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ИнЯз для профессионалов

Е. Н. Безручко

Английский
для архитекторов
И з д а н и е т р е т ь е,
дополненное и переработанное

Пособие по английскому языку


для студентов архитектурных и строительных
специальностей вузов

Издательский центр «МарТ»


Ростов-на-Дону
2010

1
УДК
ББК 81.2 
КТК
Б39

Предисловие к 3-ему изданию

Настоящее учебное пособие представляет собой третье,


исправленное и дополненное издание книги «Английский для
Безручко Е. Н.
архитекторов» (издательство «МарТ», 2004, Е. Н. Безручко).
Б39  Английский для архитекторов : учебное пособие
Цель пособия — формирование и развитие у обучаемых
по английскому языку для студентов архитектурных
умений и навыков эффективного профессионального обще-
и строительных специальностей вузов / Е. Н. Безручко.
ния на английском языке.
— Ростов н/Д : Издательский центр «МарТ» ; Феникс,
В процессе работы над пособием была расширена его
2010. — 306 с. — (ИнЯз для профессионалов).
структура: добавлены новые уроки, задания, переработаны
ISBN тексты. Кроме того, в пособие включены краткий граммати-
ISBN ческий справочник и англо-русский мини-словарь.
Учебное пособие по английскому языку «Архитектура как В новом издании более полно представлен текстовой ма-
наука и искусство» предназначено для тех, кто изучает анг- териал, содержащий информацию об истории развития ми-
лийский язык с учетом потребностей в профессиональной
ровой архитектуры, художественных стилях и направлениях,
сфере — архитектуре. Пособие рассчитано на пользователей,
которые овладели основами общения с использованием со- а также о творчестве выдающихся архитекторов. Профессио-
ответствующих начальному этапу лексико-грамматических нальная направленность пособия призвана повысить мотива-
категорий и речевых моделей. Пособие способствует разви- цию студентов к изучению иностранного языка.
тию и совершенствованию речевой деятельности в английском Пособие состоит из 30 уроков, (в 1–20 уроках даются тек-
языке в области архитектуры. сты по архитектуре, в уроках 21–30 — тексты инженерно-
строительной тематики). Уроки имеют унифицированную
УДК структуру: предтекстовые упражнения, текст, словарь актив-
ББК 81.2 ной лексики, послетекстовые тесты и лексико-грамматиче-
ские задания, упражнения коммуникативного характера.
Представленная система упражнений и тестов направлена
ISBN на обеспечение контроля понимания прочитанного, овладе-
ISBN ние общеупотребительной и терминологической лексикой,

© Е. Н. Безручко, 2010
© Издательский центр «МарТ», 2010
© ООО «Феникс», 2010 3

2
Английский для архитекторов

развитие навыков чтения без словаря, активизацию навыков


употребления правильных грамматических конструкций.
Автор желает преподавателям и студентам успешной ра-
боты по данному учебному пособию и будет рад принять все
замечания и пожелания по улучшению его содержания.
Unit 1
Architecture and the architect

Pre-text exercises

1. Guess the meanings of the following international words.


Architecture, practical, expressive, civilization, culture, primi­
tive, element, natural, human, institution, characteristic, con-
struction, communication, idea, form, constant, social, function,
monumental, hall.

2. Form nouns, using the following suffixes:


-ment: to arrange, to develop, to establish, to require, to settle;
-tion: to civilize, to communicate, to constitute, to institute, to
organize, to recognize.
-ty: activate, continue, realize, secure, stabilize, unite.

3. Match the pairs of synonyms (A) and opposites (B).


(A) importance; building; man; the simplest; to possess; structure;
primitive; to have; a human being; a work of architecture; con-
cern.
(B) civilized; general; with; more; primitive; particular; less; with-
out.

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 1. Architecture and the architect

Read the text. Tests


Tell about the main functions of architecture.
I. Complete the sentences.
The art of architecture 1.  Almost every settled society that possesses the techniques for
Architecture is the art and the technique of building, employed building produces… .
to fulfil the practical and expressive requirements of civilized peo- a) nature b) architecture c) struggle
ple. Almost every settled society that possesses the techniques for 2.  It is necessary in all but the simplest … .
building produces architecture. It is necessary in all but the simplest a) theories b) works c) cultures
cultures; without it, man is confined to a primitive struggle with
the elements; with it, he has not only a defence against the natural 3.  With architecture, man has a prerequisite for the develop­
environment but also the benefits ol a human environment, a pre- ment of civilized … .
requisite for the development of civilized institutions. a) importance b) institutions c) symbols
The characteristics that distinguish a work of architecture from 4.  The stability and permanence of the work's construction is
other man-made structures are (1) the suitability of the work to use a/an … .
by human beings in general and the adaptability of it to particu- a) idea b) form c) constant
lar human activities; the stability and permanence of the work's
5.  If the function is chiefly utilitarian, communication is of less
construction; and (3) the communication of experience and ideas
….
through its form.
a) importance b) condition c) benefit
All these conditions must be met in architecture. The second is a
constant, while the first and the third vary in relative importance ac- 6.  In a monumental tomb, utility is a minor … .
cording to the social function of buildings. If the function is chiefly a) feature b) concern c) experience
utilitarian, as in a factory, communication is of less importance.
7.  Utility and communication are equally important in churches
If the function is chiefly expressive, as in a monumental tomb,
and … .
utility is a minor concern. In some buildings such as churches and
a) markets b) plants c) city halls
city halls, utility and communication may be of equal importance.

Active vocabulary II. Choose the correct adjective.


environment — окружающая среда 1.  Architecture should fulfil the practical and expressive re-
structure — структура, строй, строение quirements of … people.
construction — построение, строительство, стройка; построй- a) primitive b) civilized c) common
ка, сооружение 2.  With architecture, man has benefits of a/an … environment.
building — здание a) essential b) natural c) human
factory — фабрика
tomb — гробница 3.  Expressive and utilitarian functions  in architecture may
church — церковь vary in … importance.
city hall — ратуша a) principal b) relative c) expressive
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Английский для архитекторов Unit 1. Architecture and the architect

4.  In a … tomb, the function is chiefly expressive. 4.  There are no differences between a work of architecture and
a) monumental b) brick c) social other man-made structures.
5.  The stability and permanence of the work's construction is
5.  Utility and communication may be of … importance  in
a constant for all types of buildings.
churches and city halls.
6.  In a factory, utility and communication are of equal impor­
a) simple b) practical c) equal
tance.
III. Choose the correct preposition.
II. Translate into Russian.
1. … architecture, man is confined to a primitive struggle with
the elements.
III. Use the following in the sentences of your own.
a) By b) At c) Without d) In
ŠŠ to be of less importance
2.  There are some characteristics that distinguish a work of
ŠŠ to be of great importance
architecture … other man-made structures.
ŠŠ to be of equal importance
a) from b) behind c) with d) for
3.  With architecture, he has a defence … the natural environ­ IV. Match the words and their definitions.
ment.
1. Culture. 2. The elements. 3. Institution. 4. Technique. 5. Work.
a) in b) behind c) against d) under
a) a method of doing something using a special skill that you have
4.  The combination of experience and  ideas … the work's developed; b)a society that has its own set of ideas, beliefs, and ways
form is one of the functions of architecture. of behaving; c) the weather, especially wind and rain; d)something
a) with b) between c) after d) through produced by a painter, writer, etc; e) an important tradition on
5.  All these conditions must be met… architecture. which society is based.
a) at b) in c) from d) on
V. Translate into English.

Exercises ŠŠ требования цивилизованных людей;


ŠŠ борьба со стихией;
I. Using the information from the text find out  ŠŠ природная среда;
if the following statements are true or false. ŠŠ предпосылка и символ;
ŠŠ произведение архитектуры;
1.  Architecture should fulfil requirements of primitive people. ŠŠ стихия;
2. Without architecture, man is confined to a primitive struggle ŠŠ в соответствии с общественной функцией зданий;
with the elements. ŠŠ ратуша; здание муниципалитета.
3.  Structures should be built according to aesthetic and func­
tional criteria.

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Английский для архитекторов

VI. These are the types of architecture.


A.  Give the examples of each type. Use the words and word com-
binations from the box.
ŠŠ Domestic Architecture
ŠŠ Religious Architecture
ŠŠ Governmental Architecture
Unit 2
ŠŠ Recreational Architecture
ŠŠ Architecture of Welfare and Education
Architectural planning
ŠŠ Commercial and Industrial Architecture
theatres, hospitals, guardhouses, capitols, schools, stores, prisons,
parliament buildings, museums, shrines, court houses, villas,
circuses, athletic facilities, factories, huts, banks, exhibition halls,
mines, churches, hostelries, libraries, apartment houses, markets, Pre-text exercises
publishing houses, mansions, post offices, laboratories.
1.  Guess the meanings of the following international words.
B.  Make up the sentences of your own with the words from the
box. Type, attack, comfortable, control, effect, form, to discuss,
fun­damental, element, aesthetics, architecture, orientation,
VII. Answer the following questions. air, circulation, characteristics, to intensify, to produce, design,
natural, colour, function, absorption, material, pigment, balance,
1. Why did you make up your mind to become an architect? economic, thermal, conflict, interior, special, temperature, me­
2. Did anybody advice you to choose a career? thod, program, type, culture, individual, primitive, recreation, hall,
3. What do you think the word ‘architecture’ mean? limit, phase.
4. What famous architects do you know?
2.  These are the false friends of the interpreter.
VIII. Speak on the topic: «I've chosen architecture as a career Translate them and memorize their meanings.
because…».
Termite, extremes, technique, activity, patron, apartment,
Highlight at least 5 points which make profession so attractive. procedure.

3.  Use these prefixes and suffixes to form a) verbs, b) nouns,


c) adjectives.
with-: draw, hold, stand;
dis-: advantage, appearance, approval, comfort, order;
-age: cover, grill, lever, sewer, store;
-able: adapt, comfort, habit, change, move.

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 2. Architectural planning

4.  Match the pairs of opposites. Colour. Colour has a practical planning function as well as an
expressive quality because of the range of its reflection and its ab-
Absorb, dark, receive, advantage, intensify, dryness, useful,
sorption of solar rays. Since light colours reflect heat and dark co-
unsuccessful, high, dependent, moisture, useless, reflect, collective,
lours absorb it, the choice of materials and pigments is an effective
disadvantage, reduce, individual, low, independent, give, light,
tool of environmental control.
successful.
Materials and techniques. The choice of materials is conditioned
by their own ability to withstand the environment as well as by
Read the text. properties that make them useful to human beings. One of the
Give your reasons that the architect must possess architect's jobs is to find a successful solution to both conditions;
the knowledge in different sciences to balance the physical and economic advantages of wood against
the possibility of fire, termites, and mold, the weather resistance of
The architect usually begins to work when the site type and cost glass and light metals against their high thermal conductivity, and
of a building have been determined. many similar conflicts.
Planning the environment. The natural environment is at once Interior control. The control of the environment through the de-
a hindrance and a help, and the architect seeks both to invite its sign of the plan and the outer shell of a building cannot be com­plete,
aid and to repel its attacks. To make buildings habitable and com­­ since extremes of heat and cold, light, and sounds penetrate into
fortable, he must control the effects of heat, cold, light, air, mois- the interior, where they can be further modified by the planning of
ture, and dryness and foresee destructive potentialities such as fire, spaces and by special conditioning devices.
earthquake, flood, and disease. Temperature, light and sound are all subject to control by the
The placement and form of buildings in relation to their sites, size and shape of interior spaces, the way in which the spaces are
the distribution of spaces within buildings, and other planning connected, and the materials employed for floors, walls, ceilings,
devices discussed below are fundamental elements in the aesthetics and furnishings.
of architecture. Today, heating, insulation, air conditioning, lighting, and acous-
Orientation. The arrangement of the axes of buildings and their parts  tical methods have become basic parts of the architectural program.
is a device for controlling the effects of sun, wind, and rainfall. Planning for use. While environmental planning produces com­
Within buildings, the axis and placement of each space deter- fort for the senses (sight, feeling, hearing) and reflexes (respiration),
mine the amount of sun it receives. Orientation may control air for planning for use or function is concerned with convenience of
circulation and reduce the disadvantages of wind, rain, and snow. movement and rest.
The characteristics of the immediate environment also influ­ Differentiation. The number of functions requiring distinct
ence orientation: trees, land formation, and other buildings create kinds of space within a building depends not only upon the type
shade and reduce or intensify wind, while bodies of water produce of building but also upon the requirements of the culture and the
moisture and reflect the sun. habits and activities of i he individual patrons. A primitive house
Architectural forms. Planning may control the environment by has a single room with a hearth area, and a modern one has a se­
the design of architectural forms that may modify the effects of pa­rate areas for cooking, eating, sleeping, washing, storage, and
natural forces. recreation. A meeting-house with a single hall is sufficient for Quaker

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 2. Architectural planning

religious services, while a Roman Catholic cathedral may require Tests


a nave, aisles, choir, apse, chapels, crypt, sacristy, and aimbulatory.
Economic planning. Major expenses in buildings are for land, I. Choose the correct word.
materials, and labour. In each case they are high when the com­
1. The placement and form of buildings in relation to their
modity is scarce and low when it is abundant, and they influence
… is one of the fundamental elements in the aesthetics of
planning more directly when they become restrictive.
architecture.
When land coverage is limited, it is usually necessary to design in
a) square b) comfort c) sites
height the space that otherwise would be planned in breadth and
depth, as in the ancient Roman insula (apartment houses) or the 2.  The arrangement of the … of buildings and their parts con-
modern skyscraper. When the choice of materials is influenced trols the effects of sun, wind, and rainfall.
by cost, all phases of architectural design are affected, since the a) rooms b) axes c) spaces
planning procedure, the technique, and the form of buildings are 3.  The characteristics of the immediate … also influence ori-
dependent on materials. High labour cost influence the choice of entation,
techniques and, consequently, of materials. a) environment b) territory c) building
Active vocabulary 4.  Bodies of water produce … and reflect the sun.
axis — ось a) shade b) moisture c) wind
mold — (зд.) плесень 5.  Colour has a practical planning … and expressive quality,
extremes — экстремально высокие и низкие температуры a) choice b) feature c) function
meeting house — молитвенный дом
cathedral — собор 6.  Planning for use is concerned with convenience of… and
nave — неф rest.
aisle — боковой неф a) movement b) parts c) requirements
choir — хоры 7.  Major expenses in building are for …, materials, and labour,
apse — апсида a) habits b) land c) phase
chapel — часовня
crypt — склеп II. Complete the sentences.
sacristy — ризница
1.  The architect usually begins to work when … .
ambulatory — крытая внутренняя галерея
a) a project of a building has been made
b) the site type and cost of a building have been determined
c) the choice of materials'has been made
2.  The effects of sun, wind and rainfall are controlled by … .
a) the height of a building
b) aesthetical usage of spaces
c) the arrangements of the axes of buildings and their parts

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 2. Architectural planning

3.  The choice of materials and pigments is … . Exercises


a) an effective tool of environmental control
b) a device for distribution of spaces I.  Classify the words from the box to the subject.
c) not connected with the function of a building
*Parts of architectural program *Parts of house* Kinds of inner
4.  Extremes of heat and cold, light and sounds … space*
a) are regulated by fundamental elements of the aesthetics
Heating, wall, kitchen, bathroom, ceiling, air conditioning, study,
of architecture
acoustics, a hearth area, floor, lighting, dining room, hall.
b) penetrate into the interior
c) are of less importance for interior control II.  Match the beginnings of the sentences to their ends using
5.  The number of functions depends not only upon the type of the information from the text.
building but also upon…
a) the site type 1. To make buildings habitable a) the environment by the de­
b) the amount of sun it receives and comfortable the archi­ sign of architectural forms
c) the requirements of the culture and the habits and acti­ tect… b) is an effective tool of envi­
vities of the individual patrons 2.  Trees, land formations, and ron­­mental control
other buildings create … c) room with a heat area
III.  Choose the correct adjective. 3.  Planning may control … d) must control the effects of
4.  Extremes of heat and cold… the natural environment
1.  To make buildings … and comfortable, the architect must 5.  The choice of materials and e) light and sound penetrate
control the effects of natural environment. pigments … into the interior
a) habitual b) habitable c) hospitable 6.  A primitive house has a sin- f) a nave, aisles, choir, apse,
2.  Colour has a … planning function as well as an expressive gle … cha­pels, crypt, sacristy, and
quality. 7.  A Roman Catholic cathe­ ambulatory
a) practical b) great c) structural dral may require … g) shade and reduce or inten­
sify wind
3.  Light colours reflect heat and … colours absorb it.
a) pale b) blue c) dark II. Replace the words and word combinations in italics (A)
4.  The architect should balance the weather resistance of glass by their contextual synonyms (B).
and … A) 1. The natural environment  is at once a hindrance and
metals against their high thermal conductivity. a help, and the architect seeks both to invite its aid and
a) bright b) light c) solar repel its attacks.
5.  A… house has separate areas for cooking, eating, sleeping, 2. The architect must foresee destructive potentialities such
storage, and recreation. as fire, earthquake, flood, and disease.
a) ancient b) primitive c) modern 3. The placement and form of buildings in relation to their
sites, the distribution of spaces within buildings, and other

16 17
Английский для архитекторов Unit 2. Architectural planning

planning devices are fundamental elements in the aesthet- V. Answer the questions.
ics of architecture.
1.  When does the architect begin to work on the project?
4. Orientation may control air for circulation and reduce the
2.  What are the main aspects of architectural planning?
disadvantages of wind, rain, and snow.
3. What are the fundamental elements in the aesthetics of ar­
5. Planning may control the environment by the design of
chi­tecture?
architectural forms that may modify the effects of natural
4.  What must the architect control to make buildings habitable
forces.
and comfortable?
6. The choice of materials is conditioned by their own ability
5.  What is the planning for use concerned with?
to: withstand the environment as well as by properties that
6.  What are the major expenses in building?
make them useful to human beings.
7. One of the architect's functions is to find a successful
solution to both conditions.
B) to look for, to resist, to diminish, people, subversive, to vary,
basic, a task.

III.  Translate into English.


отразить атаку; пригодный для жилья; расположение,
по­ложение; результаты воздействия солнца, ветра и дождя;
создавать влажность и отражать солнечные лучи; важное (эф-
фективное) средство контроля; выбор материалов для строи-
тельства; способность противостоять воздействиям окру-
жающей среды; отопление, изоляция, кондиционирование
воздуха, освещение, акустические методы; функциональное
планирование; боковой неф; склеп, ризница, часовня, рас-
ходы; влиять на выбор материалов; зависеть от требовании
заказчика.

IV. With your partner, speak on the different aspects


of architectural planning.
Suggested topics:
ŠŠ Environmental Design
ŠŠ Materials and Techniques
ŠŠ Aesthetic and Functional Criteria in Architecture
ŠŠ Economics and Architectural Planning

18 19
Unit 3. Egyptian architecture

5.  Translate into Russian paying attention


to the words in italics.
1. He always works hard. 2. The bridge was closed for repair
works. 3. The researchers didn’t conduct experiments on animals.
4. He often experiments with new materials. 5. The wide avenue
Unit 3 borders the park. 6. We can’t cross the border without documents.
7. She will show you all the sights of the city. 8. There was a new
Egyptian architecture show in the theatre yesterday.

Read the text and tell about the monuments


of ancient Egypt

Pre-text exercises During the Old Kingdom, the period when Egypt was ruled
by the Kings of the 3rd to 6th Dynasties, artists and craftsmen were
1.  Guess the meanings of the following international words. drawn to the court to work under tbe patronage of the king and
Period, dynasty, metal, progress, to demonstrate, monument, his great nobles. Techniques of working in stone, wood, and metal
pyramid, economy, material, experiment, to produce, formal, made tremendous progress. It is demonstrated by surviving large
pose, cultivation, contact, civilization, to import, relief, universal, scale monuments, such as the pyramids of the 4th Dynasty and the
traditional, style. sun temples built by the 5th Dynasty kings. The pyramids of the
4th Dynasty are the most spectacular of all funerary works and the
2.  These are the false friends of the interpreter. only remained wonder of the world. These monuments celebrated
Translate them and memorize their meanings. the divinity of the kings of Egypt, linking the people with the great
gods of earth and sky.
Artist, court, impressive, plaster, originally, mark. This was a time when trade and economy flourished. Crafts­men
worked in the finest materials, and were able to experiment with
3.  Use the following suffixes to form nouns. techniques of metalworking. This enabled them to produce large
-ment: refine, establish, encourage, enrich, embellish; metal figures. The earliest that survive are the copper statues of Pepi I
-tion: cultivate, civilize, demonstrate; and his son, found at Hierakonpolis. Made c. 2330 BC they are badly
-ity: divine, simple, stable, active. corroded but still impressive in their stiffly formal poses. The eyes
are inlaid, and the crown and the kilt of the king, now missing, were
4.  Match the pairs of synonyms. probably originally made of gilded plaster.
During the prosperous period known as the Middle Kingdom
Craftsman, temple, to flourish, fortress, to survive, shrine,
fortresses were built to defend the southern and eastern borders, and
artisan, to thrive, citadel, to outlive.
new areas of land were brought under cultivation. Craftsmen achieved

20 21
Английский для архитекторов Unit 3. Egyptian architecture

new levels of excellence. Very little architecture remains — many Tests


royal monuments were robbed for their stone in later periods —
but what has survived shows great simplicity and refinement. The I. Choose the correct sentence.
example is the pyramid of Sesostris I at Lisht.
1.  Craftsmen worked in the finest materials.
The establishment of the 18th Dynasty marked the beginning of
a) Craftsmen used precious stones for their creations.
the New Kingdom and a new blossoming of the arts and crafts of
b) Craftsmen used concrete in their work.
ancient Egypt. Craftsmen benefited from wider contact with other
c) It was forbidden for craftsmen to use the finest materials 
civilizations, such as those of Crete and Mesopotamia, and were
in their work.
also able to work with imported raw materials.
The kings ordered to artists and craftsmen to build great temples 2.  The copper statues of Pepi I and his son are still impressive.
and palaces all over Egypt. The temple walls were covered with a) These statues were made of stone.
reliefs celebrating the achievements of the kings and the power of b) The copper statues of Pepi I and his son have not survived.
the gods. The courtyards and inner sanctuaries were enriched with c) These statues have the power of affecting and gaining
statuary. The most notable monuments are the Mortuary Temple of attention and feeling.
Queen Hatsheput at Deir-el-Bahari (c. 1480 ВС) and magnificent 3.  Fortresses were built to defend the southern and eastern bor-
Great Temple at Karnak to Amon as the universal god of Egypt. ders of ancient Egypt.
Ancient Egyptian architecture was revived under the Pto­le­ a) Fortresses were built in the west of ancient Egypt.
mies, the successors of Alexander the Great, who built numerous b) Fortresses were erected to protect the southern and
temples of traditional style. The finest examples that survive are eastern boundaries of ancient Egypt.
the Temple of Horus at Etfu and the temples on the islands of c) During the Middle Kingdom many fortresses were built.
Philae (c. 323–30 ВС).
4.  The beginning of the New Kingdom is associated with the
Active vocabulary blossoming of the arts and crafts of ancient Egypt.
craftsman — ремесленник a) This was a period of stagnation in the history of ancient
large-scale — крупномасштабный Egypt.
copper — медь b) In this period craftsmen and artists were ordered great
inlaid — инкрустирован temples and palaces to be built throughout Egypt.
funerary works — погребальные сооружения c) During the New Kingdom the arts and crafts flourished.
relief — рельеф 5.  The Ptolomies built numerous temples of traditional style.
sanctuary — святилище, алтарь a) Numerous palaces were built by the Ptolomies.
statuary — скульптура b) Many traditional temples were constructed under the
temple — храм Ptolomies.
gilded plaster — позолота c) Ancient Egyptian architecture was revived under the kings
raw materials — сырье of the 4th Dynasty.
mortuary — погребальный
ramp — скат, уклон

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 3. Egyptian architecture

II. Complete the sentences. a) Tuthmosis III


b) Alexander the Great
1.  I Hiring the Old Kingdom artists and craftsmen … .
c) Queen Hatsheput
a) were forbidden to work in metal
b) worked under the patronage of king
III. Choose the correct form of the verb.
c) built pyramids and temples
1.  During the Old Kingdom Egypt … by the kings of the 3rd to
2.  Craftsmen were able to experiment with … .
6th Dynasties.
a) stone and new techniques of metalworking
a) was ruling b) have ruled
b) concrete and clay
c) was ruled d) will rule
c) ivory and granite
2.  Techniques of working in stone, wood, and metal … tremen-
3.  The surviving examples, found at Hierakonpolis are … .
dous progress.
a) the sun temples of the 5th Dynasty.
a) made b) have made
b) the copper statues of Pepi I and his son
c) makes d) was making
c) the Temple of Mut and the Temple of Amum
3.  These monuments … the divinity of the Egyptian kings.
4.  Very little architecture of the Middle Kingdom remains be-
a) celebrate b) will celebrate
cause … .
c) have been celebrating d) celebrated
a) many royal monuments were robbed
b) of earthquakes 4.  The earliest that… are the copper statues of Pepi I and his
c) of wars son at Hierakonpolis.
a) were surviving b) survives
5.  Craftsmen benefited from wider contact with other civili­
c) survive d) will survive
zations such as those of … .
a) India and China 5.  Fortresses … to defend the southern and eastern borders,
b) Crete and Mesopotamia a) built b) were built
c) Assyria c) build d) builds
6.  The most notable monuments of the New Kingdom are … . 6.  Very little architecture … — many royal monuments were
a) the Mortuary Temple of Queen Hatsheput at Deir-el- robbed in later periods.
Bahari and the Great Temple of Amon at Karnak a) had remained b) remain
b) Zoser's necropolis at Sakkara and Great Pyramid at c) has been remained d) remains
El-Gizeh 7.  Craftsmen … from wider contact with other civilizations.
c) The Temple of Horus at Etfu and the temples on the island a) benefit b) benefited
of Philae c) benefits d) will benefit
7.  Ancient Egyptian architecture was revived under the Pto­
lemies, the successors of … .

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 3. Egyptian architecture

IV. Choose the correct preposition. II. Match the beginnings of the sentences to their ends
using the information from the text.
1.  Craftsmen and artists were drawn to the court to work … the
patronage of the king. 1.  During the Old Kingdom a) the Great temple of
a) with b) under c) about d) at techniques of … Amon
2.  The sun temples were built… the 5th Dynasty. 2.  These monuments celebrated b) are the copper statues of
a) from b) on c) into d) by the divinity of the kings of Pepi I and his son
Egypt… c) working  in stone made
3.  Craftsmen worked… the finest materials.
3.  Fortresses were built to defend tremendous progress
a) with b) for c) in d) after
… d) were robbed in later pe­
4.  New areas of land were brought… cultivation. 4.  The earliest surviving large riods
a) under b) from c) over d) on metal figures … e) the southern and eastern
5.  Craftsmen benefited from con- borders of the kingdom
5.  The Ptolemies built numerous temples … the island of Phi-
tact with … f) Crete and Mesopotamia
lae.
6.  Many royal monuments of the g) linking the people with
b) on c) above d) in
Middle Kingdom … the great gods of earth
7.  The most notable monuments and sky
Exercises of the New Kingdom are the
Mortuary Temple of Queen
I. Fill in the gaps with the words from the text. Hatsheput and …
1.  Techniques of working in stone, …, and metal made tre­
mendous progress, demonstrated by … monuments. III. Find the false sentences using the information from
2.  These monuments celebrated the … of the kings of Egypt, the text. Correct them.
linking the people with the great… of earth and sky. 1. Techniques of working in concrete made tremendous pro­
3.  Craftsmen worked  in the … materials which were often gress.
brought great… . 2.  The finest materials for craftsmen were often brought great
4.  The earliest that … are the copper statues of Pepi I and his distances.
son … at Hierakonpolis. 3.  Many architectural monuments of the Middle Kingdom can
5.  The prosperous period known as the Middle … began with be seen nowadays.
the reunification of the country. 4.  Craftsmen of the New Kingdom were in contact with the
6.  Many royal monuments were … for their stone in later pe­ Romans.
riods but what has survived shows great simplicity and … . 5.  The Mortuary Temple of Queen Hatsheput is near Cairo.
7.  The temple walls were covered with … celebrating … of the 6.  Ancient Egyptian architecture was revived under the Pto­
kings and the powers of the gods. lemies.

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 3. Egyptian architecture

IV. Change into passive. ŠŠ под покровительством царя и знати;


ŠŠ храмы солнца;
1.  The king of the Old Kingdom drew artists and craftsmen to
ŠŠ достигать новых вершин мастерства;
the court to work.
ŠŠ расцвет искусств и ремесел;
2.  They robbed many royal monuments for their stone.
ŠŠ поощрять художников и ремесленников;
3.  Artists and craftsmen covered the temple walls with reliefs.
ŠŠ достижения, прославляющие царей и могущество бо­
4.  They enriched the courtyards with statuary.
гов;
V. Find in the text the synonyms of the following words. ŠŠ погребальный храм царицы Хатшепсут;
ŠŠ преемники Александра Великого
pharaohs; spectacular; gigantic, to protect; to plunder.

VI. Say in other way using the information from the text. Read the text and tell about one of the greatest
monuments of Egyptian architecture
1.  Artists and craftsmen were given orders by the pharaohs.
2.  The pyramids of the 4th Dynasty are the most spectacular GREAT SPHINX
monuments of the Old Kingdom.
From the 15th century AD European travellers carried home
3.  Many Royal monuments of the Middle Kingdom were plun­
tales of the mysterious and amazing remains of the civilization of
dered.
Egypt. One of its most remarkable monuments, which still evokes
4.  They built fortresses to protect the southern and eastern
this sense of awe and might, is the Great Sphinx of Gizeh, the oldest
bor­ders.
surviving sphinx, dating from c. 2550 ВС, carved from a rock with
5.  Techniques of working  in stone, wood, and metal were
the crouching body of a lion and a human face.
used in gigantic monuments.
The human head was the means of individualizing the sculpture,
VII. Answer the following questions. so that the Great Sphinx probably bears the idealized features of
Khephren whose pyramid is nearby.
1. Into what periods could ancient Egyptian architecture be The concept of the king as a powerful lion goes back into pre-
classified? historic times, and several ceremonial objects have survived which
2.  Who is supposed to be the first named architect? depict him in this guise, overthrowing his enemies. The sphinx was,
3.  What typical structures did the architecture of Egypt pro­ therefore, a natural development, personifying the divine power
duce? of the king as a force protecting his land and repelling the power
4.  What is the only remained wonder of the world? of evil.
5.  When did the final revival of ancient Egyptian architecture The Great Sphinx is one of the most distinctive and dominant of
take place? all the images of ancient Egypt, which is perhaps the source of the
6.  What are the greatest examples of the period of revival? misconception that sphinxes are of central importance in Egyptian
culture. However, those that have survived are among the most im-
VIII. Translate into English. pressive as well as intriguing examples of Egyptian sculpture.
ŠŠ художники и ремесленники;

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 3. Egyptian architecture

Active vocabulary 3.  The Great Sphinx has a crouching body of a lion and … .
remains — (зд.) руины a) a dragon's head
sandstone — песчаник (-овый) b) a human face
c) a cow's head

Tests 4.  The sphinx personified … .


a) the divine power of the king
I. Choose the synonyms to the words in italics. b) the mighty of God
c) the greatness of the Roman Empire
1.  European travellers saw the mysterious and amazing remains
of the ancient Egyptian civilization. 5.  The concept of the king as a powerful lion goes back into… .
a) astonishing b) c) a) the Middle Ages
b) the Archaic period
2.  The Great Sphinx probably bears the idealized features of c) prehistoric times
Khephren.
a) remains b) characteristics c) points
Exercises
3.  The concept of the king as a powerful lion goes back into
prehistoric limes. I.  Translate into English.
л) idea b) story c) theme
ŠŠ 15 век нашей эры;
4.  The sphinx personifies the divine power of the king. ŠŠ вызывать чувство страха;
a) individual b) human c) sacred ŠŠ идеализированные черты фараона Хефрена;
5.  The Great Sphinx is one of the most distinctive and domin­ ŠŠ доисторическая эпоха;
ant of all the images of ancient Egypt. ŠŠ олицетворяющий божественную силу царя;
a) structures b) idols c) persons ŠŠ сила, защищающая родную землю и отгоняющая силы
зла.
II.  Complete the sentences.
II. Replace the words in italics by their contextual synonyms.
1.  European travellers saw the mysterious and amazing … .
a) ruins of the Hanging Gardens of Semeramide A) 1. From the 15th с AD European travellers told about mys­
b) remains of the civilization of Egypt terious and amazing remains of the civilization of Egypt.
c) ruins of the Parthenon 2. The Great Sphinx of Gizeh is one of the most remarkable
monuments of ancient Egypt.
2.  The Great Sphinx of Gizeh was … . 3. The concept of the king as a powerful Lion goes back into
a) made of marble prehistoric times.
b) created by Imhotep 4. The sphinx personified the divine power of the king as a
c) carved from rock force protecting his land.

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Английский для архитекторов

B) obscure, astonishing; outstanding, notable, distinctive;


mighty, strong; defending.

III. Use the following expressions to describe


the Great Sphinx of Gizeh.
ŠŠ the sense of awe and might; Unit 4
ŠŠ carved from a natural outcrop of rock;
ŠŠ a powerful lion; overthrowing his enemies; Ancient Greek architecture
ŠŠ the divine power of a king;
ŠŠ a force protecting his land;
ŠŠ repelling the power of evil;
ŠŠ the most distinctive and dominant image of ancient Egypt.
Pre-text exercises
IV. Your friend has just returned from Egypt. Ask him about
his impressions. Make up a dialogue, using the following. 1. Guess the meanings of the following international words.
— Where did you go? — I went… Ruins, architectural, column, facade, design, statue, pantheon,
— What did you see there? — I saw … anonymous, architect, proportion, monumental, frieze, procession,
— What did you visit? — I visited … cult, motif, colonnade, construction.
— What did you like? — I liked…
— What did you buy? — I bought… 2.  These are the false friends of interpreter. Translate them
and memorize their meanings.
Festival, brilliant, finish, complement.

3.  Analyze the word-formation model of the following


words.
Architecture — architectural, build — builder — building, god —
goddess, fine — refine — refinement, love — lovely — loveliness,
monument — monumental, grand — grandeur, parallel — unparal-
leled, portray — portrayal, process — procession — processional,
festive — festivity — festival, honour — honourable, differ — dif-
ferent — differentiate, serve — service, construct — construction.

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 4. Ancient Greek architecture. The Athenian Acropolis

Read the text and describe the Acropolis monuments portrayal — изображение
porch — портик, крытая галерея
The Athenian Acropolis site — место, положение, участок
treasury — сокровищница
As one of the world's oldest cities Athens boasts a wealth of
gateway — подход
splendid relics of Hellenic art, some of which are more than
floor — пол; этаж, ярус
3,000 years old. The Acropolis, the Greek for upper town, the gem
of world architecture, stands on a low rocky hill and contains the
ruins of several ancient Greek architectural monuments. Tests
The Parthenon, a stately building with an eight-column facade,
was built by Ictinus and Callicrates in 447–38 ВС. The temple was I.  Complete the sentences.
designed to serve as an exquisite, imposing architectural framе for a 1.  The Acropolis means… .
gold and ivory statue of Athena, the goddess in the Greek pantheon a) upper town
watching over the city. b) a platform
Next to the Parthenon is another shrine, an Ionic temple of c) front elevation
Athena, the Erechtheum, built by an anonymous architect in 421–
06 ВС. Its refined loveliness and proportions are as enchanting as 2.  The Parthenon was built by … .
the monumental grandeur of the Parthenon. It has the unparalleled a) an anonymous architect
portrayal on the frieze of the building: the procession of citizens in b) Imhotep
the festival in honour of Athena. Built on an awkward site, it also c) Ictinus and Callicrates
had to serve different cults, which meant that its architect had to 3.  The Parthenon was a display place for a great statue of … .
design a building with three porches and three different floor le­ a) Hera
vels. Its Caryatid porch, with figures of women for columns, makes b) Athena
use of an old Oriental motif that had appeared earlier, in Archaic c) Alexander the Great
treasuries at Delphi.
The monumental gateway to the Acropolis, the Propylaea 4.  The Erechtheum was also designed to serve different … .
was designed by Mnesicles, who had to adapt the rigid conven- a) cults b) architects c) cities
tions of colonnade construction to a steeply rising site. In the 5.  The porch of the Erechtheum has figures of … for columns.
precision and finish of their execution, which complements the a) atlases b) caryatids c) sphinxes
brilliant innovation of their design, these three buildings had no
6.  In the Propylaea the rigid conventions of colonnade const­
rival in the Greek world.
ruction were adapted to a steeply rising … .
Active vocabulary a) floor b) building c) site
frame — оправа, обрамление 7.  The Propylaea was … to the Acropolis.
ivory — слоновая кость a) a temple
shrine — святилище, храм

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 4. Ancient Greek architecture. The Athenian Acropolis

b) the monumental gateway Exercises


c) staircase
I.  Find in text the words that have the following meanings.
II. Choose the correct adjective.
ŠŠ An area of land where something is being built;
1.  The Acropolis is the gem of… architecture. ŠŠ all of the gods worshipped by people, who belong to a par-
а) European b) contemporary c) world ticular religion;
ŠŠ the best of particular kind;
2.  The temple was designed to serve as a/an…, imposing archi­
ŠŠ an impressive quality that a place, object, or occasion has.
tectural frame for the statue of Athena.
а) exquisite b) rocky c) deep
II.  Replace the words in italics (A) by synonyms (B).
3.  The Erechtheum was built by a/an … architect.
(A) 1. The wealth of splendid relics of Hellenic art can be seen in
a) famous b) talented c) anonymous
Athens.
4.  Its caryatid porch features an old … motif. 2. T  he Acropolis contains the ruins of several ancient Greek
a) Oriental b) monumental c) world architectural monuments.
3. The temple served as an exquisite, imposing architectural
III. Choose the correct form of the verb. frame for the statue of Athena.
1.  The Acropolis … on a low rocky hill. 4. Next to the Parthenon is another shrine, the Erechtheum.
a) was standing b) stood 5. It was built by an anonymous architect.
c) stands d) are standing 6. Its refined loveliness and proportions are every bit as
enchanting as the monumental grandeur of the Parthenon.
2.  The Parthenon … by Ictinus and Callicrates. 7. These three buildings had no rival in the Greek world.
a) will be built b) is built
c) builds d) was built (B) The remains, ancient Greek, unknown, greatness, temple,
landmarks, delicate, competitor.
3.  An old Oriental motif with figures of women for columns …
in the composition of the Erechtheum. III.  Fill in the gaps with the words from the text.
a) was used b) used
c) use d) uses 1.  The Acropolis, the gem of world …, stands on a low
2.  The Parthenon is with an eight-column facade.
4.  The Propylaea … by Mnesicles. 3.  The statue of Athena stood in … of the shrine.
a) designed b) is designed 4. The Erechtheum is an … temple.
c) was designed d) has been designed 5.  It has the unparalleled … of a contemporary event on the …
5.  The major buildings of the Acropolis … no rival in the Greek of the building.
world, 6.  This Oriental motif had appeared earlier … at Delphi.
a) have b) had 7.  In the precision and finish of their … these Acropolis buil­
c) are having d) has dings had no… in the Greek world.

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 4. Ancient Greek architecture. The Athenian Acropolis

IV.  Find the false sentences using the information from ŠŠ не имеющий себе равных;
the text. Correct them. ŠŠ на фризе здания;
ŠŠ в честь богини Афины;
1.  The Parthenon is a stately building with a six-column facade.
ŠŠ сокровищницы в Дельфе периода архаики;
2. The Erechtheum was designed to serve as an imposing ar-
ŠŠ соперник.
chitectural frame for a gold and ivory statue of Athena.
3.  This statue has not survived.
VII. Make up a written story or an oral report on one of the
4. The Erechtheum is a Corinthian temple.
suggested topics.
5.  The architect of the Erechtheum had to design a building
with three different floor levels. ŠŠ Ancient Greek Town Planning
6.  The Propylaea was built by Callicrates. ŠŠ Domestic Architecture of Ancient Greece
7.  The most impressive examples of Greek architecture are the ŠŠ Greek Theatre
buildings constructed for the Athenian Acropolis.
VIII. Interview your partner as an expert in ancient Greek
V. Answer the following questions. architecture. Use the following words and expressions.
1.  What is the Greek for «upper town»? Splendid relics of Hellenic art, gem, upper town, an architectural
2.  What are the major buildings of the Acropolis? frame, an Ionic temple, treasuries, gateway, the rigid conventions
3.  Who designed the Parthenon? of colonnade construction, a steeply rising site, precision, a rival.
4.  What was the Parthenon designed for?
5.  Why was the statue of Athena held in deep reverence?
6.  Who designed the Erechtheum?
7.  What is the Propylaea?
8.  Why do you think these monuments are the finest models
for all generations of architecture?

VI. Translate into English.


ŠŠ один из древнейших городов мира;
ŠŠ замечательные памятники древнегреческого искусства;
ŠŠ шедевр мировой архитектуры;
ŠŠ небольшой скалистый холм;
ŠŠ архитектурное обрамление;
ŠŠ из золота и слоновой кости;
ŠŠ жесткие условия;
ŠŠ была высокочтимым предметом культа;
ŠŠ ионический храм;

38 39
Unit 5. Orders of architecture

4.  Translate into Russian paying attention


to the words in italics.
1. You may give the information in electronic form. 2. These
decorative elements form the composition of the building facade.
3. London is the capital of Great Britain. 4. Capital expenditure is
Unit 5 money that a company spends on equipment and buildings. 5. Let’s
change these gloomy curtains. 6. A conference on climate change
Orders of architecture will be held soon in Stockholm.

Read the text and tell about the different types


of columns in ancient architecture.

Pre-text exercises The first step in architecture was the replacement of wooden pil-
lars with stone ones, and the translation of the carpentry and brick
1. Guess the meanings of the following international words. structural forms into stone equivalents. This provided an oppor-
tunity for the expression of proportion and pattern and resulted in
Architecture, structural, equivalent, form, expression, pro­
the invention of the stone ‘orders’ of architecture. These orders,
por­tion, result, section, order, specific, type, entablature, facade,
or arrangements of specific types of columns supporting an upper
basic, decorative, classical, base, column, massive, variant, theme,
section called an entablature, defined the pattern of the columnar
functionally, favourite, colony, history, volute, vertical, stereotype,
facades and upperworks that formed the basic decorative shell of
ambitious, version, cornice, combine.
buildings.
In classical architecture, there are three orders: the Doric, Io­
2.  Use the suffixes to form a) adjectives b) verbs.
nic, and Corinthian, invented by the Greeks. The Tuscan and the
a) -ic: artist, base, class, cube; Composite orders were added by the Romans.
-less: base, emotion, end, home, use; The oldest order, the Doric, is subdivided into Greek Doric and
-ern: east, west, north, south; Roman Doric. The first is the simplest and has baseless columns as
b) -ify: beauty, class, simple, intense, sign. those of the Parthenon; Roman Doric has a base and is less massive.
-ate: celebration, decoration, excavation, investigation, The parts of Greek Doric — the simple, baseless columns, the
origin. spreading capitals, and triglyph-metope (alternating  vertically
ridged and plain blocks) frieze above the columns — constitute an
3.  Match the pairs of synonyms. aesthetic development in stone incorporating variants on themes
used functionally in earlier wood and brick construction. Doric long
Pillar, form, effect, pattern, type, shape, result, post, kind, remained the favourite order of the mainland and western colonies,
model. and it changed little throughout history.

40 41
Английский для архитекторов Unit 5. Orders of architecture

The Ionic order evolved later, in eastern Greece. About 600 ВС, to carve — р


 езать, вырезать (по дереву или кости); высекать
in Asia Minor, the first intimation of the style appeared in stone (из камня)
columns with capitals elaborately carved in floral hoop. Its main hoop — обруч
feature is spiral scroll, or volute. The order was always fussier and fussy — вычурный, аляповатый
more ornate, less stereotyped than the Doric. Ionic temples' of acanthus leaves — листья аканта
the 6th century exceed in size and decoration the most ambitious corner — угол
of their Classical successors. Such were the temple of Artemis at
Ephesus and the successive temples of Hera on the island of Samos.
Tests
The Corinthian order originated  in the 5th century ВС  in
Athens. It had an Ionic capital elaborated with acanthus leaves. I. Complete the following sentences.
In its general proportions it is very like the Ionic. For the first time
the Corinthian order was used for temple exteriors. Because of its 1.  The Ionic was always fussier than … .
advantage of facing equally in four directions it was more adaptable a) the Doric b) the Corinthian c) the Tuscan
than the Ionic for corners. There are not many Greek examples 2.  The Corinthian order had an Ionic capital elaborated with… .
of the Corinthian order but the Romans widely used  it for  its a) lotus flowers
showiness. The monument of Lysicrates in Athens, 535/334 ВС b) acanthus leaves
is the earliest known example of the Corinthian order used on the c) geometric ornament
exterior.
The simplified version of Roman Doric is the Tuscan order. It 3.  For the first time the Corinthian order was used for … .
has a less decorated frieze and no mutules in the cornice. a) theatres
The Composite order  is also a late Roman  invention. It b) residential structures
combines the elements from all the Greek orders. c) temples
4.  In its general proportions the Corinthian is very like … .
Active vocabulary
a) the Doric b) the Ionic c) the Tuscan
wooden — деревянный
pillar — столб, колонна, опора 5.  Of all the three Greek orders the Corinthian is … .
stone — камень a) the most elegant and the richest
carpentry — плотничьи изделия b) the simplest
brick — кирпич c) the oldest
pattern — модель, образец 6.  The Doric order was used in … .
entablature — антаблемент a) the Erechtheum
shell — (зд.) оболочка, каркас b) the Parthenon
alternating — чередующийся c) the templele of Artemis
ridged — имеющий борозды, кромки
plain — (зд.) без узора
elaborately — тщательно (разрабатывать)

42 43
Английский для архитекторов Unit 5. Orders of architecture

II.  Choose the correct term. 7.  The Tuscan order has no mutules … the cornice.
a) above b) in c) on
1.  The upper section of a classical order is a/an …
a) volute b) entablature c) base
Exercises
2.  Spiral ornaments are called …
a) capitals b) mutules c) volutes
I.  Find the false sentences using the information from the
3.  The triglyph-metopes are … text. Correct them.
a) alternating ridged and plain blocks of stone
1.  The first step in architecture was simply the replacement of
b) porticos
woodc pillars with stone ones.
c) floral hoops
2.  Greek Doric has a base.
4.  The part of the column is … 3.  The Doric changed a lot throughout its history.
a) frieze b) capital c) cornice 4.  The Ionic order evolved in eastern Greece.
5.  A particular style of column with its entablature having stan- 5.  The volutes of an Ionic capital spread horizontally and curl
dardized dctails is … upwaul
a) facade b) colonnade c) order 6.  The Corinthian order originated in the 5th century ВС.
7.  For the first time the Corinthian order was used for tem-
III.  Choose the correct preposition. ple interior,

1. The Doric, Ionic, and the Corinthian orders were invented II.  Match the beginnings of the sentences to their ends using
… the Greeks. the information from the text.
a) for b) with c) by
1. This expression eventually a) elaborated with acanth­us­
2.  Wooden pillars were replaced … stone ones.
took the form … leaves
a) by b) on c) with
2.  The oldest order, the Doric b) on the Greek mainland and
3.  The Doric changed little … its history. … in western Colonies
a) in b) throughout c) by 3.  The Doric order was po­ c) of the invention of the or-
pular … ders of architecture
4.  The first intimation of the Ionic order appeared in stone
4.  The volutes of an Ionic cap- d) by the Romans
columns willi capitals elaborately carved … floral hoops.
ital. e) combines the elements оf all
a) from b) in c) to
5.  The Corinthian order had a the Greek orders
5.  Its capitals are decorated … acanthus leaves. capital… f) spread horizontally fronii
a) with b) by c) for 6.  The Tuscan order was added the centre and cuil down-
6.  The Ionic temples of the 6th century exceed … size and deco- … ward
ration their classical successors. 7. Another late Ro­man in­ven­ g) is subdivided into Greek I
a) after b) about c) in tion, the Composite order… Doric and Roman Doric

44 45
Английский для архитекторов Unit 5. Orders of architecture

III. You misheard the information. Make it more exact 4.  Which orders were invented by the Greeks?
putting the questions. 5.  What is the difference between Greek Doric and Roman
Doric?
Example: These styles arc called orders. — How are these styles
6.  What can be said about the evolution of the Ionic order?
called?
7.  Why did the Romans often use the Corinthian order?
1.  They are called orders.
2.  The orders defined the pattern of the columnar facades and VI. Read the text and tell about the use of the Doric
upperworks. and Ionic orders in the architecture of the Acropolis.
3.  Greek Doric has the simple columns without a base, the
The Acropolis architecture exhibits considerable subtlety of
spreading capitals and the triglyph-metope frieze above the
de­sign in the use of the Doric and Ionic orders. The ensemble of
columns.
the major buildings — the Parthenon, a temple to Athena; the
4.  The Ionic order was more ornate than the Doric.
Erechtheum, a temple to Athena and Poseidon — shows the or-
5.  The Romans preferred the Corinthian order for its showi-
ders used in deliberate contrast: the Erechtheum provides a dec-
ness. Corinthian order has the advantage of facing equally in
orative Ionic counterpart to the severe Doric of the Parthenon,
four directions.
which itself has an Ionic frieze; and in the Propylaea columns of
7.  The Tuscan and Composite orders were developed by the
both orders complement each other.
Romans.
VII. Ask your friend to describe one of the orders
IV. Prove the following, using the information from the text.
of architecture.
1.  The Romans were not the first to invent the architectural
orders.
2.  Archaic forms of the Doric temples dominated the town-
scape through the Classical and later periods.
3.  The Ionic order was used only for the smaller temples.
4.  An alternative for the Ionic order that could be viewed from
any directions was provided by the sculptor-architect Cal-
limachus.
5.  The Greeks didn't often use the Corinthian order.
6.  The Tuscan order wasn't developed by the Greeks.
7.  The Composite order is a version of the Corinthian.

V. Answer the following questions.


1.  What is the order in classical architecture?
2.  What orders of architecture do you know?
3.  What does the order consist of?

46 47
Unit 6. Roman architecture

4. Make up sentences using the table.

The culture of ancient is decorated a rational urban system


Romans 
The Forum were invented by the Etruscans and
Unit 6 Greeks
The entrance of the was greatly  by the Romans
Roman architecture building influenced
Triumphal arches had the heart of the city
Ancient Roman cities was with spirals of acanthus
leaves

Pre-text exercises
Read the text and tell about the architectural
1. Guess the meanings of the following international words. achievements of ancient Rome.

Architecture, empire, fragment, theoretical, restoration, in- Modern knowledge of Roman architecture derives primarily
formation, antiquity, composition, organization, line, mass, villa, from the remains scattered throughout the area of the empire. Some
group, central, hall, atrium, peristyle, element, forum, design, exte- are well preserved and other are known only in fragments and by
rior, park, terrace, circular, theatre, amphitheatre, rotunda, niche, theoretical restoration. Another source of information is a vast store
interior, bronze, acre, travertine. of records. Especially important is ‘De Architectura’ by Vitruvius,
(c.27 ВС), the only surviving treatise of antiquity.
2. These are the false friends of the interpreter. Translate Pervasive Roman predilection was for spatial composition — the
them and memorize their meanings. organization of lines, surfaces, masses, and volumes in space.
Record, block, residence, scale, dome. In Roman architecture there were three types of houses: the
domus, the insula and the villa.
3. Translate the following words and analyze their The domus, or town house, consisted of suites of rooms grouped
word-formation model. around a central hall, or atrium.
It often had further suites at the rear, grouped around a colon-
Derive — derivative — derivation; empire — emperor — em­press, naded court, or peristyle. The atrium, a rectangular room with an
serve — preserve — preservation; store — restore — re­storation, opening in the roof to the sky, and its adjoining rooms were pecu-
excavate — excation — excavator; even — uneven — unevenness; liarly Roman elements; the peristyle was Greek or Middle Eastern.
engine — engineer — engineering; alter — alternate — alternation. There were few windows on the street, light being obtained from the
atrium or peristyle.

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 6. Roman architecture

In Rome the chief examples of domus are the House of Ves- The best preserved are the Baths of Caracalla, which covered an
tals in the Forum in Rome and that of Livia on the Palatine Hill. area about 1,000 feet square, and those of Diocletian (c. AD 217),
Great blocks of flats or tenements were called insulae. Exca- with accommodation for 3,200 bathers.
vations at Ostia, Italy, have revealed the design of these blocks.
Planned on three or four floors with strict regard to economy of Active vocabulary
space, they depended on light from the exterior as well as from a spatial — пространственный
central court. surface — поверхность
The  villa was an estate, complete with house, grounds, and suite — анфилада комнат
subsidiary buildings. rear — расположенный сзади, задний
Hadrian's Villa at Tivoli, began about AD 123, was a sumptuous rectangular — прямоугольный
residence with parks and gardens on a large scale. The unevenness room — комната
of the site necessitated large terraces and flights of steps. There are window — окно
remains of great brick and concrete structures. All the buildings are tenement — многоквартирный дом, сдаваемый в аренду
Roman in style and method of construction, though with Greek excavations — раскопки
names. opening — отверстие
The Romans were great builders and engineers famous for their estate — поместье
factories, roads, aqueducts, viaducts, bridges, grand thermae and ground — земля, грунт
amphitheatres, theatres, and temples. flights of steps — лестничный марш
The greatest surviving circular temple of antiquity is the Pan­ concrete — бетон
theon in Rome. It consists of rotunda about 142 feet in diameter road — дорога
surrounded by concrete walls 20 feet thick, in which are alternate aqueduct — акведук
circular and rectangular niches. The rotunda and dome are among viaduct — виадук
the finest examples of Roman concrete work. The interior was lined bridge — мост
with precious marbles, the coffers (decorative recessed panels) of the circular — круглый
dome itself once were covered externally with bronze plates. wall — стена
The largest and most important amphitheatre of Rome was the dome — купол
Colosseum. Covering six acres (2.4 hectares), it had seating for coffer — кессон
about 50,000 spectators, and its 80 entrances were so arranged that recessed — имеющий нишу, углубление
the building could be cleared quickly. The whole is built of con- plate — лист, пластина
crete, the exterior is faced with travertine. Other important amphi- precious — драгоценный
theatres are those at Verona, Italy; Pula, Croatia; Arles, France. marble — мрамор
Imperial thermae were more than baths. They were immense facility — приспособление
establishments of great magnificence, with facilities for every gym­ accommodation — размещение
nastic exercise, and halls in which philosophers, poets, rhetoricians,
and those who wished to hear them gathered.

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 6. Roman architecture

Tests b) Roman concrete work


c) contemporary architecture
I. Choose the correct sentence.
5.  The Colosseum was the most important … .
1.  Pervasive Roman predilection was for spatial composition. a) temple of antiquity
a) Spatial composition was seldom used by the Romans. b) theatre of ancient Greece
b) The Romans preferred spatial composition. c) amphitheatre of ancient Rome
c) Roman architecture is characterized by the use of sym­
metrical composition. III.  Choose the correct sentence.
2.  The Latin word ‘villa’ means a suburban house. 1.  The elements of earlier styles were used by the Romans.
a) Villa is a country house. a) The Romans borrowed much from other civilizations.
b) It is a sumptuous residence. b) The Romans preferred spatial composition.
c) The building is Roman in style. c) Roman architecture had little in common with earlier
styles.
3.  The Pantheon is the greatest structure of antiquity.
a) The Pantheon is built of concrete. 2.  Roman architecture was designed to reflect the power of the
b) The Pantheon is a circular temple. City.
c) The Pantheon is the masterpiece of antiquity. a) There were three types of houses in ancient Rome.
b) The circus was also used for spectacles.
II. Complete the sentences. c) The Roman architects reproduced the might of the
Empire in their works.
1.  The domus consisted of … .
a) three or four floors 3.  The bridges and aqueducts of the Romans rank among their
b) suits of rooms grouped around a central hall greatest monuments.
c) two or three rooms with few windows a) The law of perspective was discovered in Rome.
b) Roman technical works still strike imagination as the most
2.  Insulae were planned … .
perfect structures.
a) to impress by their grandeur
c) The best preserved bridge is that built by Augustus and
b) around a colonnaded court
Tiberius at Rimini.
c) with strict regard to economy of space
4.  Imperial thermae had facilities for every gymnastic exercise.
3.  Handrian's Villa at Tivoli was … .
a) Grand baths featured luxurious interiors.
a) a sumptuous residence with parks and gardens
b) The Baths of Dicletian had accommodation for 3,200
b) a tenement house
bathers.
c) a small country house
c) Grand baths were equipped with athletic facilities.
4.  The rotunda and dome of the Pantheon are among the finest
5.  The Forum was the political, economical and religious cen-
examples of … .
tre of ancient Rome.
a) the architecture of the ancient Mediterranean world

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 6. Roman architecture

a) The temples and public buildings were grouped around 3.  In front is a porch with an inscription commemorating …
the Forum. building of Marcus Agrippa but built with the existing ro-
b) Outside the city gates was the necropolis. tunda under the emperor Hadrian.
c) Tiberius built a palace on the northwest side of the a) the earliest b) earlier
Palatine Hill. c) an earlier d) earliest
4.  The rotunda and dome are among … examples of Roman
IV. Choose the correct form of the verb.
concrete work.
1.  ‘De Architecture’ … almost every aspect of architecture, a) fine b) finer
a) discovered b) proved c) finest d) the finest
c) covered d) knew
5.  The Colosseum was … and most important amphitheatre of
2.  The Romans… freely the elements of earlier styles. Rome.
a) invented b) built a) larger b) the largest
c) differed d) used c) largest d) the larger
3.  The domus … of suites of rooms grouped around atrium and
VI. Match the terms and their definitions.
of peristyle.
a) designed b) consisted 1.  town house
c) made d) added a) forum b) domus c) basilica
4.  Insulae … on light from the exterior and a central court. 2. quadrangular court of the Roman house
a) influenced b) gave a) villa b) order c) atrium
c) depended d) determined
3.  blocks of flats
5.  The exteriors of villa … colonnades and porticos. a) insulae b) rotunda c) porticos
a) had b) connected
4.  suburban or country house
c) planned d) decorated
a) interior b) villa c) thermae
V.  Choose the correct form of the adjective. 5.  colonnaded court
a) facade b) entablature c) peristyle
1.  The Pantheon is … surviving circular temple of antiquity.
a) greater b) greatest
c) the greatest d) the greater
2.  Among… remaining examples of circular temples are those
of Vesta and Mater Matuta in Rome, Vesta at Tivoli, and Ve-
nus at Baalbeck.
a) important b) the most important
c) more important d) most important

54 55
Английский для архитекторов Unit 6. Roman architecture

Exercises Domus, factory, viaduct, thermae, villa, amphitheatre, road,


temple, bridge, insula, hippodrome, theatre, basilica, aqueduct.
I.  Find in the text the false friends of the interpreter.
Translate them and remember their meanings.
V.  Match the beginnings of the sentences to their ends.
II.  Translate into Russian.
1. Some remains are well a) or oculus at the crown of the
in many respects; a porch with an inscription; precious marbles; preserved, and… dome
faced with travertine; adjoining rooms; depended on light; direct 2.  ‘De Architecture’ is … b) grouped around atrium
access to the street; the Roman Empire; the crown of the dome; 3.  The Pantheon is the c) separate entrances with direct
the finest examples; recessed panels; around a colonnaded court; greatest surviving … access to the street
excavations; separate entrance; with accommodations for bathers. 4.  Light is admitted through d) the main source of infor­mation
a central opening … on ancient archi­tec­ture
III. Guess in which meaning the following words are used 
5.  Its 80 entrances were so e) circular temple of antiquity
in the text. arranged … f) others are known in frag­ments
Concrete 6.  The domus consisted of and by theoretical restoration
a) based on facts and information; b) a hard substance used in suites of rooms… g) that the building could be
building made by mixing cement, sand, small stones and water. 7.  Independent apartments cleared quickly establish­ments
had … of great magnificence;
Flight
a) a journey through air or space in vehicle such as a plane; b) a VI. Choose the correct form of the verb.
movement through the air by a bird or object; c) a set of stairs going 1. The domus or town house, (consisted/was consisted) of
from one level to another. suites of rooms grouped around a central hall, or atrium. 2. Further
Light suites (added/were added) at the rear. 3. Great blocks of flats or
brightness from the sun or from light which allows you to see tenements were called insulae. 4. Excavations at Ostia, Italy, (have
things; b) a piece of electrical equipment that produce brightness; revealed/have been revealed) the design of these blocks. 5. The
c) not weighing much. unevenness of the site necessitated large terraces and flights of steps.
6. The interior of the Pantheon (lined/was lined) with precious
IV. These are the building types. Give examples of each type marbles. 7. The Colosseum (built/is built) of concrete.8. The Baths
using the words from the word box. Make up your own of Caracalla (covered/were covered) an area about 1,000 feet square.
sentences with them.
VII. Explain in English.
*Domestic architecture *Public Architecture* Religious Archi-
tecture * Industrial Architecture* Engineering Structures ŠŠ Roman predilection for spatial composition;
ŠŠ a colonnaded court;
ŠŠ as covered externally with bronze plates;

56 57
Английский для архитекторов Unit 6. Roman architecture

ŠŠ independent apartments; отождествляли его с архитектором Рабирием, построившим


ŠŠ the whole is built of concrete Дворец Домициана. Амфитеатр, являющийся самым боль-
шим памятником римской цивилизации, имеет эллиптичее-
VIII. Prove the following statements using the information кую форму 188 × 156 метров и высоту 57 метров; внешняя че
from the text. тырехэтажная структура полностью выполнена из траверти-
на; первые три яруса состоят из 80 стрельчатых арок, распо-
1.  ‘De Architectura’ by Vitruvius is the source of information
ложенных в канонической последовательности дорического,
on Roman architecture.
ионического и коринфского стилей, а четвертый, с неболь-
2.  There were three types of houses in ancient Rome.
шими проемами, декорирован пилястрами.
3.  The Pantheon is the greatest temple of antiquity.
4.  The Сolosseum was the largest and the most impressive am-
XI. Ask your partner which architectural monuments
phitheatre of Rome.
he would like to see if he were in Rome.
5.  Imperial thermae were immense establishments of great
magnificence.

IX. Translate into English.


ŠŠ освещать почти все вопросы по архитектуре;
ŠŠ организация линий, поверхностей, масс и  объемов
в пространстве;
ŠŠ античная средиземноморская цивилизация;
ŠŠ группироваться вокруг перистиля;
ŠŠ отверстие в крыше;
ŠŠ примыкающие комнаты;
ŠŠ раскопки в Остии;
ŠŠ неровная поверхность участка;
ŠŠ лестничные пролеты;
ŠŠ метод строительства.

X.  Translate into English.

КОЛИЗЕЙ
Амфитеатр Флавиев, обычно называемый Колизеем, уже
много лет является символом величия и могущества Рима,
а также одним из наиболее знаменитых памятников древ-
ности во  всем мире. Строительство Колизея было начато
в 72 г. н. э., его автор неизвестен, но некоторые исследователи

58 59
Unit 7. Medieval architecture. The Byzantine style

Text 1.
Read the text and tell about the Byzantine art of building

The Byzantine style


The art characteristic of the developed Byzantine Empire can
Unit 7 be traced back to the period just before the reign of Justinian,
с AD 500. The style had enormous influence on both the East and
Medieval architecture the West.
Early Byzantine art may be regarded as Roman art transformed
under the influence of the East. This style reached a high point in
the 6th century, spread widely and flourished till the Middle Ages.
It still survives among Greek or orthodox communities.
The dominant Byzantine art was architecture. As in Early
Pre-text exercises Christian times, the two chief types of church were basilican and
the vaulted centralized church. The first had a long colonnaded
1. Guess the meanings of the following international words.
nave and a wooden roof terminating in a semicircular apse. In the
Characteristic, empire, dominant, Christian, community, basi­ second type the separate components were gathered under a central
lica, separate, component, material, mosaics, contrast, modeling, dome. Of the latter type, the chief examples are SS Sergius and
religion, cathedral, plan, universal. Bachus (526, Constantinople), San Vitaly (526–547, Ravenna).
The outstanding example which combined the longitudinal qualities
2.  Use the following prefixes and suffixes to form of the basilica with the centralized volume was the church of Holy
a) nouns b) verbs c) adjectives. Wisdom (Hagia Sophia) in Constantinople.
Brick was the main material used for the construction of By­
semi-: circle, arch, sphere, detached;
zantine churches. It was covered externally with plaster and in­
trans-: figure, form, port;
ternally with thin marble sheets and mosaics above. Byzantine
-(i)an: basilica, suburb, republic, Rome, Egypt, Europe.
decoration was flat and incised in contrast to the bold modeling of
3.  Match the pairs of synonyms. western surfaces.
By the 9th century, the Byzantine style was wide spread through-
Dominant, main, enormous, shrine, separate, pre-eminent, out the countries of the Near East and eastern Europe, where the
huge, temple, chief. Greek and Orthodox religion was followed.
These Byzantine churches followed the plan of a Greek cross,
that is a central domed space with four short square arms (evolved
с.  7th century) This form of church eventually became almost
universal, focusing in the brilliantly lit central space which dissolved
mystically into the dark screens and galleries in the arms of the cross.

60 61
Английский для архитекторов Unit 7. Medieval architecture. The Byzantine style

Russo-Byzantine style was the first phase of Russian architec­ II.  Choose the correct sentence.
ture (the 11th —16th centuries). It features churches of white stone
1.  The Byzantine style still survives among Greek and Ortho-
with cruciform plans and bulbous domes.
dox communities.
Active vocabulary a) The vaulted centralized church was typical of the Early
Byzantine period.
nave — неф
b) The Byzantine style influenced both the East and the
apse — апсида
West.
longitudinal — продольный
c) The works of this style can be seen in Greek or Orthodox
plaster — штукатурка
communities.
sheet — пластина
to incise — вырезать, насекать, гравировать 2.  Hagia Sophia is the supreme example of the centralized type.
lit — освещенный a) The Church of Holy Wisdom is the finest model of the
screen — ширма, экран, щит circular type.
arms of the cross — крылья креста b) Hagia Sophia was built by Justinian.
cruciform — крестообразный c) Early Byzantine architecture is characterized by wide
bulbous — луковичный diversity.
3.  The Byzantine churches were covered internally with thin
Tests marble sheets and mosaics above.
a) Brick Byzantine churches were covered externally with
I.  Complete the sentences. plaster.
b) Sheets of marble and mosaics were used for the decoration
1.  The Byzantine style had enormous influence on … ю
of the interior walls and arches.
a) the West
c) The decoration of western surfaces was bold and pon­
b) the East and the West
derous.
c) the North
4.  The Byzantine style influenced greatly the architecture of
2.  The dominant Byzantine art was … ю
Russia.
a) architecture b) painting c) sculpture
a) Symbolism had now begun to dominate church archi­
3.  … was  I lie main material used for the construction of- tecture.
churches. b) This form of church eventually became almost universal.
a) stone b) concrete c) brick c) Numerous churches in the Byzantine style were built in
4.  Hagia Sophia is a … ю Russia.
a) church b) palace c) chapel 5.  These Byzantine churches followed the plan of a Greek
5.  Byzantine architecture of the period of Hagia Sophia is cross.
markedly concerned with … ю a) These Byzantine churches were widespread in the coun­
a) biology b) mathematics c) geography tries of the Near East and eastern Europe.
62 63
Английский для архитекторов Unit 7. Medieval architecture. The Byzantine style

b) These Byzantine churches featured a central domed space 4.  The brilliantly lit central space dissolved mystically … the
with four short square arms. dark screens and galleries in the arms of the cross.
c) Each Byzantine church was conceived as a microcosm of a) into b) between c) on d) from
all earth and sky.
5.  By the 9th century the Byzantine style was widespread … the
countries of the Near East and eastern Europe.
III. Complete the sentences.
a) at b) from c) throughout d) over
1.  Constantinople was established in 330 AD by …
a) the Emperor Justinian
Exercises
b) the Emperor Constantine
c) the Emperor Augustus
I.  Translate into Russian.
2.  The church of Holy Wisdom is in … .
ŠŠ to trace back;
a) Istanbul b) Ravenna c) Rome
ŠŠ enormous influence;
3.  … reached a high point in the 6th century. ŠŠ to reach a high point;
a) The Romanesque ŠŠ early Christian times;.
b) The Visigothic style ŠŠ bold modeling;
c) The Byzantine style ŠŠ central domed space;
ŠŠ the arms of the cross;
4.  Byzantine decoration was … .
ŠŠ the Church of Holy Wisdom;
a) flat and incised b) bold c) heavy
ŠŠ flat and incised decoration;
5. Cathedral of St. Basil the Blessed is in … . ŠŠ to follow the plan of a Greek cross;
a) Florence b) Paris c) Moscow ŠŠ arms of the cross.

IV. Choose the correct preposition. II.  Classify the words from the box by the subject:
1.  Byzantine architecture flourished again … a short time to Building types
new heights duning the 11th and 12th centuries, Parts of building
a) at b) after c) from d) for Building materials
2.  As … early Christian times, the two chief types of church Decorative elements
were the basilican and centralized. Dome, villa, wood, pillar, stone, plaster, arch basilica, sand, wall,
a) over b) in c) before d) on floor, brick, terrace, pyramid, volute, marble, coffer, pantheon,
3.  Brick was externally covered … thin marble ladoes and mo­ mansion, mosaics, concrete, temple, hut, tile.
saics above.
a) by b) onto c) with d) at

64 65
Английский для архитекторов Unit 7. Medieval architecture. The Byzantine style

III.  Match the terms to their definitions. VI. You misheard the information. Make it more exact
putting questions.
1. Apse a) a shape with one long upright line and one short-
2. Сross. er line across it, used as a symbol of Christianity; Example:
3. Dome. b) the long central part of a church where people A: This art can be traced back to the period just before the reign
4. Nave. sit; of Justinian.
5. Screen. c) a roof shaped like a top half of a ball; Q: To what period can this art be traced back?
d) a flat structure that is used for separating one area 1.  This style influenced both the East and the West.
of a room from another; 2.  Yes, the Byzantine style still survives among Greek and Or-
e) a curved area at one end of a church. thodox communities.
3.  The basilica and the centralized church were the main types
IV. Find the false sentences using the information from the of Byzantine ecclesiastical architecture.
text. Correct them. 4.  The church of Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sophia) is the supreme
example of this style.
1. The style had enormous influence on the West.
5.  Yes, Byzantine decoration was flat and incised.
2. It was Roman art transformed under influence of the East.
6.  The Byzantine style spread throughout the countries of the
3. The dominant Byzantine art form was architecture.
Near East and eastern Europe by the 9th century.
4. In Byzantine architecture, there was only one type of church.
7.  Yes, the Byzantine style influenced the arts of Russia.
5. Stone was the main material used for the construction of
Byzantine churches.
VII. Answer the following questions.
6. Hagia Sophia is a palace.
1.  When was Constantinople established?
V.  Match the beginnings of the sentences to their ends using 2.  When did the Byzantine style develop?
the information from the text. 3.  Why did the Byzantine style influence greatly both the East
and the West?
1.  The art characteristic of the a) the qualities of both ty­pes 4.  How far did this style spread?
developed Byzantine Empire… the church of Holy Wis- 5.  What was the dominant Byzantine art form?
2.  The chief examples of the cir­ dom 6.  What are the two chief types of churches of the Byzantine
cular type are the churches of b) that is central domed period?
… space with four-short 7.  When did this style come to Russia?
3.  The outstanding example of a square arms 8.  What greatest Byzantine architects and artists do you know?
building combined… c) SS Sergius and Bachus 9.  What are the examples of the Byzantine style in Russia?
4.  The Byzantine churches fol­ and San] Vitaly
lowed the plan of a Greek cross d) became almost universal VIII. Translate into English.
… e) can be traced back to
ŠŠ нашей эры;
5.  This form of church … с AD 5
ŠŠ nод влиянием Востока;

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 7. Medieval architecture. Hagia Sophia or the church of holy wisdom

ŠŠ достигнуть высшей точки в развитии; emulate it. In plan it is almost square, but looked at from within, it
ŠŠ православные общины; appears to be rectangular, for there is a great semidome at east and
ŠŠ базиликальный и центрический типы; west above that prolongs the effect of the roof, while on the ground
ŠŠ церковь Святой Софии; there are three aisles separated by columns with galleries above.
ŠŠ покрывать штукатуркой, мозаикой; At either end, however, great piers rise up through the galleries
ŠŠ ярко освещенное пространство. to support the dome. Above the galleries are curtain walls (non-
load-bearing exterior walls) at either side, pierced by windows, and
VIII. Translate into Russian. there are more windows at the base of the dome. The columns
ŠŠ to emulate; are of finest marble, selected for their colour and variety, while
ŠŠ to prolong; the lower parts of the walls are covered with marble slabs. Like
ŠŠ aisles; the elaborately carved cornices and capitals, these survive, but the
ŠŠ pierced by the windows; rest of the original decoration, including most of the mosaics that
ŠŠ to perish. adorned the upper parts of the walls and the roof, have perished.
ŠŠ to remain; Active Vocabulary
ŠŠ looked at from within;
ŠŠ on the ground; semidome — полукупол
ŠŠ non-load-bearing exterior walls; aisle — боковой неф храма
ŠŠ marble slabs; pier — устой, столб, контрфорс
ŠŠ elaborately carved cornices and capitals; curtain — занавес, штора
non-load-bearing — не несущие нагрузку
IX. You are taking part in a conference «The Byzantine slab — плита
traditions in Russian architecture». Everyone is asked
to make a report about the greatest representatives Tests
of the Byzantine style in Russia and their works.
I.  Complete the following sentences choosing the correct
term.
Text 2.
Read the text and describe the plan of the church 1.  The dome of Hagia Sophia is supported by great … .
and its interior a) niches b) piers c) curtain walls
2.  A great… at east and west prolongs the effect of the roof.
Hagia Sophia or the church a) vault b) screen c) semidome
of holy wisdom
3.  There are three … separated by columns with galleries above.
Though Justinian's domed basilicas are the models from which
a) aisles b) narthexes c) altars
Byzantine architecture developed, Hagia Sophia remained unique,
and no attempt was thereafter made by Byzantine builders to 4.  It has elaborately carved … .

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 7. Medieval architecture. Romanesque style

a) cornices and capitals 5.  What is the main contribution of Byzantine builders to the
b) arches development of architecture?
c) pilasters
III.  Express your opinion on the following statements.
5.  The lower parts of the walls are covered with … .
a) mosaics b) plaster c) marble slabs 1.  No attempt was made by Byzzantine builders to emulate
Hagia Sophia.
II.  Choose the synonyms to the words in italics. 2.  The majestic dome of Hagia Sophia is a real miracle of Byz-
antine architecture.
1.  Hagia Sophia is a unique example of Byzantine architecture.
3.  The construction of the church was fantastically expensive.
a) the latest b) the earliest c) unparalleled
2.  No attempt was made to emulate this masterpiece. IV. Translate into English.
a) to supersede b) to enlarge c) to decorate
ŠŠ купольные базилики;
3.  Great piers rise up through the galleries to support the dome. ŠŠ большой полукупол;
a) wooden b) elegant c) ponderous ŠŠ самонесущие стены;
ŠŠ у основания купола;
4.  The columns are of finest marble, selected for their colour
ŠŠ покрыты мраморными плитами;
and variety.
ŠŠ резные карнизы и капители.
a) chosen b) decorated c) supported
5.  The mosaics adorned the upper parts of the walls and the V.  Make up the report on the suggested topic. Try to make
roof of the church. it sound lively, interesting for the audience
a) developed b) beautified c) reflected and questions-provoking.
‘The Church of Holy Wisdom is the outstanding landmark of
Exercises the world architecture’.

I.  You don't know the meanings of the following terms. VI. Translate into Russian.
Ask your friend to help you. Use the information from the
texts of this unit. Romanesque style
The centralized church; curtain walls; semidome; mosaics. The generic term Romanesque is sometimes applied to embrace
all the styles of architecture which, in most European countries,
II. Answer the following questions. followed the Christian style and preceded the introduction of the
Gothic style, c. 1200. It is often subdivided into pre-Romanesque,
1.  What is the English for Hagia Sophia? which includes Lombardic, Carolingian, and Ottoman or Rhenish
2.  How can you characterize its plan? styles as well as Saxon and Romanesque proper, which is taken to
3.  What are the structural elements which support its dome? have begun c. AD 1000.
4.  What can be said about the decorations of the church?

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Английский для архитекторов

From ancient Roman tradition, the pre-Romanesque architects


adopted chacacteristic features: the semicircular arch, the groined
crossvault and a modified and simplified form of the Corinthian
column with capital of acanthus leaves. Occasionally, at an early
period, they used fragments of antique buildings. They made
important advances upon Roman structural methods in balancing Unit 8
the thrust of heavy vaults and domes by means of buttresses, and in
substituting thinner webs supported on the curved stone ribs for the Medieval Architecture
thick vaults used by the Romans. Romanesque period lasted two
centuries, and was the great age of European monasticism.
The architectural work of the Romanesque period therefore
consists almost exclusively of monasteries, cathedrals, parish
churches, and castles. Very few domestic buildings have survived.
The greatest examples of this style are Benedictine abbey Pre-text exercises
church at Jumieges, Normandy (1036–1066); S. Ambrogio, Milan,
1. Guess the meanings of the following international words.
Italy, 1140; Sompting church in Succex, 11 th century; Augsburg
Cathedral, Germany. Architecture, association, style, technical, plan, phase, Per­
pendicular, cathedral, architect, design, combine, repertoire, re­
8. Translate into English. sult, extraordinary, final, emphasis, college, vertical, monument,
Церковь Покрова на Нерли была воздвигнута в честь по- Catholic, form, regional, basis, monastery, provincial, traditional.
бедоносного похода суздальских войск на волжских булгар.
2.  Use the following prefixes and suffixes to form
Храм посвящен религиозному празднику Покрова. Шедевр
древнерусского архитектуры, он поражает гармонией форм,
a) verbs b) nouns.
безупречностью пропорций и поэтичностью образа. sub-: divide, contract, due, merge;
Покровский храм выполнен в традициях владимирского -sion: conclude, divide, decide, precise, provide;
зодчества. В то же время его отличает устремленность ввысь -tion: associate, describe, decorate, contribute, invent, protect.
и преобладание вертикальных линий, что подчеркивают уз-
кие прясла, окна и полуколонки на апсидах. В 12 веке церковь 3.  Translate the following words with the suffix -al
имела трехстороннюю галерею и стояла на искусственном which may be
холме, так как луг затапливало во время весеннего половодья. a) adjectives b) adjectives and nouns c) nouns.
a) functional, conventional, continental, cultural, envi­ron­
mental, national, regional;
b) capital, diagonal, horizontal, metal, professional, spiral,
vertical;
c) animal, arrival, festival, pedestal, rival, revival, survival.

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 8. Medieval Architecture. Gothic cathedrals

4.  Match the pairs of a) synonyms b) opposites. in France and Germany this style is subdivided into the Early,
High, and Late Gothic.
a) style, heavy, emphasis, to import, pattern, multiple, extra­
The French middle phase is called Rayonnant, the late phase —
ordinarily, important, dense, fashion, to borrow, influential,
Flamboyant. In England one speaks of Early English Gothic, the
design, numerous, stress, extremely;
Decorated and Perpendicular styles.
b) to dislike, earliest, light, usually, to import, heavy, latest,
Early English Gothic developed from с 1180 to c.1280. The
to export, extraordinarily, to like.
most influential building in the new fashion was the choir of Can­
5.  Make up affirmative, negative and interrogative terbury cathedral (1175–1184). The other examples are Salisbury,
sentences using the table. Lincoln and Wells cathedrals, and Westminster Abbey. Its main
features are lancet windows without tracery and multiple attached
The Romanesque could be seen between the 12th and 15th colonettes.
centuries English architects for a long time retained a liking for heavy
The Gothic style  is from the window surface decoration, thus, when Rayonnant tracery designs were im-
ported, they were combined with the existing repertoire of colo-
The spires of the was very complicated struc­
nettes, attached shafts, and vault ribs. The result which could be
church succeeded  tures
extraordinarily dense has been called the English Decorated style
A beautiful medieval are by the Gothic (1280–1350, Exeter cathedral, east parts of Bristol and Wells ca-
castle thedrals, the Lady Chapel at Ely).
Gothic cathedrals developed  in the centre of the city English Gothic came to an end with the final flowering of the
Perpendicular style (c. 1350–1550). It was characterized by vertical
emphasis in structure and elaborate fan vaults.
Read the text and tell about the main features
The first major surviving statement of the Perpendicular style is
of architecture. probably the choir of Gloucester cathedral. Other noticeable mo­
numents were St. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster, St. George's
Gothic cathedrals
Chapel, Windsor, King's College Chapel, Cambridge, the Chapel
The architecture of the central Middle Ages was termed Gothic of Henry VII at Westminster Abbey.
during the Renaissance because of its association with the barbarian Gothic was essentially the style of the Catholic countries of
north. Now this term is used to describe the important style of Europe. It was also carried to Cyprus, Malta, Syria, and Palestine
building and art wide spread in Europe between the 12th and the by the Crusaders and their successors in the Mediterranean. The
15th centuries. forms that were developed within the style on a regional basis were
At the technical level Gothic architecture is characterized by often of great beauty and complexity. They were used for all secular
the ribbed vault, the pointed arch, and the flying buttress. buildings as well as for cathedrals, churches and monasteries.
One of the earliest buildings  in which these techniques By the Gothic Survival is meant the survival of Gothic forms,
were introduced in a highly sophisticated architectural plan was particularly in provincial traditional building.
the abbey of Saint-Denis, Paris. It is considered to be "the first
Gothic building".

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 8. Medieval Architecture. Gothic cathedrals

Active vocabulary a) Carolingian b) Flamboyant c) Perpendicular


rib — ребро 4.  English architects for a long time retained a liking for …
arch — арка a) plain surfaces
pointed arch — стрельчатая (остроконечная) арка b) heavy surface decoration
buttress — контрфорс c) curved surfaces
flying buttress — аркбутан, арочный контрфорс
undulating — волнистый 5. Gothic was essentially the style of… countries.
claim — требование; претензия; притязание; утверждение; за­ a) the Buddhist b) the Orthodox c) the Catholic
яв­ление
II. Choose the correct sentence.
Rayonnant — лучистый (стиль)
Flamboyant — «пламенеющий» (стиль) 1.  The Gothic style developed in most countries of Europe.
choir — место хора в соборе ряд окон, освещающий центр вы­ a) The Gothic style was associated with the barbarian north.
сокого помещения b) Gothic is represented in many European countries.
tracery ажурная каменная работа, рисунок, узор c) Paris — for much of this period the home of a powerful
tracery — ажурная каменная работа; рисунок, узор; перепле- and artistically enlightened court — played an espe­cial­
тение ly important role in the history of Gothic art.
shaft — ствол
2.  Canterbury Cathedral was the most influential building in
dense — густой, плотный
the new fashion.
chapel — часовня
a) Canterbury Cathedral was the most important structure
of the Early English Gothic.
Tests b) Canterbury resembles St. Paul's Cathedral.
c) Canterbury Cathedral was built in the 12th century.
I. Complete the sentences.
3.  English architects retained a liking for heavy surface decora-
1.  At the technical level the Gothic style is characterized by the tion.
ribbed vault, the flying buttress, and … . a) English architects preferred restrained decoration.
a) the round arch b) The stained glass of the period was heavily coloured.
b) the bulbous dome c) English architects kept on using ponderous exterior deco­
c) the pointed arch ration.
2.  The title the "first Gothic building" is given to … . 4.  Gothic was used for cathedrals, churches and monasteries.
a) the abbey of Saint-Denis a) Gothic was used for industrial buildings.
b) Westminster abbey b) Gothic was used for ecclesiastic structures.
c) King's College Chapel c) In most European countries artists imitated architectural
3.  In English architecture the usual subdivisians are Early Eng- style from northern France.
lish, Decorated and … styles.

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 8. Medieval Architecture. Gothic cathedrals

III. Find the synonyms of the following words. Exercises


1.  barbarian
I.  Translate into Russian.
a) civilized b) strong c) uncivilized
ŠŠ the ribbed vault;
2.  cathedral
ŠŠ because of its association with the barbarian north;
a) church b) nave c) palace
ŠŠ the pointed arch;
3.  style ŠŠ the flying buttress;
a) character b) skill c) fashion ŠŠ a highly sophisticated architectural plan;
4.  front elevation ŠŠ the skill and precision;
a) foundation b) ensemble c) facade ŠŠ undulating chain windows;
ŠŠ traditional claim;
5.  decorated ŠŠ to be obvious;
a) sophisticated b) ornamented c) pointed ŠŠ attached shafts;
6.  secular ŠŠ the final flowering;
a) not sacred b) essential c) final ŠŠ vertical emphasis in structure;
ŠŠ secular buildings;
7.  to survive ŠŠ the survival of Gothic forms
a) to stop b) to use c) to outlive
II. Replace the words in italics (A) by synonyms (B).
IV. Match the terms and their definitions.
(A) 1. The most influential building in the new fashion was the
1.  Arch a) glass that has been coloured or painted, choir of Canterbury cathedral.
2. Buttress traditionally used in church windows; 2. Colonettes became extremely popular with English ar­
3. Stained glass b) a curved structure that supports the wall of chi­­tects.
4. Tracery a building; 3. They retained a liking for heavy surface decoration.
5. Vault c) a pattern of curving lines  in the stone 4. The architectural effects achieved were more inventive
above the church window; generally than those of contemporary continental buil­
d) a curved structure at the top of a door, dings (for example, the choir of St. Augistine, Bristol).
window, gate; 5. Other major monuments were St. Stephen's Chapel,
e) a curved structure that supports or forms Westminster and York Minster nave, St. George's Cha­
a roof, especially in a church. pel, Windsor.
6. Gothic was also carried to Cyprus, Malta, Syria, and
Palestine.
(B) very; chief; preference; European; structure, transferred

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 8. Medieval Architecture. Gothic cathedrals

III.  Match the beginnings of the sentences to their ends using VI. Prove the following statements using the information
the information from the text. from the text and your own knowledge on the subject.

1.  This style was termed Gothic a) the late phase as Flam­ 1.  The abbey of Saint-Denis in Paris had a highly sophisticated
during the Renaissance be boyant architectural plan.
cause of… b) a passage at clerestory 2.  Canterbury Cathedral resembles that of Laon.
2.  It lasted from the early 12th level 3.  English architects preferred heavy surface decoration.
century to the advent of… c) the Renaissance  in the 4.  Gothic was essentially the style of the Catholic European
3.  In France and Germany this 15th сentury countries.
style is subdivided into … d) is probably the choir of 5.  There are the examples of the Gothic style in the Medi­
4.  The French middle phase  is Gloucester Cathedral terranean.
referred to as Rayonnant, … e) its association with the
5.  Canterbury cathedral retains … barbarian north VII. Translate into English.
6.  The Decorated style was char- f) the Early, High, and Late ŠŠ ребристый свод;
acterized by… Gothic ŠŠ стрельчатая арка;
7.  The first major surviving work g) rich decoration and tra­ ŠŠ арочный контрфорс;
of the Perpendicular style … cery ŠŠ аббатство;
ŠŠ лучистый (стиль);
IV. Increase your vocabulary. Make some sentences of your ŠŠ пламенеющий (стиль);
own using these phrasal verbs. ŠŠ верхний рад окон, освещающий центр высокого поме­
ŠŠ to be characterized by; щения;
ŠŠ to be subdivided into; ŠŠ ажурная каменная работа;
ŠŠ to be combined with; ŠŠ место хора в соборе;
ŠŠ to become popular with. ŠŠ неф;
ŠŠ часовня;
V.  Answer the following questions. ŠŠ крестоносцы;
ŠŠ Средиземноморье;
1.  When did Gothic architecture develop? ŠŠ мирской, светский.
2.  Why is this style called Gothic?
3.  In what countries did the Gothic style develop? VIII. Ask your partner to explain you the meanings
4.  What are the characteristic features of this style? of the following terms. Use the information of the unit.
5.  What is considered to be the first Gothic building?
6.  What are the major monuments of Gothic architecture in Pointed arch, ribbed (fan) vault, flying buttress, stained glass
England? windows, tracery, choir, the Gothic Survival, Neo-Gothic.
7.  To what countries did the Crusaders carry Gothic?
8.  What is meant by the Gothic Survival?

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 8. Medieval Architecture. Neo-Gothic

IX. Interview your partner as an expert in Gothic light infilling, to a modern age, and the analogy was not lost on
architecture. Use the following words and expressions. subsequent architects at a time when the steel frame was emerging
as an important element of structural engineering. Functionalism
The Middle Ages; the barbarian north; the ribbed vault; the
and structural honesty as ideals in the Modem movement were a
pointed arch; the flying buttress; the skill and precision; to be sub-
legacy of the Gothic Revival.
divided into; the most influential building; a cathedral; tracery
designs; inventive; to come to an end; emphasis; chapel; the Cru-
saders; secular buildings; the Gothic Survival; Neo-Gothic.

Text 2
Translate into Russian

Neo-Gothic
The architectural movement most commonly associated with
Romanticism is the Gothic Revival, a term first used in England in
the mid-19* century to describe buildings being erected in the style
of the Middle Ages and later expanded to embrace the entire Neo-
Gothic movement.
The first clearly self-conscious imitation of Gothic architecture
for reasons of nostalgia appeared in England in the early 18th cen-
tury. Buildings erected at that time in the Gothic manner were for
the most part frivolous and decorative garden ornaments, actually
more Rococo than Gothic in spirit. But, with the rebuilding begin-
ning in 1747 of the country house Strawberry Hill by the English
writer Horace Walpole, a new and significant aspect of the revived
style was given convincing form; and, by the beginning of the 19th
century, picturesque planning and grouping provided the basis for
experimentation in architecture. Gothic was especially suited to
this aim. Scores of houses with battlements and turrets in the style
of a castle were built in England during the last years of the 18th
century.
French architects, in particular, Viollet-le-Duc, who restored
a range of buildings from the Sainte-Chapelle and Notre-Dame in
Paris to the whole town of Carcassonne, were the first to appre-
ciate the applicability of the Gothic skeleton structure, with its

82 83
Unit 9. The rebirth of classical art. The Renaissance

(B) facade, composition, style, master, order, monument, sim-


plicity, element, proportions.

Read the text and speak on the Renaissance 


in Italy and in Russia.
Unit 9
The Renaissance
The rebirth of classical art The Renaissance began in Italy, where there was always a resi­due
of classical feeling in art.
Knowledge of the classical style in architecture was derived dur-
ing the Renaissance from two sources: the ancient classical build-
ings, particularly in Italy but also in France and Spain and the trea-
Pre-text exercises tise De architectura by the Roman architect Vitruvius. For classical
antiquity and, therefore, for the Renaissance, the basic element of
1. Guess the meanings of the following international words. architectural design was the order, which was a system of traditional
architectural units. During the Renaissance five orders were used,
Classical, style, basic, element, architectural, design system,
the Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite, with vari-
traditional, different, decorative, harmony, proportion, perspective,
ous ones prevalent in different periods. For example, the ornate,
formulate, linear, manner, arcade, regularly, symbolize, plan, inte-
decorative quality of the Corinthian order was embraced during
rior, represent, combine, characteristic, method, produce, facade.
the early Renaissance, while the masculine simplicity and strength
2.  Use the following suffixes to form of the Doric was preferred during the Italian High Renaissance.
a) nouns b) adjectives c) verbs. On the authority of Vitruvius, the Renaissance architects found
a harmony between the proportions of the human body and those
a) -ance: appear, distant, elegant, important; of their architecture. There was even a relationship between ar-
-ence: exist, excel, differ, permanent, present; chitectural proportions and the Renaissance pictorial device of
-ship: leader, relation, champion, student; perspective.
b) -ic: base, class, cube, geometry; The concern of these architects for proportion caused that clear,
-ful: care, colour, cheer, grace, peace, truth, wonder; measured expression and definition of architectural space and mass
c)  -(i)ate: decor, regular, different, substantial. that differentiates the Renaissance style from the Gothic and en-
courages in the spectator an immediate and full comprehension of
3.  Make up word combinations and simple sentences using the building.
the adjectives (A) and nouns (B). In the early 15th century an Italian architect Filippo Brunelles-
chi formulated linear perspective, which was to become a basic
(A) ancient, architectural, elegant, classical, decorative, great, element of Renaissance art. His brilliant work, the loggia of the
symmetrical; Ospedale degli Innocenti (1419–51) was the first building in the

84 85
Английский для архитекторов Unit 9. The rebirth of classical art. The Renaissance

Renaissance manner. A very graceful arcade was designed with Tests


Composite columns, and windows with classical pediments were
regularly spaced above each of the arches. I. Complete the following sentences.
Donato Bramante's Tempietto San Pietro in Montorio (1502)
1.  For the classical antiquity and for the Renaissance the … was
symbolized the beginning of the High Renaissance style in Rome.
the basic element of architectural design.
Erected on the supposed site of the martyrdom of St. Peter, the
a) order
Tempietto is circular in plan, with a colonnade of 16 columns sur-
b) asymmetry
rounding a small cella, or enclosed interior sanctuary.
c) the effect of illusionism
St Peter’s Cathedral, the work of great masters, is the largest
church in the Christian world. Its architectural history shows the 2.  Clear measured expression and definition of architectural
way in which the Baroque emerged out of the Renaissance. space and mass differentiates the Renaissance style from … .
In Russia the Renaissance is represented by the works of Ita­ a) the Rococo
lian masters (the Moscow Kremlin, the 15th — 16th centuries.) b) the Gothic
The cathedral of the Assumption was built in 1475–1479 by Aris- c) the Byzantine style
totile Fioravante on the site of an old church dating back to the 3.  It was an Italian Renaissance architect … who formulated
reign of Ivan Kalita. By combining the characteristic features of linear perspective.
the Vladimir-Suzdal and early-Moscow style with Italian Renais- a) Filippo Brunelleschi
sance decoration and construction methods Fioravante produced a b) Donato Bramante
masterpiece of lasting beauty. Another example is the Cathedral of c) Pietro Lombardo
the Archangel Michael, designed by Alevisio Novi in 1505–1508.
The Granovitaya Palata (Faceted Palace, 1487–91) was built 4.  The first building in the Renaissance manner was … .
by Russian craftsmen according to the design of Italian architects a) Tempietto San Pietro
Marco72Unit 9. The rebirth of classical artRuffo, Aloisio da Car- b) Palazzo Medici-Riccardi
cano, and Pietro Antonio Solari. Its eastern facade is faced with c) the loggia of the Ospedale degli Innocenti
faceted white stones, hence the name. 5.  The cathedral of the Assumption was built by … .
a) Fioravante
Active vocabulary
b) Novi
pictorial — живописный, изобразительный c) Bernini
loggia — аркада; открытая галерея с аркадом
arcade — аркада, сводчатая галерея 6.  The eastern facade of the Faceted Palace is faced with … .
pediment — фронтонen a) mosaics
closed — окруженный, огороженный b) glazed tile
to lay — (зд.) заложить фундамент c) faceted white stones
lantern — фонарь верхнего света
assumption — (рел.) успение
faceted — имеющий грани

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 9. The rebirth of classical art. The Renaissance

II.  Choose the correct adjective. b) Bernini


c) Bramante
1.  The ruins of… classical buildings were one of the sources of
knowledge for the Renaissance architects. 5.  Alevisio Novi built in Moscow …
a) ancient b) contemporary c) Egyptian a) the Cathedral of Archangel Michael
b) the Cathedral of the Assumption
2.  The order was a system of… architectural units.
c) the Granovitaya Palata
a) casual b) famous c) traditional
3.  The ornate, decorative quality of the … order was embraced
Exercises 
during the early Renaissance.
a) Corinthian b) Tuscan c) Ionic
I.  Translate into Russian.
4.  The … simplicity and strength of the Doric was preferred
ŠŠ a system of traditional architectural units;
during the Italian High Renaissance.
ŠŠ the ornate, decorative quality of the Corinthian order;
a) different b) basic c) masculine
ŠŠ the masculine simplicity of the Doric order;
5.  A very … arcade was designed with Composite columns. ŠŠ the Renaissance pictorial device of perspective;
a) massive b) immediate c) graceful ŠŠ an immediate and full comprehension of the building;
ŠŠ a very graceful arcade;
6.  The Tempietto is … in plan.
ŠŠ windows with classical pediments above each of the arches;
a) rectangular b) circular c) semicircular
ŠŠ the supposed site of the martyrdom of St. Peter;
III. Choose the correct word. ŠŠ enclosed interior sanctuary;
ŠŠ in a very poor condition;
1.  The Renaissance developed in … . ŠŠ the foundation stone;
a) France b) Italy c) England ŠŠ in addition to the high altar;
2.  The treatise "De architecture" was a handbook of … . ŠŠ to the top of the lantern
a) Renaissance architects
b) Baroque architects II. Match the terms (A) and their definitions (B).
c) Gothic architects A. order; cathedral; the Renaissance style; cella; arcade B.
3.  The Renaissance is characterized by measured expression ŠŠ the rebirth of classical art and learning;
and definition of … . ŠŠ an arcaded gallery;
a) pointed arches ŠŠ a system of traditional architectural units;
b) architectural space ŠŠ enclosed interior sanctuary;
c) spherical pendentives ŠŠ a monumental church
4.  The plans for St. Peter's Cathedral were prepared by … .
a) Brunelleschi

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 9. The rebirth of classical art. The Renaissance

III. Work in pairs. Ask your partner to tell you about the 5.  The Assumption Cathedral was erected by Aristotile Fio­
sources of the Renaissance's origin, the differences ravante.
between the Renaissance and the Gothic, the works of
Filippo Brunelleschi and the largest church in the Christian VI. Translate into English.
world. ŠŠ декоративные свойства коринфского ордера;
Use the following phrases: ŠŠ мужественная простота дорического ордера;
ŠŠ Could you please tell me about… ŠŠ эпоха Возрождения;
ŠŠ Can I ask you a question concerning … ŠŠ пропорции человеческого тела и их связь с архитек­
ŠŠ With great pleasure. турнымипропорциями;
ŠŠ Certainly. ŠŠ первое здание в стиле Ренессанса;
ŠŠ I see, thank you. ŠŠ равномерно распределены над каждой из арок;
ŠŠ был заложен фундамент;
IV. Answer the following questions. ŠŠ Успенский собор;
ŠŠ характерные черты;
1.  When and where did the Renaissance begin? ŠŠ строительные методы;
2.  What is the meaning of the word “ Renaissance”? ŠŠ русские ремесленники
3.  What were the sources of knowledge of the classical sty­le in-
architecture? VII. With your partner, make up a dialogue using
4.  What was the basic element of the architectural design for the information from the text 1 and your own knowledge
the Renaissance? on the subject.
5.  Who was the first to elaborate and to show the Renaissance
system of perspective? VIII. Translate into Rusian.
6.  What was the first building in the Renaissance manner?
The Renaissance style of architecture made a very timid ap-
7. What is the largest church in the Christian world?
pearance in England during the first half of the 16th century, and it
8. What outstanding Renaissance architects do you know?
was only from about 1550 that it became a positive style with lo-
V.  Paraphrase the following statements using cal qualities. In fact, the Gothic style continued in many parts of
the informationfrom the text. England throughout most of the 16 th century, and English Renais-
sance architecture was a very original fusion of the Tudor Gothic
1.  The early Renaissance is characterized by active use of the and classical styles.
Corinthian order. The Renaissance style really begins in England in the middle
2.  The Doric was the favourite order of the Italian High Re­ of the 16th century in architecture built for the circle of the Lord
naissance. Protector Somerset.
3.  Bmnelleschi is supposed to be the initiator of the Renais­ A typical example of the Renaissance style of England is to be
sance. found in the quadrangle that John Caius added to Gonville Hall
4.  The building of St. Peter's was begun in 1506. at Cambridge.

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Английский для архитекторов

The architecture of the new court was basically Tudor Gothic,


but Caius planned three gateways in connection with the court,
two of which were in Italian style. The three gates were to mark
the progress of the student through the university. At the entrance
was the Gate of Humility (1565), a modest doorway, now in the
Master's garden. The Gate of Virtue (after 1565), opening into the Unit 10
new quadrangle, is a fine classical portal with Ionic pilasters, but
with a Tudor Gothic many-centred arch for the opening. Finally, Baroque and Rococo
the Gate of Honour (1573) is a separate tiny triumphal arch leading
out toward the schools for the final disputation and degree.

Pre-text exercises

1. Guess the meanings of the following international words.


Philosopher, schematic, logic, irregular, architecture, integrate,
sculpture, ensemble, illusionistic, colour, contrast, static, texture,
conflict, unbalanced, aspect, artistic, style, form, active, region,
monumentality, correct, spirit, formal, geometric, intellect, ba­
lance, national, palace.

2.  Analyze the following word formation models.


Apply — application; derive — derivation — derivative;
sche­me — schematic; perfect — imperfect — imperfectly; illu-
sion — illusionist — illusionistic; luxury — luxurious; direct —
direc­tion — directional — directionality; art — artist — artistic;
monument — monumental — monumentality.

3.  Use the following suffixes to form adjectives.


-(i)an: Austria, Australia, Bohemia, Paris;
-ese: China, Malta, Portugal, Japan;
-ish: England, Poland, Spain, book, new, small.

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 10. Baroque and Rococo

Read the text and tell about the main features mind, architecture was more geometric, formal, and precise — an
of the Baroque. appeal to the intellect.
Hardouin-Mansart's Dome des Invalides, Paris (c. 1675), is
Baroque generally agreed to be the finest church of the last half of the 17th
century in France. The correctness and precision of its form, the
Baroque and late Baroque, or Rococo, are terms applied to harmony and balance of its spaces, and the soaring vigour of its
European art of the period between the early 17th century — the dome make it a landmark not only of the Paris skyline but also of
mid 18th century. "Baroque" was probably derived from the Ital- European Baroque architecture.
ian word barocco. This word was used by philosophers during the Other greatest works of this style are the church of Santa Su-
Middle Ages to describe an obstacle in schematic logic. This word sanna (Maderno, с. 1597), Versailles (Le Vau), National Palace in
also described an irregular or imperfectly shaped pearl. Madrid (Sacchelti, 1736), and Royal Palace at Caserta (Vanvitelli,
During the Baroque period (c.1600–1750), architecture, paint- 1752).
ing, and sculpture were integrated into decorative ensembles. Ar-
chitecture and sculpture became pictorial, painting became illu- Active vocabulary
sionistic. pearl — жемчуг
Baroque art was essentially concerned with vivid colours, hid- ensemble — ансамбль
den light sources, luxurious materials, and elaborate, contrasting texture — текстура
surface textures. molding лепное украшение
Baroque architects made architecture a means of propagating landmark — объект местности, ориентир.
faith in church and in the state. Baroque space, with directionality,
movement, positive molding, contrasted markedly with the static,
stable, and space of the High Renaissance and with the frustrating Tests
conflict of unbalanced spaces of the preceding Mannerist period.
Mannerism is the term applied to certain aspects of artistic style, I. Choose the correct form of the adjective.
mainly Italian, in the period between the High Renaissance of the 1.  Baroque space contrasted with the static, defined space of
early 16th century and the beginning of Baroque art in the early the … Renaissance.
17th century. a) Higher b) the Highest c) High
The Baroque rapidly developed into two separate forms: the
strongly Roman Catholic countries (Italy, Spain, Portugal, Flan- 2.  The Baroque tended toward … architectural forms and sur-
ders, Bohemia, southern Germany, Austria, and Poland) tended faces.
toward freer and more active architectural forms and surfaces; in a) free b) freer c) the freest
Protestant regions (England, the Netherlands, and the remainder of 3.  In Protestant regions architecture was … and developed a
Northern Europe) architecture was more restrained and developed quiet monumentality.
a quiet monumentality impressive in its refinement. In the Prot- a) the most restrained
estant countries and France, which sought the spirit through the b) restrained
c) more restrained

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 10. Baroque and Rococo

4.  In the Protestant countries and France architecture was …, b) In Protestant regions architecture had free and active forms.
formal, and precise.
5.  Domes des Invalides is the finest church of European Ba­
a) more geometric
roque Architecture.
b) the most geometric
a) Domes des  Invalides  is the finest church of the 18th
c) geometric
century.
5.  Dome des Invalides, Paris is generally agreed to be … church b) Domes des Invalides was built in 1675.
of the last half of the 17th century in France. c) Domes des Invalides is a masterpiece of European Baro­
a) finer b) finest c) the finest que architecture.

II. Choose the correct sentence. III.  Complete the following sentences.
1.  During the Baroque period architecture and sculpture be- 1.  The term "Baroque" was used by philosophers … .
came pictorial. a) during the period of the Enlightenment
a) Baroque architects and sculptors used luxurious materials. b) during the Middle Ages
b) "Baroque" means imperfectly shaped pearl. c) in ancient times
c) Baroque architects and sculptors used the methods of
2.  During the Baroque period architecture and sculpture be­
painting.
came … .
2.  Baroque art was concerned with vivid colours, hidden light a) illusionistic b) realistic c) pictorial
sources and elaborate contrasting surface structures.
3.  Baroque architecture was a means of propagating … .
a) Baroque art was characterized by vivid colours, hidden
a) faith b) atheism c) anarchism
light sources and elaborate contrasting surface structures.
b) The Baroque never exploited hidden light sources. 4.  Mannerism is the term applied to certain aspects of … .
c) The Baroque developed from the early 17th century to the a) social life
mid 18th century. b) artistic style
c) scientific research
3.  This style contrasted markedly with the High Renaissance
and Mannerism. 5.  The Baroque rapidly developed into two separate … .
a) The Baroque resembled the High Renaissance and Man­ a) forms b) sides c) parts
nerism.
b) The Baroque had little in common with the High Renais­ Exercises
sance and Mannerism.
c) The Mannerist period featured the frustrating conflict on I. Find the false sentences using the information from
unbalanced spaces. the text. Correct them.
4.  In Protestant regions architecture was restrained. 1.  Baroque is a term applied to European art of the early 15th
a) In Protestant regions architecture was austere. century.

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 10. Baroque and Rococo

2.  It is used to describe an irregular or imperfectly shaped pearl. 6.  Architecture and sculpture f) the beginning of Baroque
3.  It was concerned with bright colours, hidden light sources, became pictorial, … art
and contrasting surface textures. 7.  Mannerism  is the term of g) a means of propagating
4.  Architecture became a means of antireligious propaganda. style  in the period between faith in the church and in
5.  The Baroque style had Very much in common with the High the High Renaissance and … the state
Renaissance and Mannerism.
6.  Cheap materials were often used during the Baroque period. IV. Use the following expressions to describe the Baroque,
7.  Baroque architects exploited effects of illusionism and made the High Renaissance, the Mannerist period.
one art imitate the methоds of the other.
ŠŠ unbalanced spaces;
II. Choose words from the following list to put  ŠŠ vivid colours;
in the sentences below. ŠŠ hidden light sources;
ŠŠ luxurious materials;
Heavy, space, describe, Protestant, angle ŠŠ the harmony and balance of spaces;
1.  The word "Baroque" was used to … imperfectly shaped pearl. ŠŠ the static, stable, and defined space.
2. The Baroque … provided multiple changing views.
3.  The Baroque features the massive … relief. V.  Read the text once more and write questions to these
4.  A Baroque statue had a principal view with a preferred … answers.
5.  The Baroque developed both the Catholic and … countries. 1.  It is used to describe an obstacle in schematic logic.
2.  During the Baroque period.
III. Match the beginnings of the sentences to their ends, 3.  Hardouin-Mansart's Dome des Invalides in Paris is a land­
using the information from the text. mark of European Baroque architecture.
1.  This term was used by … a) were integrated into decora- 4.  It developed into two separate forms.
2.  The three arts — architec- tive ensembles
VI. Ask your partner the following questions.
ture, painting, and sculp- b) luxurious materials and
Listen to his/her answers.
ture … contrasting surface struc-
3.  Baroque architects made tures 1.  How is the word "Baroque" defined?
architecture … c) the static space of the High 2.  What are the main features of the Baroque?
4.  This style was essentially Renaissance 3.  What arts were integrated into decorative ensembles?
concerned with  vivid co- d) and painting became  illu- 4.  What outstanding Baroque architects do you know?
lours, hidden light sources sionistic
… e) philosophers during the VII. Translate into English.
5.  Baroque space contrasted Middle Ages
ŠŠ препятствие;
markedly with …
ŠŠ средние века;
ŠŠ жемчуг неправильной формы;

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 10. Baroque and Rococo

ŠŠ живопись; near Biberach, Germany, 1728, by Dominikus Zimmermann;


ŠŠ яркие цвета; Saint-Jacques, Luneville, France, 1730, by Germain Boffrand.
ŠŠ скрытые источники света;
ŠŠ вера; Active vocabulary
ŠŠ более сдержанный; to evolve — происходить, возникать
ŠŠ утонченность; current — течение
ŠŠ дух; to flood — литься потоком
ŠŠ обращение к разуму; flowing — текущий, плавный (о стиле)
ŠŠ достопримечательность robust — крепкий; сильный; грубый

I. Choose the correct verb.


Text 2
Read the text and speak on the difference between 1.  Vivid colours were … by pastel shades.
the Baroque and Rococo. a) replaced b) chosen c) created.
2.  Smooth flowing masses … emphasis only at isolated points,
Rococo a) exhibited b) had c) separated
During the period of the Enlightenment (about 1700 to 1780),
3.  By progressively modifying the Renaissance-Baroque hori-
various currents of post-Baroque art and architecture evolved.
zontal separation into discrete parts, Rococo architects …
A principal current, generally known as Rococo, refined the robust
unified spaces.
architecture of the 17th century to suit elegant 18th-century tastes.
a) reduced b) obtained c) retained
Vivid colours were replaced by pastel shades; diffuse light flooded
the building volume; violent surface relief was replaced by smooth 4.  Rococo architects emphasized structural elements, … con­
flowing masses with emphasis only at isolated points. Churches and tinuous decorative schemes, and reduced column sizes to
palaces still exhibited an integration of the three arts, but the build- a minimum.
ing structure was lightened to render interiors graceful and ethereal. a) described b) borrowed c) created
Interior and exterior space retained none of the bravado and domi- 5.  In churches, the ceilings of side aisles were raised to the
nance of the Baroque but entertained and captured the imagination height of the nave ceiling to … the space from wall to wall.
by intricacy and subtlety. a) unify b) divide c) close
By progressively modifying the Renaissance-Baroque horizontal
separation into discrete parts, Rococo architects obtained unified II. Choose the synonyms to the words in italics.
spaces, emphasized structural elements, created continuous deco-
rative schemes, and reduced sizes to a minimum. In churches, the 1.  During the period of the Enlightenment, various currents of
ceilings of side aisles were raised to the height of the nave ceiling to post-Baroque art and architecture evolved.
unify the space from wall to wall (Church of the Carmine, Turin, a) showed b) developed c) remained
Italy, 1732, by Filippo Juvarra; Pilgrimage Church, Steinhausen,

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 10. Baroque and Rococo

2.  Churches and palaces still exhibited an integration of the III.  Express the main idea of the first passage of the text
three arts. "Rococo".
a) displayed b) chose c) divided
IV. Paraphrase the following.
3.  The building structure was lightened to render  interiors
grace­ful and ethereal. ŠŠ the robust architecture;
a) to open b) to combine c) to make ŠŠ an integration of the three arts;
ŠŠ graceful and ethereal
4.  The Rococo refined the robust architecture of the 17th cen-
tury.
5. Translate into English.
a) created b) improved c) became
ŠŠ эпоха просвещения;
5.  Interior and exterior space entertained and captured the
ŠŠ утонченные вкусы 18 века;
imagination by intricacy and subtlety.
ŠŠ заменить пастельными оттенками;
a) arrested b) avoided c) violated
ŠŠ поражать воображение;
ŠŠ разрозненные части;
Exercises ŠŠ потолки боковых нефов;
ŠŠ объединить пространство.
I. Translate into Russian.
ŠŠ the period of the Enlightenment; VI. A. Read the text about the development of the Baroque 
ŠŠ to refine the robust architecture of the 17th century; in England.
ŠŠ to be replaced by pastel shades;
B. Tell about the works of Christopher Wren, Inigo Johns,
ŠŠ violent surface relief;
and Sir John Vanbrugh.
ŠŠ to be replaced by smooth flowing masses;
ŠŠ graceful and ethereal; С. Comment on: "Inigo Johns is to architecture
ŠŠ the bravado and dominance of the Baroque; what Shakespeare is to literature".
ŠŠ to capture the imagination by intricacy and subtlety;
ŠŠ continuous decorative schemes; The late designs of Inigo Jones for Whitehall Palace (1638) and
ŠŠ Pilgrimage Church. Queen's Chapel (1623) in London introduced English patrons to
the prevailing architectural ideas of northern Italy in the late 16th
II.  Find in the texts "Baroque" and "Rococo" opposites century. Although he was influenced heavily by the 16th century ar-
to the following. chitects such as Palladio, Serlio, and Vincenzo Scamozzi, Jones ap-
proached the Baroque spirit in his late works by unifying them with
regular; negative; informal;
a refined compositional vigour. Sir Christopher Wren presented
unimportant; pale; passive;
English Baroque in its characteristic restrained but intricate form in
uncertain; to increase; perfect;
St. Stephen's Walbrook, London (1672), with its multiple chang-
luxurious; to darken; to put down;
ing views and spatial and structural complexity. Wren's greatest
maximum.

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 10. Baroque and Rococo

achievement, St. Paul's Cathedral, London (1675–1711), owes VIII. Prepare a report on one of the suggested topics.
much to French and Italian examples of the Baroque period; but
1.  Baroque Architecture.
the plan shows a remarkable adaptation of the traditional English
2.  Rococo Architecture.
cathedral plan to Baroque spatial uses. Wren is notable for his large
3.  Baroque and Rococo compared.
building complexes (Hampton Court Palace, 1689, and Greenwich
4.  Baroque Architecture in Russia.
Hospital, 1696), which, in continuing the tradition of Inigo Jones,
paved the way for the future successes of Sir John Vanbrugh. Van-
brugh's Castle Howard in Yorkshire (1699) and Blenheim Palace in
Oxfordshire (1705) mark the culmination of the Baroque style in
England.

VII. You went on an excursion to the Winter Palace 


in St. Petersburg. Describe its exterior using
the information from the text.
In Russia the Baroque was created by Bartolomeo Rastrelli.
His father, famous sculptor Carlo Rastrelli was invited to Russia
by Peter the Great, His sixteen-year-old son had no professional
training when he came to Russia. He learned at the construction
sites of St. Petersburg masters and became an architect of world
renown, the designer of many magnificent palaces and churches in
the Russian capital.
The Winter Palace executed in the fine taste and on a gigantic
scale is Rastrelli's masterpiece. Rastrelli himself made the drawings
and plans of the palace, designed the ornamentation patterns for
window platbands, carvings, sculptures, lattices, parquetry, inte-
riors and furniture. The palace building is nearly two kilometres
long in perimeter. Originally it had 1,050 chambers, 117 staircases,
1886 doors and 1,945 windows.
The project was started  in the reign of Elizabeth, Peter the
Great's daughter who was fond of the Baroque, so the Winter Pal-
ace is lavishly adorned with columns, stucco window platbands and
sculptures over the roof cornice.

104 105
Unit 11. Neoclassicism

Read the text and speak about the sources and qualities
of Neoclassical architecture.

The classicism that flourished in the period of 1750–1830 is


often known as Neoclassicism, in order to distinguish it from the
Unit 11 classical architecture of ancient Rome or of the Renaissance.
The search for the intellectual and architectural truth charac-
Neoclassicism terized the period. Stylistically this began with an onslaught on
Baroque architecture, which — with its emphasis on illusion and
applied ornament — was felt to be manifestly untruthful.
Essentially representing a new taste for classical serenity and
archaeologically correct forms, 18th-century classicism manifest-
ed itself in all the arts.
Pre-text exercises
The discovery, exploration, and archaeological investigation of
1. Guess the meanings of the following international words. classical sites in Italy, Greece, and Asia Minor were crucial to the
emergence of Neoclassicism.
Classicism, period, Neoclassicism, classical, architecture, intel- The centre of  international Neoclassicism was Rome. The
lectual, characterize, stylistically, illusion, ornament, manifestly, cradle of Italian antiquities, it provided the stage, but the leading
archaeologically, centre, international, actor, centre, academy, actors in the Neoclassical drama were French, German, or English;
monument, produce, geometric, organization, form, detail, dra- very little was contributed by Italians to this new movement. The
matic, interior, urban, contrast. centre of activity was the French Academy. The winners of the
Academy's Prix de Rome went to Italy to study the monuments
2.  Use the following suffixes and prefixes to form firsthand. The projects produced by the French Prix de Rome win-
a) nouns b)adjectives c)verbs d) adverbs. ners are characterized by their grandeur of scale; strict geomet-
-tion: articulate, contribute, describe, explore, investigate, mani- ric organization; simplicity of geometric forms; Greek or Roman
fest, produce, project, create, form; detail; dramatic use of columns, particularly to articulate interior
-ful: art, beauty, cheer, forget, grate, truth; spaces and create urban landscapes; and a preference for blank walls
un-: able, adorned, answered, clear, forgetful, truthful; and the contrast of formal volumes and textures. The same qualities
-ly: active, archaeological, architectural, correct, great, mani- describe Neoclassical architecture as it emerged throughout Europe
fest, stylistical. and in America.

Active vocabularу
3.  Match the pairs of synonyms.
antiquities — древности
To search, appearance, serenity, crucial, emergence, to look dramatic — (зд.) — волнующий, эффектный
for, vital, tranquility. to articulate — выделять

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 11. Neoclassicism

formal — (зд.) — правильный, симметричный b) massive stuccowork


blank — глухая (стена) c) pretentious wrought irons
8.  This style is called Neoclassicism to distinguish it from the
Tests classical architecture of ancient … .
a) Egypt b) Rome c) Russia
I. Complete the sentences.
II. Complete the sentences.
1.  Stylistically this began with an onslaught on … .
a) Romanesque architecture 1.  18th-century classicism manifested itself in …
b) Greek architecture a) painting b) sculpture c) all the arts
c) Baroque architecture
2.  Excavations at the newly discovered ancient cities of … and
2.  The excavations of classical sites were held in Italy, Greece, Herculaneum began in 1748 and 1738.
and … ю a) Paestum b) Pompeii c) Spalatro
a) Asia Minor b) Egypt c) India
3.  The centre of international Neoclassicism was …
3.  The projects produced by the winners are characterized by a) Paris b) Florence c) Rome
….
4.  The winners of the Academy's Prix de Rome went to Italy …
a) rich floral decorations
a) to study the monuments firsthand
b) stained glass windows
b) to take part at a design competition
c) a preference for blank walls
c) as tourists
4.  There were also the strict geometric organization and … .
5.  … corresponded loosely with the Enlightenment.
a) simplicity of geometric forms
a) Art Nouveau b) Neoclassicism c) Rococo
b) spatially complex compositions
c) massive walls and round arches 6.  Very little was contributed by Italians to … .
a) the Baroque
5.  Neoclassicism emerged throughout Europe and in … .
b) the 18 th century classicism
a) Africa b) America c) Asia
c) the Renaissance
6.  Neoclassicism flourished … .
7.  Neoclassicism in its nostalgia for past civilizations was also
a) during the first century A. D.
a Romantic … .
b) in the late 19 th century
a) movement b) creation c) centre
c) during the period of 1750–1830
7.  Neoclassicism is characterized by well proportioned facades,
shadowed arcades, and…
a) balanced coloured schemes

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 11. Neoclassicism

Exercises III.  Find the false sentences using the information from


the text. Correct them.
I.  Choose the correct preposition.
1.  Neoclassicism flourished in the period from 1750 to 1830.
1.  The search … the intellectual and architectural truth char- 2.  It was a reaction against the architecture of the Renaissance.
acterized Neoclassicism. 3.  Paris was the centre of international Neoclassicism.
a) of b) after c) for d) in 4.  This style was characterized by a new and more scientific in-
2.  The classicism of the 18 th-century manifested itself… all terest in classical antiquity.
the arts. 5.  The leading actors in the Neoclassical drama were main-
a) in b) by c) at d) to ly Italians.

3.  Coincidental with the rise of Neoclassicism was a new and IV. Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate form.
more scientific interest… classical antiquity.
1.  As the Baroque was the style of absolutism, so Neoclassi-
a) for b) about c) at d) in
cism (to correspond) with the Enlightenment and the Age
4.  Very little was contributed …Italians to this new movement. of Reason.
a) with b) by c) from d) to 2.  While superficially opposite, Neoclassicism and Romanti-
5.  The same qualities describe Neoclassical architecture as it cism (to share) the same roots.
was to emerge … Europe and in America. 3.  The spaces between the radiating avenues (to be subdivided)
a) throughout b) through c) over d) at either geometrically or on a gridiron pattern.
4.  In the second half of the 18 lh century the Greek ruins at
II. Translate into Russian. Paestum (to begin) to attract the attention of visitors.
5.  The term Romantic Classicism (to be used) by some 20 Ih-
ŠŠ in order to distinguish it; century art historians to describe certain aspects of Neoclas-
ŠŠ the search for intellectual and architectural truth; sical architecture.
ŠŠ classical serenity;
ŠŠ to manifest oneself; V.  Answer the following questions.
ŠŠ discovery, exploration;
ŠŠ classical sites; 1.  When did Classicism come into being?
ŠŠ to be crucial to the emergence of Neoclassicism; 2.  Why is this style often called Neoclassicism?
ŠŠ the cradle of Italian antiquities; 3.  What is the difference between the architecture of Neoclas-
ŠŠ to study the monuments firsthand; sicism and that of the Baroque?
ŠŠ grandeur of scale; 4.  How did this style manifest itself?
ŠŠ dramatic use of columns; 5.  Where was the centre of international Neoclassicism?
ŠŠ a preference for blank walls; 6.  Name the leading architects of the period and their works.
ŠŠ the same qualities;
ŠŠ throughout Europe and in America

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 11. Neoclassicism

VI.  Match the words and their definitions. most original English buildings of the century, a grim, rusticated
complex combining the romantic drama of Piranesi with the dis-
1) the style of absolutism a) Rome cipline of Palladio and the Mannerist details of Giulio Romano in
2) objects in nature b) the Renaissance an imaginative paradigm of Neoclassicism. Holland was architect
3) the late phase of the Baroque c) the Baroque to the Prince of Wales and his most important work in this capacity
4) the rebirth of classical style d) ruins was the extensive remodeling of Carlton House begun in 1783, a
5) the centre of international Neoclassi- e) the Rococo style refined and elegant whole with a joint debt to Adam and to France.
cism
IX. Interview your partner as a Neoclassical architect, one
VII. Give the English equivalents. of the winners of the French Academy's Prix de Rome.
ŠŠ классическая архитектура Древнего Рима и Ренессанса;
ŠŠ классическая ясность; X.  You came to Russia as a tourist and you are interested 
ŠŠ возникновение неоклассицизма; in classical architecture. Ask your friend about
ŠŠ грандиозность масштаба; the development of classicism in Russia.
ŠŠ строгая геометрическая организация
XI. Express your opinion.
VIII. Translate into Russian. 1.  Baroque architecture with its emphasis on illusion and ap-
Robert Adam is one of the outstanding representatives of Neo- plied ornament was felt to be manifestly untruthful.
classicism in England. His executed works consisted mainly of the 2.  The 18th-century classicism manifested itself in-all the arts.
remodeling of existing houses, the most important of which were 3.  The emergence of the science of archeology was indicative
Osterley Park, Middlesex (1761–80); Syon House, Middlesex of a new attitude to the past.
(1762–69); and Kenwood House, Hampstead, London (1767–69).
At Kedleston Hall, Derbyshire (c. 1765–70), he completed James
Paine's plan and added a garden front in which the central portion
(centrepiece) is clearly derived from an ancient Roman triumphal
arch, the first use of this form in domestic architecture. This use
of antique forms in a new context is a recurring characteristic of
Neoclassical architecture. Adam's planning, to which he devoted
considerable attention, was based on a variety of contrasting room
shapes, each geometric in itself and contained within an overall
geometric plan yet creating a sense of movement, variety, and sur-
prise.
Of the next generations the leading architects were George
Dance the Younger, Henry Holland, and James Wyatt. Dance's
Newgate Prison, London (1769; demolished 1902), was among'the

112 113
Unit 12. The architecture of the turn of the centuries . Art Nouveau

4.  Translate the following sentences paying attention


to the words in italics.
1. The aim of this project is to give support to young architects.
2. We aim at reducing expenses to the minimum. 3. On exhibition
are original prints of modern masters. 4. You should master the art
Unit 12 of communication. 5. The roofs of the houses rise above the trees.
6. They could see a car coming over the top of the rise.
The architecture of the turn
of the centuries Read the text and speak on the main features
of Art Nouveau

Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau was a style of art, decoration and architecture
Pre-text exercises which affected many European countries and North America be-
tween 1890 and 1910.
1. Guess the meanings of the following international words. Often referred to simply as the style 1900, Art Nouveau ex-
presses an essentially decorative trend that aims to highlight the
Style, modern, decorative, ornamental, line, floral, asymmetri-
ornamental value of the curved line, which may be floral in origin
cal, form, characteristic, result, imitation, exploit, material, fa-
(Belgium, France) or geometric (Scotland, Austria). This line gives
ience, cabochon, terracotta, panel, exotic, balcony, plastic, facade,
rise to two-dimensional, slender, undulating and invariably asym-
accentuation, individual, sculptural, mass, aesthetic, social, theory,
metrical forms. The applied arts were the first to be affected (textiles
master, pioneer.
by William Morris, 1880; wood-engraved title page to Wren's City
Churches by Arthur H. Mackmurdo, etc.
2.  These are the false friends of the interpreter.
Among the most characteristic products of Art Nouveau were:
Translate them and memorize their meanings.
the houses built by Th. Sluyterman and L. A. H. Wolf in the Neth-
Rubric, title, express, furniture, auditorium. erlands, Guimard’s Castel Beranger (1897–1898), entrances to
the Metro stations and the auditorium of the Humbert de Romans
3.  Analyze the following word formation models. building (1902, destroyed) in Paris, and the former Hotel Solvay
Affect — affectation — affectionate; vary — variable — vari- (1895–1900) in Brussels.
ably — invariably; refer — reference; engrave — engraver; pro- In Russia Art Nouveau is represented by the works of F. Schech-
duce — product — production; imitatate — imitation — imitative; tel (Ryabushinsky Mansion (Moscow, 1900), Yaroslavsky Railway
treat — treatment; inspire — inspiration — inspirator. Station, (Moscow, 1904), Ryabushinsky Printshop ("Utro Rossii",
Moscow, 1907), Winter Theatre, (Krasnodar, 1908,) Suroshnikov

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 12. The architecture of the turn of the centuries . Art Nouveau

Mansion, (Samara, 1913,) Chekhov Library, (Taganrog, 1914) and horseshoe — подкова
many others. treatment — обработка
All these works are the result of an attempt to put an end to imi-
tations of past styles; in its place is offered a type of architecture.
Tests
It uses such materials as faience cabochons, stained glass, stoneware,
terracotta panels, as well as exotic veneers, moulded stonework, I.  Choose the correct sentence.
grilles, wrought iron fences and gates; bow and horseshoe windows,
etc. 1.  Art Nouveau was a reaction to the currents of eclecticism
In the later phases of Art Nouveau, facade decoration was ac- and academic classicism at the turn of the 19th century.
companied either by the dramatic accentuation of individual parts a) Art Nouveau was a reaction against Neo-Gothic.
of the structure (Glasgow Art School, 1898–1909, by Mackintosh) b) I t was a reaction to the currents of eclecticism and aca-
or by the sculptural modelling of the whole building mass (Werk- demic classicism in the late 19th century.
bundtheater, Cologne, 1914 by van de Velde; Casa Mila, Barcelona, 2.  This style has a lot of rubrics.
1905–1910, by Gaudi). a) It is often referred to as "style 1900"-.
Art Nouveau was first and foremost an aesthetic undertaking, b) It was the "modern style" in England.
based on social theories and inspired by aesthetes such as Ruskin, c) It is known under a variety of titles.
Morris and Oscar Wilde. It was born of a reaction to the rise of in-
dustrialism. 3.  The curved line gives rise to invariably asymmetrical forms.
Distinguished architects of the Art Nouveau style, such as a) A florid type of architecture exploits craft skills.
Mackintosh, Behrens and the Viennese masters became pioneers b) The whiplash line creates constantly asymmetrical forms.
of modern architecture, it is true, but with their forward-looking 4.  Fyodor Shekhtel  is the main representative of Art Nou-
buildings they overstepped the frontiers which the style had im- veau in Russia.
posed upon its adherents. a) Ryabushinsky's mansion by Fyodor Shekhtel is one the
best works of Art Nouveau in Russia.
Active vocabulary
b) Mackintosh is an outstanding representative of Art Nou-
entrance — вход veau in Scotland.
two-dimensioeal — двухмерный
the applied art — прикладное искусство 5.  Art Nouveau was  inspired by Ruskin, Morris and Oscar
to engrave — гравировать Wilde.
stoneware — керамические изделия a) The echoes of Gothic had a considerable effect on the age
stained glass — витраж and emerged in some Art Nouveau works.
veneer — шпон; однослойная фанера; (кирпичная) облицовка b) Art Nouveau was an aesthetic undertaking.
wrought iron — ковкая мягкая сталь c) Ruskin, Morris and Oscar Wilde were the inspirers of Art
fence — забор, изгородь, ограда Nouveau.
bow — дуга

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 12. The architecture of the turn of the centuries . Art Nouveau

II. Complete the following sentences. 4.  What were the decorative elements of this trend?
a) Art Nouveau featured exotic veneers, moulded stonework,
1.  Art Nouveau is characterized by … and asymmetrical forms.
asymmetrical door-and window frames, horseshoe win-
a) plain surfaces
dows.
b) whiplash lines
b) It was characterized by unadorned exteriors and interiors.
c) symmetrical composition
c) The Doric order was preferred during this period.
2.  This decorative trend highlights … of the curved line.
5.  Who were the greatest architects of Art Nouveau?
a) structural value
a) Carlo Rossi is one of the greatest representatives of the
b) durability
"modern style".
c) ornamental value
b) August Endell, Charles R. Mackintosh and Antonio
3.  It was an attempt to put an end to imitations of… styles. Gaudi are among those who created this style.
a) past b) new c) different c) Filippo Brunelleschi is supposed to be its initiator.
4.  This architecture exploits craft skills, using …
a) coloured materials Exercises
b) Simple geometric forms
c) computer technology I. Translate into Russian.
ŠŠ ornamental value of the curved line;
III. Answer the following questions. Only one variant 
ŠŠ to give rise;
is correct from the three choices.
ŠŠ the applied arts;
1.  What does Art Nouveau exploit? ŠŠ ornamental lettering;
a) This style exploits the effects of illusionism. ŠŠ wood-engraved title page;
b) The artists of Art Nouveau imitate past styles. ŠŠ mural tapestry;
c) It exploits craft skills using coloured materials. ŠŠ to put an end;
2.  What were the sources of Art Nouveau? ŠŠ to exploit skills of craftsmen;
a) Increasing interest in archaeology was crucial to the emer- ŠŠ asymmetrical door — and window-frames;
gence of Art Nouveau. ŠŠ a powerful treatment of the whole building;
b) It was inspired by such aesthetes as Ruskin, Morrison, and ŠŠ a reaction to the rise of industrialism;
Oscar Wilde. ŠŠ forward-looking buildings;
c) It adopted the ideas of Constructivism. ŠŠ to impose upon its adherents.

3.  What kind of reaction was Art Nouveau born of? II.  Match the pairs of synonyms. Make up word
a) It began with an onslaught on Baroque architecture. combinations of your own, using these words.
b) It was the reaction to the ban on human representation.
architectural products; instead
c) It was born of a reaction to the rise of industrialism.
in its place; to make use of

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 12. The architecture of the turn of the centuries . Art Nouveau

diverse; trend, fashion 6.  Translate the text.


to exploit; to suggest
Antonio Gaudi was born in Reus (Cataluna) in a family of cop-
style; notable, outstanding
persmiths.
distinguished; buildings, structures, edifices
The most universal architect which Cataluna has given was the
modern; dissimilar
last of five brothers. He did not follow the traditional occupation of
to offer; recent
the family but it helped him to create his own conception of space
to call; to name
and volume. Gaudi saw in the construction of boilers which his
slender; decorative
father produced a free treatment of space.
form; shape
Gaudi worked at the moment of Modernistic outbreak, the mo­
ornamental slim
vement of regeneration and replanting of the arts. One must point
out that Gaudi — always bound to his historic moment and his
III.  Increase your vocabulary. Make sentences of your own,
people — going forward to his era, never limited himself to some
using these phrasal verbs.
criterion of school. Therefore his figure and his work are the chapter
to give rise to, to differ in, apart in Modernism.
to put an end to, to be accompanied by, Among his first works were the "Cuidadela" Park of Barcelona,
to impose upon, to overstep the frontiers. the niche of the Virgin of Monserrat, the street lamps in the "Plaza
Real" of Barcelona, the Vicen's house, the furniture of the "Comil-
IV. Prove the following statements using the information las" chapel. These were the first tests which allowed him to find
from the text. solutions — synthesis of Romanic-Gothic Medievalism, organic
1.  Art Nouveau is also known as the style 1900. naturalism, orientalism, geometrism — which configured in all
2.  The curved line was the essential element of this decorative his posterior work.
trend. Antonio Gaudi is the author of such world renewed architectural
3.  At first Art Nouveau manifested itself in the applied arts. products as the college of the Teresinas, the Guell Park, the "Bot-
4.  A wide diversity characterizes the architecture of the Art ines" house, the Episcopal Palace of Astorga, the houses "Calvet"
Nouveau style. and "Battlo", the "Pedrera" (Mila house), the crypt of the "Colonia
5.  Various coloured materials were used by a florid type of ar- Guell", and many others. His greatest work is the New Cathedral
chitecture. of Barcelona — The "Sagrada Familia" (Holy Family).

V.  In your group, discuss the following questions.


1.  When did Art Nouveau develop?
2.  What are its sources?
3.  Why was Art Nouveau a diverse phenomenon?
4. What outstanding architects of Art Nouveau do you know?
5.  What are the best examples of Art Nouveau in Europe?

120 121
Unit 13. Organic architecture. Frank Lloyd Wright

Geometrical clarity were unfinished materials for


his buildings.
According to Wright’s are the main feature of his
philosophy, the building works.
Unit 13 Box-like forms used the elements
of Wright’s vocabulary.
Organic architecture
Read the text and tell about the creativity of F. L. Wright

Frank Lloyd Wright


Frank Lloyd Wright (1867–1959) is the greatest American ar-
Pre-text exercises chitect and interior designer. He developed the concept of ‘organic’
architecture, was the initiator of the Prairie School movement, with
1. Guess the meanings of the following international words. his Usonian homes set a new style for suburban design. Wright’s
work includes innovative examples of different building types —
Interior, designer, concept, organic, architecture, initiator, style, mansions, churches, museums, schools, hotels and offices. He
innovative, type, museums, hotels, office, element, terrace, ma- often designed the interior elements of his buildings, such as pieces
terial, plan, pergola, garage, period, construct, balcony, vertical, of furniture, carpets, light fittings, and stained glass.
horizontal, characterize, functional, elegant, geometric, forms, His famous ‘Prairie Houses’ (between 1900 and 1917) were
spiral, collection, foundation, technique. extended low buildings with flat roofs, suppressed chimneys, over-
hangs and terraces, made of unfinished materials. These works are
2.  Use the following prefixes and suffixes to make
known to be the first examples of the ‘open plan’. These were the
new words.
houses in Buffalo, New York, 1903–1908; the Westcott House in
Over-, sub-, sup-, un-; -al, -an, -ese, -fy, -ize, -like, -ment, -or, -y. Springfield, Ohio, 1907–1908; the Avery and Queene Coonley
House in Riverside, Illinois; the Frederick C. Robie House in Chi-
Practice, rock, hang, Japan, engage, interrupt, Europe, charac-
cago, 1907–1909.
ter, develop, spiral, function, America, achieve, simple.
The Westcott House, inspired by Japanese art, shows the evolu-
3.  Using the table make up affirmative, negative tion of Wright’s Prairie concept. It has an extensive 98‑foot pergola
capped with an intricate wooden trellis; this connects a detached
and interrogative sentences.
carriage house and garage to the main house. The Robie House is
Arc, circle and spiral  is harmony with the natu- a masterpiece of the late ‘Prairie period. The structure features
ral surroundings. cantilevered roof, supported by a 110‑foot steel channel. Its liv-
ing and dining areas are unified to form one uninterrupted space.
Wright should be Wright’s favourites.

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 13. Organic architecture. Frank Lloyd Wright

Greatly influenced young architects in post war Europe, this work is limestone — известняк
often called the ‘cornerstone of modernism’. foundation — фундамент
The greatest example of residential design, the house named
Falling Water, was constructed on a rocky ledge with a stream and
Tests
waterfall running under part of the building (1935–1939). The con-
struction being an integral part of the landscape is a series of canti- I.  Choose the correct word.
levered balconies and terraces, the verticals were made of limestone
and the horizontals of concrete. 1.  Wright’s work … innovative examples of different building
In the 1930's Wright was also engaged in designing Usonian types.
homes. Aimed to be highly functional houses for middle-class cli- a) includes b) concludes c) excludes
ents, these designs were characterized by simple, yet elegant geo- 2.  With his Usonian homes he set a new style for … design.
metric forms. a) urban b) suburban c) industrial
The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York (1943–
1959) is probably his most recognized masterpiece. The spiral- 3.  The Robie House is often called the ‘… of modernism’.
like building grows from its site on Fifth Avenue; its interior is like a) cornerstone b) touchstone c) stone
the inside of a seashell. 4.  The private residence named Falling Water is a series of can-
Modern American homes owe much to Wright: open plans, tilevered balconies and …
slab-on-grade foundations, simplified construction techniques, a) roofs b) beams c) terraces
innovative use of glass and other building materials.
During his lifetime and well after his death Frank Lloyd Wright II. Choose the correct form of the verb.
received much honorary recognition for his achievements. In 1991,
1.  Wright … the concept of ‘organic’ architecture.
the American  Institute of Architects named him “the greatest
a) has developed
American architect of all time”. In 2000, an unscientific pool was
b) had developed
taken in Philadelphia in which Falling Water was named “The
c) developed
Building of the 20th century’’, as were the Guggenheim Museum,
the Frederick C. Robie House and the Johnson Wax Building. 2.  By 1901 about 50 projects … by Wright.
a) had been completed
Active vocabulary b) has been completed
мansion — большой особняк, большой дом; дворец c) were completed
carpet — ковер
3.  The living and dining areas of the Robie House … to form
light fittings — осветительные приборы
one uninterrupted space.
chimney — труба, дымоход
a) unified
overhang — выступ, навес
b) are unified
unfinished — необработанный
c) are being unified
trellis — шпалера
cantilever — консоль, кронштейн

124 125
Английский для архитекторов Unit 13. Organic architecture. Frank Lloyd Wright

4.  Throughout his career Wright … in community and site plan- III.  Fill in the gaps with words from the text.
ning.
1.  Wright’s work … innovative examples of different building
a) was interested
types.
b) had interested
2.  One of his most famous private residences, … was built near
c) interested
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
5.  In accordance with Wright’s philosophy, the building … 3.  ‘Prairie Houses’ were extended low buildings with … roofs,
from its context. suppressed …, overhangs and terraces.
a) shall grow 4.  The Robie House is … of the late ‘Prairie period.
b) should be grown 5.  The interior of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum is like
c) should grow the inside of … .

IV. Match the words to their definitions.


Exercises
1. Cornerstone. 2. Evolution. 3. Innovative. 4. Masterpiece.
I.  Match Russian and English equivalents. a) the way in which something gradually changes and develops;
b) new, original and advanced;
1. movement a) особняк
c) an extremely good example of something;
2.  suburban b) водопад
d) a basic part of something, on which everything depends.
3.  simplify c) шпалера
4.  mansion d) жилой
V.  Match the terms to their definitions.
5.  light fitting e) признавать
6.  residential f) упрощать 1. Cantilever. 2. Chimney. 3. Overhang. 4. Unfinished.
7.  recognize g) осветительные приборы a) a part that sticks out from the edge above something;
8.  waterfall h) движение b) a piece of wood or metal fixed to the side of an upright post
9.  trellis i) пригородный or a wall and used for supporting something such as a bridge;
c) not painted or protected with a special liquid;
II.  Find out which parts of speech the following words d) a tube or passage that takes smoke from a fire through a buil­
from the text are referred to. ding and out through the roof.

set par. 1  noun adjective  verb VI. Translate into English.


flat par. 2  noun adjective  verb
Новый стиль проектирования загородных домов, церк-
overhangs par. 2  noun adjective  verb ви, отели, осветительные приборы, ковры, мебель, вит-
intricate par. 3  noun adjective  verb ражи, труба, дымоход, шпалера, выступ, оказать большое
features par.3  noun adjective  verb влияние, угловой (краеугольный) камень, шедевр, консоль,
кронштейн, отдельный, сложный, замысловатый, «Дом над
series par.4  noun adjective  verb

126 127
Английский для архитекторов

водопадом», заниматься проектированием, известняк, бетон,


спиралевидный, признание, шпалера.

VII. Ask your friend to explain you the following.


‘Cornerstone of modernism’, innovative use, unfinished materi-
als, cantilever roof (balcony), suppressed chimney. Unit 14
VIII. Answer the following questions. Functionalism
1.  What is the main idea of ‘organic’ architecture?
2.  Who was its founder?
3.  How can be ‘Prairie Houses’ described?
4.  What can you say about Wright’s most innovative private
residence? Pre-text exercises
5.  What features of modern American houses date back to
Wright? 1. Guess the meanings of the following international words.
6.  How does the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum look like?
Dominant, figure, internationally, system, proportion, human,
7.  Why do you think Falling Water, the Guggenheim Museum,
basis, formulate, definition, correct, construction, transportation,
the Frederick C. Robie House and the Johnson Wax Build-
postulate, machine, practically, mechanistic, aesthetic, rationality,
ing were given the title ‘The Building of the 20th century’?
plan, serial production, function, terrace, composition, interior,
exterior, unique, architect, finally, epoch, tradition, urban, plan-
IX. Make up a report on one of the suggested topics.
ning, scheme, centre, visual.
1.  Frank Lloyd Wright and his philosophy of organic architec-
ture. 2.  These are the false friends of the interpreter.
2.  Japanese influences in Wright’s creativity. Translate them and memorize their meanings.
3.  Wright’s theories of suburban development.
Section, series, general, reflection, concrete.
4.  Wright’s innovations in interior design.
3.  Use the following prefixes and suffixes to form
a) verbs b) adjectjves c) nouns.
mis-: calculate, inform, lead, take, understood;
ir-: rational, real, regular, relevant;
-age: cover, lever, patron, pilgrim, marry;
-(i)ty: able, hostile, formal, real.

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 14. Functionalism. Charles Edouard (Jeanneret) Le Corbusier

Read the text and tell about Le Corbusier's innovations Among his works are Villa Savoye, Poissy (1929–1931); Pavilion
in architecture. Nuisse, Cite Universitaire, Paris (1930–1932); The Clarte apart-
ment house in Geneva (1930–1932); Unite d'Habitation, Mar-
Charles Edouard (Jeanneret) Le Corbusier seilles (1947–1952); tin' urban planning schemes for large North
(1887–1966) African and South American cities (the 1930 s); the Pilgrimage
church of Notre Dame-du-Haut at Rouchamp (1950–1954);
Le Corbusier was the dominant figure internationally in modern the Carpenter Centre for the Visual Arts at Harvard University in
architecture from 1920 to 1960. Cambridge, Massachusetts (1961–1964); the plan for the city of
He proposed the "Modulor", a system of proportions grounded Chandigarh, India (1950–1951), and many others.
on the golden section or the Fibonacci series using the human fig-
ures as its basis, formulated the famous definition of architecture Active Vocabulary
as 'the masterly correct and magnificent play of masses brought section — сечение
together in light'. His comparisons with engineering constructions window strips — ленточные окна
and with modern forms of transportation were formulated into terrain — местность
such oft-misunderstood postulates as 'the house is a machine for ramp — скат, уклон, наклонная плоскость, пандус
living in' and that it should be as practically constructed as a type- pilotis — столбы, поднимающие здание над землей
writer. By this he meant not a mechanistic 'machine aesthetic' but
rather complete rationality in plan, capacity for serial production
and function. Tests
His 'five points for a new architecture': the pilotis, roof terraces,
free plan, continuous window strips and free facade composition I. Choose the correct adjective.
were to be the essential elements of the new aesthetic. 1.  Le Corbusier was the… figure internationally in modern ar-
Le Corbusier's works have become monuments of modern ar- chitecture from 1920 to 1960.
chitecture with their general independence of terrain as well as a) dominant b) foreign c) possible
a rich variety of interior and exterior spaces achieved by means
of double-height rooms, gallery floors, bridges and ramps 2.  According to Le Corbusier architecture is "the masterly cor-
with views into the interior as well as framed views looking out, all rect and … play of masses brought together in light ".
expressions of a genuine luxury in architecture. a) bright b) wooden c) magnificent
Le Corbusier's long period as a leading figure in modern archi- 3.  Free facade composition is one of his "five points for a …
tecture — for nearly half a century — was unique among architects architecture".
of his time and is, finally, a reflection of his capacity to endow ar- a) new b) great c) modern
chitecture with an expression which evokes the spirit of his epoch.
4.  Le Corbusier's long period as a… figure in modern architec-
In this sense he was at once the 'terrible simplificateur' in the tradi-
ture was unique among architects of his time.
tion of the rationalist enlightenment and a creator of forms which
a) continuous b) leading c) wise
will endure well beyond his time.

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 14. Functionalism. Charles Edouard (Jeanneret) Le Corbusier

5.  Le Corbusier's works have become monuments of … archi- ŠŠ genuine luxury in architecture;
tecture, ŠŠ he rationalist enlightenment;
a) modern b) medieval c) native ŠŠ the "terrible simplificateur"

II. Complete the following sentences. II.  Guess which parts of speech the following words
from the text belong to.
1.  According to Le Corbusier, "the house should be as practi-
cally constructed as …". Complete noun adjective  verb
a) a TV-set b) a type-writer c) a refrigerator
play noun adjective  verb
2.  He advanced the "Modulor" in order to determine the pro-
masses noun adjective  verb
portions of … .
a) machines b) terrain c) building units general noun adjective  verb
endure noun adjective  verb
3.  His formulas of architectural typology are: the pilotis, roof
terraces, free plan, continuous window strips and … .
III. Fill in the gaps with the words and expressions
a) free facade composition
from the text.
b) conspicuous use of decoration
c) complexity of forms 1.  He proposed the "Modulor", a system of proportions … on
the golden section or the Fibonacci series using the … figures
4.  Le Corbusier worked out the urban planning schemes for
as its …
Paris and for several large North African and … cities.
2.  He also formulated the famous … of architecture as 'the
a) South African
masterly, correct and magnificent… of masses brought to-
b) North American
gether in … '.
c) South American
3.  His 'five … for a new architecture' were to be the … elements
of the new aesthetic.
EXERCISES 4.  He was at … the 'terrible simplificateur' in the tradition of
the rationalist… and a creator of forms which … well beyond
I.  Translate into Russian. his time.
ŠŠ ‘The magnificent play of masses, brought together in light’; 5.  His works … monuments of… architecture.
ŠŠ the house is a machine for living in;
ŠŠ a mechanistic 'machine aesthetic'; IV. Explain in English.
ŠŠ capacity for serial-production; ŠŠ the golden section;
ŠŠ the pilotis; ŠŠ complete rationality in plan;
ŠŠ continuous window strips; ŠŠ capacity for serial-production;
ŠŠ general independence of terrain; ŠŠ free plan.
ŠŠ by means of double-height rooms;

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 14. Functionalism. Charles Edouard (Jeanneret) Le Corbusier

V.  Translate into English. VI. Translate into Russian.


ŠŠ «дом — машина для жилья»; The rapid development of South American cities in the late
ŠŠ возможность серийного производства; 19th century and a growing awareness that city planning required
ŠŠ столбы-ходули, поднимающие здание над землей; specialized knowledge, created a climate that welcomed experts
ŠŠ сад на крыше; from abroad.
ŠŠ ленточные окна; Active in the Southern Cone during the first decades of the 20th
ŠŠ большое разнообразие внутренних и внешних про­ century were the Frenchmen Joseph Antoine Bouvard, Jean Claude
странств; Nicolas Forestier and Leon Jaussely. The presence in Buenos Aires
ŠŠ галерейные этажи; of Le Corbusicr (1929) was significant for urbanism in Argentina.
ŠŠ передавать дух эпохи; Le Corbusier's journey to Buenos Aires, Montevideo, Rio de
ŠŠ просвещение Janeiro, and San Paulo affected architecture and planning in all
of South America. It seems likely that Le Corbusier arrived with
VI. Explain the following. his proposal for the Argentine capital preconceived, resembling
his "Plan for a Contemporary City of Three Million," exhibited in
Human figures are used as the basis of Le Modulor. Paris in 1925.
For nearly half a century Le Corbusier was a leading At his arrival at night — his ship had been delayed in Montevi-
Why?
figure in 20 th century architecture. deo — he was exhilarated by the sight of Buenos Aires stretching
Le Corbusier’s works have become monuments out as a line of lights along the calm expanse of the La Plata River,
of modern architecture. under the southern sky "so full of stars." Walks through the city
on the following days, however, filled him with sadness and even
VII. A: With your partner, make up a dialogue about despair: "Buenos Aires is one of the most inhumane cities I have
the activity of Le Corbusier using the information known; really, one's heart is martyred. For weeks I walked its streets
from the text and your own knowledge on the subject. 'without hope' like a madman, oppressed, depressed, furious, des-
perate…." Moving through the "corridor streets" of Buenos Aires,
Don't forget to mention: when and where he worked; what his the "tragic streets without hope," he was challenged by the posibili-
formulas of architectural typology are; what his works are. Tell ties this difficult scenario presented to the urbanist's imagination.
about his influence on the architecture of the 20 Ih century. Le Corbusier decided to confront the city and its topographical
setting with a grand gesture, superimposing a rational scheme of
B. Comment on the following: the human mind. The Corbusian citii d'affaires makes only token
The architect is a contemporary of the future. reference to the Plaza de Mayo, substituting a megastructure as the
symbolic centre for a world-city, distinct from its historic past. The
concept is international not only in its architectural form but in its
practical program and technology, and points to a brilliant future.
From earliest times the old part of Buenos Aires was separat-
ed from the river by a steep incline, the barranca which formed a

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Английский для архитекторов

moatlike barrier. Le Corbusier overcame this confinement by merg-


ing the flat mainland with the water table. The Swiss from the Jura
Mountains was appropriating the absolute geometry of flatland. The
scheme envisions a platform on lulotis in the la Plata River match-
ing the level of the existing city. A core of sixty-storeyed skyscrapers
rises on the platform. Harbour facilities, docks, and railways are Unit 15
placed under it, and, downstream in the estuary, an airport.
Avant-Guarde in architecture

Pre-text exercises

1. Guess the meanings of the following international words.


Constructivism, style, architecture, organize, Functionalism,
demonstration, revolution, sociological, program, Constructivist,
project, monument, International, armature, skeletal, spiral, sculp-
ture, gigantic, conic, symbol, industrialization, ministry, central,
economic, planning.

2.  Analyze the following word formation models.


Construct — construction — constructional, constructor,
Constructivism — Constructivists; function — functional — func-
tionality; Functionalism; efficient — efficiency — inefficiency;
sociology — sociological; industry — industrial — industrialize —
industrialization.

3.  Translate the following words with the suffix -al


which may be:
a) adjectives: architectural, classical, compositional, floral,
identical, pictorial, rostral, structural;
b) adjectives and nouns: capital, diagonal, horizontal, ideal,
international, material, original, potential, spiral, vertical;

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 15. Avant-Guarde in architecture. Constructivism

c) nouns: arrival, mineral, metal, pedestal, portrayal, revival, because of Stalin's dislike of modern architecture was never com-
survival. pleted.

4.  Match the pairs of opposites. Active vocabulary

Beauty, dislike, encourage, efficiency, informal, central, to com- armature — (зд.) — арматура
plete, exposed, peripheral, discourage, formal, liking, ugliness, leaning — наклонный
protected, inefficiency. wire — провод
gear — шестерня
rotate — вращать
Text 1.
Read the text and tell about the most famous works
Tests
of the style
I. Choose the correct preposition.
Constructivism
1.  Constructivism originated in Moscow … 1917.
Constructivism is a style of architecture which uses concrete,
a) in b) before c) after
steel and glass to organize planes and volumes in an extremely for-
mal expression. 2.  The demonstration of constructive solution was to be the
Constructivism originated in Moscow after 1917. lt may be re- basis … all building design.
garded as part of the Functionalism. The demonstration of the a) for b) over c) in
constructive solution was to be the basis for all building design, with
3.  After 1917, modern art was encouraged … Russia.
emphasis on functional machine parts. The Constructivists equated
a) near b) at c) in
efficient construction with beauty.
After the Revolution modern art at first was encouraged in Rus- 4.  It was a machine in which the various sections would rotate
sia and several architects, notably the German Bruno Taut, looked … an exposed steel armature.
to the new government for a sociological program. The Construc- a) within b) without c) with
tivist project for a monument to the Third International (1920) 5.  The Ministry of Central Economic Planning was designed
by Vladimir Tatlin was machine in which the various sections would … Le Corbusier.
rotate within an exposed steel armature. This leaning skeletal spiral- a) with b) by c) for
like monument (1300 ft high) of tin-iron wire and steel bones could
be regarded as either sculpture or architecture.
Konstantin Melnikov's Workers'club in Moscow (1920) had a EXERCISES
plan resembling a fragment of a gigantic conic gear, the symbol
ol industrialization of the country at that time. I.  Translate into Russian.
The Ministry of Central Economic Planning (1928–1932) de- ŠŠ planes and volumes;
signed by Le Corbusier, was intended to be a glass-filled slab but, ŠŠ constructive solution;

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 15. Avant-Guarde in architecture. Constructivism

ŠŠ modern art; IV. Find the false sentences using the information of the text.
ŠŠ a monument to the Third International;
1.  The Constructivists used marble in their works.
ŠŠ to rotate within an exposed steel armature;
2.  After the Revolution modern art at first was encouraged in
ŠŠ the iron wire;
Russia.
ŠŠ a fragment of a gigantic conic gear;
3.  This movement originated in Germany.
ŠŠ a glass-filled slab.
4.  Constructivism emphasized organic forms and ornaments.
5.  The Constructivists equated efficient construction with
II. Fill in the gaps with the words from the text.
beauty.
1. Constructivism used concrete, steel and … 6.  Vladimir Tatlin's project for a monument to the Third In-
2. This style may be regarded as … of the Functionalism. ternational in Moscow is the most famous example of this
3. A monument to the Third International was a machine in style.
which the … sections would … within an exposed steel… 7.  The building of the Ministry of Central Economic Planning
4. This monument could be … as either… or architecture. was built in 1932.

III. Match the beginnings of the sentences to their ends using V. Answer the following questions.
the information from the text.
1. When and where did Constructivism originate?
1.  Constructivism  is a style of a) in an extremely formal ex- 2. Why is this style called Constructivism?
architecture… pression 3. What are its main features?
2.  Planes and volume are orga- b) the new government for a 4. What famous constructivists do you know?
nized … sociological program
3.  The demonstration of the c) which used concrete, steel V.  Use the following definitions (A) to explain the word
constructive solution was … and glass combinations from the text (B).
4.  Several architects looked to… d) is the most famous Con- (A)
armature — anything serving as a defence;
5.  A monument to the Third In- structivist project construction — a building or other large structure;
ternational … e) was intended to be a glass- plane — a flat surface;
6.  The Workers'club in Moscow filled slab slab — a large flat piece of a hard material such as stone or
resembles … f) to be the basis for all wood etc;
7.  The Ministry of Central Eco- building design spiral — a shape that looks like a set of circles inside each
nomic Planning designed by g) a fragment of a gigantic other, made by one line curving inside itself.
Le Corbusier … conic gear.
(B) efficient construction, an exposed steel armature, a spiral-
like monument, a glass-filled slab.

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 15. Avant-Guarde in architecture. The Bauhaus

V.  Ask your group-mate to tell you about Vladimir Tatlin's 1925 Gropius designed the pioneering new Bauhaus (1925–26)
mon ument to the Third International; the Workers club in which steel frames and glass walls provided workshops within
by Konstantin Melnikov, Le Corbusier's project severely Cubistic buildings. Gropius assembled a staff of modern
of the Ministry of Central Economic Planning and other teachers, including the artists Laszlo Moholy-Nag, Wassily Kan-
architectural products of Constructivism. dinsky, Paul Klee, Marcel Breuer, and Adolf Meyer, whose projects,
such as the 116 experimental standardized housing units of the Tor-
ten Estate at Dessau, Germany (1926–28), bore a highly machined,
Text 2. depersonalized appearance.
Read the text and tell about the best world
architectural school of the late 1920s — the early 1930s Active vocabulary
furniture maker — производитель мебели
The Bauhaus tool — инструмент
In Germany Gropius followed a mechanistic direction. His workshop — мастерская
Fagus Works factory at Alfeld-an-der-Leine in Germany (1911) and housing unit — жилая единица
the Werkbund exposition building at the Cologne exhibition (1914)
had been models of industrial architecture in which vigorous forms Tests
were enclosed by masonry and glass: the effect of these buildings
was gained by the use of steel frames, strong silhouette, and the I. Complete the following sentences.
logic of their plans. There were no historical influences or expres-
sions of local landscape, traditions, or materials. The beauty of the 1.  Gropius's works at the Cologne exhibition had been models
buildings derived from adapting form to a technological culture. of … .
Gropius succeeded van de Velde as director of the ducal Arts a) industrial architecture
and Crafts School at Weimar in 1919. Later called the Bauhaus, b) computer aided design
it became the most important centre of modern design until the c) domestic architecture
Nazis closed it in 1933. While he was at Weimar, Gropius devel- 2.  There were no historical influences, or expressions of local
oped a firm philosophy about architecture and education, which landscape, traditions, or … .
he announced in 1923. The aim of the visual arts, he said, is to a) details b) cultures c) materials
create a complete, homogeneous physical environment in which
3.  The Bauhaus became the most important centre of modern
all the arts have their place. Architects, sculptors, furniture mak-
design until … .
ers, and painters must learn practical, crafts and obtain knowledge
a) the Nazis closed it in 1933 
of tools, materials, and forms; they must become acquainted with
b) the advent of Art Nouveau
the machine and attempt to use it in solving the social problems of
c) the World War I
an industrial society. At the Bauhaus aesthetic investigations into
space, colour, construction, and elementary forms were flavoured 4.  At Weimar, Gropius developed a firm philosophy about ar-
by Cubism and Constructivism. Moving the school to Dessau in chitecture and … .
a) policy b) education c) ecology

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 15. Avant-Guarde in architecture. The Bauhaus

5. A staff of modern teachers worked at … . 5.  Aim


a) Oxford Universyty a) purpose b) desire c) target
b) Harvard University
6.  To assemble
c) the Bauhaus
a) to pick up b) to gather c) to include
II. Choose the correct form of the verb.
EXERCISES
1.  In Germany, Gropius … mechanistic direction.
a) was following b) follow c) followed
I.  Translate into English.
2.  The effect of these buildings … by the use of steel frames,
ŠŠ выставка в Кельне;
strong silhouette and the logic of their plans.
ŠŠ каменная кладка;
a) was gained b) has gained c) gains
ŠŠ стальные каркасы;
3.  There … no historical influences, or expressions of local ŠŠ школа искусств и ремесел;
landscape. ŠŠ производители мебели;
a) was b) were c) is ŠŠ приобретать знания;
ŠŠ решение социальных проблем индустриального об­ще­
4.  The beauty of the buildings… from adapting form to a tech-
ства.
nological culture.
a) derived b) has derived c) derive
II. Match the words (A) and their definitions (B).
5.  116 experimental standardized housing units at Dessau …
(A)
a depersonalized appearance.
ŠŠ modern
a) born b) bears c) bore
ŠŠ workshop
ŠŠ crafts
III. Choose the synonyms to the following words.
ŠŠ landscape
1.  Models ŠŠ cubism
a) figures b) elements c) patterns
(B)
2.  Vigorous ŠŠ an extensive natural scene or vista of land;
a) visual b) strong c) serious ŠŠ manual art;
3.  To gain ŠŠ pertaining to the present time;
a) to obtain b) to receive c) to get ŠŠ the redutionary phase of the Modern art movement;
ŠŠ a building where any work or handicraft is carried on.
4.  Environment
a) landmark b) settlement c) surroundings

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Английский для архитекторов

III. Answer the following questions.


1.  What is the Bauhaus?
2.  Who was its founder?
3.  What are other famous names associated with it?
4.  Why Germany was the most important centre of modern
design until 1933? Unit 16
5.  What is the aim of the visual arts?
Jazzy architecture
IV. Ask your friend to describe the works by L. Gropius shown
at the Cologne exhibition.

Pre-text exercises

1. Guess the meanings of the following international words.


Architecture, technology, combine, archeological, archeologist,
reporter, tourist, graphic design, element, primitive, terra-cotta,
vertical, zigzag, pyramid, terrace, structure, complex, trapezoid,
logical progression, rhythmical, era, geometric, pavilion, radio,
music hall.

2.  These are the false friends of the interpreter.


Translate them and memorize their meanings.
Decoration, icon, furniture, block, auditorium.

3.  Make up new words, using the following prefixes


and suffixes.
Dis-: abilty, advantage, agree, appear, approve, connect, cover,
intergrate;
em-: balm, body, bed, brace, power;
un-: accustomed, adorned, altered, attractive, block, civilized,
delete, disturb;
-er: build, dine, design, line, scrape, work;

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 16. Jazzy architecture. ART DECO

-sion: erode, express, impress, progress, success; It‘s easy to overlook the Egyptian elements in the design of a
-an: Rome, Africa, Asia, India, America, Egypt, Assyria, Eu- posh theatre or a streamlined diner, a private residence or an office
rope. building. The very shape of these structures expresses admiration
for orderly forms and primitive architecture. The terra-cotta facing
4.  Match the pairs of synonyms. and strong vertical bands, zigzag designs and vivid colours are also
Find, form, untouched, vivid, amazing, discovery, bright, to typical Art Deco features borrowed from antiquity.
exploit, delicate, typical, to use, undisturbed, shape, subtle, char- The early Art Deco skyscrapers suggest Egyptian or Assyrian
acteristic, surprising. pyramids with terraced steps rising to the top. These structures may
have complex groupings of rectangles or trapezoids. Sometimes two
5.  Use the following in word combinations of your own. contrasting materials are used to create subtle bands of colour, a
strong sense of line, or the illusion of pillars. The logical progression
Subtle, to express, excavations, motifs, streamlined, culture, of steps and the rhythmical repetition of shapes resemble ancient
terraced, design, pillar, primitive, an interest, archeological, forms, architecture yet also celebrate a new, technological era.
to borrow, house. Vivid colour, strong lines and undulating, repeating patterns are
a trademark of Art Deco design, especially in the Moderne Deco
Read the text and tell about the sources and typical works of the 1930 s. Some buildings are embellished with flowing
features of the style. waterfall effects. Others present colours in bold, geometric blocks.
In Europe the main Art Deco works are Ruhlmann’s Paris exhi-
bition rooms, Le Pavillion d’un Collectioneur (1925). In the USA,
ART DECO
Art Deco was embraced by Raymond Hood, who designed three
The term Art Deco was coined from the title of an interna- of the most distinctive buildings in New York City: the Radio City
tional design exhibition held in Paris in 1925 (Exposition des Arts Music Hall auditorium and foyer, the RCA building at Rockefell-
Decoratifs / et Industriels Moderns). er Center, and the New York Daily News building. The Chrysler
During the twenties and early thirties, jazzy Art Deco architec- Building by William van Allen and the Empire State Building by
ture was the rage. Its sources were numerous — the austere shapes Shreve and Lamb are other greatest landmarks of Art Deco archi-
of the Bauhaus School and streamlined styling of modern technol- tecture.
ogy combined with motifs taken from ancient Greece and Rome, After 1935 Art Deco declined but has revived since the 1960s.
the Far East, Africa, India, Aztec and Mayan cultures. But the
most important was the influence of ancient Egypt. Active vocabulary
In 1922, the world was thrilled with the discovery of the King streamline — придавать обтекаемую форму; модернизировать
Tutankhamen’s tomb. Reporters and tourists thronged the site for facing — облицовка, отделка
a glimpse at treasures which had laid nearly undisturbed for over skyscraper — небоскреб
3,000 years. Soon a fascination for ancient Egypt found expres- block — блок; (of houses) квартал; (of flats) многоквартирный
sion  in advertising design, architecture, furniture, jewelry, and дом
clothing.

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 16. Jazzy architecture. ART DECO

Tests 4.  In the 1930 s, some Art Deco buildings … with flowing wa-
terfall effects.
I.  Choose the correct word. a) was embellished
b) will be embellished
1.  Most of all, Art Deco expressed … over a stunning archeo-
c) were embellished
logical find in Egypt.
a) concern b) thanks c) excitement 5.  Art Deco … since the 1960 s ….
a) has revived b) has been revived c) had revived
2.  A fascination for ancient Egypt found expression in clothing,
jewelry, furniture, … design and architecture.
III.  Match the sentences and tenses.
a) graphic b) landscape c) retail
1.  Art Deco expressed excitement over an amazing archeologi-
3.  The terra-cotta…, strong vertical bands, zigzag designs are
cal find in Egypt.
also typical Art Deco features borrowed from antiquity.
2.  Reporters and tourists saw treasures which had laid nearly
a) face b) facility c) facing
undisturbed for over 3,000 years.
4.  The very shape of buildings expresses fascination for orderly 3.  The very shape of these buildings expresses fascination for
forms and … architecture. orderly forms and primitive architecture.
a) sophisticated b) primitive c) classic 4.  Art Deco was widely used in furniture design.
5.  Some buildings are embellished with flowing … effects. 5.  Sometimes two contrasting materials are combined to create
a) waterfall b) waterline c) watercolour the illusion of pillars.
6.  Since the 1960 s Art Deco has become popular again.
II.  Choose the correct form of the verb. a) Present Simple Active; b) Present Perfect Active; c) Present
1.  In 1922, the world … with the astonishing archeological Simple Passive; d) Past Simple Active and Past Perfect Active; e) Past
find in Egypt. Simple Active; f) Past Simple Passive.
a) had been thrilled
b) is thrilled IV. Match the types of structures and their definitions.
c) was thrilled 1. Diner. 2. Pyramid. 3. Skyscraper. 4. Ziggurat. 5. Tomb.
2.  Extravagant ornamentation, streamlined forms and zigzag a) a large stone structure with a square base and walls with three
designs … the features we associate with Art Deco. sides that meet at a point on the top of the structure;
a) was b) are c) is b) a very tall building containing offices or flats;
3.  Hand made decorative goods …Art Nouveau mass-produced c) a grave where a dead person is buried, especially one consist-
articles. ing of a large stone structure;
a) are succeeding d) a terraced pyramid with each storey smaller than the one
b) were succeeding below it;
c) will be succeeding e) a small restaurant that sells simple cheap food.

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 16. Jazzy architecture. ART DECO

Exercises 2.  When Howard Carter opened the tomb of the ancient Egyp-
tian king the world was dazzled by the brilliance of the trea-
I.  Choose the correct form of the participle. sure.
3.  Skyscrapers of the 1920 sand early 1930 s often took on a
1.  The term Art Deco was coined from the title of an interna-
distinctive Art Deco shape: the ziggurat.
tional design exhibition (holding/held) in Paris in 1925.
4.  With their cubic forms and zigzag designs Art Deco buildings
2.  (Streamlining/streamlined) styling of modern technology
embraced the machine age.
combined with patterns and icons (taking/taken) from dif-
5.  These were the buildings of the future: sleek, geometric,
ferent cultures.
dramatic.
3.  Art Deco expressed excitement over an (amazing/amazed)
archeological find in Egypt.
IV. Make up 5 sentences using the information of the unit
4.  They saw the treasures which had laid nearly (undisturbing/
and your own knowledge on the subject.
undisturbed) for over 3,000 years.
5.  Typical Art Deco features (borrowing/borrowed) from an-
V.  Translate into English.
tiquity are zigzag designs and vivid colours.
6.  The Moderne Deco works of the 1930 s feature strong lines Выставка, строгий, обтекаемые формы, заимствовать мо-
and (repeating/repeated) patterns. тивы, древняя Греция, древний Рим, культура ацтеков и майя,
7.  Some buildings are embellished with (flowing/flowed) wa- влияние, испытывать трепет, быть взволнованным, сокрови-
terfall effects. ща, очарование, ювелирные изделия, частная резиденция,
облицовка здания, небоскреб, напоминать, прийти в упадок,
II.  Match English and Russian equivalents. возрождать стиль, моду и т. д.

1.  austere а) строгий, суровый, аскетический VI. Answer the following questions.
2. streamlined b) небоскреб
3. auditorium c) нетронутый 1.  When did Art Deco flourish?
4. treasure d) очарование 2.  What are its sources?
5. fascination e) сокровищe 2.  What are the main features of Art Deco?
6. undisturbed f) гладкий, плавный 3.  Who were the main representatives of this style?
7. skyscraper g) обтекаемый 4.  What are the examples of Art Deco?
8. flowing h) зрительный зал
7.  Discuss the following in your group.
III.  Find in the text the sentences to prove the following 1.  Major Art Deco influences.
statements. 2.  Art Deco in Europe.
3.  Art Deco in the USA.
1.  Art Deco is an eclectic style — a conglomeration of influ-
3.  Art Deco Revival.
ences from many cultures and historic periods.

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Unit 17. Modern architecture. Residential buildings

un-: necessary, usual, equal


dis-: ability, armament, cover
in-: convenient, stable, human, vary.

Text 1.
Unit 17 Read the text and tell about Frank O. Gehry and his work
Modern architecture. THE SCHNABEL RESIDENCE
Residential buildings In order to appreciate the creative universe of Frank O. Geh-
ry it is necessary to understand a number of factors which affect
his designs for houses in a very special way. Firstly, his choice since
the beginning of his career of a particular area (California), his ef-
forts to provide a solution to some very specific social needs, and
his acceptance of the limitations imposed by modem production
Pre-text exercises systems. This Canadian architect is considered to be one of the
proponents of impoverished technology, advocating the use of low
1. Guess the meanings of the following international words.
cost, industrially manufactured materials (chain link, corrugated
Creative, factor, design, special, social, limitation, production, cardboard and metal siding).
system, architect, technology, manufactured, material, metal, lau- His work has made him one of the most acclaimed architects in
reate, prize, prestigious, domestic, metre, irregular, trapezoidal, the world. Gehry was named 1989 Laureate of the Pritzker Archi-
private, terrace, program, service, garage, plan, arcade, natural, tecture Prize, the most prestigious award for architectural achieve-
visual, effect. ment presented to a living architect.
One of the most famous examples of Gehry's work in the field
2.  Use the following prefix and suffixes to form of domestic architecture is the Schnabel Residence in Brentwood
a) adjectives b) nouns. (Los-Angeles). The construction of this building was started in July
1987 and it took almost two years to complete.
Out-: break, door, lying, side, standing;
The site selected was a property of approximately 530 square
-(u)ar: angle, rectangle, quadrangle, triangle;
metres. At one end, the roughly rectangular site terminates in an ir-
-(i)ous: danger, prestige, continue, ridicule, vigour;
regular trapezoidal area where the slope was cut back to form a
-(i)ty: creative, equal, author, proper, subtle.
lower terrace.
3. Using the following prefixes form the opposites The architect responded to the elaborate building program
and translate them into Russian. (private, service and leisure areas) in addition to a garage and out-
door installations.
ir-: regular, resist, rational, real Each of these buildings is laid out in a wide two-level garden. At-
im-: possible, patient, personal tached to the northern side of this cruciform element is a two-storey

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 17. Modern architecture. Residential buildings

building housing a variety of rooms. The kitchen is situated on the 2.  He advocates the use of low cost, industrially manufactured
ground floor of this rectangular structure (closely connected to the ….
main dining room), and at the centre there is a double-height skylit a) materials b) goods c) skyscrapes
family room. The ground floor plan is completed by a small study.
3.  In 1989 Frank O. Gehry was awarded with … .
The upper floor contains two bedrooms with bathrooms. This block
a) the Builder's Choice Grand Award
has been finished on the outside with a simple grey stucco.
b) Distinguished Architecture Award
In the entrance area on the western side of the property a small
c) the Pritzker Architecture Prize
stucco box has been constructed to house the garage. A smaller
structure placed on its top contains the staff living quarters. Gehry 4.  The Schnabel Residence's unusual morphology, a typical
has designed an arcade supported by pillars clad in natural copper, typology and the surprising choice of materials were made
which crosses the garden to link this building to a door into the possible by the comprehension of the … .
kitchen. a) authorities b) clients c) public
The focal point of the eastern part of the property is a shallow 5.  At one end, the roughly rectangular site terminates in an ir-
lake. It echoes the trapezoidal shape of this end of the site and pro- regular … area.
vides a charming setting for the house. This is the area with a lower, a) trapezoidal b) pentagonal c) quadrangular
more private terrace. The play of the reflections mirrored in the
sheet of water enhances the fascinating visual effect of the whole.
EXERCISES
Active vocabulary
corrugated — гофрированный I.  Find in text the false friends of the interpreter.
cardboard — картон Translate them and memorize their meanings.
stucco — отделочный гипс Use these words in the sentences of your own.
focal — фокусный
setting — окружение, художественное оформление II. Using the information of the text find out if the following
sheet — зд. поверхность (воды) statements are true or false.
1.  The selected site had remarkable topographic features.
Tests 2.  The building program included private service and leisure
areas.
I. Complete the sentences, 3.  Each of these buildings is laid out in a wide two-level garden.
4.  The ground floor is completed by two bathrooms.
1.  Frank O. Gehry is considered to be one of the proponents 5.  In the northern part ofthe site there is a three storey building.
of … . 6.  In the western part ofthe property the garage has been con-
a) high cost technology structed.
b) informational technology 7.  A deep lake is in the western part of the property.
c) impoverished technology

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 17. Modern architecture. Residential buildings

III.  Fill in the gaps with the words from the text. VI. Look at the various types of house below and match each
with its correct description.
1.  He tries … a solution to some very specific social needs.
2.  This Canadian architect is one ofthe… of impoverished tech- 1.  Cottage a) a house in a row of houses which are all
nology. 2.  Semi-detached joined together;
3.  The Pritzker Architectural Prize  is the most prestigious house b) a house which stands alone and is not
award for architectural … 3.  Terraced house joined to any other;
4.  At one end, the roughly rectangular site… in an irregular 4.  Bungalow c) a house which is joined to another on
trapezoidal area. 5.  Council house one side only;
5.  The objects are played against each other in an expressive … 6.  Detached house d) a house which is rented from a local
and … dialogue. authority;
7.  The upper … contains two bedrooms with e) a small house in the country, usually
8.  The play of the … mirrored in the sheet of water … the fas- with a garden;
cinating visual effect of… f) a house which has only one floor.
IV. Find out which parts of speech the following words VII. Change into passive.
from the text belong to.
1.  Frank O. Gehry supervised the construction of the Schnabel
Affect noun adjective  verb residence.
efforts noun adjective  verb 2.  In 1989 Frank O. Gehry received the Pritzker Architectural
Prize.
siding noun adjective  verb
3.  They laid out a two-level garden.
cruciform noun adjective  verb 4.  The architect added a small study to the ground floor plan.
study noun adjective  verb 5.  They have finished the block with a simple grey stucco.
stucco noun adjective  verb 6.  Gehry has designed an arcade supported by pillars.
7.  The arcade crosses the garden.
house noun adjective  verb 8.  The builders have constructed a small stucco box to house
a garage.
V. Classify the words from word box to the subject. 9.  A shallow lake provides a charming setting for the more pri-
Forms of Structure * Type of Structure * Types of Spaces * Build- vate areas of the house.
ing Materials
VIII. Explain in English.
Rectangular, bathroom, staff living quarters, corrugated card-
board, family room, rectangular, dining room, copper, cruciform, ŠŠ the creative universe;
lead, terrace, chain link, kitchen, trapezoidal, metal siding, bed- ŠŠ impoverished technology;
room, study, stucco, garage, ŠŠ industrially manufactured materials;
ŠŠ domestic architecture, private areas;

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Английский для архитекторов

ŠŠ a site;
ŠŠ a building program;
ŠŠ artificial;
ŠŠ to echo the shape.

Text 2. Unit 18
Read the text and express your opinion on the subject
Modern architecture.
The Language of Estate Agents Public buildings
It is a running joke in Britain that the more disreputable estate
agents will always try to make the houses they are going to sell
sound much more desirable than they really are. An estate agent
would never write: "This is a horrible little house in a very poor
condition. The train go past every 10 minutes and shake the walls.
The back garden is laughably small. That is why it is so cheap." Pre-text exercises
Instead he would say: "This compact residence is ideally priced for
1. Guess the meanings of the following international words.
the first-time buyer. Although in need of some renovation, it has
some highly attractive features, including a small patio at the rear. Communication, technology, museum, popular, pavilion, infor-
It is very convenient to the railway station." mation, mineral, form, crystal, process, limit, interior, stable, base,
horizontal, acoustic, cinema, galvanize, quartz, hexagonal, prism,
1.  What do you think the following extracts from estate external, final, result, combination, gigantic, functional, sculpture,
agents' descriptions really mean? facade, reality, rhythm, effect, exterior, prelude, sensation, tennis,
1.  Planning permission has been granted for the addition of a court, proportion, future, spectacle, designer, illusion, visitor.
bathroom.
2.  These are the false friends of the interpreter.
2.  The rooms have been decorated to the taste of the present
Translate them and memorize their meanings.
owner.
3.  The cottage has a particularly charming historical character. Application, cross, attraction, simulation, series, projection.

2.  Try your hand at advertising of real estate. 3.  Use the following prefixes and suffixes to form
Write an ad attracting attention and revealing a) verbs b) nouns c) adjectives.
the advantages and desirable qualities of the house
en-: close, courage, danger, force, gulf, large, slave, sure;
you are trying to sell. -ment: achieve, amuse, develop, invest, manage;
-(a)tion: communicate, present, inform, inspire, construct, insu-
late, project, transform;

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 18. Modern architecture. Public buildings

-like: cave, box, spiral, pavilion, tower; superimposing a series of hexagonal prisms on the primary box-like
-proof: bullet, fire, fool, recession, water. structure. Finally, the tertiary structure serves as a base for the dark
mirrors which are fastened to the secondary structure and define the
4.  Match the pairs of synonyms. external appearance of the building.
To inspire, level, to translate, spectator, stable, application, size, A final result achieved by this combination of structures is a
balanced, to motivate, visitor, use, dimension, to change, floor. gigantic functional sculpture whose dark mirrored facades reflect
reality to a syncopated rhythm.
The effect produced by this impressive exterior is merely a pre-
Text 1. lude to the sensations which are aroused inside the building. The
Read the text and describe one of the most spectacular Kinemax screen has a surface area of 600 m2 which is roughly is
buildings of the 20th century Europe the size of a tennis court set on one end. Images projected onto
this screen assume incredible proportions which seem to engulf
THE KINEMAX the spectator.
After the projection of the film the dream continues. Before
The application of the most advanced communications tech-
the astonished gaze of 400 spectators, the gigantic screen is trans-
nologies is the common denominator of all of the areas in the mag-
formed into the exit of the Kinemax leading the spectators towards
nificent Futuroscope Park in Vienne, France.
the immense Lake of the City of the Future, where the spectacle
The area is a cross between a large science museum and an im-
continues. Thus Denis Laming, the designer of the Kinemax has
pressive amusement park. It contains some of the most popular
managed to make the illusion last long after the visitors have left
attractions in the park such as the Communications Pavilion and
the building.
the Futuroscope Pavilion. It also includes the Kinemax, which
In technical terms, the magical elevation of the screen is ef-
presents information through all of the senses.
fected by means of a unique procedure in which two large hydraulic
Inspired by mineral forms, the Kinemax is one of the most spec-
jacks lift the 18‑on screen. This apparently simple solution fulfilled
tacular buildings constructed in Europe in the last 20th century.
two of the basic objectives of the architect: he wanted to use every
The simulation of the appearance of a rock crystal was achieved
possible device to create a fantastic atmosphere that would capture
by a carefully studied structural layout which translates the origi-
the imagination of the visitors; on the other hand, to make a totally
nal idea into architectural forms through a three-level construction
hermetic structure which would exude a certain air of mystery and
process.
ambiguity.
The primary structure is a steel ‘box’ which defines the limits of
the interior space. This box is waterproof and provides a stable base Active vocabulary
for the whole construction. The structure is mainly composed of
simulation — воспроизведение; моделирование; имитация
beams placed horizontally and at a 60° angle which bear the hori-
layout — расположение; планировка; план, разбивка, разметка
zontal load of the secondary structure composed of the ‘crystals’.
waterproof — водонепроницаемый
The inside of the box is lined with an acoustic insulation for the
beam — балка
cinema. The secondary structure, made of galvanised steel, is a lat-
insulation — изоляция
ticed frame which duplicates the appearance of a quartz crystal by
galvanize — гальванизировать, оцинковывать

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 18. Modern architecture. Public buildings

latticed — решетчатый II. Choose the correct preposition.


secondary — вторичный
1. A steel "box" provides a stable base … the whole construction.
tertuary — третичный
a) of b) for c) under d) from
superimposing — наложение
joint — соединение; стык; паз, шов, шарнир; узел фермы 2.  In the Kinemax the information is presented … all the sen­
fastening — связывающий, скрепляющий ses.
angle — угол a) by b) with c) for d) through
mirror — зеркало 3.  The Kinemax is inspired … mineral forms.
exit — выход a) from b) in c) by d) with
elevation — фасад
4.  A carefully studied structural layout translates the origi-
nal idea … architectural forms.
Tests a) into b) in c) for d) to
I. Complete the following sentences. 5.  The inside of the box is lined … an acoustic insulation of the
cinema.
1.  Futuroscope is the magnificent … .
a) by b) for c) up d) with
a) ship b) suburban residence c) park
2.  This recreational area is in … . III. Match the sentences and tenses.
a) France b) Belgium c) Austria
1.  The simulation of the appe­ a) present perfect active;
3.  The Kinemax is inspired by … . arance of a rock crystal was b) future-in the-past;
a) artificial fountains at Versailles achieved by a carefully studied c) present simple passive;
b) mineral forms structural layout. d) past perfect active;
c) the Constructivism motives 2.  The dark mirrored facades of e) present simple active;
4.  The primary structure is a … "box". a gigantic sculpture reflect rea­ f) past simple passive.
a) wood b) concrete c) steel lity to a syncopated rhythm.
3.  Denis Laming has pushed this
5.  The box provides a stable base for the whole … . capacity to surprise the visitors
a) construction b) structure c) frame to its limits.
6.  The secondary structure is made of … . 4.  The gigantic screen had caused
a) reinforced concrete a sensation owing to its huge di-
b) galvanized steel mensions.
c) corrugated cardboard 5.  The screen is transformed into
the exit of the Kinemax.
7.  The tertuary structure serves as a base for the …
a) prisms b) beams c) dark mirrors

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Английский для архитекторов

6.  The architect wished to create


a totally hermetic structure that
would capture the imagination
of the visitors.

Unit 19
EXERCISES

I.  Match the pairs of opposites.


Modern architecture. 
Careful, large, fiction, horizontal, to absorb, internal, small, Renovation and restoration
careless, backward, vertical, reality, advanced, to reflect, external.

II.  Match the words and their definitions.


Layout, information, structure, science, communication.
Pre-text exercises
1) the interchange of thoughts, opinions, by speech, writing,
or signs; 1. Guess the meanings of the following international words.
2) knowledge of facts and principles, gained by systema­
tic study; a particular branch of knowledge; systematized Architecture, myriad, form, practical, project, aesthetic, archi-
knowledge of the laws and facts of the physical and material tect, standard, individual, client, public, residence, transportation,
world; centre, theatre, corporate, office, aviation, national, corporation,
1) facts or data; knowledge derived from reading or instruction, university, mental, department, architectural, idea, critic, director,
or gathered in any way; renovation, mechanical, system, function, parking, terra-cotta,
4) plan or arrangement; ornamentation, arcade, modernization.
5) a particular arrangement of parts or elements.
2.  Form the new words using the following prefixes
III. Increase your vocabulary. Use the following words and and suffixes.
word combinations in the sentences of your own. (a) re-, sur-;
to be inspired by, to be lined with, to provide a stable base. (b) -al, -ance, -(a)tion -er, -ence, -ful, -ity, -ive, -ment, -ship, -tion.
(a) mount, use, store, realistic, novation, pass;
IV. Your friend has just visited the Futuroscope park  (b) prefer, active, expect, considerate, maintain, relation, history,
in Vienne. He is eager to tell you about his impressions. preserve, care, construct, history, dedicate, design, develop,
Ask him to describe the exterior and the inside institute, create, excel, commit, educate, ornate, mechanics,
of the Kinemax. restore, function, require, install, renovate, origin, inform, au-
thor, transport, build, corporate.

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 19. Modern architecture. Renovation and restoration

3.  Match the pairs of synonyms. Among its clients are American Aviation Corporation, New
York University, Brooklyn Office of Mental Health, Big Apple
Hope, goal, obvious, accomodate, mundane, equilibrium, re-
Circus, New York Public Library, North General Hospital, New
quirement, housing, client, lobby, purpose, demand, expectation,
York City Department of Design and Construction, New York City
house, predictable, balance, residence, everyday, patron, foyer.
Board of Education, New York City Housing Authority and others.
4.  Use the following words to make up word combinations. "RKT&B can turn ideas into action and that's what really good
architectural firms are about." (John Jay Iselin, President Emeritus,
(a) service, housing, accommodation, design, space, career; The Cooper Union)
(b) to provide, to create, affordable, brilliant, superior. "… closer to the luxury housing of another era than anything has
been built in many years." (Paul Goldberger, Architectural Critic,
Read the text. New York Times)
"Since 1981, RKT&B has been helping the show go on at City
Rothzeid Kaiserman Thompson & Bee.  Centre." I ludith Daykin, Artistic Director, City Centre Theatre).
Architects and planners The following buildings are the brilliant examples of RKT&B's
superior design standards.
The goal of architecture in today's society is to shape unique
structures and spaces that can accomodate human activity in its Tompkins Square Branch Library
myriad forms. All such projects require a careful balance of practi- Comprehensive renovation of a 1904 McKim Mead and White
cal considerations and aesthetic preferences. But what ultimately branch of the New York Public Library combines a modern expres-
differentiates a memorable design from a mundane one is the archi- sion with the original design and adds new mechanical systems,
tect's ability to surpass expectation by reaching beyond the obvious expanded library functions and barrier-free access.
solution.
Sofia Apartments
Since 1963, Rothzeid Kaiserman Thomson & Bee has main-
tained many long-term relationships as a result of its dedication Renovation of a 1930s Art Deco automated parking facility into
both to the individual client and to the highest design standards. a mixed-used condominium of offices and residences requiring
RKT&B offers design services for new construction, historic restoration original brickwork and terra-cotta ornamentation.
preservation, and adaptive reuse. The firm has a long track record North General Hospital
with numerous private developers, institutions, and public agen-
Renovation of a busy lobby into a welcoming public entry through
cies. Whether the task at hand is to create a residence or a school,
a new softly configured arcade provides seating and information desk.
a transportation centre or a theatre, a hospital or a corporate of-
The space doubles as a reception area for fund-raising events.
fice, every project reflects the commitment of RKT&B to superior
design. City Centre Theatre
RKT&B's excellence in design and planning has been marked Modernization of this landmark entailed painstaking restora-
with numerous awards: Albert S. Bard Award, Distinguished Ar- tion of original detail, reconfiguring seating, new lobby design,
chitecture I Award, Builder's Choice Grand Award, Restoration and installation оf barrier-free access.
Award, National Honour Award and many others.
Note: Big Apple is an informal name of New York.

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 19. Modern architecture. Renovation and restoration

Active vocabulary 2.  RKT&B offers design services … new construction, historic


preservation — сохранение preservation and adaptive reuse.
re-use — повторное использование a) with b) on c) for
circus — цирк 3.  The New York Public Library combines a modern expression
housing — жилье … the original design.
library — библиотека a) under b) with c) without
brickwork — кирпичная кладка
seating — места для сидения 4.  RKT&B’s excellence in design has been marked … numer-
lobby — вестибюль, фойе ous awards.
installation — установка, сборка a) with b) in c) by
5.  A busy lobby is renovated into a welcoming public entry …
Tests a new softly configured arcade,
a) through b) by c) for
I. Complete the following sentences.
1.  All such projects require a careful balance of practical con- Exercises
siderations and aesthetic … .
a) influences b) details c) preferences I. Translate into Russian.

2.  In his activity, the architect strives to surpass expectations by To accomodate project management
reaching beyond the obvious … . a careful balance the task at hand
a) solution b) situation c) resolution to surpass expectations a health facility
to-reach beyond the ordinary fund-raising events
3.  RKT&B offers design services for new construction, historic long-term relationships barrier-free access
preservation and adaptive … . subway system
a) standards b) reuse c) reception
4.  The building required restoration of original brickwork and II. Choose the best variant
terracotta … . 1. All such projects (require/are required) a careful balance of
a) motive b) facade c) ornamentation practical considerations and aesthetic preferences. 2. Design services
(offers/is offered) by RKT&B. 3. The firm (has maintained/has
II. Fill in the gaps with the correct preposition. been maintained) many long-term relationships. 4. RKT&B’s
1.  RKT&B works with clients until a design is completely re- excellence in design (has marked/has been marked with numerous
solved … everyone's satisfaction. awards. 5. They (renovated/were renovated) a 1930s Art Deco
a) by b) to c) in parking facility. 6. The space (use/is used) as a reception area for
fund-raising events. 7. Modernization of City Centre Theatre
(included/was included) restoration of original detail.

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 19. Modern architecture. Renovation and restoration

III. Make up the dialogues using the present perfect 2. What is the difference between restoration and reconstruction?
continuous tense. 3. Would you like to specialize in the Restoration of Landmarks?
Example: — Since long have you been studying architecture?
VII. Work in pairs. Interview your friend as an architect
— I have been studying architecture since 1997.
working for RKT&B. He has just won the Albert S. Bard
IV. Use the present perfect tense to talk generally about your Award for Merit in Architecture and Urban Design.
experiences. Ask him about his latest projects and his plans. Use the
following phrases and information from the text.
Example: — Have you ever crossed the ocean? 
— Yes, I have/No, I haven't. ŠŠ I d' like to ask you some questions, if I may.
(spoken to a foreigner, been to Japan, drawn a picture, tried ŠŠ That must be very interesting.
Coca-cola, failed an examination, made the fireworks, drawn a ŠŠ Could you give some details?
picture, etc.) ŠŠ What kind of structures are these?
ŠŠ It would be interesting to know about your plans.
V.  Match the sentences and tenses. ŠŠ I see, thank you. I am very grateful to you.
ŠŠ It's pleasure/You are welcome.
1. Unique structures can accomodate a) past simple active
human activity in its myriad forms. b) present perfect passive
2. RK.T&B has maintained many c) present perfect active
long-term relationships. d) past simple passive
3. Design of a new station required e) present simple active
improved passages, signage, f) present continuous
staircases, and elevator tower. active
4. "Since 1981, RKT&B has been g) present perfect
helping the show go on at City continuous active.
Centre".
5. An abandoned furniture store
was transformed into a sparkling
school in an imaginative space.
6. A 1929 loft building has been
converted into luxury apartments.
7. The talented architects are
creating revolutionary structures.

VI. Answer the questions.


1. What is the process of restoration concerned with?

172 173
Unit 20. Architecture and ecology

Read the text and tell about Hundertwasser's creative


activity and the KunstHausWien.

HUNDERTWASSER
Hundertwasser (Friedrich Stowasser, 1928–2000) is an Aus-
Unit 20 trian artist famous for his introverted and poetic paintings, pictorial
theories, grammar of seeing", architectural manifestoes and an all-
Architecture and ecology encompassing protection of nature and the environment.
At the end of the 1980s it was decided to renovate the former
furniture factory to serve as a home for Hundertwasser's works. On
April 9, 1991 the inauguration of the KunstHausWien, a cultural
trademark for Vienna, toок place.
Pre-text exercises On the ground floor you can find the Museum shop, the ward-
robe, the ticket counter, and the Cafe-restaurant, a green oasis in
1. Guess the meanings of the following international words. an urban dessert. The KunstHausWien has an exhibition area
of 4.000 square meters on four floors. The two upper floors are
Introverted, poetic, theory, grammar, architectural, manifesto,
reserved for travel exhibitions of international art, the two lower
nature, renovate, inauguration, cultural, museum, cafe, restaurant,
ones present a permanent exhibition of Hundertwasser's paintings,
oasis, urban, reserve, international, permanent, graphic, model,
graphic works, architectural models, postage stamps and tapestries.
sterile, monotonous, melody, ambassador, climate, contrast, air,
On the occasion of the inauguration Hundertwasser wrote: "The
practically, ecological, oxygen, radiation, aspect, regulate, effect.
KunstHausWien is a house where you have a good conscience to-
ward nature. It is a place of not regulated irregularities, of uneven
2.  Use these suffixes to form adjectives.
floors, tree tenants and dancing windows. It is an adventure of
-ive: adapt, create, invent, prevent, protect; modern time, a journey into the country of creative architecture, a
-y: dirt, dust, grass, noise. melody for eyes and feet. "
These are the extracts from his famous architectural manifes-
3.  Use these prefix and suffixes to form opposites. toes, "Tree Tenants are the Ambassadors of the Free Forests in the
un-: even, certain, common, critical, expected, familiar, City." Ten tree tenants grow out of the windows of the KunstHaus-
-ful/-less: care, colour, cheer, harm, hope, use. Wien Vienna, dwelling inside the walls of the house in an area of
about one square meter behind the windows. The tree tenant pays
4.  Match the pairs of synonyms (a) and opposites (b). his rent in much more valuable currency than humans do. Tree ten-
ants create oxygen, improve the climate of the city, bring the needed
(a) to protect, to reduce, to make, to guard, to regulate, to cut moisture and reduce the dry-humid and warm-cold contrast. They
down, to control, to produce; swallow noise, protect you like curtains from the outside view and
(b) outside, dry, cold, sterile, humid, hot, inside, dirty. create shelter.

174 175
Английский для архитекторов Unit 20. Architecture and ecology

"Everything situated horizontally in the open air belongs to nature" Tests


From Biblical times man was called on to "have dominion over
the earth". Modern man has abused this thought and murdered the I. Choose the correct adjective.
earth. Now we must submit to nature, which should be taken both
1.  Hundertwasser is famous for his … theories and "grammar
symbolicalIy and practically.
of seeing".
We must build houses where nature is above us. We must give
a) poetical b) pictorial c) rhetorical
territories back to nature which we have taken from her illegally.
The nature we put on the roof is the piece of earth that we murdered 2.  The … furniture factory was renovated to serve as a museum.
by putting the house there in the first place. a) former b) new c) modern
Grass roofs have many ecological advantages. They produce 3.  On the ground floor you can find the cafe-restaurant, a
oxygen and catch dust and dirt. Another advantage of the grass "green oasis in an … desert.
roof is its sound-absorbing effect. It also protects from harmful en- a) Arabian b) endless c) urban
vironmental influence, radiation and fire. Even water could be puri-
fied: after seeping through the layer of grass it is cleaner than before. 4.  The KunstHausWien is a … spot in the cheerless face of the
It also saves fuel in winter, and has a cooling effect in summer. district.
a) restful b) colourful c) large
Active vocabulary
5.  It is a place of… floors.
wardrobe — гардероб a) even b) eleven c) uneven
ticket counter
postage stamp — почтовая марка II.  Choose the correct modal verb.
spot — пятно, место
tapestry — гобелен 1.  Now we … submit to nature.
uneven — неровный a) can b) have to c) must
tenant — арендатор, житель, жилец 2.  Streets in the cities will become green valleys where man …
shelter — убежище, укрытие breathe freely again,
oxygen — кислород a) should b) can c) must
grass — трава
3.  Art … be a bridge between creativity of nature and creativity
sound-absorbing — звукопоглощающий
of man,
harmful — вредный
a) must b) may c) might
to swallow — поглощать
to purify — очищать 4.  We … build house where nature is above us.
layer — слой a) had to b) must c) were to
fuel — топливо
5.  Even water… be purified.
a) had to b) ought to c) could

176 177
Английский для архитекторов Unit 20. Architecture and ecology

EXERCISES IV. Explain the following.

I.  Translate into Russian. Tree Tenants are the Ambassadors of the Free Forests  Why?
in the City.
"Grammar of seeing", postage stamps and tapestries, the ward-
robe, the ticket counter, to reserve, uneven floors, to meet one's The KunstHauseWien is a green oasis in an urban de­ Why?
purpose, lasting values, a fashionable business for insiders, to strive, sert.
tin-tenants, a symbol of reparation towards nature, spontane- Grass roofs have many ecological advantages. Why?
ous vegetation, to abuse, to submit to nature, illegally, grass roofs,
to catch dust and dirt, sound-absorbing effect, harmful environ- V.  Work in pairs. Discuss Hundertwasser's proposals
mentiil influences, to seep through the layer of grass, to purify, the to restore the harmonious relationship between nature
cost aspect, to regulate the climate, to save fuel, a cooling effect. and man.

II.  Increase your vocabulary. Use these phrasal verbs  VI. Prepare a report on one of the suggested topics.
in the sentences of your own. "Peace treaty with nature"
To grow out, to take away, to call on, to take in. "The horizontal belongs to nature, the vertical belongs to man"
"If we do not honour our past we lose our future"
III. Write questions to these answers.
Q.:������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ ?
A.: He is famous for his introverted paintings, pictorial theories
and architectural manifestoes.
Q.: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.: It is a museum.
Q.: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.: Art has to be a bridge between creativity of nature and cre-
ativity ol man.
Q.: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.: These are trees growing out of the KunstHausWien.
Q.: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.: They have many ecological advantages.

178 179
Unit 21. Structural design. Design criteria

Read the text and answer the question:


What is required for the safety of the structure?

Design criteria
When the basic theory of static equilibrium for forces acting in
Unit 21 any direction was first applied in structural design in the second
half of the 18 lh century, the criterion of a safe design seemed obvi-
Structural design ous enough. The structure would be safe if it could support its own
weight, and perhaps the weight of a wagon passing over it, or of
machinery on a floor, without overloading any crucial element —
arch rib, beam, column, masonry pier, or tie rod. The strength of
these elements could be assessed by loading specimens to failure,
Pre-text exercises or by similarly loading specimens of the material if the strength
of the element could then be estimated by simple proportion. For
1. Guess the meanings of the following international words. greater safety, some proportion. would be allowed on the measured
or estimated strengths.
Basic, theory, static, criterion-criteria, element, material, pro- During the 19th century, loads other than the weight of the
portion, system, test, effective, adequate, nature, dynamic, class, structure itself became more important. The development of elastic
normal. theories of the behavior of the main structural elements and some
complete structural systems called for further criteria to bypass the
2.  These are the false friends of the interpreter.
reliance on strength tests of these elements and systems. Tests were
Translate them and memorize their meanings. made to determine both wind loads and the effective loads imposed
Safe, wagon, elastic, data, stress, shock. by moving locomotives, but the data obtained remained of limited
and somewhat questionable validity for want of adequate under-
3.  Analyze the following word formation models. standing of the nature of these dynamic loads.
In the first half of the 20th century, design criteria for particular
Machine — machinery; mason — masonry, carpenter — car-
classes of structure — like steel frames and reinforced-concrete
pentry; measure — measurement; load — loading — overloading;
frames — were progressively codified for normal design in terms
rely — reliance — reliant; strength — strengthen; pass — bypass;
of design loads and allowable stresses.
valid — validity.
By now, far more again has been learned about likely loads,
particularly wind loads and earthquake shocks.

Active vocabulary
equilibrium — равновесие
wagon — тележка, повозка, фургон

180 181
Английский для архитекторов Unit 21. Structural design. Design criteria

masonry pier — каменный столб 3.  For greater …, some factor would be allowed on the mea-
tie — растянутый элемент sured ui estimated strengths.
rod — стержень, прут, брус a) ability b) beauty c) safety
specimen — образец
4.  Loads other then the weight of … became more important.
strength — прочность, сопротивление
a) the arch b) the structure c) the machinery
to bypass — обходить, окружать, окаймлять
5.  Far more again has been learned about wind loads and … .
a) earthquake shocks
Tests
b) oxide rains
c) floods
I. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate participle.
1.  The basic theory of static equilibrium for forces … in any
EXERCISES
direction was first applied in the second half of the 18 th
century.
I.  Translate into Russian.
a) acted b) acting
ŠŠ static equilibrium;
2.  For greater safety, some factor would be allowed on the …
ŠŠ a safe design;
strengths.
ŠŠ arch rib;
a) measured b) measuring
ŠŠ masonry pier;
3.  Tests were made to determine both wind loads and the ef- ŠŠ tie rod;
fective loads imposing by… locomotives. ŠŠ loading specimens;
a) moving b) moved ŠŠ measured or estimated strengths;
ŠŠ the data obtained;
4.  The data obtained remained of … and somewhat question-
ŠŠ questionable validity;
able validity.
ŠŠ reinforced-concrete frames;
a) limiting b) limited
ŠŠ allowable stresses;
II. Complete the following sentences. ŠŠ last few decades;
ŠŠ earthquake shocks.
1.  The basic theory of static equilibrium for forces acting in any
direction was applied in … . II. Match the beginnings of the sentences to their ends
a) architectural design using the information from the text.
b) structural design
c) town planning 1.  In the 18th —19th centuries the a) the measured or estimat-
criterion of a safe design … ed strengths
2.  The structure would be safe if it could support its own weight,
2.  For greater safety, some factor b) and reinforced concrete
and perhaps the weight of … passing over it.
would be allowed on … frames were worked out
a) a train b) a bicycle c) a wagon

182 183
Английский для архитекторов Unit 21. Structural design. Design criteria

3.  During the 19th century loads c) seemed obvious enough V. Read the text and tell about forces acting on any member
other than the weight of the d) about likely loads of a building. Answer the question: What kind of stresses
structure … e) became more important do you know?
4.  In the first half of the 20th cen- The ultimate purpose of building techniques is to create a sta-
tury design criteria for steel ble structure. In mechanical terms, structures are stable when all
frames … their parts are in a state of equilibrium, or rest. Walls and roofs can
5.  In the last few decades, far more buckle, crack, iu collapse if they are not properly designed. These
again has been lear ned … movements are caused it by forces that tend to push or pull bodies in
a given direction. Forces acting on any member (part) of a building
III. Choose words from the following list to put  are, first, its own weight and, second the loads it carries, principally
in the sentences below. from other members but also from persons, furnishings, wind, etc.
to determine, strength, application, fails, edges Their action encounters a reaction in opposinv forces that hold the
member in place by resisting at its joints. These forces may be ac-
1.  Galileo deduced that the bending … of a beam of rectangular tive in all directions, and they must be balanced for stability. They
cross section was proportional to its width and the square tend to crush, pull apart, and bend the member — in other words.
of its depth. to change its size and shape.
2.  A stone beam … throughout its depth in tension. Within the member itself there are forces, too, that tend to re-
3.  The practical… of structural theory usually calls for a knowl- sist; any deformation. They are called stresses, and they vary ac-
edge of material strengths. cording to the strength of materials and the form of the member.
4.  French testing machines (late 18 th century) were used… the The kinds of stress under consideration are compression, which
crushing strengths of building stone. resists crushing; tension, which resists pulling apart; and bending,
5.  The loading lever, pivoting on knife … allowed the applied which occurs when one part of a member is in compression and
load to be magnified up to 64 times. the other is in tension.

IV. Answer the following questions. VI. You are suggested to take part at the International
1.  What theory was applied in structural design in the 2nd
half Design Competition. Discuss with your partner the criteria
of the 18th century? of a safe design.
2.  What is required for the safety of the structure?
3.  When did loads other than the weight of the structure itself VII. Translate into English.
become more important?
4.  Why were the data obtained not sufficient for want of ad- ŠŠ статическое равновесие;
equate understanding of the nature of dynamic loads? ŠŠ критерии безопасности в строительном проекти­ро­ва­
5.  When were design criteria for steel frames and reinforced- нии;
concrete frames worked out? ŠŠ перегрузка;
6.  What types of loading can you name? ŠŠ допустимое давление.

184 185
Английский для архитекторов

VIII. You don't know the meanings of terms.


Ask your friend to explain you them.
Static equilibrium, the measured or estimated strength, wind
loads, reinforced concrete frames, allowable stresses.

IX. Discuss the advantages of Computer Aided Design. Unit 22


Use the following:
Structural elements
operational systems, keyboard, data base, hardware, software,
image access memory, grid (random) menu, etc.

Pre-text exercises

1. Guess the meanings of the following international words.


Architectural, history, cyclopean, monumental, form, profile,
parabolic, plan, aesthetic.

2.  Use the following prefixes and suffixes to form


a) verbs b) adjectives c) nouns.
over-: balance, burden, come, do, estimate, flow, load;
in-: capable, complete, consistent, definite, expensive, hu-
man;
-shaped: I, S, T, V, cone, cube, heart, leaf, spiral, star;
cy- inconsistent, efficient, legal, private, emergent;
-ness: aware, complete, correct, firm, thick, stiff, white.

3.  Explain the meaning of the following complex adjectives.


I-shaped, V-shaped, spiral-shaped, box-like, three-centered,
barrier-free.

186 187
Английский для архитекторов Unit 22. Structural elements. Arches

4.  Match the pairs of opposites. ribbed vaults of any plan shape and, without aesthe ic inconsistency,
throughout structures that vaulted in this way.
Commonly, last, false, smooth, appear, true, wide, rarely, rough,
Early cast-iron arches of the late 18th and early 19th centuries all
first, disappear.
closely resembled braced timber arches. Later steel and reinforced-
concrete arches have usually been given the necessary stiffness sim-
Read the text and tell about the early forms of arches ply by the adoption of an I-shaped, boxlike, or tubular cross section.
and the later development
Active vocabulary
Arches timber — лесоматериалы, строевой лес
Throughout most of architectural history, the arch has been the gap — промежуток
chief means of overcoming the spanning limitations of single blocks to wedge — закреплять клином
of stone or lengths of timber. inclined — наклонный
There were three types of arches in ancient architecture. One, inverted — перевернутый
which survives today in Mycenean cyclopean construction, con- corbelled — поясок, выступ; кронштейн
sisted of only three rough blocks of stone, the central one some- span — расстояние (между опорами арки свода)
what larger than the gap between the other two and wedged between voussoir — клинчатый камень
them. A second, of which monumental examples survive in Egypt braced — укрепленный
from the 3 rd millennium ВС, consisted of only two long blocks in- stiffness — жесткость
clined toward one another as an inverted V-shape. This form was tubular — трубчатый
probably constructed even earlier in timber. The third, of which
surviving examples are very widespread, was what is commonly Tests
known as the false or corbeled arch.
None of these early forms was very efficient. Spans rarely ex- I. Complete the sentences.
ceeded 6 ft. 6 in. (2 m). The spanning of substantially wider gaps
1.  The spanning of substantially wider gaps … true arches con-
called for true arches constructed on centering from large number
structed on centering from large nv mber of bricks.
of bricks or stone voussoirs. Small true brick arches appeared first in
a) received b) called for c) exceeded
Mesopotamia and Egypt.
From the first century AD the Romans began to use concrete in 2.  From the first century AD the Romans began … concrete in
place of cut stone for all the longer spans. place of cut stone for all the longer spans.
Later brick and stone arches departed from Roman precedents a) to bring b) to erect c) to use
mainly in adoption of other profiles. Of these, the most important
3.  The chief merit of the pointed profile… the ease with which it
were the pointed profiles of most Islamic and of Gothic arches.
could I be used in ribbed vaults of any plan shape.
The Islamic form appeared first and was preceded by a Sassanian
a) proved b) was c) resembled
form of roughly parabolic profile. The chief merit of the point-
ed profile was probably the ease with which it could be used in

188 189
Английский для архитекторов Unit 22. Structural elements. Arches

II. Complete the sentences. 4.  The examples of false arch are very … .
a) widespread
1.  The arch has been the chief means of overcoming the span-
b) most widespread
ning limitations of single blocks of stone or lengths of … .
c) more widespread
a) timber b) steel c) form
2.  In ancient times, there was/were … type (s) of arches.
EXERCISES
a) many b) three c) one
3.  Small true brick arches appeared first in … . I. Translate into Russian.
a) Greece
ŠŠ t he chief means of overcoming the spanning limitations of
b) Byzantium
single blocks of stone;
c) Mesopotamia and Egypt
ŠŠ the 3rd millenium ВС;
4.  Gothic arches were usually built in … . ŠŠ two long blocks inclined toward one another;
a) timber b) stone c) concrete ŠŠ the false or corbeled arch;
ŠŠ voussoirs;
5.  Early cast-iron arches of the late 18th and early 19th centuries
ŠŠ the necessary stiffness;
all closely resembled … .
ŠŠ tubular cross section.
a) reinforced concrete arches
b) true brick arches
II.  Guess which parts of speech the following words
c) braced timber arches
from the text belong to.
III.  Choose the correct form of the adjective. Means noun adjective noun
1.  One of the … types of arches consisted of the only three rough noun adjective noun
rough blocks of stone.
blocks noun adjective noun
a) early b) earliest c) most earlier
widespread noun adjective noun
2.  The spanning of substantially … gaps called for true arch-
precedents noun adjective noun
es constructed on centering from large number of bricks
or voussoirs. merit noun adjective noun
a) the widest b) wide c) wider boxlike noun adjective noun
3.  The Romans used concrete for all the … spans from
the 1st century AD. III.  Classify the words from word box to the subject.
a) longest b) longer c) most long *Shape of Arches* Building Materials
Steel, corbeled, stone, rounded, voissoir, cast-iron, reinforced-
concrete, inverted, timber, pointed, brick.

190 191
Английский для архитекторов Unit 22. Structural elements. Arches

IV. Replace the words in italics by synonyms. ŠŠ the true arch;


ŠŠ aesthetic inconsistency
1.  The arch has been the chief means of overcoming the span-
ning limitations of single blocks of stone.
VII. Ask your partner the following questions
2.  Spans rarely exceeded 6 ft. 6 in. (2 m).
3.  From the first century AD the Romans began to use con- 1.  What types of arches do you know?
crete in place of cut stone for all the longer spans. 2.  What building materials were used for the construction of
4.  The pointed arches were widespread in the Middle Ages. arches?
5.  The chief merit of the pointed profile was probably the ease 3.  Where did true brick arches appear first?
with which  it could be used  in ribbed  vaults of any plan 4.  When did the Romans begin to use concrete in place of cut
shape. stone for all the longer spans?
5.  What was the chief merit of the pointed profile?
excel; worth; instead; facility; popular.
6.  How did steel and reinforced-concrete arches acquire the
necessary stiffness?
V.  Prove the following statements using the information
from the text.
IX. Translate into English.
1. Arches were widely used in ancient architecture.
ŠŠ А рка — криволинейное перекрытие проемов в стене
2. Spans were seldom more than 2 metres.
(окон, ворот, дверей) или пролетов между опорами.
3. Small true arches were constructed in brick.
ŠŠ Клинчатая арка выкладывается из камней клинча­той
4. The Islamic pointed arches were the first to appear.
формы или из прямоугольных камней с клино­об­раз­
5. The pointed profile was universal.
ными швами.
ŠŠ Ложная арка выполняется путем горизонтального на­
VI. Divide the verbs in the box into two groups:
пуска камней, не дает бокового распора. Стрельчатая
regular or irregular. Give three forms of the verb.
арка состоит из двух пересекающихся под углом дуг.
Example: to consist — consisted — consisted
to know — knew — known X.  Make up a story or a report on one of the suggested
topics.
to construct; to give;
to survive; to depart; to use 1. Roman arches.
to consist; to begin; to be; 2. Gothic arches.
to know; to build; to resemble; 3. Modern arched type structures.

VII. Explain in English.
ŠŠ the chief means;
ŠŠ to be widespread;
ŠŠ the corbeled arch;

192 193
Unit 23. Structural elements. Beams

This is to be expected, since timber is easier to cut and transport.


Apart from its inferior durability, it is also a more appropriate mate-
rial because the structural action of a beam involves internal tension
as well as compression. Besides, timber, unlike stone, has a tensile
strength along the grain to match its compressive strength. With
Unit 23 stone there was only one possibility — the use of metal reinforcement
at the bottom to improve the tensile weakness.
Structural elements Iron beams became structurally important elements only in the
late 18th century with the widespread introduction of cast iron.
Reinforced concrete became a highly versatile structural mate-
rial, since the strength of the concrete, the overall geometry of the
element, and the quantity and placement of the reinforcement rods
were all under the designer's control.
Pre-text exercises
Active vocabulary
1. Guess the meanings of the following international words. ceiling — потолок
Fact, palm, transport, material, compression, metal, element, log — бревно
geometry, designer, control. durability — прочность, стойкость
tension — растяжение, натяжение
2.  Analyze the following word formation models. tensile strength — предел прочности на разрыв
compression — сжатие
Found — foundation, transport — transportation, deliberate — reinforcement — укрепление, арматура
deliberately, durable — durability; inferior — inferiority; tense — grain — (зд.) волокно
tension; compress — compression — compressor — compressive; along the grain — по направлению волокна
force — reinforce — reinforcement; place — placement.

Tests
Read the text and say what materials can be used
for the construction of beams? I. Choose the correct adjective.
1.  Cut timber, probably … logs were used as ceiling beams.
Beams
a) palm b) oak c) sequoia
Already in the early 3rd millennium ВС, in Zozer's tomb com-
plex at Saqqara, blocks of stone were being deliberately shaped for 2.  The structural action of a beam involves … tension as well as
use as ceiling beams instead of just used as found. The fact that their compression.
undersides were cut to a rounded form suggests an even earlier use a) external b) internal c) overall
of cut timber, probably palm logs.

194 195
Английский для архитекторов Unit 23. Structural elements. Beams

3.  Metal reinforcement at the bottom was used to improve the ŠŠ to involve internal tension and compression;
… weakness of stone. ŠŠ along the grain;
a) tensile b) earlier c) compressive ŠŠ the use of metal reinforcement;
ŠŠ the tensile weakness;
4.  Reinforced concrete became a highly … structural material.
ŠŠ cast iron;
a) different b) versatile c) expensive
ŠŠ the strength of the concrete;
5.  The … geometry of the element was under the designer's ŠŠ the reinforcement rods.
control.
a) descriptive b) fundamental c) overall II. Fill in the gaps with the words from the text.
1.  This is to be …, since … is easier to cut and transport.
II.  Complete the sentences.
2.  Besides, timber, … stone, has a tensile … along the grain to
1.  In Zozer's tomb complex at …, blocks of stone were being … its compressive strength.
deliberately shaped by use as ceiling beams. 3.  Metal reinforcement was used… the tensile weakness of stone
a) Ramesseum b) Lysht c) Saqqara beams.
2.  Timber has a tensile strength along the grain … its compres- 4.  Iron … became structurally … elements in the late 18 th cen-
sive strength. tury.
a) to match b) to complete c) to spread 5.  … concrete is a highly versatile structural material.

3.  With stone there was only one possibility — the use of metal III. Match the beginnings of the sentences to their ends using
reinforcement at the bottom to improve the tensile … the information from the text.
a) strength b) weakness c) thickness
1.  Blocks of stone were shaped a) were under the designer's
4.  Iron beams became structurally important elements with the
for use … control
widespread introduction of… iron.
2.  This fact suggests an earlier use b) of cut timber, probably
a) cast b) wrought
… palm logs
5.  The quantity and placement of the reinforcement … were 3.  The structural action of a beam c) iron beams became struc-
under the designer's control. … turally  important ele-
a) beams b) rods c) foundations 4.  With the introduction of cast ments
iron … d) as ceiling beams
5.  The strength of the concrete e) involves internal tension
EXERCISES
and the overall geometry of the as well as compression
I.  Translate into Russian. element …

ŠŠ ceiling beams; IV. Explain in English.


ŠŠ cut timber;
ŠŠ inferior durability;
ŠŠ inferior durability;

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 23. Structural elements. LIGHTWEIGHT STEEL BEAMS AND JOISTS INTRODUCED

ŠŠ structural important elements; VII. With your partner, compare the structural characteristics
ŠŠ to be under the designer's control. of timber and stone beams. Speak on the usage of iron
and reinforced-concrete beams.
V.  Speak on the following, using the information
from the text. IX. Read the text and describe Light Beams. Say what
Advantages of timber beams. projects they are designed for.
Advantages of reinforced-concrete beams.
LIGHTWEIGHT STEEL BEAMS
The possibility of using stone and iron beams.
AND JOISTS INTRODUCED
VI. Discuss in your group these questions. Fabricated from cold-rolled steel, the new Light Beam struc-
1.  What is the function of beams? tural Beams and joists are up to 55 percent lighter than conventional
2. When did they begin to use stone for ceiling beams? hot-rolled I-beams according to LBN Corporation, a research and
3.  Why is timber a more appropriate material than stone for development company. The design of Light Beam's cross section
beams? allows for a combination of different thicknesses of steel to provide
4.  What was used to improve the tensile weakness of stone? strength where needed while avoiding excess weight. Designed for
5.  When did iron beams become structurally important ele- large commercial and industrial projects, it is believed to be particu-
ments? larly appropriate for seismic and high-wind zones. The beam, 8 to
6.  Why did reinforced concrete become a highly versatile struc- 30 inches deep, can span 75 feet without bracing for practical load-
tural material? ing conditions. Light Beams are manufactured from high-strength
50 KSI bare, painted, or galvanized steel; parts are prepunched,
VII. Translate into English. precut, and prenotched, and rolled-formed and joined in an au-
tomated process. All connections in the field are made with bolts;
ŠŠ в начале З тысячелетия до нашей эры; welding is not required.
ŠŠ более подходящий материал;
ŠŠ внутреннее напряжение;
ŠŠ по направлению волокна;
ŠŠ сила сжатия;
ŠŠ арматура;
ŠŠ чугун;
ŠŠ универсальный строительный материал;
ŠŠ арматурные стержни.

198 199
Unit 24. Structural elements

Read the text and tell about the development


of the dome form.

Domes
The dome may be regarded as the three-dimensional counterpart
Unit 24 ol the arch. In its true circular form, a vertical arch is rotated around
a vertical axis and sweeps out, at every level, a continuous circular
Structural elements horizontal ring. Loads can be transmitted both along the meridian
lines of the vertical arches and around the horizontal rings.
The simple dome form, set directly on the ground, was the
first completely manmade spatial enclosure. Simple domed huts,
constructed from a wide variety of materials, can still be found
Pre-text exercises throughout the world.
The dome, constructed with horizontally bedded rings and
1. Guess the meanings of the following international words. sharply pointed profile, had already achieved monumental propor-
tions by about the 14th century ВС in the great tombs at Mycenae.
Circular, vertical, horizontal, meridian, line, form, material, But these tombs were not completely freestanding. They depended
profile, monumental, proportions, stability, potential, architect, partly for their stability on the earth piled against them outside.
octagonal, plan, central, idea, diameter, diagonals, double. The full development of the potential of the truly freestanding
dome owed much to Roman concrete. Roman builders constructed
2.  These are the false friends of the interpreter.
over the Pantheon in the early 2nd century a dome that has twice
Translate tem and memorize their meanings. since been equaled but never really surpassed.
The later Western development was initiated by an achievement
3.  Use the following prefixes and suffixes to form
that, in the circumstances of the time, probably exceeded that of
a) nouns b) verbs c) adjectives.
Hadrian's architect of the Pantheon dome. This was Brunelleschi's
counter-: balance, culture, offer, part, weight; construction of the dome of Florence Cathedral in the early 15th
sur-: mount, pass, plus, round, tax; century. A major difficulty here was the octagonal plan form which
-ar: circle, column, line, tube. Brunelleschi was constrained to follow throughout the height of
the dome itself. His central idea was to construct it, nevertheless,
4.  Match the pairs of synonyms and opposites. as if it were a circular dome of the same internal diameter as the
Central, simple, surpass, shape, restrict, initiate, construct, diagonals of the octagon — a diameter that slightly exceeded that of
principal, form, plain, exceed, start, constrain, erect. the Pantheon dome. In this way, and by means of numerous related
Succeed, full, simple, stability, complicated, start, empty, in- devices, he succeeded in completing it without any centering, as
stability, complete, fail. the first Renaissance double dome.

200 201
Английский для архитекторов Unit 24. Structural elements. Domes

Active vocabulary 2.  Simple domed huts can still be found throughout the world.
counterpart — копия; дубликат a) towers b) small cabins c) skyscrapers
ring — кольцо; круг; окружность; обруч, ободок 3.  The full development of the potential of the truly freestand-
hut — хижина ing dome owed much to Roman concrete.
enclosure — ограждение, ограда a) was indebted b) showed c) meant
centering — центрирование; кружало, опалубка
4.  He achieved it by means of numerous related devices.
I. Complete the sentences. a) details b) contrivances c) sciences

1.  The dome may be regarded as the three-dimensional coun- 5.  The diameter of the dome of Florence Cathedral slightly
terpart of … . exceeded that of the Pantheon one.
a) the column b) the arch c) the roof a) rose b) excelled c) resembled

2.  The simple dome form, set directly on the ground, was the
first completely manmade spatial … . EXERCISES
a) tomb b) palace c) enclosure
I.  Find in the text the false friends of the interpreter.
3.  The dome, constructed with horizontally bedded rings and Translate these words and remember their meanings.
sharply pointed profile, was used in … at Mycenae.
a) the temples b) the great tombs c) the palaces II. Translate into Russian.
4.  Romans builders constructed over … a dome that has never ŠŠ three-dimensional counterpart of the arch;
been really surpassed. ŠŠ he first completely manmade spatial enclosure;
a) the Parthenon ŠŠ a wide variety of materials;
b) the Colosseum ŠŠ throughout the world;
c) the Pantheon ŠŠ bedded rings;
5.  The dome of … is considered to be the first Renaissance ŠŠ not completely freestanding;
double dome. ŠŠ in the circumstances of the time;
a) Santa Croce ŠŠ slightly exceeded;
b) Siena Cathedral ŠŠ without any centering.
c) Florence Cathedral
III.  Put the verbs in brackets into appropriate form .
II. Choose the synonyms to the words in italics. 1.  In its true form, a vertical arch (rotate) around a vertical
1.  The dome may be regarded as the three dimensional coun- axis and sweeps out, at every level, a continuous circular
terpart of the arch. horizontal ring.
a) received b) considered c) chosen 2.  Simple domed huts can still (find) throughout the world.

202 203
Английский для архитекторов Unit 24. Structural elements. Domes

3.  These tombs (depend) for their stability on the earth piled VI. Imagine that you are a visitor to Florence.
against them outside. The magnificent Florence Cathedral strikes
4.  The later Western development (initiate) by an achievement your imagination. You want to get some information
that probably exceeded that of Hadrian's architect of the about it. Your partner answers the questions. Find out:
Pantheon dome.
ŠŠ what architects took part in its construction;
5.  His idea was to construct it, as if it (be) a circular dome of
ŠŠ who the author of the dome was;
the same internal diameter as the diagonals of the octagon.
ŠŠ what the main idea of its construction was;
IV. Fill in the gaps with the words from the text. ŠŠ what the main feature of this dome is.

1.  Loads can be … both along the meridian lines of the vertical


arches and … the horizontal rings.
2.  Simple domed …, constructed from a wide … of materials,
can still be found throughout…
3.  The great tombs at Mycenae were not completely …
4.  The full… of the potential of the truly freestanding dome …
much to Roman…
5.  A diameter slightly … that of the Pantheon dome.
6.  Brunelleschi succeeded in completing it without…
7.  Florence Cathedral features the first Renaissance … dome.

V.  Speak about the development of the dome form.


Use the following questions as a plan.
1.  What is the three dimensional counterpart of the arch?
2.  How can you describe the true circular form of the dome?
3.  What material did Roman builders use for domes?
4.  What is the great example of Roman concrete work?
5.  Who constructed the first Renaissance double dome?
6.  What was the idea of its construction?

204 205
Unit 25. Structural elements. Floor systems

Read the text and tell about the types of floor systems

Floor systems
The continuous slab constitutes a self-contained floor system,
though it may be desirable for non-structural reasons to add a sepa-
Unit 25 rate top surface and a separate ceiling below. Before the develop-
ment of the reinforced-concrete slab, the nearest equivalents were
Structural elements the floor composed of beams of timber or stone set immediately
alongside one another, and the floor provided by a more or less
solid above a brick or concrete vault. The first of these involved
a very extravagant use of material and hence expenditure of effort,
so it usually gave way to a more differentiated form with increasing
Pre-text exercises skill in construction. The second was more efficient, inherently
strong, and fireproof, and continued to be used for these reasons
1. Guess the meanings of the following international words. until supplanted by the reinforced-concrete slab. But it had the
drawbacks of greater overall depth than alternative forms, and of
System, equivalent, extravagant, alternative, form, composite,
greater weight plus the generation of outward thrusts, so that stron-
system, element, horizontal, diaphragm, columns.
ger walls were called for.
The alternative to these forms was always some composite sys-
2.  Use the following suffixes to form
tem, with beams as the principal spanning and load-bearing ele-
a) adjectives, b) nouns, c) verbs.
ments. In the commonest of these systems, still widely used, light
a) non-: architectural, bearing, classical, residential, structural; timber beams span at short intervals between opposite walls and are
-able: avail, comfort, desire, prefer, sustain, transport; covered by boards or twigs and rammed earth.
-proof: fire, water, shock; Today the usual floor system, apart from intermediate floors
b) -ture: advent, create, expend, text; within single dwellings, is the reinforced-concrete slab with or with-
out projecting beams. For very heavy loadings and wide spans, a grid
c) sup-: plant, port, pose, press; of beams within a bay may be used to stiffen and strengthen the slab
-en: broad, short, stiff, strength, wide. without requiring it to be of great thickness throughout. In all cases,
the slab has a great advantage over the earlier systems because it is
3.  Use the following to make up word combinations of your a good horizontal diaphragm, binding the walls or columns together
own. and distributing any side loads between them.
Concrete, fireproof, curtain, stone, polished, wooden, rein-
Active vocabulary
forced concrete, load-bearing;
floor, tower, slab, ceiling, materials, wall, beam. fill — наполнение; прокладка
fireproof — несгораемый, огнеупорный

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 25. Structural elements. Floor systems

depth — глубина 2.  Today the reinforced-concrete slab with or without project-
outward — внешний, наружный ing … is the usual floor system.
thrust — опора a) columns b) beams c) loads
twig — дранка
3.  The first method usually gave way to a more differentiated
projecting — выступающий
form with increasing … in construction.
bay — пролет (между колоннами), ниша; глубокий выступ
a) skill b) parts c) depth
комнаты
to bind — связывать, скреплять 4.  Light timber beams span at short… between opposite walls
and are covered by boards.
a) periods b) intervals c) length
Tests
5.  A grid of beams within a bay may be used to stiffen and
I. Choose the correct word. strengthen the slab without … it to be of great thickness
throughout.
1.  It may be desirable for non-structural reasons … a separate
a) finding b) being c) requiring
top surface and a separate ceiling below.
a) to take b) to add c) to support
III. Choose the correct form of the verb.
2.  The floor was … by a more or less solid fill for a brick or
1.  The continuous slab … a self-contained floor system.
concrete vault.
a) constitute b) constitutes
a) used b) built c) provided
c) is constituted d) will be constituted
3.  The first method is characterized by a very extravagant use
2.  The first method usually … way to a more differentiated form
of material and hence … of effort.
with increasing skill in construction.
a) expenditure b) necessity c) possibility
a) gave b) was given
4.  The second method continued to be used for its …, more c) has given d) will give
efficient and stronger characteristics.
3.  Light timber beams… at short intervals between opposite
a) waterproof b) foolproof c) fireproof
walls and are covered by boards or twigs.
5.  А… of beams within a bay may be used for very heavy load- a) were spanning b) will be spanned
ings and wide spans. c) span d) have spanned
a) block b) grid c) side
4.  The reinforced-concrete slab … a great advantage over the
earlier systems.
II. Complete the following sentences.
a) had b) has
1.  It may be desirable for non-structural reasons to add a sepa- c) was having d) will be had
rate top surface and a separate … below.
5.  It is a good horizontal diaphragm, which … the walls or col-
a) ceiling b) footing c) thrust
umns together.

208 209
Английский для архитекторов Unit 25. Structural elements. Floor systems

a) binds b) will bind ŠŠ a very extravagant use of material;


c) was binding d) bind ŠŠ fireproof;
ŠŠ a composite system;
ŠŠ to have a great advantage;
EXERCISES 
ŠŠ a good horizontal diaphragm.
I.  Translate into Russian.
IV. Discuss with your partner the following questions.
ŠŠ the continuous slab;
1.  What were the nearest equivalents of the reinforced-concrete
ŠŠ a self-contained floor system;
slab?
ŠŠ the reinforced-concrete slab;
2.  What can be said about the drawbacks of the earlier floor
ŠŠ beams of timber or stone set  immediately alongside one
systems?
another;
3.  What was the alternative to these floor systems?
ŠŠ fireproof;
ŠŠ the generation of outward thrusts;
V.  Ask your friend to prove that the reinforced-concrete slab
ŠŠ greater overall depth;
has a great advantage over the earlier systems.
ŠŠ the principal spanning;
Use the following word combinations.
ŠŠ to be covered by boards or twigs and rammed earth;
ŠŠ intermediate floors within single dwellings; A good horizontal diaphragm;
ŠŠ projecting beams; to bind the walls or columns together;
ŠŠ to distribute any side loads between the walls or columns. to distribute any side loads.

II. Match the terms (A) and their definitions (B).


A) roof; floor; slab; beams; wall; column; ceiling
B)  a vertical structure of stone, brick, etc.;
ŠŠ the top covering of a house or other building;
ŠŠ a long piece of timber or iron used horizontally or vertically
to support the rafters of a building;
ŠŠ the part of a house, room, etc., on which one treads;
ŠŠ the inner roof of an apartment;
ŠŠ a flat piece of marble or stone;
ŠŠ a round pillar to support a building.

III. Explain in English.


ŠŠ the nearest equivalents;

210 211
Unit 26. Structural elements. Foundations

Text 1
Read the text and describe ancient and modern types
of foundations

Foundations
Unit 26 The loads that a structure imposes on the ground normally reach
the ground (or the level of the lowest floor if that is below the out-
Structural elements side ground level) through walls, piers, or columns. Ideally, if the
ground surface is a firm stratum of natural rock, able to take the
loads directly without noticeable settlement, the walls, piers, or
columns can simply be ended when they reach it. They can also
be built up directly from it after some preliminary leveling. Unfor-
Pre-text exercises tunately, such strata have rarely been found in the places where
men have wanted to build. Therefore, some means have had to be
1. Guess the meanings of the following international words. provided to spread the loads more widely or carry them down to
rock or firmer ground at a lower level.
Normally, ideally, practiced, base, friction, pneumatic, parallel,
Apart from shallow excavation to reach rock close to the surface,
universal, exploitation.
there were three means that were widely practiced in Roman times.
These were the spread footing piling, and the continuous raft.
2.  Analyze the following word formation models.
The first and last spread the load fairly near the surface, simply by
Level — leveling; fortune — fortunately — unfortunately; ex- providing each wall, pier, or column with a substantially wider base.
cavate — excavation; hammer — hammered; foot — footing; de- The second, piling, carried the load further down without
velop — development; found — foundation; pump — pumping. necessitating deep excavation. The piles were almost always of
timber. Once hammered into the ground, they acted as columns
3.  Form the comparative and superlative adjectives. usually transmitting part of the load to firmer ground at the foot
Translate them and spreading part of it through the intermediate strata by surface
-er (-est): close, early, great, firm, heavy, high, low, near, wide. friction.
With the exception of the continuous concrete raft these meth-
ods continued in use well into the 19th century, with little change
except in such matters as methods of pile driving and of working
below water level.
For deep underwater foundations the answer was the pneumatic
caisson. This was a development of the earlier cofferdam — a wall
within which, after pumping ouf the water, it was possible to exca-
vate and then build the base of the pier in the dry.

212 213
Английский для архитекторов Unit 26. Structural elements. Foundations

The new requirements for tall buildings were mainly met by the Tests
substitution of grillages of steel beams for the less efficient, earlier
spread footings. These have since given way to footings and piles of I. Choose the correct form of the adjective.
reinforced concrete, while there have been parallel developments in
1.  The loads that a structure imposes on the ground reach the
piling with the substitution of steel and reinforced-concrete piles
level of the … floor through walls, piers, or columns.
for the previously universal timber pile. The heaviest reinforced-
a) lower b) lowest c) the lowest
concrete piles are nowadays cast in situ in prebored hole.
Equally significant has been the increasing exploitation of the 2.  Therefore, some means have had to be provided to spread
buoyancy principle — that of creating open basements below ground the loads down to … ground at a lower level.
level of sufficient volume to displace a weight of earth comparable a) the firmest b) firmer c) firm
with the total weight of the building, so that there is only a small 3.  The pneumatic caisson was a development of… cofferdam.
net change in pressure at foundation level when construction is a) the earlier b) the earliest c) earliest
completed.
4.  The … reinforced-concrete piles arc nowadays cast in situ in
Active vocabulary prebored hole.
stratum — пласт a) heavy b) heavier c) the heaviest
leveling — выравнивание 5. … earlier spread footings were substituted by grillages of steel
footing — основание, фундамент beams.
pile — свая a) Efficient
raft — плот b) The less efficient
hammer — 1. молоток, молот. 2. вбивать, вколачивать c) The most efficient
friction — трение
caisson — кессон II. Choose the correct word.
cofferdam — кессон для подводных работ
grillage — решетка; ростверк 1.  Unfortunately, such … have rarely been found in the places
basement — основание, фундамент, цокольный этаж where men have wanted to build.
net — сеть, сетка a) environment b) territory c) strata
in situ — на месте 2.  There were three means that were already widely practiced 
prebored hole — предварительно просверленное отверстие in … .
buoyancy — плавучесть a) Egypt b) Roman times c) ancient times
3.  The piles were almost always of … .
a) timber b) stone c) concrete
4.  Once hammered into the ground, they acted as … .
a) walls b) cross-beams c) columns

214 215
Английский для архитекторов Unit 26. Structural elements. Foundations

5.  With the exception of the continuous concrete raft these b) The buoyancy principle has been used more widely.
methods continued in use well into the … . c) It is necessary to create open basements below ground
a) 19th century level of sufficient volume.
b) late 17th century
c) early 20th century
EXERCISES
III. Choose the correct sentence.
I.  Translate into Russian.
1.  The loads that a structure imposes on the ground reach the
ŠŠ to reach the ground through walls, piers, or columns;
ground through walls, piers, or columns.
ŠŠ the ground surface;
a) T  he loads placed upon by a structure on the ground reach
ŠŠ preliminary leveling;
the ground through different supports.
ŠŠ to spread the loads more widely;
b) Foundation is the basis or lowest part of a structure.
ŠŠ shallow excavations;
2.  There were three types of foundations widely practiced in ŠŠ the spread footing, piling, and the continuous raft;
Roman times. ŠŠ the pneumatic caisson;
a) I deally, the ground surface is a firm stratum of natural ŠŠ grillages of steel beams;
rock. ŠŠ exploitation of the buoyancy principle;
b) In Roman times three types of foundations were wide- ŠŠ to displace a weight of earth comparable with the total weight
spread. of the building.
c) The Romans practiced only one means for foundations.
II. There are some notes the student made after reading
3.  The piles were made of timber.
the text "Foundations". Did he remember everything
a) Piling carried the load without necessitating deep excava-
right? Read his notes and correct them if necessary.
tion.
b) Piles acted as columns. 1.  The loads that a structure imposes on the ground normally
c) Timber was building material for piles. reach the ground through walls, piers, or columns.
2.  There were three types of foundations that were widely prac-
4.  The pneumatic caisson was a development of the earlier
ticed in ancient Egypt.
cofferdam.
3.  The piles were almost always made of timber.
a) Cofferdam was the earlier form of the pneumatic caisson.
4.  The spread footing and piling were not used in the 19th cen-
b) The pneumatic caisson was invented in the 19 th century.
tury.
c) Cofferdam is a temporary enclosure in water.
5.  Deep excavation was necessary for piling.
5.  The exploitation of the buoyancy principle has been increas- 6.  The pneumatic caisson was a development of the earlier
ing. cofferdam.
a) T  here is only a small net change in pressure at foundation 7.  For tall buildings grillages of steel beams were used.
level.

216 217
Английский для архитекторов Unit 26. Structural elements. Foundations

III. Match the beginnings of the sentences to their ends 5.  What is used instead of spread footing?
using the information from the text. 6.  How can you describe the buoyancy principle?

1.  The spread footing, piling, a) columns, transmitting part of VI. Your friend is revising for his examination.
the continuous raft … the load to firmer ground at He would like you to explain him some terms.
2.  Ал ideal strata have rarely the foot Help him using the information of the unit.
been found … b) it was possible to excavate
3.  These piles acted as … c) in the places where men have The spread footing, piling, the continuous raft, the pneumatic
4.  It was a wall within which wanted to build caisson, the buoyancy principle.
after pumping out the wa- d) were widely practiced in Ro-
ter, … man times
5.  The new requirements for e) by the substitution of gril-
tall buildings were mainly lages of steel beams for the
met … less efficient earlier spread
footing

IV. What parts of speech are the words in italics referred to?


1.  These means were the spread footing, piling, and the con-
tinuous raft.
2.  The second method carried the load further down without
necessitating deep excavation.
3.  The piles acted as columns usually transmitting part of the
load to firmer ground at the foot.
4.  The pneumatic caisson was a development of the earlier cof-
ferdam — a wall within which, afterpumpingout the water,
it was possible to excavate.
5.  Equally significant has been the increasing exploitation of
the buoyancy principle.

V.  Now you have learnt some more facts about foundations.
Could you answer the following questions?
1.  How do the loads reach the ground?
2.  What is an ideal stratum for building?
3.  What were the types of foundation practiced in Roman times?
4.  What was used for deep underwater foundations?

218 219
Unit 29. Structural design. Leaning Tower of Pisa

4.  Use the following adjectives (a) and nouns (b) to make up
word combinations.
(a) inevitable, archaeological, nearby, hydraulic, steel, strong, in-
ternational, high, structural;

Unit 29 (b) design, result, base, frame, tower, system, timber, excavations,
hotel, organization.
Structural design
Text 2. Read the text and say what strategies
were proposed to reinforce the base of the
Leaning Tower of Pisa

Pre-text exercises Leaning Tower of Pisa


begins to be stabilized
1. Guess the meanings of the following international words. According to calculations by Paolo Napoli, an engineering pro-
Calculation, strategy, engineer, stabilization vertical, plan, posi- fessor at Torino Polytechnic, the Leaning Tower of Pisa is predicted
tion, association, conference. to fall over between 2030 and 2040. In a race against its inevitable
demise, engineers began reinforcing the base of the tower in sum-
2.  Use the following (a) prefixes (b) suffixes to form mer of 1992.
new words. In 1975, a competition was held to find ways to shore up the
tower, but ended without a decision on how to proceed. Shortly
(a) counter-, em-, micro-, un-, under-, up-;
thereafter, city officials stopped the pumping of water from nearby
bed, pile, end, weight, ground, veil;
wells, finding that it caused the Pisa Tower to tilt further.
(b) -al, -ence, -er, -ize, -ly, -sion, -(a)tion. Other complex preservations strategies proposed in 1988 called
calculate, temporary, compete engine, excavate, confer, na- for temporary supporting the tower by a pair of steel braces until
tion, short, associate, preserve, decide, structure, stabilize. hydraulic jacks could be embedded around the foundation to pre-
vent further shifting. If that strategy failed, an underpinning structure
3.  Translate the following word combinations with nouns  of steel micropiles connected to brackets was to anchor the tower
in the attributive function. underground, transferring its load.
In 1992, a team of Italian engineers began implementing a sim-
Preservations strategies, the tower underground, stabilization
pler stabilization plan, suggested by Napoli, which applies a vertical
plan, the stabilization team, The International Association for
force on the northern edge of the tower's base, opposite its tilt. The
Bridge and Structural Engineering Conference.
stabilization team excavated down to the footings of the building
and then poured concrete and lead shot into the foundation to
counterweight the upended base. In three months, the engineers

220 221
Английский для архитекторов Unit 29. Structural design. Leaning Tower of Pisa

have managed to reverse the tower's position by 0,3 degrees, accord- II. Complete the sentences.
ing to results unveiled at the International Association for Bridge
1.  The Leaning Tower of Pisa is in … .
and Structural Engineering Conference.
a) Milan b) Torino c) Pisa
Active vocabulary 2.  Engineers began reinforcing the base of … .
well — колодец a) the chapel b) the tower c) the palace
jack — домкрат; рычаг; клин 3.  Shortly thereafter, city officials stopped the pumping of water
embed — вставлять, врезать from nearby … .
underpin — подпирать (стены); подводить фундамент a) lakes b) ponds c) wells
shifting — смещение, сдвиг
4.  A team of Italian engineers began implementing a simpler
… plan, suggested by Napoli.
Tests a) stabilization b) development c) ground
I. Choose the appropriate word. 5.  The stabilization team poured concrete and … shot into the
foundation to counterweight the upended base.
1.  The Leaning Tower of Pisa is predicted to fall over between
a) lead b) brick c) steel
2030 and 2040.
a) designed b) decided c) foretold
EXERCISES
2.  A competition ended without a decision on how to proceed.
a) organized b) completed c) held I.  Translate into Russian.
3.  Other complex preservations strategies called for temporarily ŠŠ to predict;
supporting the tower by a pair of steel braces. ŠŠ inevitable demise;
a) demanded b) chose c) caused ŠŠ steel braces;
4.  The stabilization team excavated down to the footings of the ŠŠ to tilt;
building. ŠŠ the pumping water from nearby wells;
a) changed b) took c) hollowed out ŠŠ to prevent further shifting;
ŠŠ an underpinning structure of steel micropiles.
5.  According to results unveiled at the International Associa-
tion for Bridge and Structural Engineering Conference the II.  Find in the text the synonyms of the following verbs.
engineers have managed to reverse the tower's position by
0,3 degrees, to look for; to offer; to fulfil;
a) turn backward b) define c) create to foretell; to reason; to unite
to use

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 29. Structural design. Leaning Tower of Pisa

III. Make up some sentences of your own using the following VI. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.
word combinations.
1.  In a race against its inevitable demise, engineers (begin)
ŠŠ to hold a competition reinforcing the base of the tower in summer of 1992.
ŠŠ to implement a plan 2.  In 1975, a competition (hold) to find ways to shore up the
ŠŠ to transfer the loads tower.
3.  City officials stopped the pumping of water from nearby
IV. Find out if the words in italics are gerunds, participles wells, finding that it (cause) the Pisa Tower to tilt further.
or adverbial participles. 4.  A plan, suggested by Napoli, (apply) a vertical force on the
northern edge of the tower's base, opposite its tilt.
1.  The Leaning Tower of Pisa is predicted to fall over between
4.  In three months, the engineers (manage) to reverse the tow-
2030 and 2040.
ers position by 0,3 degrees.
2.  Engineers began reinforcing the base of the tower in summer
of 1992.
VII. Change into Passive.
3.  City officials stopped the pumping of water from nearby wells,
finding that it caused the Pisa Tower to tilt further. 1.  Paolo Napoli predicted the Leaning Tower of Pisa to fall over
4.  Other preservations strategies called for temporarily support- between 2030 and 2040.
ing the tower by a pair of steel braces. 2.  Engineers began the reinforcement of the tower.
5.  An underpinning structure of steel micropiles was to anchor 3.  City officials stopped the pumping of water from nearby
the tower underground, transferring its load. wells.
4.  Paolo Napoli suggested a stabilization plan of the tower.
V.  Look at the table and find out what parts of speech
5.  They unveiled the results of this work at the International
the words from the text are referred to.
Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering Confe­
Shore par. 2  noun adjective  verb adverb rence.
nearby par. 2  noun adjective  verb adverb VIII. Work in pairs. Read the questions and let your partner
well par. 2  noun adjective  verb adverb answer them. Don't forget to change over.
micropiles par. 3  noun adjective  verb adverb 1.  When is the Leaning Tower of Pisa predicted to fall over?
anchor par. 3  noun adjective  verb adverb 2.  Who made these calculations?
underground par. 3  noun adjective  verb adverb 3.  What did complex preservation strategies propose?
4.  What did Paolo Napoli suggest to stabilize the Leaning Tow-
results par. 3  noun adjective  verb adverb
er of Pisa?
5.  What were the results of the work of stabilization team?

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Английский для архитекторов

IX. Choose a partner and make up a dialogue


using the following expressions from the text.
To be predicted to fall; an inevitable'demise; to reinforce the
base of the tower; to hold a competition; a pair of steel braces;
to prevent further shifting; steel micropiles; to anchor the tower
underground; a simpler stabilization plan; to pour concrete and Unit 27
lead shot into the foundation; to reverse the tower's position by
0,3 degrees. Structural elements

Pre-text exercises

1. Guess the meanings of the following international words.


Form, geometry, type, membrane, role, economy, airport, de­
monstrate, original, opera, limit.

2.  Use the following prefixes and suffixes to form


a) adjectives b) verbs c) nouns.
im-: mobile, practical, possible;
over-: balance, estimate, fill, hang, power, ride;
-(i)ty: active, modern, practical, possible, stable;
-like: atrium, box, pavilion, platform, terrace, vault.

3.  Use the following in word combinations of your own.


Ribbed, heavy, considerable, corrugated, fan, curved;
vault, load, cardboard, form, magnitude, line.

Shells
The term shell is used to denote a spanning and space-enclosing
element of domed or other vaultlike form, but with a thickness
and order of magnitude less than was usual for these masonry and

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 27. Structural elements. Shells

mass-concrete forms. Like the latter, a shell may be curved in two Tests
directions or in one only; but the two curvatures of the doubly
curved form may be of opposite sense, like those of a saddle — I. Choose the correct verb.
a possibility almost restricted to the fan vault in masonry — and
1.  Shells … a thickness and order of magnitude less than was
the singly curved form may be taken to include barrel-shaped and
usual for these masonry and mass-concrete forms.
folded or corrugated forms that span along the length of the barrel
a) have b) receive c) play
or the folds, and act as deep beams. To achieve the reduction in
thickness, tensile strength must be provided in the shell itself, or 2.  A shell may be … in two directions.
at the level of support, or in both places, in accordance with the a) taken b) added c) curved
requirements of the surface geometry, the pattern of loading, and 3.  Corrugated forms… along the length of the barrel,
the type of support. a) reduce b) span c) provide
The shelf, together with the doubly curved tensile membrane
or cable net, has so enlarged the formal vocabulary of architecture 4.  To … the reduction in thickness, tensile strength must be
that it will continue to play an important role where economy is not provided in the level of support.
the overriding consideration. The Saarinen/Ammann and Whitney a) achieve b) demonstrate c) use
roof of the TWA Terminal Building at Kennedy Airport demon- 5.  Ridged shells for the Sydney Opera House … beyond these
strates its versatility at the limits of practicality; Jorn Utzon's origi- limits.
nal impracticable proposal of sharply ridged shells for the Sydney a) covered b) went c) saw
Opera House went beyond these limits and called for a different
arched type of construction. II. Complete the following sentences.
Active vocabulary 1.  The term shell describes a spanning and space-enclosing
shell — оболочка element of … form.
magnitude — величина, размер a) pyramidal b) columnar c) domed
curvature — кривизна, изгиб, искривление 2.  The two curvatures of the doubly curved form may be of
saddle — подкладка, башмак; салазки opposite sense, like those of a/an … .
barrel — цилиндр, барабан, вал a) saddle b) arch c) volute
corrugated — гофрированный, рифленый
3.  The singly curved form may be taken to  include barrel-
ridged — остроконечный
shaped and … forms.
a) flat b) rounded c) folded
4.  The shelf, together with the doubly curved tensile membrane
has … the formal vocabulary of architecture.
a) enlarged b) reduced c) invented

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 27. Structural elements. Shells

5.  The Saarinen/Ammann and Whitney roof of the TWA Ter- IV. Make up some sentences of your own using these word
minal Building at Kennedy Airport demonstrates its … at the combinations.
limits of practicality.
ŠŠ in accordance with the requirements of;
a) feature b) versatility c) rarity
ŠŠ to go beyond the limits;
ŠŠ to call for
EXERCISES
V. Explain in English the meanings of the following
I. Translate into Russian. word combinations.
ŠŠ masonry and mass-concrete forms; ŠŠ vaultlike form;
ŠŠ barrel-shaped and folded or corrugated forms; ŠŠ barrel-shaped form;
ŠŠ to span along the length of the barrel ŠŠ space-enclosing element;
ŠŠ to enlarge the formal vocabulary of architecture; ŠŠ mass-concrete form.
ŠŠ space enclosing element;
ŠŠ to act as deep beams; VI. Answer the following questions.
ŠŠ he reduction of thickness;
1.  What does the term shell mean?
ŠŠ he pattern of loading;
2.  How can you describe its form?
ŠŠ sharply ridged shells
3.  What are shells used for?
4. What requirements should be taken  into consideration
II.  Guess which parts of the speech the following words
when it is necessary to achieve the reduction in thickness?
from the text belong to.
5.  What is the role of shells in modern architecture?
Vaultlike noun adjective verb
VII. Translate into English.
saddle noun adjective verb
ŠŠ каменная кладка;
span noun adjective verb
ŠŠ гофрированные формы;
tensile noun adjective verb ŠŠ в соответствии с требованиями;
support noun adjective verb ŠŠ тип нагрузки;
ŠŠ тип опоры
III. Match the pairs of synonyms.
VIII. Ask your partner about the latest examples
to denote; surface; folded; of shell structures. Give your own examples.
to indicate; contrary; corrugated;
to do; requirement; outside;
demand; form; opposite;
shape; to act;

230 231
Unit 28. Structural elements. Trusses and Space Frames

Text 2. Read the text and tell about the main features
of Trasses and Space Frames

Trusses and Space Frames


Unit 28 Trusses and space frames are assemblies of linear members that
act primarily in axial tension or compression as ties or struts. The
Structural elements term truss denotes an assembly in one plane, and the term space
frame describes a three-dimensional assembly in which the inter-
connections are such that a load at any point is distributed in all
directions through the assembly. The joints need not be rigid and,
ideally, should allow free relative rotations of the members. But they
must be capable of transmitting tension as well as compression. The
Pre-text exercises usual role in a building is of carrying a roof — in place of the arch,
dome, vault, beam, or slab.
1. Guess the meanings of the following international words. In the early 19th century, the true timber truss, necessarily
Linear, act, role, differentiation, risk, equivalent, form, primi- somewhat elaborated and with the bottom tie made from shorter
tive, system, diagonal, parallel, material. lengths of timber with lapped joints was stretched to span about
150 ft. (45 m); but the first wide-span iron roofs (of basically arched
2.  Analyze the following word formation models. form) had then been built, and future development was in iron and
steel. With the introduction of wrought iron for the ties, there was a
Assembly — assemblage, assemble — disassemble; con- clearer differentiation between these and the struts that was carried
nect — connection — interconnection; differ — different — over into steel construction. Because there was no risk of the ties
differentiate — differentiation; circumference — circumferen- buckling, they were made appreciably more slender.
tial — circumferentially; produce — reproduce reproduction; The most important space frames are lighter framed equivalents
triangle — triangular — triangulated; transmit — transmission. of domes and vaults, or of slabs spanning in two or more directions
simultaneously. The framed dome is a very early form, particu-
3.  Use the following words to form complex adjectives. larly if we include primitive dome-shaped huts. But even in fully
Example: cone-shaped developed timber-framing systems, the ribs were invariably aligned
radially and circumferentially, and the system was then braced by
Arch, centre, shape, frame, vault, dome, iron, cone, star, five, additional diagonals or by the outer covering. Early iron-framed
wood, round, three, like. domes merely reproduced this timber form, and it was only in the
second half of the 19th century that an inherently stiff, triangulated
pattern of framing was substituted. This might be regarded as the
first true space frame.

232 233
Английский для архитекторов Unit 28. Structural elements. Trusses and Space Frames

Further development of the framed dome or vault has taken II. Complete the sentences.
place almost entirely in the 20th century and has lagged somewhat
1.  The term truss denotes an assembly in one … .
behind parallel developments in airframe structures, where there
a) direction b) plane c) point
was a greater incentive to seek the most efficient use of material to
save weight. 2.  The usual role of trusses and space frames in a building is of
carrying … .
Active vocabulary a) a roof b) a wall c) a column
assembly — 3.  The first wide-span iron roofs had then been built, and future
truss — ферма, связь, стропильная ферма development was in iron and … .
strut — стойка, подкос, распорка a) lead b) steel c) reinforced concrete
plane — плоскость
joint — узел (фермы) 4.  The framed dome is a very early form, particularly if we in-
lapped — перекрытый в напуск clude primitive dome-shaped … .
buckling — изгиб, прогибание, деформация a) villas b) cottages c) huts
5.  Further development of the framed dome or … has taken
Tests place in the 20th century.
a) arch b) vault c) slab
I. Choose the correct modal verb.
1.  The joints … not be rigid. EXERCISES 
a) must b) can c) need
I.  Translate into Russian.
2.  They … allow free relative rotations of the members.
a) should b) ought c) may ŠŠ axial tension or compression;
ŠŠ to allow free relative rotation of the members;
3.  The joints … be capable of transmitting tension as well as- ŠŠ the first wide-span iron roofs;
compression. ŠŠ an inherently, triangulated pattern of framing;
a) may b) must c) can ŠŠ struts;
4.  Early iron-framed domes … be regarded as the first true ŠŠ through the assembly;
space frame. ŠŠ primitive dome-shaped huts;
a) should b) must c) might ŠŠ the outer covering;
ŠŠ the true timber truss
5.  Because space frame is much lighter than the equivalent
solid slab, it … economically span much further at the ex- II. Find in the text the synonyms to the following words.
pense of some increase in overall depth.
a) should b) need c) can pertinent; inflexible; to indicate;
customary; to look for; supplementary;
to consider;
234 235
Английский для архитекторов Unit 28. Structural elements. Trusses and Space Frames

III. Match the words (A) and their definitions (B). VI. Divide the following verbs into two groups according
to whether their Past Simple Tense is regular or irregular.
A) steel; wrought-iron; lead; concrete; cast-iron
B) Example: act — acted; make — made — made.
ŠŠ iron refined and combined with carbon; to act; to make; to be; to carry;
ŠŠ a compact mass of lime, sand, gravel mortar, etc., used for to take; to need; to denote; to build;
building; to seek; to include; to regard; to align;
ŠŠ iron made malleable and capable of being welded; to have; to reproduce
ŠŠ iron produced in a blast-furnace and cast into mold;
ŠŠ a soft, heavy ductile, bluish-grey metal. VII. Answer the following questions.

IV. Use the terms from Ex. III in the sentence, of your own. 1. How do trusses and space frames act?
2. What does the term truss denote?
V.  Match the beginnings of the sentences to their ends using 3. What does the term space frame describe?
the information from the text. 4. What is their usual role in a building?
5. What might be regarded as the first true space frame?
1.  Trusses and space frames are a) the ribs were  invariably
assemblies of linear members… aligned radially and cir- VIII. With your partner, discuss the main features of trusses
2.  In the early 19th century, the cumferentially and space frames. Use the following words and word
true timber truss was stretched b) the most efficient use of combinations:
… material to save weight
The assemblies of linear members; axial tension or compression;
3.  The most important space c) merely reproduced this
ties; three-dimensional; to be distributed in all directions; the true
frames are lighter framed timber form
timber truss; lapped joints; wrought iron; the ties buckling; space
equivalents … d) to span about 150 ft.
frames; the rib; to be aligned radially and circumferentially; the
4.  In fully developed timber- (45 m)
outer covering; stiff; to be regarded as: airframe structures; the most
framing systems, … e) of domes and vaults
efficient use of material.
5.  Early iron-framed domes … f) that act primarily in axial
6.  Further development of the tension or compression
framed dome or vault has taken g) almost entirely in the 20th
place … century
7.  In airframe structures there was
a greater incentive to seek …

236 237
Unit 30. Building engineering. The Millenium dome

Read the text and speak on the Dome's functions


and its construction.

The Millenium dome


Since the Greenwich meridian and thus the world time finds its
Unit 30 origin in Greenwich, in Britain it was decided that it should be the
place where the world should celebrate its step into the new mil-
Building engineering lenium.
The centre of the Millenium celebrations was the Millenium
Dome, the largest single public assembly building in the world.
The architect of the Dome, Richard Rogers, is famous for such
works as the Pompidou Centre, opened in 1977, and the Lloyd's
of London building.
Pre-text exercises
The Dome is an exceptional example of building engineering.
1. Guess the meanings of the following international words. Its function is to provide an enclosure for the exhibition, to protect
the exhibits and the visitors from the weather.
Meridian, millennium, centre, visitor, hangar, interval, spheri- The concept of the Dome's roof is apparently very simple. Ten-
cal, line, ton, diameter, vertical, horizontal, compression. sioned steel cables are arranged radially on the surface of the dome
and held in space by hangar and tie down cables at 25 m intervals.
2.  Use the following suffixes to form new words: The surface is defined as a spherical cap.
-age, -(a)tion, -ance, -or, -ly. Between the cables, tensioned coated fabric is used as cladding.
Horizontal, deflect, assembly, define, radial, exhibit, resist, Both the tensioned cables and cladding carry the loads by deflection
celebrate. accompanied by increase in tension.
The forces in the cables, 40 tonnes in each radial line have to be
3.  Use the following (a) adjectives (b) nouns to make resisted at the centre where they come together and at the boundary
word combinations. where they are anchored. In the centre of the roof there is a 30 m
diameter tension ring consisting of 12–48 mm diameter cables
(a) noble, heavy, public, patterned, cool, international, concrete; which carry a total of 700 tonnes. At the edge the forces are resisted
(b) origin, building, exhibition, structure, weather, fabric, load. by vertical ground anchors going 12 m down into the gravel layers
and horizontally by a concrete ring beam 1000 m in circumference
which carries the loads in compression.

Active vocabulary
cable — кабель, канат, трос
tie down —

238 239
Английский для архитекторов Unit 30. Building engineering. The Millenium dome

fabric — ткань, материя II. Complete the following sentences.


cladding — покрытие
1.  The world time finds its origin in … .
anchor — якорь
a) Manchester b) Paris c) Greenwich
edge — край, кромка
gravel — гравий 2.  The centre of the Millenium celebrations is … .
circumference — окружность a) the Millenium Dome
deflection — прогиб, провес b) The Pompidou Centre
to resist — противостоять; выдерживать c) the Colosseum
to anchor — скреплять, закреплять 3.  The concept of the Dome's … is apparently very simple.
layer — слой a) exterior b) interior c) roof
circumference — окружность
4.  The tensioned cables and cladding carry the loads by deflec-
tion accompanied by increase in … .
Tests a) tension b) thickness с) compression
I. Choose the correct preposition. 5. … the forces are resisted by vertical ground anchors.
a) at the centre b) on the ground c) at the edge
1.  It is supposed that Greenwich should be the place where the
world should celebrate its step … the new millenium.
a) during b) in c) into d) onto EXERCISES 
2.  Tensioned steel cables are arranged radially … the surface of I.  Translate into Russian.
the dome.
a) under b) on c) in d) at ŠŠ new millenium;
ŠŠ an exceptional example of building engineering;
3.  Both the tensioned cables and cladding carry the loads by ŠŠ to protect the exhibitions and the visitors from the weather;
deflection accompanied by increase … tension. ŠŠ tensioned steel cables;
a) in b) for c) with d) on ŠŠ tie down cables;
4.  The forces in the cables, 40 tonnes in each radial line have ŠŠ a spherical cap;
to be resisted … the centre where they come together. ŠŠ cladding;
a) from b) over c) at d) by ŠŠ to be resisted by vertical ground anchors;
ŠŠ a concrete ring beam.
5.  At the edge the forces are resisted … vertical ground anchors
going 12 m down into the gravel layers. II. Fill in the gaps with the words from the text.
a) by b) on c) in d) with
1.  The architect of the Dome, Richard Rogers, is … for such
works as the Pompidou Centre and the Lloyd's of London
building.

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Английский для архитекторов Unit 30. Building engineering. The Millenium dome

2.  The Dome is an … example of building … ŠŠ a power that makes an object move or that changes the way it
3.  The … of the Dome's roof is apparently very …. moves.
4. Between the cables, tensioned coated … is used as cladding.
5.  In the centre of the roof there is a 30 m diameter… ring con- VI. Explain in English.
sisting of 12–48 mm diameter… Public assembly building, to provide an enclosure; a spherical
cap.
III. Make up some sentences of your own using
the following. VII. Answer the following questions.
ŠŠ to be famous for 1.  What was the Millenium Dome designed for?
ŠŠ to be defined as 2.  Who is its architect?
ŠŠ to carry the loads 3.  What can you say about the Dome's roof?
4.  What structural materials are used for the Dome's construc-
IV. Choose the verb and put it in the correct form.
tion?
to arrange, to define, to be, to carry, to find
1.  The world time … its origin in Greenwich. VIII. Translate into English.
2.  Tensioned steel cables … radially on the surface of the dome. ŠŠ в ыдающийся пример строительного и инженерного ис­
3.  The surface … as a spherical cap. кус­ства;
4.  Both the tensioned cables and cladding … the loads by de- ŠŠ устройство кровли купола;
flection accompanied by increase in tension. ŠŠ стальные ванты;
5.  In the centre of the roof there … a 30 m diameter tension ŠŠ сферическая форма;
ring consisting of 12–48 mm diameter cables. ŠŠ выдерживать нагрузку за счет предварительного напря­
жения;
V. Match the terms and their definitions. ŠŠ бетонная кольцевая балка с окружностью 1000 м.
Cladding, deflection, force, compression, resistance.
IX. Ask your partner some questions about the conception
ŠŠ T he process of pressing or squeezing something so that it of the Millenium Dome. Listen to his/her answers
becomes smaller; and express your opinion on the subject.
ŠŠ the amount by which something moves from its original po-
sition;
ŠŠ a hard substance such as wood, stone, or metal that is put on
the outside of a structure, especially a building, to protect it
or make it look more attractive;
ŠŠ the ability of an object not to be affected or harmed by wind,
water, heat etc;

242 243
Keys

Text 2
Keys to Unit 7
I. la; 2 b; 3 b; 4 c; 5 a
Text 1 II. lb; 2 a; 3 c; 4 b; 5 a
I. lb; 2 a; 3 c; 4 a; 5 b
II. lc; 2 a; 3 b; 4 c; 5 b Keys to Unit 11
Ill. lb; 2 a; 3 c; 4 a; 5 c
Text 1
IV. Id; 2 b; 3 c; 4 a; 5 c
Keys Exercise 3
I. lc; 2 a; 3 c; 4 a; 5 b
6 c; 7 a; 8 b
1 e;2 a;3 c;4 b;5 d II. lc; 2 b; 3 c; 4 a; 5 b; 6 b; 7 a
Exercise 5 Exercise 1
le; 2 c; 3 a; 4 b; 5 d. lc; 2 a; 3 d; 4 b; 5 a
Text 2 Exercise 6
Keys to Unit 1 Keys to Unit 4 I. lb; 2 c; 3 a; 4 a; 5 c lc; 2 d; 3 e; 4 b; 5 a
Text 1 Text I II. lc; 2 a; 3 c; 4 a; 5 b
I. lb; 2 c; 3 b; 4 c; 5 a; 6 b; 7 c I. la; 2 c; 3 b; 4 a; 5 b; 6 c; 7 b Keys to Unit 12
II. lb; 2 c; 3 b; 4 a; 5 c II. lc; 2 a; 3 c; 4 a Keys to Unit 8 Text 1
Exercise 1 III.lc; 2 d; 3 a; 4 c; 5 b I. lb; 2 c; 3 b; 4 a; 5 c
Text 1
1 c; 2 a; 3 c; 4 d; 5 b I. lc; 2 a; 3 c; 4 b; 5 c II. lb; 2 c; 3 a; 4 a
Exercise 3 Keys to Unit 5 II. lb; 2 a; 3 c; 4 b III.lc; 2 b; 3 c; 4 a; 5 b
1 b;2 c; 3 e; 4 a; 5 d. III.lc; 2 a; 3 c; 4 c; 5 b; 6 a; 7 c
Text 1
I. la; 2 b; 3 c; 4 b; 5 a; 6 b Exercise 3 Keys to Unit 13
Keys to Unit 2 II. lb; 2 c; 3 a; 4 b; 5 c III.lc; 2 c; 3 b; le; 2 c; 3 f; 4 a; 5 b; 6 g; 7 d
I. 1 a; 2 b; 3 a; 4 c. II. 1 c; 2 a; 3 b;
4 b; 5 a; 6 c; 7 b Exercise 4 4 a; 5 c.
Text 1 1 d;2 b;3 a;4 c;5 e.
I. lc; 2 b; 3 a; 4 b; 5 c; 6 a; 7 b Exercise 2 Ex. 1. 1 h;2 i;3 f;4 a;5 g; 6 d;7 e;8 b;9 c.
II. lb; 2 c; 3 a; 4 b; 5 c lc; 2 g; 3 b; 4 f; 5 a; 6 d; 7 e Keys to Unit 9 Ex.4. 1 d; 2 a; 3 b; 4 c.
III. lb; 2 a; 3 c; 4 b; 5 c Ex.5 1 b; 2 d; 3 a;4 c.
Text 1
Exercise 1 Keys to Unit 6 I. la; 2 b; 3 a; 4 c; 5 b; 6 a; 7 c Keys to Unit 14
Id; 2 g; 3 a; 4 e; 5 b; 6 c; 7 f II. la; 2 c; 3 a; 4 c; 5 c; 6 b; 7 a
Text 1 Text 1
I. lb; 2 a; 3 c III. lb; 2 a; 3 b; 4 c; 5 a I. la; 2 c; 3 a; 4 b; '5 a
Keys to Unit 3 II. lb; 2 c; 3 a; 4 b; 5 c II. lb; 2 c; 3 a; 4 c
III. la; 2 c; 3 b; 4 c; 5 a Keys to Unit 10
Text 1
I. la; 2 c; 3 b; 4 c; 5 b Exercise 1 Keys to Unit 15
Text 1
II. lb; 2 a; 3 b; 4 a; 5 b; 6 a; 7 b lc; 2 d; 3 b; 4 c; 5 a
I. lc; 2 b; 3 c; 4 a; 5 c Text 1
III. lc; 2 a; 3 d; 4 c; 5 b; 6 d; 7 b Exercise 2 II. lc; 2 a; 3 b; 4 a; 5 c I. 1 a; 2 b; 3 a; 4 c; 5 b
IV. lb; 2 d; 3 c; 4 a; 5 b lc; 2 b; 3 c; 4 d; 5 b III. lb; 2 c; 3 a; 4 b; 5 a II. lc; 2 a; 3 c; 4 a; 5 b
Exercise 2 Exercise 3 Exercise 3 Exercise 3
lc; 2 g; 3 e; 4 b; 5 f; 6 d; 7 a lb; 2 c; 3 a; 4 b; 5 c le; 2 a; 3 g; 4 b; 5 c; 6 d; 7 f lc; 2 a; 3 f; 4 b; 5 d; 6 g; 7 e
Text 2 Exercise 5
I. la; 2 b; 3 a; 4 c; 5 b If; 2 d; 3 e; 4 a; 5 g; 6 b; 7 c.
II. lb; 2 c; 3 b; 4 a; 5 c

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Text 2 HI. la; 2 b; 3 c; 4 a; 5 b II. lb; 2 a; 3 c; 4 c; 5 b
Keys to Unit 21 (Design criteria)
I. la; 2 c; 3 a; 4 b; 5 c Exercise 3 Exercise 5
II. lc; 2 a; 3 b;4 a; 5 c Textl Id; 2 c; 3 a; 4 b; 5 e If; 2 d; 3 e; 4 a; 5 c; 6 g; 7 b
III. lc; 2 b; 3 a; 4 c; 5 a; 6 b I. lb; 2 a; 3 a; 4 b
II. lb; 2 c; 3 c; 4 b; 5 a Keys to Unit 27 (Shells) Keys to Unit 29 (Tower of Pisa)
Keys to Unit 16 Exercise 2 Text 1 I. 1 c;2 b; 3 a; 4 c; 5 a.
I. 1 c; 2 a; 3 c; 4 b; 5 a. lc; 2 a; 3 e; 4 b; 5 d I. la; 2 c; 3 b; 4 a; 5 b II.1 c;2 a3 c;4 a;5 c.
II. 1 c; 2 b; 3 b; 4 c; 5 a. II. lc; 2 a; 3 c; 4 a; 5 b
III. 1 e; 2 d; 3 a; 4 f; 5 c; 6 b. Keys to Unit 22 Keys to Unit 30 (Millenium Dome)
IV. 1 a; 2 e; 3 b; 4 d; 5 c. Keys to Unit 28
Text 1 I. lc; 2 b; 3 a; 4 c; 5 a
Ex. 2. 1 a; 2 g; 3 b; 4 e; 5 d; 6 c; 7 b; 8 f.
I. lb; 2 c; 3 b (Trusses and Space frames) II. lc; 2 b; 3 c; 4 a; 5 a.
Keys to Unit 17 II. la; 2 b; 3 c; 4 b; 5 c Text 2
III. 1 b;2 c;3 b;4 a. I. lc; 2 a; 3 b; 4 c; 5 c
Textl
I. lc; 2 a; 3 c; 4 b; 5 a.
II. 1 d; 2 b; 3 a; 4 c; 5 b; 6 a. Keys to Unit 23 (Beams)
Exercise VI. Text 1
le; 2 c; 3 a; 4 f; 5 d; 6 b. I. la; 2 b; 3 a; 4 b; 5 c
II. lc; 2 a; 3 b; 4 a; 5 b
Keys to Unit 18 Exercise 3
Id; 2 b; 3 e; 4 c; 5 a
Text 1
lc; 2 a; 3 b; 4 c; 5 a; 6 b; 7 c
II. lb; 2 d; 3 c; 4 a; 5 d Keys to Unit 24 (Domes)
Exercise 3. Text 1
If, 2 e, 3 a, 4 d, 5 c, 6 b I. lb; 2 c; 3 b; 4 c; 5 c
II. lb; 2 b; 3 a; 4 b; 5 b
Keys to Unit 19 (RKT& B)
Text 1 Keys to Unit 25 (Floor systems)
I. lc; 2 a; 3 b; 4 a; 5 c. Text 1
Il.lb; 2 c; 3 b; 4 c.5 а I. lb;-2 c; 3 a; 4 c; 5 b
Exercise 5. II. la; 2 b; 3 a; 4 b; 5 c
le; 2 c; 3 a; 4 g; 5 d; 6 b; 7 f. Exercise 2
lb; 2 a; 3 c; 4 b; 5 a
Keys to Unit 20 (Hundertwasser)
Text 1 Keys to Unit 26 (Foundations)
lb; 2 a; 3 c; 4 b; 5 c lc; 2 b; 3 a; 4 b; 5 c Text 1
I. lc; 2 b; 3 a; 4 c; 5 b
II. lc; 2 b; 3 a; 4 c; 5 a

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Артикль отсутствует:
а) перед отвлеченными и вещественными существитель-
ными: freedom, love, happiness, water, sugar, gold;
б) перед именами собственными: John, London, Russia;
в) если перед существительным есть существительное
Краткий в притяжательном падеже: mother’s bag, teacher’s table,
my friend’s dog;
грамматический справочник г) если перед существительным есть притяжательное или
указательное местоимение: my book, that pencil;
д) если есть отрицание no: There is no table in my room.

Определенный артикль (The Definite Article)


1. Имя существительное (The Noun) Употребляется с  существительными в  единственном
и во множественном числе.
1.1. Артикль (The Article) Example: These are pupils. The pupils are at school.
Артикль — это грамматический элемент, с помощью ко- Определенный артикль происходит от  указательного
торого в английском языке выражается категория определен- местоимения. Он выполняет функцию выделения предме-
ности-неопределенности. та из класса ему подобных (в отличие от неопределенного
артикля, указывающего на отнесенность предмета к классу
Неопределенный артикль (The Indefinite Article) однородных предметов).
Употребляется перед исчисляемыми существительными Предмет выделяется с помощью определенного артикля:
в единственном числе: a — перед существительными на со- 1) если о предмете говорилось ранее:
гласный, an — перед существительными на гласный: Example: This is a cat. The cat is black;
Example: a book, a mother, a dog; an apple, an elephant, 2) если о предмете говорится впервые, но он известен со-
an umbrella. беседникам:
Неопределенный артикль указывает на принадлежность Example: Take the book from the shelf;
предмета к классу ему подобных, но не выделяет его. 3) если предмет является уникальным, единственным
Example:  Give me a pen. — Дайте мне ручку (какую-нибудь, в своем роде (the sun, the sky, the moon, the world, the
любую, одну из тех, что имеются в наличии). weather, the sea, the country).
He is a pupil. — Он ученик (один из учеников).
It is a town. — Это город (один из городов Употребление артикля с именами собственными
Имена собственные, как правило, употребляются без ар-
A An тикля. Так, артикль отсутствует перед названиями стран и ма-
a bag an uncle териков: Russia, Canada, Asia, Europe; названиями городов:

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Moscow, London, Geneva (нo: the Hague); названиями улиц Example: country — countries; city — cities.
и площадей: High Street, Regent Street, Trafalgar Square; име- Имена существительные, оканчивающиеся на  -f и  -fe
нами и фамилиями Parker, Smirnov. во множественном числе имеют окончание -(e)s, причем -f
Со следующими именами собственными обязательно упо- переходит в ‑v:
требляется определенный артикль.
Example: half — halves; knife — knives; scarf — scarves; life —
Географические названия: lives; shelf — shelves; wife — wives.
а) стороны света: the East, the West, the South, the North;
б) реки, моря, океаны: the Thames, the Black Sea, the Pacific Некоторые английские имена существительные сохрани-
Ocean; ли древнюю форму образования множественного числа:
в) горные цепи: the Alps, the Urals; Example: man — men; foot — feet; woman — women; goose —
г) пустыни: the Gobi, the Sahara; geese; child — children; tooth — teeth; ox — oxen;
д) страны, имеющие в своем названии слова union, state, mouse — mice.
commonwealth: the United Kingdom, the United States, У некоторых имен существительных древняя форма мно-
the Commonwealth of Independent States; жественного числа совпадает с формой единственного числа:
е) страны, имеющие в  своем названии слово в  форме
множественного числа: the Philippines, the Netherlands. Example: deer — deer; sheep — sheep; swine — swine.

Названия гостиниц, кинотеатров, галерей, музеев, газет


и т. д.: the Savoy, the Odeon, the Tate Gallery, the British Museum. 1.3. Притяжательный падеж
(The Possessive Case)
1.2. Образование множественного числа Притяжательный падеж выражает принадлежность и
имен существительных в русском языке соответствует существительному в родитель-
ном падеже или притяжательному прилагательному.
Множественное число имен существительных в англий- Притяжательный падеж образуется прибавлением апост-
ском языке образуется с помощью прибавления окончания рофа и буквы -s (-’s) к существительному в общем падеже:
-s (-es) к форме единственного числа:
Example: Jane’s friend — друг Джейн;
Example: cat — cats; hand — hands; pen — pens; way — ways. mother’s bag — мамина сумка.
Имена существительные, оканчивающиеся на -s, -ss, -x, К существительным во множественном числе с окончани-
-ch, -sh во множественном числе имеют окончание -es: ем -s прибавляется один апостроф:
Example: bus — buses; glass — glasses; fox — foxes; lash — lashes; Example: my parents’ house — дом моих родителей.
switch — switches.
Если во множественном числе существительное не имеет
Имена существительные, оканчивающиеся на согласный окончания, то его притяжательный падеж образуется так же,
с последующим -y, во множественном числе имеют оконча- как и существительных в единственном числе:
ние — (e)s, при этом -y меняется на -i:
Example: children’s toys — игрушки детей.
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2. ИМЯ ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНОЕ (THE ADJECTIVE)


! Запомните следующие исключения:
Степени сравнения имен прилагательных Положительная Сравнительная Превосходная
(Degrees of Comparison) степень степень степень
В английском языке прилагательные имеют три степе- good better the best
ни сравнения: хороший лучше лучший, самый
1) положительная (the Positive Degree) — (ис­ходная форма лучший
прилагательного); bad worse the worst
2) сравнительная (the Comparative Degree); плохой хуже худший
3) превосходная (the Superlative Degree).
little less the least
Образование сравнительной и  превосходной степеней
маленький меньше самый маленький,
прилагательных происходит двумя способами:
наименьший
1) прибавлением суффиксов;
2) прибавлением специальных слов. far farther the farthest
далекий дальше самый дальний
1. Степени сравнения односложных прилагательные об­ра­
зуются с помощью прибавления суффиксов к прилагательным
в исходной форме. Суффикс -er прибавляется к прилагатель-
3. МЕСТОИМЕНИЯ (THE PRONOUN)
ным в сравнительной степени, суффикс -est — к прилагатель-
ным в превосходной степени. Местоимения some, any, no и производные от них слова
Example: cold — colder — the coldest; В утвердительных предложениях употребляются место-
high — higher — the highest; имения some, somebody, something.
dark — darker — the darkest.
Example: There are some books on the shelf — На полке
Степени сравнения некоторых двусложных прилагатель- есть несколько книг.
ных также образуются с помощью этих суффиксов. Somebody sent you a letter. — Кто-то прислал вам
Example: simple — simpler — the simplest; письмо.
clever — cleverer — the cleverest; He said something but I didn’t understand.
narrow — narrower — the narrowest. Он сказал что-то, но я не понял, что.
2. Степени сравнения многосложных прилагательных об- В вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях упо-
разуются путем прибавления к исходной форме прилагатель- требляются местоимения any, anybody, anything, no, nobody,
ного специальных слов: в сравнительной степени — more, nothing.
в превосходной степени — most. Example: I haven’t got any textbooks. — У меня нет никаких
Example: interesting — more interesting — the most interesting; учебников.
dangerous — more dangerous — the most dangerous;
expensive — more durable — the most durable.
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Don’t tell anybody about it. — Никому не говорите The verb «to be» (быть)
об этом. (Past Indefinite Tense)
I saw nobody in the street. — Я никого не видел
на улице. I was I was not
В вопросах, содержащих просьбу или предложение, упо- He was He was not
требляется местоимение some. She was She was not
It was It was not
Example: Would you like some tea? — Не хотите ли чаю?
Can I have some more coffee? — Можно еще кофе?
We were We were not
В утвердительных предложениях местоимения any, any­ You were You were not
thing, anybody употребляются в значении «любой», «что угод- They were They were not
но», «кто угодно».
Was I? Yes, I was No, I wasn’t
Example: You may buy anything you like. — Вы можете купить Was he? Yes, he was No, he wasn’t
все, что захотите. Was she? Yes, she was No, she wasn’t
Was it? Yes, it was No, it wasn’t

4. ГЛАГОЛ (THE VERB) Were we? Yes, we were No, we weren’t


Were you? Yes, you were No, you weren’t
4.1. Система глагольных времен
Were they? Yes, they were No, they weren’t
Глагол «to be»
The verb "to be" (быть) The verb to be (быть)
(Present Indefinite) (Future Indefinite Tense)
I am I am not I shall be I shall not be
He, she, it is He, she, it is not He will be He will not be
You, we, they are You, we, they are not She will be She will not be
It will be It will not be
Am I? Yes, I am No, I am not
Is he? Yes, he is No, he isn’ t
We shall be We shall not be
Is she? Yes, she is No, she isn’ t
You will be You will not be
Is it? Yes, it is No, it isn’ t
They will be They will not be
Are we? Yes, we are No, we aren’t Shall I be? Yes, I shall No, I shan’t
Are you? Yes, you are No, you aren’t Will he be? Yes, he will No, he won’t
Are they? Yes, they are No, they aren’t Will she be? Yes, she will No, she won’t
Will it be? Yes, it will No, it won’t

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Shall we be? Yes, we shall No, we shan’t Обстоятельства времени, характерные для Present Simple:
Will you be? Yes, you will No, you won’t every day, always, in the morning и т. д.
Will they be? Yes, they will No, they won’t 2.  Для сообщения общеизвестных фактов.
The water boils at 100 °C. — Вода закипает при температуре
Оборот «There is/are» 100 градусов.
Оборот «There is/are» употребляется для сообщения о на- The verb "to live" (жить)
хождении какого-либо предмета в определенном месте. При (Past Indefinite Tense)
переводе на русский язык обстоятельство места выносится
I lived I did not live
в начало предложения.
He lived He did not live
There is a park near the house. — Около дома находится She lived She did not live
большой парк. It lived It did not live
1. Времена группы Indefinite
We lived We did not live
The verb "to live" (жить) You lived You did not live
(Present Indefinite Tense) They lived They did not live
I live I do not live Did I live? Yes, I did No, I didn’t.
He lives He does not live Did he live? Yes, he did No, he didn’t
She lives She does not live Did she live? Yes, she did No, she didn’t
It lives It does not live
We live We do not live Did we live? Yes, we did No, we didn’t
You live You do not live Did you live? Yes, you did No, you didn’t
They live They do not live Did they live? Yes, they did No, they didn’t
Do I live? Yes, I do No, I don’t
Past Simple употребляется:
Does he live? Yes, he does No, he doesn’t
Does she live? Yes, she does No, she doesn’t 1.  Для обозначения действия, которое имело место в про-
Does it live? Yes, it does No, it isn’t шлом. Обстоятельства времени, характерные для Past
Simple: yesterday, last week, three years ago, in the 17th
Do we live? Yes, we do No, we don’t century и т. д.
Do you live? Yes, you do No, you don’t
Do they live? Yes, they do No, they don’t
Present Simple употребляется:
1.  Для обозначения действия, имеющего постоянный ха-
рактер.

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The verb "to live" (жить) 2. Времена группы Continuous


(Future Indefinite Tense)
The verb "to live" (жить)
I shall live I shall not live (Present Continuous Tense)
He will live He will not live
I am living I am not living
She will live She will not live
He is living He is not living
It will live It will not live
She is living She is not living
It is living It is not living
We shall live We shall not live
You will live You will not live
We are living We are not living
They will live They will not live
You are living You are not living
Shall I live? Yes, I shall No, I shan’t They are living They are not living
Will he live? Yes, he will No, he won’t
Am I living? Yes, I am No, I am not
Will she live? Yes, she will No, she won’t
Is he living? Yes, he is No, he isn’t
Will it live? Yes, it will No, it won’t
Is she living? Yes, she is No, she isn’t
Is it living? Yes, it is No, it isn’t
Shall we live? Yes, we shall No, we shan’t
Will you live? Yes, you will No, you won’t
Are we living? Yes, we are No, we aren’t
Will they live? Yes, they will No, they won’t
Are you living? Yes, you are No, you aren’t
Are they living? Yes, they are No, they aren’t
Future Simple употребляется для обозначения действия
в будущем времени. Обстоятельства времени, характерные Present Continuous употребляется для выражения дей-
для Future Simple: tomorrow, next week (month, year), in two days ствия, которое совершается в данный момент в настоящем.
и т. д. Обстоятельства времени, характерные для Present Continuous:
Примечание: В придаточных предложениях условия и времен now, at this moment, today.
и после союзов if, when, before after, until, as soon Примечание: С
 ледующие глаголы не употребляются во вре-
as вместо будущего времени употребляется на- менах группы Continuous: to be, to hear, to feel,
стоящее. to see, to recognize, to remember, to understand,
Example: I shall go to the college when I finish my project. to like, to love, to want, to hate, to feel. Эти гла-
Я пойду в колледж, как только закончу работу над голы нужно употреблять во временах группы
проектом. Indefinite, даже когда о  действии говорится
в момент его совершения. Глагол to have не упо-
требляется во  временах группы Continuous
в своем прямом значении «иметь».
Example: I have a sister.

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В устойчивых сочетаниях типа to have a lesson, to have The verb "to live" (жить)
lunch, to have a swim возможно употребление to have в форме Future Continuous Tense
Continuous.
I shall be living I shall not be living
The verb "to live" (жить) He will be living He will not be living
(Past Continuous Tense) She will be living She will not be living
I was living I was not living It will be living It will not be living
He was living He was not living
She was living She was not living We shall be living We shall not be living
It was living It was not living You will be living You will not be living
They will be living They will not be living
We were living We were not living Shall I be living? Yes, I shall No, I shan’t
You were living You were not living Will he be living? Yes, he will No, he won’t
They were living  They were not living Will she be living? Yes, she will No, she won’t
Was I living? Yes, I was No, I wasn’t Will it be living? Yes, it will No, it won’t
Was he living? Yes, he was No, he wasn’t
Was she living? Yes, she was No, she wasn’t Shall we be living? Yes, we shall No, we shan’t
Was it living? Yes, it was No, it wasn’t Will you be living? Yes, you will No, you won’t
Will they be living? Yes, they will No, they won’t
Were we living? Yes, we were No, we weren’t
Future Continuous употребляется для выражения дейст­
Were you living? Yes, you were No, you weren’t
вия, которое будет иметь место в определенный момент в
Were they living? Yes, they were No, they weren’t
будущем. Обстоятельства времени, характерные для Future
Past Continuous употребляется для выражения действия, Continuous: at that moment, at that time, at 3 o’clock tomorrow, from
происходившего в определенный момент в прошлом. Обо- 6 till 8, all day tomorrow.
значения времени, характерные для Past Continuous: at that Example: We shall be waiting for you from 2  till 3  tomorrow. 
time, at that moment, at 4 o’clock yesterday, the whole morning, — Мы будем ждать вас завтра с 2 до 3 часов.
all the time, from 5 till 7, when I came in.
3. Времена группы Perfect
Сравните: He read a book yesterday. (Past Simple) — Вчера он
читал книгу. The verb "to live" (жить)
He was reading a book the whole evening yesterday. (Present Perfect Tense)
(Past Continuous) — Вчера весь вечер он читал
I have lived I have not lived
книгу.
He has lived He has not lived
She has lived She has not lived
It has lived It has not lived

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We have lived We have not lived We had lived We had not lived
You have lived You have not lived You had lived You had not lived
They have lived They have not lived They had lived They had not lived
Have I lived? Yes, I have No, I haven’t Had I lived? Yes, I had No, I hadn’t
Has he lived? Yes, he has No, he hasn’t Had he lived? Yes, he had No, he hadn’t
Has she lived? Yes, she has No, she hasn’t Had she lived? Yes, she had No, she hadn’t
Has it lived? Yes, it has No, it hasn’t Had it lived? Yes, it had No, it hadn’t

Have we lived? Yes, we have No, we haven’t Had we lived? Yes, we had No, we hadn’t
Have you lived? Yes, you have No, you haven’t Had you lived? Yes, you had No, you hadn’t
Have they lived? Yes, they have No, they haven’t Had they lived? Yes, they had No, they hadn’t

Present Perfect употребляется для выражения действия, Глагол в форме Past Perfect обозначает действие, которое
законченного к настоящему моменту, но связанного с на- совершилось:
стоящим. a) раньше другого действия в прошлом:
1. Действие закончилось к моменту речи. Example: He had studied English before he went to university. 
Example: I have just written a letter. — Я только что написал — Перед поступлением в университет он изучал
письмо. английский язык.
2.  Действие закончилось, а временной отрезок еще про- b) к данному моменту в прошлом:
должается.
Example: By that time we had arranged all the documents. 
Example: She has bought a jacket today. — Она купила куртку — К тому времени мы уже оформили все докумен-
сегодня. ты.
3. Время совершения действия не упоминается. Обстоятельства времени, характерные для Past Perfect:
Example: They have not been to Egypt. — Они не были after, already, before, by that time, by 5 o’clock, by the end of the
в Египте. century.
The verb "to live" (жить)
The verb "to live" (жить) (Future Perfect Tense)
(Past Perfect Tense)
I shall have lived I shall have not lived
I had lived I had not lived He will have lived He will have not lived
He had lived He had not lived She will have lived She will have not lived
She had lived She had not lived It will have lived It will have not lived
It had lived It had not lived

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We shall have lived We shall not have lived Сводная таблица всех глагольных времен изъявительного
You will have lived You will not have lived наклонения (действительный залог)
They will have lived They will not have lived Present Past Future
Shall I have lived? Yes, I shall No, I shan’t I go to the college I went to the col- I shall go to the

Indefinite
Will he have lived? Yes, he will No, he won’t (every day). lege yesterday. college tomorrow.
Will she have lived? Yes, she will No, she won’t
Will it have lived? Yes, it will No, it won’t
I am going to the When I was going I shall be going

Continuous
Shall we have lived? Yes, we shall No, we shan’t
college now. to the college  to the college
Will you have lived? Yes, you will No, you won’t
I saw this man. between 2 and
Will they have lived? Yes, they will No, they won’t
3 o’clock tomor-
Глагол в форме Future Perfect обозначает будущее дей- row.
ствие, которое совершится: I have just com- I had completed I shall have com-
pleted my work. my work by pleted my work by

Perfect
a) раньше другого действия в будущем:
5 o’clock. 5  o’clock tomor-
Example: I shall have translated the article by the time you row.
come. — Я переведу статью к тому времени, когда
ты придешь.
b) к определенному моменту в будущем:
4.2. Страдательный залог (The Passive Voice)
Example: They will have finished this work by 6  o’clock. —
Они закончат эту работу к 6 часам. В активных предложениях глагол указывает на  то, что
действие совершается субъектом. В пассивных конструкци-
Обозначения времени, характерные для Future Perfect: ях действие (совершается объектом) направлено на субъект.
by that time, by the evening, by the end of the year. Формы глагола в страдательном залоге образуются при
4. Времена группы Perfect Continuous (законченные дли- помощи вспомогательного глагола to be в соответствующем
тельные времена) в технических текстах встречаются доволь- времени, лице, числе и причастия II смыслового глагола.
но редко.
The verb to ask
(Present Indefinite Passive)
I am asked I am not asked Am I asked?
He is asked He is not asked Is he asked?
She is asked She is not asked Is she asked?
It is asked It is not asked Is it asked?

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We are asked We are not asked Are we asked? б) возвратным глаголом — Письмо переводилось вчера.
You are asked You are not asked Are you asked? в) глаголом «быть» и  краткой формой страдательного
They are asked They are not asked Are they asked? при­частия. — Письмо было переведено вчера.

Сводная таблица всех глагольных времен изъявительного


The verb to ask наклонения в страдательном залоге
(Past Indefinite Passive)
Present Past Future
I was asked I was not asked Was I asked?
He was asked He was not asked Was he asked? The site is The site was The site will be

Indefinite
She was asked She was not asked Was she asked? examined by the examined by the examined by the
It was asked It was not asked Was it asked? experts. experts last week. experts next week.

We were asked We were not asked Were we asked? The site is being The site was

Continuous
You were asked You were not asked Were you asked? examined by the being examined
They were asked They were not asked Were they asked? experts now. by the experts at X
3 o’clock yester-
The verb to ask day.
(Future Indefinite Passive) The site has been The site had The site will have
I shall be asked I shall not be asked Shall I be asked? already examined been examined been examined by

Perfect
He will be asked He will not be asked Will he be asked? by the experts. by the experts by the experts at
She will be asked She will not be asked Will she be asked? 3 o’clock yester- 3 o’ clock tomor-
It will be asked It will not be asked Will it be asked? day. row.

Perfect Continuous
We shall be asked We shall not be asked Shall we be asked?
You will be asked You will not be asked Will it be asked?
They will be asked They will not be Will they be
X X X
asked asked?

Способы перевода глагольных форм в страдательном


залоге
Example: The letter was translated yesterday. В страдательном залоге употребляются глаголы, требую-
щие рядом с собой предлога — to insist on, to refer to, to speak
а) глаголом в действительном залоге в форме 3‑го лица of и др. При переводе на русский язык предлог ставится перед
множественного числа с неопределенно-личным зна- подлежащим.
чением — Письмо перевели вчера.

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Она умела читать


уже в четыре го­да.

Вы можете взять

Туристам разре­
шили посетить
У нее был вы­

этот учебник.
смогла пойти
ход­ной день,
Перевод
Example: This project is much spoken about. — Об этом проекте

поэтому она

этот замок.
много говорят.

в музей.
Определенную сложность вызывают случаи, когда в ан-
глийском языке глагол употребляется без предлога, а в рус-
ском языке с предлогом.

go to the museum.
when she was only

allowed to visit the


You may take this
so she was able to
She had a day off

The tourists were


Example: The question was answered.

She could read


Примеры
— На вопрос ответили.

textbook.

castle.
4.3. Modal Verbs (модальные глаголы)

four.
Временные формы модальных глаголов
Модальные глаголы выражают отношение лица к дейст­
вию и имеют значение возможности, вероятности, необходи-
мости или желательности какого-либо действия. Модальные

Future

allowed to 
глаголы не имеют категории лица, инфинитив c ними упо-

shall/will

shall/will
требляется без частицы ‘to’ (исключение — модальный глагол

able to
ought to). В модальном значении могут также выступать глаго-


лы to be, to have — эквиваленты, которые передают различные
оттенки модальности, а также восполняют недостающие вре-
менные формы модальных глаголов (см. табл. на с. 269–270).

Past

allowed to
was/were

was/were
able to

might
could
Present

am, is, are

am, is, are


allowed to
быть в состоянии able to

may
can

выражает прось­
бу или разре­ше­
ние сделать что-
быть вероятным;
сделать что-либо
венная возмож­
уметь (физи­че­­-
ская или умст­-
Модальные

to be allowed to
ность делать
глаголы

to be able to
что-либо)

либо;
Can

may
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Ей пришлось ра­
ботать в прошлую

Вам следует обра­


We must do it im- Мы должны сде-­

бу­дет закончено
лать это немед-

Строительство

He ought to follow Он должен вы­


титься к врачу.
нового шоссе
Перевод
4.5. Неличные формы глаголов

all the instructions. пол­нить все


указания.
(Non-finite forms of the verb)

в апреле.
субботу.
ленно.
Инфинитив (The Infinitive)
Инфинитив — это неличная форма глагола, обладающая
свойствами глагола и существительного. Формальным по-

A new highway is

You should go to
to be finished in
She had to work
казателем инфинитива является частица to, которая в ряде
Примеры

last Saturday.
случаев не употребляется.

the doctor.
mediately.

April.
Формы инфинитива
Время Действительный Страдательный
залог залог
Indefinite to built to be built
Future

Continuous to be building
Perfect to have built to have been built

Perfect Continuous to have been


building
В предложении инфинитив может выступать в следующих
Past

функциях:
а) подлежащего:

To know English is a must nowadays.


б) именной части сказуемого:
It is not necessary to invent a new architecture every Monday
Present

morning (Mies).
в) части глагольного сказуемого:
They began to work out a new town planning scheme.
must

г) определение:
They trade centre to be redesign is the largest in our city.
приходится сде-

ветствии с распи-
что-либо (в соот-

договоренностью)
ние, обязанность

санием, планом,

кона или правил

д) обстоятельство цели или следствия:


рального долга,
соблюдение за­
должен сделать

(личный совет)
следует сделать
долженствова-

лать что-либо;
Модальные

ought to — вы­


полнение мо­

The scientists met to discuss the environmental problems.


глаголы

что-либо
to have to

to be to

should
must

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Сложное дополнение (Complex Object) 1. Сказуемое в предложениях с Complex Subject может быть
Конструкция Complex Object — это сочетание существи- выражено глаголами со следующими значениями:
тельного или местоимения в косвенном падеже и инфини- а) знания, утверждения: to know, to think, to state;
тива. б) предположения: to believe, to consider, to expect,
to suppose;
Сложное дополнение употребляется: в) восприятия: to hear, to see.
а) после глаголов to expect, to want, to wish, to desire, would Эти глаголы могут стоять в любом времени в Passive Voice.
like. Предложения, имеющие в своем составе Complex Subject,
Example: They want their son to be an architect. переводятся на русский язык с помощью неопределенно-лич-
Они хотят, чтобы их сын стал архитектором. ных оборотов («Известно, что…», «Говорят, что…», «Видели,
что…», « Сообщили, что…», «Оказалось, что…» и т. д.
б) после глаголов умственного восприятия to suppose,
to think, to consider, to believe, to know, to understand. Example: He was known to study at Harvard.
Известно, что он учился в Гарварде.
Example: We considered him to be a very talented artist. Antonio Gaudi is supposed to be the greatest architect of
Мы считали его очень талантливым художником. the 20th century.
в) после глаголов со значением просьбы, разрешения — Считается, что Антонио Гауди — величайший ар-
to request, to let, to allow: хитектор ХХ века.
Example: He allowed us to realize this project. 2. Complex Subject употребляется также с  глаголами to
Он разрешил нам осуществить этот проект. appear, to happen, to prove, to seem, to turn out в Active Voice.
Инфинитив употребляется без частицы to: Example: I happened to meet him at the art exhibition.
Я случайно встретил его на художественной вы-
а) после глаголов со  значением приказа — to order,
ставке.
to make, to command:
The domes of the church seem to float above the city.
Example: The manager made them prepare their drawings. Купола церкви, кажется, парят над городом.
Менеджер заставил их подготовить чертежи.
3. Complex Subject употребляется для выражения различ-
б) глаголов восприятия — to see, to hear, to feel: ной степени уверенности — to be certain to, to be likely to, to be
Example: I saw her paint the fence. unlikely to, to be sure to.
Я видел, как она красила забор. Example: He is sure to win the competition.
Он, несомненно, выиграет конкурс.
Сложное подлежащее (Complex Subject)
Конструкция Complex Subject — это сочетание существи-
тельного в общем падеже или местоимения в именительном
падеже с инфинитивом.

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Инфинитивный оборот с предлогом For Причастие обладает следующими свойствами глагола:


(The For-to-Infinitive Construction) a) имеет безпредложное управление:
Example: Translating the article, I write out the new words.
Имеет в  своем составе предлог for и  существительное
Переводя статью, я выписываю новые слова.
в именительном падеже или местоимение в косвенном паде-
же и инфинитив. В предложении этот оборот может высту- б) определяется наречием:
пать в роли подлежащего, дополнения, обстоятельства, опре- Example: Working together we achieve better results.
деления, может быть частью сказуемого. На русский язык Работая вместе, мы достигнем лучших результатов.
он переводится придаточным предложением с союзами что,
в) имеет формы вида и залога:
чтобы, который.
Example: They waited for their book to be published next year. Action Active Passive
Они ожидали, что их книга будет издана в следую- Одновременное V+ing Being + ed
щем году. действие working being worked
It is necessary for us to make sure that all the data is (the 3rd form of the
accurate. verb)
Нам необходимо убедиться, что все данные точные. worked
I have a job for you to do. Предшествую- Having + V + -ed Having been + V+
У меня есть работа, которую вы должны выпол- щее действие (the 3rd form of the ed (the 3rd form of
нить. verb) the verb)
having worked having been worked
Причастие (the Participle)
Причастие — неличная форма глагола, обладающая свой- В предложении Participle I и Participle II могут быть опре-
ствами глагола, прилагательного и наречия. В английском делениями:
языке причастие имеет простые и сложные формы. Example: The ramps linking the different levels of the structure
Простые формы причастий: Participle I (Active) — creating are at the rear.
(создающий) и Participle II: created (созданный); built (постро- Пандусы, соединяющие разные уровни дома, на-
енный). ходятся позади здания.
Сложные формы причастий: The projects being presented to the jury were of great
Participle I (Passive) — being created, being built. interest.
Perfect Participle Active — having created, having built. Проекты, представленные жюри, были очень ин-
Perfect Participle Passive — having been created, having тересными.
been built. These houses built in classical style are very old.
Эти дома, построенные в  классическом стиле,
очень старые.

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Причастия, как и  наречия, выступают в  роли обстоя- Example: The roof has been painted, they began repairing the
тельств: fence.
Example: Having examined the site the experts discussed the После того как покрасили крышу, они начали ре-
details of the project. монтировать забор.
Осмотрев участок, эксперты обсудили детали про- В позиции конца предложения указанный оборот перево-
екта. дится союзами а, и, но, причем:
Participle  I и  Participle  II могут использоваться Example: Originally Greeks used mud for divellings, stone being
с союзами when, while, as, if, unless. reserved for temples and public buildings.
When decorating the house interior don’t forget about Первоначально греки строили жилища из глины, а
functions of the rooms. камень использовали для возведения культовых и об-
Оформляя внутреннее жилое пространство, не за- щественных зданий.
бывайте о функциях комнат.
Герундий (The Gerund)
Независимый причастный оборот
(The Absolute Participle Construction) Герундий — неличная форма глагола, имеющая как гла-
гольные, так и именные признаки.
В английском языке существует два типа причастных обо- Герундий обладает следующими признаками глагола:
ротов.
a) имеет безпредложное управление:
1. В зависимых причастных оборотах причастие обознача-
ет действие, которое относится к подлежащему. На русский Example: They enjoyed doing competition.
язык они переводятся деепричастными оборотами. Они с удовольствием участвовали в конкурсе.

Example: Looking at landscapes we admired their beauty. б) может определяться наречием:


Рассматривая пейзажи, мы восхищаемся их красо- Example: He likes getting up early.
той. Он любит рано вставать.
2. В независимых причастных оборотах причастие сочета- в) имеет формы вида и залога:
ется с подлежащим, отличным от подлежащего предложения.
Action Active Passive
В зависимости от места в предложении они могут переводить-
ся обстоятельственными придаточными или самостоятель- Одновременное V+ing Being +V + ed (the
ными предложениями. действие working 3rd form of the verb)
Если независимый причастный оборот стоит в  начале being worked
предложения, он переводится с помощью союзов если, когда, Предшествую- Having + V + -ed having worked
после того как, так как. щее действие (the 3rd form of the Having been + V +
verb) ed (the 3rd form of
the verb)
having been worked

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Герундий имеет следующие свойства существительного: На русский язык герундий переводится отглагольным су-
• Сочетается с притяжательными и указательными ме- ществительным, глаголом, деепричастием или придаточным
стоимениями: предложением.

Example: We are proud of her being named the Best Designer of Examples:
the Year. 1.  The client insisted on retaining the abstract ornamentation.
Мы гордимся тем, что она получила звание лучше- Заказчик настаивал на сохранении абстрактного орна-
го дизайнера года. мента.
2.  They began developing a new conception of the office space.
• Как существительное, в предложении герундий может Они начали разрабатывать новую концепцию офисного
выступать в функции: пространства.
а) подлежащего: 3.  He improved the hotel’s exterior by changing the facade
Example: Teaching is a hard job. plan.
Преподавание — тяжелая работа. Он обновил экстерьер отеля, изменив план фасада.
4.  We thanked the teacher for helping us.
б) части составного именного сказуемого. Мы поблагодарили учителя за то, что он помог нам.
Example: Her hobby is painting.
Ее хобби — живопись. Герундий всегда употребляется после глаголов to admit,
to avoid, to deny, to enjoy, to finish, to mind, to need, to prevent,
3. Часть составного глагольного сказуемого. to suggest.
Example: We began discussing the project an hour ago. Герундий употребляется также после следующих словосо-
Час назад мы начали обсуждать проект. четаний: to feel like, to look forward to.
4. Прямое и предложное дополнение После глаголов to begin, to continue, to start, to hate, to like
употребляется как герундий, так и инфинитив.
Example: The building needs repairing.
Здание нуждается в ремонте. Example: We began working on the project. 
They spoke of taking part in the design competition. Мы начали работу над проектом.
Они говорили об участии в конкурсе проектов. We began to work on the project. 
Мы начали работать над проектом.
5. Обстоятельство
Example: After studying the contract he signed it.
Изучив контракт, он подписал его. 5. Порядок слов в английском предложении
6. Определение The Word Order of the English Sentence
Example: There are different ways of decorating interior space. В английском языке существует фиксированный порядок
Существуют различные способы оформления ин- слов в предложении (ограничена возможность их свободной
терьера. расстановки). На первом месте в английском предложении
находится подлежащее, за ним идут сказуемое и дополнение.

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Обстоятельство является подвижным компонентом — оно She is a designer. — Is she a designer?


может находиться как в начале, так и в конце высказывания. They are architects. — Are they architects?
Определение распространяет любой член предложения, вы- Вспомогательный или модальный глагол в общем вопросе
раженный именем существительным. также ставится перед подлежащим.
Subject Predicate Object I can draw. — Can I draw?
City planners regulate the growth of towns. He is working now. — Is he working now?
They have been to Rome. — Have they been to Rome?
Adverbial Subject Predicate Object Attribute Для образования вопросительных форм остальных гла-
Modifier Object голов перед подлежащим ставится вспомогательный глагол
Nowadays city regulate the growth of large to do:
planners towns I study at university. — Do you study at university?
Subject Predicate Adverbial Modifier She likes music. — Does she like music?
We made our projects. — Did we make our projects?
City planners met in Moscow
Cпециальные вопросы (Special Questions) задаются к опреде-
Если имеется несколько прилагательных, определяющих ленному члену предложения. На первом месте в специальном
существительное, в английском предложении они распола- вопросе стоит вопросительное слово. Как и в общих, в специ-
гаются следующим образом: альных вопросах существует обратный порядок слов.
We saw a festive ancient five-domed stone church. Who is the author of the project? Кто является автором проекта?
оценочность временная форма материал
характеристика Исключение составляют вопросы к подлежащему или его
определению. В таких предложениях сохраняется прямой
порядок слов.
6. Типы вопросов (Types of Questions) Who studies art? — Кто изучает искусство?
Whose works on Architecture won the Pritzker Prize?
В английском языке существует четыре типа вопросов:
— Чьи архитектурные проекты получили премию При-
ŠŠ общие вопросы (General Questions),
цкера?
ŠŠ специальные вопросы (Special Questions)
ŠŠ альтернативные вопросы (Alternative Questions) Aльтернативные вопросы (Alternative Questions) предпола-
ŠŠ разделительные вопросы (Disjunctive Questions). гают выбор одного из двух вариантов ответов. В начале пред-
ложения может стоять вспомогательный глагол (как в общем
Общие вопросы (General Questions) задаются ко всему пред-
вопросе) или вопросительное слово (как в специальном во-
ложению и требуют односложного ответа («да» или «нет»).
просе).
В общем вопросе сказуемое, выраженное глаголом to be,
ставится перед подлежащим. Do you study at school or at university?
— Вы учитесь в школе или в университете?
I am an engineer. — Am I an engineer?

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Ответы на альтернативные вопросы ко всем членам пред- Таблица неправильных глаголов


ложения даются в полной форме.
Разделительные вопросы (Disjunctive Questions). Infinitive Past Simple Participle II Translation
Первая часть разделительного вопроса является утверди- arise arose arisen возникать
тельным или отрицательным предложением, вторая часть — awake awoke awaked будить, просыпаться
это общий вопрос, включающий в себя соответствующий be was/were been быть
вспомогательный или модальный глагол и местоимение. На
bear bore born, borne рождать; носить, нести
русский язык вторая часть разделительного вопроса перево-
дится словами «не правда ли» или «не так ли». beat beat beaten бить
Если в первой части разделительного вопроса содержится become became become становиться
утверждение, то во второй — повторно употребляется вспо- begin began begun начинать
могательный или модальный глагол, входящий в состав ска- bend bent bent гнуть(ся), сгибать(ся)
зуемого первой части. При этом к глаголу добавляется отри-
bind bound bound связывать
цательная частица not.
blow blew blown дуть
You study architecture, don’t you?
break broke broken ломать
— Вы изучаете архитектуру, не так ли?
bring brought brought приносить
They can speak English, can’t they?
— Они говорят по-ангийски, не так ли? build built built строить
Burn burnt burnt гореть
Если в первой части в качестве сказуемого выступают гла­
голы to be, to have, то во второй части эти глаголы также упо- burst burst burst взрываться, разрываться
требляются повторно. buy bought bought покупать
The weather is fine, isn’t it? cast cast cast бросать, кидать
— Не правда ли, прекрасная погода? catch caught caught ловить
They have a big house, haven’t they? choose chose chosen выбирать
— У них большой дом, не так ли? come came come приходить
Если в первой части вопросительного предложения содер- cost cost cost стоить
жится отрицание, то во второй его части соответствующий cut cut cut резать
глагол ставится в утвердительной форме. deal dealt dealt иметь дело; торговать
He didn’t go there, did he? — Он не ходил туда, не так ли? dig dug dug копать
do did done делать
draw drew drawn рисовать
drink drank drunk пить

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Английский для архитекторов Краткий грамматический справочник

Infinitive Past Simple Participle II Translation Infinitive Past Simple Participle II Translation
drive drove driven вести, ехать light lighted lighted освещать, зажигать
dwell dwelt dwelt обитать lose lost lost терять
eat ate eaten есть make made made делать, заставлять
fall fell fallen падать mean meant meant иметь в виду; значить
feel felt felt чувствовать meet met met встречать
fight fought fought сражаться mistake mistook mistaken ошибаться, заблуждаться
find found found находить partake partook partaken принимать участие
fly flew flown летать pay paid paid платить
forbid forbade forbidden запрещать put put put класть, ставить
forget forgot forgotten забывать read read read читать
freeze froze frozen замерзать ring rang rung звонить
get got got получать rise rose risen подниматься
give gave given давать run ran run бежать
go went gone идти say said said говорить, сказать
grow grew grown расти see saw seen видеть
have had had иметь seek sought sought искать
hear heard heard слышать send sent sent посылать
hold held held держать set set set помещать
hurt hurt hurt повреждать shake shook shaken трясти
keep kept kept хранить shine shone shone сиять, светить
know knew known знать show showed shown показывать
lay laid laid класть shrink shrank, shrunk shrunk сокращаться
lead led led руководить sit sat sat сидеть
lean leant, leaned leant, leaned наклоняться; sleep slept slept спать
прислоняться slide slid slid скользить
learn learnt learnt учиться speak spoke spoken говорить
leave left left оставлять spend spent spent проводить, тратить
let let let позволять split split split проливать
lie lay lain лежать

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Английский для архитекторов

Infinitive Past Simple Participle II Translation


spoil spoilt, spoiled spoilt, портить
spoiled
spread spread spread распространять
spring sprang sprung прыгать
stand stood stood стоять
Словарь
steal stole stolen красть
stick stuck stuck приклеивать(ся)
strike struck struck ударять
strive strove striven стремиться A
sweep swept swept мести, подметать, нес- abbey n — аббатство
тись, мчаться abundant a — изобильный
swim swam swum плыть abuse v — злоупотреблять
acceptance n — принятие, одобрение
swing swung swung качать(ся)
access n — доступ
take took taken брать acclaim n — признание
teach taught taught учить, обучать accompany v — сопровождать
tell told told рассказывать according adv. — в соответствии
think thought thought думать achieve v — достигать
acquaint v — знакомить
thrive threw thrown преуспевать, процветать
acquire v — приобретать
tread trod trodden, ступать
activity n — деятельность
trod
adaptability n — приспособляемость
unbend unbent unbent выпрямлять(ся) adherent n — приверженец
undergo underwent undergone испытывать, переносить adjoining a — примыкающий
understand understood understood понимать admit v — допускать, признавать
wear wore worn носить advanced a — передовой
advantage n — преимущество
win won won побеждать
advent n — появление
wind wound wound заводить (часы); виться
adventure n — приключение, авантюра
withstand withstood withstood противостоять, выдер- advocate n — защитник
живать affect v — влиять
write wrote written писать aim n — цель
air n — воздух

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Английский для архитекторов Словарь

align v — выравнивать board — I. n доска. II. n правление, совет, департамент


allow v — позволять, разрешать boast v — гордиться
allowable a — допустимый bone n — кость
along — вдоль border n — граница, грань
amazing — удивительный, изумительный borrow v — брать, заимствовать
amusement n — развлечение boundary n — граница, рубеж, предел
ancient a — древний, античный, старинный brace n — подпорка, распорка, связь, скоба
apart adv — отдельно
appeal n — обращение C
appearance n — внешний вид capacity n — вместимость
appreciably adv — оценивать capture v — захватывать, приковывать (внимание)
appreciate v — оценивать, понимать carpet n — ковер
appropriate a — соответствующий carry v — нести, поддерживать
area n — площадь case n — случай, обстоятельство, дело
arouse v — пробуждать catch v — ловить, схватывать
artistic a — художественный cause v — быть причиной, причинять, вызывать
astonishing a — поразительный charming a — обаятельный, чарующий
attack n — атака, нападение cheap a — дешевый
attempt n — попытка chiefly adv — главным образом
attractive a — привлекательный choice n — выбор
austere a — строгий, суровый circumstance n — обстоятельство
authority n — власть, полномочие; авторитет citizen n — гражданин
award — 1. n награда; 2. v награждать close — I a 1) закрытый 2) близкий II v закрывать (ся), заканчивать
awe n — благоговение, трепет clothing n — одежда
awkward a — неудобный codify v — кодифицировать
commitment n — обязательство
B commodity n — предмет потребления
beautify v — украшать common a — общий, обычный, обыденный
beauty n — красота comparable a — сравнимый
behaviour n — поведение competition n — конкуренция, соперничество
belong v — принадлежать comprehension a — понимание, постижение
benefit n — выгода conceive v — задумывать
beyond adv — вдали concern n — отношение, важность
blossom — 1.1) n цвет, цветение 2) расцвет. 2. v 1) цвести, расцве- condition n — 1) состояние 2) положение, условие
тать consequently adv — следовательно
2) преуспеть, добиться успеха

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Английский для архитекторов Словарь

consider v — рассматривать destructive a — разрушительный


consist v — состоять (из) determine v — определять
constitute v — составлять, устанавливать development n — развитие
constrain v — принуждать device n — прием
contemporary a — современный devote v — посвящать
contribute disadvantage n — недостаток
convention — съезд; обычай; условие discovery n — открытие
cooling — охлаждающий dislike n — неприязнь, антипатия
counterpart — дополнение, пара displace v — смещать
court n — двор dissolve v — расстворяться
cover v — покрывать distinctive a — отчетливый, ясный
cradle n — колыбель distinguish v — различать
create v — создавать distribution n — распределение
crouch v- сгибаться divinity n — божественность
crusader n — крестоносец domestic a — домашний отечественный
currency n — валюта, деньги double a — двойной
current n — струя, поток, течение drawback n — недостаток
dry a — сухой
D ducal a — герцогский
data n — данные dust n — пыль
decease n — кончина
dedication n — преданность E
deep a — глубокий earth n — земля
defenсe n –1.n защита 2. v защищать earthquake n — землетрясение
define v — определять edge n — грань, край
degree n — степень, уровень effect n — результат
deliberate a — преднамеренный effort n — усилие
denote v — обозначать element n — стихия
depart v — отправляться embellish v — украшать
depend v — зависеть embrace v — охватывать
depict v — изображать emeritus a — заслуженный
derive v — происходить empire n — империя
descend v — спускаться employ v — применять
desert n — пустыня enable v — давать возможность
desirable a — желательный enchanting a — чарующий, обворожительный

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Английский для архитекторов Словарь

enclose v — окружать, обносить стеной exploit v — разрабатывать, пользоваться


encompass v — окружать, заключать, охватить extend v — простирать (ся), тянуть (ся); расширять (дом и т. п.)
encouragement n — поощрение, поддержка external a — внешний
endow v — наделять extract v — извлекать
endure v — выдерживать испытание временем extreme n — крайность, экстремально высокие и низкие темпе-
enemy n — враг ратуры
engage v — 1) нанимать; заказывать заранее 2) заниматься exude v — выделять
3) занимать, привлекать; вовлекать
enhance v — увеличивать, усиливать F
enlarge v — увеличивать (ся), укрупнять (ся) fail v — провалить
enormous a — a громадный, огромный faith n — вера
entail v — влечь за собой, вызывать (что-либо) fascination n — очарование, обаяние, прелесть
entertain v — развлекать, занимать fashion n — образ, манера, мода
entire a — полный fasten v — пристегивать, прикреплять
epoch n — эпоха feature n — черта
equal a — равный feeling n — ощущение, чувства
erect v — сооружать, воздвигать feminine a — женский, свойственный женщинам
establishment n — учреждение, установление field n — поле, сфера деятельности
estimate v — оценивать firm a — твердый, крепкий
event n — событие flood v — наводнять
eventually adv — со временем, в конце концов flourish v — 1) пышно расти 2) процветать, преуспевать; быть в рас-
evil n — зло цвете 3) жить, действовать в определенную эпоху
evoke v — вызывать flowering n — расцвет, цветение
evolve v — развивать, разрабатывать follow v — следовать
example n — пример force n — сила
exceed v — превышать foresee v — предвидеть
excellence n — превосходство, совершенство former a — бывший
exception n — исключение frontier n — граница, предел
excitement n — волнение, возбуждение fuel n — топливо, горючее
execution n — выполнение, исполнение fulfill v — выполнять
exhibit n — экспонат fully adv — полностью, совершенно
exhibition n — выставка further a — дальнейший, добавочный
expectation n — ожидание
G
expenditure n — расход, трата
gain n — прибыль, выгода
experience n — опыт
gather v — собирать

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Английский для архитекторов Словарь

gaze n — пристальный взгляд include v — включать


gem n — 1)драгоценный камень, самоцвет 2) перен. драгоценность, inconsistency n — непоследовательность, противоречивость
жемчужина incorporate v — объединять, включать
generation n — поколение increase v — увеличивать
graceful a — грациозный, изящный independence n — независимость
grass n — трава inevitable a — неминуемый
ground n — земля, грунт influence n — влияние
grow v — расти, произрастать inherently adv — свойственно
guise n — 1) наружность, облик 2) личина, маска 3) уст. одеяние, initiate v — начинать
наряд inner a — внутренний
inside n — внутренняя часть
H
inspire v — 1) внушать, вселять (чувство и т. п.) 2) вдохновлять, во-
habit n — привычка, обыкновение, обычай одушевлять
harmful a — вредный institution n — учреждение, организация
health n — здоровье intensify v — усиливать
hearing n — слух intricacy n — запутанность, сложность
hence adv — следовательно introduction n — введение
hidden a — скрытый invariably adv — неизменно
highlight v — выделять invent v — изобретать
hindrance n — препятствие, помеха investigate v — расследовать
hold v — держать invite v — приглашать
homogeneous a — однородный involve v — вовлекать
honour n — честь, слава island n — остров
hub n — центр
human being n — человек J
humid a — влажный jazzy a — броский, яркий
jewellery n — драгоценности, ювелирные украшения
I
illegally a — незаконно K
imagine v — воображать, представлять kingdom n — королевство, царство
immediate a — непосредственный
impose v — возлагать L
impoverished a — истощенный; лишенный средств labour n — труд
impracticable a — невыполнимый lag n — запаздывать
improve v — улучшать landmark n — наземный ориентир
incentive n — побуждение, стимул lasting a — прочный

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Английский для архитекторов Словарь

layer n — слой, пласт mundane a — обыденный


ledge n — выступ murder v — убивать
leisure n — досуг
length n — длина N
level n — уровень nearby adv — поблизости
link 1. n — (связующее) звено; связь; соединение 2. v соединять, nearest a — ближайший
связывать, смыкать; сцеплять necessitate v — вынуждать, обуславливать
lose v — терять need n — потребность
luxury n — роскошь nevertheless adv — однако, тем не менее
noise n — шум
M noticeable a — заметный
magnificent a — великолепный nowadays adv — в наши дни
magnitude n — величина numerous a — многочисленный
maintain v — поддерживать, сохранять
manifest v — проявлять O
manufacture v — производить obstacle n — препятствие
martyr n — мученик obtain v — получать
masculine а — 1) мужской 2) мужественный obvious a — очевидный
masterpiece n — шедевр offer v — предлагать
matter n 1) вещество 2) филос. материя 3) материал 4) сущность, onslaught n — нападение
содержание opportunity n — возможность
mean v 1) иметь в виду 2) предназначать (ся) 3) думать, подразуме- originate v — порождать, давать начало
вать 4) значить, означать, иметь значение outer a — внешний
means n — способ, средство outside n — наружная сторона
memorable a — (досто)памятный, незабвенный, незабываемый outstanding a — выдающийся
merit n — достоинство overall a — полный, всеобщий, предельный
might n — мощь overlook v — возвышаться, выходить (на)
mind n — ум, разум overriding a — основной, первостепенный
minor a — второстепенный, незначительный overstep v — перешагнуть
miss v — 1)упустить, пропустить 2) обнаружить отсутствие или overthrow v — ниспровергать
пропажу owe v — быть должным
misunderstanding n — неправильное понимание oxygen n — кислород
modern a — современный
moisture n — влажность, влага P
monasticism n — монашество painstaking a — усердный, кропотливый
move v — 1) двигать (ся); передвигать (ся) 2) приводить в движение pair n — пара

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Английский для архитекторов Словарь

particular a — особенный proceed v — продолжать, направляться


patio n — патио, дворик prolong v — продлевать
patron n 1) покровитель, патрон, шеф 2) постоянный клиент, по- proper a — свойственный, присущий, подходящий
купатель property n — собственность
pave v — мостить proponent n — пропагандист, поборник
pearl n — жемчуг proposal n — предложение
perish v — погибать propose v — предлагать, выдвигать, предполагать
permanence n — неизменность provide v — обеспечивать
personify v — олицетворять purify v — очищать
pertain v — относиться push v — толкать
picturesque a — живописный
pierce v — 1) пронзать, прокалывать 2) пронизывать 3) прорывать- Q
ся quality n — качество
placement n — размещение quantity n — количество
point n — точка, место, пункт questionable a — сомнительный, ненадежный
posh a — шикарный, фешенебельный
possibility n — возможность R
pour v — наливать rage n — 1) гнев, ярость; 2) cтрасть, сильное стремление;
power n — сила, мощь 3) разг. повальное увлечение (чем-либо, кем-либо)
practicality n — практичность rare a — редкий
practice n 1) практика, применение; 2) обычай, обыкновение 3) reach v — достигать
практика, деятельность reason n — разум, рассудок; благоразумие
prairie n — прерия recalcitrant a — непокорный
precede v — предшествовать receive v — получать
precedent n — прецедент rectangle n — прямоугольник
precision n — точность reduce v — уменьшать
predilection n — пристрастие refinement n 1) очищение; обработка, отделка 2)усовершенствова-
prefer v — предпочитать ние 3) утонченность
prerequisite n — предпосылка reflection n — отражение
prevalent a — распространенный reign n — 1) царствование 2) власть
prevent v — предотвращать related a — связанный, имеющий отношение
previously adv — заранее, раньше relation n — отношение, зависимость
primary a — первоначальный remain v — оставаться
primitive a — первобытный remarkable a — замечательный
private a — частный repel v — отталкивать, отбивать атаку
repetition n — повторение

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Английский для архитекторов Словарь

replace v — заменять sell v — продавать


representative n — представитель senses n — органы чувств
requirement n — требование separate v — отделять
resemble v — иметь сходство serenity n — ясность
residential a — жилой settle v — оседать
residue n — остаток, наследство severe a — строгий, суровый
respiration n — дыхание shake v — трясти
respond v — отвечать, реагировать shallow a — мелкий
restrictive a — ограничительный shape n — форма, очертание
retain v — удерживать, сохранять showy a — броский
reveal v — обнаруживать sight n — 1) зрение 2) вид; зрелище
reverse a — обратный, противоположный significant a — значительный
revise v — пересматривать similar a — похожий, сходный
revive v — возрождать, оживлять simplicity n — простота, легкость
rigid a — жесткий simplify v — упрощать
rise 1 n подъем, повышение 2. v подниматься simulation n — воспроизведение, моделирование, имитация
rival n — соперник simultaneously adv — одновременно
rob v — грабить skyline n — 1) горизонт, линия горизонта 2) очертание на фо­не неба
robust a — крепкий, сильный slender a — тонкий, стройный
rotate v — вращать soaring a — парящий
rough a — грубый society n — общество
rule v — править solid a — твердый, прочный
solution n — решение
S solve v — решать
safe a — безопасный sophisticated a — изощренный
save v — беречь, экономить space n — пространство
scarce a — скудный span n — 1) пролет 2) промежуток, отрезок времени
science n — наука spectacular a — эффектный, впечатляющий
scientist n — ученый spectator n — зритель, наблюдатель
search 1.n 1) поиски 2) исследование; изыскание 2. v 1) искать spirit n — духовное начало
2) исследовать splendid a — великолепный
secondary a — вторичный spread v — распространять (ся)
secular a — мирской, светский staff n — персонал
seek v — искать stamp n — 1) штамп, печать, 2) (почтовая) марка
seep v — просачиваться, протекать

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Английский для архитекторов Словарь

state n I. 1) состояние 2) строение, структура, форма II. 1) госу- termite n — термит
дарство, штат terrible a — ужасный
statement n — заявление tertiary a — третичный
steep a — крутой thereafter adv — после того, впредь
stiff a — жесткий, тугой thick a — толстый
stratum n — пласт, слой thin a — тонкий
stretch v — простираться throng v — переполнять
strict a — строгий throughout adv — везде, повсюду
strike v — ударять; tilt n — наклон
struggle n — борьба tool n — инструмент
subdivide v — подразделять track n — след
subject n — тема, предмет trade n — ремесло, профессия; торговля
submit v — подчинять trademark n — товарный знак
substantial a — существенный training n — подготовка, обучение
substitute v — заменять transmit v — передавать
subtle a — тонкий, утонченный treasure n — сокровще
successor n — преемник, наследник treatise n — трактат
sufficient a — достаточный treatment n — обработка
suggest v — предлагать, напоминать tremendous a — огромный, замечательный
suit v — приспосабливать trend n — направление, тенденция
suitability n — пригодность turn v — поворачивать, направлять; поворот
sumptuous a — роскошный twist v — крутить
superior a — превосходный, высшего качества typewriter n — пишущая машинка
supplant v — вытеснять
support v — поддерживать, подпирать U
suppress v — подавлять underestimate v — недооценивать
survive v — переживать understand v — понимать
swallow v — поглощать undisturbed a — спокойный
switch v — переключать uneven a — неровный
unfortunately adv — к сожалению
T unify v — объединять
taste n — вкус, понимание universe n — вселенная, мир
temporary a — временный untruthful a — неверный, ложный
term n — термин unusual a — необычный
terminate v — завершать unveil v — открывать, излагать

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Английский для архитекторов

upended a — поставленный перпендикулярно


use v — использовать
utility n — полезность, практичность

V
validity n — законность, вескость
Содержание
various a — различный
vast a — обширный
versatility n — разносторонность, универсальность
vigour n — сила
Предисловие к 3-ему изданию������������������������������������������������������3
W Unit 1. Architecture and the architect ������������������������������������������5
waterfall n — водопад Unit 2. Architectural planning������������������������������������������������������� 11
wealth n — богатство Unit 3. Egyptian architecture��������������������������������������������������������20
weather n — погода
Unit 4. Ancient Greek architecture ����������������������������������������������33
whole a — целый
wind n — ветер Unit 5. Orders of architecture �������������������������������������������������������40
withstand v — противостоять Unit 6. Roman architecture ����������������������������������������������������������48
witness v — свидетельствовать Unit 7. Medieval architecture ������������������������������������������������������� 60
wonder n — чудо Unit 8. Medieval Architecture�������������������������������������������������������73
Unit 9. The rebirth of classical art�������������������������������������������������84
Unit 10. Baroque and Rococo������������������������������������������������������� 93
Unit 11. Neoclassicism�����������������������������������������������������������������106
Unit 12. The architecture of the turn of the centuries ��������������114
Unit 13. Organic architecture �����������������������������������������������������122
Unit 14. Functionalism�����������������������������������������������������������������129
Unit 15. Avant-Guarde in architecture ��������������������������������������137
Unit 16. Jazzy architecture�����������������������������������������������������������147
Unit 17. Modern architecture. Residential buildings�����������������154
Unit 18. Modern architecture. Public buildings������������������������161
Unit 19. Modern architecture. Renovation and restoration �����167
Unit 20. Architecture and ecology�����������������������������������������������174

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Английский для архитекторов

Unit 21. Structural design������������������������������������������������������������180


Unit 22. Structural elements. Arches������������������������������������������188
Unit 23. Structural elements. Beams������������������������������������������194
Unit 24. Structural elements. Domes �����������������������������������������201
Unit 25. Structural elements. Floor systems������������������������������207
Unit 26. Structural elements. Foundations��������������������������������213
Unit 29. Structural design. Leaning Tower of Pisa ��������������������221
Unit 27. Structural elements. Shells��������������������������������������������227
Unit 28. Structural elements. Trusses and Space Frames ���������233
Unit 30. Building engineering. The Millenium dome���������������239 ИнЯз для профессионалов

Keys�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������244 Безручко Е. Н.

Краткий грамматический справочник ��������������������������������248 Английский для архитекторов


Учебное пособие для вузов
Словарь ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������287
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Корректор Л. Михайлова

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