyears.

. He had been living not long in
thetown.
I am living in the flat just for 2
7. months.
2. Ihavebeenlivingintheflatjust
for2months.
He will be working there just 4
weeks.
8.
Hewillhavebeenworkingthere
4.
justfor4weeks.
Hewillworkthere,just4weeks.
9. , Itcannotbethatsheislivingall
. thistimeinSiberia.Itmusthave

108

, beenveryhardandcold.
. It cannot be that she has been
living all this time in Siberia. It
mustbeisveryhardandcold.
10. , I have decided that I stay in a
small bungalow right down by
the water and spent there in
peace and stillness at least a
, coupleofmonths,it'sbetterfor
. oneyear.
11. You are working really hard
. today.
12. ,. Yes,Ihavealottodo.
Youareworkinghardtoday.
13. You have been working hard
. , today.
. Youarenotoneoflazybones,I
know.
14. Youhaveworkedhardtoday.
.
15. , Yes,Ihadmanyinmytodolist
. fortheday.
16.
You are always watching TV or
!
playing games! Do something

moreusefulfinally.
.
She has not satisfied all the
17. .
time. Complaining (moaning)
.
constantly.
18. , Look,thatmanistryingtocrack
a car door open. Probably he
. , forgotthekey.
.

109

19. ! , , Foolish!Hemustbeisabulglar!
!
20. ,!, Hurry up, it's time to go! Yes,
! I'mcoming!
21.
Trafficissoheavytodaymuch

heavier than usually at this
,
time.
.
22. 6
Usually I work till 6, but on the
,
next week I will have been
8
working till 8 in order to get

somemoney.
.
23. ? Whatdoesyourwifedo?Sheis
, a lawyer, but now she doesnt
, get new projects, she is plan
, ningtogetarestforoneyearor
so, she going just to enjoy her
. life.
24. , ?! No, not again?! You are break
! ingthecupsallthetime!
25.
Its a totally useless car! It is
,
breakingallthetime!
!
26. ! Asalways!Iforgotthesunglass
. essomewhereonceagain!
27. She isnt looking like a happy
. onenow.
28. ,, I think, Masha is the Ukrainian,
. butIamnotprettysure.
29. What do you think about my
? plan?
30. , I am often thinking about what

110

. happened.Cantforgetthisday.
.
31. Oleg is thinking about asking a
. , , job. Its probably the best solu
. tionforhim.
Heisneverthinkingaboutother
32. people. He is such an egoistic
. person.
. He never thinks about other
people.Heisanegoist.
33. , I cannot understand why he is
. suchanegoisticperson.Usually
. heisnotlikethat.
34. Sarah is really sweet to me to
.,? day.Itsinteresting,why?
35. Are you hearing this strange
? sound?
36. , Excuse me, is someone sitting
? here?
37. ?! Whowassittingonmybed?
38. ? Who that woman is? What did
? shewant?
39. AtthistimelastyearIwasliving
. inGoa.
40. , I waved to Elena, but she isnt
. lookingatme.
41. , Misha called, while we were
. dining.
42. ,
I was enjoying the party, but

Kseniawantedtogohome.
.

111

43.
What did you want at
?
Wednesday on a last week? I

hadanEnglishlessonsince5to
5 6,
6,thenwehadarideandcame

backhometowatchamovie.
.
I met Ivan and Natasha at the
44.
airport couple of weeks ago.

They had been flying to Paris,
. ,
and I to Rome. We had been
. ,
talking, while we were waiting
.
forourflights.
45. , When I arrived, he was waiting
. forme.
46.
Youhavenochancetobehired

on this position. If you apply
.
andpassthetests,youwilljust
,
wasteyourtime.
.
47. You have to live and you live
, , outofhabit,whichturnintoan
, instinct: with the understand
, ing,thateveryyourwordisbe
ing listened to and every your
, movement is being watched,
,. untilthelightwentout.
48. 10 Dont call me tomorrow since
13, , 10to13,please,Iwillbesleep
! ing!
49.
TheEarthgoesaroundtheSun.
.
50. Water boils at 100 degrees Cel
100. sius.
51. She is worrying a log she has

112

,. understood that made a mis
take.
52. , ! I am living like that, you know!
! EverydayIamlivinginthat!
I am feeling, that someone is
53. ,
breathing into the phone. I am
.!
scared!
Iamfeeling(Ifeel)thesmellof
54.
bloomingonthestreetsroses.It
..
isexhilarating.
55. ! I am feeling the smell! Finally I
! amfeelingthesmellsagain!
56. EverydayIfoundoutsomething
! newaboutthem(it)!
57. , , No,Icannot,in30minutesIwill
. begoingtotheairport.
58. , Iamstaying(willbeliving)with
. Annatillyoumakethedecision.

Continuous
:
1.
Iamgoingbymetromycaris

beingrepaired.
.
2. My notebook is being repaired
tilltheendoftheweekinare
, pair shop on Nevsky, will you
? take it on Friday? It is close for
. you.
3. Thisbooktraditionallyhasbeen
15 being read during 15 minutes
. aloudeveryday.
4.
4 Meat has to being prepared no
. less than 4 hours over a slow

113

flame.
5. Ihavebeenbeingtoldthatfairy
. tales. Every day from morning
! tillevening!
6. They are building the new
. houseacrosstheroad.Theyare
. planningtofinishitinnextyear.
7. What smells so good at the
? kitchen? It is the pancakes with
. acaramelwhatiscookingthere.
Flowershavebeenbeinggrown
8.
up (are growing up) in this
,
greenhouse that year, in that
.
one berries. In next year they
.
willbechanged.
He cannot hit back! His older
9. ! brotherisholdinghishands.
He cannot hit back! His hands
. are being held by his older
brother.
10. Thefilmisbeingwatchedbythe
, judges.Theywillmaketheirde
cisioninoneandahalfhouror
,. so,whenitwillend.
11. ,, No,thecarisbeingwashednot
. bytheuncle,butbyhisfather.
This event is being (has been
12.
being) prepared by Anna, and
,
next one will be preparing by
.
me.
13. He is being filmed for a movie
aboutlifeinabandonedcaveon

114

. a(the)coastofAustralia.
This issue has been being dis
14.
cussedbytheBoardofDirectors
2 !
for 2 hours! It has never been
!
before!
15. This film has been being dis
, cussedbytheyouth,notonlyby
older generation that is the
! mainachievement!
16. The mail is being delivered by
! thePostofRussia.Areyoureal
? lywaitingforamiracle?
Theteamwillbebeingcongrat
17. ulated by the trainer till 11.20,
11.20, then they are having a photo
13, session till 13, and after that
, theyarehavingafreetime,and
. it will be possible to come to
sportsmen.
18. The criminal was being chased
5 byouragentmorethan5hours
, in a row, but then surveillance
. hasbeenagreedtostop.
19. , Canyouimaginemycarisbeing
! washedbyUmaTurmanherself!
! Icannotbelieveit!
20. Whomyouworkhasbeenbeing
? checkedby?
21. , Wait a minute, the distance is
being calculated by the pro
. gram.
22. ! 3
! Everybody was waiting him!

115

Morethan3hoursinarow!
23. Why were the berries being
?! picked by children?! Who al
lowedinvolvingchildreninsuch
?! awork?!
24. In our days environment has
been being affected so much
. damage.
25. , Theworkisbeingfinishednow,
15. waitfor15minutes.
26. Your application will have been
,,. checked,atleast,amonth.
27. Theroomwasbeingcleanedfor
, 5 last 24 hours, and you messed
! everythingupfor5minutes!
28.
Iwillhavetorentacartomeet
,
you,becauseminewillbebeing
,
repaired.
.
29. ,
Thisroomisunderrepairing,so

that you will have to stay in

yourbrothersroomsometime.
.
30.
This clip has been being shown
,,
on TV, shall we make another

oneforonce.
?

Perfect Continuous:

1. I have been singing this song all


. morninglong.
2. Ihadbeensingingthissongfrom

116

themomentofawakeningtillyou
,. callme.
3. Has she been living is Siberia all
?!,, that time? There must be really
. hardandcold.
4. ! Thedoghasntbeenfed!moth
,, erisyelling,enteringthehouse,
And you have been gaming on
! computeralldaylong!
5. Why hasnt the work been fin
? ishedupyet?Haveyoukickupa
? stormsincethemorning?
6. Why hasnt the money been
? transferred on my account yet?
Why is the money still going to
()? myaccount?
7. I have been working on this pro
. jectforlasttwomonths.
8. . The dog is getting better. Dont
,. worry,itsok.
9. . The dog has recovered. We are
! veryexcitedaboutit!
Thedoghadbeenrecoveringonthe
10. lastweek,butnowitseemsdying.
,
,,. Thedogwasrecoveringonthelast
week,butnowitseemsdying.
The hamster got grown up very
11. .
quickly.
12. , Despite the expectations, the in
vestments had been rising sur
. prisinglyslow.
13. The fuel indicator got stuck on

117

zeroanddoesntmoveanymore.
.
14. , No matter how strong he was
trying, he wasnt able to find
. forcefulreasonstorefuse.
15. ,
Ifyougetadog,itwillbemaking

youhappyeverysingleday.
.
16. ,
He will be so happy, if you write

thelettertohim.
.
17. Iboughtadogandlifeisgetting
moreandfunnydaybyday.
Buy a dog and life is getting
. moreandfunnydaybyday.
18.
Lifeofthecountryisgettingmore

andfunnydaybyday.
.
19.
Iamworkingonthisquestionfor

quite long time and got to the
,
conclusion that the best invest

mentisintoaforeignrealestate.
.
Exactly during that time people
are getting increasingly aware
20. that its time to move to warm
, lands.
Exactly during that time people
. have been getting increasingly
aware that its time to move to
warmlands.
21. The soldiers had been coming
with a broad front on the ene
mys position during the period

118

. fromMarchtoOctober.
Despite 10 years of learning stu
22. 10
dents neither have been known
,
English,norhaveknownittillthis
,.
moment.
23.
ThankstobeingincaptivityVasily

haslearntGerman.
.
24. Hehasbeenplayingthistrickfor
5. 5yearsalready.
Ihavebeenlivinginitfor2years,
25. ,
butitseemsIhavebeenlivingin
!
itallmylife!
26. He will have been dreaming for
, another two days and will calm
! down,dontworry!
27. This phenomena has been being
, learntbyusforareasonnow,this
knowledge will be useful for you
. later.
28.
She has been studying at home
16 ,
till sixteen. Seemingly because of
,
thatshehasproblemsincommu

nicationwithcoevals.
.
29. . It has been leaking for 3 days al
! ready.Waterisunderthebath.
30. My grandma has been living so
, long, that she had seen Stalin
! himself.
31. Hehasbeenworkingatthefacul
, , ty (department) all his life long,
4 hehadbeenseeingas4chairmen

119

. cameandleft.
The soup has been being boiled
32. 20,
for 20 minutes already. Maybe
,?
thatisenough?
That film has been produced for
33.
15yearsalready,andIdontthink
15,,
that it will have been ever fin
.
ished.
34.
He will have been being kept
,
waiting in the corridor for 2
,
hours,andthemtheywillsaythat

CEOgotsickyoullsee!
!
Shewillhavebeenbeingassessed
35.
in the new department during

one month, and then they will
,
take the decision to hire her or
.
not.
36.
They had been holding the meat
68
insaltfor68monthsbefore,and
,
only after that the meat became
,
eatable, but this one has been

beingsaltedlessthanaweek.
.
37. He has been being held on this
15 positionfor15yearsalreadyits
, not surprisingly, that he des
. pairedtodosomething.
38. This book has been being read
everyyearonthesamedayinour
familyweneedit,dontthrowit
,! away!
39. This theorem has been being
150 provedfor150yearsalreadyits

120

! sosophisticated!
40.
How long has wood been being
,
processedtogetsuchanamazing

colorandtexture?
?

get
get:

1. getknow
, ,
2. gettoknow

3. gotknow
4. gotknown ()
5. getknown
6. getfat ()
7. getfatted ()
8. getonphone
9. getperfect ,
10. getmet
11. getpuzzled
12. havegotanewcup
13. getmarried /
14. getrich
15. getreached
16. gettired
17. getsleep
18. getslept

121

19. getrained
20. getbluecolored
21. gotinfected
22. willgettrained
23. willnotgetfailed
24. willgetobserved
25. gettingfat
(
26. gettingdrained
)
27. gettingdrain
28. getriched
29. gottago
30. gottabebraver
31. havegottobehotter
32. willgottashowit /
33. willgettingobserved
34. got my laptop fixed in the

mall
35. willgetmyphonerepaired
onlyhere
,
36. will get her stopped shop

aholicobsession


37. gotmyhaircutinthesalon

38. gettinghungry
39. gettinghimmarriedher ,

122



40. Finallygettingmylife!
!
41. He got his own way and
.
won.
42. Will get rid of the nasty
rat! !

43. Hegotoninthecompany.
().
44. Yougottagimmeatry! !
45. Itsgotrejected. .
46. Wecangogetdressedup, ,
letsgetepic! !

47. Ifweevergetbored,ifwe
,
evergetrestless.
.
,
48. I'm up all night to get
,
funky. I'm up all night to
,
getlucky.
().
49. Get lost inside your tears
and there is nothing I can ,
do cause I get lost inside
myfears. .
50. How did yougetto know
?
aboutQuarella?
:

1. ! Dontgetmad!
2. ! Iamsoakedtotheskin.
3. , He got angry on everybody, who

123

. wasthere.
4. . Thewindinpineswentdown.
5. The child got amazingly smart for
. 2years.
6. I got exhausted for this week as
. neverbefore.
7. The dog got awfully awkward for
. thissummer.
8.
He will get rich reliably, if he will
,
bebroughttoorder.
.
9.
His sliming caused by a correct

diet.
.
10.
, He got reach on a real estate,
thatswhyyoucannotsellhimthe
apartmentbeneficial.
.
11. ,
Interesting,Iwillgetfattoo?
?
12. Itissosimplegetlostinstrange
. city.
13. , , I get dry already, please, I got to
. go.
14.
Wecangotodressup.Igetabo
.
nus.
.
15.
40 I got hungry in 40 minutes after
thatvegetarianlunch.
.
16. Itwont getlighteranymore.Iam

124

. , sorry,thepointinthetexture.
.
17.
Hewillgettrainedandwillbethe
,
best in class, I promise you! I will
!
lookafterhim.
.
18. The child will get thirsty very
quicklyonsuchahotgetajuice
orawaterwithyou,itwillbeuse
,. ful.
19. ,
No, this shirt will get colored, if
,
you wash it with a color things. It
.
madefromasubtletissue.
.
20. He got pissed off on the lesson
, already, and walking in this state
. alldaylong.
21. , Iwaswrong,andfeelmyselfpret
. tyashamed.
22. Yesterdayhegotasleepveryearly;
, I even didnt have time to clean
. thetable.
23. They will achieve their goal, I am
,! sure!
24. ,! Theywerefired,allofthem!
25. They got engage in summer last
. year.
26. ,
Interesting,willIgetangrytoo?
?
, get, getting, got
:
1. , Shehasbeendoingeverythingto

125

. gethimmarryher.
2. , ,
Getfinallyyourownlife!
!
3. , ,
Itsfar,obviously,butonlyhereI

canhavemyphonerepaired.
.
4. . Iamgettingangryalready.
5. ?! Whats with you?! You are get
! tingpale!
6.
LasthalfoftheyearIamgetting
.
terriblystupid.Icannotstopit.
.
What are the people on your
7.
backyard? I am building a sau
?!
na.
8. Whydidyougoingtoadentist?
? I want to change a filling in the
. tooth.
9. ,
Dont touch a coat, it is drying.
.
Letitcompletelydry.
.
10. Ifyoudontseeclearly,itsbetter
. tochecktheeyes.
11.
Apple doesnt assemble produc
,
tion by itself, they produce eve

rythingatfactoryinChina.
.
12. Ihadmyhaircut(Igotcut)insa
. , lon at Mohovaya st. Is it really
? cool?
13.
Hegothisownwayandwon.
.
14. , Yes, I got my laptop repaired in

126

. mall. I failed to find repairing
. shopcloser.
15. , I will do everything to stop her
. shopaholism.
16.
I get my car repaired only here.
.
Itscheckedupplace.
.
Aretheyplanningtopaintevery
17.
thing by themselves or they will
?
getitpainted?
18. You will get the best suit, on
,! time!
19. , Iwanttogetthiscarpreparedon
. time.
20. I need to get this document
10. readyby10A.M.
21. They will get the house repaired
, inSeptember,nowtheyarelook
. ingforworkers.
22. Thestudentsgottheirworksun
. checked.
23. They got the dishwasher re
! pairedtheneighborhelped.
24.
The nurse got every patient
(
called.
).
25. I woke up in the morning and
! got my warm breakfast! I have
,! noidea,wherehaditcomefrom!
26. Last month I was getting Masha
, , to left, this month I take care
about Igor. Our team doesnt

127

. needthem.Theyareweaklinks.
..
27. I will have been convincing him
to set the company till a blue
. moon.
28. ,
Hewillquicklygetyoutohowl!
!
29. ,
I get your company to bring you
twicemoreinoneyearalready.
.
30. ,
Thisisme,whogotthecarstart

ingonthefirsttry.
.

Simple:

1. 100 There are exactly 100 centime


. tersinmeter.
2. , LeopardsliveinAfrica,andjagu
. arsinAmerica.
3.
Ilikethesundaeicecream.
.
4. Whenyouwalkalongoutskirtsof
, city at night, you need to be
. careful.
5. ,
, PressanykeytoturnontheTV.
.
6. ! Nevergiveup!
7.
Laws at our country get tighten

witheveryyear.
.
8. , I am an engineer by profession,

128

. but now I have been working as
awaiter.
9.
The boxer in blue trousers

knocksdownhisopponent.
.
10. , If you pull out the hairs, you
. cantgetthemback.
11. . Hewilllikethiscar.
12. Major amount of water on the
Earth is concentrated in the
. oceans.
13. . Twotimestwomakesfive.
14. , I had been trying (I had tried)
7. bubblegumthenIwas7.
15.
Theyhaventsolditanymore.
.
16. ! Annaisgoingtomarried!
17.
Welivejustonce!
!
18.
Iknowyourparents.
.
19. ,
Ithink,youwilllikethecake.
.
20. . Mywifecookswell.
21. , Obviously,thereisnothingtodo
. inthissituation.
22.
Last time I get a bath 2 years
.
ago.Ihaveashower.
.
23. !
Chinup!Getyoutailheldhigh!
!
24. . Give me those buns. They are

129

, notforyou,theyareforchildren.
.
25.
Finish your homework and you

cangotosleep.
.
26. ,
Apple is round, and pear is ob
.
long.Hereisallthedifference.
.
27. , , No, you havent got it right; I
, workatfactory,andmywifeat
. office.
28.
IsAfricafarfromAustralia?
?
29. ! Herbirthdayistomorrow!
30. , Australia is a continent, not the
! island!
31. AirAsia Ariplanes of AirAsia have been
7. takingoffevery7minutes.
32.
Ferry to island goes twice per
:11
day:at11A.M.and15P.M.
15.
33. She is passing the last exam in
the end of June the session
30. endson30June.
34. ! Ihatewetwind!
35. , Children smile more often, than
. adults.
36. ,. Ihave3children,Iammarried.

130



- Tense .
,
, .. .
-
, , , . ,
-
. , , , ,
(, ),
(, ).
,
. ( ,
) , , -
.
:
/ Preferring slugs
overanythingelse.
/Preferringanything
elseoverslugs.
/Preferring
nottotellanythingtotheslugs
, (
) , , ,
. ? . -

.
(
), , terra incognita.
, -
, , .
.
- ( ,
) - ( -
) , -
. .

131


.
.

, , , ,
, , .
:

,.!!!1

.
.



,
:
, (, -
, , ), -
(linking verbs).
.
:
to be, do, have, will , , get.

( : can, must, may,
might, could, would, should, shall, will)2.
, -
.

1
- .
. :
, .
, ? .
-
. , , ,
.
.
2
: .
, to be able to, have to , .

132

-
?
-, ,
, .
, -
, , do .
- do (), -
, , -
1. !
-
( Google) , -
.
,
:
No,Idonotdothesethingsallmylife/,
(do,
,).
I do these things all my life /
(do).
Yes,Idowritebooks/,(do
,
).
,
-
, , -
: -
, , . -
. .
,
(indeed, really), -
, -
do. ,
do,
. -
do, indeed really .

1
, - ,

133

, do does 3
( he, she, it) , :
He DOES write books/ . ,
write -s -
.
-, , -
do, :
1) Tense, ;
2) (
s-);
3) -
;
4) -
;
5) -
().
.
Tense, Tense
( , ) -
-
. :
Do did will do / /
1
HavehadwillhaveBewas(were)willbeGetgotwill
get
Tense, , (Perfect,
Simple, Continuous), -
. ,
.
. Tense
.

:


1
, .
(,
, ).

134


+


tobe
am I'm Iamnot=Iain't
I was Iwasnot=Iwasn't
will Ill Iwillnot=Iwon't
youarent=youarenot=
are You're
youaint
You Youwerenot=youwere
were You're
n't
will You'll Youwillnot=youwon't
are We're Wearenot=wearen't
We were not = we were
We were We're
n't
will We'll Wewillnot=wewon't
are Theyre Theyarenot=theyaren't
They were not = they
They were They're
weren't
will They'll Theywillnot=theywon't
is She's Sheisnot=sheisn't
She was She's Shewasnot=shewasn't
will She'll Shewillnot=shewon't
is He's Heisnot=Heisn't
He was He's Hewasnot=Hewasn't
will He'll Hewillnot=Hewon't
is Its itisnt=itisnot=itaint
It was It's Itwasnot=itwasn't
will It'll Itwillnot=itwon't

, have, -
, , :

135


+


have
I Have I've Ihavenot=Ihavent
Had Id Ihadnot=Ihadn't
Willhave Illhave Iwillnothave=Iwon't
have
You Have You've youhavenot=youha
vent
Had You'd Youhadnot=youhadn't
Willhave You'llhave Youwillnothave=you
won'thave
We Have We've Wehavenot=wehaven't
Had We'd Wehadnot=wehadn't
Willhave We'llhave Wewillnothave=we
won'thave
They Have Theyve Theyhavenot=they
haven't
Had They'd Theyhadnot=theyhad
n't
Willhave They'llhave Theywillnothave=they
won'thave
She Has She's Shehasnot=shehasn't
Had She'd Shehadnot=shehadn't
Willhave She'llhave Shewillnothave=she
won'thave
He Has He's Hehasnot=hehasn't
Had He'd Hehadnot=hehadn't
Willhave He'llhave Hewillnothave=He
won'thave
It Has Its Ithasnot=ithasnt
Had It'd Ithadnot=ithadn't
Willhave It'llhave Itwillnothave=itwon't
have

136

do , -
, :

+


do
Do Idonot=Idont
I Did Ididnot=Ididn't
Willdo Illdo Iwillnotdo=Iwon'tdo
Do Youdonot=youdont
did Youdidnot=youdidn't
You
Youwillnotdo=you
Willdo Youlldo
won'tdo
Do Wedonot=wedont
did Wedidnot=wedidn't
We
Wewillnotdo=wewon't
Willdo Welldo
do
Do Theydonot=theydon't
did Theydidnot=theydidn't
They
Theywillnotdo=they
Willdo Theylldo
won'tdo
Shedoesnot=she
Does
doesn't
She did Shedidnot=shedidn't
Shewillnotdo=she
Willdo Shelldo
won'tdo
Does Hedoesnot=Hedoesn't
did Hedidnot=Hedidn't
He
Hewillnotdo=Hewon't
Willdo Helldo
do
Does itdoesnot=itdoesnt
It did Itdidnot=itdidn't
Willdo Itlldo Itwillnotdo=itwon'tdo

137

get, ,

: -
, ,
-
, .. get do/does
have/has :

C +


get
I get Igetnot
Got Igotnot
Willget Illget Iwillnotget=Iwontget
You get yougetnot
Got Yougotnot
Willget Youll
Youwillgetnot=youwon'tget
get
We get Wegetnot
Got Wedidnotget
Willget Well
Wewillgetnot=wewon'tget
get
get Theydonotget=theydon'tget
They Got Theydidnotget=theydidn'tget
Willget They'll
Theywillgetnot=theywon'tget
get
gets Shedoesnotget=shedoesn'tget
She got Shedidnotget=shedidn'tget
Willget She'll
Shewillnotget=shewon'tget
get
He gets Hedoesnotget=hedoesn'tget
got Hedidnotget=hedidn'tget
Willget Hellget Hewillnotget=Hewon'tget
It gets Itdoesnotget=itdoesntget
got Itdidnotget=itdidn'tget
Willget It'llget Itwillnotget=itwon'tget

138

:

,
re are were; s is, was
has; aint to be -
. d : -
, had,
: would d, could d,
should d.
, ,
, , -
.
wont
want (). -
:
. , -
: - .
, : I wont I
want .

Tense

-
-
. Tense, Tense
?
,
, :
,
.
, ,
( ), -
- ,
, -
.
:
When I came to the bar, I figured out that Lily has been
there/,,

139

(,,
Tense,;,
,,).
When I came to the bar, I figured out that Lily had been
there/,
().
WhenIcametothebarLilywasthere/,
(,
).
I read in the newspaper last night that the Moon goes around
the Earth, while the Earth goes around the Sun /
,,
().
Einsteinsaid(that)everythingisrelative/,
().
Mothersoftensaytotheirchildrenhowtheyshouldntbehave
themselves / ,
().
Theteachertoldus(that)wearefreetodothatbyourselves/
,(
).


-
,
.
(
)
.
( ),
, , -
.
:

140

I thought you were taller / (), .
. ,
,thought.
Shetold he wassmart/ , ().
. ,
,told.
She told, he is smart1 / : .
(),
.

: -
.
, , -
, ..
, . Pre-
sent Simple reporting:
,/Hesaidyouissmart.PresentSimple
reporting..,
.
, / He said you were smart.
.,,
.
,/
Henrytoldmehesthinkingofgettingmarriednextyear.PresentSim
ple reporting. . ,
.
, / They pronounced,
that he was getting married in June. .
.


1
, .
.

141

, / Ru
pertsaysdogs shouldnt be allowed on the beach.
. , (,
).
, / She cried you were lair.
.
TheteachertoldusthatLondonisthecapitaloftheGreatBrit
ain / ,
..
,/Iprom
isedlasttime,thatwewouldgotoTahiti..
ShewhisperedthatRussiaisbiggerthanCanada/
, , . .
,.
,
()
( ):
1. Present Tense Past:
Mothertold,ItisJune/Mothertold(that)1itwasJune.
:/,.
Hespokeup,Theyarecheatingeveryone/Hespokeup(that)
theywerecheatingeveryone.
: / ,
.
She mentioned, Maybe I have been showingoff too much /
Shementioned(that)maybeshehasbeenshowingofftoomuch.
:,
/,,.
2. Past Simple Past Perfect. -
:


1
,,
that.

142

Olga said, Ive watched this movie just yesterday / Olga said
(that)shehadwatchedthismoviejustyesterday.
:/
,.
Anna said, The movie had already started when they came
there / Anna said (that) the movie had already started when they
hadcomethere.
: , /
,,.
3. Future Tense will would:
I promised her, I will have come back safe before the Christ
mas/Ipromisedher(that)Iwouldhavecomebacksafebeforethe
Christmas.
:
/,
.
She declared, I will finish up the project by the end of the
month / She declared (that) she would finish up the project be the
endofthemonth.
: /
,.
4. Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous. Past
Perfect Continuous :
Tonysaid,Ihadbeenteaching5yearsbeforeyouwereborn/
Tonysaid(that)hehadbeenteaching5yearsbeforeIhadbeenborn.
:5
/,5,
.
Momnoted,Iwasplantingfor4hoursinarow,Iwasntinthe
theater/Momnoted(that)shehadbeenplanting4hoursinarow,
shewasntinthetheater.

143

: 4 ,
/ , 4
,.
5. , -
(Future Tense),
Present Simple. :
,,
10,/Ohmygosh,sheisgo
ingtotellagainthatwhenshewasagirlshehadntgonetowalkafter
10p.m.
,,/Listen,
heisabouttotellthathesbeentotheTomsplaceyesterday.
,
/Andalltheeveninglongtheytalkaboutthetimetheywereyoung.
6. -
:
Can Could:
Alex confirmed, I cannot dance / :

Alex confirmed (that) he couldnt dance / ,


.
Must Had to:
I wrote down, I must wake up at 6 in the morning / I wrote
downthatIhadtowakeupat6inthemorning
: 6 / (),
6.
Shall Should:
Kate asked, What shall we do this evening? / Kate asked
whatshouldwedothisevening?
: ? /
,?
May Might:

144

Hellyasked,MayIgoforawalk,please?/Hellyaskedifshe
mightgoforawalk?
: , ? /
,.
, could, would, had to, should, might
!
Would
. would -
. , ,
:
, 5 , 6, /
Yesterdayhesaid,thatat5oclockhewouldbehere,butitsalready
6p.m.andhehasntcome.
,,
/InthechildhoodIdreamtthatIwouldbeadoctor,nowIam
plumber.

-
, . -
( ), -
(when, where ..) .
Myfriendasked,whereyouwouldgoforthenextwinterholi
days?/
?
MyfriendaskedmewhereIwouldgoforthenextwinterholi
days?/,
?
My father asked, do you left the door closed or opened? /
:
?
MyfatheraskedmeifIleftthedoorclosedoropened?/
,?

145

Sheasked,haveyouseenmybag?/:
?
SheaskedwhetherIhadseenherbag?/,
?

,
:
Momsaid:dontruninthecorridor/Momsaidmenottorun
inthecorridor.
: /
.
Father urged me: Behave yourself! / Father urged me to be
havemyself.
: ! /
!


(Subjunctive Mood)
(Subjunctive Mood),
,
.
? , ,

( , -
)
. , .
, .
, , :
. ,
if (). , , -
. .

146

, -
Simple:
0. (Zero Conditional) ,
: , .. ,

Present Simple:
Snowmeltsifthetemperaturerisesabovezero/,
.
1. (First Conditional) -
, -
, ( ) :
Present Simple, Fu-
ture Simple:
Ifyouarelateagain,Iwillhavetofireyou/
,.
2. (Second Conditional)
.
, -
. -
. , , ,
.
Past Simple, would:
If Australiadid not happen to be isolatedfrom the rest of the
world,itwouldntpossesssuchanuniquefauna/
,
.
3. (Third Conditional) -
. : -
.
( ) . -
- , ( -
), .
.
Past Perfect, would +
Present Perfect.

147

Ifyouhadgonetobedintimeyouwouldnthaveoversleptyour
interview / ,
.
, .
.
( would) -
. , , -
. , , . -
:
,/
Ifhecametome,Iwouldhelptosolvetheproblem(Simple).
.
,/
Ifhehadcometome,Iwouldhavehelpedtosolvetheproblem(Per
fect)..
-
. - .
?
, -
( ), -
. - ( if) Past
Simple, would.
,
. ,
.
Past Perfect, would
.

:
,/Ifthe
weatherhadbeenfine,wewouldhavegonetothemountains(
)..
,
/IfIhadntbeentalkingon
mobilewhiledriving, trafficpolice wouldnt have stoppedme(
)..

148

,
/ If you had read the rules in advance, you wouldn't
havemadethismistake()..
Hewouldnt have madethis discoveryifhehadnt doneprecise
calculations / ,
..
:
If you put the berries here, it would be eaten by birds /
, (
).
Ifyoupressthiskeyhelpmenuappears/
( ,
).
10
/Ifyoubeatapoliceman,yougetafineand10daysofdeten
tion(,).
If you put the meat here, our dog will eat it /
,().
If she left a wallet on the street, it would be stolen /
,().
If I had known, I would have told you / ,
()
Iftheweatherisfine,wewillgototheMazumIslandtomorrow
/,
().
If he comes on my Birthday, I will be totally happy /
,
().
/If
youhadcomehereagain,Iwouldcallapolice().
IfIwereyou,Iwouldmakeupwithherandstartspeakingagain
/ ,
().

149

, -
to be. -
were, was ( I, you, he, she, it).
:
(),
,:
) If I were you I would enter the University, but not be looking
for a job. Were , -
, -
.
) If I was you I would enter the University, but not be looking
for a job. Was
- -
. , ,
, ,


was .
.

(
).

:
Ifyoudont wantto be late,hurry up /
,.
Takeanapifyoufeeltired/,.
Callmeifyoufeelsad/,.



, -
-s? I walk
She walks, I jump He jumps.
:

150

( , , -
) -s 1 ( ) :
Dodoes(he,she,it)
Havehas(he,she,it)
: /She, /He, /It -
: have has, do -
does. :
I have two different ways of solving this problem /
.
He has two different ways of solving this problem /
. have has
.
Idojumphigherthanyou/
.
He does jump higher than me /
.dodoes(
)
, -
-s , -s -
. , , -
:
Do I have two different ways of solving this problem? /
?
Doeshehavetwodifferentwaysofsolvingthisproblem?/
?:
does have ( has).
Does s
.
DoIjumphigherthanyou?/?
Doeshejumphigherthanme?/?
doesjump(jumps).


1 , , , , have has -s.
- -s , , .
.

151

, when,
who, what, where .. -s .
, , , -
who, (, ,
). , .
Whoknows?/?
Whocares?/()?
, (-
, family, people ..) does/has (
), do/have
, .
Thefamilyhasbeenarguingaboutitshousekeepingresponsibil
ities whenitcomeshome /
, . The familyhave been arguing
abouttheir housekeeping responsibilities whentheycome home /
,
.
, : ,
, Tense, / (he, she,
it -s,
/ -s).
,
.

152


-
( ) (
) , . -
, , ,
,
.
, .
, -
.
:
I don't drink coffee, sorry / ,
.
Ihavenodresses,justjeans/,
.
Ihavenothingtotellyou/,
(nothing).
He has played in poker not quite excitedly /

().
Shehasnothadababy/
has, had
.
Hercatisnotfluffy/
.
, -
. , ,
,
.

153

1. not1.
,
- , -
..
. , ,
:

NOT + A/THE +
Shesboughtnotadog,butareallyfunnyandweirdpet/
,
.
I have seen not a thing! It definitely was something alive! /
..
No,hewillgetnotacar,butletssayapiececabbageorsome
thinglikethat/,,,,
.
Iwaswatchingnotthegirl,butacatontheroof/
,!
2. c not-. not-
,
. -. -. -
, , -
, , , -
.
, not -
, ( ) :

+ NOT-

Shehasanotbaby/.
Shehasnothaveanotbaby/.
This notcat has eaten all the milk in the fridge /
.

1
,
. , -
,

154

No,thisnotcathasnteatenallthemilkinafridge,that
was a so called notdog / , ()
,.
no.
:
Ive drawn the noLewiss structure /
.
Shehasmarkedallthenoanswers/
.
She has marked not all the noanswers it the test and
that was the mistake /
.


,
:

NOT +
, -
.
:
Itsnotmewhomadetheproblem/
Thatsnotmyproblem/
Shesaidthatitsnotmine/
Theoldwisedogslowlybarkingthatitsnothertrace/
,
Therearenotmanydifferencesbetweenthissentences/

It was not too much difficult for me /


1

1
much many many (few) -
(, , ), much (little) -
(, , )

155



:
1. to be + not.

TO BE + NOT +

, to be -
, ,
:
Sheisntbeautiful/.:
/Sheisntabeautiful.
Iamnotfat/.:/Iamnota
fat.
Wearenotbraveenoughtodothat/
,.
Iwasnttall/.:/I
hasntbeentall.
Heisntthatsmart/.
The cat isnt hungry dont feed it! /
!
2.

un-, ill-, ir-, ab-, im-, in-, non-, dis-:

Thisisunfairwaytodothat/!
Illegal actions must be stopped immediately /
.
I think this is abnormal reaction to the speech indeed /
.
e offered an irrational solution of the problem /
.

156

The inactive nestling is getting more and more overweighted /
.
Impatientinvestorismorelikelytoloosemoney/
.
We are nongovernment organization /
.
That is inaccurate, unprofessional and disrespectful /
,.

? . -

.


,
, .. not :
to be, have, will:

AM/IS/ARE + NOT + -ing


HAVE + NOT + -ed/V3

Wearenotthinkingaboutthefuturegeneration/
.
I havent finished my diner! Hold on a while! / <
>!!
Wehaventbeenhappytoseeherleaving/
,.
She hasnt done all the test points so that she failed /
<c>,.
, -
to be have was,
were, will be, had will have.

157


un-, dis-, none- .. -
:
Ileftitunopened/.
Ithasbeenunfinished/.
Beingdishonoredhedecidedtorevenge/
,.
Hehasbeenleftthecompanydisillusionedwitheverythingand
anyone/.
That disconnecting the web man seems familiar to me /
,,.


-
without:

WITHOUT + -ing

WITHOUT + having + -ed/V3

You have started a new thing without having finished an old


projects/,.
Shesleftwithoutfinishingthereport/,
.
Ihavestartedtoworktherewithoutknowingevenbasicthings
on constructing / ,
.
Its insane to start doing without having thought all details of
the process / ,
.
WithoutlookingathereyesIwastryingtoexplainthesituation
/,.

158


: -
not .

NOT +

:
, / I have spoken not vividly,
butfiguratively.
And we not hurriedly moved into the dining room /
.
She is running not quickly enough /
.
Itsnottoolate/.
Not obviously, but he was right / ,
.
No,heistalkingnottoolaud.Iamokwiththat/,
..


-
. ,
Tense .
, not :

TO BE + NOT + -ing ( ontinuous)


:
Iwasntgoingtoschool,Ihaveahomeschooling/
,.
Shewont(willnot)belisteningtoyou,forsure/
,.
They arent learning astronomy nowadays in schools /
.

159

HAVE/HAS + NOT + -ed ( Perfect)

:
They havent learned anything on the course /
.
He hasnt got his diploma yet he is really accomplished in his
profession/,
.
Iwillhavefinishedby5today;shallwegotoacinema?/
5,?
Idonthaveanythingtotellyou/

HAVE/HAS + BEEN + -ing


( Perfect Continuous)

:
I havent been running long, but Im totally out of breath /
,.
Shehadntbeenthinkingthroughalldetailsbeforeshestarted
doingthat.Thatwasthemistake/,
..
Iwonthavebeendoingthatallmylife!/
.
Simple,
, . -
, -

to do.

DO/DOES + NOT + -ing ( Simple)

: not

, .
,< I have not a car> : < >

160

,
:
Idonthaveacar/.
-
not ,
,
.
, <I not swim> -
, - : < >.
:
Idontswim/.
, to do -
, , :
I , you /, we , they : DO
He,she,it:DOES
:
I dont go through the park in a dark time /
.
Shedoesntgothroughtheparkinadarktime/
.
Wedonteatgrechka/.
Hedoesnteatgrechka/.
Theydontdrinkcocktailsatall/
.
A dog doesnt drink cocktails, it likes water /
,.
,
-
DID:
/Ididntwanttogotothecinema.
/Shedidntworkthere.
/Theydidntcome.
/Hedidntanswer.

161


( )

-
, :
no(any),,,.Any
.
none,,
neithernor,();,
nobody,
noone,
nothing.
:
No / . ,
..
No (any) dictionary could help him /
. Any , .
.
Ihaveno(any)car/().
Ifeelnothinghere/.
IalwaysdonothingonFridayevening/
.
Ihavenothingtosay/.
Noneofthemhelpedmethen/
.
Sheaskedmeforcoupons,butIhadnone/
,.
She said she has met nobody / ,
.
Neither my family, nor friends asked me anything about that
evening/,
.

162

No one is able to do anything in this situation /
.
,
.
.
.
,
.
: ,

. I see nothing
I dont see
anything .
<I do not see nothing here -
!>
: , .
, I dont want;
, I want neither ice cream nor cheese cake.
no -
.
( no) -
: // -
:

+ NO + =

Theyhaveseennochinchilla/.
She saw no hamsters only dogs / ,
.
Iseenorats/().
Idonoevil/().
Hehasnomoney/.
I have no plans for the day, will we go anywhere? /
(),?
Theyhavenotrainingstoday/.

163

:
( ), - -
no:

NO = //

:
Noproblem!/!
Nosmoking!/!<!>
Novideogamesforyouonthisweek!/
!
Nodoubt!/!!
Nochance/..
Nolounging/(
).
Nolittering/.
: -
( , ) -
:
somethingnothinganything,
somebodynobodyanybody,
someonenooneanyone.
:
I read something/ Idontreadanything/
. .
Theyseenothing/ They didnt see anything/
. .
Shetoldnobody/ Shedidnttellanybody/
. .
Noonecouldstophim/ Anyonecouldntstophim/
. .

164




. , , ,

( ?), -
(? ?), -
- ( , , ?). -
- -
.
,
:
.
, , : -
? ?
? . , . .
-
,
.
. -
. ,
Why?, -
?, ?, ? ,
: When?/?. ..
,
, -
:
Green?/?, Expensive?/? .
? !!! -
? !!!
, -
:
-
, -
, ,
- , .
(, ) .

165


4 -
1.
1. (indirect question)
2. W- (w-question)
3. (general question)
4. - (tag-question).
, -
() ?
.

.
(,
, ),
(indirect question)
, ,
.
: , ,
, , ..,
W- (w-question). W-?
W: where ,
who , when .2.
W-, ,
. -
.
W-
, ( ) . -
(
?) , ,
.
, - -
, : ? -
(tag-question). .

1 , , (
) -
.
2 how, , - -
W, .

166

: ,
.

(indirect question) -
, -
, , . :
, ? ?
?
, -
. ? , -

,
,
. -
, ,
.
.
-
. :

(indirect)
+ + ?

:
,
?/Couldyoutellmepleasewherethenearestbankishere?
,?/Iwonderhow
longyouhavebeenstudying?
-
, -
. :
/Iwonder?:Iwonderifitsreallythatrisky?/
:?
/Idliketoknow.?:Idliketoknowabout
heraddress/,?

167

/ Id like to find out?: Id like to find
outifyouareok?/,?
/Tellmeplease?:Tellmepleasehow
toopenthecan?/,,?
( )? / Could you (help me
please)?:CouldyoutellmewherethenearestATMisnearhere?/
,?
/Idliketomakeitclear?:Idliketo
makeitclearwhenitwillbefinished?/
?
,/Wouldyoumindmeask
ing about .?: Would you mind me asking where you are from? /
,?
/ I am interested?: I am interested if you
havebeenthere?/?
Iaminterestedinknowing?:
Iaminterestedinknowingwhotheauthorofthearticleis?/
:?
-
, : indirect question
, .
(, ) -
,
, .
? .
:
,
?/Couldyoutellmepleasewherethenearestbankishere?
:
?/Couldyoutellmeplease:whereisthenearestbankhere?
, , -
-
: ,
-
.

168

W- (w-questions)

, W- , -
: , , , , .. -
W-? -
W: where , who , when ,
how ? ..
.
. W- .
W- :
.
, -
,
: -
, . , -
(), -
(-).
,
?
.
. .
,
?/Who?, ?/ What?, ()?/ Which?
?/ Who?, ?/ What, ?/ Where?
.
- ( ) ,
.
. ,
, Who ? ?.
:
Who saw you yesterday? / ? (
)
Who did you see yesterday? / ? (
)
Whowantstoplaytenniswithyou?/
?()
Whodo you want to play tenniswith? /
?()

169

( )
? ,
,
, . -
?
?

,
:

Who/What + + ?

Whosawyouyesterday?/?
Whattowatchatthecinema?/?
Who are taking those books to you? /
? are ,
Continuous, .
.
What has been touching you? / () ?
has ,
Perfect,.
Whowantstoplaytennis?/?
Whatmusicdoyoulike?/?
Whodidthat?/?did
.
Whatmadeyoufeelupset?/?
WhichofthetrainsgoestoOakland?/()
?
Whosawthat?/?
Whathappenedhere?/?
Whatmoviesareyourbestones?/
?

170

( ) -
.

W- + +
+ ?
Whodidyouseeyesterday?/?
Whodo you want to play tenniswith? /
?
Whoareyoutakingthosebooksto?/
?
Whatareyoulookingat?/?
Whodidyouknowitfrom?/?
Whomhaveyoubeencallingto?/?
Wherecanwemeet?/?
Since when has he been sitting here like this? /
?
Wherewere you dancing on all night?/
?
Whendidyougetslept?/?
How do you get slimed? / ( )
()?
: , -
.

( ?, -
?) .
:
WhoexactlythequeenofEnglandis?/
?
Whattimehaveyoucomebackhome?/
?

171

In which case do you lock the safe? / (
)?
, -
(Simple, Perfect, Continuous, Perfect Continuous)
:
: does
-s he/she/it .

.
Whatdoeshehave?/?
Who does she work with? / ( ,
)?
What does this weird looking thing for? /
?

W-:
? ? Who?: Who did that?/ ? Who did you
see there?/ ? Who have you called up?/ -
? Who did you kiss? / ? Who would you choose? /
?
? ? Whom?1: Whom have you liked the most? /
?
? ? What?: What are you doing?! Stop it! / -
()?! !
?/?/?/? What?: What movies are your
best ones? / ? What size do you
need? / ? What season is it? /
()?
?/ ? How?: How you were able to squeeze in
there?! / ? How was it made up? /
? How are you?/ ? How do you like the film? /
?
? / ?/ ? / ? Which?:
Which one you choose? / ? Which do


1
who whom he
him. whom .

172

you want: a mango or an apple?/ :
?
? ? Why?: Why did you do that? /
()? Why not? / ? Why are you doing that? /
?
? /?/ ?/? Whose?: Whose is this bag?/
? Whose are the children?/ ? Whose book am I
holding?/ ?
:
?
? ? ?
..
,
(?, ?, ?), -
(, , ):
?/Whoareyoulookingat?
?/Whodidyoumeetwith?
?/Whatflightareyoutaking
theticketson?

. .
, W-
.
. -
.

() (-)
, .
-
, .
, , .
:
?/Haveyouclosedthewin
dowinthecar?

173


. : -
?

?
, , -
, -, -
: . -
,
DO DOES -
, -
, DID .
: :

Do/Have/Is + + ?

:
Haveyouclosedthewindowinyourroom?/
?<?>
Didyouhearthat?/?<?>
Doyoudance?/?<?>
Does your mom speak Spanish? /
?<?>
DoIhaveanythingtotellyou?/,
?
Does he jump higher than me? / ?
<?>
DontIhaveanythingtotellyou?/,
?
HaventtheyreadupyourpostonFB?/
?
Aint I an openminded person? / ,
?
Havent they bitten up all the food in the fridge? /
?

174


( )

: ,
2- ( ) .
() .

or:
?/Haveyoubeentak
ingagroupcourseorprivatetutoring?
?/Doyou
likeebooksorpaperones?
?Doeshestudyorwork?
56?Willyou'vecomeby5or6o'clock?

-
-
? ?.
( ?)
isnt/dont/havent/cant .., -
.

+ isnt/dont/havent + ?

, ,
:
AnnisworkingontheHyundaifactory,isntshe?/
,?
Ihavebeenwon,haventI?/,?
Heateallthefoodinthefridge,didnthe?/
,?
Shedoesntjumpsupto3,5meters,doesshe?/
3,5,?

175

Iamnotafatone,amI?/,?
Shewontcome,willshe?/,?
Mattwillbeworkingalldaytomorrow,wonthe?/
,?
-
, .


,
. -
:
Is nothing is left in the fridge? /
?
Werent we walking all the night yesterday? /
?
Hasnthemetanyoneinthegym?/
?
Wontshetryanything?/
?
Did she see no anything indeed? /
()?

176



:
.
-
:
Wouldyoulike?/?:
Wouldyouliketeaorcoffee?/()?
ShallI?/(,,):
Shall I cook a dinner for you? /
?
Shallwe?/?:
ShallwegotoItalyforthehoneymoon?/,
?
MayI()?
MayIstaywithyouforonenight?/
?
CanI?()
CanIcreatearocksoheavythatIcouldnotliftit?/
,?
?Doyouknow?
Do you know when the bus comes? / ,
?
?Dontyouknow?
Dontyouknowifthebusgoesviaairport?/,
?
Doyouhaveanyidea?
Do you have any idea how this works? /
,?
?Woulditbepossible?

177

WoulditbepossibletodriveviaIkea?/
?
Isthereanychancethat?
IsthereanychancethatyoullhavecomebackbeforeChristmas?
/,?
.(,,,,..)?
Isit(open,close,cold,ready,expensiveetc.)?
.
Isithotoutside?/()?
Isitinterestingmovie?/()?
Isitathingoranalive?/()?

:
-
-
, -
.
,Whofrom:Whodidyoucopythisfrom?/
?
Whowith:Whohaveyoutalkedwith?/
?:Whodidyougotherewith?/?
Whoto:Well,whodidyousenditto?/,
?:Whoareyousayingthatto?/
?
C / Which . with: Which one should we
startwith?/?
/// ? Which of?: Which of your chil
drendancesbetter?/?
?Whatfor?:Whatdidyoupunishthedogfor?/
?
?Whatfor?:Whathaveyousaidthatfor?/
?

178

Wherefrom?:Wherehaveyoucomefrom?/
? Where do you know that from? /
?
?What?:Whatisthesense?/?
?/Whatistheproblem?
?/ ? What by? What did you nailed
theboxbyifyoudonthaveahammer?/,
?
()Whatlike?:Whatdoesitlooklike?
/?
//? Whose with?: Whose daughter did
yougotothecinemawith?/?
? In whose?: In whose house did you play today? /
?
? What about?: What were you talking about for 3
hoursinarow?/?
?Whoabout?:Whoareyoutellingabout?/
?
?Whoat?:Whoareyoustaringat?/
?
? Who from?: Who have you got the letter from? /
?
Whofor?:Whohassheboughtthepresentfor?/
?
Bywhom?:Bywhomthecarwaspurchasedby?/
?

:
, .

:
/Inwhichcase:InwhichcaseshouldIcallyou?/
?

179

/Bywhichtime:Bywhichtimedotheyhave
tobethere?/?
? / What about?: What about going to the beach? /
?
? / What kind of?: What kind of proposal do you
have?/?
? / What sort of?: What sort of relationship devel-
oped between you and Mathew? /
?
? ? / What time? When?: What time will
youcomeback?/?
/ How old?: How old is he? / ?
Howoldisthiscar?/?
?/Howdeep?:Howdeepisyourlove?/
?
? / How much (many)?: How much do I owe you? /
? How many years have we spent together? /
?
?/Howfar?:Howfaristhenearestgasolinestation?
/?
?/Howlong?:Howlongwillthemoviebe?/
?
?/Howwide?:Howwidehasitspreadout?
/?
?/Howfast?:Howfastareweabletogetthere?/
?
? / How often?: How often do you go to a dentist? /
?
?/Inwhatway?:Inwhatwayhaveyouen
tered the closed house? /
?
? / How come?: How come I didnt see you at the
party?/,?

180

( ?) / Since when?: Since when
youdontdrinkcoffee?/?
, ? / How important is that?: How im
portant is that Ive left my diploma at home? / ,
?
?/Inwhatsense?:Inwhatsensegood?/
?
?/Towhatextent?:Towhatextentofreck
lessmustbeapersontotreatonesownhealthlikethat?/
,
?
? / As a result of what?: As a result of what
haveyouconcludedshesbeenwrong?/
,?
() / In what cases (situations)?: In
whatcasesshouldIcallhim?/?



. :
(,,)?/Whatsup?
(, ..)? / What is the
question(problem/trouble)?
(,)?/
Whatresult(response,decision)canIrelayon?
What does this have to do with me? /
?:Ithaseverything/.
What does the word mean? / (
)?
What has the word meant? / (
)?
Whatisitallabout?/(,)?
Howdoyoufeel?/?

181

DoyouhappentoknowSergeyIvanov?/
?
Whatwillwedothisevening?/?
Haveyouhadfunontheparty?/?
Have you got something bigger (smaller, lighter)? /
(,)?
What'sitabout?/?

182

3.1


to be:
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. ,.
5. .,,.
6. ,!!!!
7. ,.
8. .
9. .
10. .
11. ,.
12. .!
13. ,,,
,.
14. !
15. !
16. .
17. .
18. ().
19. .
20. .
21. ,.
22. .
23. .
24. .
25. .
26. 8922343482.
27. 16,.
28. .

183

29. .
30. .
31. .
32. .
33. ..
34. ,.
35. ,.
36. !
37.
.
38. .
39. ,.
40. .!



:
1. .
2. .!
3. !,?
4. , . ,
.
5. ,.
6. ,!!
7. .
8. ,.
9. ,.
10. ,.
11. ,.
12. ,.,.
13. 7 ,
!
14. .,.
15. !..

184


3- :
1. ,
.
2. ,,
,.
3. .
4. .
?
5. ,,
,.
6. ,
.
7. 7.?!
8. 3.
9. ,.
10. 10.
11. .
12. .
13. , ,
.
14. ,
.
15. .



1. .
2. !!
3. !
4. ,,.
5. .
6. .
7. ?

185

8. !
9. .
10. .
11. .
12. .
13. .
14. .
15. .
16. :,.
17. ,.
18. .
19. ,.
20. .
21. ,.
22. :,.
23. .
24. ,.
25. :.
26. .
27. .
28. !
29. .
30. !


:
1. ,.
2. ,.
3.
.
4. ,.
5. , ,
.
6. ,.
7. ,.

186

8. ,,2010
,
, 2017
.
9. ,
,.
10. ,
.,,
5,.!
11. ,
,,1000.
12. .
13. ,,
,!
14. ,
, ,
.
15. !
16. ,
,
,
.
17. ,,
.
18. , ,
.
19. ,
.
20. ,
.


:
1. ,
.

187

2. ,!,.
3. ,,.
4. ,,
.
5. , , :
,!
6. , ,
.
7. ,
.
8. , , :
.
9. ,,.
?
10. , , ,
.
11. ,
.
12. ,.
13. ,
.
14. :,
.
15. : , ,
?
16. , ,
.
17. ,
.
18. ,,
.
19. ,:,
,
.
20. , : ,
.

188

21. ,5.
22. ,,.
23. , 5,
5.30.
24. ,
11.
25. ,.
26. ,.
27. ,,!
28. ,
.
29. ,,
?
30. .

:
1. ,
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3. ,
.
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.
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.
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.
7.
100.
8. ,
,.
9. ,
.

189

10. ,

11. :,

!
12. ,
.
13. ,
.
14. ,
.
15. ,
.
16. .
17. ,.
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19. .
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.


:
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8. ,.
9. ...,
,.
10. ,.

190

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,.
12. ,,,
!
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,.
16. ,.
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.
.
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24. , .
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,,.
26. .
27. ,.
28. ,,
.
29. ,.
30. .

:
1. ??
2. ,?

191

3. ?
4. ,?
5. ,?
6. ?
7. ?
8. ?
9. ?
10. ?
11. ,?
12. ??
13. ?
14. ?!
15. ,?
16. ,?
17. ,?
18. ?
19. ?
20. ?
21. ?
22. ??
23. ??
24. ??
25. ,?
26. , 1 15
.
27. ?
28. ,,?
29. ,?
30. , ,
?
31. 9
?
32.
?
?
33. ?

192

34. ,?
35. ?
36. ?
37. ?
38. ??
39. ?
40. ?,
.
41. ?
42. ?

193

3.2


to be:

1. . Sheisbeautiful.
2. . Theyarewealthy.
3. . Heissmart.
4. ,. Well,heissmart.
5. .,,
Grey.Isay,itisgrey,notblue.
.
6. , !
Yes,itis!Andwearehappy!!!
!!!
7. , And you are fool, if you leave
. now.
8. . Itiscold.
9. . Itisnotthathard(complicated).
10. . ItwasinNovember.
11. , She will be a doctor, and he will
. bealawyer.
12. . They will be together. One hun
! dredpercent!
13. ,
It was a little, frightened, home
,
less kitten, and now it is shame
,
lessredmuzzle,truerulerofthe
,
house.
.
14. ! Itwaswonderful(brilliant)!
15. ! Itwillbethebestvacation!

194

16. . Sheisunforgettable.
17. . Iamhungry.
18. (
Sheisthirsty
).
19. . Theyaresokind.
20. . Wewerethebest.
21. , They are from Spain, and we
. fromAustralia.
22. . Sheisasinger.
23. . Theyarestudents.
24. . Hewasanactor.
25. We were hungry and got really
. cold.
26. My telephone number is
8922343482. 8922343482.
27. 16, Shewas16,whenhehadstarted
. tosing.
28. . Myfatherisdriver.
29. My family is very big and close
. knit.
30. Ourclasswasverybigandclose
. knit.
31. Allofusinourdepartmentwere
. friends.
32. . TheirnamesAnnaandIgor.
33. .
Iamtoolazyforthat.Really.
.
34. , Obviously, the government isnt
. sosmart.

195

35. My teachers are so funny; they
,. dontknowwhattheywant.
36. ! Iamarealbusinesslady.
37. My company is the biggest one
on the market of cosmetology
. servicesofNorthWest.
38. . TheyhavebeeninKongo.
39. , I am at center, come to Maya
. kovskaya.
40. . Theyareatthemonument.Youll
! findthemeasily!

1. She does know all the choreogra


. phersinthecity.
2. .
Iwillbethereforsure.Ipromise!
!
3.
He eats potato, 100%. Is it right,
! ,
dear?
?
4. ,.
Yes,hedoesreadbooks.Hereads
,
alot,despiteofhisage.
.
5. , Yes, I do that indeed (I really do
. that).
6. , !
Iamcalling,Iamcalling!Backoff!
!
7.
Heisreallythinkingthisway.
.

196

8. ,
No,itreallydoesntwork.
.
9.
Shereallywasadirector,nowshe
,
isretired.
.
10. ,
Yes,theyreallydidthat.
.
11. ,
Idowantthere,noanydoubt.
.
12. , . He does see her. Dont disturb,
,. please,
13.
Wedoopenat7A.M.,donthesi
7,
tate.
!
14. .
She is really studying. She is too
,
youngtowork.
.
15. I really find it! On the street. On
!.. theroad.


3- :

1. , She works as a waitress, but


actually she is a professional
. dancer.

2. He has 3 cars and motorcycle,


, , so that he chooses, that to
,. drive,everyday.
3.
Myfamilytakesalotoftime.
.
4. Municipality works awfully. I

197

. dontunderstandwhyisstruc
? turelikethisneeded?
5.
In our city police have been ar
, ,
riving,asarule,in2hoursafter
,
thecall,notearlier.
.
6. , Shelikesbrewedcoffee,andhe
prefers instant one and thats
. normal.

7. 7 His car is suitable up to 7 peo


.?! ple.Canyouimaginethat?

8. 3 Thisdishcontainsjust3ingredi
. ents.

9. It spreads (it is spreading) very


,. fast,toofast.

10. 10. Theyopenjustat10.

11. Airplanes have been flying on


the high of several thousand
. kilometers.
12.
Suninthisareagoesdownlate.
.
13. ,
He sets the company, finds em
,
ployees, sets up the sales and

thensellsitwithbenefit.
.
14. , The dog continues barking, and
parrot flying nervously in the
. cage.
15.
Shekeepsthehousecleanwell.
.

198


1. . Sheisntthatsmart.

2. ! Ihaventfinishedmydiner!Hold
! onawhile!

3. The cat isnt hungry dont feed


! it.

4. , We havent been happy to see


,. herleaving.

5. . Youdontjumphigherthanme.

6. . Hedoesntjumphigherthanme.

7. Dont you like playing computer


? games?

8. ! Youwillnotdoit!

Matches are not the toy for chil


9. .
dren.

10. . Idonthearanything.

11. Nobody ever has thought about


. somethinglikethis.
12.
Some negations have never hurt

anyone.
.
13. . Shewasntintheroom.

14. If you dont like to sledding

199

. dontpullthesled.

15. . Hehasnothing.

Therewasweirdweatheroutside
16.
the window: neither summer,
:,.
norwinter.

17. , She doesnt like neither this nor


. what.

18. WheninRome,doastheRomans
. do.

19. , Hedoesnthaveaconscienceand
. didnthave.

20. . Itisnotdifficult.

21. ,. Itisnotred,itisgreen.

22. : Things go as usual: neither good


,. norbad.
23.
There was a man opposite me

withordinaryface.
.
24. ,
Itisnotnews,itisaprofanation.
.
25. : I havent seen anyone around
. me:noasinglesoul.

26. Thereisnosensetodenyanob
. vious.

27. Thereisnoprophetinhisfather
. land.

200

28. ! Saynotovegetarian!

29. Idontknowanothercountrylike
. that.

30. ! Saynotoprocrastination!


:
1. ,
HeclaimedthattheEarthwasflat.
.
2. , Ithoughtitwouldbethebestde
. cision.
3.
Heisenberg adhered to Copenha

gen interpretation of quantum

physics.
.
4. , She said she would never go
. there.

5. , WhenIhavereadthisbook,Iun
, derstoodthatthemostimportant
thing for me in life is my life it
. self.
6. ,
When I was born, the USSR was

gettingcollapsedalready.
.
7. Whenever you come home, I will
,. havebeenwaitingforyou.
8. ,
, 2010 When I was a child everyone
thought, that in 2010 everyone

201

would have been flying on a per
, sonalaerocarandhaveapersonal
, robots, the energy would be ex
2017 clusively solar one, but now is
2017 and people till nowadays
. havebeinggoingtoworkinafro
zenbuses.

9. When I had been learning this


, theory at University, it was out
dated already why it has been
, being learned till now is totally
. incomprehensible.
10.
I called them on a home phone

yesterday evening, but they had
,
alreadyleftthehouse.Icalledthe
.,
office, but even there they didnt
, 5
stay long, having been there just
, .
for5minutes.Ihavebeenchasing

themfortheseconddayinarow.
!
11. ,
When I was a child, I have

watched all the movies that we
,
have in home film library, alt
,
houghwehavemorethan1000.
1000.
12. I had eaten yesterday, and I am
. nothungrystill.
13. ,
Ihaddecidedyesterday,evenbe
,
forehecame,thatIwillgoonva

cation whatever it takes on the

nestweek,andnotadaylater!
,!
14. I had seen her on the last week,
, shewasgoingtoflytoSidney,but

202

, todayitseemsthatshewasinca
, f on the corner I had seen her
throughtheshowwindow.
.
15. I have decided I am leaving im
! mediately.
16.
, People of this ethnos in previous
times were confident, that stars
, and planets are gods, who will
, havebeenrulingontheEarthfor
ever,thatswhyitisneedtocare
fullyinterprettheirconstellations.
.
17. When I was walking along the
, , beach in Thailand, I have been
dreaming that I will do all in an
. otherway.

18. JustwhenIwaswalkingalongthe
, , beach, I understood that I will do
. allinanotherway.
19.
FromtimetotimeIhadbeenreal
,
izingclearlythatIwillnotdothat.
.
20.
At that moment I realized clearly
,
thatIwillnotdothat.
.

1. LastweekIwastoldthattheyare
, going to reduce a number of

203

. staff.

2. , Shecriedthatheisatraitor!Eve
! , rybody has known about it al
. ready.
3. ,
Shecriedthatheisatraitor,but
,
noonebelievedher.
.
4. , He confessed that made a mis
, take,buthewillbecleverernext
. time.
5. ,
Youtoldme,justyesterday,Iam
, :
quoting,Iwillfightforthisposi
,
tion(place),forsure!
!
6. ,
AsfarasIhavegot,thechildhad
,
whisperedthatwateristoocold.
.
7. ,
Thechildwhisperedthatwaterin

ArcticOceanistoocold.
.
8. , Shebraggedthatshegetmarried
, at summer. That'sexactly what
: shetold:mymarriagewillbein
. June.

9. , Father said that today is Satur


, day, and mother Sunday. I
.? dontknowwhotobelieve.
10. , ,
They guess that maybe he got
,
tootiredandjustfallenasleep.
.
11. , They guess that the president of
such a big company just doesnt

204

haveenoughtimefornothing.
.
12. , Mywifesaidthatwewillgo(are
going)toSpainsoitwillbelike
. that.

He said that he has (had)


13. ,
watchedthismusicaljustyester

day,anddoesnt(didnt)wantto
.
watchitonceagain.

Shesaid:Ihavealreadybeenat
14. :
this exposition, but I will visit it
,
one more time with great pleas
.
ure.
15. : ,
Iwastold:Youcame,whenthe
,
showhadbegunalready,doyou

wanttorewatchthebeginning?
?
16. , He told that he has (had) seen a
, lot in his life, but something like
. thisheseesatthefirsttime.

17. , She declared that she is (was)


goingtofireandwontwork(are
. notworking)withus.

18. , This child declared that he is


, (was) not going out of home till
. hismotherwill(would)come.
19. ,
: Nowsheisabouttosay:whenI
, was a young girl, nobody went
, out for a walking so late, every
body read and went sleep after

205

. dinner.

20. , : Ohno!Sheisstartingagain:you
, must read a lot otherwise you
willhavetogoworkingasajani
. tor.

He asked to tell you that he will


21. ,
be able (is able) to come by 5
5.
P.M.
22. ,
She said that she can (could)
,
comebyherself,dontworry.
.
23. ,
ShewrotethatIneedtowakeup
5,
at 5 to catch a train so I going

tosetanalarmon5.30.
5.30.
24. ,
FatherwarnedmethatImustbe

(at) home not longer than 11
11
P.M.today.
.
25. , They asked where we would
. (will)goatevening.

26. , She asked if she may (might) go


. out.

27. , MothersaidthatIwillnotjump,
,! butIwantto!

28. Fathertoldmetocleanupevery
, thing in the room immediately;
otherwise I will have no zoo at
. theweekend.

29. , They asked if I could (can) go to

206

, Europe or I didnt (dont) have a
? visa.

30. The customs officer ordered me


. totakeoffthepassportcover.

:
1. Ifyouwerepitchedonthedoga
, bitlonger,itwouldbiteyou.
.
2. , If I were a bit smarter, I would
never make (have never made)
. suchamistake.
3. Ifyouwanttogetanewapart
, ment, you will have to work
. hard.
4. If you had been patient for at
, leastanothercoupleofminutes,
everything in your life would
. havechanged.
5. If you had been kept your
, mouth shut and hadnt been
rude with mother, we would
have been sitting in a warm
. place and eating cookies with
warmmilk.
6. , , Its very probably, that, if they
had got an opportunity to re
turntopeacefullife,theywould
, havejumpedatit.
.
7. If you had thought more about
healthanlessaboutwork,you
100 would have been living up to
. 100years.

207

8. If you had invested in overseas
realestatewhenItoldyou,you
, , would have been millionaires
now.
.
9. If he has been more particular
, about relationships, it would
. havebeenbetterforeveryone.
10. , If she had known there, what
just in one week her life will
changefundamentally.
11. : Andtellhim:ifhedoesntwant
tobringcasetocourt,heshould
, beswifteranddelivergoodson
time!
!
12. If you dont insist on this item,
, we will be ready to walk to
wardsandincreasethedeferred
paymentterms.
.
13. Ifyoudelayonemorepayment,
, we will be forced to apply to a
court.
.
14. Ifyouhaveabadcredithistory,
, you will not get the mortgage
. onconcessionalterms.
15. If you dont complete this task,
, youwillneverlearnEnglish.
.
16. If it wasnt Varvara, the nose
. wouldnthavebeentornoff.
17. , If you have been thinking this
. way, you will never be able to
reachthegoal.

208

18. , IfIhadntbeensure,Iwouldnt
. havetoldyouanything.
19. If it is dark in the windows
. thereisnobodyathome.
20. Ifthereisnobodyathomeitis
. darkinthewindows.
21. If you want to learn how to
drivethebike,getreadytofall.
.

Iseenothing.
1. .
Idontseeanything.
2. ,,
No,Iwantneitherthis,northat.
.
Justwanttodonothing.
.
3. . Idonthaveacar.
4. She didnt say anything to any
. body.
5. , Thisisnotgreen,thisisswamp
.! green.Idontcare!
6. , I dont drink a green tea, I un
, derstandneithertaste,norsmell
. ofthisstrangedrink.
7. . Ihavenothingtosayyou.
8. , She played, but not especially
. truly.
9. .
. . She has notacat. She has a
, , dog.
Yeah. This notacat, howev

209

. er,ismeowingasamaturecatat
theheightofMarch.
Her dog is not an angry, dont
10. ,.
fear.
11. She mistakenly bought not a
,. chicken, but a pig pate. This is
, notamistake;thisiscalledfor
. getfulness.
12. , , No,excuseme;Iamlookingnot
, atyou,butatthechildrightbe
! hindyou!
13. , . They called not to me, unfortu
, nately. Actually, I dont wait a
. callalready.
14. , That is not their problem, it is
. yourproblem.
15.
They just should mark all the
.
answers no. It is not compli
,
cated,Itisverysimple.
.
She is confident that this thing
16. ,.
doesntbelongtoher.
17. , He admitted that it is not his
,, handiwork and he doesnt know
. who exactly did that. He just
doesnt want a scandal, and de
. cidedtotakeablame.
18. They don't havea lot in com
, mon;itisliketheyarenotafam
. ily.
19. No one of them wants to go
firstIhadtochooseforthem.

210

.
20. There are no substantial differ
, ences betweenthosefilms,they
. arealmostidentical.
21. , Saying no is neither harmful
. noruseful.
22.
Itiswontbeespeciallyhardfor
,
him,lethimdontsayingno.
.
23. ,
Thisisnotfair,dontdothis!
!
24. , I dont sure, that is abnormal
. reaction. That if it is coinci
? dence?
25.
He is absolute misfit. Many say
, worthless,butIthinkheisjust
, , anonstandard.
.
26.
This is nongovernmental chari

tableorganization.
.
27. , Thetablewasntlaid,whenIhad
. come.
28. , Not having seen them, I went
, deeper into the hall, even dont
. lookaround.
29. , Nobody says anything, I havent
. gotinterveningtoo.
30.
Idontseeanysenseinthat.
.

211

:

1. ?? Howareyou?Alive?

2. ,? Sorry,what?

3. ? Whyiswhat?

Areyouthinkingyouaresoclev
4. ,?
er?

5. ,? Don'tyouhaveenoughtodo?

6. ? Whodowehavehere?

7. ? Whatsthis?

8. ? Whydoyoudoit?

9. ? Canitbeaboutus?

10. ? Wasitworthhoping?

11. ,? Itsalright,isntit?
12. ?
Whogetsbolt?Ido?
?
13. ? Howdoesitcost?

14. ?! Whatkindofmanyouare?!

15. , Excuse me, how I can get to the


? EifelTower?
16.
Could you tell me, how I can get
,
tothecenterfromherefaster?
?

212

17. Ilookprettymuchlikemeonthe
,? photoitthepassport,isntit?

18. ? Whomhaveyouvisited?

19. ? Whodidthat?

20. ? Whowereyoulaughingwith?

Who had (have) you written


21. ?
about?

When have you been there? A


22. ??
longtimeago?

23. ? HaveyoueverbeeninAustralia?
? MaybeinIndonesia?
24.
What can you say about Paris?
?
Whatkindofimpressions?
?
25. ,
Tellmewhatdidyouseethere?
?
26. , I wanted to go over the details
1 abouttheapartmentsonaperiod
15. since1till15ofJune.

27. May(Can)welivewiththecatsat
? thisplace?
28. ,
Idontunderstand,couldyouex
,
plainonemoretime,please?
?
29. ? Whatareyouthinkingabout?
30. , What would you like to be when
? yougrowup?

213

Whatexactlyhavebeentouching
31. ?
you?
32.
Whatkindofmusicdoyoulike?
?
33. ? Whathasbeenhappeninghere?

34. ? Whathadyoubeendoingthere?
? Wasitinteresting?

35. ? WhatelseIshouldknowabout?
36.
Are you going to party with me
? ,
tomorrow?Yes,IfonlyIwontbe

busyatwork.
.
37.
Whyelsecoulditbeneeded?
?
38. How exactly are you going to do
? that?

214

4.
?
-
. .
.

, . ,
,
, .. -
. , -
, , : -
, , , -
,
. -
.
, , , -
, , , ,
.
, , , -
, , -
.

, , , .
, -
.
( ,
):

-
(Tense)
-s
(that, which,
so)


( )
.

215

, , . -
, ?
.

!
, !
.
, .
1. ?
-, (
) , , , -
. ,
, . ( -
) .
, .
. , -
(, ).
-, , -
!!! -
.
2. ?
, -
. ?
, :
The , -
. : the cat -
, the theme .
A ,
. : an apple
(, ) , a dog (, ) .
( ) ,
. .
Time ( ), space ( ).
Dog ( )1.


1
, , a,
. A dog dogs. a -
.

216

,
, health, water,
money...
, , . -
, .
? , -
. ,
: The Netherlands . Russia -
. , -
, -
, , -
. .
, - -
+, :
It was a beautiful music video /
.
Itisthemostexpensivethingintheshop/
.

-s ,

-s
1:
1. (ours,
yours)
2. (
s MacDonalds)
3. (cats and dogs)

-s , -
: - -.

1
-s, -
, , do does, .

217

, , ,
.. : -
! -
: , -s.
, :
/I/mymine
/You/youryours
/We/ourours
/They/theirtheirs
/She/herhers
/He/hishis
/It/Itsits.
, -s .
: my
mine. , , , ,
? ,
( -s) -
. ( -s) . .
.
. ? / My book is red.
Whose?Mineisred(<myisred>..
.mybookisred)
? ! , ,
!/Whosecarisatthegate?Ours!Oops,ourcarisnearthe
door,atthegateistheirs!
,herfriend=
afriendofhers,ourcar=acarofours,theirchildren=thechildrenof
theirs..

,
.
s
: s. ,
:

218

/Hunter'sshotgun.
()/Momsdress.
()/Dadstie.
()/Mashashappiness.
(<>)/Fosters.
, (,
, , ) , , ,
. .
: -
-
? , :
Hunter shotgun/ / Hunter's
shotgun.
Grannydress/()
/Grannysdress.
Tableleg//tablesleg.
, , s, -
s ? :
Maussbook/,.

, , -, -s -
:
Paper/papers/;
Word/words/;
Thing/things/;
News;
Glasses;
Trousers.
. ,
s, z , -
e -s: , -es
Classes,masses,passes,lassoes.

219

,
.
-s -
.

, . -
, ,
.
: (by /, of /, on /
, to /)1.

(): He put the book on the shelf/
.
:
/Iamonair5/Iwaslatefor5
minutes.
?



.
1. (? ?)
.
,
,
, -
. :
(?)!/Agreatidea!
(?)/Themainthinginlifeisfamily.
(?)!/Amazingshow!


1
, , , -
, : -
(me, him, her, us, them).

220

2. (? ?) of.
-
of:
:
(?)lackoflight
(?)priceofvictory
(?)departmentofpolice
(?)dreamsofachild.
3. (? ? ?)
to, on. -
to:
(?) , , , (?)
! / Give to him, not him, to the boy in a red cape!
(?),(?)!/Givetheice
cream to children, the flowers to the wife.
(?)/Writethereporttothechief.
,
on.
:
/coursebookonhuntingfora
bear.
/Booksonmath.
4. (? ?)
. , ,
, -
.
! :
-
2 .
: me, him, her, us, them.
:
/Iseehim.
!/Don'tblamethecat!

221

,,/Iseeacat,atree,
abike,butnoanydog.
(?)!/Callthepolice.
(?),(?)/Iboughtatable,
nowIislookingforchairs.
+
onto:
/Thecatrunawayontotheroof.
5. (? ?) by,
with, as.
: ,
. , -
, -
. : as, by with.
:
/Iambusywithpapers
/Iwritebypen
/ I have been awaked with a call I
havebeenawakedbythecall.
, ?
: by
, .. -

. , : -
, / Its nessesary to hit by a
hammer, other ways wont help.
. , -
, :
/ she intimidated him by the child.

( , ).
as.
:
(? ?) / Speech flows as a
waterfall:.

222

/ She sparks as a million
lights:.
/ I was laying as a body and
getting scary : <
>.
6. ( ? ?)
about, on, of.
. -
, :

about, of, on.
:
/thinkingofyou.
/dreamingaboutcoconut
icecream.
/Ireadalotaboutpirates.
/Ilikethebooksonmath.
about of -
, : about
.
I have a doubts about him /
.
of
( ).


, ,
.
. ,
,
:
5,?/Iwillhave
beenthereat5p.m.Isntittoolateforyou?

223

,/Iputthebagin
theclosed.Itmesseshere.
! ! / Stop! Youre going directly
intothepole!
/IamattheUniversity.
, , -
, . ,
-
, .

.
, -
-
: , , .
,
, -
.
,
on, onto, to, at for.
:
10 / We fixed the time at
10 a.m.
2/Iwaslatefor2hours.
,!/Iputthebagonthe
bed,butitsnotthere!
,/Putthebag
onto the bed, it wont trouble anyone there.
/ Im going to the sea to swim up.
/Letsmeetatthebusstation.
,/Yes,Iinsistonmychoice.
, ,
,
. -
?
, -
:

224

1. ,
-
- .
for. :
3,5/Hewasjailedfor4years.
5/Sheislatefor5years.
3/Theycamejustfor3days.
/Wewontbesufficient
withtheseresourcesforthewinter.
, on.
/ We shift the ap
pointmentonMonday.
,,,,
? / Shall we, finally, meet on the next week,
otherwiseImleavingonvacationafter?
2.
:
at - :
M,?/Shallwemeetatthecorner?
/ We met at the Lenina
street.
/ Its always windy at a sea
side.
,/Itsbetter
tohaveavacationattheBlackseathenattheWhitesea.
on - :
,/Isleeponthebed,noton
asofa.
,/Justputitontheta
ble,Iwilltakeitawaylater.
,,?/Lookon
thewatersurface,beautifulindeed?

225

, -
, :
put on the bed look at me1.
3. :
to ,
:
,?/Iamgoingalongthe
highwaytoMoscow.Wherehaveyoubeengoing?
300,
,/Gototheeastfor300meters,af
ter that turn to the south there, in a distance youll see the house,
whichyouneed.
,/May
hecometomyplace,dontwanttogoanywheretoday.
onto , - +
:

/ Mathew huddled up from the
piercinggustsofwindandtightenthehatontothenose.
!/Shehasthrownonto
thefloorhavealookdownthere!
!/Theshiphas
fallenontotheside,itwassoterrifying!
/Thecatrunawayontotheroof.
4.
on:
/He
istoodeterminedonmakingmoney.
?/Whatisyouransweronthis
question?


1
, look on me , .
,

226

/Theroundhasfinishedonme.
-

:
1. : during,
at, on, in;
2. : in (), at ( , );
3. : to into ( );
4. in
:
/DuringthetimeIll
getshopped.
,,/Iaminares
taurant,dontworryIwontgetwet.
/ I am at the University (
, . ).
/IamgoingtoItaly.
, / I have
bumpedrightintothesnowpile,luckilynotintothewall.
/Ididntwanttogo
intothathouseatall.
/Inconclusion,Iwant
tohighlightthemainidea.
():
, -
:
1. : by;
2. : by, near, at (
: by , , near , , at , ,
);
3. : to towards (
);
4. for on the occasion of =
, .

227

:
/I'llhavefinishedbyfive.
C,!/Haveasitbyme,Iwasmissing!
!/Ivecomenearthehouseget
out!
!/Letsflystraightto
wardsthestars!
/Iveboughtitonoccasionof
guestscoming.
! / Ive al
readymadeupasurpriseforhisBirthday!
:
, - -
:
1. : till (until), as long as =
, ;
2. : before as far as =
;
3. : to up to (
);
4. , : above in advance
of = , .
:
10 .
/Iwontbecomingtodaytill10p.m.Thehouseistotallyyours.
,!/Hewasbeforeme,lethim
comehere!
,/Illbedriv
ingasfarasIwillbestopped.
, / Drive to
thecross,youllseemethereontheright.
56% /
Theratinghasbeenrisingupto56%andthegrowthisgoingon!

228

, ,
:!/Imtellingyouthisinadvanceofthesitu
ationwilltakeplace,buttrustme:itwillbethisway!
:
:
1. : ,
;
2. : above ( ) over (
, , , ).

;
3. : to up to (
);
4. , upon.
:
A light hangsover (above)the table /
.
Itwasthreedegreesabovezero/3.
Theymadehercomfortableandputablanketoverher/
.
TheflagwavedupontheWhitehousein2010/
2010.
:
1. : ,
;
2. : under (beneath).
- underneath.
3. : to into;
4. as, on, with.
:
I put it under the table not to take the space /
.
Iwouldntdreamingoflivingunderneathamusician!Noway!/
!

229

Iwasstandingbeneaththewindowfor4hourmylegssohurt
ing!/4!

/TowardstheeveningIgotreallytiredanddecidedtogobedwithout
dining.
You shouldnt pose as a fool /
.
Making a fool with the Mickl Jackson music /
.
I bought a new car on security of my house /
.
:
1. : ,
;
2. , : from.
3. : out of, away from;
4. , : out of
:
,
/ I have just backed from India and
cannotfullyunderstandwhatisgoingoninthecountry.
/Shehasjustwentoutof
thatdoor.
.,/Thecat
hasgoneawayfromhome.Westilldontknowwhy.
/Thisprojectis
beingfinancesoutofthestatesbudget.

.
. :
through,
across,
between,

230

up,
down,
along,
C()off/downfrom
infrontof,
behind,
around,
nextto,
among,
against,
With.
-
, , ( ),
.
,

.

231


-
. .
. , ,
(-, -, -, - ). (
) -
. -
.
-
. ,
:
In/
,:
Builtin(builtin)
Pourin
Addin
Jumpin
Out / ,
:
Takeout
Getout
Thinkout.(thinkout)
Pullout
Jumpout
On,
( ),
,,:
Geton
Takeon/
Puton
Jumpon/.

232

Up,
,,,:
Warmup
Makeup
Wakeup
Getup
Boilup
up :
Reachtoamillionpeople
Reachuptoamillionpeople
Cookup
Warmup
Readthrough
Burndown
Lightup.
Down.
:
Calmdown
Sitdown
Putdown
Readdown.
Along.
,,,:
Livealong
Singalong
Getalong
Goalong().
Over ,
:
Getover

233

Swimover
Comeover
Thinkover.
Through
,.
Getthrough
Lookthrough
Readthrough

. , . . -
.



, ,
(so,
that, thereof, whereas, in order to, due to, in spite of the ..)
3
.


, -
, , (V3). -
.
. -
.
-ed . Work (-
) worked () worked (): go () went
() gone (), sit () sat () sat ().
-
. ( -
) 2 . , -
, .

234

4.1
:
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. , ,
.
6. .
7. ,?
8. ,.
9. .
10. .
11. .
12. .
13. .
14. .
15. .
16. ?
17. .
18. ,.
19. !?!
20. !
21. .
22. !
23. ..
24. .
25. ,
.

235

-s
,

:
1. ?!
2. ?!
3. ()?!
4. !
5. , , ,
.
6. .
7. .
8. ,.
9. ,.
10. .
11. ,
10.
12. .
13. , ,
.
14. .
15. ,.
16. ,
.
,,.
17. .
18. ,,.
19. , , ,
.
20. ,,.

236


:
1. ,.
2. ,.
3. ,.
4. .
5. , , .
!
6. !!
7. ,.
8. ,,
.
9. .
10. ,.
11. .
12. ,
.
13. !!
14. .
15. ,.
16. , ,
,.
17. .
18. ,.
19. .
20. .
21. .
22. .
23. ,,
.

237


:
1. 28.
2. 29.
3. 30.
31.
4. . 32.
5. - 33.
34.
6. 35.
7. 36.
8. 37.
9. ! 38.
10. . 39.
11. 40.
12. 41.
13. 42.
14. - 43. !
44.
15. - 45.
46.
16. 47.
48.
17. 49.
18. 50. ,
19.
20. 51. !
21. 52.
22. - 53.
23. - 54. -
24. -
55. :
25.
56.
26. 57. -
27. .

238


, :
1.
2.
3.
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. :+30,
!
8. 300,!
9. ,
.
10. .
11. 5
.
12. 2.
13. 10.
14. .
15. .
16. .
17. ?
18. ?


on:
1. ()5%().
2.
.
3. .
4. ,.
5. .
6. .

239

7. !
8. .
9. ,
.
10. ,.
11. 25
,,.
12. ,.
13. ,
!
14. (),2.
15. ,
.
16. .
17. 5.
18. , ,
.
19. ,

.
20. ,
!
21. ,,,
5.
22. .
23. ,,,.
24. .,,.
25. ,?,
.
26.
..
27. ,
!
28. .
29. C,,
.

240

30. !
31.
?
32. ,
?
33. ,
: ,
,.
34. ,
.?
35. , ,

.
36. : ,
,,,
, ,
.
37. , ,
.
38. ,
.
39. ,.
40. ,,!
41. ,!
42. ,,.
43. !??


1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. 7.
6. .
7. ,.

241

8. .
9. .
10. .
11. ,!
12. !
13. .
14. Glamour.
15. ,.
16. .
17. .
18. .
19. ,,.
20. ,.
21. .
22. ().
23. .
24. .
25. .
26. 20.


1. ?!
2. 5.30?!!!
3. 5.!
4. !
5. ,
.
6. ?.
7. ,
.
8. .
9. ,!
10. ,!
11. ,..
12. ,.

242

13. ,,.
.
14. ,.?
15. .
16. 5.30.
17. ,.
18. 9,8!
19. 15.04.2017!
20. .
21. .
22. O.
23. .
24. .
25. 5,.

:
1. !
2. !
3. .
4. .
5. ,.
6. .
7. ,?
8. ,?
9. .
10. ,,?
11. 1010,!
12. ,!
13. !
14.
!
15. !
16. ,.
17. ? , ,
?

243

18. ,
!
19. .
20. .


1. !!
2. 5000..
3. , 11
!
4. !,!
5. , ,
!
6. !!!
7. .
8. ,,!
9. ,?
.
10. ,,,.
11. ,.
12. !
13. ,.
14. .
15.
.
16. 95%
.
17. .
18. .
19. .
20. .
21. ..
22. ..
23. .
24. ,.

244

25. ,.
26. .
27. .
28. .
29. .
30. .


1. .
!
2. .!
3. ?
4. .
5. .
6. ,.
7. !
8. ,.,.
9. .
10. .
11. 500
.
12. 10,
.
13. 60email.
14. .
15. .
16. 100.
17. .
18. ,.



1. .
2. !!

245

3. , .
.
4. .
5. .
6. ,
!
7. ??
8. .
9. ,
,.
10. ,,.
11. ,..
12. ,
.
13. .
14.
.
15. 10.


1. !!
2. ,!,,
?!
3. ,.
4. !!
5. ,
.
6. ,,
.
7.
.
8. :10,
16??
9. ,
,.

246

10. .
11. ,
.
12. ,
.
13. ..
14. .
15. ,
.
16. 20000.
17. ,?
18. .
19. ,,!
20. ,,.
21. .
22. ,,,!
23. ,.
24. ?
25. .
26. . ,
?
27. ,.
28. .
29. .

247

4.2
c
:

1. Love that is the main thing in


. live.

2. . Hereyougoanapple.

3. . Thisstickisagainstdogs.

4. . Dogisafriendofman.

5. , The dog, which I see yesterday,


, run toward to me and rubbed
. withthenose.

6. Tomorroweveningwearegoing
. tothe(a)beach.

7. ,? Shallwewatchamovie?

8. ,. Givemeapen,please.

Well, of course you have


9. .
foundthereason.
10.
Neverblameanotherpeople.
.
11. Laughing without a reason is a
. signoffoolishness.

12. Thebooksarepreparedforyou
. inmyroomalready.

248

13. AndthenIhaverealizedthisis
. theplace.

14. The dumb penguin shyly hiding


. hisfatbodyinthecrevice.
15.
Definitearticleitisgreat!
.
16. ? Doyouremembertheplace?

17. Ineverforgetthehistory(about
. theHistory)
18. ,
Itisthirdfloor,itisthelastone.
.
19. !? IhaveseentheMoon!Andhow
! itis?Amazing!

20. ! Youarethebest!

21. This is the higher slide in Eu


. rope.

22. Andnowthehardestquestion
! toanswer!

23. . I have seen a crow. Strange


. bird.

24. Readingisthebesthobbyinthe
. world.
25.
Readingmanhavemoreprefer
,
encesthannotreadingone.
.

249

-s
,

:

Whose car is this? (Who owns


1. ?! thiscar?)Ours!

2. ?! Whoseessayisthis?Mine!

3. ()?! WhoseCoffeeGlaceisthis?Yous!

4. ! Thiswascreatedbyourfriend!
5. ,
This is cats armchair, dont take
, ,
it,pleaseitcouldbeoffended.
.
6. His friend is able to do anything
. andalwaysreadytohelp.

7. Their children differ with curious


. mindandbeauty.

8. , This is fathers hat. I will keep it


. asamemory.

9. , This is moms shoes, dont take


. itshewillscoldyou.

10. Mashas body needs everyday


. trainings.

11. Fosters invention is the most


, wellknown out of everything,
which has been done for 10
10. years.

250

12. . Tablesleg.

13. , Grandmothers jacket, grandfa


, thers trousers and fathers
. glassesthisisallIhad.

14. Artists recorders are being kept


. inaspecialrepository(storage).
15.
Fatherscaritisnotthesameas
,
carofthefather.
.
16. Dancers costumes are the most
, precious thing that they have
during a period of festival and
. competitions. They order them
, orsewbythemselves,itcouldbe
, said, that are costumes of danc
. ersinallmeanings.

17. The cloth of pupil must be clean


. andneat.

18. , This is cats toys, dont put it


, away,otherwiseshewillgetsan
. gry.
19. , ,
This is cat toys, but I think you
,
canbuysuchthingsforthedog.
.
20. , Thisisnotahumanvoice,Ithink
,. itisartificial.

251


:

1. , Ilikeit,andhewillbeok.
.
2. , He sees everything better from
. therethanfromhere.
3.
They have to go to me on foot,
,
thecarwasbroken.
.
4.
Theyneedtobuyyougroceries.
.
Sheneedstogotowork,heneeds
5. ,
togoatschool,andweneedtogo
, .
to the summer house. Everybody
!
ishurryingsomewhere!
6.
Our family needs a cat! Only cat
!
canfixeverything!
!
7. He needs something hot to get
,. warm(warmup).
8.
They dont like your toy; they say
, ,
itisdangerousforyou.
.
9.
Itshardtometodoitbymyself.
.
10. , Its not clear for her how to do
. thisexercise.

11. I dont want to do anything for


. him.

12. Itstoofarforhimtowalktoher,

252

, lethimusetaxi.
.
13. ! They are really lucky with him!
Living at such a place it is a
! dream!

14. It would mean a lot of him to


. sleepmore.
15.
Ilikereadingmorethanwriting.
,.
16. ,
I dont understand why I should

learn to write with pen, every
,
body types on a computer, but
,
notwriteswithhand.
.
17.
Iwanttogotothecinematoday.
.
18. ,
Idontwanttodiscussthisissue.
.
19. . Theydontneedhisliberty.

20. . Shewantsherattention.

21. . Heneedstheircareforhim.
22. ,
They feel that everybody cheats
,
them,buttheycheatthemselves.
.

1. Withfunnycurls

2. Boilingkettle

253

No to the deep sense of hun
3. !
ger!

4. . Dneprisriver.

5. fromthebigaubergines

6. broadriver

7. bylittlesteps

8. Closeddoor

9. ! Poursometokitten!

10. . Sonyaisanactress.

11. Thelaneofthedistrict

12. Partofthequestion

13. Middleoftheway

14. Complexityofsurvey
15.
Hallofplumbersfame

The institute of scientific tech
16.
nology

17. Schoolofcalligraphy

18. Manyoftheatres

19. Notenoughlaughing

20. Menstalk

254

21. Amusementsofthechildren

22. Becauseoftherain

23. Becauseofroundshape

24. Sitdowns of the foreign stu


dents

25. Sportswearshop

26. Storeofmiracles

Position of the teacher (teach


27.
ersplace)

28. TheEarthsaxis

29. Sealevel

Doctors status (status of doc


30.
tors)

31. Timeoflectures

32. Tohelpthebrother

33. Sendtothefather

34. Calledtochief(head)

35. Tospiteenemy

36. Truetohisword

37. Saluttowinners

255

38. Helptothefamily

39. Tospitehim

40. Tostrivetosuccess

41. Addresstothenation

42. Liabletocatchacold

43. ! Tostadium!

44. Speakaboutfamily

45. Dreaming about a chocolate


icecream

46. Informaboutmeeting

47. Hasknownaboutmeeting

48. Begformercy

49. Beproudofhusband
50. ,
Fluffyfingers,snotbubbles

51. ! Lightupthefire

52. Swimasdolphin

53. Jumpasbomb

54. Writesabookonphotography

55. : Article about meditation: her


meaningandkinds

256

56. Arrangedtomeet

The house is building by work


57. .
ers.


, :

1. Ifyoulookatthesurface

2.
Ifyoulookatthispicture

3. If you look on this from the dif
ferentpointofview

4. . Iamworkingattheship.

5. I was working at the big compa


. ny.

6. . Todaytheseaiscalm.
7.
Today at the sea I have enjoyed:
:
+30C,warmsand!
+30,!
8.
Today I am at sea we dive at
300 ,
thedeepof300meters,atlast!
!
9. There are many of cargo barges
, on Kama; you dont see it at the
. GulfofFinland.
10.
Itravelbyseaalot.
.
11.
I have been quickly climbing on

257

5. careerladderfor5years.

12. 2 Wepushedthemeetingtimefor
. 2hours.
13. 10
Wehaveagreedon10A.M.
.
14. . Throwitontheverytop.

15. Thissensewaslayingonthesur
. face.
16.
Ievendontpretendonthis.
.
17. ? Areyougoingmyway?

18. ? Isitontheway?


on:

1. (
) 5% ( Wehaveagreedon5%interest.
).
2.
I dont like this variant of the
text I comment the most un
. clearplaces.
3. . Idependonthesepayments.
4. , Everythingdependsonwheywill
. come.
5. They insist on decrease of the
. price.
6. She spends too much money on
. clothes.

258

7. I want to congratulate you on
! anniversary.
8. She is on absolutely all his busi
. ness.
9. We are moving forward quite
, successfully, there is just a cou
ple of month left and we will
take a leading position on the
. market.
10. , They get on well, no any argues
. andpicking.
11.
25 I have been watching (looking
,, on) the Central Bank last 25
yearsandcannot,unfortunately,
. promiseanythingpositive.

12. , He continued (went on) swim


. ming (sailing) despite of the
wind.
13. I have put on 2 sweaters, socks
, and vest and I dont feel cold
! anymore.
14. () We were held up for two
, hourson account ofthe acci
2. dent.
15. ,
However, on no account, I dont
wanttousethiscircumstanceas
anexcuseforourservicedeficit.
.
16. Ihad(have)donethisstupidac
. tion (thing) after advise of my
friend.
17. ThebadweatherinSaintPeters

259

5 burghappens5timesperdayin
. average.
18. , , After the falling the hamster in
average eats approximately a
. halfofadailyintake.
19.
, I called you on behalf of Matt
Polzhansky,heasktoremindyou
aboutnecessitytoopenthebot
tle of a red wine at least one
. hourbeforehiscoming.

20. , Heis(hasbeen)comingforbusi
ness, he doesnt have a time to
! commutebackandfortharound
thecity!
21. ,
, Ok,Ifinishthislistupinsteadof
, youoncondition,thatthereport
5. willbereadytodayat5P.M.

22. . I bought everything here on


credit.
23. , , VasyadontlikeswimmingandI,
,. otherwise,likeit.
24. . ,, Youareyoung.I,incontrast,am
. veryold.
25. ,
? , Do you think he is soft and
fluffy? On the contrary, he be
. camemorerigidandpersistent.
26.
All the original papers will be
. presentedonthefirstdemandof
. theStateDuma.
27. Iinsistontheplanontheground
, of the fact that is my time and

260

! money!
28. 28. You have come here at (on) my
. initiative.Iamsorry.
29. C , Ontheonehand,IloveIndia,on
, thesecondhand,Ihatethesmell
. ofpermanentsmoke.
30. ! Idonothingonpropose.
31.
Today we have very fresh tiger
? prawnsonselldoyouwantit?
32. Theyhadtheirweddingonabig
, scale, and everything was
thoughtout totheverysmallest
detailhowdidtheymanageto
? doeverythingbythemselves?
33. ,
In order to convince him on
: somethingoneneedslargescale
, actions: a detailed plan, a clear
, rationale, and also an obvious
. illustration.
34. 34. Ill get the things in dry cleaner
, onmywaytooffice,andyouwill
.? pickupthekids.Deal?
35. ,
, Ingeneral,Idontmindgoingto
Tanzania, but lets do it without
crazy climbing and contacting
withawildanimals.
.
36. IdreamthatonedayIwillreturn
: , toAustralia:gotoUluru,snorkel
, , on the Great Barrier Reef, touch
quokka,andspendanightinthe
, , desert, look into a cave with

261

, glowingmushroomsandsoon.


.
37. ,
On the case if you need your
, heart later, its better to start
monitorthehealthrightnow.
.
38.
, Later I have been asking about
the causes, but she has never
. givenheranswersmyquestions.
39. ,
I tell him to call on your shop
. later.
40. ,,! Dontstop,comeon,comeon!
41. ,! Weneedyou,comeon!
42. ,, My darling (dear), come on, the
. taxiiswaiting.
43. ! - Lets go to a cin
? ema! What is on
? there? Is there (on)
somethinginteresting?

1. . Justintime(ontime).
2. . During the storm (In time of the
storm).
3. InFebruaryIllgotovacation.
.
4. OnSaturdaypartyisexpected.
.

262

5. 7 At7o'clockonSaturdaypartywill
. takeplace.
6. . Itiswarmatthehouse.
7. If you look at his face you'll sur
,. prise.
8. In urgent cases behave yourself
appropriate.
.
9. it is really good in sensible limits,
. indeed.
10. Onthewestsideoftheislandsun
. goesdownintothewater.
11. , Getinside,youareflashing!
!
12. . Getthecheckintothebook.
13. PuttheletterintoGlamourmaga
Glamour. zine.
14. , In fact (in principle) there is no
. anydifference.
15. In this case speed is the main
. thing.
16. In a variety of cases a rise of the
. trendisbeing.
17. Hedecidedtohirethemoney.
.
18. , , Heinhisturnjumpedinthecircle
. too.
19. , Probably he will want to install
intomanufacturing.
.
20. The plain on the high speed flew

263

. intothehangar.
21. I flew up into him full steam
(). ahead.
22. I was looking at the horizon so
. long.
23. . I'mgoingtothemountain.
24. One can obtain citizenship In Ar
. gentina.
25. Inlongmeasureis20cm.
20.

1. Canyoureachtheshelf?Icannot
?! doit!
2. Can you delay it till 5.30? I am
5.30?!!! comingalready!!!
3. 5 Ireaduptothefifthchapterand
.! giveup.Soboring!
4. ! Youisthemoonforme!
5. , IamgoingtoaSydney,walkthere
around for a couple of days, and
. thentoBrisbane.
6. ? Whereyougoing?ToSamara.
.
7. Andwehad(have)beensinginga
, song till sunrise, ant then we are
talkingwithacupoftea.
.
8. I was managed to sneak though
. beforehim(it)togetinline.

264

9. I dont care about your snots,
,! stopwhining!
10. ItneedstobepatienttillMonday,
,! andthenwillbeavacation!
Yes,Iamwaiting(havebeenwait
11. ,..
ing).Waitingtillnow.
12. , He would be here as long as I
. want.
13. , , No, It isnt my bike, I lend it till
. Wednesday. Until I dont earn on
. myownone.
14. , Gotothedoor,andthengoback.
.? Whatstheproblem?
15. . Barelymadetilltheend.
16. 5.30 Ill be late until 5.30 too much
. work!
17. Ill be working hard as long as it
,. willbeneeded.
18. It (he) has reached up to 9.8
9,8! markitsunbelievable!
19. Visavalidupto15.04.2017!
15.04.2017!
20. He will come there before you
. andgetinline.
21. . Heannoyedustodeath.
22. . Hesbeendrunkto(into)oblivion.
23. . AndIheardrumorstoo.
24. . WellseeonMonday.
25. 5, I will be with him till 5, and then
. babysittercomes.

265

:

1. ! Iwanttoyou!

2. Come to him he has a bigger


! house!
3.
GotoTescoIllcallyouthere.
.
4. . Icometoyouwithagreeting.

5. Icometothedooropenitup,
,. theringdontwork.

6. At the end of the year I have to


learn accounting or it would be
. anend.

7. Wehavecometotheendofour
,? journey,haveyoutired?

I have come to the end of my


8.
explanation, do you have any
,?
questions?

9. I have many questions by the


. timeofyourcoming.

10. ShehasmanyquestionstoOleg.
,,? Dontyouknowwhereheis?
11.
We are approaching already to
10 10,
10of10markanditisgreat!
!
12. , Knock (ring) on his door, not
! minedoorhisdoor!

266

13. Fly to me at my Birthday I will
! besoglad!
14.
We bought great cacao beans
and new shapes to the Day of
thechocolateindustryworker!
!
15. Everything has to be prepared
! forthedayofhiscoming.

16. , I will do it till Monday, probably


. notearlier.

17. ? Do they come to you? They are


, , asking for Anya, maybe they
? havemistakenyouforAlya?
18.
Ihavebeensleepingbythemid
,
dle of movie, and I slept fine by

theend!
!
19. It is need to take learning seri
. ously.
20.
Iwillgotoheratthenextweek.
.

1. Thecathashidedundertheso
!! fa!Lookthere!

2. 5000 I put 5000 rubles under the


.. bookdontloseit.

3. , I live beneath you, and I would

267

liketoaskyounottostompaf
11! ter11P.M.!

4. ! Look under the table! Not on


,! thetable,underit!

5. , Iliketosleepundertheblanket;
, Icantfallasleep,coveringwith
! rugorjacket!

6. ! ! Ofcourse!Neartheevening!As
! always!

They are crying beneath the


7. .
windowagain.

8. , He has finished only near the


,! morning,exhaustedbutglad.

9. , Maybe I should put on the


? sweater under the jacket? It
. maybecoldatnight.

10. , , Look below, under the books,


,. secondshelf,notthird.

11. , Yesyes, just under the pre


. sentsonthefloor.

12. Howbeautifultosithereunder
! thestars!

13. , He is under arrest; he is not al


. lowedtogoout.
14.
She is making progress under
. the supervision of the new

268

teacher.

15. Investigation continues under


the control of the Prosecutor
. General.

16. 95% 95% of a village schools in this


areaareworkingunderthepat
. ronageoflocalmafia.

17. He is cooling in the technical


. roomunderthehouse.

18. He is locked himself there and


. talkwithnoone.

19. He is calm even under such a


. colossalpressure.
20.
Thoselistshavetobeunderthe

pressuremorethan24hours.
.
21. . Everybody is under suspicion.
. Everybody.

The cat is under the blanket. It


22. .
has been sleeping there quit
.
oftendonttouchit.

23. Under cover of darkness we


. movedtowardsthecity.

24. There is a good family beneath


,. us,wearethefriends.

25. Below the second paragraph is


,. thepicture,yousee.

269

26. Near the morning I got to the
. town.

27. On the eve of Christmas mira


. cleshappenoften.

28. Near the evening is my most


. favoritetimeofaday.

I live in the vicinity of Saint


29. .
Petersburg.

30. Ineedaparkingplaceformycar
. onourparkingzone.

1. The (a) plane had (have) been


. flying right above the heads of
! tourists.
2. .
Thinkaboutit.Thinkwell!
!
3. I hang the picture above the
? bedwhatdoyouthink?

4. He had been working on this


. melodysolong.
5.
The interests of the rich prevail

overtheinterestsofthepoor.
.
6. The shelf is fixed above my
, head; I have been hitting it all
. thetime.

270

7. Be careful the threat is above
! you!

8. , Holditstraightaboveme,strict
.,. ly.Yes,thisway.

He raised his armover (above)


9. .
hishead.

10. She rents an apartmentover


. (above)abookstore.

11. Most of the races are happen


500 ing on the 500 me
. tersabovesealevel.

12. 10 If you weighover100 kilo


, grams, then you may need to
. startadiet.
13. 60
Igetoversixtyemailsperday.
.
14. She was sitting upon the
. thrown.
15.
Somesnowovertheground.
.
16. 100 Over100 people have already
. complainedabouttheprogram.

17. Sheputonacoatoverherjack
. et.

18. , Therearecloudsoverthecityall
. thetimeifitisSaintPetersburg.

271

1. There is no far just across the


. road(street)

2. !! Isawyou!Throughthewindow!

3. , And now lets over two, then


. over three. The hardest thing it
. isnottoconfuse.

4. Dont give anything across the


. threshold.

5. Shehasgotthroughgreathard
. ships.

6. Hewillbeabletojumpoverthe
, chair, but hardly over the
! fenceIdontbelieve!

7. Letsmeetinacoupleofhours.
?? Areyoufreetoday?

8. I will be a licensed auditor in


. oneyear.
9.
You needed to going after a
,
month,nowfigsisonlyforming,
,
therearenottheripeonesyet.
.
10. ,
I conveyed through her that to
,
dayIamnotcoming,Igotsick.
.
11. ,. No, I didnt open it. We were
. talkingthroughthedoor.

272

12. Ihadbeenexplainingeverything
, through the translator, I cant
. speakChinese.

13. You would have been coming


. halfthetime.
14.
A large part of influence is ex

ertedbyeconomicinstrument.
.
15. 10 There are 10 bridges across the
. Neva.

1. !! Singalong!Thisisfunny!

2. , ! Speak up finally! Tell them eve


, , rything that you thinking about,
howlongcanyoukeepquietand
?! endure?!
3.
Hegotoverkeymilestone;itwill
,
bemucheasier.
.
4. ! Get over here! Here is a lot
! brighter!

5. , I have looked through the fold


ers,allarchiveboxedandallthe
shelves in cabinet no docu
. ments.
6. , ,
Takeoutthefishfromthefreez

er,pleaseletthemtowarmup.
.

273

7.
It needs to repack these boxes

and equipped up every one of

thembythisandthat.
.
8. :
Iwanttoaskagain:arewegoing

outfromthecityat10andcame
10,
totheplaceonlyat16?Solong?
16??
9. , I am looking around for a long
time,lookingthroughallthean
, nouncements on a bus stop,
. lookingintopedestriansfaces.
10.
Hewillcallyouafterthelunch.
.
11. Icameacrosshimonthestreet,
, just on the exit from the under
pass on the Griboedov Embank
. ment.

12. Ialreadyreconciled everyletter,


, so that I can dispense without
. writeout.

13. Ihavefilledouttheblankatthe
. office.NowIamwaitingfortheir
. call.

14. . Hesreallydoneit.

15. , They have been able to figure


out that he wasnt in army and
. nooneknowshiminSlavyanka.
16. 20000 Imakedowith20000rublesper
. month.
17. , I gave up to her, what is it with

274

? thechild?

He gave himself up ahead of


18. .
time.

19. , , Wait a minute, please, dont


! switchoff!
20. , ,
Comeupforasecondplease!
.
21. You must postpone this ques
. tion.

22. ,,, Anna, come up for a second


! please!

23. , I know how difficult it's for you


. toopenuptome.

24. ? MayIwash(flush)itoff?

25. Wecantalkalotofthingsatthe
. lunch.

26. We have gathered together at


. this strange bar. Does anyone
, understand, what exactly is go
? ingon?

27. I bumped into her accidentally


, the day before tomorrow, but
. haventseenherfromthattime.
28.
Helovesshowingoff.
.
29.
Itwasnteasytopersuadehim.
.

275

5.

, , -
. ? , -
, , , ..
,
, -
, . .

( ) -
, ( , )
.
: can, must,
may, might, could, would, should, shall, will.
. (-
, to be ought to, to be able to, to be to ..)
,
.
need (to) dare (to), -
(I need you), (I need to speak).
-
to.

Present Simple Tense. -
. (, to be able to)
: ,
, .
:
Youcandoit/!Can
.
Ishouldgoaway/.Should
.
Imustbethere!/!Must
.
Heisabletofinishitup,hejustdoesntwant/
,.Isableto.

276

Hehadtoopenthedoorotherwisetheywouldbrokeitout/
,
.Hadto.
, -
-ing, -ed; -
dis-, un-, re-, -able, -ful .. , -

, .. he, she, it
-s .
, , ,
, :
She has to leave now, no any other choice /
,.
Doesheought tomarry herindeed? /
?
She was unable to do anything at the moment, she was so
scared! / ,
!
There are no unneeded cells in a human brain /
.
That phone was disabled, have this one, please /
,.
, , , ,
.
( ) , -
, .
, -
, -
, :

Can
(). -
,
-
: can, may could might , ,
.

277

can -
.
. can, -
:
:
,!/Icanflybelievemeor
not!
c,
/Icannotswimsincemybackwasinjured.
,
/Peoplecannotseeultravioletwhereasinsectscan.
,/Shecan
notdrive,shejustwantstogetlearnt.
,,,
, / He can speak English, Spanish
andItalian,butdoesnotknowGerman,sorry.
! ! / I cannot
readyourmind!Tellmewithwords!
(
):
(
)?/CanIwritebythispen?
, , ,
/Shecangoup, but, I am afraid, the stairs wont hold
yourweight.
(
)?/CanIhelpyou?
, - -
, .
, :
,
/ You cannot play football
ontheroofanymore,itwasprohibitedbytheHouse Management
Committee.

278

( ) / You
cannotbehere.

,
/ You can drive with interna
tionallicenseuptoayearintheGreatBritain,afterthatithavetobe
changedtoalocalone.

,
:
? / Who can have done things
likethese?
,
/Shecanhavedonethisfoulthingtohim;itlookslikeherwayof
doing.
, ,
/Itishighlyimportantnowforyoutoknow,
thatIcanhavedonethat.
to be can be -
:
,
/ She cannot be at home, its a working
daytodayandworkinghourshaventfinishedyet.
. 40
/Youcannotbehungry,wehaveeatenjust40minutesago.
,,
2/Hecanbeathisoffice,Isawhimcomingintothe
building.
it cannot be ( ) can -
can it be that ().
:
?! / Can it be that she has told
that?!
?!/CanitbethatIhavelostit?!

279

can ,
-
. -
,
, can to be able to.

To be able to ,
can
can, ,
to be able to
, -
, , .
:
, ,
,.
/ I can study home by myself and having pre
paredcomefortheexanimatingwithoutattendinglectures.Itsunder
theCharteroftheUniversity.
, ,
,.
, / I am
able to study home by myself and having prepared come for the ex
aminatingwithoutattendinglectures.Ihaveenoughselforganization
andlearningskillstofulfillthateasily.
:
.
,/Icannotcookinthekitchen.Thereisnoany
domesticappliance,thatonesarefakes.
, .
,
, / I am
not able to cook in the kitchen, everything is really uncomfortable.
Thisplanningisnotforanormalhumanbeing,itsfortheweirdcrea
ture,beingabletoadjustthelengthofoneslimbsandheightaswell.

280


to be able to. .
? / Are you
abletospeakforeignlanguages?
!/IamabletodothisandI
will!
? / Are you able to meet
deadlines?
( )
., / I was
notabletoclimb thissofa till3.Ihadbeen trying todoit againand
again,butfailed.
8 . ,
, 8 / She was not
abletoreadtill8.Everyonehadbeenthoughtthatshehadamental
disorder,buthavingturned8everythingbecamegood.
/Hewill
beabletobreatherightafterthiscourse.
Hewillbeabletodothisifhetrainsalot/
(),.
/Everyonewas
abletoescapefromaburningbuilding.
,
! / I was able to get the highest score, still dont under
standhow!

May
may ,
, - , -
. , can may
(can) (may).
:
?/?/MayIcomein?

281

? ( ?) / May I help
you?
?(?)/MayIaska
question?
!
/Imay!Momallowedmetotakeonebar.
HemaydriveaboveaspeedlimitasheisworkingaFireEngine
Driver / ( )
,.
can may be
, .. -
:
, , , / Ask Anna, she
maybeknowstheanswer.
, , ,
/Youmaythinkthatheistooold,butdontjumpto
conclusions.
, , / He may
gotherenextweek.
may
Perfect, :
.
/ I cannot find my keys anywhere. You
mayhaveleftthemattheparentshouse,callthem.
, ? (
),/Iwonder,why
he hasnt come? He may have been late for a train, lets wait a bit
longer.
,,
.,/Imsurprised
shedidntanswerthecall;shehaswantedtotalktoyou.Shejustmay
havenotheardit.
, may
, -

282

may as well. :
, ,
:
.
/ We may as well go to the party. We have nothing
elsetodoanyway.
? /
Shallwedinnernow?Wemayaswell.
, , ,
/ You may as well finish your project
finally,itsagoodideafortherainseason.
, may -
. ,
, to be allowed to to be
permitted to.

To be allowed to ,
may
-
, -
to be allowed to ,
, :
( ) ,
,/Iwasallowed
togoforthepartyonlywhenIpromisedtobebackhomebeforethe
midnight.
,
/ She will be allowed to enter the country
whensheproofshersecurityclearance.
( )
/ They are
allowedtoentertheinternationalcontractonlyasanexceptionto
therule.

283

To be permitted to ,
may
, -
. -

:
()
/ The workers are not permitted to work under another
contract.

, / The
second point to discuss is whether an access should be permitted to
thesealeddocuments.

/Inseveralwesterncountriesdisabledpeo
plewerepermittedtoworkinanyarea.
,
. -.

Could
could, ,
can , -
, -
, , -
.
, , could -
:
:
,,,
/Icouldstaywithparentsatmyhome,but
Ithinkitsbettertorentaroominahotel.
,,/Icouldsaythat
Idontwant,butkeptsilence.

284

, .
/Iamsure,thattherecouldbeonemoreriseinthe
prices.Thefiguresproofthesame.
, , .
/Yes,hecouldbethere,whynot.Youreal
lycouldsawhimthere.
:
, ? /
Couldyoupleasegivemeaconsultation?
, ? /
Couldyouholdthedoorforme,please?
?/Couldyoure
peatthatonceagain?

?/CouldIuseyourvideoformywebsitecontent?

To be managed to ,
could
could to be man-
aged to (), ():
, ,
, ! / Despite the heavy rain, everyone was
managedtocomeontime,whichisreallygreat!
, ! / I
feelyouwillbemanagedtobeenrolledtotheUniversity.
,
/Manypeople
were asking me then how and by what means I had managed to re
turnhomesafely.
? ,
/Anysuccess?Yes,weremanag
ingtoimplementtheprograminadailycompanyworking.

285

Might
might ( , -
may , )
:
,
/ She hasnt really prepared for the exam,
shemightpassit.
,
/Theweatherforecastisnotvery
goodtodayyetitmightrainthisafternoon.
,
/Hemighthavehadachanceof
sayinganythingaftershescomeintothemeetingroom.
Might (be)
-, -
/:
!/
Theweathermightbegoodtomorrow,lookatthesky!
, () / He
mightbeathome,tryofficeaswell.
The country might be moving towards tourism /
().
( may), might -
might as well ()

, ( ) / We will have to wait
thenexttrainfor2hours,sowemightaswellwalk.
,,?
/Youmightaswellwatchit,whynot?
, ,/You
mightaswellenjoythetrip.
might .

286

. -
to be unlikely to.

To be unlikely to ,
might
To be unlikely to , -
. ,
, .
:
Thisisunlikelytomettheirdemands/
.
Theeconomyisunlikelytorecoverquicklyafterthelongreces
sion/
.
ItishighlyunlikelythatshewillgetintoUniversitywiththetest
scoresshehas/,
,.
The new regulations will unlikely result in many people losing
theirjobs/
.

. .
, -
-
, , : must,
should,shallhaveto,oughtto,tobeto.
.

Must
Must -
. must ,
to:
, / I must finish the
paper,ithasbeenbeingwaited.

287

/Shemusttellyouallabout
that.
!/Youmustleave
thehouseatonce!

/ The government really must do something with unem
ployment.
: must -
.
, , -
- -
must not:
, / You
mustnttellanyonewhatIsaid.

/Youmustnotspeaktoaprisonerinaforeignlanguage.
/ You mustnt
leavearubbishbehind.
, , must -
:
? / Why must I clean all
roomsinthehouse?
,?/Whomust
tellyoutobelieve?
?
/WhymustIdoeverythingfortheotherteammembers?
Must be . ,
:
,,
/Heknowsaboutmoviesalot,hemustbegotoacinemafre
quently.
, , ,
/Youhavebeendrivingalldaylong,youmustbeex
hausted.

288

/Shemust
be somewhere in the office, her coat is here.
/ItmustbehotinFloridanow.

Have (Got) to ,
must
Have (has) / got to (Gotta) -
, , . have to. ,
gotta, ,
: have got
, ,
get . Gotta , -
.
:
You gotta be a good cardriver /
.
Youhavegotagoodcardriver/(,)
.
:
Igotta(hadto)getavisawhenIwenttoAustraliathisspring/
,.
I have got a visa to go to Australia / ,
.
:
Annseyesarenotverygood,shegotta(hasto)wearglassesfor
thereading/,
.
Annseyesarenotverygood,shehaswornglassesfortheread
ing/,.
- gotta
,
-
. (
) ( )

289

gotta: -
.
:
Ivegottobequick.
She'sgottobetaller.
Gottabewiser.
Gottabehappy.
Have to ( , must)
:
Do you have to make that noise when you eat? /
,?
Did he have to slam the door? /
?
Doesshe havetocookthat much?/
?

Should
should -
:
You should book the tickets in advance /
.
She shouldnt work that hard /
.
Youshouldlearningyourhomework,nottalkingwithhim/
,.
be should :
Thatmotorcyclistshouldbewearingahelmet/
.
Those children shouldnt be playing here /
.
You should be helping your mother /
.

290

Ought to ,
should
Ought to should ():
Its a really good film, you ought to watch it! /
,!
Heoughtnottodrive,heistootired/
.
You ought not to accept the money. Thats wrong /
,.
You ought to have spoken about that /
.
Itwasagreatparty,yououghttohavecome/
,.
She ought to have written in advanced /
.

Shall
Shall ,
() . shall
, , :
That is the last straw! You shall never see me again! /
!,!
Ishallmakeyouhappy/.
The Vendor shall maintain the equipment in a good repair /

.
shall
, :
ShallIlockthedoor?/,?
Shallwegotothecinemathisevening?/,
?

291

ShallIprovideyouwithallinformationaboutthepoint?/
,?

To be to , shall
, ,
:
The CEO is to make a statement about the point tomorrow
morning/
.
Thegoodsaretobepackedinastrongcases/
.
Heisgostraighttotheroom!/
!
You are to say nothing of this to anyone /
.
if we are to remain friendship you must not to tell the truth /
,
.
WhatamItodo?/?

Would
Would
. , -
:
Hewasgoingawayandwouldntsaywherehewasheadingto,
ifIdidntask/,,,
.
Wouldyouliketohaveasandwich?/?
IfIknewherphonenumber,Iwouldcallher/
,.
Insummer,ifthe weatherwasfine, wewouldgoforaswim/
,,.

292

IfIhadgonetotheparty,Iwouldbetirednow/
,.
I wish it would stop raining / ,
.
Themusicnextdooristooloud.Iwishtheywouldturnitdown
/.,
.
Shewishesshewouldknowadirectorofthecompany/
.
,
, , ..:
Thecarsdoorswouldntopen,thelockwouldntworkaswell/
,.
, , would
(subjunctive moods). .

Will
will -
,
, , :
ThebaglooksheavysoIwillhelpyou!/
!
You are shutting me down but I will tell you, that its unfair! /
,
!
She always begins to act strangely after coming back from the
lake.Shewillnotspeak,shewillnotsleep,shewillnoteatfor34days
/,
.,,
34.
will
if.

293

:
Youmaydreamifyouwill,butitisnotgoingtohappen.Never.
/,,.
.
Hereismyinsurancepolicy,ifyouwill/
,.
Youmaylaughifyouwill,butIwassureIshouldseeherhere/
,,,
.
will -
:
Willyoutwokeepquiet?/,,?
In emergency the crew will assemble on the desk /
.

To be meant to
-
, , , .
:
You weremeantto keep thechildrenout oftrouble /
.
So,atbest,theimageismeanttofloatawayintoabstraction/
,,.
Partiesaremeanttobefun.
.
This guide is meant to give you our policies for integrating Ad
Senseforgames/,
AdSense.

WedecidedtousetheMechanicalTurkforexactlywhatitwas
meantfor,whichismakingmoney/

294

,
.
Iamnotmeanttobeafather!/!(
)
It wasmeantto be anapologybut it only made herangry /
,,
.
I can't say any more, it's meant to be a big secret /
,,.
I'mmeanttobeonholiday/,.
-
, , . -
-
:
Ohwell it wasjustnotmeantto be / ,
.
ItwasnotmeanttobethatIwouldwinsomemoneyinthelot
tery/.

To be supposed to

, .
:
He is supposed to have been rude to Mary but I dont believe
that/,,.
Thisissupposedtobethebestrestaurantinthetown/
.
Youweresupposedtophoneme/,
.
:
You are not supposed to smoke in here/
(,).

295

Iamnotsupposedtotellyou/(
,).
WerenotsupposedtousetheInternetforpersonalreasonsat
work/
(
).

Need (to)
, need, -
,
:
,
, ( ), -
need need (to).
,
,
.
-
,
, .
, , -
:
, need
.
, need to .
:
Ineedanewbag!/!need
,.
I needed to buy a new bag /
neededto,.
Sheneedyourhelp/(
)need,().
She needs your help / needs
,().

296

Itneedtobedone/needtobedone
,().
Itneededtobedone/needto
,.
We neednt stay up late /
neednt,
Wedidntneedtostayuplate/
didnt need to ,
.
Youneedntbuythisdog/
neednt,.
Youdidntneedtobuythisdog/
didntneed,.
Ididntneedtobetoldtwice/
.
IhopeIneedntbetoldtwice/,
.

Dare (to)
dare need.
, -
() - ( -
), dare
dare (to). , need, dare
-
, dare (to)
, -
(do, does, did):
:
Howdoyoudareaskmeaboutthat?/
?,
Dare they ask her about that? /
?,.

297

Howdareyougooutafter10p.m.despiteourtalk?!/
10,
?!,().
Howdidyoudaretogooutafter10p.m.despiteourtalk?/
10,
?!,.
Dare,
I dare you, -
, ,
,
, :
Idareyoutosaythisstandinginfrontofthem/
,.
Idareyoutofinishtheessayfirst/
.
Tom dared him to stop smoking / ,
.
I dare you wont be managed to come back home on time /
,.

298


There is (There are)
There is (There are) , -
, () (-
) .
() -
, There is -
, There are .
:
ThereisanamazinghistoricalcenterareainSaintPetersburg/

TherearefabuloustulipsinHolland/

Thereare6millionpeopleinLondon/6

Therearetheunderpantsonourkitchentable,cleanit!Now!/
,!!
Thereisaspider!!!Justaroundthecorner!Whatshallwedo?!/
!!?!
Thereisnoanygoodcafeinthecity/

There are three levels of society in Portugal /

There is my fault for breaking the cup / ,

Thereisanonnegotiablefact,whichmustbetakenasgranted:
our modern people are not able to produce a volitional act / ()
,
:
Therearealotofdifferentthings,happeningintheworld/
,.

299

: - () -
, , . -
. There is (there are) .
! ! , -
, ,
, There is/are
That it/This is It is. -
.

That is This is
.
This is . That is -
, - -

. -
- ,
. ,
( , ) ,
.
.
:
Thisisatable/.
Thatisdifficulttodo/().
Thisisme,whocalledyoulastnight/
.
Thatisme,whoamontheleftonthephoto/(),
.
This is, That is?
: This is , -
, That is , . , -
: ,
-
That is; ,
This is.
- , Thats!
()!

300

:
Thatsthedeal!/!
Thatsthequestion!/()!
Thatstheway!/!
ThatswhatIlike!/!

It is
. It is
.
,
, this is that is, -
( ), .
:
I'veboughtanewdressinthenewshopwesawyesterday;it's
cool!/,
.!(!)
I'veboughtanewdressinthenewshopwesawyesterday;This
is cool! / ,
.!()
:
Itisadeal/Thisisadeal/
Itisnotmyfault/Thisisnotmyfault/

It is hot in the room / This is hot for me /

Itisahardquestion/Thisisahardquestion/
.
Itisstrange/
, it is
. ?
, hot
.

301

.

it is.

,
: -
. -
,
.
,
.

To be going to
To be going to ( gonna) / ,
- , -
. , -
. -
, -
, ,
,
.
Gonna to be
going to. -
.
:
.
, / I am going to fly to
Germanyforthesummerholidays.IfImnotbeingmovedtoMoscow
Illgo,takesomefun.
,
/ I
amgoingtofinisheverythingupbytheWednesdaytogofortherest
oftheweektoBulgariaIwanttoridethesnowboard.
,,
,/Iamgoingto

302

be a dancer or a tattoo master or a football player being honest I
haventdefinitelydecided.
:tobe
planningtotobehopingto..,to
begoingto.
Im planning to enter the SaintPetersburg State University, if
not Ill try an Italian College / ;
,.
Imhopingtomovetothenewapartmentinthenextmonth/
,.
, to be going to -
Present Continuous
. ,
go: to be going to go / to be going to / .
-
:
Iamgoingtoswimintheevening/
.Goingto.
Iwillswimthisevening,Allthebodyhurts/
. .
,Future.
She is reading the lecture next month /
.
Continues.

To be about to

. , -
, .
to be about to: ,
, , -.
:
Theboysareabout tofight/ ,
.

303

Iamabouttogetannoyedwiththisdullmusic/
.
AreyoureallywanttogotoCambodiawithher?Not,ofcourse!
/ ? ,
.
Iamgoingtotakerevenge.WhenwebeabouttoflyIwillbreak
up with her / .
,.
IfIamabouttogiveupholdmetightandremindthismoment
please / ,
,.
Tomcarryingahugeboxwasabouttofellintoahole,butSusan
preventedhimpointingattheroadworks/,
, , ,
.
, will to be about to
.
. , to be about to
, :
I was about to sign the paper! Still don't know what stopped
and in fact saved me / !
,,,.
Iwasabouttocallyou,butyoucameintotheroom/
,.
Was she about to accept his invitation? /
,?
I think they werent about to quarrel, when I came in /
,,.
WhenIheardhisstoryIwasabouttolaugh/
,.
Hewassoangrythatwasabouttoshoutatme/,
.
Thepoorchildisabouttocry,givehistoybacktohim/
,.

304

to be about to ,
:
Tobegoingto():
Iamgoingtopayforyourdinnertoday/(
)().
Iamabouttopayforyourdinner,dontopenyourvallet/
,(
,,).
Thebusisabouttoleave/ (
:,
..)
Thebusisgoingtoleaveat5/
5(,).
To make up my mind (, ,
):
Ican'tmakeupmymindwhethertohavethesalmonorthe
chicken/,.
We have made up our minds to get married /
(,,
).
,
:
Yesterday Imade up my mindto visit a dentist.I was goingto
have my tooth extracted. When I approached the surgery andwas
abouttoopenthedoorIheardayellandatthatmomentmyheartwas
inmymouth.Iwasabouttoturnbackbutmytoothachewassoterrible
thatIhadnochoicebutgothere.
() .
.
, ,
.,
,
,.

305

,
, ,

Past, . :

Used to

Used to / (). , -
, -,
, . , -
before /
but not now / ..
.
:
Thereused to bea cinema before the war /
().
Iusedtodrinkatleast5cupsofgreenteaperday,nowIhave
bloodpressureproblems/5
,
.
People used to think that the Sun travels around the Earth /
() ,
.
IusedtothinkthatIamabletodoanything/,
.

To be used to

To be used to / ( ). -
. ,
: to be used to
to be
, .
used to
.

306

, to be used to (-
to) . To -
, :
Iamusedtohavingacupofstrongblackcoffeeeverymorning
towakeup/()
,.
Iwasusedtohavingacupofstronggreenteaevery23hours
duringthedaybeforeproblemswithmybloodpressureaccrued/
23
,
.
Heisusedtoworkinginatotalsilence,anynoisedisturbshim/
,.
They are used to speaking aloud /
.
Shesusedtothat/.
They will be used to this language /
.

Get used to

Get used to / , , . -
get used to -
, , -
.
Get used to . , -
, -
<>. ,
, just, finally, soon .. (-
Perfect), get used to to be used to.
Igotusedtothisschoolalready,butitwasreallyhardtochange
abiginternationalonetoasmallvillageone/
,
.
Shegetusedtosmokesmell,dontworry/
,.

307

, to be used to, -
to get used to
.
They get used to getting up at 7, but it was insanely early for
thematthebeginning/7,
.
He get used to clean the plates after himself, yet it was a real
challenge for him / ,
.

To be getting used to

Tobegettingusedto/.
, -
, :
I am getting used to living with my wife /
.
IfeelIwillbegettingusedtothatforalongtime/,
.
Youhavetogettingusedtothiswayofliving/
.
Wearegettingusedtoliveinanothercountrydaybyday/
.
Iamgettingusedtoclassicalmusic/
.


-
. ,
.

.

?, -
.

308

,
.
, .
, .
Perfect
.
.
, Per-
fect Continuous, Continuous.
,:
,<>
/ The polecat was sitting in the bushes, having leant out
thehead..Perfect.
, (
)/Leaningoutthehead,thepolecatwas
sitting in the bushes.
.Continuous.
,
(Perfect)<he,she,it>
have has <hasing>
:
, /She was sit
tingonasofa,havingcurledupthelegs.
, /The parrot was
lookingatme,havingtilteditsheadtooneside.
, .
-
:

, / The plaintiff
was inclined by the defendant to committing wrongdoings, having
beenmadebyhereinacrime.

309

,
/Therequestwashoveringforalongtime,havingbeenviewinginthe
bowelsoftheregistryoffice.
, /
Therulewasworkingreliably,havingbeenappliedasintended.

,
.
,
, -
Continuous.
, Perfect Continuous
Continuous , , -
.
:
/
Leaning the head out polecat looks really funny.
, , Con
tinuous.
, ,
<> ,
/Apolecat,hasleantoutthehead,canbeno
ticedbyapredator.(
),Perfect.
Finishing the speech boy is my friends son /
(,,
Continuous).
StudentswhohavegraduatedfromtheUniversitybefore25get
highersalaries/,25,
(? Per
fect).
This was a room full of people who have been thinking about
this for a long time, and they have said no / ,

310

,,
.
To be fair, lots of people who have been thinking about be-
coming stewards have asked themselves: why? / -
, , ,
, , .
People who have been drinking more than 5 liters per day are
healthier than others / , 5
,.
Peoplegoingoutthedoorarefromthe6thfloor/,
, 6 ( Continu
ous).
People have gone out the door are from the 6th floor / ,
,6(?Perfect).
People who have been going out the door for last 15 minutes
are from the 6th floor / , 15
,6(Perfect).


,
. .
been -
.

/Thebagel,havebeendippedinajam,wassendbyFe
dordirectlytothemouth.

/ The issue, have been raised on a meeting, caused everyones
confusion.
/ A question, has
beenbeingasked,isbetterthananunaskedone.
/Theluggage,
havebeenbeingleftbyyou,isreallyvaluableforus.
Having been encouraged to expect a final decision in March
people must wait now for an information /

311


.
Thecreature,havingbeenbeingobservedbythescientists,was
discovered in the north part of Madagascar / ,
,.
,
, .

:
Havingbeenheard/.
Having been seen by them, I decided to say Hello /
,.
, ,
/Havingbeenin
troduced them just a couple of days ago I hesitate to rise any peti
tions.

been

, -
: been , -
. , .
Been ,
have (has, had). -
:
been, -
have/has Perfect Continuous:
1. I have (had) been learning Yiddish for 4 years / ()
4.
beenPerfectContinuous
.
2. I have been hacked by an anonymous programmer / ()
.
Been
Perfect.
3. IhavebeeninLondon/.

312

been ,
.
? , ,
.
Been ,
:
:
Finally I have been finishing up with a car been produced in
Cambodiatheworstone!Neverbuythat!/
, , !
!

GET
get Perfect, -
, , , have,
. .
:
1. Get + ing
:
GetsittinginthisarmchairIusedtothinkaboutmygradfather/
,.
Get relaxing, he liked to have a beer or two / ,
,.
Masha always smiles, get running into a cafe /
,.
2. Getting+ :
Only getting play piano, she remembered everything /
,.
Gettingsmileyoumakeyourdaybetter/,
.
Getting wise I have pushed changes into my lifestyle /
(),.
3. Got+ed(V3)
:

313

Thisplace,gotclosedbythestatebodies,wasmyonlythingto
livefor/,.,
,.
Gotopenedcanshouldbeinawarmplace,putitintothefrige/

.
Gotbrokenheartnoteasytoglue/
.

4. Getting + ed (V3)
:
Getting helped sometimes you help to the helper /
,.
Getting fired not to show the others your emotions /
(),
.
Gettingforgottenkeepyourmindcooleddontbevindictive/
(),
.
, -
-
, .
. -
.

314

5.1

,
:
1:
1. 5.
2. ,
!
3. !?
4. ,,
,
.
5. !
6. 11
.
7. .
8. ,
.
9. ,
?
10. ,
.
11. ,.
12. !
13. .
14. .
15. ,
.
16. ,
.
17. ,
.
18. ,?

315

19. ,?
20. .
21. ,.
22. !
23. ,,20.
24. 100.
25. ,
.
26. 4,
:,
.
27. .
28. 10.
29. ,10.
30. 10.
31. ..
32.
.
33. , ?
!
34. ,
!
35. ,!?!
36. .
37. ,.
38. ?!
39. ,
.
40.
.
41. ,
?!
2:
1. .
2.
3. ,?

316

4. ?
5. ,,,!
,
!
6. , .
,.
7. ,,.,
.
8. ?
9. ?
10.
.
11. .
,.
12. ,?,
.
13. ,,
.,.
14. ?.
15. ,
.
!
16. , ,
.
17.
, .
..
18.
.
19. !,!
20. , , ,
.
21. !
22. !
23. ,,,.
24. ,...

317

25.
,
.
26. ?

??
27.
,?
28.
.
29. ,,,
,?
30. ?!
31. ?!
32. ,,.
33. .
?
34. ,
.!
35. ?
36. ,.
37.
.
38. ,
.!
39. ?,!
40. .,
.
41. !
42. !
43. ??
.?
44.
.
45. ,.
46. ?

318

47. ?!
48. !Apple!
49. ,?!

, ,
, :
1.
().
2. .
3. ..
4. .
5. !!
6. .
7. !
8. !,
!
9. ,
.
10. !
11. .
12. .
13. !
14. ,
.
15. !
16. ,.
17. ,!
18. !
19. !
20. !
21. ,!
22. !
23. ,.
24. ,.
25. .,.

319

26. .
27. ,
.
28. ,10
.
29. ,
.
30. ..!
?!
31. .!
32. , ,
!
.
33. ,,.
34. .
.
35. , .
.
36. ,.
37. ?
38. ?
39. ,.
40. ,.
41. , .
,..
42. ,
.
43. ,.
44. . ?
!
45. ,!
46. ..
47. .
48. ?
49. ,,.
50. ,.

320


-:
1. .,!
2. .
3. ,,.
4. .
5. , ,
.
6. ,!
7. ,?
8. ,,,
,.
9. ,,,
!
10. , ,
!?!
11. ,.
12. ,.
13. .
14. ,.
15. .
16. ,,,.
17. , , ,
,.
18. , , ,
.
19.
.
20. , ,
,,
!
21. , , ,
.
22. !
!

321

23. , ,
.
24. !
25. .
26. .
27. , , , ,
.
28. ,,,.
29. ,,.
30.
,,.

Will, Shall , To be to, Dare:


1. ?
?
2. , ,
..
3. ,?
4. ,,?
5. ,.
6. ?
7. ,.!
8. ,
.
9. ,?.
10. ..
11. ,,.
12. ,
.
13. .
14. ,.
15. ,9,.
16. ,.
17. :,.
18. ,.

322

19. .
.
20. .
21. ,.
22.
.
23. .
24. ,!
25. ?
26.
.
27. .
28. .
29. :
?
30. ,,.
31. ,.
32. .
33. ,.
34. .
35. .
36. ,
.
37. .
38. !!
39. ?!
40. ?


To be about to:
1. .
2. ,
.
3. ,
.

323

4.
.
5. ,
,.
6. ,.
7. ?
8. ,
.
9. !,
!
10. ,
.
11. ,
;,
,
,.
12.
,

.
13.
,
,
.
14. , ,

.
15. ,,
.
16. .
17. ,
.
18. , ,

,
.

324

to be
meant to:
1. ,
tobemeantto.
2. , ,
!
3. ,,,
.
4. ?
?
5. ,
!
6. ,,
3,!
7. ? ! ? ?
?
8. ,
,.
9.
.
10.
.
11. . .
,
.
12. ,.
13. .
.
14. .
15. ,
.
16. ,,
.
17. ,
.

325

18. ,
. ,
5.
19. , ,
!
20. !
.


to be supposed to:
1. ,
.,

.
2. ,.
3. ,,8.
4. , ,
.
5. ,
.
6. .
7. 8,.
8. , , ,
.
9. !
!!!
10. ,.11
,,
.
11. ,
!
12. ,.
!
13. .,
.

326

14. , ,
.
15. , , ,
.
16. !?
17. ,
.
18. , , .
.?
19. , ,
,
.
20. .

There is / There are:


1. C10.
2. .
3. !!
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. .
8. .
9. .
10. .
11. .
12.
.
13. 6.
14. .
15. !
16. .
17. ,.
18. ,.
19. .

327

20. .?
21. .

This is / That is:


1. !
2. ,,,.
3. ,
.
4. !
5. .
6. .
7. ,.
8. ,!.
9. ,..
10. ,
?.
11. ,,.
12. !
13. .
14. ,..
15. !
16. !
17. ,..
18. ,.
19. ,,
...
20. . . , .
,.?

It is
1. !
2. ,.
3. ,.
4. ,.

328

5. ,.
6. ,.
7. !
8. .
9. !
10. !
11. .,.
12. ,,.
13. !:,,!
14.
15. .
16. ,.
17. ,,.
18. ...
19. ,
,.
20. !.


:
1. ?
2. ?
3. ,.
4. ,

,.
5. 6,
20.
6. ? ,
,,
.
7. ,,.
8. .
9. ,,
.

329

10. .
,.
11. ,
!
12. ,,,.
13. ,
!
14. 5.:,
.
15. !
16. ,
.
17. ?
18. ?
19. 21.50?
20. ?
21. 8?
22. ?
23. .
24.
,.
25. .
26. ,!
27. ?
28. ,?
29. ,?
30.
,?
31. ,?
32. ?
33. ,,
,,,
, .
!!!
34. ,?
,!

330

35. !
36. ,.
37. 5.
38. ,,.
39. ,.
?
40. , . , ,
,.


:
1:
1. ,
,.
2. ,,
.
3. ,
.
4. ,,
.
5. ,
.
6. ,
.
7. ,
.
8. ,.
9. 10?.,.
10. , ,
,.
11. ,,,
,.
12. ,.
13. ,.
14. ,,.

331

15. ,.
16. ,
.
17. ,
.
18. ,
.
19. ,.
20. , ,
.
21. ,,
.
22. ,,,
.
23. ,,
,
.
24. ,.
25. , ,
.
26. ,.
27. ,,.
28. ,.
29. ,
.
30. ,,
.
31. ,.
32. ,.
33. ,,
.
34. ,
,.
35. ,.
36. ,.

332

37. ,
.
38. ,,
.
39. , ,
.
40. ,,,
.
2:
1. ,,
.
2. ,,.
3.
,.
4. ,.
5. 2009 , ,
,.
6.
, ,
.
7. ,.
8. ,
,
,.
9. ,,
: ,
,
.
10. :

,,,
.
11. ,
12. ,,.
13. ,.

333

14. ,
.
15. , , ,
.
16. ,
.
17. ,.
18. ,,,
.
19. ,
,
,.
20. ,
.
21. ,.
22. ,.
.
23. ,
,
.
24. ,1.
25. ,.
26. ,
,.
27. ,,.
28.
.
29. .
30. .
31. ,
.
32. .
33. , , ,
.
34. ,,.
35. .

334

36. , 10 ,
.
37. ,,.
38. ,,
.
39. ,,.
40. ,,.


:
1. , .
,!
2. ,
. , ,
,,,.
3.
.
4. ,,.
5. .
6. ,,,.
7. ,,.
8. .
9. ,.
10. ,.
11.
,.
12.
!
13. !
14. ,
.
15. ,
.

335

5.2

, , ,
:
1:
1. 5 Thisthingcan(isableto)flyup
. for5seconds.
2.
Thistripcouldbemylastbusi

ness one, but everything
,
turnedoutdifferently.
!
3. I could have jump over it! But
!? why?

4. I could have left on the last


, train, but decided to stay till
, the morning like I had known
, aboutthehappinessthatImet
. thatnight.

I couldn't get into there, be


cause vicious dogs were run
5. ningallaround!
! Iwasnotabletogetintothere,
because vicious dogs were
runningallaround!

By11Irinacouldalreadyskiing
6. 11 likeaprofessional.

. By11Irinawasabletoskilikea
professional.

336

7. Youcouldwatchamovieorto
. haveadinneroutside.
8.
I could have jump over the
,
fenceifIwasallowedto.
.
9.
, Could I use your computer to
sendanemailtomyboss?
?
10. ,
When we come to Paris we

couldstaywithmybrother.
.
11. , Michel couldnt be the one,
. whostolethemoney.

I was not able to get out from


there, because I was not al
12. lowedtodothat!
! I couldnt get out from there,
because I was not allowed to
dothat!

It could not have been other


13. .
wise.

14. Zhenya could go to a jail for


. stealingmoney.
15.
IfIhadmorefreetime,Icould
,
have traveled around the

word.
.
16. Even if I had more time I
, couldnt have enough traveled
aroundtheworld.

337

.
EvenifIhadmoretimeIwasnt
able to have enough traveled
aroundtheworld.

17. , Youcouldhaveseenmyhouse
when you were going in the
train,becausethehouseisjust
. onthetopandseenperfectly.
18. ,
Whatcanbedonetohelpyou?
?
19. , What could be done to help
? you?

20. You could spend your vacation


. inHawaii.
21.
This thing cannot cost more
,
thanadollar,
.
22. ! Itsakindofmistake!
23. ,
Yes, he was able to run really
,
fastwhenhewas20.
20.
24. This building could have been
100 builtheremorethan100years
. ago.

WhenIwas20andsomethingI
was not able to run even a
25. mile.
,
. WhenIwas20andsomethingI
couldnthavebeenabletorun
evenamile.
26. My grandfather could speak 4

338

4 , languages indeed as it is being
: told. I am pretty sure that he
, , spoke at least English and
, Spanish.
.
Any child could grow up and
27. becomeapresident.
. Any child is able to grow up
andbecomeapresident.

She can go outside after 10


28. 10 p.m.
. She may go outside after 10
p.m.

Itcannotbethatshehasbeen
29. , walkingoutsideafter10p.m.!
10. Itcannotbethatsheiswalking
outsideafter10p.m.!

Shemaygooutsidejustexactly
30. after10p.m.
10. She could go out side just ex
actlyafter10p.m.

31. . She couldnt have told that. I


. dontbelieveit!
32.
Theycouldgohome,letscalla

homephonenumber.
.
33. Couldyoulendmeyourphone,
, ? please? Just for one day!
! Can you lend me your phone,

339

please?Justforoneday!
34.
Youcoulduseanofficephone,
,
stuffandnonsenses!
!
35. , Canitbethatyouretellingthe
!?! truth!Arentyoukidding?
Icouldnthaveagreedwiththis
36. argument.
. I couldnt agree with this ar
gument.

37. , There could be she, not he at


. thewheel.Think

38. Is he really still working this


?! late?!

39. I could have stopped the stop


, the car at the time before I
. bumpedinatrack.
40.
Thanks to jumping you will be

abletoimproveyourjoint.
.
41. , Isitpossiblethatshereallywas
able to do everything by her
?! self?
2:
1. This book could be written by
. Ivanov.
By these words someone could
2. saythefollowing
Thesewordscouldbesaidbythe
following

340

3. , MayIaskyouisithardtolivein
? aforeigncountry?

4. CanIopenthedoor?
? Canthisdoorbeopened?

5. , You may as well to read a book,


, , to walk, to talk finally! Many in
! teresting things could be done
, when there is no electricity at
! home.
6. ,
They may come tomorrow even
.
ing. They have a tight schedule,
,
buttheywilltry.
.
7. , ,
They might come on the week
.
ends. But dont expect them
,
muchtheyhaveatightschedule.
.
May I come in there during the
8. meeting?
? Can I come in there during the
meeting?

Isitreallypossible?
9. ?
Hasitbeenpossible?

10. A pilot and his crew can go


througharedpassagewithoutan
. inspection.

11. . I cannot find my keys. You could


have left them in the car. Go
,. downthereandcheck.

341

12. , Iwonderwhyhehasntcome?
?
, He could have been late for the
last subway, lets wait longer he
. maycomebyanightbus.

13. , Iamsurprised,thathedidntan
, swerthecall.Hewantedtomeet
. you so much. Probably, he just
,. didnthearit.
14.
- Letshaveadinnerrightnow?
?
- Mayaswell,whynot.
.
15.
You may as well sort out your
,
photos, since you have a lot of

freetimeintherain.Rainseason
.
isagoodtimeinitsway.
!
16.
She will be allowed to enter the
,
country if she proofs a hotel
,
booking.
.
17.
She will be able to go on this
, business trip to the United Arab
. Emirates only if she goes there
. with her husband. This is an ob
ligatorycontractcondition.
.
18. They were allowed to enter the
country as an exception to the
. rule.
19. !
Imay!MyfathersaidthatImight
,
takehiscar!
!

342

20. , ,
He was, finally, allowed to come

homeanytimehewants.
,.
21. He could come on time at least
! today!
22. They could have had a look at
! him!
23. , , Wemayaswelltomeetwithhim
, at least and after we will take a
. decision.
24. , .
Yes, sorry. Icould ross the line a
.
bit.Iamreallysorry.
.
25.
Employees of our company are

not allowed to smoke onsite at

all, especially during working
,
hours.
.
Was I able to let him in the of
fice? Can I take the decisions by
26. myself or I have to ask security
? supervisor? What should I do
nexttime?

? Was I able to let him in the of
fice?MayItakethedecisionsby
? myself or I have to ask security
supervisor? What should I do
nexttime?

WillIbeabletostayattheterri
27.
tory of Costa Rican State as long

asIwillwantto?
,
? MayIstayattheterritoryofCos
ta Rican State as long as I will

343

wantto?

28. She will be allowed to study in


most of the European countries
. forfree.

May I, for example, to pay the


firsthalfofmoneyrightnowand
29. , , thesecondonetomorrow,when
, Iwillcometotakeitaway?
, Can I, for example, to pay the
? firsthalfofmoneyrightnowand
thesecondonetomorrow,when
Iwillcometotakeitaway?

May I? I have never seen any


30. ? thinglikethis!
! CanI?Ihaveneverseenanything
likethis!

31. ? May I have a piece too? It looks


! sodelicious!
32. ,
I cannot eat more; there is now
,
spaceinsideleft.Iamtotallyfull.
.
33. I smell something strange. Have
. yougotanything,whichhasgone
? bad?
34.
You may eat vegetables unlim
,
ited,butexcludefromadieteve

rythingflourandsweet.Totally!
.!
35. ? Whowasabletosolvethistask?

344

36. I wasnt managed to solve this
,. task,therewasnotenoughtime.
37.
So often I hear rumours around

andsorareitisabirdsinging.
.
38. ,
Iamabletohearmymomgrant

ing at my father even from the
. ,
nextroom.
!
39. ? , Could I fell in love? I could, you
! bet!
40.
IcouldntcomeyesterdayIwas
.
really busy. Maybe, I will on the
,
weekend.Iwilltrymybest.
.
41. We will not be able to save the
! situationthatisunreal!

42. He was managed to spin out


even in this situation unbeliev
! able!

Doyouspeakforeignlanguages?
ButhowaboutBuryat?Yourpar
43. ents are buryat. Can you speak
? Buryat?
?
. Are you able to speak foreign
? languages? But how about Bur
yat?Yourparentsareburyat.Do
youspeakBuryat?

44. They were not able to come on


time.Thereareawfultrafficcon
. junctionsalongtheroads.

345

They couldnt come on time.
There are awful traffic conjunc
tionsalongtheroads.

45. , Shewillnotcome;shecannotas
. shehassometroubleatwork.

46. ? Howyoucoulddothis?

47. How could I have not noticed


?! that?Cannotunderstand.

How was I managed to get in


48. ? there?ThatsApple!
Apple! How was I able to get in there?
ThatsApple.

49. , How was I able to fit in there?


?! AmIreallythatthin?!

, ,
, ,
:

An official ought to be dressed


1. well all time (
).
(
). An official should be dressed well
alltime(,).

2. Children should brash the teeth


. afterameal.
3. .
. Shouldbegladdened.Shouldntbe

346

strained.

4. Don'tputyourfingersintoasock
. et.

5. !! Stayaway(keepoff)!Hazard!

Everything ought to be checked


over(,
6. ,).
. Everything is needed to be
checked ( ,
).

7. Thisismustbechecked!
! Thisisoughttobechecked!
8.
This must be this way and no any
!,
another!BecauseIhavesaidthat!
!
Achildismeanttobeneat,havea
9. change of clothes and all neces
, sarydocuments.
A child should be neat, have a
. change of clothes and all neces
sarydocuments.

Everythingissupposedtobedone
10.
on the right time, all in a good
!
time.
11.
Both were unacceptable and

shouldberejected.
.
12. Access and movementneed to
. beimproved.

347

13. ! Yououghttobeashamed!
14.
I feel sick; I shouldnt have eaten
,
thatmushchocolate.
.
15. ! Heneedshelp!
16.
They don't need your congratula
,
tions,theyneedyourmoney!
.

17. , Youhavetoeatinordertosurvive.
! Youmusteatnottodie!
18.
Yougottagimmeatry!
!
19.
Getridofthenastyrats!
!
20. ! GottagoIamlate!

You should be braver, don't be


21. , shy!
! You need to be braver, don't be
shy!
22.
Ineedtoshowyouthat!
!
23.
, Itneedstobehottertowork.
.
24. , Iguessitstimetogohome.Ihave
. setup!

25. We dont need to go there any


., more. We have done anything we
. wanted.

348

26. Youdidntneedtogothereatall!
. Youshouldntgothereatall!
27.
, AsagreedIamtofinishupthisjob
tilltomorrow.
.
28. , According to the contract, I shall
finish up this job before the 10th
10. day.

Everyoneissupposedtopayafare
29. whether there is a controller or
not.
, Everyone should pay a fare
. whether there is a controller or
not.

I should help everyone. Every sin


gle person. But no one helps me!
Why?!
30. . I am obligated to help everyone.
. Every single person. But no one
!?! helpsme!Why?!
Iowetohelpeveryone.Everysin
gle person. But no one helps me!
Why?!

He must help his parents. That is


31. hisduty!
.! Heoughttohelphisparents.That
ishisduty!
32. ,
You need to be smarter, not just

349

, need, but you have to be smarter
than all of them around you! And
! thenyougetachance.
.
You should be smarter, not just
should,butyouhavetobesmarter
than all of them around you! And
thenyougetachance.

33. I am supposed to finish today. I


, , think I'll handle that before the
. lunch.
34.
Ihadtofinishedup/off.Itcouldnt
.
bedelayedfurther.
.
Yes, should take pills every day. It
35. ,
makesmebored.
.
Yes, should take pills every day. It
.
makesmebored.

36. , Hemustbethebesttowin.
. Hehastobethebesttowin.

37. ? Doyouhavetoberude?
38.
Doeshehavetodrivesofast?
?
39.
That was a fantastic party; you
,
shouldhavecome.
.
40. , You should have called before go
. ingthere!
41.
You shouldn't answer him; this is
,.
going to finish badly. Just dont
,
talk to him, dont pick up the
.
phone.Forget.
.

350

This is a really wonderful produc
42. tion.Youshouldwatchit.
,
. This is a really wonderful produc
tion.Itsworthwatching.
43.
Thatisareallywellmadeplay;its
,
worthwatching.
.
44. Youshouldhaveorderedthetable
.? in advance. What have you been
waitingfor?Thisisthemostpopu
! larplaceinthecity!

45. Sheshouldn'tworkthatmuch,she
,! justwillburnout!
46. .
Ihavetoanswer.Thisismyboss.
.

47. Imusttotalktoher.
. Ishouldtalktoher.

48. Doyouhavetolistentomusicthat
? loud?
I have to be there on time other
wisethatistheend.
49. Imustbethereontimeotherwise
,,. thatistheend.
I should be there on time other
wisethatistheend.
I think I don't need to repeat that
onceagain.
50. ,
. IthinkIt'snoneedtoberepeated
onceagain.

351


-:
1. .
, Skyjumping.Imustbefun!
!
2. Theymight beliketheideathem
. self.
3. ,
Maybewewin,maybenot.
,.
4. . Thiscouldntbeotherwise.

5. , Probably you could be better if


, you would have taken a parace
. tamol.
6. ,
Maybethisisnotthatimportant!
!
7. , But may be no, who knows what
? shedoes?

8. , , , Maybehewillcome,maybenot
whatever comes to his mind will
, bedone.
9. , ,
Itmustbereallydifficult;Icouldnt

havedonethat,forsure!
,!
10. ,
I was told he must be in Chicago,
,
but his letter came from Helsinki!
!
Howitcanbe?
?!
11. ,
Hethinksitmightbepoison.
.
12. ,
Thismaybewhatyou'remissing.
.

352

13. . Thisismaybehot.
14.
Itcanbedangeroustogothere.
.
15.
These approachescould

beadoptedinothercountries.
.
16. , He phoned, but I didnt hear, I
,, musthavebeenasleep.
17. ,
ImadealotofnoisewhenIcame
, ,
back home, you must have heard
,
me.
.
18. , ,
She must have finished with the

project, lets invite her with us to
,
thecinema.
.
19. She may be late because of the
heavyrain,youshouldntbeworry
. inadvance.
20.
She may have left the phone, lost
, ,
it. It may have been discharged.

We can find a thousand reasons
,
whysheisnotanswering,dontbe
,
nervous!
!
21. ,
MaybewewillgotoSpain,maybe
, ,
somewhereinAsia.
.
22. !
You could blurt it out! Watch you

tonguenexttime!
!
23.
We could stay in Canada, but de
, ,
cidedthatitisnotourcountry.
.

353

24. Shecouldn'thavesoldallthetrash
! anyway!
25.
Shemightopenthisdoor.
.
26. She might be able to open this
. door.
27. ,,
He might be able to, who knows,
, ,
butIdontbelieveitspossible.
.
28. , ,
Asktheboss,hemaybeknows.
,.
29. , ,
Hemaybegothereinaweek.
.
30.

He might be in the city on such a

daytrytocalloncellphone
,,
.

Will, Shall, To be to, Dare:


1. Has she dared to come here
? again?Howdidsheevencomein
? here?
Did she dare to come here
again?Howdidsheevencomein
here?
2.
She might dare to tell even a
,
word(uttersasyllable)sinceher
,
father came into the room. She
.
wasafraidofhimtoomuch.
.
3. ,? ShallIhelpyou?

354

4. , , It's too stuffy here, shall we go
? out?
5. , Youshallneverbealone,Iwillbe
. withyoufromnowon.
6.
ShallIadviseyouanything?
?
7. , . That's enough! It was the last
! straw. I shall never come here
again!
8.
I shall answer all you questions

about this situation, if you help
,
mewithmypoint.
.
9. , ? Shall we go now? It's boring
. here.
10. . I cannot leave it unanswered. I
. havepromisedhimlasttime.
11. , , Yes, if money comes, I will owe
. him.
12.
If you want a normal family you
,
mustbehonestwithyourbetter

half.
.
13. She was to deliver everything
. within the term.
She made a commitment to de
livereverythingwithintheterm.
14. ,
He will be responsible or finding

anewhomeforthispoppy.
.
15. , 9, Don't be worry, I will be back
. homeby9p.m.,nolater.

355

16. ,
You will go there even if i will

havetodragyou.
.
17. : I promise I shall never to forget
,. whereIhavecomefrom.
18. , I am afraid he will become our
. newdirector.
19. . Iwillnotbethere.Iamhavingan
appointed on the other side of
. thecity.
20. I will be replaced with a one
. fromtheMoscowoffice.
21. , I will care about everything, go
. andbecalm.
22.
Iwillbookticketsandahotelyou

needn'tthinkaboutthat.
.
23. I will never forget about this
. help.
24. , Wait! I will give you my umbrel
! la!
25. ? ShallIholdthedoorforyou?
26.
Thefollowingquestionsobligato

rymustbementioned.
.
27.
Shewillnotdaretorefuseme.
.
28. . Hedoesn'tdaretocrossme.
29. I dare to offer another option
: why don't we go to the coffee
? shopatthecorner?
30. , I dare to say, that everyone has

356

, left, you are just one in the of
. fice.
31. , I bet you will not dare to try
. skydiving.
32.
They dared each other who will

bethefirstwhostopsmoking.
.
33. ,
Daretoguessthatheisright.
.
34. She didn't dare to look in his
. eyes.
35. Nobodydaredtoaskhimsucha
. favour.
36. , I knew that after this case he
wouldn't have dared to come
. againorcall.
37. She didn't dare to keep silence
. andtoldeverything.
38.
Ishalllefthomeandnevercome
!
back!
39. !
40.
Howdoesshedaretoofferthat?
?!
41. How did they dare to use my
? name?


To be about to:

1. HeisabouttotraveltoAsia.
2.
I was about to cry when saw the
,
childattheedgeofthehill.
.

357

3. Mary was about to sit to dinner
, when somebody knocked at the
. door.
4.
I was about to invite all friends to

mybirthdayparty.
.
5.
Iwasabouttolaughatthesightof

his ridiculous hat, but thought it
, ,
wouldbeimpolite.
.
6. ,
He said he was about to tell the

truthtoeverybody
.
7. Were you about to come to my
? placetoday?
8.
We were about to go out when
,
suddenlyitbeganraining
.
9.
Stop making that terrible sound!
! ,
Imabouttolosemytemper!
!
10.
I was about to make a speech at

theconference,buthedidnotgive
,
mesuchopportunity.
.
11. ,

The speaker confirmed that new

legislation on violence against

women was about to beenacted
;,
and wouldmost certainly provide
,
for theactive involvementof civil

societyorganizationsthatdefended

therightofwomen.
,
.

358

12.

In order to apply for entering a

high educational organization of

the second level you are supposed
,
tohaveorbeabouttofinishgetting

the first educational level in the

academicorprofessionalarea.

.
13.

, Despite the adverse circumstances
that prevailed,theresumption of
direct negotiations in September
was widely welcomed andonce
again raisedand that political im
, passeswasabouttobeovercome.

.
14. ,
Thepurposeofthebill,whichwas
, abouttobeadopted,wasto pro
videalegalframeworkforthepro
tectionofindigenouspeoples.
.
15. ,
, Itwasmoreasenseofanticipation,
asiftheyknewthatsomethingwas
abouttohappen.
.
16. Something special was about to
. happen.
17.
Therehasbeen

muchspeculationabout what will
,
happenherethisweek.
.

359

18. ,

What hashappenedin the recent
,
past may often bea reasonably re

liable source of information about

whatisgoingtohappeninthenear
,
future,

.


to be meant to:

1. , These exercises are meant to


get the students familiar with
awayofusingtobemeantto
tobemeantto. constriction.

2. It was supposed to be a sur


, prisegift, but I couldn't hold
,! myselfheitis!

Theywerenotsupposedtobe
3.
together, but despite every
, , ,
thing they had endured and

kept the union and tender
.
ness.

4. Am I supposed to be making
? excuses? What are you wait
? ingfromme?
5.
I was supposed to be a head
,
of the department, not to sit

here and push senseless pa

persinfavourofmoronboss!
!

360

6. Iamalreadysupposedtobein
, , the airport, flying to India, I
3, have a flight in 3 hours, yet I
! amstillhere!

Rice? It's always rice! Are


7. ?!
youtiredofthat?Whatelseis
? ?
it supposed to be? Buck
?
wheat?

Children are meant to play


8.
andhavefunandnottositin
,
adustyroomlearningbyheart
,.
classics.

Pregnant women and minors


9. may not be employed for a
workduringnighthours.
Pregnant women and minors
. are not meant to work during
nighthours.

10. A minor is meant to consider


as a subject with convention
. allydiminutiverights.

11. He was not supposed to do


. . that. That are not his duties.
, Now she will think that it is
possible to shift her care to
. someoneelse.

12. , Shewasnotmeanttodothat;
. shehasahusband.

361

13. He was not meant to go by
. this way. This is evidently a
. wrongway.

14. She was supposed to wage a


. war.

15. I am not supposed to win at


, gamblingthatiswhyIdontsit
. atacardtable.

16. ,, I was about to win, but sud


denly Anna was declared as
. thewinner.

17. I am not meant to answer


, your question more. The field
of your interest is a commer
. cialsecrecy.

18. She was not supposed to


, catch that train so she was
. lateforwork.Atleastshemet
, an old friend, who she hadnt
5. metmorethan5years.

19. , You were supposed to help


, her, not to run out for a date
assoonasshewentuptoher
! room!

20.
Heismeanttowatchhisdog!
!
So that the tampered door is

fullyyourresponsibility.
.

362


to be supposed to:
1.
A nurse is supposed to be
,
watching a drop bottle, not

chattingwithfriendsonphone.
.,
I guess, there are all grounds

for proceeding against her dis

ciplinarymeasures.
.
2. , ItissupposedthatanewJames
. Bondisfantastic.
I am supposed to be at the
3. , , workby8.
8. I am meant to be at the work
by8.
John was supposed to turn off
4.
the light when he was leaving.
, ,
It is strange that windows are
.
lighted.
I am supposed to pay a rent
5. , payment on the first day of
everymonth.
I am meant to pay a rent pay
. ment on the first day of every
month.
6. I am not supposed to be here
. atall.
7. Iwassupposedtobetherebe
8,. fore8,butIwaslate.
8. , , AtthismomentIwassupposed
, to be in the plane flying to To
. kyo.

363

You were supposed to watch
her! And not to go for a bear
9. with friends! You are the fa
! ther!Iamjustababysitter!
! !
You were meant to watch her!
! And not to go for a bear with
friends! You are the father! I
amjustababysitter!
Ideally, you are supposed to
10. ,
sleeponthistime.Childrenare
.
notmeanttowalkoutsideafter
11
11 p.m. alone, but if we are
, ,
together,thenitisnotabreak
.
ingthelaw.
11.
, Weusedthisknifeexactlywhat
wasmadeforcuttingsalad!
!
12.
Birthdays are supposed to be
,
merry, not sad. You must be
.
happyontheday!
!
13. . Icannottotellyouanything.It
, issupposedtobeasurprisefor
. him.
It was supposed that this
14. ,
wouldn't have helped, but at
,
theendeverythinghasbecome
.
evenworse.
15. , , I am as an older brother sup
, posedtobesmartandyouare
. abeautiful.
16. You are not supposed to
! smokehere!

364

17. ? Andwheretodothatthen?
18. , It's supposed that we are not
meanttouseworknumbersfor
. personaldoings.
19. , Itwassupposedthatyouwould
, . havecalledmeandIwouldpick
. you up. You didn't call. What's
? aproblemin?
20. , It is supposed that every men
, tally healthy person, that has
, attainedthelegalage,isableto
understand the meaning of his
. actions.
21. Thisplaceissupposedtobethe
. bestinthetown.

There is / There are:

1. 10. Itis10oclockinthemorning.
2. . It'shothere.
There! There is a spider around
3. !!
thecorner!
There are a lot of mosquitoes in
thehouse.
4. .
It's a lot of mosquitos in the
house.
5. There are many different books
. inmybag.
6. . It'snoisyhere.
Thereisnoiseintheroom.
7. .
Itisnoisyintheroom.

365

8. There are three answers to this
. task.

There is the most beautiful ca


9. thedralontheEarthinRome.
. The most beautiful cathedral on
theEarthisinRome.

10. There are several points of view


. onthisproblem.
11.
Thereareseveralkindsofacon

ceptaboutanoriginoftheEarth.
.
12. 6 There are 6 million people in
. London.

13. . ItshotinThailand.

14. ! ThereishotinThailand!

15. . Itsnoisythere.

16. , Thereisnoisyintheroomthatis
. wayIhaveleftit.
17.
Thispointquitedifficulttosolve,
,
therearealotofnuances.
.
18. There are a lot of difficulties in
. lifeofasmallcreature.
19.
There is a can of paint in the
.
fridge.Whatisitdoinginthere?
?
20. There are so many interesting
. museumsinStockholm.

366

This is / That is:

1. ! Thatisaproblem!
2. , Thisisnotthateasytorealize,but
,,. Ithinkitspossible.
3.
These places are very beautiful

come,youwilllikethat.
,.
4. ! Thisissomethingnew!
5. . Hereisforyou.
6. . Thisisverybright.
7. ,. Thisisfar;thisisacloserway.
8. , ! Nono,goon!Thisisveryinterest
. ing.
9. ,. That was him who was calling to
. you,notme.Iamshy.
10.
That was me who called you
,
aboutaplumber.Canhecomein
?
one hour? I have an urgent call

frommyoffice.
.
11. , , Thisisthehouse,whichIwasliv
. ingin,whenIwasachild.
12. This must be finished by the end
! oftheday!
13. . Thiswasmewhotoldyou.
Hereisthekitchen,andthereisa
14. ,
diningroom.It'shardtomixthem
..
up.
15. ! Itismeunlockit!

367

16.
Thisisyournewhomecomein!
!
17. , Those are your books and these
.. aremine.Itisreallysimple.
18. ,
Thisiswhatyouneedtodo.
.
19. ,
This is an object. It is not a big
,
size, usually it's sandy or white
.
colour. Its fragile. People often
.
bringitfromvacation.
.
20. .
It is for a kitchen. One cooks in
. , .
there. Soup, for example. To boil
, .
something, a water. What is the

nameinEnglish?
?

It is

1. ! Itwasagreat(amazing)film!

2. , It is amazing trip; I want to re


. peatitnextyear.
3. ,
Itiscoldtoswimtoday,letsgo

totheAquariuminsteadofit.
.
4. , It is hard to answer, I will think
. aboutthequestion.

5. , Thisisahardquestion;Ineeda
. timeforthethinking.
6. ,
This is very scary movie; lets

bettergotothecomedy.
.

368

7. ! Itisinteresting!

8. Itishardtosurviveintheforest
. alone.

This is a fantastic place! (This


9. !
placeisfantastic)

10. He is a superior man I recom


! mendhim!
11. . ,
It'schilly.Goingtotakeajacket,

youtakesomethingontoo.
.
12. , ,
It'stoolaud,turnitdownplease.
.
13. ! Perfect! This always be thus
:,,! clean,quicklyandontime!

14. Itisunclear

15. It'shotneedtodissolvewitha
. coldwater.

16. , It'shardtoconfess,butthatisa
. fact.

17. , , Itseems,thisisthebestthatcan
. bedone.
18. .
I'velost.100%lost.It'sapity.
..
19. Itisreallyinterestingtobelearn
, ing when teachers really knows
, what they are doing, not just go
. ingtoaworktogetmoney.

369

20. ! Itisterrifyingtolivelikethis.Its
. scaryandnasty.


:
1.
WillIspeakEnglishfluently?
?
WillIbespeakingfree?
2. ?
WillIspeakfluently?

I am staying with Anna mean


3. , whileyoutakeadecision.
. I will stay with Anna meanwhile
youtakeadecision.

4. , I decided that I am going to stay


in a small bungalow at the very
sea shoreline/ coast and spend
thereinapeaceandcalmnessat
, least a couple of months, better
. isayear.
5. 6
, Usually I work till 6 p.m., but on
the next week I will be working
20 till8p.m.toearnsomemoney.
.
6. ?
Whatdoesyourwifedo?Sheisa
,
, lawyer, but she isn't taking new
projects,planningtotakeabreak
,
for a year, will be just enjoy the

life.
.

370

No,Icannot.InhalfofhourIwill
7. ,, begoingtotheairport.
. No,Icannot.InhalfofhourIwill
beonmywaytotheairport.
8.
Tomorrow this moment I will be
lyingonabeachorswimming.
.
9. ,, No,Iamnotgoingtotheparty.I
amplanningonwatchingamovie
with Audrey Hepburn being ac
companiedwithaglassofmarti
. ni.

You have no chances to be hired


on this position. You will waste
10. your time, applying and passing
tests.
.
, You have no chances to be hired
. onthisposition.Youaregoingto
waste your time, applying and
passingtests.
11. ,
What a pity that the summer

dayshasleftandwillnevercome

backagain!
!
I will pick up the child and you
12. , buysomefood,please.
,,. Iampickingupthechildandyou
arebuyingsomefood,please.
13.
I am going to immigrate to Aus
,
traliawhateverittakes!
!

371

He will be at the place at exactly
at 5. You will notice him as we
14. have agreed that he will be
5. : standingonthecurb.
, He will be at the place at exactly
. at5.Youaregoingtonoticehim
aswehaveagreedthathewillbe
standingonthecurb.

15. Thisdayiscomingtomorrow.
! Thiseventwillcometomorrow.

16. We are going to Spain this sum


, mer as tickets to India has been
. kickedabuck.

17. ? Howaboutcoffee?
18.
? Whoisabletoappreciatethis?

19. Is the plain arriving tomorrow at


21.50? 21.50?

20. Whowillbeabletodothisexer
? cisefaster?

21. 8 Doyouhaveanappointmentat8
? a.m.?

22. How long will the winter be last


? ing?

EverythingwillbeOk.
23. .
EverythingisgoingtobeOk!

372

24. On the summer vacation we are
goingtoRomaniaintotheDracu
, las castle, bought tickets al
. ready.

25. Noonewilldisturbyou.
. Nooneisgoingtodisturbyou.
26. ,
Iwillcomesinceyoutellme!
!
27. ? Willwemeattomorrow?

28. , Tomorrow I am going to a shop;


? shallIbringsomethingforyou?

I am planning to enter Saint


29.
Petersburg State University so
,
what you would say about the
?
University?

30. I will have read up the book by


theendoftheweekandplanning
, todropittoyouontheweekend.
? Isitok?

31. , I am thinking of going to India,


? will/shallyougowithme?

32. What are you doing on the next


? week?
33.
, , On Monday I am meeting with a
, doctor,onTuesdaydancing,on
, Wednesday having a manicure
, done, Thursday an English
, class, On Friday going to my

373

parents, on Saturday doing an
.! end week cleaning, on Sunday
my mom is coming. What a
!! nightmare! I have no time! For
nothing!

34. , Have you decided what you are


? doing on the weekend? Thinking
, ofmaygoingtoVarnaaswell.Its
! boringherealready!

35. Seeyouonthenext trainingses


! sion.

I am going to go to America if I
36. , getvisa.
.
IwillgotoAmericaifIgetvisa.

I am going to be there around 5


37. 5.
p.m.

38. , , I, probably, will be late today,


. don'tbewaitingme.

Igoingto beatyourareaonFri
39.
day, I am having negotiations.
,
What about having a cup of cof
.?
fee?
40. , .
Printitoutplease.Ok,Iamdoing
,
thatassoonastheclientisleft

don't worry, everything will be
,
done.
.

374


:

1. Doing these funny exercises I


, havebeenfindingoutmanynew
. words.

2. , Having read up the book I put it


. off.
3. I have really understood the
, problem only having faced up
. withitbymyself.
4. It is senseless to start anything
, without thinking through a plan
. ofactions.

5. , Having realized the point of the


, Perfect thence I comprehended
thatIamabletoexpressalmost
. anyideainEnglish.
6. ,
I will be able to speak only hav

ingunderstoodEnglishgrammar.
,
Itisuselesstolearnthewords.
.
HavingcomebacktotheofficeI
7. , ,
found out that our boss was
.
fired.

8. , Having read your letter, I can


adviseyou

9. , , Having realized the problem, I


. startedtohandleitimmediately.

375

10. , Havingheardhervoice,Idecided
. togohome.
11. ,
Having been watching the kit

tensIfeltmyselftotallyhappy.
.
12. , , I,havingbeensingingup thera
, dio,wascleaningthebathwhen
. theycamebackhome.

13. , Hes left the office still having


been thinking about the strange
. ladyintheblue.

14. , Sitting on a sofa it is so cozy to


. cuddleup.
15.
Idon'tleavethehouseforalong
, ,
time,rememberingthatIhavea
,
cat,whichIshouldcareabout.
.
16. , Having been sitting by a table he
has often been starting to tell
about a political situation in dif
, ferent countries, but having been
, laying on a sofa he just been
dreamingwithoutbotheringyour
. selfcomplicatedthoughts.

17. , Having been leaving for a long


time I always have been meting
upwithmyfriendsandcallingon
. theparentsbeforethat.

18. , Havingbeen leavingthehouse


. checkifthelightisoff.

376

19. , Having been entering the room
. be careful. I am keeping lots of
. stuffthere.
20.
Doing daybyday more compli
,
cated exercises requiring good
,
stretching,heismovingtowards

hisgoal,whichisaperfectasana.
.
21. , Having been frying his eggs Ro
1 man was watching news on the
. firstchannel.
22. , ThinkingthroughtheplanAlexey
. wassneakilysmiling.
23.
Inhisyouth ViktorPetrovichbe
,
lieved that he was able to earn
,
money without thinking about

deepproblems.
.
The book, which has been writ
24. , ,
tenbyus,hasbeenpublishedin
.
fivecountries.

25. Hasbeensufferingfromthegout
men is not able to live without
. medicines.

26. , Havingthoughttheideathrough
I decisively begun to pursue the
. plan.

27. , Having finished the project I am


planning to have a rest for a
. coupleofmonths.
28. ,
, HavinglistenedhimtilltheendI

377

. have just realised that I don't
agreewithhistheses.

29. Astatueofsufferingswanstood
. inthegarden.

30. He was singing with a deep


. touchingvoice.
Thequestionappearedtobethe
31. ,
old one, which has been touch

ingmorethanonegenerationof
.
researches.
32. Flyingsaucershavelandedinour
. area.

33. , Theplanes,thathavebeenflying
, , in a circle regularly, obviously
. drawattention.

Theman,whohasbeenthinking
34. , ,
aboutyou,iswaiting behindthe
.
door.
35.
Our collective cannot dispense

withoutathinkingplayer.
.
36. , Children,whohavebeenplaying
10 , videogames more than 10 hours
. perday,risklosingthevision.

37. , Look out to the yard children,


, playing on the ground, are so
. sweet.
38. , Children,whohavebeenplaying
, on the playground, risk to be
. bittenbydogs.

378

39. ,
Thishavingbeen,finally,finished
,
rainboredeveryoneindeed.
.
40. , Aman,whohasbeenverydeep
,. inthoughts,isimmortal.


:
1. , Having dunked my hamster into
. water I was surprised with the
, result. Having been wet he ap
peared to be triple smaller than
! usualsize.
2. , I was going along the street,
when suddenly I heard some
. ones steps behind me. I was
, scared a lot and run, shouting
, something out. I dont member
, , , what it was exactly; being hunt
. ed,infact,withmyownfears.
3. Havingbeendippedinajamba
gelimmediatelywassendtoFe
. dorsmouth.
Homework, which has been
4. , done by Igor, is liked by the
, teacher.
. Theteacherlikedthehomework,
whichhasbeenmadebyIgor.
5. Ahasbeencoloredbymewallis
. thatone.
Thehouse,whichhasbeenbuilt
6. ,
by Ilonov, is higher than this
,,.
building.
7. , The language, which has been

379

,. being learnt by the group, re
semblesEnglish.
8. Hasbeenbeingreadbymebook
. isaboutphenomenology.
9. , Having been heard I will calm
. down.
10. , Havingbeenseenbythem,Ide
. cidedtosayHello.
11.
Having been invited by them to
, the Birthday party, I resoled to
giftapresent.
.
12.
Having been described with

words idea was slowly material

izing on a special table before

themamazing!
!
Onehavingbeenfinishedworkis
betterthantwonewideas!
Onefinishedworkisbetterthan
13.
twonewideas!
!
One work, that has been fin
ished, is better than two new
ideas!
14. Having been seen by me yester
, day so much shocked me that I
cannot even formulate my im
. pressions.
15.
Only being send by the specific

wayaletterissupposedtobea
,
formalnotification.
.

380

6. .
, ! .
, ,
. ,
.

. -
:
0. , -
. ? , .
1. , -
:
) : , -

) : (, , ) -

) Tense ( ),
:
Perfect Perfect (
)
Continuous Continuous ( ,
, )
Perfect Continuous, Simple
( , , ).
2. -
, -
.
) :
, , -
: not, no, none
: dont, havent, cant, couldnt
..
() : nothing,
no, no one, nobody, neither nor.
) :
(indirect question)
W- (w-question): -

381

(general question) +

- (tag-question)
) ( Do
Does)
) Tense .
) -s
(he, she, it)
3. , . -
:
-s

s (Smiths, Fosters)
: a , the
,
( -
)
( )
(that,
which, so )
( -ed 2 3
)

.

, -
. ? , :
( ). .
Simple Continuous ( ,
). -
, . :
The ( a, , ) rain
was ( were) falling ( pouring) all ( ) day (
) yesterday (Past Continuous)
( rain It): It was
raining all day yesterday (Past Continuous)
It rained all day yesterday (Past Simple), -
, .

382


.
?
( ). (
). . Simple Perfect (
, -
). ,
, Who
. ,
exactly, , -
who, . ,
. :
Whoexactlytoldthat?/Whoexactlyhastoldthat?/Whotold
thatexactly?/Whohastoldthatexactly?
,
, ,
. , -
, :
(a? the? ? the a)
(arrived? has arrived? has arrived) (to? In? at? to)
(the? a? ? the) , (so? so that?
so) (could? can? can) (look?
watch? see? examine? observe? take a look? see, examine, take a
look .., ) (him, it. it) .
( ). (
). Perfect ( -
, , -
). <>. ,
, . - , <>
.
can, Present Simple.
. :
Theshiphasarrivedtotheportyesterday,soyoucansee(ex
amine)itnow/Theshiphasarrivedtotheportyesterday,soyoucan
takealookatitnow/Ashiphasarrivedtotheportyesterday,soyou
canseeitnow.
:
!

383

( ).
, (Present Simple Tense).
, -
no (
). , , . -
any. :
Nopocket()moneyforyouatthisweek!
:Noanypocketmoneyforyouatthisweek!
:
,
.
( ). (
)
( , ). -
, .
Perfect (
, ). (-
?) <> <> . -
, ,
( would, Second Conditional,
).
Past Simple. , -
, - (?) .
,
.
( I? me? O I) (would? am not? would) (not?
No? not) (be? was? have been? been? have been)
c (by myself? myself? myself), (if? if would? -
if, , ) -
(not start? dont start? hadnt start? hadnt start,
Second Conditional, ) -
(for work? work? for the work? the work, -
started, ) c -
(with enthusiasm? enthusiastically? enthusiastically
with enthusiasm). :
IwouldnthavebeenmyselfifIhadnotstartedtheworkenthu
siastically.
:

384

IwouldnthavebeenmyselfifIhadnotstartedtheworkwith
enthusiasm.
:
?
( ). . -
( )
. Present Simple,
( ), Present Perfect (
).
, -
do have . have,
3 V3, had.
C . :
of.
-
, .
do, does.
- ,
( a)
, ( lamb
).
(you? do you? near you? do you) (have? has?
are? Is? have) (fresh? a fresh? raw? a raw? a
fresh) (meat? a meat? the meat? meat) (lamb? of
lamb? of a lamb? of a lamb).
:
Doyouhaveafreshmeatoflamb?
:
Haveyouhadafreshmeatoflamb?
? . . -
, -,
-? . -
, ,
, -
. ,

.
.

385

, -
, ,
-
, .
! .

386

1
Tenses -
g et + con t i n u es p er f ect si m pl e

I got loved I was getting


loved I had been loving () I loved
I was loving I had loved
( - ( -
(-) ( )
) )

I get loved I am getting


loved I have been loving () I love
I am loving I have loved
( (
() ( )
) )

I will get loved Ill be getting


loved () Ill have been loving. () ( ) I will have loved I will love
I will be loving
( ( (
()
) ) )

get love loving loved: , , love


, , , , ,

387
get+ continues perfect simple

I was got loved I was getting been loved . I was being loved I had been being loved I had been loved I was loved
()
( (
() - ) -, -)

I am get loved I am getting been loved . I am being loved I have been being loved . I have been loved I am loved

( -)
( (
be loved | ( ) () - ,
being ) )
loved
I will be get loved Ill be getting been loved I will be being loved I will have been loved I will be loved
Ill have been being loved .


( (
() ( -)
( ) () ) )

be get loved being loved been loved be loved


, ,



2

.
.
(,)/
(,)

Been Being
be was,were
,, /
, ,
,
Bearing
Bear Bore Born

388
,
, ,, ,,
,/
,
,
Beat Beat Beaten Beating
/
Become Become Becoming
Became
, (), ,
,
/
Beginning
Begin Began Begun
/,
,

Behold Beheld Beheld Beholding
, /
Bend Bent Bent Bending
, , , /
Besought/beseeched Beseeching
Beseech Besought
, /
, ,

Bet Bet Betting
Bet
, , ,/
,

Bind Bound Bound Binding
, /

389
Bite Bit Bitten Biting
/ /
Blow Blew Blown Blowing
/() /
Broken Breaking
Break Broke
,, ,
, ,
/
Bring Brought Brought Bringing
, /
Built Building
Build Built
, /,


Burn Burnt Burnt Burning
,() /
Bursting
Burst Burst Burst
/,
,

Buy Bought Bought Buying
, /
Can Could Could
, , ,

Cast Cast Cast Casting
, /

390
Caught
Catch Caught Catching
,,
/

Chid/chidden Chiding
Chide Chid
,, ,/
, ,
,
Choose Chose Chosen Choosing
, /
Cleaving
Cleave Cleft/Clove Cleft/Cloven
,
/ / ,
/
/
,
Cling Clung Clung Clining
, , ,/
,
Come Coming
Come Came
, ,

/,
Cost Cost Cost Costing
, /
Creep Crept Crept Creeping
, /
Cut Cut Cut Cutting
() /

391
Dare Durst/dared Dared Daring
/
Deal Dealt Dealt Dealing
, , , ,
/
Digging
Dig Dug Dug
,/
, , ,()
,
Dive Dove Dived Diving
/
Do Did Done Doing
() /
Drawn Drawing
Draw Drew
, ()/
, ,

Dreamt
Dream Dreamt Dreaming
,
, , /,
/
Drink Drank Drunk Drinking
/
Driving
Drive Drove Driven
,/
, ,
,

392
Dwelt Dwelling
Dwell Dwelt
, /


Eat Ate Eaten Eating
, , /
Fall Fell Fallen Falling
() () /
Feed Fed Fed Feeding
/
Felt Feeling
Feel Felt /
(),
,

Fighting
Fight Fought Fought
,/
, ,
,
Find Found Found Finding
/
Fit Fit Fit Fitting
, , /
Fleeing
Flee Fled Fled
,
, , ,
/,


Fly Flew Flown Flying

393
/
Forbearing
Forbear Forbore Forborne
/


Forbidding
Forbide Forbade Forbidden
/


Forcast Forecast Forecast Forecasting
() /
Forgetting
Forget Forgot Forgotten
/


Foregone Foregoing
Forego Forewent
/ /


Foretell Foretelling
Foretold Foretold
, /


Forgiving
Forgive Forgave Forgiven
/


Freezing
Freeze Froze Frozen
,
, , ,
/

394
Getting
Get Got Got/gotten /,
, ,, , ,
, , /

Gild Gilt Gilt Gilding
/
Give Gave Given Giving
() /()
Going
Go Went Gone
,/
, ,

Grind Ground Griding
Ground
,, (), ,/
,
() ,
Growing
Grow Grew Grown
/,


Hang Hung Hung Hanging
,
Having
Have Had Had
,/
, ,

395
,
Hearing
Hear Heard Heard
/,


Hiding
Hide Hid Hidden
,/
, , ,

Hit Hit Hit Hitting
/
Holding
Hold Held /
Held
, ,
, ,/

Hurt Hurt Hurt Hurting
, , , /
Keeping
Keep Kept
Kept ,
, ,
, /,


Knelt/kneeled Kneeling
Kneel Knelt/kneeled
, /


Knit Knitting
Knit/knitted Knit/knitted
,, ,/
, ,
,

396
Know Knew Known Knowing
, /
Lading
Lade Laded Laden/laded ,/
, , / /

Lay Laid Laid Laying
/
Lead Led Led Leading
, , , ,/

Lean Leant/leaned Leaning
Leant/leaned
, , /
,

Leap Lept/leaped Lept/leaped Leaping
, /
Learn Learnt/learned Learnt/learned Learning
, /
Leave Left Left Leaving

Lend Lending
Lent Lent
, /
, ,
,

397
Let Let/letted Let/letted Letting
/
Lie Lay Lain Laying
/
Lighting
Light Lit/lighted Lit/lighted
,
, , ,
/,
Lose Lost Lost Losing
, , /
Make Made Making
Made
, , ,
,
/,
May
Might Might
,
,
,


Meaning
Mean Meant Meant
,
, , ,
/

,
Melting
Melt Melted Molten/Melted
,/
, , ,()
,
Mishearing

398
Mishear Misheard Misheard
/


Mislaying
Mislay Mislaid Mislaid


,
Mistaking
Mistake Mistook Mistaken
/


Overtaken Overtaking
Overtake Overtook /
,


Paying
Pay Paid Paid
/,
()/()

Proving
Prove Proved Proven/proved
,
, , ,
/

,
Put Put/putted Put/putted Putting
/
Quitting
Quit Quit/quitted Quit/quitted
,/
, , ,
,

399
Read Read/red Read/red Reading
() /
Rebuilding
Rebuild Rebuilt Rebuilt
/


Rend Rent Rent Rending
/
Rid Rid/ridded Rid/ridded Ridding
, /
Riding
Ride Rode Ridden
,/,
, , ,

Ring Rang Rung Ringing
/
Rise Rose Risen Rising
/
Rotted/rotten
Rot Rotted Rotting
()/()
/

Run Ran Run Running
,
Saw
Sawed Sawn/sawed Sawing
,
/

400
Say Said Said Saying
, /
See Saw Seen Seeing
() /
Seeking
Seek Sought Sought
/


Sell Sold Sold Selling
/
Sending
Send Sent Sent
,/
,

Setting
Set Set Set
,
, , ,
/

,
Sew Sewed Sewn/sewed Sewing
/
Shake Shook Shaken Shaking
, /
Shall Should Should


Shave Shaved Shaven Shaving

401
/
Shear Shared Shorn Shearing
,, ,, , ,/
, ,
Shedding
Shed Shed Shed
,/
, , (),
,
Shine Shone Shone Shining
, /
Shoe
Shod Shod Shoeing
,
()/

Shoot Shot Shot Shooting
, /
Show Showed Shown Showing
,
Shred Shred Shreddig
Shred
, (), ,
,
() /,,
Shrinking
Shrink Shrank/shrunk Shrunk
,
, , ,


/,
Shutting
Shut Shut Shut

402
,
, , ,
/,
Sing Sang Sung Singing
(), /
Sinking
Sink Sank Sunk
,,
,, ,, (),,


/,
Sit Sat/Sitted Sat/Sitted Sitiing
(), /
Slay Slew Slain Slaying

Sleep Slept Slept Sleepig
, /
Slid
Slide Slid Sliding
,
/

Slink Slinking
Slunk Slunk
, /
()

Slit Slit Slitting
Slit
, , /,
,
()
Smelling

403
Smell Smelt/smeled Smelt/smeled
,/
, , ,
,
Smitting
Smite
Smote Smitten /
,
, , ,/


Spoken Speaking
Speak Spoke
, ,

() (),
Speed Sped/speeded Sped/speeded Speeding

Spelling
Spell Spelt/spelled Spelt/spelled
,/
, , ,
,


Spend Spent Spent Spending
/
Spill Spilt Spilt Spilling
, /
Spinning
Spin Spun Spun
,
,, ,, (),,
,/

,,

404
Spitting
Spit Spat Spat
/
() ,()
()
Splitting
Split Split Split
,


Spoil Spoilt/spoiled Spoilt/spoiled Spoiling
() /
Spreading
Spread Spread Spread
,
, , ,
/

,
Springing
Spring Sprang Sprung

()
/()
Stand Stood Stood Standing
() /
Staving
Stave
Staved Stove ,
,
, , /,


Stolen
Steal Stole Stealing
,
, , ,

405
Stiking
Stick Stuck Stuck
,
/, /, /()/
,/
/ / (),
,/
/
,
Sting Stung Stung Stinging
() /
Stink Stank Stunk Stinking
/
Striding
Stride Strode Stridden
,/
, , ,
,
Striking
Strike Struk Struck/stricken
,/
/ / /
,
String
Strung Strung
, Stringing
, ,
, ,


Strive Strove Striven Striving
/
Swear Swore Sworn Swearing
, () /
Sweat Sweat Sweat Sweating

406
/
Sweeping
Sweep Swept Swept
,
, , ,
/,
Swelling
Swell Swelled Swollen ,,
,, ,, ,, /
,,

Swim Swam Swum Swimming
,
Take Took Taken Taking
/
Teach Taught Taught Teaching
/
Tear Tore Torn Tearing
/
Telling
Tell Told Told
/


Think Thought Thought Thinking
() /
Throw Threw Thrown Throwing

407
/
Unbend Unbent Unbent Unbending

Undergoing
Undergo Underwent Undergone /

Understanding
Understood ,
Understand Understood
, /,
, ,
,
Undertaking
Undertake Undertook Undertaken
/


Upset Upset Upsetting
Upset
, , /
,

Wake Woke Woken Waking
, , , /

Wear Wore Worn Wearing
, /
Weep Wept Wept Weeping
, , , ,

408
/
Wedding
Wed/Wedded
Wed Wed ,
,
, , /,


Weep Wep Wept Weeping
/
Will Would Would


Wet Wet/Wetted Wet/Wetted Wetting
, , , /
Won Won Winning
/
Winding
Wound Wound
,,
, ,, (),
//
,

Withdrawing
Withdrew Withdrawn
,/
, ,
,
Wringing
Wrung Wrung
/

409
Writing
Wrote Written
/,


: , -
. .
write/ -
:
: Write
write ()
write ()
write ()
write ()
write ()
writes (, , )
2 : Wrote (, , )
Wrote (, , )
Wrote ()
Wrote ()
3 ( ):
:
Written (, /) , () + () ()
Written (, , ) , () + ()()
Written () , () + () ()
Written () , () + () ()
Written () , () + () ()
:

410
Written (, ) (), , () () + () ()
Written (, , ) (), , () () + () ()
Written () (), , () () + () ()
Written () (), , () () + () ()
Written () (), , () () + () ()
4 ( )
:
Writing (, /) , (), () + ()
Writing (, , ) , , () + ()
Writing () , , () + () ()
Writing () , , () + () ()
Writing () , , () + () ()
:
Writing (, ) , , () () + () ()
Writing (, , ) , () + () ()
Writing () , , () + () ()
Writing () , , () + () ()
Written () , , () + () ()
, , (): , .

411
3
,
,
, .. -
. -
, , -
(linking words). -

: ( -
) . , linking
words ,
. ,

.
, -
- -
-
, -
.

,
:
, not only but
I like not only cats but parrots/ , -
.
/ Either or
I would like to have either wealth or health /
, .
There are shops on either sides/
.
Tell me finally either yes or no/ ,
.
, Neithernor
I dont like neither olives nor capers / , -
.

412

to
, / To open the bottle
you need an opener.
, , / I feel its not
enough to persuade her.
, , / Did a lit-
tle digging to see, what its possible to find.
in order to (for)
, / In
order to be beautiful, you need to train a lot.
,
/ A number of conditions must be met in order for this to be
feasible.
, -
/ An attentive watching after the players needs in order to find
out the deception.
, while
, , ? / Ill be in a cine-
ma while you are having your hair cut, is it ok?
( ) in contrast (to)
In contrast to the Asian way of upbringing, Russians shout out at the
children a lot / ,
.
My new phone doesnt get hot after two hours working in contrast to
my previous one / -
, .
As opposed to
A hot mint drink, as opposed to a cold one, helps to relieve sore a
through / , ,
.
Cooperation, as opposed to working on ones own, helps to achieve re-
sults much faster / , -
, .
As distinct from
Weakness, as distinct from kindness, cannot create anything positive /
, , .
Toddlers, as distinct from babies, are more curious / ,
, , -
.

413

, ( )
whereas
,
/ I like a mango ice cream whereas he likes a coconut one.
, , ,
,
/ If you start making noise dad comes in, whereas you don't do what
we say, we will left you in your room.
, ( -
) whereas
, -
,
/ Whereas, Web site Owner owns and operates certain
web sites, the officer orders him to delete the web page.
/ as against
The prices have rocked as against to the previous year / , -
, .
They did nothing to ensure safety as against to their children /
, .
So that
5 ,
/ You got 5 dollars for this week, so that
you can go and buy some ice cream
C / so as to
I stopped eating after 9 p.m., so as to get slimmer/
7, .
Ive moved to another country so as to create rewarding opportunities
for my family/ , -
.
so as not to
Slowly, so as not to mix the components, open it / , ,
, .
We took a taxi so as not to be late/ , -

She was walking on tiptoe so as not to wake up the baby/ -


, .
Wherefore
Wherefore I shouldnt be glad?/ -
?

414

Wherefore, be cautions, dont trust anyone/ -
, .
Whys and wherefores /
However
We understand the concern for security, however / -
.
, Therefore
He was injured and therefore unable to play / ,
, .
, , Hence
It concerns your health, hence, its really important /
, , .
, Ergo
He didnt show any emotion, ergo, he is a first-rate liar / -
, , .
It wasnt deep, ergo, it wasnt interesting / ,
, .
/ As a consequence/ Conse-
quently
She applied a lotion with a grapefruit essence that she'a alergic to and
consequently became spotty / ,
,
.
As a result
As a result the sales increased/ , .
You lost your friend as a result/ .
, Thus
They changed the component, thus reducing effectiveness of the med-
icine / ,
.
University education opportunities are thus avaliable to females /

.
/Tosummarise
To summaries, we need plenty of different sources, which we dont
have, to handle the problem/,
,
.

415

/ To sum up
Could you sum up everything in one word, please?/
, ?
/ To conclude
To conclude, Id like to reformulate my main idea/ -
.
Allow me to conclude by congratulating you once again/
.
In conclusion
So, in conclusion, this book is really informative and provide you
with valuable information/ ,
.
/ In short
In short, Im here again normal/ , .
In short, our future lies in escaping the trap of poverty / ,
, -
.
/ In brief
If you allow, Ill tell you in brief/ , -
.
That, in brief, is the prevailing situation/, ,
.
/ In summary
In summary, Id like to highlight my arguments / ,
.
In summary, Thai girls and boys have equal access to education/
, -
.
In a nutshell
This is how theory goes in a nutshell/ , , -
.
In a nutshell, there is a huge problem/ ,
.
, Accordingly
He named the town on the west coast and accordingly Ive turned
right, heading to the west /
, , , .
I would appreciate, if you acted accordingly / ,
().

416

The rent rates will be recalculated accordingly /
.
, Thereby
I wish to travel a lot and thereby study the people and customs of oth-
er countries / , ,
.
, - Nevertheless
He knows her to be a freakish child and nevertheless loves her /
, , , .
It could be dangerous. Nevertheless, I've got to try /
. , .
Nonetheless
I like this dog nonetheless / .
She has a lot of flaws, but shes a good person nonetheless /
, .
Conversely
The happiness happens when she loves him and conversely he loves
her / , : .
I prefer a mud coffee; conversely, my husband likes an instant one /
, , ,
.
, On the contrary
It wasnt a good thing to do, on the contrary, it was a huge mistake /
, , .
C On the one hand
On the other hand
On the one hand its cold, on the other hand its expensive/
, , .
On the one hand she could be smarter, on the other hand she is amaz-
ingly beautiful!/ , , -
!
In contrast to
, , , -
! / The teach-
er, in contrast to everyone Ive met before meeting her in my life, clearly
and fully answers all the questions always its unbelievable!
This green tea in contrast to the ordinary black one you can boil up to
5-8 times! / , , -
5-8 !

417

() Provided (that)
You may take my car, provided that you dont damage it/
, .
I will come in June, provided that everything goes the same way/
, , .
, As long as
You can take my car as long as you dont damage it /
, .
As long as you are not hurt, it doesnt matter the else /
, .
You can stay as long as youd like / -
, .
Despite (doing something)/in spite of (something)
Despite hurting inside I continued walking / ,
.
In spite of the fact that its cold outside I hope to get warm just in a
jacket / , , ,
.
In disregard of
Hes made this decision in disregard of my opinion /
, .
In disregard of facts, Anna still believes his story /
, .
Regardless of
Regardless of whether you like me or not you ought to go to her /
, , .
Regardless of the choice criteria its the best option ever / -
, -
.
, No matter
I love her, no matter what she has done / ,
, .
He had to stay there and wait, no matter how painful it was / -
, ,
.
Notwithstanding
I must do that notwithstanding all comments of my friends, by
myself / , -
, .

418

She took the medicine notwithstanding her fear of it /
, .
even if
I wouldnt reveal anything even if I knew / -
, - .
Even if you win, you are loser/ , (
) .
/ as if
Stop talking as if she is you/ ,
.
I remember as if it was yesterday/ ,
.
Unless
No visitors here, unless you want/ , -
.
Just three of us, unless youve told someone else/ ,
- .
, / Even though
Ill always do sport even though my body hurts after/
, , -
.
She didnt want to go out of a car even though I told her its danger-
ous to stay inside/ ,
,
Though
You could have called me though / , , .
I was smiling, though I didnt want / ,
.
Although
Although she doesnt show that, she loves him / -
, .
Although I am not able to stop you, Ill try at least / -
, .
in comparison with (to)
This course book in comparison with that one is much more clear and
informative / -
.
, Compared to

419

I mean, compared to a normal, its hot / , -
, .
He is an angel compared to you /
.
Furthermore
Furthermore, I respect you more for saying no/ , -
.
Futhermore, we don't even know what language they spoke/
, , .
() Besides
She wants, besides, looking beautiful / , ,
.
It looks like she is carrying something besides groceries /
- .
Moreover
Moreover, this company provides you with free TV, if you buy an In-
ternet connection from it / , -
, -.
There is one more argument to discuss moreover / ,
.
, On top of that
You failed your exam and, on top of that, came late in the night you
are grounded! / , -
!
/ Whats more
Whats more, its incredibly sophisticated / , -
.
He wrote that, whats more upsetting / , -
.
/ Apart from
I am totally unavailable to anyone apart from him/
, .
Apart from him everyone is thrilled/ ,
.
/ As well as
His car, as well as apartment, office and everything, Hes bought by
himself/ , , , -
.

420

It will be risky as well as informative and challenging whatever you
like/ , ,
.
/ In addition
In addition, he is a successful businessmen / -
.
In addition, well have a rare opportunity to try an authentic Brazilian
food/ , -
.
, ( ) In so far as /
insofar as
Your dad is coming insofar as were not able to deal with that by our-
selves / ,
.
, ( , ) Insomuch
as
Ill do that insomuch as it matters to you, no more /
, , .
(//) such as
I like Asian countries, such as Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia /
, , , -
.
, by and large
Russian doctors by and large treat the patient with
negligence/ -
.
By and large, I agree with your arguments /
.
Indeed
This situation is worrisome indeed/ , ,
.
The deadlines are indeed very tight/, ,
.
Due to (the fact that)
It happens mostly due to weather conditions/
.
I was honored due to the fact that I won that competition/
.

421

Owing to (the fact that)
It happened owing to insufficient level of organization here/ -
.
Organic products sell on a higher price owing to their planting without
chemical inputs/ -
, .
/ Because (of)
I couldnt know because Ive never told about that/ ,
.
It worked out because of all provided papers/ -
.
Since
Since we expanding the company its time to think of hiring new
people/ ,
.
Since we stopped anyway what about a cup of tea?/
, ?
As
It's a great opportunity for you as there will be lots of different people
/ ,
.
I am sad as I loose/ , .
/ herein
The checklist provided herein should be printed out and put up on the
foreground/ -, ,
.
/ hereinafter
This phenomenon hereinafter we will call The bottle/
.
(, ) hereinbefore
As I described hereinbefore this is the only way to survive /
.
However
However hard youve been trying its impossible to win them/
,
Whenever
Whenever you would like to see me just call/ -
.

422

Whatever
Whatever she did wasnt a successful choice/ ,
.
Whatsoever
No cheating whatsoever/ .
Whoever
Whoever will call I am off/ .
/ As soon as
I will come as soon as I finish the project/ , -
.

, :
, basically
This basically means they won/ ,
.
Basically you are just a kind of fisherman/
.
Briefly
Briefly name the main points of the meeting/ -
.
Pretty much
She pretty much knows everything already /
.
This toy does pretty much everything from surveillance to intel gath-
ering / :
.
More Likely
Tomorrow more likely Ill leave to Toronto / , ,
.
He more likely will prefer to go fishing versus hunting/ ,
, .
() A way better
Im a way better cooker then you / , .
It seemed a way better idea / .
, Most Likely
He most likely has left to Rome/ , ,
.

423

Most likely Ill be exhausted to go out after a 14hours working day. /
, - -
.
All the same
She knows she is allergic to a grapefruit and applied a lotion with the
essence all the same / , ,
.
Rather
I have some rather upsetting news. / -
.
I would say its rather a fortunate than an upsetting point. / -
, , .
Luckily/ Fortunately
Luckily, a doctor was there / , .
Unfortunately
Unfortunately, he wasnt able to help them / ,
.
It will be too late, unfortunately / , -
.
Generally
Generally speaking its not that hard / ,
.
Generally accepted point is to let her go away /
.
Relatively
The phone is relatively easy to use /
.
It a relatively complicated way to get to our house. /
.
/ Likewise
We expect them to do likewise/ ,
.
I think we should sort the next point together likewise/ ,
.
/ Similarly
You can similarly power off any electronic thing in the
house/ -
.

424

That shake was made similarly just with fat milk instead of soy
one/ ,
, .
At least
I was warmed at least / , .
From afar
I have started my story from afar / -
.
They have come from afar / .
, Comparatively
You must say thank you that you got off comparatively cheap /
, .
This project was comparatively difficult, I had been working up to 10
hours per day / ,
10 .
, Comparably
You are taking a higher position, hence you will have comparably
more duites / ,
.
,Fairly
It has fairly good quality / .
He cooks fairly well /
/ Quite
She is coming home quite late today, there is no point to wait her/
, .
/ Particularly
We werent particularly happy, you know/
, .
/ Especially
Women, especially, but not exclusively/ ,
.
/ Frequently
I frequently go to my secret place to chill out/
.
Occasionally
Ocasionally even I've been eatten fast food/
-.

425

Actually
I am actually here on oficial business/ , -
.
I did that to show my parents that I actually made new friends /
, .
Primarily
The project operates primarily in Asia/ -
.
Primarily you should focus on your studies / -
, , .
Undoubtedly
Undoubtedly, its the best choice ever/,
.
Obviously
She is, obviously, the kindest person Ive ever met/, ,
, .
/ Clearly
Its clearly shown that he is not able to do that/ -
, .
/ Admittedly
That was admittedly the longest way out of the mountains ever/
, .
/ Specifically
Specifically, there are three urgent problems to solve and one, which
could be postponed / , ,
.
/ In theory
In theory it was a way easier/ .
/ / In fact
In fact it appeared to be too hard/
.
I wonder who in fact you are? / , -
?
In fact its not that long! / !
/ In practice
In practice I realized that know nothing about people phycology yet
Ive been studying it for 5 years/ , -
, .

426

()
/ Looking more closely to
As soon as possible
(, ) Twice as (big, high) as
(/) Half as (shorter/lighter) as
Nothing like
Less than
Except for
C On the one way, on the one hand
on the other way, on the other hand
In response to
In short
- By reason of
, for the reason that
For this reason
On account of
(/) On the grounds (of /that)
The cause of
/ , For reason that
/ The reason for
As you would have
As a rule
To some extend
in the event of ( , - )
. In case of
In the same way
Under these reasons
- Under these circumstances
Assuming that
Speaking honestly
Frankly speaking
Telling the truth
To tell you the truth
Generally speaking
/ Getting straight to the
point
Its no good talking
Broadly speaking
Being specific

427

/ Far and by
First and foremost
Putting in other words
saying other way| words by
In other words
, Simply put
It's as
As though
/ It needs to be found
... And an outcome of that is...
It may predominate over .
As far as I know
It seems to me
In simple words,
In plain words
In lay terms
based upon
C relatively speaking
/ By the same token
In my opinion
From my angle of view
In my view
, In my mind
In my experience
() , Personally I believe that
() , I feel (very/strongly) that
/ First of all
Initially
- Firstly
- Secondly
- Thirdly
To start/begin with
In the first place
First and foremost
Formerly
Next
Then
Afterwards
Later on
Alternatively

428

At last
, Last but not least
in the end
Eventually
Lastly
Finally
, not to mention the fact that
In addition to
Seeing that
Now that
() , Considering the fact that
(, ) Concerning
, Regarding the fact that
, In respect to the fact that
With respect to..
Reference to this
For example
For instance
In particular
Namely
Including
As an illustration
At the same time
Equally
Only if
On the whole
/ Simultaneously
At the same time
At that moment
// All things considered
Taking everything into considera-
tion/account
( ), It s obvious that
, There is no doubt that
No doubt
/ To put it briefly
Most importantly is
Most significantly
/ As a matter of fact
Above all

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, Its argued that
, Its agreed that
, From here its easily
seen that
, From here its proven that
() Suppose
What if
According to
Address(es/ing) to
Suggest(s/ing) that
() Arguing (that)
outlining
Highlighting
Focusing on
( , ) Defining
/ Stating
, Mentioning
Maintaining
, , Promoting
/ Establishing
/ Reporting
/ Asserting
Claiming
(-/-) -
The main (first-second/one-other) advantage is
point of view in favour of
It is often suggested
, It is often believed that
Many people are in favour
of
, Some people are convinced that
? What does this have to do with
?
It has everything
(, , ) Herein
Hereinafter
Hereinabove
Hereinunder
/ Heretofore
Aforemetioned /Mentioned before

430

, Inasmuch
albeit
// On a personal experi-
ence/level/note
:
, ! So, thats what you want!
! So thats it!
! Please, God!
! Zool!
! Of course! Certainly! Sure!
! All the more so!
! Alas!
! Deal!
!!! ! hurray! Hurrah!
! Dear me!
! Bravo! !
! Bosh!
! Aha!
.. Ahem
-! Ha-ha! --! Hee-hee!
! Hist! ! Oops / oopsie / oopsy / whoops
! Ouch / Ow! Uh-huh
! Yow / yowza!
! -! Yum! Yummy-yummy!
er
-! --! tut-tut!
! ! Blah! Blah! Blah!
! yikes
! d'oh! ! argh / augh!
? , -
, , -
. ,
. , -
-
.

431

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