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МОСКОВСКИЙ ГОС УД АРС ТВЕННЫЙ ЛИНГВИС ТИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕ Т

Т. В. Ускова, Ю. В. Юсева

ИМЯ СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНОЕ
АРТИКЛЬ
РАБОЧАЯ ТЕТРАДЬ

Учебное пособие
по грамматике английского языка

Москва
2020
УДК 811.111(075.8) Электронные версии книг
ББК 81.2Англ-923 на сайте www.prospekt.org
У75
Институт международного права и правосудия
Кафедра лингвистики и профессиональной коммуникации в области права
Авторы:
Ускова Т. В., доцент кафедры лингвистики и профессиональной коммуникации в об-
ласти права Московского государственного лингвистического университета;
Юсева Ю. В., доцент кафедры лингвистики и профессиональной коммуникации в об-
ласти права Московского государственного лингвистического университета.
Ускова Т. В., Юсева Ю. В.
У75 Имя существительное. Артикль: рабочая тетрадь : учебное пособие по грам-
матике английского языка. – Москва : Проспект, 2020. – 104 с.
ISBN 978-5-392-31485-0
DOI 10.31085/9785392314850-2020-104
Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 1 курса, обучающихся по
направлению подготовки 40.03.01 «Юриспруденция» (квалификация «бакалавр»),
специальностям 40.05.01 «Правовое обеспечение национальной безопасности» («спе-
циалист») и 40.05.02 «Правоохранительная деятельность» («специалист»), изучающих
английский язык в качестве первого или второго иностранного. Оно может быть ис-
пользовано при обучении студентов других неязыковых специальностей, а также для
широкого круга лиц, изучающих английский язык.
Пособие является частью учебного комплекса, включающего основной учебник
с теоретическим материалом и базовыми упражнениями. Книга представляет со-
бой обширный сборник упражнений и заданий, структурированных по темам двух
разделов английской грамматики: имя существительное и использование артиклей
с различными категориями имен существительных в английском языке. Упражнения
разнообразны по форме и содержанию, могут быть использованы как для классной,
так и для самостоятельной работы. Грамматический материал подобран с учетом
профессиональной подготовки студентов-юристов.

УДК 811.111(075.8)
ББК 81.2Англ-923

Учебное издание
Ускова Татьяна Владимировна,
Юсева Юлия Владленовна
ИМЯ СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНОЕ. АРТИКЛЬ
РАБОЧАЯ ТЕТРАДЬ
Учебное пособие по грамматике
английского языка
Подписано в печать 04.12.2019. Формат 60×90 1/16.
Печать цифровая. Печ. л. 6,5. Тираж 1000 (1-й завод 100) экз. Заказ №
ООО «Проспект»
111020, г. Москва, ул. Боровая, д. 7, стр. 4.

© Ускова Т. В., Юсева Ю. В., 2019


© Московский государственный
ISBN 978-5-392-31485-0 лингвистический университет, 2019
DOI 10.31085/9785392314850-2020-104 © Оформление. ООО «Проспект», 2019
M O S C O W S TAT E L I N G U I S T I C U N I V E R S I T Y

T. V. Uskova, Yu. V. Yuseva

NOUN
ARTICLE
WORKBOOK

Training Manual
of English Grammar

Moscow
2020
Institute of International Law and Justice
Department of Linguistics and Professional Communication in Law
Authors:
Uskova T. V., Associate Professor of the Department of Linguistics and Professional Commu-
nication in Law, Moscow State Linguistic University;
Yuseva Yu. V., Associate Professor of the Department of Linguistics and Professional Com-
munication in Law, Moscow State Linguistic University.

Uskova T. V., Yuseva Yu. V.


Noun. Article: Workbook : Training Manual of English Grammar. — Moscow :
Prospekt, 2020. – 104 p.
ISBN 978-5-392-31485-0
DOI 10.31085/9785392314850-2020-104
This training manual is intended for 1st year students being pursuing a specialist’s degree
in 40.03.01 “Legal Studies”, 40.05.01 “Legal Support of National Security”, 40.05.02 “Law
Enforcement Activity”, studying English as a first or second foreign language. It can also be
used for teaching students of other professions as well as a wide range of people studying the
English language.
The training manual (workbook) is a part of a complex which also includes the manual
with theoretical material and basic exercises. The workbook is an extensive collection of
exercises, tasks and activities which are structured according to the theoretical topics of
two sections of the English grammar: English noun and the usage of articles with various
categories of English nouns. The exercises are different in form and content, can be used both
in classroom and for self-study, the grammar material was selected to cover the grammar
topics important for legal specialists training.

© Uskova T. V., Yuseva Yu. V., 2019


ISBN 978-5-392-31485-0 © Moscow State Linguistic University, 2019
DOI 10.31085/9785392314850-2020-104 © Design. Prospekt, 2019
CONTENTS

Предисловие ........................................................................................................................6
Unit 1. Classification of Nouns .................................................................................7
Unit 2. The Case of Nouns ......................................................................................12
Unit 3. The Number of Nouns ................................................................................18
Unit 4. Agreement between subject and verb .................................................24
Unit 5. Determiners ...................................................................................................32
Unit 6. Article: general notion, functions of the articles,
meanings of the articles with countable nouns ...............................40
Unit 7. Articles with countable nouns modified by attributes ................... 47
Unit 8. Modification of nouns by numerals.
Defining and non-defining clauses .......................................................53
Unit 9. The generic use of the definite article .................................................58
Unit 10. Articles with various uncountable nouns.
Articles with nouns referring to unique objects ...............................64
Unit 11. Articles with nouns in some syntactic positions ..............................70
Unit 12. Special difficulties in the use of articles .............................................74
Unit 13. The use of articles with proper nouns .................................................84
Unit 14. Revision ...........................................................................................................93
References ...........................................................................................................................99
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Настоящее учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 1 курса,


направление подготовки 40.03.01 «Юриспруденция (бакалавриат)»;
специальность – 40.05.01 «Правовое обеспечение национальной без-
опасности» и 40.05.02 «Правоохранительная деятельность». Также по-
собие может быть использовано при обучении широкого круга лиц,
изучающих английский язык.
Данное учебное пособие по грамматике английского языка ох-
ватывает две темы – имя существительное и артикль – и состоит
из 14 уроков, в которых приводятся общие сведения по каждой теме
и объясняются особые случаи употребления. Цель данного посо-
бия – представить в доступной форме особенности употребления
имени существительного и артикля, необходимые для практического
использования. Рабочая тетрадь может использоваться как в качестве
самостоятельного учебного пособия, так и в комплексе с пособием
по грамматике английского языка тех же авторов, посвященным упо-
треблению английских существительных и артиклей.
В основе структуры уроков настоящего пособия лежит принцип со-
поставления моделей русского и английского языков, а также диффе-
ренциация сходных (для носителя русского языка), но различающихся
по сути грамматических структур английского языка.
Пособие рассчитано на 36 часов.
В соответствии со статьей 1274 Гражданского кодекса РФ авторы
данного пособия использовали в своей работе с обязательным указа-
нием имени автора и источника заимствования правомерно обнародо-
ванные произведения в качестве иллюстрации в объеме, оправданном
поставленной целью.
Unit 1
CLASSIFICATION OF NOUNS

1. Proper and common nouns


Task 1. State whether the nouns in bold type are proper or common.
1. The Imperial State Crown of the Queen of England is normally kept
at the Tower. 2. This church has a tower attached to it. 3. The English Chan-
nel is the narrow area of water between England and France. 4. The main
channels had been closed by enemy submarines. 5. You are like a Figaro.
One minute here, another there. 6. I’ve bought a Kodak, but I don’t know
how it works. 7. In the art circles he was known as a Metsenat. 8. Wel-
lington defeated Napoleon’s army in the battle of Waterloo. 9. Wellingtons
are rubber boots. Americans call them galoshes. 10. What had happened,
became a Waterloo Bridge for him. 11. He is a real Paparatssi in every-
thing that concerns making money. 12. Rita Brown writes like an American
Evelyn Waugh. 13. He is thrilled at his new buy: a classic Mercedes Benz.
14. Antony Marshall lives outside the city. Every morning he drives to the
City where he works as staff manager. 15. The Red-White-and-Blue Union
Jack hung out of every window, fluttering in the breeze. 16. Degas and
Monet were her husband’s favourite artists, and both were well represen-
ted in their house. 17. He glanced at the list of her art collection. Sisleys,
Monets, Manets, a Dali, Renoirs and a Degas. It was a fabulous collection.
18. Carl Faberge was Russia’s Imperial Jeweller. 19. – What a beautiful Easter
egg! – Yes, it’s a Faberge. 20. The two friends bought a Johnny Walker to
celebrate the event. 21. Kurt Vonnegut is writing with the half-embittered,
half-amused voice of a later-day Mark Twain. 22. Tonight Samantha wore
highly polished black Oxfords.
Task 2. Explain the origin and the meaning of the following common nouns.
Use them in sentences of your own.
A Dracula, a Cartier, a Sony, a Camel, a Marlborough, a complete Shake-
speare, a Reebok, a Mauzer, a Lovelace, a Webster, a Don Juan, a Dunhill,
the White House, a Barbie, a Jillet, a Stradivarius, an Oscar, a Walkman,
bermudas, a Xerox, a Newton.
Countable or uncountable?
8 Unit 1. Classification of Nouns

Task 3. Comment on the nouns in bold type.


1. I dropped in at the supermarket and bought a few cold meats, and
I also made a salad. 2. Fruit juices are ideal in hot weather. 3. Good wines are
the best buys before Christmas. 4. My Granny makes four jams every year.
5. A set menu in this Chinese cafe consists of four soups. I prefer a Singapo-
rean seafood soup. It tastes and smells terrific. 6. I used to eat toast with orange
marmalade. 7. I always have a beer while watching television. 8. France has
an excellent range of cheeses. 9. Herbal teas are my favourite. 10. Can I offer
you something? Coffee, tea, a soda, perhaps? 11. Tea is our most social and
sociable drink – a part of our daily life for well over 300 years. 12. The finest
rums come from Puerto Rico. 13. This shop sells fine foods. 14. Harrods has
so much to offer. Vintage wines and sparkling champagne, rustic country pates
and silky smooth terrines, delicate scented teas and subtle infusions, buttery
shortbread biscuits and rich fruity jams, robust pickles and tangy relishes,
mature farmhouse cheddars and crumbly stiltons, hams and smoked salmon
which melts in the mouth – all presented in traditional wicker baskets or
Harrods boxes. The only thing Harrods can’t supply is the weather!
Task 4. Make up exclamatory sentences according to the model.
Model: competent advice – What competent advice! good question – What
a good question!
1. original advice, great idea
2. beautiful nature, difficult character
3. fashionable furniture, big refrigerator
4. modern equipment, ancient fortress
5. unexpected money, great fortune
6. wonderful music, sentimental tune
7. hitting news strange call
8. good progress, big success
9. heavy traffic, busy line
10. miserable weather, nasty day
11. deep knowledge, excellent certificate
12. difficult work, pleasant job
13. terrific Russian linen, linen towel
14. leafy foliage, beautiful leaf
Task 5. Explain the difference between the following pairs of words and use
them in sentences of your own.
A.
1. air – an air
2. beauty – a beauty
3. coffee – a coffee
4. cloth – a cloth
5. dinner – a dinner
1. Proper and common nouns 9

6. fire – a fire
7. glass – a glass
8. language – a language
9. lemon – a lemon
10. light – a light
11. nature – a nature
12. oak – an oak
13. paper – a paper
14. play – a play
15. power – a power
16. rubber – a rubber
17. ice – an ice
18. stone – a stone
19. study – a study
20. will – a will
B. Make up sentences with the following pairs of words to show the diffe-
rence between them.
сhicken – a chicken, experience – an experience, hair – a hair, iron – an
iron, lace – a lace, room – a room, speech – a speech, sport – a sport, suc-
cess – a success, time – a time, wood – a wood, work – a work, whisky –
a whisky, fish – a fish, fruit – a fruit

Task 6. Choose the appropriate noun from the list below for each sentence.
Add an article (a/an/the) or plural (s/es) where necessary.
Affection, spirit, information, red, damage, paper, milk, wonder, left, glass,
luggage, wood, cheese, wild, work, water, wool, salt
1. It’s a very shy animal and lives in …; it’s rarely seen in the open fields.
2. The girl in the travel agent’s was very helpful and gave me lots of … about
Turkey. 3. Our dairy produces five different …. 4. He never really loved
her – he just toyed with her …. 5. Sorry, sir, you can’t have whisky. Our
license doesn’t allow us to serve …, only wine or beer. 6. “Hamlet” is one of
Shakespeare’s best known …. 7. I didn’t know you were short-sighted. How
long have you been wearing …? 8. He buys … on the way home to check the
race results. 9. I need … which will match the other shades of scarlet in the
room. 10. Roquefort and Camembert are only two of the wide variety of …
produced in France. 11. This plant is only found in … of Alaska. 12. To get
to the station, you should take … just after the bridge. 13. Many Englishmen
have explored … of the Nile.14. Sorry I’m late – some of my … went miss-
ing at the airport. 15. Woodworm can cause a lot of … if it is not treated.
16. British … such as cashmere, mohair, lambswool, merino wool come
mostly from the Shetlands. 17. … occurs naturally in sea water. 18. Where
are my bathing …? 19. The Great Pyramid of Cheops is one of the seven …
of the Ancient World; it’s the only one that has survived and exists today.
10 Unit 1. Classification of Nouns

Task 7. Translate into English.


1. Это здание построено из белого камня. 2. Я больше не могу идти,
мне в ботинок попал камешек. 3. Он был настоящим художником
и мог оценить красоту. 4. Его невеста – настоящая красавица. 5. Ли-
мон богат витамином С. 6. Купи к чаю лимон и мед. 7. Китайский язык
очень трудный. 8. Язык обладает силой влиять на поступки людей.
9. Чтобы восстановиться после такой аварии, нужна очень сильная
воля. 10. Если хотите составить завещание, вам нужно обратиться к но-
тариусу. 11. Свет необходим для жизни. 12. Когда мы почти потеряли
надежду, мы увидели вдалеке огонек. 13. Природу нужно охранять.
14. У моей сестры очень романтичная натура. 15. Фруктовые и овощ-
ные соки очень полезны. 16. На завтрак у меня обычно овсянка
и апельсиновый сок. 17. Дания, Голландия и Швейцария славятся
своими сырами, а Италия и Франция знамениты своими винами.

2. Gender of nouns
Task 8. Explain whether the nouns below denote male or female people.
an agent, a client, a cousin, a mermaid, a friend, a foreigner, a guest,
a lawyer, a neighbour, a parent, a journalist, a person, a scientist, a stranger,
a visitor, a witch, a wizard, a magician, a clown, a fairy, an amazon, a bru-
nette, a sailor, a spy, a ballet dancer, a ballerina, an angel
Task 9. Give the nouns of the opposite sex.
a boy, a father, a son, a king, a gentleman, a bridegroom, a headmaster,
a bachelor, Mr., a bull, a man, an actor, a count, an emperor, a mayor, a god,
a host, a heir, a manager, a millionaire, a prince, a poet, a waiter, a widow,
a lion, a tiger, a hero, a czar, a giant, a businessman.
Task 10. Read and translate the sentences. Explain how gender of the nouns
is expressed in them. Make a conclusion as to what kinds of inani-
mate nouns can be replaced with the pronouns he/she.
1. Ireland! She is our Motherland. 2. The New Year brought more di-
sastrous news for Britain and her allies. 3. Mine is a fine car. She has ne-
ver let me down. 4. What a fine yacht! – Yes, and she cost me a fortune.
5. I can’t guarantee at all that this plane will get down on the field. She’s just
as likely to pan down or overshoot. We’ll probably try to bring her in from
the east. I want you to unlock the autopilot, it will hold her straight and
level. 6. I reached for my little dog and picked her up. 7. The novel is about
Japan’s major problems, the adoption of Western style and the preservation
of her own. 8. He called her “Beautiful Dreamer”. She was one of the most
magnificent oceangoing yachts ever designed by the best naval architects.
9. My cat is such a funny little animal; she always brings a smile to my face
and makes me laugh.
2. Gender of nouns 11

Task 11. Read the text and retell it. Do you think it is possible/necessary
to alter grammar in accordance with changing social and politi-
cal realia?
Gender Benders
Correct grammar beats political correctness, even in France. Each of
the seven women in the French Government is in future to be addressed as
Madame La Ministre according to the decree of the Prime Minister. But
language laughs at legislators, for French grammar recognizes no govern-
ments other than its own rules. Ministre, like most titles and descriptions
of professions in French, is of the masculine gender. The designation of
a doctor, director or mayor is masculine, even when the holder of that post is
a woman. Linguistic gender has no connection with sex or “natural” gender.
Female sailors and farmers were rare in Ancient Rome. But their occupa-
tions are in the feminine gender in Latin, the mother of all the Romance
languages. A spoon is masculine in German (der Loffel); a fork is feminine
(die Gabel); and a knife is neuter (das Messer). Suspicious French feminists
have recently published research suggesting that words of the feminine gender
describe domestic items such as une casserole (a saucepan), while masculine
words carry more prestige, like un livre (a book). Their evidence is gibberish.
Even in languages such as English, where gender is mercifully vestigial and
recalled only in pronouns, countries, ships and vehicles are called “she”, as
well as “it”. Gender is not a matter of feminine stereotypes, for “she” can
be used in anger. Guns, tanks and trucks that refuse to work are still cursed
as feminine.
This question of French gender is being debated with fit passion, as some
people care more for political correctness than grammar. Language does
evolve, but not for official circulars. So, why not go the whole way and have
La Ministresse? If the French are starting to find gender odd, then it will
fade away, as it has in English. Even French female masculine ministers have
no right (or power) to alter French grammar.
Are you “politically correct”? Which of the following terms do you use?
1. a) Mrs b) Ms
2. a) a chairman b) a chairperson
3. a) a fireman b) a firefighter
4. a) a pensioner b) a senior citizen
5. a) the handicapped b) the disabled c) the differently abled
6. a) a Red Indian b) a Native American
7. a) ladies b) women
8. a) a congressman b) a member of Congress
9. a) a mailman b) a mail carrier
10. a) mankind b) humanity
11. a) a policeman (woman) b) a police officer
Unit 2
THE CASE OF NOUNS

1. Case of nouns
Task 1. Join the nouns by means of -‘s / -s’ or of-phrase.
1. the owner/that car
2. the mother/Ann
3. the jacket/that man
4. the top/the page
5. the daughter/Charles
6. the cause/the problem
7. the newspaper/yesterday
8. The birthday/my father
9. The name/this street
10. The toys/the children
11. The new manager/the company
12. The result/the football match
13. The garden/our neighbours
14. The ground floor/the building
15. The children/Don and Mary
16. The economic policy/the government
17. The husband/Catherine
18. The husband/the woman talking to Mary
19. The car/the parents/Mike
20. The wedding/the friend/Helen

Task 2. Paraphrase the following expressions and sentences using the Possessive.
A. What is another way of saying these things? Mind the use of the indefinite
article in the following pattern.
1. a hat for a woman
2. a name for a boy
3. clothes for children
4. a school for girls
1. Case of nouns 13

5. a nest for a bird


6. a magazine for women

B. Read the sentences and write new sentences beginning with the underlined
words. Pay attention to the way nouns denoting time and place may be used in
the possessive case.
1. The meeting tomorrow has been cancelled.
2. The storm last week caused a lot of damage.
3. Exports from Britain to the United States have fallen recently.
4. Tourism is the main industry in the region.
5. The only cinema in the town has closed down.

C. Use the information given to complete the sentences. If possible, complete


them in two possible ways.
1. If I leave my house at 9 o’clock and drive to London, I arrive at
about 12.
So it’s about three hours’ drive to London from my house (drive).
2. If I leave my house at 8.55 and walk to the station, I get there at
9 o’clock.
So it’s only __________________________ from my house to the
station (walk).
3. I’m going on holiday on the 12th. I have to be back at work on the 26th.
So I’ve got _______________________ (holiday).
4. I went to sleep at 3 o’clock this morning and woke up an hour later.
After that I couldn’t sleep.
So last night I only had __________________ (sleep).

Task 3. Put the following phrases in the plural form of the possessive case.
Pattern: this boy’s/bag – these boys’ bags
1. this designer/work 2. my sister/clothes 3. this woman/umbrella 4. this
country/economy 5. my friend/advice 6. his teacher/question 7. this man/
wife 8. my child/toy 9. this city/mayor 10. this sheep/wool

Task 4. Replace the of-phrase by the noun in the possessive case.


A. 1. The wife of our neighbour. 2. The order of the commander-in-chief.
3. The house of Mr. Lanister. 4. The novels of Dickens. 5. The books of the
boys. 6. The life of a bachelor. 7. The works of this economist. 8. A dress of
a lady. 9. A meeting of students. 10. The flat of my mother-in-law. 11. The
rights of women.
B. 1. A distance of two miles. 2. The crew of the ship. 3. The bridges of
London. 4. An interval of three hours. 5. The oil deposits of the world. 6. The
rays of the sun. 7. The population of England. 8. The theatres of Moscow.
9. The joys of life. 10. For the sake of convenience.
14 Unit 2. The Case of Nouns

C. 1. The mother of Jane and Jessica. 2. The fathers of Robert and Tom.
3. The novels of Ilf and Petrov. 4. The poems of Byron and Shelley. 5. The
children of my sister Emily. 6. The speech of the Minister of Foreign Affairs.
7. The times of Peter the Great. 8. The correspondent of the Times of India.

Task 5. Replace the possessive case by a prepositional group where possible.


1. The only thing that stood out clearly was his parentshouse. 2. Nobody
could explain the young girls’ behaviour at yesterday’s dinner. 3. The boy
got his first week’s salary and looked very proud. 4. You don’t object to the
speaker’s proposal, do you? 5. We found the boy looking through a chil-
dren’s magazine. 6. After an hour or so’s break the committee resumed their
work. 7. In those days he lived, for economy’s sake, in a little town. 8. There
was a moment’s silence between them. 9. It was a typical student’s mis-
take. 10. The morning’s post brought me a surprise m the shape of a letter.
11. They are the same author’s books.

Task 6. Replace the prepositional groups by the possessive case where pos-
sible.
1. The teacher drew the attention of the students to the peculiarity of
the style of the author. 2. Before I could say a word, the sound of carriage
wheels was heard. 3. The girl was nicely dressed for the ceremony of the
evening. 4. He did not want to hurt the feelings of the girl. 5. There was
a spot of ink on the table cloth. 6. I spent a fortnight in the house of my
friend. 7. The pursuit of the enemy stopped only at nightfall. 8. There was
a great variety of books for children on display. 9. I could not agree with
the interpretation of the piece by the conductor. 10. We visited the village
of Mikhailovskoye where Pushkin, the great poet of Russia, lived in exile.
11. Never shall I forget those words of my father. 12. We could not tear
our eyes off the hands of the pianist. 13. The river was at a distance of
a mile from the camp. 14. The wings of the plane were getting ice-crusted.
15. She contributes to a magazine for women.

Task 7. Replace the word combinations in bold type by the independent/


absolute possessive. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. The party was held in the house of the Johnsons. 2. The major was one
of Papa’s particular friends. 3. The third house on the right hand was one of
Stevensons’ footwear shops. 4. It was the actor who absorbed Tony’s attention
simply because he had absorbed the attention of Lilly. 5. I promised to call
for my wife at the place of her parents. 6. We heard the news from one of the
Smiths’ relations. 7. When the aunt’s eyes met the eyes of Tom she under-
stood that he was lying. 8. He would never let anyone sit on his chair, which
was one of my uncle’s whims. 9. We were very busy at work, so we decided
to take the children to the house of their grandmother. 10. There is no music
I like better than the music by Tchaikovsky. 11. The man was notable most
1. Case of nouns 15

for his hands. Large hands they were, but shaped like the hands of a woman.
12. The mother took the ring off her finger and put it on the finger of her
daughter. 13. The dog did not respond to the voice. It was not the voice of
his master. 14. He was sure that it was one of Peter’s tricks. 15. The best
results at the competition were shown by Michael. 16. I saw a flush on Mary
Pearson’s face, I saw a smile on the face of Mr. Pearson as he glanced at her.
17. His mother’s eyes were blood-shot, and so were Mabel’s eyes; so had
been the eyes of everybody he had looked at.

Task 8. Translate the following word combinations into English using the
possessive case.
A. имя этого ребенка, имена этих детей, детские игрушки, книги
того мальчика, книги тех мальчиков, книги для мальчиков, жена мо-
его брата, письмо ее сестры, вопросы их сына, семья нашего друга,
голос этой девочки, голоса этих девочек, девчоночьи голоса, маши-
на моих родителей, сумки этих женщин, женские журналы, работа
этого студента, работы этих студентов, студенческая конференция,
тетради ваших учеников, пенал этого ученика, крылья этой птицы,
клетка этих птиц, птичье гнездо, романы Диккенса, дом Джона, дом
Джеймса, свадьба подруги Аманды, квартира родственников Майкла,
чей-то зонт.
B. дочь моей младшей сестры, младшая дочь моей сестры; Пятая
симфония Чайковского; прежний секретарь директора; еще один охот-
ничий рассказ, рассказ другого охотника; шляпа этой старой дамы,
старая шляпа этой дамы; традиции студентов Оксфорда, старые сту-
денческие традиции; первая жена Ивана Грозного; заявление нового
правительства, новое заявление правительства; прибытие в Лондон
российского посла в Англии.

Task 9. Translate the following sentences into English using the possessive
case.
A. 1. Комната Сары небольшая, но очень светлая. 2. Где чашки
девочек? 3. Муж моей школьной подруги – хирург. 4. Сад Брауна
очень красивый. 5. Ученик не слышал следующий вопрос учителя.
6. Рабочий день моего младшего брата начинается в восемь часов.
7. У меня двухлетний ребенок, я не могу работать полный день.
8. Я беру месячный отпуск каждый год и еду в новое место. 9. Я хочу
прочитать сегодняшнюю газету. 10. До нашего коттеджа идти один
километр, вы не устанете.
B. 1. Как зовут сестру вашего друга? 2. По дороге мы зашли в цве-
точный магазин и купили большой букет роз – любимые цветы моей
матери. 3. Лагерь туристов был расположен на берегу реки. 4. Вопрос
гостя был нетактичным, все почувствовали себя неловко, но после
16 Unit 2. The Case of Nouns

минутного молчания хозяин ответил на вопрос. 5. Каждый год вес-


ной мы приводим наш сад в порядок, убираем прошлогодние листья,
подстригаем кусты и деревья. 6. В детских садах и лагерях детям по-
лагается отдыхать в течение двух часов после обеда. 7. Он был на во-
лосок от смерти. Только чудо его спасло. 8. Портрет жены Рембранд-
та – один из шедевров художника. 9. Население Лондона составляет
более 12 миллионов. 10. Мы долго не виделись и, когда встретились,
вволю наговорились. 11. Это сегодняшние новости? 12. До станции пять
минут ходьбы. 13. Расстояние в 10 миль – не проблема для человека
с машиной. 14. Я взял десятидневный отпуск и поехал на море.

2. Compound nouns
Task 10. Which words are being defined?
1. A substance that you use to clean your teeth _________________
2. A piece of furniture for keeping your clothes in ________________
3. The first language you learn as a child ___________________
4. A punctuation mark in the end of the sentence __________________
5. A card you use to pay for things ________________
6. Someone who plays music on the radio or at discos ________________
7. A card with your name, photograph and information to prove who
you are ________________

Task 11. Complete the sentences.


income tax waiting room science fiction wheelchair baby-sitter film star
campsite parking meter sunglasses alarm clock travel agent first aid box traffic
jam birthday card cashpoint
1. I’m late because there was a terrible …. in the centre of town.
2. Humphrey Bogart was a famous …. in the forties and fifties.
3. My …. didn’t call this morning and I didn’t wake up until 9.30.
4. When I got to the surgery, I had to sit in the …. for forty minutes
before I could see the dentist.
5. Mary really wanted to see the film but she couldn’t find a …. for the
children, so she had to stay at home.
6. When I’m driving I always wear …. if it’s very bright and sunny.
7. You have to pay …. on your salary in Britain; the amount depends
on how much you earn.
8. I often have the same problem: I park the car next to a …., and then
I discover that I don’t have the right money.
9. In some countries you have to have a …. in your car for minor injuries
and illnesses.
10. My brother loves …., but I prefer true stories about the present or
the past.
11. I got some money from the …. .
2. Compound nouns 17

12. I booked our holiday through a …. .


13. We stayed at a very nice …., but unfortunately our tent wasn’t really
big enough.
14. He can’t walk at all now, so he has to use a …. to move around.
15. I sent her a …. but she never received it; it must have got lost in the
post.

Task 12. Take one word (the first or the second part) from each compound
and create a new compound. Use a dictionary to help you if neces-
sary. Mark the stress on each of the compound nouns you have
created.
Examples: brother-in-law mother-in-law
table tennis table leg
dining room __________________
film star ______________________
credit card ____________________
toothpaste ____________________
traffic lights ___________________
sunglasses _____________________
post office _____________________
airport ________________________
hairdryer ______________________
bus driver _____________________
wheelchair _____________________

Task 13. Try creating your own compound nouns. Choose two or three com-
mon words and then try to form compound nouns from them. When
you have two or three possibilities, check in a dictionary to see if
your words exist. Start with these.
…. book or …. book …. …. card
Unit 3
THE NUMBER OF NOUNS

Task 1. Give the plural for the following nouns.


A. a pin, a hat, a fox, a baby, a day, potato, a volcano, a piano, a photo,
a knife, a roof, a half, a leaf, a cliff, a chief, a life, a family, a queue, a bath,
a berry, a valley, a century, a salmon, a taxi, a person, a penny, a watch,
a virtuoso, a lily, a woodworm
B. a man, a woman, a German, a foot, a tooth, a sheep, a ship, a fish,
an ox, a fox, a child, a fireman, a mouse, a swine, a house, a louse, a goose,
a mongoose, a deer, a means, a series, a species, an aircraft, an offspring,
a Swiss, a Japanese, a Maltese, a Portuguese, a Chinese, a Milanese
C. A passer-by, a mother-in-law, a room-mate, a forget-me-not,
a merry-go-round, a fellow-worker, a man-of-war, a school-inspector,
a commander-in-chief, a boy-messenger, a personnel-manager, a woman-
driver, a man-servant, a hanger-on, a face-lift, a spoonful, a cupful, a boy-
friend, a grown-up, an office-block, a workmate

Task 2. Consult the table and give the plural of the following foreign words.
Ending Regular plural Latin/Greek plural
a -us -uses -i
b -a -as -ae
с -um -ums -a
d -ex -exes -ices
e -ix -ixes -ices
f -is -ises -es
е -on -ons -a
a) cactus, fungus, radius, stimulus, genius;
b) alga, formula (in science), vertebra, antenna;
с) bacterium, curriculum, datum, medium, memorandum, stratum,
millennium;
d) index (in mathematics, in books);
e) appendix (in books, in medicine);
Unit 3. The Number of Nouns 19

f) analysis, axis, basis, crisis, diagnosis, hypothesis, oasis, parenthesis,


thesis;
g) criterion, phenomenon

Task 3. State the number of the following nouns and give the corresponding
singular or plural, if any.
brethren, memoranda, antenna, means, scissors, school-inspector,
pence, Frenchman, Roman, sanatoria, cafeteria, strata; vertebra, automata,
fish, photo, axes, physics, mechanics, cloth, commander-in-chief, works,
forget-me-not, swine, halves, staff, sleeves, grief, mice, species, governor-
general, contents, sledges, business, knowledge, feet, corps, phenomena,
clothes, bases, headquarters, Japanese, nebula

Task 4. Make sentences with the words provided, using them as subjects.
Supply the predicate in the singular or in the plural as appropriate
(singularia, pluralia tantum).
pyjamas, trousers, spectacles, lodgings, outskirts, premises, works, stairs,
authorities, breakables, goods, draughts, sweets, archives, remains, costs,
damages, wages

Task 5. Correct any mistakes in these sentences or put a “R” if they are
correct.
1. Politics is popular in this university.
2. Gymnasts from over 40 countries are competing in Madrid this week-
end.
3. Economics has become an increasingly popular course at university.
4. The latest news of the earthquake survivors are very disturbing.
5. Diabetes are an illness caused by too much sugar in the blood.
6. Recent government statistics show a sharp decline in crime.
7. Women’s gymnastics are no longer dominated by eastern Europeans.
8. Statistics are now compulsory for all students taking a course in en-
gineering.
9. Most years, over three hundred athletes competes in games.
10. The economics of the plan is worrying investors.
11. Measles is still a fairly serious childhood disease in some countries.

Task 6. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the usage of the
words in bold type.
1. Money can’t buy happiness, and it certainly can’t buy health. 2. Who-
ever said that money doesn’t buy happiness was misinformed, in my opinion.
It buys a lot of happiness for a lot of people. And frankly, I’d rather be mise-
rable with money than without it. 3. English money is not accepted here.
4. All Bess’s money goes on clothes. 5. The money was sent by cheque. 6. The
project received community monies. 7. Borrow money from pessimists – they
20 Unit 3. The Number of Nouns

don’t expect it back. 8. We’ve got a fascinating piece of news for you. 9. News
travels pretty fast. 10. They want advice on how to do it. 11. His advice always
comes in time. 12. The scout brought valuable information. It helped a lot.
13. Does this information interest you? 14. What hard work! But it’s rewar-
ding. 15. I like all Chopin’s works. 16. The works is closed today. 17. It’s per-
fect weather for flying today. 18. She’s wearing galoshes in all weathers. 19.
My employer was an importer of rare tropical fish. 20. Try this fish. Everybody
who tries it, likes it. 21. Meredith peered down into the pond. “There really
are fish in it,” she said sounding surprised. 22. Forget him! There are many
other fish in the sea. 23. He had a big collection of minerals, insects and
fishes. 24. They’ve been fishing since dawn but so far haven’t caught a single
fish. 25. A flying fish can project itself through the air at a speed of about
thirty-five miles per hour. 26. Fruit is rich in mineral salts and vitamins.
27. Is fruit cheap this year? 28. What fruits do you cultivate here? 29. To make
a fruit salad we shall need different fruits. 30. A fruitarian is a person who
eats only fruit. 31. What an exotic fruit! 32. Very soon you’ll enjoy the fruits
of your hard work. 33. The fruits of nature belong to all mankind.

Task 7. Which of the underlined parts of these sentences is correct? Mind


different meanings of the underlined words.
1. “Did you hear noise/a noise just now?” – “No I didn’t hear any-
thing.”
2. a) If you want to know the news, you can read paper/a paper.
b) I want to write some letters but I haven’t got a paper/any paper
to write on.
3. a) I thought there was somebody in the house because there was
light/a light on inside. b) Light/a light comes from the sun.
4. a) I was in a hurry this morning. I didn’t have time/a time for break-
fast.
b) “Did you enjoy your holiday?” – “Yes, we had wonderful
time/a wonderful time.”
5. Sue was very helpful. She gave us some very useful advice/advices.
6. We had very good weather/a very good weather while we were on
holiday.
7. We were very unfortunate. We had bad luck/a bad luck.
8. It’s very difficult to find a work/job at the moment.
9. Our travel/journey from London to Istanbul by train was very tiring.
10. When the fire alarm rang, there was total chaos/a total chaos.
11. I had to buy a/some bread because I wanted to make some sand-
wiches.
12. Bad news don’t/doesn’t make people happy.
13. Your hair is/Your hairs are too long. You should have it/them cut.
14. Nobody was hurt in the accident but the damage/the damages to the
car was/were quite bad.
Unit 3. The Number of Nouns 21

Task 8. State whether the nouns in the following sentences are countable
or uncountable and put in the indefinite article where necessary.
1. He needs _________ experience to become a good doctor. 2. I want
________ salad and _______ coffee please. 3. Let’s make ________
fire. 4. I like _________ hot coffee. 5. It’s must be done as soon as pos-
sible. It’s __________ urgent work. 6. Be careful not to break it, it’s made
of ____________ glass. 7. He is _______ clever man and always gives
__________ good advice. 8. I can say I feel _________ great respect for
this man. 9. I like to walk in ________ rainy weather. 10. This is ________
very interesting news. 11. First of all you must think about ________ health.
12. What he needs now is _______ luck and I am sure he will achieve
_________ success. 13. You’ve made ________ great progress this year
and you got _______ deep knowledge of the subject. 14. Doctors say he
mustn’t eat _______ meat. They say ______ meat can do him harm. 15. He
likes _______ strong tea with _______ sugar and ______ lemon. 16. Waiter!
I’d like ______ juice and _________ ice-cream, please. 17. Don’t give her
_______ ice-cream. She has _____ cold.

Task 9. Insert s, ‘s, or s’ instead of the hyphens where necessary.


1. This is a new edition of Esenin- poem-. 2. That man was Vera- and
Nelly- old teacher- of music. 3. Those were Nick- and Kate- parent-. 4. We
spent a week- holiday at the Barton-. 5. We spent a two week- holiday with
the Barton-. 6. The book is neither John- nor Mary-. 7, It was neither John-
nor Mary-. 8. I haven’t seen anything of John- of late. 9. I haven’t touched
a single book of John-. 10. Father took some money from his pocket and put
it into my younger brother-. 11. Father took some money from his pocket
and gave it to my younger brother-. 12. His eyes narrowed like a cat-. 13. He
moved around softly like a cat-. 14. Vakhtangov- life was short but bright.
15. The Vakhtangov- theatre is one of the leading Moscow- theatre-. 16. The
Queen- of Belgium- visit to Moscow was timed to the Tchaikovsky- World
Competition of Violinists and Pianists. 17. Tchaikovsky- house in Klin is now
a museum. 18. The wall- in the hunter- club were decorated with mountain
goat- and wild deer- horn-. 19. A great many scientist- took part in the First
International Geophysical Year. 20. Many a time did he rewrite some of his
chapter- before submitting the book to the reader- judgement.

Task 10. Translate into English.


I. 1. Многие из твоих советов мне очень пригодились. А сейчас
мне нужен совет в одном важном деле. 2. Все сведения были сомни-
тельными и ненадежными. 3. Эти деньги не твои, положи их обратно.
4. Давай сходим в кино. Сколько у тебя денег? – У меня мало денег,
их не хватит на два билета. 5. Твоих знаний недостаточно, чтобы вы-
полнить эту работу. 6. Его познания в области физики поразили всех.
22 Unit 3. The Number of Nouns

7. Какая у дипломатов интересная работа! 8. Работы этого ученого


в области генетики широко известны за пределами страны. 9. Про-
изведения Пушкина переведены не только на европейские, но и на
восточные языки. 10. Какая дождливая погода! 11. Эти новости уже
всем известны. 12. За лето он сделал большие успехи в разговорном
английском. 13. Как у тебя дела с фонетикой? Добился ли ты успехов
за этот семестр? 14. Это колье – настоящее произведение искусства.
15. Рыбаки были довольны: они поймали много рыбы. 16. В аквари-
уме было пять рыбок, одна из них золотая. 17. У моей сестры густые
каштановые волосы. 18. Не советую покупать диван этой фирмы, это
ужасная мебель, развалится через месяц.
II. 1. а) Если добавить лимон в чай, будет вкуснее. б) По рецеп-
ту в этот пирог кладется один лимон. в) Купи, пожалуйста, десять
лимонов, я хочу сделать домашний лимонад. 2. а) В этом районе до-
бывают много железа. б) Нам надо купить новый утюг, наш старый
постоянно выключается. 3. а) Все считают ее красавицей, и она уже
привыкла к этому. б) Путешественников поразила красота окружа-
ющего пейзажа. 4. а) Недалеко от нашего дома был прекрасный лес.
б) Я предпочитаю вещи, сделанные из дерева, а не из пластмассы.
5. а) Вредно пить много кофе. б) Принесите нам два кофе и один чай,
пожалуйста. 6. а) Ураган нанес большой ущерб урожаю. б) Авария
произошла по нашей вине, нам придется оплатить убытки.
III. 1. Возьмите эти ножницы, они острые. 2. Мальчик вырос,
и брюки стали ему коротки. 3. Лестница на чердак была очень крутая.
4. Мои часы отстают; их нужно отдать в починку. 5. Товар еще не при-
был, позвоните попозже. 6. Франция славится своими винами. 7. Со-
держание вашего сочинения не соответствует теме. 8. Почему твоя
одежда на полу? Положи ее в шкаф. 9. Физика – сложный предмет,
очень немногие в нашем классе делают успехи. 10. Кто знает, какая
политика была в то время у нашего государства по этому вопросу?
11. Политика – это призвание. 12. Его политические взгляды неиз-
вестны.
IV. 1. a) Советы давать легко, но следовать им бывает трудно.
б) Позвольте мне дать вам один совет. в) Обратитесь к нему, он, как
правило, дает хорошие советы. 2. a) Что нового? б) Это старые но-
вости, я их уже давно слышал. в) Какая прекрасная новость! Родите-
ли обрадуются, когда услышат ее. 3. a) Где деньги? – Они на столе.
б) Сейчас я не могу дать тебе много денег. Двести рублей устроят
тебя (достаточно)? 4. a) Эта книга содержит все сведения о последней
экспедиции Федора Конюхова. б) Новые сведения еще не поступи-
ли; мы ждем их с минуты на минуту. 5. a) Он ищет работу. б) Это
очень трудная работа. Стажер не сможет сделать ее самостоятельно.
в) Я не собираюсь менять место работы. Здесь мне нравится и рабо-
Unit 3. The Number of Nouns 23

та, и коллектив. 6. a) Вы хорошо отдохнули за городом? – Да, была


чудесная погода, и мы вдоволь накупались. б) В этом году с погодой
происходит что-то странное. У нас раньше никогда не было дождливой
погоды зимой. в) Я надеюсь, погода не изменится к худшему; я оста-
вила плащ и зонт дома. 7. За последнее время он сделал большие успе-
хи в решении сложных задач.
V. 1. Россия ввозит много фруктов, их доставляют из Южной Ев-
ропы и Азии. 2. В этом районе Италии растут различные цитрусовые
фрукты. 3. Вымой фрукты и положи их на блюдо. 4. У шиповника
терпкие плоды. 5. Ну что же, пусть теперь он пожинает горькие пло-
ды своих махинаций. 6. На третье у нас будут фрукты и мороженое.
7. Вытяжки из различных фруктов используются в косметологии.
8. Для многих людей фрукты очень дорогие, они не могут позволить
их себе каждый день. 9. На наших рынках сейчас продается много
экзотических фруктов. 10. Фрукты полезны, в них много витаминов.
VI. 1. В этой реке много рыбы. 2. Рыба более полезна, чем мясо.
3. Эта девочка плавает как рыбка. 4. Рыба проплывает большие рас-
стояния. 5. Моя любимая еда – тушеная рыба с овощами. 6. Что это
за рыба? – Это рыба-клоун. 7. Сколько рыб ты поймал на выход-
ных? – Ни одной, но я получил огромное удовольствие от процесса.
8. В аквариуме было семь рыбок, но кошка съела двух, так что осталось
пять рыбок. 9. Не грусти, свет клином на нем не сошелся.
Unit 4
AGREEMENT BETWEEN SUBJECT AND VERB

Task 1. Comment on the nouns in bold type.


1. According to modern standards my family isn’t big. 2. My family are
early birds. 3. The board consists of twelve people. 4. I know what the board
think of me. They regard me as the spoiled granddaughter of a rich and
powerful woman. And the board are very aware of that. 5. This council is
responsible for looking after roads. 6. The council have been promising to
mend the fences, doors and windows for years. 7. The public stop and stare.
8. “You could join us,” he suggested helpfully. “We’re a jolly crowd.” 9. The
government has cut back on public expenditure. 10. Some people said darkly
that the Government were behind it. 11. The staff are going to buy a leaving
present for their boss. 12. His staff is very efficient. 13. This team plays for
Spain. 14. The team are training hard for the coming match. 15. Statistics is
the study of figures. 16. Statistics are often misleading. 17. Politics is a popu-
lar topic now. 18. What are his politics? 19. The jury were in disagreement.
20. The jury has announced its verdict. 21. The people at the interview were
very helpful. 22. How different are the beliefs of various peoples across the
world!

Task 2. Comment on the usage of the plural and singular verbs.


1. The orchestra are just tuning up – let’s hurry in.
2. A cricket team is made of eleven members, including its captain.
3. The staff do not like the new manager.
4. The club is fifty per cent more members than a year ago.
5. In England, a state school has to give time to religious education.
6. When the family were alone she often read to them before going
to bed.
7. The public are requested not to leave litter in these woods.
8. That day the committee was meeting at her friend’s house.
9. A team of inspectors is visiting the prison tomorrow afternoon.
10. The family has agreed that the funeral should be held in Ireland.
Unit 4. Agreement between subject and verb 25

Task 3. Use the correct form of the verb.


1. These stairs (is/are) dangerous. 2. The team (is/are) no more than
seven young men. 3. The hospital staff (is/are) all very young. 4. The news
(is/are) too good to be true. 5. The class (has/have) its final test on Friday.
6. The class (is/are) working on their individual projects today. 7. The crew
(was/were) asleep in their bunks. 8. The committee (is/are) ready to make
the programme public. 9. The family (is/are) fighting among themselves
constantly. 10. My family (live/lives) in a private house. 11. Judging by
the fact that Malfoy usually had the best of everything, his family (is/
are) rolling in gold. 12. She came from a large, close-knit, and loving
clan who (was/were) always there to protect and help each other. 13. The
Government (is/are) of the opinion that money in the accounts (is/are)
siphoned out of the country. 14. The press (was/were) requested to show
their credentials to the guard. 15. The Portuguese (is/are) fortunate to have
such a beautiful coastline. 16. The police (think/thinks) it’s the Mafia’s do-
ing. 17. The police (want/wants) to interview two men about the robbery
last week. 18. The police (was/were) thorough in their examination of the
murder site. 19. What (is/are) the contents of the note? 20. The criteria for
promotion (is/are) clearly stated. 21. Supernatural phenomena (is/are) of
great interest to many people.

Task 4. Complete the following sentences with is/are, was/were, does/do


or has/have. If both singular and plural forms are possible, write
them both.
1. The police ________ here and they are doing their best, sir. 2. The
local police _______ closed this night club. 3. The police _______ assisted
by private detectives. 4. ______ the police know how the accident hap-
pened? 5. The cattle ______ in the fields. 6. Where ______ the people? –
They _______ gone to the briefing. 7. The peoples of the Commonwealth
_______ a new monetary unit. 8. This _____ a warlike people. 9. Her
poultry ______ the finest in the whole village. 10. Gymnastics ______ my
favourite sport. 11. Where ______ your family live? 12. The jury ______
still considering their verdict. 13. The Roman Catholic clergy ______
stationed in Vatican. 14. The staff of the school _____ not happy with
their working conditions. 15. Scotland _____ playing France next week
(in a football match). 16. Shell _____ increased the price of petrol. 17. Dice
_____ used in many board games. 18. I don’t like very hot weather. Thirty
degrees _____ too warm for me. 19. These scales _____ not correct. 20. My
glasses ______ become too weak for me. 21. Can I borrow your scissors?
Mine ______ not sharp enough. 22. Fortunately the news _______ not
as bad as we expected. 23. What time ____ the news on television? 24. My
kid’s pyjamas ______ made of cotton. 25. Six miles _____ a long way to
walk every day. 26. These tights _____ made in Italy. 27. Physics ____my
26 Unit 4. Agreement between subject and verb

best subject at school. 28. Don’t you think your trousers ______ too short?
29. The goods _____ arrived. 30. The surroundings ______ unfamiliar
to him. 31. My wages ______ risen considerably lately. 32. Three days
_____ not long enough for a good holiday. 33. Twenty thousand pounds
______ stolen in the robbery. 34. I can’t find my binoculars. Do you know
where they _____? 35. The outskirts of this town ______ shabby looking.
36. The trousers you bought for me _____ not fit me. 37. Clothes _____
no longer something one doesn’t discuss. Clothes ____ part of the image.
38. Three years ____ a long time to be without a job. 39. There ____ a chair
and a table in the room. 40. There ______ a chair and two tables in the
room. 41. There _____ two tables and a chair in the room.

Task 5. Complete the sentences using a suitable noun. Sometimes you will
need a or some before the noun.
1. My eyes aren’t very good. I need ________.
2. This plant is ___ very rare ________.
3. Footballers don’t wear trousers when they play. They wear ________.
4. The bicycle is __________ of transport.
5. The bicycle and the car are ________ of transport.
6. I want to cut this piece of material. I need ___________.
7. Ann is going to write _________ of articles for her local newspaper.
8. There are a lot of American TV _________ shown on British televi-
sion.
9. While we were out walking, we saw 25 different ________ of bird.

Task 6. Correct any errors in these sentences.


1. The government want to increase taxes.
2. Susan was wearing a black jeans.
3. Brazil are playing Italy in a football match next Wednesday.
4. I need more money than that. Ten pounds are not enough.
5. I’m going to buy a new pyjama.
6. The committee haven’t made a decision yet.
7. There was a police standing at the corner of the street.
8. Has the police arrived yet?
9. Your reading glasses is by the bed.
10. The jury are still arguing about the guilt of the offender.
11. There are one locking nut and four bolts for each wheel.
12. I have a great deal of experiences in dealing with a problem like this.
13. Can you explain why my best trousers have a hole in them?
14. The scissors in the sewing box needs sharpening.
15. The pair of binoculars have been in this drawer for as long as I can
remember.
16. Half the audience were asleep by the interval.
Unit 4. Agreement between subject and verb 27

17. I can’t say that economics are a subject I’ve ever been very interes-
ted in.
18. There’re one potato and two onions in the recipe.
19. Where has those kitchen scales gone that we used to have?
20. Four miles are a long way to walk for a person of my age.

Task 7. Finish the following sentences so that they have a similar meaning
to the first sentence.
Model: You can find the shears on the table. – The shears are on the table.
1. They drove the cattle into the barn. – The cattle _______________.
2. He found the police very helpful. – The police ________________.
3. Someone needs to clean the stairs. – The stairs ________________.
4. There is a disagreement among the staff about the new contract. –
The staff _______________.
5. You have to evacuate the premises immediately if there is a fire. – The
premises _______________.
6. We can see from the statistics that unemployment has increased. –
The statistics _______________.
7. They are teaching Physics in Room 2A. – Physics _______________.
8. We give exam advice at the end of the course. – Exam advice
_______________.
9. We need new members for our tennis club. – Our tennis club
_______________.
10. One doesn’t need money to be happy. – Money _______________.

Task 8. Translate the words in brackets into English.


1. She spent several hours in the film (архив)___________.
2. He swallowed half the (содержимое)__________ of the glass in one
gulp.
3. I didn’t relish the prospect of climbing another flight of (лестни-
цы)__________.
4. The land was bought out of the (выручку)__________ of the sale
of his paintings.
5. You must learn how to take the (протокол)__________.
6. Give my (привет)___________ to your daughter.
7. The object of the show was to stimulate the (продажу)___________
of his new novel.
8. Her only chance was to use her (ум)___________ to bluff and out-
smart the enemy.
9. The scandal has shaken the Democratic Party to its (основа-
ния)__________.
10. They expressed their (благодарность)____________ to the orga-
nizers.
28 Unit 4. Agreement between subject and verb

Task 9. Complete the sentences with either is/are, was/were or has/have.


In some sentences both variants are possible.
1. Meat pie and peas (be)__________ Tom’s favourite meal at the mo-
ment.
2. Some 80% of the people (be)__________ expected to vote.
3. Three multiplied by five (be)__________ fifteen.
4. Almost three fourths of the apples (have)__________ been picked.
5. A small number of children (be)__________ educated at home.
6. The book Two Lives (be)__________ about an affair between an
MP and his secretary.
7. The United States (be)__________ smaller than Canada.
8. Fish and chips (be)__________ one of the most common English
dishes.
9. Twenty-four hours (be)__________ a long time in politics.
10. The majority of the employees (have)__________ university degrees.
11. Most of the books (be)__________ chosen from the latest catalogue.
12. Almost three fourths of the land (be)__________ cultivated.
13. Two kilos (be)__________ pretty small for a newborn child.
14. The police (think)__________ that more than one person (be) in
the stolen car.
15. A lot of the residents (have)__________ already left the island, the
rest (be)__________ preparing for the typhoon.
16. A number of people (have)__________ complained about the noise.
17. More than one house in the street (have)__________ been broken
in recently.

Task 10. Some of the sentences contain mistakes. Underline the mistakes
and then correct them.
1. The painting was sold for $20.000 in 1925, which was a lot of money
in those days.
2. A large number of women works in the clothing industry.
3. A group of teenagers in the town has organized a scheme to help old
people with their shopping.
4. Do you think three pounds are a big enough tip?
5. Hamburgers and chips are not a very healthy lunch.
6. The majority of the union members have voted to go on strike, the
rest of the members are expected to support the strike.
7. Our teenage son thinks there is a number of good reasons for staying
up late.
8. A couple of dangerous-looking men are waiting for you.
9. One of my friends have just won three free plane tickets to New York.
10. Six weeks is a long time to wait for news of your family.
11. The majority of children’s parents are unemployed.
Unit 4. Agreement between subject and verb 29

12. A lot of shops are closed on Sundays now.


13. In connection with the theft, the outskirts have been searched.
14. The police is called if a serious accident occurs.

Task 11. Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the verbs
to be, to do or to have.
1. Each of these sentences ______ a gerund in it.
2. Each of these books ______ a different colour.
3. There were four pencils on the table. Each pencil _____ a different
colour.
4. None of these pictures _______ mine, they all belong to Sarah.
5. Plenty of time _____ not always good: the more time you have, the
more you stretch it.
6. There _____ plenty of ideas in his head.
7. None of this money ______ his, he doesn’t work at all.
8. None of the shops _______ open yesterday.
9. _______ anybody know of her intentions?
10. The exam is really easy. Any of you ________ able to pass it.
11. Nobody ______ aware of my secret.
12. The number of road accidents ______ risen dramatically this year.
13. A number of employees _______ dismissed after the failure of the
project.
14. Some of the people I work with _____ very friendly.
15. Some of his advice ______ really helpful.
16. All the flowers in this garden _____ beautiful.
17. All the information he brought _____ up-to-date.
18. The majority of students have passed all the exams.
19. The majority of the population ______ concentrated in the south
of the country.
20. ______ any of you want to come to the party tonight?
21. Everybody ______ arrived.

Task 12.
A. Complete the following sentences with either/neither (of us/them).
1. Do you want tea or coffee? – ________. I really don’t mind.
2. What day is today – the 18th or the 19th? – ________. It’s the 20th.
3. I asked two people the way to the station but ____________ could
help me.
4. I was invited to two parties last week but I didn’t go to _____________.
5. There are two sandwiches here. Do you mind which I take? – No,
take _________.
6. Sarah and I play tennis together regularly but __________ can play
very well.
30 Unit 4. Agreement between subject and verb

7. Where is Kate? Is she at work or at home? – _________. She is away


on holiday.
8. I tried two bookshops for the book I wanted but _________ had it.
9. When shall I phone you, morning or afternoon? – __________. I’ll
be in all day.
10. We can go to _________ restaurant. I don’t mind.

B. Write sentences with either…or… / neither… nor….


1. She didn’t write and she didn’t phone. ___________________
____________
2. George doesn’t smoke and he doesn’t drink. _______________
_____________
3. Jim hasn’t got a car. Carol hasn’t got a car either. ___________
____________
4. Is that man’s name Richard? Or is it Robert? It’s one of the two. __
___________________________________________________
5. I haven’t got time to go on holiday. And I haven’t got the money.
________________
6. We can leave today or we can leave tomorrow – whichever you prefer.
____________________________________________________

Task 13. Complete the sentences. Use all/some/none + it/them/us (e. g.


all of it / some of them, etc.)
1. These books are all Jane’s. ___________ belong to me.
2. How many of these books have you read? – ____________. Every
one.
3. We all got wet in the rain because ____________ had an umbrella.
4. Some of this money is yours and ___________ is mine.
5. I asked some people for directions but _________ were able to help
me.
6. She made up the whole story from beginning to end. _________
was true.
7. Not all the tourists in the group were Spanish. ___________ were
French.
8. I watched most of the film but not ___________.

Task 14. Insert articles where necessary. Pay attention to the phrases a num-
ber, the number.
1. Thirteen years of life with Frank Cowperwood had taught her ____
number of things. 2. ____ colonel says our losses have not been heavy. ____
exact number is not yet known. 3. To this particular dinner ____ number
of people had been invited. 4. Those who had any letters to deliver or any
settled plan of going anywhere or doing anything, discussed their prospects
__ hundred times __ day; and as this class of passengers was small, and ____
Unit 4. Agreement between subject and verb 31

number of those who had no prospects whatever was very large, there were
plenty of listeners and few talkers. 5. While he was dancing, Cowperwood
had occasion to look at Aileen. She passed close to him ____ number of
times. 6. He went up into ____ picture gallery. On ____ bureau there were
laid ____ number of letters and things to be attended to.

Task 15. Translate into English.


1. Консультант дал нам так много советов, что мы не знаем, каки-
ми из них воспользоваться. 2. Новые сведения только что поступили,
и наш аналитик просматривает их. 3. Это творческая работа, однако
знания здесь тоже очень важны. 4. Упорный труд – ключ к успеху
в любом деле. 5. Меня очень радуют твои успехи. 6. Мне кажется, что
советы этого врача не помогают, не так ли? 7. Мне нужны хорошие
новые джинсы, но они стоят дорого. 8. Что думает полиция об этом
преступлении? – Она поставлена в тупик. 9. Ее одежда – это в ос-
новном джинсы и свитера. 10. Осторожнее, ступени очень крутые.
11. Моя зарплата не столь высока, чтобы позволить себе такое путе-
шествие. 12. Бильярд – любимая игра моего отца. 13. Уже много лет
его специальность – экономика развивающихся стран. 14. А что гово-
рит твоя семья? Она согласна на твой брак с мужчиной моложе тебя?
15. Полиция все еще ищет угонщиков, но пока их не удалось задер-
жать. 16. Труппа этого театра – это в основном выпускники Коро-
левской академии драматического искусства. 17. Штат этой фирмы
состоит всего из двадцати человек. 18. Сегодня весенняя погода.
19. Какая великолепная сегодня погода! 20. Моя бабушка работает
в своем саду в любую погоду.
Unit 5
DETERMINERS

Task 1. A. Put in of where necessary.


1. All ______ cars have wheels.
2. None _____ this money is mine.
3. Some ______ people get angry easily.
4. Some ______ the people I met at the party were very interesting.
5. I have lived in London most _____ my life.
6. Many ____ people watch too much TV.
7. Are any ____ those letters for me?
8. Most _____ days I get up before 7 o’clock.
9. Jim thinks that all _____ museums are boring.
Task 2. Read and translate the sentences. What pronouns are used to replace
the indefinite pronouns?
1. Anybody can sing if they really want to. 2. Everybody is here, aren’t they?
3. Nobody likes to be told what to do, do they? 4. Somebody has left his um-
brella here, didn’t they? 5. Nobody called, did they? 6. Every candidate said
that they thought the interview was too long. 7. We greeted each guest as they
entered. 8. Everybody had a most enjoyable time, didn’t they? 9. Everyone
is informed about it, aren’t they? 10. Nobody agrees with him, do they?
11. Everyone will be present at the meeting, won’t they?
Task 3. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative.
1. People usually have some free time on weekends. 2. Some of my
friends also teach English. 3. There is some snow in the streets. 4. Wait, I’ll
make some coffee for us. 5. There’s some soup left. 6. I think I need some
help. 7. She has some relatives in England. 8. Some people are so annoying!
9. We have some new contracts this year. 10. I can get you some bread when
I go shopping.

Task 4. Insert some or any where necessary.


1. Irene’s parents are … doctors. 2. … doctors, like dentists, frighten me.
3. Could you lend me … money? 4. … money is very important in this life.
Unit 5. Determiners 33

5. … cars parked in this area will be removed by the police. 6. If you have
… old books that you don’t need any longer, could you bring them to our
library. 7. This car hardly uses … petrol. 8. Would you like … brandy? 9. My
mother bakes cakes with … brandy in them. 10. Do you like … olives? 11. Are
there … olives left? 12. Mushrooms should be gathered with care as … can
be very poisonous. 13. You’ll like this new chocolate. Shall I save … for you?
14. … of his paintings would sell for big money today. 15. Do you ever read
… papers? 16. He hardly ever reads … papers. 17. … papers are really boring.

Task 5. Underline the words that are possible in these sentences. In each
case, there is more than one possible answer.
1. Surprisingly, there wasn’t much discussion/debate/quarrel/row at the
meeting about the location of the new office.
2. The new factory provided jobs in a region where there was not much
job/work/jobs/employment.
3. Many questions/information/research/problems need to be considered
before a decision can be made.
4. Will you be taking much bags/baggage/luggage/suitcases on the trip?
5. Are there many equipment/resources/facilities/computers in your
school?
6. I didn’t have many information/details/facts/news to help me make
my decision.

Task 6. Make corrections or improvements to these extracts from conversa-


tion at a party.
1. A: There’s much food left. Take as many as you want.
B: Thanks. I’ve already eaten much.
2. … Tim spends much of his time listening to music, and he spends too
many time playing computer games …
3. … There were so much people at the last party, that I didn’t get
a chance to talk to many my friends …
4. … I don’t drink a lot of German wine, and I think much English
wine is too sweet …
5. … He’s putting on much weight. He’s always eating many of biscuits
and crisps …

Task 7. Make corrections or improvements to these extracts from academic


writing.
1. In recent years the relationship between diet and heart disease has
received a lot of attention in the scientific community. Lots of studies
have found that…
2. She was born in Poland, and wrote much of her early novels there.
A lot of her earlier work …
34 Unit 5. Determiners

3. The last decade has witnessed improved living standards in many of


Asian countries. A lot has been done to change …
4. A lot of people have observed the concentration of butterflies in this
area, and a lot of suggestions have been put forward to explain the
phenomenon. Many research has found that …

Task 8. Write plenty of if it is appropriate in these sentences. If not, suggest


an alternative.
1. … women and children died of starvation during the war.
2. We took … food and drink on our walk through the hills.
3. … of time was wasted in the planning stage of the project.
4. It is thought that alcohol probably accounts for … the problems people
have in sleeping.
5. After the operation, she’ll need … rest.

Task 9. Complete the sentences with (a) few (of), (a) little (of), the few, or
the little.
1. Although the play is set in Italy, … characters are Italian.
2. Jim, Bill, Sue and Gill were just … those who came to say goodbye.
3. I saw him first … after midnight.
4. Unfortunately, mush of the early history of Zimbabwe is still un-
known. For example, we know … about the early patterns of settle-
ment.
5. Because it was cheap, and we didn’t have much money, … us used to
go to the cinema every Saturday morning.
6. It will take … time, but I’m sure you’ll learn the rules of cricket even-
tually.
7. Stephen and … his friends were waiting for us in the park.
8. The play was poorly attended, but … people who came had a very
good evening.
9. Many questions were asked, but … were answered.
10. The soldiers seemed to have … idea who they were fighting against
and why.
11. After the plane crashed in the desert, the survivors divided … water
they had left between them.

Task 10. Where you think it is appropriate, suggest changes to these exam-
ples from conversations and from academic writing.
From conversations
1. “Can you lend me $100?” – “I’m sorry. I have little money myself.”
2. You can help yourself to biscuits, although there are few left.
3. I usually have few days off work, but I felt very tired and had little
energy, so I stayed at home.
Unit 5. Determiners 35

4. Have you got a little string to wrap this parcel up?


From academic writing
5. Not many researchers have examined complaints made by male cus-
tomers.
6. Scientists still don’t know very much about the complex mechanisms
of volcanic eruptions.
7. Not much attention has been given to understanding how teaching
is evaluated.
8. Not many studies have specifically explored marketing strategies du-
ring economic recession.

Task 11. A survey of British university students was conducted in 1990 and
recently repeated. Some of the results are compared below. Com-
ment on them in sentences using fewer (than) and less (than).
1. Do you smoke? (1990: 80% / Now: 45%) Fewer students smoke now
than in 1990.
2. Do you own a car? (1990: 5% / Now: 23%)
3. On average, how many hours each week do you spend watching TV?
(1990: 12 / Now: 21)
4. On average, how many lectures and tutorials do you have each week?
(1990: 12 / Now: 10)
5. On average, how much of your money do you spend on alcohol?
(1990: 20% / Now: 8%)
Are there any results that surprise you? Comment on them using no less than
or no fewer than.

Task 12. In some of the following sentences each and every are possible;
in others we can use only one of them. Circle possible variants.
1. 1If you don’t listen carefully to his every/each word, he’ll twist you
around his finger.
2. You must record each/every event that takes place in this book.
3. You will each/every receive a name badge upon arrival at the confe-
rence.
4. Each/every of these boxes contains something, but not every/each one
has something valuable in it.
5. Not every/each participant will necessarily be interested in each/every
seminar.
6. As every/each day passes, the situation seems to grow worse.
7. You have every/each right to be dissatisfied with every/each member
of your team.
8. Nearly every/each time I see her, she’s wearing that blue and yellow
floral dress.
36 Unit 5. Determiners

Task 13. Insert every or each.


1. … morning my Mom left lists a mile long for … of us, there was so
much work to do about the house. 2. Opening my bag I took out two enve-
lopes with Dad printed across their fronts in childlike letters. Handing them
to Andrew, I said, “Lissa and Jamie have … written you a card.” 3. She had
a present for … child. 4. We … have our private views about it. 5. I loved …
minute of it. 6. They were all just sitting there, … of them thinking private
thoughts. 7. Rosie changed the subject … time it was raised. 8. She offered us
a tin of biscuits and my sister and I had one …. 9. The government changes
… five years. 10. I had only two suitcases, but … weighed over twenty kilos.
11. She has … chance of success in the life she has chosen. 12. We only save
enough money to take a real vacation … other year. 13. We saw three young
elephants, … the size of a car. 14. … of you should sign the register before
you leave. 15. … child should be educated. It’s a must. 16. He inspected …
of the cars which were in the garage. 17. We have … completed our work.

Task 14. Fill in the gaps with other, аnother, the othеr, others, the others,
eаch other, one аnother.
1. This bag is Mikе’s and …. is minе. 2. I’d likе to seе …. film with this
aсtor. 3. Some сhildrеn likе to draw, …. сhildrеn don’t. 4. Only five studеnts
arе prеsеnt today. Whеrе are ……? 5. Сan I havе …. сup of tea? 6. Му ….
pupils are very good. 7. How muсh timе do уou nееd? – I nеed …. two wееks.
8. Somе of thе books you nееd aгe on thе tablе, …. arе on thе shеlf. 9. Plеasе
show mе somе …. tiе. This onе is toо bright. 10. Thеy havе two sons. Onе
is a sсhoolboy and …… is a student. 11. How many …. trееs arе you going
to plant? 12. Thеy looked at … … and laughеd. 13. Stеvе and I oftеn play
jokes on …. 14. Thе sесrеtary has answerеd only threе lеttеrs. Whеn will
shе answer ……? 15. Hе knows a lot about his сountry but hе doеsn’t know
muсh about …. сountries.

Task 15. Fill each of the numbered blanks with one of the words listed.
all whole none no both either neither
Life has slowly changed for the ________ (1) of our family. We were
______ (2) very close once, my wife and I and our two daughters. Aged
12 and 11, they were ______ (3) angels, keen, enthusiastic, communica-
tive, _______ (4) of them, nearly _______ (5) the time. When we meet up
nowadays ______ (6) of us feels that comfortable. Oh, yes, there are a few
moments when we _____ (7) hug and ask each other for an update. Then
when we _____ (8) sit down for either lunch or dinner – ________ (9) of
my daughters seems very keen to eat at the same time as us, anyway _______
(10) of us seems to have that much to say. ______ (11) my daughters resent
questions about their activities and I can’t ask _______ (12) of them about
their current boyfriends without _______ (13) of them ganging up on me
Unit 5. Determiners 37

and telling me to be quiet. On the _______ (14), I find eating while watching
a soap with them the best way out.
_______ (15) of the girls seem at all interested in what ______ (16) my
wife or I are doing. ______ (17) I can say is that life was much easier and
more comfortable when ______ (18) of them could utter anything more than
“goo-goo” or “da-da” and ______ (19) my wife and I could settle down for
a meal without feeling strangers in our own home. I suppose that time and
tide wait for _____ (20) man.

Task 16. If necessary, correct the sentences. Pay attention to all kinds of
pronouns and determiners.
1. All the children didn’t come.
2. Many, if none of the students, could speak English fluently.
3. Almost all his spare time is spent working in the garden.
4. Both of us didn’t speak again until we had reached home.
5. Everything depends on the last match of the football season.
6. Mrs. Lee and Mr. Pointer, them both teachers, are standing as can-
didates in the next election.
7. Many people suffer side-effects from taking the drug. However, these
not all are bad.
8. I’m afraid neither answer is correct. Try again.
9. All at the meeting voted for Terry.
10. There were so much people at the last party, that I didn’t get the
chance to talk to many my friends.
11. Every evidence seems to suggest that he is innocent, and he has all
chance of being released soon.
12. Each soldier were praised for his bravery, and was each given a medal.
13. The regulations say that students have to pass every one of his exams
to gain a qualification.
14. Nowadays we seem to have water shortages virtually each year. The
some this year was very bad and lasted every summer.
15. I hope all were comfortable here. We try to make every guest feel at
home.
16. Anyone calls her Maggie, but her real name is Margaret.
17. Has everyone see Lucy recently? I haven’t seen her every day.
18. Although he is French, none of his novels are set in France.
19. None of the information we were given were particularly helpful.
20. None of the company’s business are done in the US.
21. I phoned the booking office but they said that they had no seat left
for the concert.
22. I’m afraid that none of the local newspapers make much profit now.
23. You can help yourself to biscuits, although there are a few left.
24. I had a swim, quickly dried me and put on my clothes.
38 Unit 5. Determiners

25. Now that he was famous, he heard a lot about himself on TV and
radio.
26. You ought to be ashamed of you.
27. Many of the questions are difficult, so find the easier some and do
those first.
28. We had an orchard, so when we ran out of apples, we could just go
and pick ones.
29. Help yourself to more nuts if you want ones.
30. Only time will tell if the decisions we have taken were the correct ones.
31. It was another rainy Sunday afternoon and we didn’t know what to
do with us.
32. Countries are competing with each other to build the tallest building
in the world.
33. Peter and Jenny met one another in 1992.
34. His education, that as it was, was finished by the time he turned 16.
35. He is anything of a hermit.
36. Have you seen either of your parents today?
37. Simon set one foot in front of another, ready to fight.

Task 17. Translate into English.


A. 1. В этом году моя тетя посадила у себя на даче кое-какие цветы,
но не сажала никаких овощей. 2. Есть ли смысл в том, что он гово-
рит? – По-моему, никакого. Любой это тебе скажет. 3. Я обычно от-
дыхаю с некоторыми из своих друзей. 4. У него нет никаких причин
сердиться на нее. 5. Врач считает, что в состоянии больного есть не-
которые улучшения. 6. У нас в доме редко бывают гости. Пригласим
кого-нибудь? 7. У вас были какие-нибудь проблемы с налогами в про-
шлом году? Я помню, вы говорили, что они у вас были. 8. Моя мать
редко смотрит телевизор; говорит, что некоторые новости ее просто
убивают. 9. Любая из картин этого художника – шедевр. 10. Не мог-
ли бы вы принести немного воды? 11. Любой специалист знает, как
важны знания и навыки, чтобы найти хорошую работу, однако неко-
торые все же надеются на удачу. 12. Мне нравится некоторая совре-
менная музыка. – А мне никакая не нравится. 13. Хочешь послушать
какую-нибудь музыку? 14. Любой инженер подтвердит вам, что этот
фундамент ненадежен. 15. Хочешь орешков с изюмом? – Да, орехи
с фруктами очень полезны. 16. Я согласен встретиться с вами в любое
время, в любом месте.
B. 1. Не могли бы вы дать мне сыра? 2. Вы должны менять масло
в машине каждые 5 тысяч километров. 3. Моя подруга любит мою
кошку даже больше, чем я. 4. Я мало рассказывал им о моих пробле-
мах. 5. Он рассказал нам немного о своем путешествии. 6. Большин-
ство кафе этого города предлагает широкий выбор блюд. 7. Ни мой
Unit 5. Determiners 39

отец, ни мой дядя не могли понять мои трудности. 8. В холодильнике


есть масло. 9. Не хотите апельсинового сока? 10. Некоторые из нас
думают, что брать кредит – плохая идея. 11. Никто из нас не хотел
идти спать. 12. Она делает больше телефонных звонков, чем кто-либо.
13. Если вы откажетесь, другие согласятся на эту работу. 14. К со-
жалению, в настоящее время на фирме мало вакансий. 15. К концу
путешествия у нас осталось совсем мало денег. 16. На вечеринке было
много народу. 17. Многим людям не нравятся подобные фильмы.
18. У тебя много возможностей путешествовать на твоей работе?
19. Большинство колледжей этого штата предлагают большой выбор
курсов. 20. Обоих студентов предупредили о последствиях пропуска
лекций, но, кажется, ни один из них не отнесся к этому серьезно.
21. Ты уже знаком с Джейн, но у меня еще две сестры. 22. Мясо сохра-
нится несколько дней в холодильнике. 23. Некоторые из них замерзли.
24. Пройдет некоторое время, пока закончат мост. 25. Город сохранил
мало от своей былой красоты. 26. Многие из персонала нашей ком-
пании работают неполный рабочий день. 27. Сколько у тебя братьев?
28. Большинство людей на вечеринке было мне незнакомо.
Unit 6
ARTICLE: GENERAL NOTION, FUNCTIONS OF THE
ARTICLES, MEANINGS OF THE ARTICLES WITH
COUNTABLE NOUNS

1. General notion. Functions of the articles. Meanings of the


articles..with countable nouns
Task 1. Read and translate the following sentences. Comment on the mea-
nings of the indefinite article.
1. Jeeves! You are a marvel! – Thank you, sir, but you’ve just called me
an idiot. 2. A loved child usually grows up into a loving adult. 3. A fortune
teller is a person who will tell you your future. 4. The party was a real bore.
5. What is man? What has he got if not himself? 6. I expect a hotel to be
“a home away from home”. 7. Yesterday life was such an easy game to play.
8. Oh, what a lovely surprise! 9. I’m a real Londoner, though I wasn’t born
there. 10. I have a mountain of work to do by tomorrow. 11. She took a step
forward. 12. It was a lucky choice on my part, I think. 13. Catherine gave him
a loving smile. 14. Robert had a very good education. 15. There is a secret
in her life, I feel it. 16. It’s a magical story to be enjoyed by folks of all ages.
17. Miss Honey gave the tiny child a big hug and a kiss. 18. She loved her
son with an everlasting love.

Task 2. Say what these objects are. Then make some similar sentences of
your own.
Model. A doctor is a person who helps people who are ill.
accountant building of a cat family, also called a puma
beaver device you put across the window
broom person who keeps and examines business
accounts
chatterbox thing like a wolf, with a laughing cry
conservatory wild animal for cutting wood
1. General notion. Functions of the articles. Meanings of the articles... 41

cougar piece of with glass walls and roof in which plants


furniture are protected from cold
court for sweeping floors
curtain with drawers used for storing things
drill with strong teeth with which it cuts
trees
hyena who talks too much
saw used for washing, cleaning
sponge for making holes
teetotaler where legal cases are held
cabinet who doesn’t drink alcohol drinks
drawer who writes a check

Task 3. Insert a, some or any where necessary. Change the number of the
nouns, making all other necessary changes.
1. … letter of or to … soldier can be sent without … stamp. 2. … drugstore
in the USA and Canada is … shop where one can get not only … medicines
but also … drinks and snacks. 3. … days passed, but there weren’t … signs
of … change coming. 4. There remained … toast, … rolls, and … bun on the
plate. 5. Shall I treat you to … apple or … pear? – I always prefer … apples
to … pears. 6. Give me … nail. I bought … picture and want to have it fixed.
7. The other day I spoke to … geologists who told me that … new deposit of
diamonds had been found in this region. 8. … man’s jacket usually has …
breast pocket. 9. I expect to get … letter from them in two weeks. 10. When …
tankmen return from the army to their native village they very often become
… drivers or … mechanics.

Task 4. Correct the sentences if necessary. In which sentences are both one
and a/an possible?
1. I teach four days one week. 2. Jenny’s baby is only one week old.
3. Have you got one match, please? 4. You won’t believe this, but it cost
over one thousand pounds. 5. One summer, we must visit Sweden again.
6. They cost $10 one kilo. 7. I’ve known him for one year or so. 8. She’s al-
ready written one novel since she retired. 9. Help! There’s one mouse in the
cupboard! 10. She is one cousin of the king’s. 11. When you get to my age,
you just take one day at a time. 12. Cross-country skiing is easy. Just put one
foot in front of the other. 13. Can I have one little more rice? 14. One large
quantity of petrol escaped from the tank. 15. We didn’t have one baseball
bat, so we had to use one tennis racket. 16. I had one last look around the
house, locked the door, and left.
42 Unit 6. Article: general notion, functions of the articles…

Task 5. Find out the meaning of the following set phrases with the indefinite
article and make up sentences of your own with them.
1. one thing at a time 2. to have a good head for something 3. to know
a thing or two 4. to have a go 5. a hard nut to crack 6. not have a clue
7. to keep a level head 8. a man (woman) in a million 9. a black sheep in the
family 10. to tell a white (black) lie 11. a big fish in a small pond 12. a storm
in a teacup 13. a red-letter day 14. to make a man of 15. to be at a loss 16. to
be a hit with somebody

Task 6. Insert the appropriate articles where necessary (pay attention to the
limitation by the context or situation).
A. 1. … door is locked. 2. Have you got … telephone? 3. … telephone is
out of order. 4. It is dark on … landing. 5. Do you like … dogs? 6. Don’t tease
… dog. 7. Never try to stroke … dog if you don’t know it. 8. … fountain-pen
won’t write. 9. Have you got … fountain-pens on sale? 10. Where can I have
… coat made to order? 11. Where did you have … coat made? 12. In this
store they always have a wide choice in … coats and … suits. 13. … suits are
ready-made. 14. Where is … key? 15. How many flats are there in … house?
16. How much are … dinner-sets? How many articles are there in … set?
17. How much are … dinner sets nowadays?
B.
1. Kate is wearing … new dress today. …. dress is nice.
2. He has … nice modern-looking house. There is … beautiful garden
in front of … house.
3. This is … very interesting book. … book is … love story.
4. He is …. engineer. He says … his profession is interesting.
5. Is … bag new? I like …. bag.
6. I am doing … exercise. … exercise isn’t difficult.
7. There is … hotel not far from our house. … hotel is very comfortable.
8. Without any warning … computer went down.
9. …. child is reading …. magazine. … magazine has … bright cover.
10. Bill is … good specialist. I am sure he can answer …. question.
11. I am going to … airport. … plane leaves in two hours.
12. These are …. very good examples. Study … examples.
13. There is …. mistake in …. sentence. Correct …. mistake.
14. Can you tell me where …. station is?
15. Remember to take …. jacket to …. cleaner’s.
16. They say …. party was a success.
17. Let’s take …. photograph of Nick and Jane. They are …. nice couple.
18. We are looking for …. children. Have you seen them?
19. Let’s give them …. cups and …. saucers for their wedding.
20. Put …. cups and …. saucers into …. washing machine.
1. General notion. Functions of the articles. Meanings of the articles... 43

Task 7. Decide if the most appropriate articles (a/an and the) are used in
each of these texts.
1. Dan was playing outside in a street when he saw a red car go past
driven by a teacher from his school.
2. A University has announced proposals to build a new library, to re-
place an existing one by the year 2020.
3. A: The car has been stolen from outside a house!
B: Oh, no. I left my wallet and the camera in it.
4. I must buy the tin opener. I keep having to borrow one from a woman
next door.
5. A: Jane bought a fridge and a washing machine for her house, but
the washing machine wouldn’t go through a kitchen door so she had
to send it back.
B: What did a shop say?
A: They offered to sell her a smaller one.
6. Now, that I start pushing a car, take your foot off the clutch. If it
doesn’t start, I’ll have to phone the garage.
7. We went out to the excellent restaurant last night. The food was deli-
cious and the service was first class.
8. A: Where’s a tea pot?
B: It’s in the cupboard on the right.
A: I thought you had a blue one.
B: Yes, but it broke, so I had to get the new one.
9. A: I have no idea what to get Mark for his birthday.
B: What about a new jumper?
A: Well… it’s not the very interesting present.
B: Why don’t you buy him a set of golf clubs he’s always wanted?
A: What a great idea.
10. Dr. Pike has developed a way to teach musical theory. A method is
designed for children over five.
11. A: Who’s a woman in red?
B: She’s a journalist, I think. She works for a local newspaper.
12. Once, when I won the competition, I had to choose between a holiday
in Disneyland and a Volvo. I chose a car, of course.

Task 8. Use the indefinite article with the underlined nouns where possible.
Where it is impossible, explain why.
1. He was very good teacher.
2. She has intelligent sensitive face with dark-brown eyes.
3. The fish I took from the mantelpiece broke into number of pieces. It
was made of stone.
4. He picked up stone, put it into the shoe and threw the whole con-
struction into the rat.
44 Unit 6. Article: general notion, functions of the articles…

5. I asked my host for bread and cheese and when I got some, when to
my room and set down to writing letters.
6. If you are good and do whatever you are told you shall sleep in proper
bedroom, and have lots to eat and money to buy chocolate and to
take rides in taxis.
7. “Oh, those lovely roses! I’m so fond of them! But they had much
better go into water. I hate to wear flowers.”

2. The generic meaning of the definite article


Task 9. Put in the or a where necessary. If the sentence is already complete,
leave an empty space.
1. When was …. telephone invented?
2. Can you play …. musical instrument?
3. Jill plays …. violin in the orchestra.
4. There is …. piano in the corner of the room.
5. Can you play …. piano?
6. Our society is based on …. family.
7. Martin comes from …. large family.
8. When was …. paper first made?
9. …. computer has changed the way we live.

Task 10. Insert the articles where necessary. Say where the definite article
is used in its generic function.
1. Which of you can play …. horn? – I can. Have you got …. horn?
2. …. euro is …. new currency.
3. The ambulance came and took …. injured to hospital.
4. … Swiss can speak four languages.
5. …. violet is my wife’s favourite flower. I always give her violets.
6. …. telephone was invented by Bell. Nowadays almost all people have
…. telephones.
7. …. airplane is …. most popular means of transport because …. air-
planes fly very quickly.
8. I want to buy …. new computer. …. computer I have is very slow.
9. Nowadays …. life is impossible without …. computer.
10. In English …. verb usually follows …. noun in …. affirmative sentence.
11. …. governments of …. world should take care of …. sick and …. poor.
12. …. man began to explore …. space in the fifties of …. 19th century.
13. He is …. Frenchman and can tell …. good wine from …. bad wine. ….
French are known for their wines.
14. …. Chinese invented …. paper about …. thousand years ago.
2. The generic meaning of the definite article 45

Task 11. Make sentences of the words below.


a) Fill in the blanks with names of animals.
1. ____________________ needs very little water.
2. ____________________ lives in African rivers.
3. ____________________ lives in Australia only.
4. ____________________ is very small.
5. ____________________ lives with man.
6. ____________________ gives milk.
b) Fill in the blanks with appropriate substantivized adjectives.
1. _____________________ must go to hospital.
2. _____________________ have little money.
3. _____________________ have no job.
4. _____________________ are people over seventy.
5. _____________________ have no home.
6. _____________________ are people about twenty years old.
c) Fill in the blanks with names of nationalities.
1. _______________________ speak Portuguese.
2. _______________________ speak French and English.
3. _______________________ speak French.
4. _______________________ speak English.
5. _______________________ speak Spanish.
6. _______________________ speak Chinese.
Task 12. Can you guess the substantivized adjectives to complete these sen-
tences?
1. ________________ have the future in their hands.
2. Ambulances arrive at the scene of the accident and took
_________________ to hospital.
3. Life is all right if you have a job, but things are not so easy for
__________________.
4. Jane has been a nurse all her life. She has spent her life caring for
____________________.
5. In England there is an old story about a man called Robin Hood.
It is said that he robbed ____________ and gave the money to
______________.

Task 13. Translate into English in writing.


I. 1. Мой дедушка никогда не выходит из дома без перчаток и зон-
тика. 2. Не проехали мы и километра, как что-то случилось с коле-
сом. 3. В поезде дальнего следования обычно есть вагон-ресторан.
4. Вы можете дать мне почитать какой-нибудь журнал? – У меня есть
несколько журналов, но не думаю, чтобы они вам были интересны.
46 Unit 6. Article: general notion, functions of the articles…

5. Я не ем апельсины. Не могли ли бы вы дать мне банан или яблоко?


6. Недавно я познакомился с одним моряком; он только что вернулся
из кругосветного путешествия. 7. Друг так не поступает. 8. Он любит
пить не из чашки, а только из стакана. 9. Сколько человек может вме-
стить зал вроде этого? 10. Вопрос такого рода должен заинтересовать
вас. 11. В маленькой комнате книжная полка удобней, чем книжный
шкаф.
II. 1. а) Ручка не пишет. b) У тебя нет ручки? с) Возьмите ручку
и запишите мой номер телефона. 2. а) Я хочу снять комнату. b) Убе-
рись в комнате. 3. а) Мы не знали, что здесь есть озеро. b) Озеро глубо-
кое. 4. а) Ноутбук сломался. b) Кому бы мне отдать починить ноутбук?
с) Ты не знаешь, где чинят ноутбуки? d) Для работы мне необходим
ноутбук. 5. а) У нас сегодня апельсины на десерт. b) Апельсины в бу-
фете. с) Возьми себе апельсин. d) Апельсин не кислый?
III. 1. Тигр и гепард принадлежат к семейству кошачьих. 2. Долгое
время братья Райт считались изобретателями самолета. Теперь из-
вестно, что попытки построить самолет предпринимались и до них,
в частности самолет был построен русским инженером Можайским.
3. Рукоделие всегда считалось занятием женщины. 4. Тадж-Махал –
одно из прекраснейших сооружений, когда-либо созданных челове-
ком. 5. Клоун впервые появился в английском цирке. 6. Все четыре
стороны и угла квадрата равны. 7. Изобретение радио – важная веха
в развитии науки и техники. 8. Попугай может подражать человеческой
речи. 9. Телескоп нужен астрономам, а микроскоп – биологам. 10. Мое
любимое дерево – дуб. 11. Возле дома рос старый дуб. 12. Скрипка –
струнный инструмент, флейта – духовой. 13. С развитием Интернета
и сотовой связи почтальон стал нужен гораздо меньше.
Unit 7
ARTICLES WITH COUNTABLE NOUNS MODIFIED
BY ATTRIBUTES

Task 1. Comment on the use of the articles with nouns modified by attributes.
1. Are these the keys you were looking for?
2. What’s the name of the hotel you told me about?
3. Barbara works for a company that makes washing machines.
4. The police have caught the man who stole my car.
5. The book is about a girl who runs away from home.
6. She had an intelligent sensitive face with light-grey eyes.
7. A poor young artist was asked to draw a portrait of a rich lady and he
did his best to make a good picture. When the portrait was finished,
it was shown to the lady’s friends.
8. Life is a game that one plays according to the rules.
9. For me mathematics is the most difficult subject to major in.
10. The Second Reproduction is a contemporary visual anime novel.
11. We must go back to the point where you took the wrong turn.
12. He thought she was the very person who would help him.
Task 2. Insert the articles. Pay attention to limiting attributes and observe
the difference between descriptive and limiting attributes.
1. I am looking for …. challenging and rewarding job. I didn’t like ….
job I had.
2. …. text he is translating is rather difficult.
3. For my essay I need to find … interesting text on the history of Eng-
lish literature.
4. They are building …. international airport here.
5. It is … biggest international airport in the world.
6. They say … library that is being built here will be very large.
7. He has … long name and I can never remember it.
8. What is … her name, you say? – It’s …. very unusual name that
can’t be pronounced easily.
9. … name he told me yesterday when we were alone in the room was
familiar to me.
48 Unit 7. Articles with countable nouns modified by attributes

10. I liked …. presents I received on my birthday.


11. I like receiving …. useful presents.
12. …. well-structured, carefully written students’ papers which have
original ideas are usually highly marked.
13. … papers you need are on the table.
14. Where is …. driver of this car? You can’t park …. cars here.
15. …. keys to …. exercises you are doing now are on …. next page.
16. I like walking along …. quiet green streets with no traffic on them.
17. I can remember all …. streets where I lived since my childhood.
18. Do you remember …. name of …… street where we bought this washing
machine?
19. He says he needs …. new glasses. But …. glasses they sell here are
very expensive.
20. These are …. best glasses I’ve ever had.

Task 3. Insert the articles.


1. It is … right way to do this work. 2. …. main thing is to be calm.
3. …. book is on …. upper shelf. 4. It is … only thing to do it. 5. He is …. only
child in the family. 6. We can discuss it at …. next meeting. 7. We’ll go there
…. next year. 8. That was …. last page of …. book. 9. We met …. last week.
10. Bring your brother …. next time. 11. He is …. only person I know here.
I saw him …. last year. 12. Go straight ahead and then turn to …. left. 13. All
…. students must learn …. following rules and observe them. 14. I looked
through …. books on …. lower shelf but I didn’t find …. necessary one.
15. What did you discuss at …. last meeting? 16. I didn’t get …. main idea of
…. story. 17. It’s …. same question you asked me …. last time. 18. We’ll speak
about it …. next time. 19. They are such …. clever students! 20. She is such
…. nice woman. 21. She had …. laughing eyes and …. most charming mouth.
22. She is …. most charming woman I’ve ever met. 23. Jane was …. only child
and was passionately adored by everyone in the family. 24. I didn’t under-
stand … last word. 25. You are … very man I want to speak with. 26. I have
… present for you. It is …. very interesting movie about wildlife in Africa.
27. It’s …. interesting beginning for the article. 28. It’s at …. beginning of
the page. 29. …. end of …. story is interesting. 30. They are such …. clever
students. 31. How can I get to …. station? – You must turn to …. right. 32. He
is such …. honest child. He always tells …. truth. 33. I remember they went
to …. south …. last year. 34. …. main thing for you now is to do this part
of work to …. end. 35. He will show me …. centre of …. city …. next week.
36. He looked out of …. window and saw there …. same man again. 37. There
is …. comfortable armchair in …. corner of …. room. 38. Let’s put …. table
in …. middle of …. kitchen. 39. He grows …. different flowers in …. garden.
40. My desk is at …. wall to …. left of …. window. 41. Look for your papers on
…. lower shelf and …. next time don’t forget where you put …. your things.
42. She was … laziest woman in …. village. 43. You are here …. most unreli-
Unit 7. Articles with countable nouns modified by attributes 49

able person of all. 44. He is … most amusing man. 45. It is … most difficult
problem. 46. This is … most difficult problem I’ve ever faced in my life.

Task 4. Insert the proper article.


1. He was ______ man of over seventy. 2. He didn’t look at ______
man he was speaking of. 3. Belle was ______ red-haired woman she saw
in ______ street ______ first day she came to Atlanta. 4. Did I show you
______ letter I got from Peter this morning? 5. Has anyone seen ______
paper I left in _____ sitting room? 6. Agatha Christie was ______ writer who
invented Hercules Poirot. 7. It’s not easy to learn _____ foreign language,
which is very different from your own language. 8. It just seems to be _____
wrong way to do it. 9. He made _____ effort to collect himself. 10. What
do you think of ______ man Jim brought to ______ house? 11. We needed
______ house to stay when we were in London. 12. He didn’t like ______
idea of staying with them for another day. 13. I haven’t _____ chance of
getting this job anyhow. 14. He was on his feet as _____ curtain went down
at _____ end of _____ second act. 15. He began to hum _____ song. It was
_____ old popular song. 16. It was not _____ job he liked. 17. My friend is
_____ man of culture and good reading. 18. He was writing _____ letter to
his wife when _____ door swung open and _____ short man of thirty came
in. 19. He gave _____ suspicious look to _____ box I carried. 20. _____ per-
son is more likely to die in _____ car accident than _____ aircraft accident.

Task 5. Insert the proper article.


1. Mary is not at _____ office, I think she has gone home. 2. Is it _____
present Bill gave you for Christmas? 3. This is _____ only cinema in this
area. 4. _____ waiter was _____ last person I suspected. 5. This is exactly
_____ job I was looking for. 6. Do you have _____ reason for arriving late?
7. _____ end of _____ book was by far _____ best part. 8. Most people
think that _____ good job is _____ important part of life. 9. I didn’t know
_____ answer to _____ question so I left it out. 10. This sweater is cheap.
I bought it in _____ shop near _____ railway station. 11. _____ cyclist
was hit by _____ car. 12. Whose is _____ car outside? 13. _____ year and
_____ half is enough to finish this job. 14. I was in _____ garden when
_____ phone rang. 15. _____ shoplifter tried to steal some clothes. ______
camera videoed _____ thief. 16. Have your seen my shoes? – They are on
______ floor in _____ kitchen. 17. I think that is _____ awful thing to say
and _____ silly thing to do. 18. _____ driver turned left. Suddenly ______
child ran into _____ road. 19. _____ play we saw was _____ comedy. 20. She
has got _____ very friendly face with _____ big smile. 21. He had _____
big moustache and _____ small beard. 22. I saw _____ fox this morning.
I think it must be _____ same fox I saw last week. 23. I kept calling her by
______ wrong name and found myself in _____ very awkward situation.
24. It’s ______ nicest day we’ve had all the week. 25. To _____ little girl
50 Unit 7. Articles with countable nouns modified by attributes

he was _____frightening figure, _____ person to be feared and avoided.


26. «______ man doesn’t know our language», he said and walked off to
find _____ English doctor. 27. She looked in her bag for _____ envelope.
28. Mrs. Davis sent me ____ note asking if I could pay her _____ visit that
evening. 29. She answered _____ soft tap on _____ door and _____ maid
came in with _____ tray, which she set on ______ table. 30. ______ post-
man has just put ______ letter under _____ door. 31. _____ door of _____
garage is broken. 32. _____ student at _____ back of _____ class is reading
_____ newspaper. 33. It is not good to smoke _____ cigarette before _____
meal. 34. _____ good pupil is never late for _____ lesson. 35. Mah Jong
is _____ example of _____ very old board game. I had _____ uncle who
had _____ old set from Singapore. He kept _____ set in ______ beautiful
box in _____ living room. He used to open ______ box and tell me about
_____ game. The pieces were made of bamboo and each had ______ Chi-
nese character on it.

Task 6. Write sentences with whole.


1. I read the book from beginning to end. I read the whole book.
2. Everyone in the team played well. The __________________
___________________
3. Paul opened a box of chocolates. When he finished eating, there were
no chocolates left in the box. He ate _______________________
_____________.
4. The police came to the house. They were looking for something. They
searched everywhere, every room. They _____________________
_________________
5. Ann worked from early in the morning until late in the evening.
__________
6. Everyone in Dave and Judy’s family plays tennis. Dave and Judy play,
and so do all their children. The __________________________
_________________
7. Jack and Jill went on holiday to the seaside for a week. It rained from
the beginning of the week to the end. It _____________________
_____________
Now write the sentences using all instead of whole.

Task 7. Which is the correct alternative?


1. I’ve spent the whole money / all the money you gave me.
2. Sue works every day / all days except Sunday.
3. I am tired. I’ve been working hard all the day / all day.
4. It was a terrible fire. Whole building / the whole building was de-
stroyed.
Unit 7. Articles with countable nouns modified by attributes 51

5. I’ve been trying to phone her all day but every time / all the time
I phone her the line is engaged.
6. I don’t like the weather here. It rains every time / all the time.
7. When I was on holiday, all my luggage / my whole luggage was stolen.

Task 8. Insert another or the other.


1. A person who has not done one half of his day’s work by ten o’clock,
runs he chance of leaving … half undone. 2. Her hands lay on her lap motion-
less, one in … loosely clasped. 3. There was … silence, not a long one. 4. Then
she came and sat down on … side of the hearth. 5. There was … reason why he
was disturbed. Though he was ambitious, he had high standards of behaviour.
6. Fleur stole … look. 7. The boy sidled nearer, moving one foot slowly after
…. 8. There was … thing I liked in Mrs. Strickland.

Task 9. Insert articles where necessary.


It’s true story. Man decided to rob bank in town where he lived. He
walked into bank and handed note to one of cashiers. Cashier read note,
which told her to give man some money. Afraid that he might have gun, she
did as she was told. Man then walked out of building, leaving note behind.
However, he had no time to spend money because he was arrested same day.
He had made mistake. He had written note on back of envelope. And on
other side of envelope was his address and name. This clue was quite enough
for detective on case.

Task 10. Translate into English.


I. 1. Вы мне дали не тот адрес. – Я дал вам правильный адрес, это
вы записали его неправильно. 2. Мы узнали, что семинар отменяется,
в самый день нашего отъезда. 3. Они жили на одной улице, но позна-
комились в другом городе. 4. Он набрал не тот номер. 5. В следующий
раз, когда поедете в Италию, привезите мне оливкового масла. 6. На
следующей странице документа вы увидите график продаж. 7. Ос-
новная тема этого рассказа – пропасть между поколениями. 8. Меня
интересуют следующие вопросы. 9. У него было три сестры, он был
единственным мальчиком в семье. 10. Психологи считают, что един-
ственный ребенок в семье более эгоцентричен и независим. 11. У меня
большая семья. У меня есть отец, мать, две бабушки и дедушка. Второй
дедушка умер до моего рождения. 12. Семья, о которой вы говорите,
живет в следующем доме.
II. 1. На нашей улице строится новый кинотеатр, который будет
оснащен огромным экраном. 2. Сколько человек будет вмещать новый
кинотеатр, который строится в вашем городе? 3. Они вошли в вагон,
в котором не было свободных мест. 4. В вагоне, в который они вош-
ли, не было свободных мест. 5. Сегодня группа туристов, которая со-
52 Unit 7. Articles with countable nouns modified by attributes

стоит в основном из студентов, поедет в Париж. 6. Группа туристов,


которая сегодня отбыла в Париж, состоит в основном из студентов.
7. Она посмотрела на часы на углу улицы и поняла, что опоздает на се-
анс. 8. На углу нашей улицы висят часы, которые были сделаны еще
в XIX веке. 9. Главную роль в этой пьесе играла молодая талантливая
актриса, которая недавно окончила театральный институт. 10. В Ин-
тернете много отзывов о молодой талантливой актрисе, которая сы-
грала роль Анны. 11. Вашего сына будет оперировать хирург, который
сейчас работает над диссертацией на эту тему. 12. Хирург, который
будет оперировать вашего сына, как раз работает над диссертацией
на эту тему.
III. Это был старинный белый дом; он был окружен большим са-
дом. 2. Дом построен два года назад. 3. Мы опоздали на поезд, и нам
пришлось долго ждать на вокзале. 4. Мы вошли в маленькую комнату,
в которой стоял стол, несколько стульев и кресло. 5. Я надеюсь, что
завтра вы дадите мне ответ. 6. Это фильм, который я хочу посмотреть.
7. Когда я вошел, она читала книгу. 8. Она отложила в сторону кни-
гу, которую читала, и посмотрела в окно. 9. Я знаю юношу, который
пишет стихи. 10. Юноша, который только что вошел, пишет стихи.
11. Вчера по радио я услышал песню, которая мне очень понравилась.
12. Песня, которую вы напеваете, кажется мне знакомой. 13. Они жи-
вут в небольшом городке во Франции. 14. Женщина переехала в город,
где жили ее родители. 15. Это трудная работа? 16. Работа, которую ему
дали, была нетрудной, но утомительной. 17. Я люблю классическую
музыку. 18. Мне не нравится музыка, которую он пишет. 19. Я нена-
вижу дождь. 20. Он не заметил, когда начался дождь. 21. Он любит
давать советы. 22. Спасибо за совет, который вы мне дали.
Unit 8
MODIFICATION OF NOUNS BY NUMERALS.
DEFINING AND NON - DEFINING CLAUSES

1. Modification of nouns by numerals


Task 1. Insert the appropriate articles.
1. Our train leaves from …. platform 5.
2. Have you got these shoes in …. size 43?
3. During …. second week of October she met him in Paris.
4. Would you like …. second spoonful of sugar in your coffee?
5. …. room 126 of our hotel is on …. upper floor.
6. He refused …. two invitations to parties because he wanted to stay alone.
7. …. two invitations he received were from close friends of his.
8. Please open …. page 23 of …. book.
9. The examination paper wasn’t too difficult but I couldn’t answer ….
eighth question.
10. “Flight BA123 to Vienna is now boarding at …. Gate 8.”
11. Our new apartment is on …. third floor.
12. I took two painkiller pills and they didn’t work. I have to take … third pill.

Task 2. Insert articles if necessary.


1. … room 215 is on … fifth floor. 2. The car stopped at … corner of … Fifth
Avenue and … 112th Street. 3. I was very thirsty and took … second cup of tea,
then … third and only after … fourth I felt that I had enough. 4. We have made
… first step, but it should be regarded only as … first step, as the beginning.
5. “Conductor, where do I get off to change to … bus 5?” 6. They went by …
seven o’clock train. 7. I want … two tickets for … two-fifteen. 8. In passing the
house we noticed … two old women in the front garden talking animatedly. On
our way back we found … two women still chatting. 9. The train for Odessa leaves
from … platform 1, … track 3. 10. Can … two of you help me? 11. Today in court
we are listening to … case 243. 12. … second part of the book was much more in-
teresting than … first one. 13. … participle one is used for building up progressive
tenses. 14. … second participle is used to build up Passive forms. 15. … flight 579
54 Unit 8. Modification of nouns by numerals. Defining and non-defining clauses

starts at … five sharp. 16. The planes came again for … second attack. 17. It was
… first-night and the actors were nervous. 18. … exercise 27 begins at … page
44. 19. … year passed, then … second, and … third, but there was still no news.
20. They agreed to meet on … Fifth Avenue near … building No. 112. 21. … two
years in Africa taught him a lot. 22. … flat 55 is on … fifth floor. 23. The room
was at … sixes and sevens. 24. This style was in fashion in … eighties. 25. It was …
fifty-fifty deal. 26. She was … third-year medical student.

Task 3. Explain the use of articles with the nouns in bold type.
1. She gave the shop a final glance. 2. They want a big family, so they are
so keen to have a third child. 3. He presented all this in a most diplomatic
way. 4. Amelia was pregnant and she was in seventh heaven. 5. She gave the
portrait a last glance and went out. 6. She poured a second glass. 7. Mine
is a third generation computer. 8. There is always a first time. 9. A first love
is never forgotten. 10. It was like a second honeymoon for them. 11. Please,
Frank, think twice before you make a final decision. 12. They are installing
a second bathroom upstairs. 13. I do not like food which has been warmed up
a second time. 14. I’m afraid we need a third mind to decide this.

Task 4. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the words in bold
type.
1. She is a second cousin of Mark’s father. 2. He was quite certain she
had no need or desire to meet with him a second time. 3. Edvina returned
to her book without giving her mother a second glance or a second thought.
4. It’s said that everything goes in threes. 5. And then, to be a second wife
was so much more difficult than to be a first. 6. I’m glad they’ve gone to
Venice for a second honeymoon. 7. He was heavily defeated in a second round
of local elections. 8. In the bookshop to his delight Maxim spotted a copy of
“The Young Lions” by Irwin Shaw, his favourite writer. It was a first edition,
published in 1948. 9. Over the years I have acquired a sixth sense about my
mother’s mood. 10. Is it possible to find a second job? 11. A third clerk left
her desk and prepared to leave. 12. Without a second thought Blackie said
urgently, “I have a solution, Emma! Marry me!” 13. The boy slopped through
the ledge on all fours. 14. I think it’s better this way, that we go out in twos
and threes – less noticeable, for one thing. 15. I was worried. Everything
seemed to be at sixes and sevens. 16. I began, as they say, to put two and two
together. 17. A first class college offers you the highest standards of educating.
18. Elevenses is a light snack that you have in the middle of the morning.

Task 5. Insert the proper articles.


1. _____ four dogs came running along _____ street.
2. Physics is taught in _____ Room 10.
3. He had five wives and Sarah was _____ third.
4. _____ five days seemed _____ age to him.
1. Modification of nouns by numerals 55

5. I prefer to travel _____ first class.


6. He fall asleep on _____ page 815 of ‘War and Peace’.
7. Italy scored _____ second goal just after half-time.
8. As _____ dancer, she is _____ second to none.
9. Nobody buys his books, he’s _____ third-rate writer.
10. He knew he should have _____ third try.
11. It is _____ eighteenth-century building.
12. _____ Chicago train is about to depart from _____ track 5.
13. We are having _____ chicken for _____ first course.
14. Alan Power is _____ Formula One driver.
15. It’s _____ fourth room down _____ corridor.
16. Open _____ book at _____ page twenty-five, please.
17. _____ telephone rang almost _____ third time immediately.
18. _____ World War II broke out on _____ first of September 1939.
19. _____ hero dies in _____ Act 5, _____ Scene 3.
20. It’s certain that _____ song will go _____ number one on _____
hit-list.
21. Mary was _____ second of _____ four interview candidates.
22. Between _____ two stools one falls to _____ ground.
23. _____ friend of ours invited Jill to _____ first night performance at
_____ theatre.
24. Everything was done in _____ two weeks since they had arrived from
_____ seaside.
25. Soon she arrived with _____ second consultant to discuss _____
operation they wanted her to undergo.
26. Encouraged by her smile _____ boy took _____ third helping of
_____ apple pie.
27. _____ two leaders have laid _____ foundations of _____ new era in
_____ cooperation between their countries.

Task 6. Translate into English.


A. 1. Глава XIII начинается на странице 44. 2. Вы читали оба тома
этого романа? – Нет, я прочитал только первый том и еще не успел
взяться за второй. 3. Дом № 8 на этой улице – четвертый справа. 4. За
первым взрывом последовал второй, затем третий. 5. Вот идет 15-й ав-
тобус. 6. Скажите, пожалуйста, когда прибывает двенадцатичасовой
поезд. 7. Кто мне разменяет пятисотрублевую купюру? 8. Не посове-
туете ли, как мне добраться до вокзала? – Садитесь на 5-й троллейбус
и, когда проедете четыре остановки, пересядьте на 7-й. 7-й довезет
вас прямо до места. 9. Они живут на Вязовой улице, дом 10, квартира
5, первый подъезд, второй этаж. 10. Их было трое, и все трое одного
возраста. 11. Как вы думаете, сможем ли мы вчетвером донести этот
рояль на девятый этаж?
56 Unit 8. Modification of nouns by numerals. Defining and non-defining clauses

B. 1. Я родился 31 декабря, так что это двойной праздник для меня.


2. Ум хорошо, а два лучше. 3. Спортзал находится на четвертом этаже.
4. Школа № 1248 находится на 13-й Парковой улице. 5. Дело номер 235
слушается в шестой комнате. 6. Восьмая часть прибыли этой фирмы
идет на благотворительность. 7. Как насчет второй чашечки кофе? –
Спасибо, одной достаточно. 8. Он сделал вторую, третью попытку,
и лишь четвертая увенчалась успехом. 9. У них большая семья. Вторая
машина им очень бы пригодилась. 10. В нашем гараже две машины.
Одна принадлежит моему отцу, а вторая – старшему брату. 11. Мой
брат окончил школу в 2001 году. 12. Сейчас я перечитываю «Тысячу
и одну ночь». 13. Население этого города – семь миллионов человек.
14. Первая любовь не забывается. 15. Они встретились на премьере.
16. Книгами А. Кристи зачитываются миллионы. 17. Многим нравят-
ся фильмы шестидесятых. 18. Ему было где-то ближе к пятидесяти.
19. Мои друзья живут на Третьей авеню. 20. Дети пробрались через
изгородь на четвереньках. 21. Вода покрывает четыре пятых земной
поверхности. 22. В Ватикане 11 500 комнат. 23. В Республике Сан-
Марино живет всего 20 000 жителей.

2. Defining/non-defining clauses
Task 7. Complete the sentences with the correct or most appropriate relative
pronoun. Give alternatives if possible. Use – to indicate the zero
relative pronoun.
1. The thought of going home to his family was all ______ kept him
happy while he was working abroad.
2. She was probably the hardest working student ______ I’ve ever taught.
3. Lewis, the man _______ Johnson beat in the last World Champion-
ships, has broken the world record.
4. Lighting bonfires at this time of the year is a tradition _______ goes
back to the 17th century.
5. Dorothy said something ______ I couldn’t hear clearly.
6. There was little ______ we could do to help her.
7. The Royal Floridian is an express train ______ runs between New
York and Miami.
8. The machine _______ I have to use in my job cost over a million
pounds.
9. The diary ______ Ron kept when he was in prison was sold for
50,000 dollars.
10. I have a friend _____ ran in the New York Marathon last year.
11. We were told that we would be held responsible for anything ______
went wrong.
12. He’s probably the best golfer ______ I’ve played against.
2. Defining/non-defining clauses 57

Task 8. Write the information in brackets as a relative clause in an ap-


propriate place in the sentence. Give alternative relative pronouns
if possible. Use – to indicate the zero relative pronoun.
1. Jane has now sold the old car. (she was given it by her parents) – Jane
has now sold the old car which/that/- she was given by her parents.
2. The house is for sale. (it is next to ours)
3. Most of the forests have now been destroyed. (they once covered
Britain)
4. He took me to see the old farmhouse. (he is rebuilding it)
5. There have been complaints about the noise from people. (they live
in the flats)
6. The doctor has had to retire through ill health. (we know him)
Task 9. Add one of the pieces of the information below to each sentence.
Add who or which, and put the non-defining relative clause in an
appropriate place in the sentence.
has more than 50 members caused such damage in the islands
is an aviation expert stole a computer from the office
is set in the north of Australia ended yesterday
1. The Southam Chess Club meets weekly on Friday evenings.
2. Dr. Richard Newman was asked to comment on the latest helicopter
crash.
3. The strike by train drivers is estimated to have cost over 3 million.
4. John Graham’s latest film is his first for more than five years.
5. The police are looking for two boys aged about 14.
6. The hurricane has now headed out to sea.
Task 10. Write two sentences as one, using a non-defining relative clause
beginning with all, both, each, etc. + of which or of whom.
1. The film is about the lives of three women. Kate Dillon plays all the
women.
The film is about the lives of three women, all of whom are played
be Kate Dillon.
2. The island’s two million inhabitants have been badly affected by the
drought. Most of the island’s inhabitants are peasant farmers.
3. She has two older brothers. Neither of her brothers went to university.
4. About thirty of her friends and relations came to the airport to wel-
come her back. Many of her friends and relations have travelled long
distances.
5. The minister has recently visited Estonia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan.
They all have large Russian minorities.
6. The fish are multi-coloured. The biggest of the fish is only 2 cm long.
7. Scotland have won their last five international matches. One of these
matches was against England.
Unit 9
THE GENERIC USE OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE

Task 1. Read and translate the following sentences. Comment on the nouns
in bold type.
A. 1. The lion is the national emblem of Great Britain. 2. There is perfect
freedom in the mountains, but still it belongs to the eagle, and the elk, the
badger and the bear. 3. The eel is one of the few creatures in the world that
can kill by electrocution. 4. The parrot is the cleverest of all the birds, some
of them can learn 150 words. 5. A forget-me-not is a lovely flower. 6. The
emu is the largest bird in the world. It resembles the ostrich.
B. 1. The human mind is a strange and complex piece of machinery. It
takes a lot of understanding. 2. The calendar was a very useful invention.
3. I need a calendar for the new year. 4. The radio was invented long before
television. 5. The garden has always been a religious symbol starting from
the Koran and the Bible. 6. The article is a small word that causes a lot of
problems. 7. I love the ballet, but I fall asleep in the opera. 8. Television is
a highly competitive business.
C. 1. To her that great house appeared to be the most beautiful one ever
erected by mortal man. 2. He knew only too well the true nature of man.
3. Does man have no choice of action in the face of such circumstances?
The experiences of life show that man does have a choice of action. Man
can preserve spiritual freedom, independence of mind. An active life gives
man the opportunity to realize values in creative work. 4. The ancient Greeks
believed that man could not shape his own destiny as he was at the mercy of
Zeus. Over time, man realized that he did have power over his destiny. Im-
manuel Kant said that it’s the ability to choose that separates man from the
beast. Man has always stood up against the forces of the universe to proclaim,
“I AM MASTER OF MY FATE.”

Task 2. Comment on the use of articles.


1. A bear is a wild animal.
2. Don’t forget, you are going to the doctor tomorrow.
Unit 9. The generic use of the definite article 59

3. She started to learn playing the piano at the age of five.


4. In such a small village, you wouldn’t expect to have a cinema.
5. The tiger can swim.
6. We went to the theatre last night and saw Flames. It’s a wonderful
play.
7. The horse has been replaced by the tractor.
8. I hope to see you at the bank.
9. Have you got any idea who invented the fridge?
10. Luckily the fire brigade came soon and put down the fire.
11. A man and a woman sat opposite us but they didn’t talk.
12. In many countries, the head of state is called the president.
13. No man born of woman can live in such conditions.
14. The equator runs round the middle of the earth.
15. I’ve got this annoying tune on the brain.
16. That night there was an amazing sky, full of different colours.
17. The tragedy and the comedy appeared in Greece.
18. We have landed man on the moon.
19. Somewhere a radio softly played.
20. The sky was brilliant blue.

Task 3. In the following sentences single out words referring not to single
objects but to a unique set of features characterizing a whole class
of similar objects.
1. In reading the romances the American boy becomes for a little while
the Indian, the trapper.
2. The average Italian restaurant tries to live up to its name by dousing
everything in tomato ketchup.
3. I should like to give you a little lecture upon the history and habits
of the domestic cat.
4. The rose is the heart of the world like the heart is the heart of the
body.
5. Of course, I don’t go very often to the cinema nowadays.
6. You are an idiot because no man born of woman is strong enough to
take liberties with his public.
7. The infinitive with “to” frequently expresses purpose, indicating that
one action will follow another.
8. It was certainly a nice morning. The sun was shining and the sky was
a clear pale blue that promised fine weather.
9. We sat on the ground with our backs against the wall and smoked.
Outside it was nearly dark.
10. The moon was down. The garden was totally indistinct.
11. Oh, well, there’s plenty more fish in the sea.
12. I’m glad a dozen times a week when I read in the papers of
what’s going on in the world.
60 Unit 9. The generic use of the definite article

Task 4. Insert the right article.


1. … azalea is truly an adaptable shrub as it will grow in all climates.
2. … rose is one of the oldest flowers in cultivation. 3. … man is harsher than
iron, harder than stone and more delicate than … rose. 4. Nobody can decide
which came first – … hen or … egg. 5. … circus makes people remember their
childhood. 6. … television was invented by the Scottish engineer John Baird
in 1926. 7. … postmark first appeared in England in 1840. 8. … sea cow is
not… cow at all. 9. … dragon symbolized evil in fairy tales. 10. … apple tree
and … grape are the oldest trees on the Earth. 11. The primary speech organ,
the birthplace of our words is … human heart. 12. … speaking watch will soon
be on … market. 13. … apple is … symbol of New York City. 14. … pen is
mightier than … sword, and considerably easier to write with.

Task 5. Read and translate the sentences. State what parts of speech are
substantivized and explain the use of articles with them.
1. He never stopped looking for the unexpected. 2. We reward the coura-
geous and the wounded. 3. This meeting is for me like a jump into the un-
known. 4. Now I am reading a book by I. Murdock “The Red and the Green”.
5. It’s still unclear when the officials are going to take decisive measures. 6. If
there is one secret weapon that’s possessed by the successful, it is that they
are highly organized. 7. Ben often thought regretfully about the past. 8. Try to
learn to sort the good from the bad. 9. The Greeks built a wooden horse that
the Troyans took into the city. 10. Must I understand the answer as a nega-
tive? 11. Don’t feel jealous, it’s a him, not a her I’m dining with tonight.
12. I hope I’ll get a five for the test. 13. We talked about what we wanted to
do, in the war and after, if there was an after. 14. The play was still running,
it was a sell-out at weekends. 15. And the sky now was a hard metallic blue.
16. The Downs are an area of low grassy hills in the South of England. 17. The
poor man lived among the down-and-out in the city Liverpool.

Task 6. Insert the right article.


1. This book is about the dazzling world of … rich and … powerful.
2. Come in, come in, out of … cold. 3. Her coat was … cast-off from her
cousin. 4. Blackie’s skin was dark, it was … nut brown. 5. Things have taken
a turn for … worse. 6. Emma was relieved at last that it was out in … open.
7. I felt claustrophobic all of … sudden. 8. He felt just … opposite. 9. She
always tried to see … best in people. 10. The prospect of a new business
deal gave her … high. 11. Her eyes were … startling blue. 12. The village was
deserted, and it looked as if … locals had left it. 13. You’ve said you like
the house, and yet there’s … but in your mind; I know you. 14. I vaguely
remember that the house became a home for … elderly. 15. My father, an
archaeologist, seems to prefer … past to … present. 16. The Governments of
many countries are doing … near impossible to stop terrorism.
Unit 9. The generic use of the definite article 61

Task 7. Insert the proper articles.


1. I’m afraid ______ violin is _____ instrument I never mastered.
2. Our lives are dominated by _____ television.
3. _____ dog makes ______ good pet.
4. _____ orange is _____ fruit, _____ watermelon is _____ berry.
5. Who invented _____ camera?
6. _____ man is mortal.
7. _____ computer has already changed our life dramatically.
8. «_____ man is helpless in this case», he said shrugging his shoulders.
9. And clapping me in _____ friendliest way on _____ shoulder he
went away.
10. _____ woman rarely loses heart in _____ face of financial or other
problems.
11. _____ train would be better than _____ bus, it leaves every hour.
12. I need some stamps, where can I find _____ post office?
13. I walked to _____ tube instead going on _____ taxi.
14. My fear of _____ dentist’s started when I was _____ child.
15. Since they built _____ bridge no one uses _____ ferry any more.
16. My sons are both in _____ army.
17. This town is boring, what we need is _____ cinema.
18. Can you get _____ loaf of bread from _____ baker’s?
19. I wonder why people go to _____ opera?
20. He got himself back to London the quickest way, by _____ train and
_____ plane.
21. Every solar system has _____ sun.
22. When _____ moon passes between _____ sun and _____ earth, it
is called _____ eclipse.
23. We don’t know how old _____ universe is.
24. He was looking through _____ window scanning _____ horizon.
25. _____ Prime Minister is expected to visit France at _____ end of
_____ month.
26. That night _____ sky was overcast and _____ moon couldn’t be seen.
Mike took along _____ pocket flashlight to light their way.
27. Now _____ sun came clear of _____ bank of clouds and flooded
_____ world with light.
28. She was wearing _____ old coat and when _____ sharp wind sprung
up, she was cold.
29. Far away to _____ south-east _____ dazzling white sun climbed
above _____ cloudless horizon.
30. _____ full moon sailing across _____ unclouded sky made _____
pathway on _____ broad sea.
62 Unit 9. The generic use of the definite article

Task 8. Insert the proper articles.


1. Rutherford split _____ atom in 1911.
2. She felt _____ sharp pain in _____ neck.
3. _____ bird was shot in _____ wing.
4. Not _____ word was spoken, nor _____ sound was made during
their long journey.
5. Though _____ earth was cold and wet, _____ sky was clear and
_____ sun rose bright and beautiful.
6. _____ compass was invented in ancient China.
7. Danny looked up at _____ house and suddenly saw _____ face in
_____ window of _____ dining room.
8. You know I don’t care for _____ drama, I prefer _____ comedy.
9. I just wanted to look at _____ place and ask you _____ question or
two.
10. _____ drowning man catches at _____ straw.
11. _____ woman will only be equal to _____ man when she earns her
living in _____ same way.
12. _____ cat is _____ extremely self-willed animal doing only what it
actually wants.
13. _____ computer allows us to deal with a lot of data very quickly.
14. We knew who _____ murderer was at _____ end of _____ first act.
15. She took me by _____ hand and led to _____ house.
16. _____ cow gives us _____ milk.
17. Both _____ tiger and _____ leopard are cats.
18. _____ boy gave _____ loud shout which was heard across _____
river.
19. He was wearing _____ coat which was too big for him.
20. He hurt _____ leg in _____ accident.
21. _____ man we want has _____ red scar on _____ face.
22. _____ courageous man doesn’t fear _____ danger.
23. They say that _____ pen is mightier than _____ sword.
24. For centuries little was known about _____ American lobster.
25. _____ post office is _____ place where you can buy stamps.
26. William crashed _____ car into _____ lamp post.
27. He was _____ only survivor of _____ crash.
28. What’s _____ largest of all creatures? – _____ whale.
29. _____ organ that pumps blood around our bodies is called _____
heart.
30. _____ bridge is _____ structure that is built over _____ river, rail-
way, road.
31. _____ mango is sweeter than _____ apple.
32. He had hardly spoken _____ word since we left _____ house.
33. I have _____ wonderful clock, which is 100 years old.
Unit 9. The generic use of the definite article 63

34. _____ wedding looked sad. _____ bride was too old and _____ bride-
groom was too young.
35. I had _____ idea that she had _____ weight problem.
36. Have you got _____ book that would tell me what to do?
37. Then I saw _____ car parked by _____ side of _____ road. _____
driver was asleep.
38. He is _____ cousin on my father’s side.
39. I wish _____ mobile phone had never been invented!

Task 9. Translate into English.


1. Летнее время было впервые введено в Англии в 1908 году. Часы
перевели на один час вперед. 2. Коала ассоциируется с Австралией.
3. Кит – млекопитающее, но он живет в море. 4. Слон живет в Индии
и в Центральной Африке. 5. Во многих странах есть памятники жи-
вотным: в нашей стране – это памятник собаке, в Индии – памятник
слону, в Соединенных Штатах – памятник обезьяне. 6. Когда и кем
был изобретен телефон? 7. Велосипед – прекрасное транспортное
средство. 8. Гитара появилась в Испании в XIII веке. 9. Никто не знает,
когда человек изобрел колесо. 10. Подлежащее и сказуемое – главные
члены предложения. 11. Любовный роман – один из литературных
жанров. 12. Она взяла в путешествие любовный роман. 13. В Индии
корова – священное животное. 14. Тюльпан – один из самых первых
весенних цветов. 15. Доллар – денежная единица Соединенных Шта-
тов. 16. У паука восемь ног. 17. Волынка – музыкальный инструмент,
на котором играют шотландцы. 18. Компьютер был впервые создан
в инженерной школе в Пенсильвании в 1946 году. 19. Апельсин – сим-
вол штата Флорида. 20. Бог создал мужчину и женщину. 21. Коротка
жизнь человека! 22. Слово – более сильное оружие, чем меч.
Unit 10
ARTICLES WITH VARIOUS UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS.
ARTICLES WITH NOUNS REFERRING
TO UNIQUE OBJECTS

1. Articles with names of substances and with abstract nouns


Task 1. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the nouns in bold type.
1. Life is too short to learn more than one business well. 2. Lord, what
a hectic life! 3. Time is a great healer. 4. Those were mysterious times. 5. Do one
thing at a time. 6. I’ve always had a tough time with the critics. 7. I enjoy walk-
ing in the forest in autumnal weather. 8. He sensed that the weather was going
to change. 9. She would take the dog out for a run in all weathers. 10. What
miserable weather! 11. Sensational news is hard to get, journalists know it well.
12. What wonderful news! It calls for a toast. 13. Success doesn’t come easy.
14. This movie was a huge success. 15. We’ve had some successes in tennis
lately. 16. Power corrupts people. 17. Words have a magic power. 18. She glanced
down at my little dog, who was jumping against her legs, “I hope this dog
isn’t going to cover me with hairs”. 19. There is a hair on your jacket. Let me
brush it off. 20. Age is strictly a chronological thing. If you feel young, you’re
gonna be young. 21. Oh, nice to see you, I haven’t seen you for ages!

Task 2. Use the appropriate articles with uncountable nouns.


1. …. weather is fine today. Let’s go for a walk. I like to walk in …. good
weather.
2. I can say I feel …. great respect for this man.
3. Doesn’t he understand that he is talking …. nonsense?
4. This is …. very interesting news. I would say …. news is shocking.
5. First of all you must think about …. health.
6. …. advice he gave me was useful indeed. He is …. clever man and
always gives …. good advice.
7. What he needs now is …. luck and I am sure he will achieve …. success.
8. You’ve made …. great progress this year and got …. deep knowledge
of the subject.
1. Articles with names of substances and with abstract nouns 65

9. It was …. fun to watch …. children playing.


10. …. work must be done in time. It’s …. urgent work.
11. Tim is …. man of … great physical strength.
12. …. information he has may be interesting for us.
13. He is interested in …. life of …. great people.
14. I think he had …. interesting life.
15. Be careful not to break it. It’s made of …. glass.
16. …. doctors say he mustn’t eat …. meat. They say …. meat can do
him harm.
17. …. child ate …. soup very quickly. He always has …. soup for lunch.
18. …. fish doesn’t smell good. Don’t eat it.
19. He likes …. strong tea with …. sugar and …. lemon.
20. Waiter! I’d like …. juice and …. ice-cream, please.
21. Don’t give her …. ice-cream. She has a cold.
22. I don’t want anything but …. plain water.
23. Can I have …. bread and …. butter? – …. butter is in the fridge and
here is …. bread.
24. There is …. fire over there. Some house is on …. fire.
25. I don’t think …. English grammar is very difficult.
26. …. life is impossible without …. water and …. air.
27. …. tourists made …. fire and cooked …. food.
28. …. paper is rough. I need …. better paper.
29. Only some animals are afraid of …. water but all animals are afraid
of …. fire.

Task 3. Insert the right article.


1. Henry Rossiter had … cool and refined mind. … cultured man, he was
… art connoisseur, … collector of rare first editions, … devotee of drama and
music. … product of … rich and old family, he was today … curious amal-
gam of … upper-class English conservative principles and … international
sophistication.
2. As I sat in … library this morning, leafing through those books again,
I could not help thinking that Lettice had been a lot like me, in many ways.
… homemaker, … cook, … gardener, … painter, … woman interested in fur-
nishings and all those things which make … home beautiful. And she had
been… devoted mother and … adoring wife, just as I had.
3. Victor was … gentle and reflective boy. And he had … deep understand-
ing of human frailties. He was … thinker and … dreamer, and he had … soul
of … poet. Victor was happiest when he was reading or listening to … music
of Mahler and Beethoven.
4. … sin includes such things as … lying, … lust, … cheating, … deceit, …
anger, … evil thoughts, … immoral behavior, and more. Most visible virtues
in people are … responsibility, … energy, … hard work, … enthusiasm, and
… perseverance.
66 Unit 10. Articles with various uncountable nouns. Articles with nouns…

Task 4. Most of these sentences have a mistake in them. Correct them if


necessary.
1. I believe it’s very difficult to find a cheap accommodation in London.
2. We’re looking for a place to rent.
3. We’re late because they’re re-surfacing the motorway and the traffics
are terrible.
4. He was asked to leave the college because of the bad behavior at the
end of term party.
5. I’m going to phone my brother to wish him good luck for his driving
test.
6. I think it’s a pity Rebecca has had her hairs cut short because she
looked much more attractive before.
7. It’s not a bad room, but a furniture takes up too much space.
8. As an old friend, can I give an advice?
9. If we don’t have up-to-date information, how can we make sensible
decisions?
10. Fortunately, the check-up was less unpleasant experience than I had
expected.

Task 5. Translate into English. Take care to distinguish uncountable and


countable nouns!
1. Это очень хороший совет. 2. Совет хороший. 3. Какой мудрый
совет! 4. Какие полезные советы! 5. Что нового? 6. Новости хорошие?
7. Он привез плохие вести. 8. Это такая неожиданная новость. 9. Та-
кие сведения всегда нужны. 10. Сведения уже поступили? 11. Какие
ценные сведения! 12. Не стоит трогаться в путь в дождливую погоду.
13. Мы не тронемся, пока погода не изменится к лучшему. 14. Вчера
была такая скверная погода! 15. Был такой чудесный день! 16. Дай
деньги мне. Ты ведь такой рассеянный, ты их всегда теряешь. 17. Ка-
кой неожиданный визит! 18. Он нашел такую хорошую работу! 19. Ка-
кая интересная работа! 20. Не забудь прочитать книгу. Это такая инте-
ресная книга! 21. Группа сделала такие успехи! 22. Какой успех имела
пьеса! 23. Это такая серьезная статья! 24. Какую хорошую статью вы
написали!

Task 6. Translate into English paying attention to the use of articles with
uncountable concrete nouns (names of substances).
1. Не стоит купаться, вода слишком холодная. 2. Подлей воды в суп:
он слишком густой. 3. Он попросил стакан воды. 4. Снег был очень
глубокий. 5. Он стал белым как снег. 6. Очень трудно ходить по глу-
бокому снегу. 7. Кофе крепкий. 8. Я люблю кофе. 9. Подогрей кофе.
10. Лимон очень полезен. 11. Нарежь лимон. 12. Купи лимон к чаю.
13. Конфеты не заменяют сахар. 14. Вино кислое. 15. Я предпочитаю
1. Articles with names of substances and with abstract nouns 67

полусладкое вино. 16. Приходи в гости, я угощу тебя вином, которого


ты никогда не пробовал. 17. Некоторые люди едят мороженое на улице
даже зимой. 18. Купи ребенку мороженое. 19. Пока вы разговаривали,
мороженое растаяло.

Task 7. Translate into English paying attention to uncountable nouns chan-


ging their meaning.
1. Художники умеют видеть красоту окружающих вещей. 2. Эта
девушка – настоящая красавица. 3. Дом сделан из камня. 4. Мне в бо-
тинок попал камешек. 5. Лимон богат витамином С. 6. Купи лимон
к чаю. 7. Природу нужно охранять. 8. У Эмили очень романтичная
натура. 9. Свет необходим для жизни. 10. Вдалеке мы увидели огонек.
11. Дания, Голландия, Швейцария славятся своими сырами. 12. Фрук-
товые и овощные соки очень полезны. 13. На завтрак у меня обычно
тосты с сыром и апельсиновый сок. 14. Италия и Франция знамениты
своими винами.

Task 8. Translate into English paying attention to the use of articles with
the underlined abstract and concrete nouns.
A.
1. Какая красивая ваза! – Это цветное стекло.
2. Дай мне, пожалуйста, стакан воды.
3. На столе лежал лимон и два апельсина.
4. Хочешь чаю с лимоном?
5. Я угощу тебя чаем, которого ты никогда не пробовал.
6. Возьми утюг и погладь белье.
7. Железо на воздухе быстро ржавеет.
8. Еще в начале века все печи в Лондоне топили углем.
9. Из камина выпал уголек.
10. Что приготовить на ужин, мясо или рыбу? – Я предпочел бы цы-
пленка.
11. Карась – пресноводная рыба, а сардина – рыба морская.
12. Что вы будете пить: чай, кофе?
13. В кафе он взял на завтрак яйцо, ветчину и чашку кофе.
B.
1. Он посмотрел на меня с удивлением.
2. Простота и искренность – очень ценные качества.
3. Я люблю музыку. / Я не люблю громкую музыку. / Я не люблю
музыку, которую он пишет.
4. Он любил жизнь и все делал с любовью и интересом.
5. Он прожил долгую и счастливую жизнь.
6. Любовь, которая она к нему испытывает, поражает нас.
68 Unit 10. Articles with various uncountable nouns. Articles with nouns…

7. Он вдруг почувствовал сильный страх.


8. Страх, который он чувствовал в ее присутствии, удивлял его
самого.
9. Он ко всему относится с легкой иронией.
10. Ирония его рассказов является отличительной чертой его ав-
торского стиля.
C.
1. Он прожил безгрешную жизнь. 2. Жизнь такова, какой вы ее
делаете. 3. Это неизбежно. Это вопрос времени. 4. Это было очень
счастливое время. 5. Упорный труд принесет вам успех. 6. Успехи,
которые сделал Брэндон, радуют его родителей. 7. Вы согласны, что
успех улучшает характер? 8. Она пишет очень оригинальные произ-
ведения. 9. Если с ее головы упадет хоть один волосок, то ты об этом
очень пожалеешь. 10. Она нашла у себя несколько седых волосков
и очень расстроилась. 11. Язык имеет большую силу. 12. У меня нет
опыта работы с детьми. 13. Это был очень печальный опыт. 14. У него
есть воля и честолюбие. 15. Она очень волевой человек. 16. Он говорит,
что хочет составить завещание. 17. Он начал работать в раннем возрас-
те. 18. Это книга для людей всех возрастов. 19. Сто лет тебя не видела,
как ты? 20. Любви все возрасты покорны.

2. Articles with nouns referring to unique objects


Task 10. Use the appropriate article with nouns denoting things and notions
considered to be unique.
1. The clouds were lying so closely below the plane that nothing could
be seen of … earth. 2. The huge disc of … moon was rising in … east. 3. The
clouds broke away and we had the advantage of … full moon. 4. Magellan
was killed in battle. Eighteen of his companions reached Spain in 1522,
completing the first voyage round … world. 5. Quite … new world opened
before him. 6. The night was so dark that the sailors could distinguish neither
… sky nor … sea. 7. … sea was sparkling under … cloudless sky. 8. … clear
midday sky was suddenly overcast by heavy clouds coming from nowhere.
9. The air was filled with the odour of … sea of blossoms. 10. … high noon
sun was incredibly strong, … summer sun now, sudden, uncompromising.

Task 11. Insert the article if necessary.


1. This is … way of … world. 2. Edwina lived in … world entirely of her
own making. 3. Isn’t it… small world? 4. It was … raw January day, and
although … sun was bright in … clear sky, … wind was sharp with … frost
and … Atlantic rain. 5. … moon cast … dancing reflection onto … river.
6. … gentle wind whispered in … trees. 7. … third-quarter moon appeared
in … sky. 8. There are four cardinal points on … earth – … south, … north,
2. Articles with nouns referring to unique objects 69

… east, … west. 9. There are ten principal planets in our solar system which is
called … Milky Way. They are: … Sun and … Moon, … Mercury, … Venus, …
Mars, … Jupiter, … Saturn, … Uranus, … Neptune, … Pluto. 10. … horizon
is the line at which … earth (or … sea) and … sky seem to meet. 11. Do you
feel in harmony with … Universe? 12. The edge of … brilliant red sun was
now gleaming through the trees. 13. God, what … world! 14. They are from
… absolutely different worlds!

Task 12. Describe the following using the words “sun”, “moon”, “earth”,
“sky”, “sea”, etc.
1. summer day near the sea;
2. a winter day in the forest;
3. a spring day in the field;
4. an autumn day in the garden.
Unit 11
ARTICLES WITH NOUNS IN SOME SYNTACTIC
POSITIONS

1. Articles with predicative nouns.


Articles with nouns in apposition
Task 1. Comment on the use of articles with nouns in bold type.
1. Matilda, a sensitive and brilliant girl, was very quick to learn. 2. The
dictionary, a Collins, is the most reliable source of information for me. 3. Ben
and Andy, undisciplined boys, drove many teachers to despair. 4. Tatyana,
a colleague of mine, invited us to her birthday party. 5. Pushkin, the great
Russian poet, loved autumn very much. 6. Walt Disney, the famous film
animator and producer, created Disneyland, a large pleasure park, which was
opened in California in 1955. 7. The next day, a Tuesday, a telegram came.
8. We had some wine for dinner, a bottle of Italian white wine. 9. Presi-
dent Washington was an outstanding man. 10. Who is Prime Minister of the
UK? 11. Was the meeting of the President and the Prime Minister unoffi-
cial? 12. The artist Stubbs painted mostly horses. 13. Colonel Baden-Powell,
the founder of the Boy Scout movement, was an Englishman. 14. Mind, it
won’t work. As long as I’m head of this company, I will handle all of our top
customers. 15. As long as I’m here, you’ll respect Bruce. He’s still chairman.
16. You see, Nigel, as managing director of Jardine’s, I have the last word.
17. The Queen acts on the advice of the Prime Minister. 18. Peter the Great,
Czar of all Russias, was an outstanding man. 19. Alexander the Great, the
Macedonian conqueror of Persia, was one of the most successful military
commanders of the ancient world. 20. Dean Martin, a very popular singer,
will be performing at the Hilton Hotel.
Task 2. Insert the article if necessary.
I. Mr. Marshall is a well-known economist, … expert in his field.
2. … Princess Margaret is known for her charity work. 3. Helen Westwood,
… professor of philology, studies the slang of teenagers. 4. Tracey, … moni-
toress of the group, kept the register. 5. … Doctor Johnson will accept you
2. The absence of articles in parallel structures 71

in a minute, madam. 6. There lived once two brothers, … good and unre-
markable men. 7. Vladimir Nabokov, … world-famous Russian writer, was
a master of style. 8. Brian is … personnel manager of our firm. 9. … King
Arthur is often compared with … czar Peter the Great. 10. Many delegates
spoke at the conference: … chemist Jones, … ecologist Nelson, … biologist
McDean. 11. … academician Lichatchyov was a great authority in this coun-
try. 12. He is … President, so he has the last word. 13. Will … Prime Minister
Blair discuss it with … Queen? 14. We are looking forward to July, … month
of our graduation. 15. I went into the town, … large village really, looking
for a hotel. 16. Christopher Wren, … English architect and mathematician,
rebuilt the centre of London after the Great fire of 1666.

Task 3. Translate into English.


1. Байрон, великий английский поэт, сражался за свободу Греции.
2. Мой друг – вице-президент большой компании. 3. Каждое Рож-
дество тетя Хелен и дядя Роберт приезжают навестить моих родите-
лей. 4. Мне очень понравился дом моих друзей, очаровательное белое
строение на берегу озера. 5. Этот человек в смокинге – президент ма-
ленькой южноафриканской республики. 6. У президента сейчас пере-
говоры с премьер-министром. 7. Соседские дети, шумные подростки,
иногда просили разрешения поплавать в нашем бассейне. 8. Зимний
дворец был построен архитектором Растрелли. 9. Эштон Дуглас – гла-
ва нашей компании. 10. Все дети любят Микки Мауса, знаменитого
мультипликационного персонажа. 11. Профессор Фокс получил в свое
время Нобелевскую премию по литературе. 12. Собака, огромная ов-
чарка, охраняла дом по ночам. 13. Киви, тропический фрукт, богат
витамином С. 14. Картина, небольшое полотно, стоила целое состо-
яние. 15. Инженер Смит – знаток своего дела. 16. Ты отличаешься
от меня так же, как я от своего дяди Джеймса. 17. Мисс Джун Форсайт,
внучка старого Джолиона, пытается убедить своего дедушку помочь
ее возлюбленному выбраться из финансовых трудностей.

2. The absence of articles in parallel structures


Task 4. Read and translate the following sentences, paying attention to the
phrases in bold type.
1. Step by step we are getting nearer to our goal. 2. They walked from
room to room, admiring what they saw. 3. Day after day things are impro-
ving. 4. We’ve been working side by side for so many years. 5. She read the
foreign text slowly, line by line. 6. We call each other from time to time.
7. The fellow kept grinning from ear to ear. 8. It was all a big lie from start to
finish. 9. I must tell you that from beginning to end you acted most foolishly.
10. He is a gentleman from head to toe. 11. During the war the family lived
from hand to mouth. 12. He keeps all his bank accounts under lock and
72 Unit 11. Articles with nouns in some syntactic positions

key. 13. Let me announce you now husband and wife. 14. Mother and child
should be protected by State. 15. Time after time I’ve tried to walk away from
you. 16. The moon was rolling slowly in the sky, from star to star. 17. Traffic
stood nose to tail all the way down the Strand.

Task 5. Translate into English.


1. День за днем она мечтала о встрече с ним. 2. Они живут душа
в душу. 3. Око за око, зуб за зуб. 4. Мы промокли с головы до ног.
5. Начался шторм, и катер швыряло из стороны в сторону. 6. Книга
такая интересная, что я знаю ее от корки до корки. 7. Они встречали
все трудности плечом к плечу. 8. Они пришли на встречу под руч-
ку. 9. Вы когда-нибудь встречались с ним лицом к лицу? 10. Машина
и водитель слились в единое целое. 11. У отца и сына должно быть
взаимопонимание. 12. Хозяин и помощник трудились с утра до ночи.
13. Они неразлучны, словно рука и перчатка. 14. Они очень бедны
и живут впроголодь. 15. Дама в красном танцует со мной щека к щеке.
17. Транспорт стоял вплотную на проспекте.

Task 6. Comment on the use of the articles.


1. What a risky situation!
2. What strong coffee!
3. What smart dresses!
4. We have got such smashing news.
5. He is such an outstanding man.
6. It’s a really difficult decision.
7. We are having such depressing weather this autumn!
8. It was quite an interesting film, wasn’t it?
9. The house has a garage and a fairly big garden.
10. That’s rather a difficult book – here’s an easier one for you.

Task 7. Insert the proper articles.


1. It was such _____ steep hill.
2. We are having such _____ nice weather.
3. Tom tells such _____ awful jokes.
4. It’s such _____ long time since I saw you.
5. Vicky got such _____ warm welcome that she almost cried.
6. What _____ waste of all that good work!
7. Come into the living-room. – Thank you. Oh, what _____ nice room!
8. Vicky believes in ghosts. – Oh, what _____ nonsense she talks.
9. Let’s go for _____ midnight swim. – What _____ suggestion!
10. My life’s such _____ mess.
11. I think about you all the time, Emma. – What _____ lies you tell
me, Mathew!
12. What _____ fun we had at _____ party!
2. The absence of articles in parallel structures 73

13. We found it quite _____ change when we moved to London.


14. What _____ nice shoes you’ve got on!
15. We had quite _____ nice meal at _____ Italian restaurant.
16. What _____ extraordinary advice!
17. Such _____ cruelty really is beyond my comprehension.
18. What _____ shame you missed _____ school!
Unit 12
SPECIAL DIFFICULTIES IN THE USE OF ARTICLES

1. Articles with names of seasons. Articles with names of parts


of the day and night
Task 1. Comment on the use of the articles with names of seasons, days of
the week, holidays.
1. The winter was fine that year and we were happy. 2. The autumn of 1970
was very warm. 3. It was summer and the place broke up in red flowers. 4. He
won’t last through the spring. 5. We had a rainy summer. 6. Easter is a great
time in Poland. 7. What are you doing after lunch on Tuesday? 8. They ar-
rived on a Saturday as far as I can remember. 9. It happened on the Saturday
after my birthday. 10. The Christmas I remember best from my childhood
happened when I was about five. It really was a very special Christmas.

Task 2. Insert the proper articles.


1. She starts work on _____ Monday next week. 2. They phoned on
_____ Monday before _____ accident. 3. My birthday falls on _____ Mon-
day this year. 4. I remember when Frank was last here. It was _____ Christ-
mas I got my new bike. 5. It was _____ Christmas to remember. 6. We are
returning after _____ Christmas. 7. _____ race is always held in _____ June.
8. We last saw Dave _____ June your mother was staying with us. 9. Even
though it was _____ March, the weather reminded me of _____ hot June
day. 10. _____ exhibition opens to _____ public at _____ Easter. 11. There
was _____ long drought in South Africa in _____ summer of 1993. 12. We
had _____ Indian summer that year, very hot until _____ October. 13. He
was hoping for _____ white Christmas with a lot of snow on _____ ground.
14. We had _____ really good time over _____ New Year. 15. I wish you
_____ merry Christmas and _____ happy New Year! 16. The twenty-ninth
is _____ Tuesday, isn’t it?
17. I’ll contact you in _____ New Year. 18. We arrived in England on
_____ cold wet Sunday in 1963. 19. I can’t remember _____ Christmas
like it.
1. Articles with names of seasons. Articles with names of parts of the day and night 75

Task 3. Insert the articles where necessary.


A. 1. It was … fine afternoon. 2. … morning was chilly. 3. It was … sunless
day. 4. … dawn would break soon. 5. It was … perfect summer evening on
… last day of August. 6. It was … early morning. 7. … twilight always makes
me feel sad, I don’t know why. 8. It was … golden November day, … Indian
summer day. 9. … days merged into … nights, … nights drifted into … dawns.
10. Of the four seasons I like … spring best. 11. We had … slushy winter last
year. 12. In … late autumn we lock our cottage till … spring. 13. … evening
fell, but there was no sign of him. 14. Early in … morning my dog licks me
awake. 15. If you look ugly in … early morning, sleep till … noon.
B. 1. … morning was bright and sunny. 2. It all happened on … bright and
sunny morning. 3. When morning came we were already far out in the sea.
4. It was … early morning; the sun had just risen. 5. It was early in … mor-
ning that a loud knock at the door took me out of bed. 6. … day broke cold
and windy. 7. The sun rose heralding the break of … day. 8. We returned late
in … afternoon. 9. It was … late afternoon when we returned. 10. Now and
then, a low roll of thunder broke … night. 11. … evening fell; lights began to
appear in the windows. 12. It is pleasant to go for a stroll on such … evening.
13. The elevator was closed for … night and she slowly walked up the two
flights of stairs. 14. We are expecting them towards … evening. 15. He spent
… restless night, thinking of what could be done. 16. In … winter they used
to plan what they would do on … warm day in … summer. 17. Have you got
enough wood for … winter? 18. It was … wild and snowy winter.
C. 1. It was … winter, and … night of bitter cold. 2. You see, … winter
was … very bad time for me, and I really had no money at all to buy … bread
with. 3. It was … very dark evening for … summer. 4. … summer drew to …
end, and … early autumn. 5. I wondered if … autumn would come upon
us two months before her time. 6. It was … lovely evening in … spring time
of … year; and in … soft stillness of … twilight, all … nature was very calm
and beautiful. … day had been fine and warm; but with coming of … night,
… air grew cool. 7. It was pretty late in … autumn when … declining sun,
struggling through … mist which had obscured it all day, looked brightly
upon … little Wiltshire village. 8. There was going to be … election soon, we
all knew: this was … spring of 1955. 9. It was … cold fall and … wind came
down from … mountains. 10. It was … fine day, early in … spring, and we
were in … good humour.

Task 4. Study these extracts from newspapers. Decide which of them need
an article with the highlighted word.
1. … They had to spend night in a hotel because the flight was delayed…
2. … will be able to wake up in morning and find their camera …
3. … was often kept awake at night by their song which floated up through
the window…
76 Unit 12. Special difficulties in the use of articles

4. … or are old people who go to bed in afternoon because they can’t af-
ford to heat their houses…
5. … until deliberations were completed. On Saturday morning, the jury
embarked on its most difficult task…
6. … be put into the sculpture itself; lights can be used at night which
focus on the works; better alarms at the …
7. … storm area grew and drifted southwards during afternoon, while
other storms developed over the North …
8. … can doze off in the sunshine, or wander out at night. Single parents
are, particularly on holiday, out on their …
9. …reflect the pain of the story. But, then, it was evening of celebration.
It all ended with audience …
10. … because in my head was a dream I had during night and I wanted
to continue that dream to …

Task 5. Translate into English.


1. Ночь. Скоро наступит рассвет. 2. Мой сосед – писатель, он обыч-
но работает по ночам, говорит, что в тишине лучше думается. 3. Мы
встали ранним утром, чтобы увидеть восход солнца. 4. Дети обещали
вернуться домой к вечеру. 5. На моих часах полночь. Вот и закончился
день. 6. Это произошло осенью прошлого года. 7. Поздняя осень – вре-
мя, когда природа готовится к зиме. 8. Была морозная январская ночь.
9. Мы встретились в одну из пятниц. 10. Какая волшебная ночь! 11. Он
трудился без отдыха день за днем. 12. Говорят, будет ранняя весна.
13. Ночь перед Рождеством – самое чудесное время. 14. После заката
всегда становится холоднее. 15. Большинство людей предпочитают
отдыхать в летнее время. 16. Была ранняя весна. 17. Была дождли-
вая, холодная осень. 18. Осень была исключительно теплая; стояла
ясная, солнечная погода. 19. Лето и зима – мои любимые времена
года. 20. Лето 1941 года было необыкновенно жарким. 21. Приезжайте
провести у нас лето. 22. Была поздняя осень, но погода стояла теплая.

Task 6. Translate into English.


1. Было утро. Было раннее утро. Было теплое летнее утро. Он ро-
дился ранним утром. Многим людям трудно вставать рано по утрам.
Утро было прохладное, но солнечное. Какое хорошее утро! Мы добе-
ремся до станции к утру. 2. Наступил день. Это был туманный день,
день нашего отъезда. День был облачным. Что ты обычно делаешь
в течение дня? Этот случай произошел пасмурным сентябрьским днем.
3. Был полдень. Полдень – это 12 часов. Постарайся сделать все по-
купки до полудня. Посетитель появился лишь в полдень. 4. Было по-
слеполуденное время. Мы любили отдыхать на веранде после полудня.
Маленькие дети обычно спят в послеполуденное время. Мы посвятили
послеполуденное время чтению. 5. Был вечер. Был морозный зимний
2. Articles with names of meals 77

вечер. Вечер был теплый. Был поздний вечер. По вечерам мне всег-
да грустно. Ты пойдешь на прогулку вечером? Мы закончим работу
к вечеру. 6. Наступила ночь. Была ночь. Была тихая звездная ночь.
Я люблю смотреть на звезды ночью. Ночь была тиха. Буря продолжа-
лась всю ночь. Мы отправились туда в субботу вечером (субботним ве-
чером). У меня ночное дежурство сегодня. Он пишет свой роман день
и ночь. Я уже две недели не ложился рано спать. 7. Восход – это время,
когда восходит солнце. Мы пили, смеялись, болтали до рассвета. Это
означает зарю (начало) новой эры. 8. Весна – это время года между
зимой и летом. Весной становится теплее. Он уехал из страны весной
2010 года. Париж прекрасен весной. Была ранняя весна. Осень – это
пора сбора урожая. Стояла поздняя осень. Осень была дождливой.
Какая красивая осень!

2. Articles with names of meals


Task 7. Read the sentences and comment on the nouns in bold type.
1. They ate supper together in the kitchen. It was a simple meal that
Maggie had prepared quickly: scrambled eggs, English muffins, and coffee.
2. Supper is ready at last, everyone, sit to table! 3. They arrived at Sunlaws
in time for lunch. 4. I asked Matilde to make a fairly simple lunch. Vegetable
soup, plain omelette, green salad, cheese, and fruit. 5. We’ll be having a late
lunch today. 6. Breakfast is served, sir. 7. And anyway, it’s not often that you
get a traditional English Sunday breakfast now, is it? 8. The breakfast was
orange juice and cornflakes with milk. 9. He opens the mail immediately
after breakfast. 10. We haven’t had dinner yet. 11. They had a quiet dinner
together. 12. After dinner sit a while, after supper walk a mile. 13. They had
a dinner for six. 14. We’ll have to have an early dinner today. 15. Every now
and then I would go to the kitchen to have a look at the dinner. 16. “I’m glad
you’ve come for tea. I’ve made us a lovely tea, like you used to do when we
were little. A nursery tea, you called it.” – “I remember our nursery teas,”
Meredith said taking a cucumber sandwich. “They were fun, weren’t they?”
17. Patsy went on fussing with the teapot and the other things she needed for
afternoon tea. 18. The tea she made was wonderful. 19. A set dinner (meal) is
usually quite cheap, but you do not have much choice. 20. Brunch is a meal
that you eat in the late morning. 21. I want you to come to dinner tomorrow,
Gideon, well, supper really. A Russian supper on Boxing Day. Doesn’t that
tempt you?

Task 8. Read the following proverbs and sayings and give their Russian
equivalents.
1. A foul morning may turn to a fair day. 2. A clean fast (пост) is better
than a dirty breakfast. 3. A nod from a lord is a breakfast for a fool. 4. After
dinner sit a while, after supper walk a mile. 5. Early to bed and early to
78 Unit 12. Special difficulties in the use of articles

rise makes a man wealthy, healthy and wise. 6. All are not saints that go to
church. 7. An hour in the morning is worth two in the evening. 8. A misty
morning does not signify a cloudy day. 9. Go to bed with the lamb and rise
with the lark. 10. After dinner comes the reckoning. 11. If you laugh before
breakfast you’ll cry before supper. 12. Better to go to bed supperless than rise
in debt. 13. Hope is a good breakfast but a bad supper. 14. Red sky at night,
shepherd’s delight. 15. He that goes to bed thirsty rises healthy.

Task 9. Insert articles where necessary.


1. We usually have … dinner at four. 2. What shall we buy for … supper?
3. They had … breakfast of bread-and-butter and an omelette. 4. … dinner is
served. 5. After this splendid performance they sat down to … supper. 6. They
had. . . filling but not-too-nourishing breakfast. 7. They decided upon …
light supper. 8. … supper was fish and chips. 9. At last … dinner came to an
end, but the three went on sitting for a while over their coffee. 10. I made
his acquaintance at … official dinner. 11. The consul gave … luncheon in
honour of our delegation. 12. He invited me to a restaurant and treated me
to … expensive supper.

Task 10. Translate into English.


1. Это был грандиозный обед, были приглашены многие знамени-
тости. 2. Сколько мы должны заплатить за обед? 3. Я еще не решила,
что приготовить на обед. Боюсь, что у нас будет поздний обед сегодня.
4. Обед готов, пожалуйста, садитесь все к столу. 5. Горничная постави-
ла завтрак на поднос и понесла его в спальню госпожи. 6. Он обсуждает
все важные вопросы после ужина. 7. Боюсь, у нас сегодня будет очень
простой ужин. 8. Она не завтракает по утрам, зато устраивает себе ос-
новательный второй завтрак. 9. Время ланча. Давай заглянем в кафе.
10. Дети, вы вымыли руки перед обедом? 11. Посольство дает званый
завтрак в честь праздника. 12. Ужин в китайском ресторане был очень
острым. 13. Сколько здесь стоит комплексный обед? – Очень дешево.
14. Поздний завтрак – это нечто среднее между завтраком и ланчем.
15. Какой вкусный обед! Вы замечательный повар. 16. Она угостила
нас обедом, и обед был очень вкусным. 17. Мы даем два званых обеда
в месяц. 18. Мы уходим. Мы приглашены на обед.

Task 11. Translate into English.


1. Мы решили расположиться на ночь у реки. 2. День только что
занялся, и воздух был чист и прохладен. 3. Было далеко за полдень,
когда мы остановились на привал. 4. По субботам у них обычно быва-
ют гости к ужину. 5. Мы заказали обед из трех блюд. 6. Это случилось
одним пасмурным сентябрьским утром. 7. Ненастный день подходил
к концу, закат обещал хорошую погоду. 8. Рано утром, до завтрака,
спортсмены ходили на речку купаться. 9. В этой столовой вы всегда
3. Articles with names of diseases 79

можете получить горячий завтрак. 10. Вечер был влажный и прохлад-


ный. 11. Был холодный и ветреный день. 12. Идите скорей к столу,
обед стынет. 13. Что у нас будет к ужину? 14. Мы приедем в Москву
рано утром, проведем день в городе, поздно вечером сядем на по-
езд и на следующий день к ночи будем на месте. 15. Была уже ночь;
но, к счастью, это была летняя ночь, и погода стояла сухая. 16. Я зайду
после обеда.

3. Articles with names of diseases


Task 12. Match the symptoms with the illnesses. One symptom can be
matched with several illnesses.
symptoms illnesses
have a headache flu
I feel anxious AIDS
I’ve got chest pains stroke
I’m losing weight cancer
I’ve got a cough alcoholism
I’ve got painful joints asthma
I fell dizzy depression
I’ve got hallucinations pneumonia
I have very high blood pressure heart attack
I’ve got difficulties in breathing cold
I’m sneezing hay fever
I’ve lost consciousness rheumatism
I’ve got fever
I’ve got a sore throat
I fell breathless
I’ve lost my appetite

Task 13. Comment on the use of articles with names of diseases.


1. I’m going to bed, I’ve got a headache.
2. The children are in bed with mumps.
3. Jane has a high temperature. I’m sure she has got a cold.
4. He suffers from back trouble.
5. Rachel had a sore throat and runny nose all day yesterday.
6. I think Sam’s got flu.
7. She had a persistent cough and stayed off work.
8. Aspirin should help reduce the fever.

Task 14. Insert the proper articles.


1. Mind you don’t catch … cold.
2. Do you suffer from … malaria?
80 Unit 12. Special difficulties in the use of articles

3. What is the best treatment for … flu?


4. What are the first symptoms of … chickenpox?
5. I’m sure it isn’t scarlet fever: there’s no redness of … skin.
6. Aspirin could help reduce … fever.
7. Don’t come near me. I’ve got … sore throat.
8. It looked precisely … place to provoke rather than cure … nervous
breakdown.
9. When I was five I had … measles.
10. At … beginning of … year Cooper went down with … fever.
11. … diabetes has become. … more common disease, mainly because
of … way we eat.
12. Thousands of people suffer from … asthma as … result of smoking.
13. … person who has … high blood pressure can have … heart attack.
14. Jane has been laid up with … pneumonia for … fortnight.
15. … singer complained of … sore throat after Wednesday’s show.
16. I find honey is the best thing to cure … persistent cough.
17. I often suffer from … backache.
18. She is believed to have suffered from … heart attack in her London flat.
19. … doctor diagnosed … appendicitis and she was operated on.
20. I caught … influenza along with … scarlet fever.
21. … malaria is still … common disease in West Africa.
22. … first symptoms of … disease are … upset stomach and … slight fever.
23. Peter is in bed with … attack of … rheumatism.
24. … severe bout of … scarlet fever when he was … boy left him so deaf
that he was unable to attend … school.

Task 15. Insert the proper articles.


Here’s health!
“I think that’s all, Mrs. Grant”, Dr. Grey said when he handed her
(1) … long list of prescriptions. (2) … list was very long and Mrs. Grant
almost fainted as she tried to read it. She had (3) … headache and … (4)
cold and felt as if she was going to have (5) … flu. On top of this, one of
her children was in (6) … bed with (7) … mumps. Besides, her husband
was having (8) … heart trouble. “I’ve prescribed some pills for (9) … high
blood pressure as well”, said Dr. Grey. “How many do I have to take – (10)
… pill (11) … day?” “No, one pill with each meal. Three pills … (12) day.”
Mrs. Grant thanked (13) … doctor and walked out of (14) … surgery with
some difficulty. She went into (15) … local chemist’s and handed (16) …
long prescription list to Mr. Burt, (17) … chemist. Mr. Burt greeted her
cheerfully and said, glancing at (18) … list: “What (19) … list! I trust you
are keeping well!”
4. Articles with certain nouns (sea, school, hospital, town, etc.) 81

4. Articles with certain nouns


(sea, school, hospital, town, etc.)
Task 16. Comment on the use of articles in the following sentences.
1. We’ve arranged meeting outside the school.
2. Norton High is a very good school.
3. Susan’s at school at the moment.
4. I used to work as a cleaner at a hospital.
5. My company is repairing the prison.
6. They headed west toward the open sea.
7. She can’t pay her taxes, so she’ll appear in court tomorrow.
8. We’re going into town tonight to see a film.
9. Frogville is a small town of around 4,000 people.
10. After finishing high school he’s planning to go to university.

Task 17. Insert the proper articles.


1. We took some photos outside _____ church. 2. Have you ever worked
in _____ factory? 3. When do you hope to go to _____ university? 4. How
long will she be in _____ hospital? 5. _____ school is over at half past three.
6. There is _____ strike at _____ hospital. 7. You won’t find any men in
_____ village now, they are all at _____ sea. 8. My wife’s firm has _____
office in Edinburgh. 9. Our children go to _____ new school.10. Do you
know who was _____ first woman in _____ space? 11. There was _____ fire
in _____ jail last night. 12. Are you religious? Do you go to _____ church?
13. _____ captain was _____ only man on _____ deck at that time of night.
14. Starting _____ new school can be quite frightening. 15. My mother is
_____ teacher at _____ local school. 16. In _____ high school, he also
learned to play _____ drums, _____ piano and _____ cornet.
17. She threatened to take _____ magazine to _____ court if they
didn’t publish _____ immediate apology. 18. Lucy works as _____ nurse
at _____ local hospital. 19. I managed to find _____ seat on _____ upper
deck. 20. Do you believe in creatures from _____ outer space? 21. _____
leader of _____ gang went to _____ prison. 22. I was in _____ hospital for
eight weeks after _____ accident.23. _____ dangerous criminal escaped from
_____ maximum-security prison. 24. Helen was sent to _____ prison for
attacking _____ man with _____ knife.

Task 18. Insert the right article.


1. He is … local priest in … Anglican church. 2. … church has a wonderful
porch at the front. 3. His parents go to … church now and then. 4. Bruce was
in … town with his wife to promote the film. 5. The market is an exciting and
colourful part of … town, full of noise and bustle. 6. This is … small town,
everybody knows everybody. 7. She went to … town where her aunt lived.
82 Unit 12. Special difficulties in the use of articles

8. … school was a very happy time. 9. I left … school exactly ten years ago.
10. We met every day after … school. 11. This is … school with more than
one thousand pupils. 12. … school was built in 1909. 13. Criminals are kept
in … prison. 14. … prison was surrounded by a brick wall. 15. … prison is
not the answer to many social problems. 16. Ben was taken to … hospital
with … appendicitis. 17. There is a well-equipped laboratory at … hospital.
18. Melanie went to … bed but couldn’t fall asleep. 19. Why do you always
put your shoes under … bed? 20. Doctors advise me to sleep on … hard bed.
21. He went to … University to get education. 22. There is … university in
this small town. 23. There is no place like … home.

Task 19. Insert articles where necessary (bed, school, prison, town).
1. It was eleven o’clock. Annette was still in … bed. 2. Stefan, who had
been sitting on the edge of … bed, came near to her and smiled, for … first
time. 3. Maycomb was … old town. 4. Dolores said nothing all … way to …
town. 5. Yes, he and my brother had been to … school together. 6. Before that
she had taught history in … girls’ school. 7. … school was not … particularly
good one. 8. I never knew … lawyer yet who didn’t threaten to put me in …
prison sooner or later. 9. Steger next visited … county jail, close on to five
o’clock, when it was already dark. 10. In all probability he was already in
… town. 11. Among other public buildings in … certain town there is one
anciently common to most towns, great or small – … workhouse. 12. After
leaving … school, I became a clerk to her father. 13. She graduated from …
Pedagogical College … year ago and now she is working at … school in …
village near Plymouth. 14. … prison where Little Dorrit was born was called
“The Marshalsea”. 15. I haven’t done anything that warrants my running
away or going to … prison, either. 16. It was in my walk that night, and in …
sleepless hours which followed when I lay in … bed, that … thought first oc-
curred to me which afterwards shaped itself into … settled resolution. 17. He
told me once how he had in time been released from … prison. 18. When you
think of me at all, John, let it only be as … little child you have seen grow
up in … prison. 19. You take your man home, Mrs. Dubedut, and get him
to … bed before eleven. 20. I’m going to be out of … town for a few days.
So I may not even see you again. 21. Who could be in … prison … quarter of
… century, and be prosperous!

Task 20. Translate into English.


1. Каждый день после школы Билли ходит в гараж помочь отцу.
2. Пружины кровати были сделаны из тяжелого металла. 3. Ребенок
вырос, нужно купить ему новую кровать. 4. Она работает в английской
специализированной школе. 5. Не могу дождаться момента, когда за-
кончу школу. 6. Граф Монте-Кристо провел в тюрьме много лет. 7. Он
прорыл подземный ход под тюрьмой и сбежал. 8. Все должны пойти
в больницу на осмотр (a medical check-up). 9. За госпиталем есть не-
4. Articles with certain nouns (sea, school, hospital, town, etc.) 83

большой сад. 10. Мы случайно встретились в городе. 11. Мой сын хочет
поступить в колледж. 12. Городок становится больше, и людям нужна
новая церковь. 13. Моя бабушка ходит в церковь по воскресеньям.
14. В гостях хорошо, а дома лучше. 15. Давай встретимся после занятий
возле школы. 16. Лето так быстро пролетело! Учеба начинается через
неделю. 17. Они обвенчались в церкви. 18. Церковь стояла на холме.
19. Она легла спать в три часа и встала с головной болью. 20. Почему вы
так поздно вернулись из города? 21. Женщина подошла к кровати и на-
крыла ребенка одеялом. 22. Она плохо себя чувствовала и провела весь
день в постели. 23. Сегодня мне надо пойти в школу на родительское
собрание. 24. Я провела все лето в городе. 25. Когда сестра окончила
школу, она поступила в консерваторию. 26. Мы провели несколько
дней в маленьком городке на Кавказе. 27. Мы живем на даче, но часто
приезжаем в город. 28. О. Генри был обвинен в краже, и, хотя он был
невиновен, его посадили в тюрьму. Он сидел в тюрьме три года.
Unit 13
THE USE OF ARTICLES WITH PROPER NOUNS

1. Articles with personal names


Task 1. Comment on the use of articles with proper names.
1. The Granges were the only people in the town I knew.
2. When young Rockwell entered the library, the old man looked at him
with a kindly smile.
3. His face always reminded him of a Lincoln grown old.
4. A Mr. Drake phoned in the morning, but he didn’t leave any message.
5. Suddenly the silent Mr. Fanthorn swung round and addressed Bar-
bara.
6. Hampton Court was begun by Cardinal Wolsey.
7. The beautiful Mary, Queen of Scots, was beheaded.
8. Every morning he drove out in a rickety old Ford.
9. I am expecting Aunt Agatha.
10. 1The boy is a real Benbow.

Task 2. Comment on the nouns in bold type.


1. “I’m looking for a Mr. Silver,” she answered, jumping off her bike.–
“Well, you’ve found him,” the man said, “I’m Mr. Silver.” 2. Amelia told
me she had made a will. “It’s all for Catherine. She is a Silver. The last of
the Silvers. And the land I’m leaving for her has belonged to the Silvers for
almost two hundred years.” 3. For her part, she had proved herself to be
a Jardine through and through. 4. Excuse me, you have a phone call, Mere-
dith. It’s a Mrs. Stanford. 5. Irina Troubetzkoy’s mother had been born
a Romanov and was a cousin of Czar Nicholas. 6. David was shocked. “You
are painting a very strange picture. That’s not the Emma I know.” 7. I am
not the Claudia of whom you thought, but an unimaginable Claudia from
whom you would recoil. 8. Dear old Marion! No words can tell how I miss
you! 9. Now I do recognize the practical, sensible Trisch, the Woman Who
Got Things Done. 10. Sergeant, can I ask you to help me? 11. She’s as ec-
centric as hell! And whenever I think of her, I think of scarves. She’s always
1. Articles with personal names 85

worn masses of them, rain or shine, all kinds of weather. Gwenny’s a regular
Isadora Duncan, if you ask me. 12. You are a real Childe Harold! – And you
are a Don Juan! 13. Would you recognize a Shagal from a Malevich? 14. Is
Father in? – Not yet, but Mother and Aunt have just come.

Task 3. Read and translate the following. Explain the use of the nouns in
bold type.
1. The Uffizi in Florence have more perfect paintings than any other gal-
lery on the planet – not just Tintorettos and Botticellis, but the most arresting
works by people like Gentile da Fabriano and Simone Martini. Some Cara-
vaggios, “Bachus” among them, were found in an Uffizi storeroom in 1916.
2. The Earl of Cardigan gave his name to one of the garments we wear.
A cardigan is a knitted jacket that is fastened up the front with buttons or a zip.
3. – Now, how about some Bellinis to celebrate the holiday? – I’ve for-
gotten what a Bellini is. I know Bellini, the composer, of course. I mean,
I know it’s also champagne but what’s in it besides that? – Fresh peach
juice. – Now I remember! It’s a fabulous drink.
4. – Rumor has it that you’re suffering from a terminal Don Juan com-
plex. – It’s not such a bad reputation to have, when you think about it. After
all no man can be a Don Juan unless women are interested in him.
5. Long ago in prerevolutionary France there lived one Etienne de Silhou-
ette, a controller general for Louis XV. Because of his fanatical zeal for raising
taxes and slashing expenses and pensions, he enraged royalty and citizens
alike, who ran him out of office within eight months. At about the same
time that Silhouette was sacked, the method of making cutouts of profiles
by throwing the shadow of the subjects on the screen captured the fancy of
the Paris public. Because the process was cheap, the man and the method
became associated. Ever since, we have called shadow profiles silhouettes,
with a small s.

Task 4. Insert the proper articles.


1. Yesterday … dear old Jones started taking … engine to … pieces. 2. …
young actress was hailed as … new Marilyn Monroe. 3. One of his daughters
had married … Rothschild. 4. With … Mona Lisa smile she nodded to every-
thing I said.5. … Major Wilby and … lovely Mabel departed.6. I was invited
to … dinner given to welcome … President Shirac. 7. The pride and glory of
this museum are … nice Renoir and … lovely Manet. 8. Their governess was
… Miss Robinson, quite … nice girl, young and pretty. 9. … old Mr. Martin,
… present Mr. Martin’s father married … Mrs. Worple. 10. … Princess of
Wales visited … shelter for … homeless yesterday. 11. Although … old Jacob
was not as ill as he had made out to … young Jacob, he still felt a bit under
… weather. 12. And … young Curtis has been a bit under … weather, missed
training this week, so he’s out. 13. … Smithsons moved in last year and still
haven’t got close with any of … neighbours. 14. … Swithin smiled and nod-
86 Unit 13. The use of articles with proper nouns

ding at … Bossiney said: “Why, you’re quite … Monte Cristo”. 15. He is …


cousin of … Albert Einstein, you know. – Is he indeed? … Albert Einstein?
16. … Detective Sherlock Holmes and his assistant, … Doctor Watson, solved
a lot of mysteries. 17. There are three cars parked outside: … Mercedes, …
Jaguar and … Fiat. Mine is … Fiat.
18. … seventeenth-century writer Cervantes is often considered … father
of … modern novel. 19. … former Tanzanian President Julius Nyerere died
at … age of 77 in … London hospital. 20. Being himself … fine musician,
and … superlative performer on … violin, my father dreamed of turning me
into … young Mozart, and my training on … piano began when I was three
years. 21. At that time I had … great passion for … Impressionists. I longed
to possess … Manet and … Degas. 22. … Margaret Thatcher, who was …
Prime Minister of … Great Britain for 12 years, is now known as … Baroness
Thatcher of Kesteven. 23. When … dear old Emily went back to … town after
staying with … Burnells for … fortnight, she sent … children … doll’s house.
24. He works for … newspaper and he has interviewed many famous people
like … Pope, … famous writer Ruth Rendell and … Princess Anne.
Task 5. Translate into English.
I. Какой щедрый человек! Настоящий Монте-Кристо! 2. Она такая
романтичная! Ну просто Наташа Ростова. 3. Я вижу, что твой приятель –
мастер на все руки (a jack-of-all-trades / a jack of all trades). – Да, и ни-
чего не делает толком. 4. Он настоящий Казанова. Почему она его
не оставит? 5. – Какие вкусные конфеты! – Да, это Моцарт. 6. Что
это за духи? – Это Кензо. 7. На этой стоянке припарковано несколько
машин: «мерседес», «хонда», «линкольн» и старенький «форд». 8. Что
это за картина? – Это Пикассо. 9. На стенах его кабинета развешено
оружие: кольт, винчестер, браунинг, Калашников. 10. Англичанин Ват-
ман изобрел бумагу, которая называется его именем.
II. Ричард Чемберлен купил маленький остров и живет на нем как
современный Робинзон Крузо. 12. Какую сигару ты куришь? – Это
Корона. 13. В этом зале выставлены три Рембрандта. 14. Это была
современная сказка о принце и Золушке. 15. Какое очаровательное
платье! – Неудивительно, ведь это Шанель.
III. 1. В библиотеке нашего института есть полная «Британика».
2. Неужели это действительно Васнецов у тебя на стене? – Да, это так.
3. Вас спрашивает какой-то Романов. 4. Я уже не та Ирина, с которой
ты ходил в школу, я выросла. 5. Да ты просто Джеймс Бонд! 6. Лорд
Сэндвич изобрел бутерброд. 7. Няня дома? – Она гуляет в саду с ребен-
ком. 8. Она истинная Ричардсон, и подобно всем Ричардсонам всегда
добивается своего. 9. Я собираюсь купить новый словарь – Хорнби
или Коллинз. 10. Национальная галерея купила Гогена на аукционе.
11. Мы совсем не узнаем деловую, практичную Марину. Перед нами
совершенно другая Марина. 12. Смитсоны – заядлые театралы.
2. Articles with geographic names and other types of proper nouns 87

2. Articles with geographic names and other types


of proper nouns

Task 6. Which of the given below geographic names can be used with the
definite article?
A. Kilimanjaro, Jenisei, Bermuda, Elbrus, Hudson Bay, Laptev Sea,
Urals, Kalahari, Volga, Carpathians, Indian Ocean, Madeira, Etna, Eng-
lish Channel, Arctic Circle, Olympus, South Pole, Jutland Peninsula, Suez
Canal, Swallow Falls, Sicily, Kara-Kum, Lake Chad, Malay Archipelago,
Aleutian Islands, United Arab Emirates, Sudan, Far East, Brussels, Nether-
lands, Hague, Riviera, Northern Europe, Middle East, Southern Africa,
Roman Empire, Republic of Ireland, Athens, Hawaii, City of Potsdam,
Hawaiian Islands
B. Palm Beach, New Forest, Bridge of Sighs, Tower Bridge, Booker Prize,
Art Theatre, St. James’ Park, Peacock Inn, Baker Street, Russian Museum,
Salisbury Cathedral, Wailing Wall, Miami Airport, Nobel Prize, Winter
Palace, Republican Party, Eiffel Tower, National Association of Teachers,
Bermuda Triangle

Task 7. Insert the right article.


1. The hunters got lost in … Rocky Mountains. 2. … Buckingham Pa-
lace, … Trafalgar Square, … Houses of Parliament, … Tower of London, …
Tower Bridge, … National Gallery are the usual sights in … English capital.
3. The six island countries of … West Indies are … Bahamas, … Barba-
dos, … Cuba, … Dominican Republic, … Haiti and … Jamaica. 4. In the
mornings she used to read … “Vogue” and he usually read … “Mirror”.
5. … Berlin she had been born in, and where she had grown up, no longer existed.
6. … Low Countries include … Netherlands, … Belgium, and … Luxembourg.
7. … Colorado River flows through … Grand Canyon. 8. The names of the
following streets have the definite article: … Mall, … Strand, … Wall Street,
… Unter den Linden. 9. … England of the 22nd century will be very different
from … England of our days. 10. This producer got … Nika for this film.
11. Chaucer would have had difficulty in recognizing … London of Queen
Elizabeth, just as Shakespeare would have been lost in … brick-and-stone
London of D. R. Johnson, while Dickens, well as he knew … London, would
have been bewildered by … steel and concrete London of today.

Task 8. Insert the right article.


Ecuador
Located in … middle of … world and … American Subcontinent, … Ecua-
dor has always been known for its strategic geographical location. Fronting
… Pacific Ocean, it has access to … major commercial centres of the world:
… United States, … Canada, … Japan, and due to its proximity to … Panama
88 Unit 13. The use of articles with proper nouns

Canal, it is within easy reach of … Atlantic Ocean and … Europe. To … east,


Ecuador is … door to … majestic headwaters of … Amazon Basin. Many ex-
perts in economy and commerce now consider Ecuador as … point of access
to this market of unexploited opportunities that is now opening its doors to
the world. Ecuador has become … place to create … wealth of … future. …
Andes divide the country into three basic natural regions: … coastal plains,
… mountainous highlands and … humid tropical lowlands, or … “Oriente” as
the Ecuadorians call it. These fertile regions are … refuge of numerous species
of animals and plants that increase … exportable potential of Ecuador to the
world. In recent years there has also been … rapid increase in … production
of flowers, vegetables, and exotic fruit for export.

Task 9. Answer the questions in the following geographic test. Use additional
information.
1. What are the most famous monuments in Moscow? 2. The longest
river in Italy has the shortest name, consisting of only two letters. What is
it? 3. What is the highest point on Earth? 4. What is the longest street in
St. Petersburg? 5. When we think of this river, we picture Paris, the Eiffel
Tower and everything that is French. Can you name it? 6. What is the oldest
country in the world? 7. What river flows through a city that has a country
inside it? 8. Do you know the name of the town where Shakespeare was
born? What river does it stand on? Is there any world famous theatre there?
9. Can you say what is the oldest Zoo in the world? 10. Name the smallest
country in the world, with the population of just 750 people. 11. What is the
biggest ocean in the world? 12. Name the biggest sea on our planet. What is
the smallest one? 13. “The Mother of Rivers” – what river in Europe is called
so? 14. There is a neutral country in Europe, which actually hasn’t been in
wars since 1515. What is it? 15. What is the longest river on the globe? Do
you know what the second longest is? 16. What is the difference between
a channel and a canal? Name the most famous ones. 17. Name the country
in Central Europe with the highest population density. 18. What is the most
mysterious spot on the Earth’s surface? 19. There is a famous city, which is
in danger of going under the water. What is it? 20. What are the oldest books
in the history of mankind? 21. What are your favourite places in your city,
country or in the world?

Task 10. Underline the correct variant.


1. Savoy / the Savoy is a luxury hotel in London.
2. He is coming on Wednesday / the Wednesday and we’ll meet him at
Lincoln International Airport / the Lincoln International Airport.
3. I know a house in Talbot Square / the Talbot Square you can rent.
4. Capitol / the Capitol is the largest and tallest among other buildings.
5. I’ve already been to Tate gallery / the Tate Gallery twice.
2. Articles with geographic names and other types of proper nouns 89

6. St. James’s Park / the St. James’s Park overlooks St. James’s Palace /
the St. James’s Palace.
7. Science Museum / the Science Museum is always crowded and very
noisy.
8. Mansion House / the Mansion House is the residence of the City’s Lord
Mayor.
9. Today / the Today is a popular newspaper.
10. Statue of Liberty / the Statue of Liberty was a gift of France to the USA.

Task 11. Insert the right article.


1. Maxim left … Ritz Hotel after their dinner at … Annabel’s and walked
home crossing … Piccadilly and heading through … Half Moon Street into
… Mayfair. 2. … Easter Island in … Pacific Ocean was discovered in 1722.
It is one of … most mysterious spots on … earth. 3. I flew to … UK on the
Concorde. I had hardly had a chance to eat a snack, relax and read my book
when we were landing at … Heathrow. 4. … Gulf Stream is a warm ocean
current which flows from … Gulf of Mexico, along … south-east coast of …
United States, and north-eastwards in … Atlantic Ocean. 5. The waters of
… Seine trembled in the hazy sunshine. 6. In the vicinity of the house were
… Rodin Museum, … French Academy, and … Hotel des Invalides, housing
… tomb of Napoleon I. 7. George had planned … cruise to … Greek islands
as … surprise for his family. They would be sailing around … Aegean Sea for
about a fortnight. 8. The two young women had attended … Sorbonne at the
same time. Their fathers, as it turned out, had been at … Oxford Univer-
sity. 9. The highest peak in … North America is … Mount McKinley. 10. …
Monterey Peninsula juts out into … Pacific Ocean halfway up … California
coast. 11. The travellers saw an oasis in … Gobi, but it was a mirage. 12. If
you want to see … Lake Victoria and … Mount Kilimanjaro, go to … Kenya.
13. There is a project to turn … Baikal area into … Russian Alps.

Task 12. Insert “the” или “ – “ with geographic and other proper names.
1. Are you going to … France or … Czech Republic?
2. … North Pole is situated in … Arctic.
3. My dream is to visit … Lake Baikal in … Russian Federation.
4. … Suez Canal in … Egypt connects … Mediterranean Sea with …
Red Sea.
5. The tallest mountain in the world, … Mount Everest is situated
in … Himalayas.
6. … Sahara desert covers most of … North Africa.
7. … United Kingdom of … Great Britain and … Northern Ireland is
surrounded by … Atlantic Ocean and … North Sea.
8. … Mississippi is the second longest river in … United States.
9. She was born in … Kiev, in … Ukraine.
10. … Bahamas are a group of islands near … Florida.
90 Unit 13. The use of articles with proper nouns

11. There are a lot of rivers in … Siberia: … Ob, … Lena, … Amur and
others.
12. … Caucasus mountains are located between … Europe and … Asia.
13. We met … Peter Smith in … Trafalgar Square, near … National Gal-
lery.
14. Have you ever been to … Great Wall of … China?
15. The shop is in … Fleet street, next to … McDonald’s.
16. … Flintstones sold their house just before … Christmas.
17. When I visit … Hermitage Museum in … Petersburg, I’ll find the
collection of paintings by … Rembrandt there.
18. … Doctor Brown was a veteran of … World War II.
19. … Kremlin and … Bolshoi Theatre are in the heart of … Moscow.
20. … Mary studies … French in a school near … Eiffel Tower.
21. … Japanese language is too difficult for me.
22. … Henry studies … medicine at … Oxford University.
23. … Dutch are the people who live in … Netherlands.
24. When the sky is clear, we can see … Moon from … Earth.
25. He used to sit in the chair and read …. Evening Post.
26. We are to meet at …. London Airport.
27. On …. Sunday they usually went to …. Green Park.
28. He walked slowly down …. Madison Avenue past …. Old Murray
Hotel.
29. You can find him in …. Grand Opera House almost every night.
30. He has been to …. Eton and …. Oxford and is very proud of it.
31. The conversation was in …. German. As I didn’t know …. German
language I was silent.
32. Every morning she read …. Daily Morning and …. Daily Express
from cover to cover.
33. They are taking a voyage on board of …. Victoria.
34. …. Wellington is a hotel on …. Broadway.
35. …. Regent’s Park is now the home of …. London Zoo.
36. …. Victoria and Albert is a museum where you can find things from
almost every place and period.

Task 13. Insert the articles where necessary.


1. She had … ticket for … dinner and fashion show at … Castle Hotel.
2. She suddenly remembered how ill she was when there was … storm in …
Indian Ocean. 3. I’m not going to … Cyprus for … holiday, I’m going there on
… business. 4. …Yorkshire is famous for … delicious food, including … York-
shire pudding and … roast beef. 5. Here are some of his belongings such as
… sword given to him in … Caucasus and many historical manuscripts. 6. At
… first glance, there was nothing out of … ordinary about … Room 826 in …
Capital Hilton Hotel. 7. … New York, … largest city in … USA, is situated
at … mouth of … Hudson River, sometimes called … North River. 8. We’ve
2. Articles with geographic names and other types of proper nouns 91

decided to go to … Canary Islands on … holiday. Last year we went to … Crete


and liked … people there very much. 9. As you may know, Charles Dickens
was born in … Portsmouth. We’ll visit … Charles Dickens’ Museum, so you
can see where … man himself lived and died. 10. In … Netherlands and …
Belgium … St. Nicolas’ Day, December 6 is … children’s festival, on … eve
of which … saint is supposed to come riding from … Spain with … presents
for all … good children. 11. On … Saturday last, as in his usual custom, …
Mr. Davenheim took … 12.40 train from … Victoria station to … Chingside.
12. Take … trip up … Eiffel Tower to see … spectacular view and if you are …
art lover, you should spend at least … day in … famous Louvre Art Museum.
… evenings can be spent in one of … great number of cafes and bistros where
you can taste … delicious French cuisine.

Task 14. Translate into English.


A. 1. Население Российской Федерации – около 150 миллионов
человек. 2. Босфор – это пролив, который соединяет Черное море
с Мраморным. На обеих сторонах пролива расположен крупнейший
турецкий город Стамбул. 3. Япония – островное государство в Вос-
точной Азии, находится в Тихом океане к востоку от Японского моря,
Китая, Северной и Южной Кореи. 4. Красное море – это внутреннее
море Индийского океана, находится между Северной Африкой и Ара-
вийским полуостровом. 5. Наполеон родился на Корсике, острове
в Средиземном море. 6. Америка как часть света объединяет в себе
Северную, Центральную и Южную Америку, а также близлежащие
острова. 7. Турция располагается на двух континентах – Азии и Евро-
пе. Мраморное море, Босфор и Дарданеллы разделяют ее на европей-
скую и азиатскую части. 8. Если вы поедете в Египет, посетите знаме-
нитые пирамиды и Каирский музей, прокатитесь на лодке по Нилу.
9. Мальта, Кипр, Капри – популярные курорты. 10. Ватикан является
резиденцией Римско-Католической Церкви. 11. Печора течет на север
и впадает в Баренцево море. 12. Официальная столица Королевства
Нидерландов – Амстердам. Гаага – резиденция голландского пра-
вительства и королевского двора. 13. Амударья течет через пустыню
Каракумы в Средней Азии и впадает в Аральское море. 14. Берингов
пролив между Северным Ледовитым и Тихим океанами разделяет
Азию и Северную Америку. 15. Багамы – это архипелаг к юго-востоку
от полуострова Флорида. 16. Суэцкий канал в Египте, соединяющий
Средиземное море с Красным, является судоходным. 17. Моя мечта –
побывать в Восточной Сибири на озере Байкал. 18. Ты собираешься
поехать в отпуск во Францию или Чешскую Республику? 19. Самая
высокая гора в мире, гора Эверест, находится в Гималаях. 20. Голланд-
цы – это народ, проживающий в Нидерландах.
92 Unit 13. The use of articles with proper nouns

B. 1. Среди достопримечательностей Москвы можно назвать Крас-


ную площадь, Кремль, Манежную площадь, Тверскую улицу, Большой
театр и многое другое. 2. По составу коллекции Музей изобразитель-
ных искусств имени Пушкина можно сравнить с лондонским Музе-
ем Виктории и Альберта. Музей изобразительных искусств находится
на Волхонке. 3. Памятник Пушкину на Пушкинской площади – попу-
лярное место встреч. 4. Я иду на экскурсию в Эрмитаж на следующей
неделе. – Обязательно обрати внимание на коллекцию картин Рем-
брандта. 5. Его самолет только что приземлился в аэропорту Хитроу.
6. Мой муж корреспондент, он работает в «Вашингтон Пост». 7. Самые
известные парки в центре Лондона – это Гайд-парк и парк Святого
Джеймса. 8. Куда она прилетает? – В аэропорт Кеннеди. 9. Мой брат
изучает право в Оксфордском университете. 10. Магазин находится
на Флит Стрит, рядом с Макдональдсом. 11. Мы встретились с Пи-
тером Смитом на Трафальгарской площади, возле Национальной
галереи. 12. Семья Флинтстоун здесь больше не живет, они продали
свой дом как раз перед Рождеством. 13. Доктор Браун был ветераном
Второй мировой войны. 14. На борту «Королевы Марии» было не-
сколько ресторанов, кинотеатр, бассейн и многое другое. 15. Обыч-
но я останавливаюсь в «Континентале», но сейчас я живу в «Хаятте»,
в пяти минутах ходьбы от Пикадилли. Это одна из самых широких
и оживленных улиц в Вестминстере, она пролегает от площади Пи-
кадилли до Гайд-парка.
Unit 14
REVISION

Insert the proper articles.


1. (1)_____ parrots are associated with (2)_____ pirates and (3)_____
sailors who used to return to England with them after (4)_____ voyages
abroad. (5)_____ parrots were often taught to say ‘Pretty Polly’, in (6)_____
reference to themselves, Polly being (7)_____ nickname of (8)_____ parrot.
(9)_____ famous parrot in (10)_____ fiction is (11)_____ Captain Flint,
(12)_____ parrot belonging to (13)_____ one-legged pirate Long John Silver
in (14)_____ Stevenson’s ‘Treasure Island’.
2. Anyone who has (1)_____ history of (2)_____ health problems and
(3)_____ people who are fifty or older should get (4)_____ flu vaccina-
tion every year before (5)_____ flu season begins in November. (6)_____
flu, or influenza, is (7)_____ serious infection of (8)_____ nose, (9)_____
throat and (10)_____ lungs. (11)_____ symptoms include (12)_____ fever,
(13)_____ cough, (14)_____ runny nose, (15)_____ sore throat, (16)_____
headache and (17)_____ tiredness. Anyone can catch (18)_____ flu and give
it to others. It is spread when (19)_____ infected person coughs or sneezes.
3. It’s often said that learning to use (1)_____ computer is like learning
(2)_____ language. In (3)_____ fact it’s a lot easier than that. (4)_____
two-term course will take you from (5)_____ very basics through to (6)_____
more advanced skills. Whether you are (7)_____ high-powered execu-
tive, (8)_____ unemployed school-leaver or (9)_____ university student,
(10)_____ computer skills are (11)_____ absolute essential in (12)_____
today’s high-tech world. Your tutor, Mike Roland, has been working as
(13)_____ top systems analyst at (14)_____ IBM for (15)_____ last 8 years.
4. There was (1)_____ programme on (2)_____ television about
(3)_____ dangers to (4)_____ environment. There was also (5)_____ ar-
ticle about (6)_____ pollution in (7)_____ paper. (8)_____ ozone layer will
continue to disappear if we don’t find (9)_____ way to stop it. (10)_____
world’s weather is changing. (11)_____ pollution is having (12)_____ effect
to our climate. (13)_____ last week (14)_____ oil tank spilled (15)_____
oil into (16)_____ sea, damaging (17)_____ wildlife. Some professors have
94 Unit 14. Revision

signed (18)_____ letter of protest and have sent it to (19)_____ government.


If (20)_____ earth was (21)_____ human being, it would be in (22)_____
hospital.
5. (1)_____ Wales is (2)_____ country that has kept a lot of traditions.
It’s (3)_____ country where (4)_____ music and (5)_____ songs are very
popular. If you enjoy (6)_____ arts, (7)_____ Wales is definitely (8)_____
place to visit. (9)_____ countryside in (10)____ Wales is very beautiful.
It’s (11)_____ very green country and its beauty attracts many tourists, es-
pecially (12)_____ nature lovers. There are many words in (13)_____ old
Welsh language that mean “green” in (14)_____ same way as (15)_____
Eskimos have (16)_____ different words for (17)_____ word “snow”. If
you have (18)_____ good weather, (19)_____ summer in (20)_____ Wales
is beautiful. (21)_____ most people, however, prefer (22)_____ guaranteed
sunshine of (23)_____ Mediterranean.
6. (1)_____ dog is no longer top of (2)_____ pet world. He is now out-
numbered in (3)_____ British homes by (4)_____ cat. (5)_____ reason
is one of economics. (6)_____ cat is (7)_____ much more practical and
less demanding pet. (8)_____ cats started living with (9)_____ people as
(10)_____ pets thousands of years ago. (11)… cats are usually good hunters
and can catch (12)_____ mice and (13)_____ small birds – although they
don’t eat them, if they can get (14)_____ normal cat food. There are over
one hundred breeds of cat, and there is even (15)_____ hairless cat, which
is called (16)_____ sphinx cat.
7. In (1)_____ days before (2)_____ invention of (3)_____ radio or
(4)_____ television, (5)_____ majority of people made their own entertain-
ment at home. Many evenings were spent reading (6)_____ novel, play-
ing (7)_____ piano or painting (8)_____ picture. In many ways, (9)_____
people were almost forced to find (10)_____ creative outlet in one form
or another. (11)_____ things have changed a lot since then, however.
(12)_____ typical evening’s entertainment would be to spend a few hours
in front of (13)_____ television. This is not really (14)_____ productive use
of one’s time or energy and has maybe contributed to (15)_____ breakdown
of communication within (16)_____ family.
8. (1)_____ Pot is one of (2)_____ nicest restaurant in this area. It is situa-
ted in (3)_____ little back street near (4)_____ central square, so (5)_____
visitor to (6)_____ town could easily miss it if she or he is not actually
looking for it. It is always busy in (7)_____ evenings, so it is essential to
book (8)_____ table in (9)_____ order to avoid (10)_____ disappointment.
When you arrive, (11)_____ waiter will show you to your table, hand you
(12)_____ menu and ask if you want to drink anything. There is (13)_____
fantastic selection of good wines to choose from. (14)_____ decor is simple
but tasteful. (15)_____ classical music is being played quietly in (16)_____
Unit 14. Revision 95

background. But (17)_____ best thing about (18)_____ Pot is (19)_____


food, absolutely delicious.
9. One of (1)_____ nicest ways to spend (2)_____ summer after-
noon is to have (3)_____ picnic. (4)_____ picnics are popular with
(5)_____ women and (6)_____ children and (7)_____ men who know
how to make (8)_____ fire. (9)_____ children are fond of picnics because
they have (10)_____ nice opportunity to eat (11)_____ things that do not
agree with them. Some things are essential if (12)_____ picnic is going to
be (13)_____ enjoyable experience. Firstly, (14)_____ weather has to be
sunny, not many people enjoy eating (15)_____ sandwiches in (16)_____
pouring rain. Secondly, (17)_____ place must be carefully chosen. (18)_____
beaches are seldom ideal for picnics because (19)_____ sand will always find
its way into (20)_____ food. In my opinion, (21)_____ perfect picnic spot
is in (22)_____ mountains, next to (23)_____ river.
10. (1)_____ hundred and fifty years ago, (2)_____ nurses didn’t study
(3)_____ medicine, but (4)_____ British woman called Florence Nightin-
gale tried to change all that. In (5)_____ 1850s, she worked in (6)_____
hospital for (7)_____ wounded soldiers in (8)_____ Crimea. (9)_____
people say she never slept, but spent all her time helping (10)_____ men.
(11)_____ soldiers called her «(12)_____ Lady of (13)_____ Lamp» because
of (14)_____ lamp she always carried as she walked around at (15)_____
night. When she returned to Great Britain, she began (16)_____ school of
nursing in London.
11. Joan arrived just after (1)_____ breakfast and we went for (2)_____
long walk in (3)_____ morning. By around (4)_____ midday we were
starving, but by (5)_____ time we got (6)_____ home Mark had cooked
us (7)_____ wonderful dinner – (8)_____ turkey and (9)_____ Christmas
pudding. We just sat in front of (10)_____ TV during the afternoon watching
(11)_____ old films. Joan went (12)_____ home early in (13)_____ evening
as she doesn’t like driving at (14)_____ night. We hope to see her again in
(15)_____ New Year. Then, around (16)… midnight when we were going to
(17)_____ bed, Louise phoned from Australia to say that she was hoping to
come to see us (18)_____ next Christmas.
12. Have you ever been to (1)_____ Leoni’s? We went yesterday and it
was (2)_____ wonderful experience. First I asked (3)_____ waiter to bring
us (4)_____ wine menu so that we could decide what to drink. For my starter
I ordered (5)_____ garlic mushrooms and for my main course (6)_____
turkey, (7)_____ fried potatoes and (8)_____ red wine. For (9)_____ des-
sert I had (10)_____ vanilla ice-cream. I asked (11)_____ waiter to bring
(12)_____ bill and I had to pay (13)_____ cash because they wouldn’t take
(14)_____ credit cards. I left (15)_____ waiter quite (16)_____ large tip as
I was pleased with (17)_____ service.
96 Unit 14. Revision

13. Ten months ago Peter and Sarah Moor came back to (1)_____
United Kingdom from (2)_____ USA, where they had run (3)_____ lan-
guage school for (4)_____ immigrants for (5)_____ last ten years. When
(6)_____ couple moved into their old house, they got (7)_____ chance to
create (8)_____ completely new interior. They decided to design (9)_____
kitchen they always wanted. With (10)_____ large window, (11)_____ double
oven, as they are (12)_____ very keen cooks, (13)_____ traditional country
style cupboards. (14)_____ budget wasn’t huge so they couldn’t afford to hire
(15)_____ architect to design (16)_____ interior. They did everything them-
selves – Peter painted (17)_____ walls pale green using (18)_____ mixture of
(19)_____ different paints, Sarah found (20)_____ furniture and (21)_____
kitchen equipment in (22)_____ department stores and (23)_____ second-
hand stores. (24)_____ final result is impressive – (25)_____ airy, spa-
cious room with (26)_____ excellent natural light. (27)_____ kitchen is now
(28)_____ heart of their home and (29)_____ family just love it.
14. John Miller, who lives in Sterling in (1)_____ central Scotland,
thought he had found (2)_____ bargain when he bought (3)_____ Volk-
swagen for just one thousand, one hundred and sixty-five pounds at (4)_____
auction in April this year. Everything was fine for about (5)_____ month,
then one day (6)_____ car just stopped. John took it to (7)_____ local
garage where (8)_____ mechanic thought there was (9)_____ problem
with (10)_____ petrol supply. He was really surprised when he discovered
(11)_____ source of (12)_____ problem. He had to remove (13)_____ large,
tightly-sealed plastic bag from (14)_____ petrol tank. Inside (15)_____ bag
was (16)_____ wad of one hundred pound notes. Suddenly, (17)_____ Volk-
swagen was (18)_____ even bigger bargain than John had imagined. But John
is (19)_____ police. They are now trying to find (21)_____ car’s previous
owner because they want to know where (22)_____ money came from and
why it was hidden.
15. (1)_____ new school of cookery has opened in France. It has been
started by (2)_____ group of (3)_____ grandmothers, who are anxious
to keep (4)_____ traditional food and cooking techniques alive. They are
against (5)_____ modern day use of (6)_____ freezers, (7)_____ micro-
waves and (8)_____ TV dinners. None of these grandmothers have (9)_____
experience as (10)_____ professional cook. They are only motivated by
(11)_____ desire to produce (12)_____ good quality, tasty food. (13)_____
grandmothers run (14)_____ cookery courses two or three times (15)_____
week, and (16)_____ fee of about $15 includes (17)_____ tuition and lunch.
(18)_____ courses are (19)_____ great fun and (20)_____ tourists join in
with (21)_____ locals as they strive together to create (22)_____ delicious
meal. At (23)_____ midday they all sit down at (24)_____ long tables to
eat (25)_____ three course lunch, which is washed down with (26)_____
local wine.
Unit 14. Revision 97

16. (1)_____ rose, (2)_____ national flower of England, is usually thought


to be (3)_____ most typical British flower. It has frequently been used in
(4)_____ poetry as (4)_____ symbol of (5)_____ romantic love. (6)_____
violet is often seen as symbolizing (7)_____ modesty, and (8)_____ shy
retiring person can be called «(9)_____ shrinking violet». (10)_____ daisy
is one of (11)_____ most common British wild flower carries (12)_____ as-
sociation of (13)_____ summer picnics and making (14)_____ daisy chains.
(15)_____ dandelions and (16)______ buttercups have (17)_____ bright yel-
low petals and are associated with (18)_____ summer. (19)_____ snowdrops
and (20)_____ bluebells are (21)_____ popular spring flowers, often found
growing wild in (21)_____ woods. (22)_____ daffodil is also (23)_____
national flower of Wales. (24)_____ carnations, especially (25)_____ white
ones, are often worn by (26)_____ men at (27)_____ weddings in (28)_____
buttonholes of their jackets, and (29)_____ chrysanthemums and (30)_____
white lilies are associated with (31)_____ funerals. Rose, Iris, Violet were
popular as (32)_____ girl’s names in (33)_____ Victorian times, but are
less common nowadays.
17. After months of doing (1)_____ hard work, I decided that I needed
(2)_____ break. I wanted to go on (3)_____ trip and asked (4)_____ friend
of mine for (5)_____ advice about where I could go. I really enjoy travel-
ing and I love meeting (6)_____ people from (7)_____ other cultures –
it’s always (8)_____ great fun. My friend said that I should go to Italy,
which was (9)______ place I had never been to before. I got (10)_____
information about (11)_____ train tickets and (12)_____ accommodation
from (13)_____ Tourist Board office and off I went. I traveled all over Italy
and what (14)_____ fantastic time I had! I really like (15)_____ pasta so
I liked (16)_____ food there and I like (17)_____ extrovert people so made
(18)_____ friends there everywhere I go. We talked about all kinds of things,
like (19)_____ life, (20)______ love and a lot of less serious subjects, too.
I found (21)______ countryside in Italy beautiful and (22)_____ cities I went
to amazing. In particular, I will always remember (23)_____ atmosphere and
(24)_____ buildings in Venice – it’s (25)______ place that makes (26)_____
great impression on everyone who goes there. I’d love to go there every
year – going on (27)_____ trip like that is my idea of (28)______ happiness.
I’m planning (29)_____ next one now.
18. When David went to (1)_____ travel agent’s to ask for (2)______
information about (3)_____ cruises to (4)_____ North America, he was
given (5)_____ brochure and told that if he wanted to go, he would have to
make (6)_____ booking as soon as possible, as (7)_______ next cruise was
leaving in (8)_____ fortnight. He looked at (9)_____ brochure and, after
(10)_____ thought, decided to go, provided he could make (11)_____ ar-
rangement with his boss to get (12)_____ time off. He gave (13)_____ travel
agent (14)_____ money as (15)_____ deposit, then went to his office as he
98 Unit 14. Revision

had (16)_____ important work to do. After (17)_____ hour or so, his boss
came in and David asked him if he could take (18)_____ three weeks off as
he hadn’t taken (19)_____ holiday for nearly (20)_____ year. His boss was
quite agreeable, though at first had (21)_____ doubts about letting David
go for such (22)_____ long time. In (23)_____ end he agreed to give him
(24)_____ entire month off, and wished him (25)_____ wonderful holiday.
19. (1)_____ stay in (2)_____ hotel is not always (3)_____ pleasant ex-
perience. There are many things that can ruin (4)_____ otherwise enjoyable
visit. Many problems occur in (5)_____ bathroom. (6)_____ instructions
for using (7)_____ shower are not only complicated, but are often written
in (8)______ obscure language as well. (9)_____ over-enthusiastic staff are
another source of irritation. (10)_____ cleaners appear at (11)_____ incon-
venient times, ignoring (12)_____ «Do Not Disturb» sign, in (13)_____
order to check (14)_____ linen. (15)_____ porters surround (16)_____
guests and grab their luggage, hoping for (17)_____ tip. Some visitors love
(18)_____ free samples of soap and shampoo and eagerly take them home,
others consider such things (19)_____ waste of money and resent paying
(20)_____ high room prices to cover (21)_____ cost of these useless items.
What makes (22)_____ hotel guest happy? (23)_____ most people agree
that (24)_____ comfortable beds are (25)_____ important factor. (26)_____
business travelers value (27)_____ facilities such as (28)_____ fax machines
and (29)______ direct-dial telephones. However, (30)____ efficient service
comes at (31)_____ top of everyone’s list.
20. (1)_____ area of (2)_____ North Atlantic has not changed since
(3)_____ last Ice Age according to (4)_____ scientists. They have found
that (5)_____ temperature of (6)_____ deep water near (7)_____ Shet-
land Islands always remains a little below zero degrees. In (8)_____ view of
(9)_____ intense cold, (10)_____ water never freezes because it is extremely
salty, and it is inhabited by (11)_____ giant sea spiders. (12)_____ discovery
was made by (13)_____ team of (14)_____ scientists studying (15)_____
ocean floor at (16)… depths of more than (17)_____ mile. They also found
(18)_____ deep marks in (19)_____ seabed at (20)_____ depth of around
350 meters, which they say must have been caused by (21)_____ icebergs
that had broken away from (22)______ Scotland during (23)______ Ice Age.
What worries (24)_____ environmentalists, however, is that (25)______
area lies near (26)_____ place of (27)______ rich oil deposits. (28)_____
organizations such as (29)_____ Greenpeace fear that it is only (30)______
matter of time before (31)_____ multinational oil companies start exploring
this sub-zero world. If that happens, they warn, (32)______ oil slicks harm
(33)_____ environment that has lain untouched for thousands of years.
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CONTENTS

Предисловие ........................................................................................................................6

Unit 1
CLASSIFICATION OF NOUNS ....................................................................................7
1. Proper and common nouns...........................................................................7
2. Gender of nouns ............................................................................................10

Unit 2
THE CASE OF NOUNS .................................................................................................12
1. Case of nouns .................................................................................................12
2. Compound nouns ..........................................................................................16

Unit 3
THE NUMBER OF NOUNS .........................................................................................18

Unit 4
AGREEMENT BETWEEN
SUBJECT AND VERB.....................................................................................................24

Unit 5
DETERMINERS ...............................................................................................................32

Unit 6
ARTICLE: GENERAL NOTION, FUNCTIONS OF THE ARTICLES,
MEANINGS OF THE ARTICLES WITH COUNTABLE NOUNS ...................40
1. General notion. Functions of the articles.
Meanings of the articles with countable nouns.................................40
2. The generic meaning of the definite article ........................................44
102 Contents

Unit 7
ARTICLES WITH COUNTABLE NOUNS MODIFIED
BY ATTRIBUTES ............................................................................................................ 47

Unit 8
MODIFICATION OF NOUNS BY NUMERALS.
DEFINING AND NON - DEFINING CLAUSES .....................................................53
1. Modification of nouns by numerals.. ......................................................53
2. Defining/non-defining clauses .................................................................56

Unit 9
THE GENERIC USE OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE ...........................................58

Unit 10
ARTICLES WITH VARIOUS UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS.
ARTICLES WITH NOUNS REFERRING TO UNIQUE OBJECTS ................64
1. Articles with names of substances and with
abstract nouns................................................................................................64
2. Articles with nouns referring
to unique objects...........................................................................................68

Unit 11
ARTICLES WITH NOUNS IN SOME SYNTACTIC
POSITIONS .......................................................................................................................70
1. Articles with predicative nouns.
Articles with nouns in apposition...........................................................70
2. The absence of articles in parallel structures ....................................71

Unit 12
SPECIAL DIFFICULTIES IN THE USE
OF ARTICLES ...................................................................................................................74
1. Articles with names of seasons.
Articles with names of parts
of the day and night.....................................................................................74
2. Articles with names of meals ................................................................... 77
3. Articles with names of diseases ..............................................................79
2. Articles with certain nouns
(sea, school, hospital, town, etc.) ..............................................................81
Contents 103

Unit 13
THE USE OF ARTICLES WITH PROPER NOUNS ...........................................84
1. Articles with personal names...................................................................84
2. Articles with geographic names and other types
of proper nouns ............................................................................................. 87

Unit 14
REVISION ..........................................................................................................................93

References ...........................................................................................................................99