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3-4 (13-14), 2008

9 771857 268509



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,
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Omecrnennax acconnannx Pyct, 2009
HAVuHOE H3AHHE
Peaxnnonnan xonnernn:
oormop ucmopuu C. Cv.r (Mo.oaeu),
e.aeui peoarmop
oormop ucmopuu H. Lopuuroe (Mo.oaeu),
sa+ecmume.i e.aeuoeo peoarmopa
rauouoam ucmopu:ecrux uavr P. auu.e (Vrpauua),
sa+ecmume.i e.aeuoeo peoarmopa
M. A.+auu (Vrpauua)
M. Iopur (Cepou)
oormop ucmopu:ecrux uavr M. Ivooe.o (Poccu)
M. pouoe (Poccu)
rauouoam ucmopu:ecrux uavr B. Meprv.oe (Poccu)
rauouoam qu.o.oeu:ecrux uavr B. Haor (Vrpauua)
oormop qu.ocoquu A. H.uuroea (C.oearu)
rauouoam qu.o.oeu:ecrux uavr . Hon (Vrpauua)
oormop .uueeucmu:ecrux uavr npoqeccop P. Pa+a: (Cepou)
oormop xaou.umam ucmopuu H. Pvccee (Mo.oaeu)
npomouepe o.u+umpu Cuoop (Vrpauua)
M. Cu.aou (Cepou)
oormop ucmopuu H. Te.iuoe (Mo.oaeu)
npomouepe o.Huro.a 4.opuucru (Mo.oaeu)
P. Lanra (Kauaoa)
M. Lapea (Vrpauua)
Apec peaxnnn: Pecnynnxa Monona, MD 2001, r. Knmnnen,
yn. M. Kor+nnnuany, 24/1. Pecnynnxancxax omecrnennax acconnannx .
Ten.: (+373 22) 27-02-84, ]axc: 27-15-15. E-mail: journalrusyn@rambler.ru
Editor's address: Association "Rus'". M. Kogalniceanu Street, 24/1, Kishinev,
MD 2001, Moldova.
Tel.: (+373 22) 27-02-84, fax 27-15-15. E-mail: journalrusyn@rambler.ru
COEPAHHE / CONTENTS
HCTOPHR PYCHHOB / HISTORY OF THE RUSINS
Cepren CYARK
Pycnnt: ypoxn rparnuecxo ncropnn ......................................................................... 7-34
Sergei SULEAK
Rusins: Lessons of a Tragic History
Maxcnu HX
O npetcropnn Bontncxo semnn (VI nauano X nexa) .......................................... 35-57
Maksim ZHIKH
About the Prehistory of the Land of Volyn (VI - the beginning of the X century)
Onexcanp MAmKIH
Binomennx ypxonnx xin Ancrpo-Vropmnnn o mocxno]inin Iannunnn, Fyxonnnn i
3axapnarrx n poxn Hepmo cnirono ninn .................................................................. 58-68
Aleksandr MASHKIN
The Relationship of the Ruling Circles of Austro-Hungary to the Moscophiles of Galicia,
Bukovina and Transcarpathia during the years of the First World War
Cepren CYARK
Tanepro] n Tepesnn: satrt renonn ................................................................... 69-75
Sergei SULEAK
Talergof and Terezin: a forgotten genocide
Bix1op KIHEPA
Incrnrynina posyona nponinni unny nacnnian na 3axapnarri y nepio npanninnx
myxauinctxoro cnncxona Anpix Faunnctxoro (1773-1809) ....................................... 76-83
Viktor KICHERA
The Institutional Organization of the Basilian Order in Transcarpathia during the period of
Rule of the Bishop of Mukachevo Andrei Bachinskii (1773-1809)
Bacnnt MImAHHH
oxymenrn epxannoro apxiny 3axapnarctxo onacri npo arpapny nonirnxy na 3axap-
narri n 1944-1950 poxax .............................................................................................. 84-95
Vasyl MISHCHANYN
Documents of the National Archives of the Transcarpathian oblast about the Agrarian
Policies in Transcarpathia in 1944-1950
Bacnnnn KOHAH
Tnnn oropox, x enonmnix ra xoncrpyxrnnni oconnnocri na 3axapnarri xinnx XIX
nepmo nononnnn XX cronirrx ................................................................................... 96-114
Vasilii KOTSAN
Types of Enclosures, Their Development and Structural Features in Transcarpathia at the
end of the XIX to the beginning of the XX century
Bix1op KIHEPA
Micina ixntnicrt pe]opmonannx monaxin-nacnnian na 3axapnarri y 20-30-x poxax XX
cronirrx ....................................................................................................................... 115-123
Viktor KICHERA
The Missionary Activity of the Reformed Basilian Monks in Transcarpathia during the 20s
and 30s of the XX century
Bacnnt MImAHHH
3axapnarctxa monot n mxonax u3H: nanuannx un smymena mirpanix?............... 124-128
Vasyl MISHCHANYN
Transcarpathian Youth in the Schools of the FZN: Learning or Forced Migration?
3HAMEHHTLE PYCHHL / FAMOUS RUSINS
Hnna HAmAEBA
Kapnaropyccxne nnrennnrenrt n Poccnn n 1- nononnne XIX nexa: Opna, Fanyrtxnc-
xn, Hon, Kyxontnnx, Benennn ............................................................................... 129-140
Nina PASHAEVA
Carpatho-Russian Intellectuals in Russia in the First Half of the XIX century: Orlai,
Balugianskii, Lodii, Kukolnik, Venelin
nnxon Onexcanp MOHHH
ixntnicrt mapamopomctxoro cnxrnrenx Iocn]a (Croxn) ................................ 141-147
Deacon Aleksandr MONICH
The Work of the Maramarosh Saint Josef (Stoika)
Kpnn AHHAEH
Apxnenncxon Hona]an (Konononnu): oxymenrt n marepnant .......................... 148-159
Iurii DANILETS
Archbishop Ionafan (Kopolovich): Documents and Material
un1po AHHAKK
Hayxona cnamnna Rpix Benenina y cnirni nonnx ocnixent ............................ 160-171
Dmytro DANYLIUK
The Scholarly Legacy of Iurii Venelyn in Light of New Research
Kpin AHHAEHL
Ham`xri Inana Kannnnua .......................................................................................... 172-176
Iurii DANYLETS
In Memory of Ivan Kalynych
PYCHHCKAR BHBAHOIPAmHR / RUSIN BIBLIOGRAPHY
Kpnn AHHAEH
Pycnncxax remarnxa n nsannxx nocnennx ner .................................................... 177-188
Iurii DANILETS
Rusin Themes in the Publications of Recent Years
Kpin AHHAEHL
Kpeo Inana Xnanrn seperrn yxonny cnamnny pycnnin! ............................. 189-190
Iurii DANILETS
Credo of Ivan Khlanta Uphold the Spiritual Heritage of the Rusins!
Ha1anin AHHAEHL
Knnra npo icropim ra xyntrypy onoro cena na Txuinmnni ................................ 191-192
Natalia DANYLETS
A Book of the History and Culture of One Village in the District of Tiachev
HYBAHHHCTHKA / PUBLICATIONS
Ta1tnna H3BAm-IOHKAH, Hropt mKAREB
Oeccxne Boponnoncxne urennx ............................................................................. 193-197
Tatiana IZBASH-GOTSKAN, Igor SHKLIAEV
Vorontsovian Readings in Odessa
Cepren CAOHCTOB
Pycnncxoe nospoxenne na Mocxoncxo semne .................................................... 198-201
Sergei SLOISTOV
Rusin Rebirth in the Land of Moscow
Bcrpeua c npexropom mysex Pyccxa Onora, rpexo-xaronnuecxnm cnxmennnxom
o. Mnxannom Xonomnxem ........................................................................................ 202-203
Meeting with the Greek Catholic Priest Father Michael Kholoshniai, the Director of the
"Ruska Odloga" Museum
mpa HAHYIA
Pycxa Marxa. Pycxn Kepecryp y 2008 poxy ....................................................... 204-211
Diura PAPUGA
Ruska Matka. Ruski Kerestur in 2008
Anexcanp IEIAALHIH
Hanpeart Pyctxo npemi. Hyxapnarctxa Pyct ................................................ 212-223
Aleksandr GEGALCHI
Laureates of the Rusin Award. Sub-Carpathian Rus
APXHB / ARCHIVES
Rxon IOAOBAHKHH
Kapnarcxax Pyct (ncropnxo-+rnorpa]nuecxn ouepx) ........................................ 224-261
Iakov GOLOVATSKII
Carpathian Rus (Historic-Ethnographical Essay)
Btnot o monorpa]nn C.I. Cynxxa Ocxonxn Cnxro Pycn ............................ 262-266
Conclusions about "Parts of Holy Rus' ", a monograph by S.G.Suleak
Hpannna nynnxannn n xypnane Pycnn .................................................................. 267
Rules of Publication in the Journal "Rusin"
Cneennx o anropax ........................................................................................................ 268
Information about the Authors
Summary .................................................................................................................... 269-271
Vnaxaemte unrarenn!
Bt epxnre n pyxax nocnenn nomep mexynaponoro ncropnuec-
xoro xypnana Pycnn sa 2008 ro. On tn nororonnen conmecrno c
nccneonarenxmn ns Vxropoa. Btnycx annoro nomepa noxasan, uro,
necmorpx na pasnnunt noxo x ocnemennm rex nnn nntx ncropnuec-
xnx cotrn, corpynnuecrno nosmoxno.
Kem t cex nn cunrann noromxn pycnnon ceronx: pyccxnmn, yxpa-
nnnamn, monananamn, nenrpamn, nonxxamn, pymtnamn, cnonaxamn, ame-
pnxannamn, xananamn n r.. nnn xe orentntm uerneprtm nocrou-
nocnanxncxnm napoom, mt ne nnpane satnart o cnonx xopnxx n on-
xnt urnrt cnnx npexon, nnecmnx snaunrentnt nxna n opasonanne
penne Pycn, Poccnn, CCCP n pxa nenrpantno- n nocrouno-enpone-
cxnx rocyapcrn n napoon.
Hama nent - npoonxenne paspaorxn ncropnn pycnnon, nosnpame-
nne ns sanennx nmen nsnecrntx exrene Iannnxo, Fyxonnncxo n
Vropcxo Pycn. 3nax ncropnm Rro-3anano Pycn, mt cmoxem nyume
nonxrt nponecct, nponcxoxmne ceronx. Bet xro ne snaer cnonx nc-
ropnn, rpannn, pannoymen x cnoemy npomnomy, ror oenxer cnoe
nacroxmee, enaer ymepntm yymee.
3ror ro nx pycnnon snamenarentnt. 650 ner nasa nonoxn n pycn-
nt ocnonann cnom rocyapcrnennocrt - npanocnannoe Monancxoe xnx-
xecrno. Monannx tna opasonana na semnxx Iannnxo Pycn n nepn-
o ycnnennx arpeccnn xaronnuecxnx Hontmn n Benrpnn npornn Rro-
3anano Pycn.
onroe npemx Monannx tna onnorom npanocnannx n Kapnarcxom
pernone, oxastnana noepxxy npanocnanntm nepapxam n xpamam n
Iannunne n Vropcxo Pycn.
Cneymmn nomep xypnana yer nocnxmen nxnay pycnnon n opa-
sonanne Monancxo rocyapcrnennocrn, monancxoro xstxa n xyntry-
pt c pennnx npemen o ceronxmnero nx, nonnrnuecxnm, xyntryp-
ntm n pennrnosntm cnxsxm Monannn c cocennmn crpanamn n napo-
amn.
Mt npnrnamaem x corpynnuecrny anropon. Marepnant nx nynn-
xannn n xypnane neoxonmo o]opmnxrt n coornercrnnn c npannnamn,
onynnxonanntmn na crp. 267.
Mexynapont ncropnuecxn xypnan Pycnn pacctnaercx n yue-
nte saneennx Pecnynnxn Monona, neymne nnnorexn n nyst CHI,
pycnncxne oprannsannn.
Cepren CYARK,
rnannt peaxrop
mexynaponoro ncropnuecxoro xypnana Pycnn
7

Cepren CYARK
PYCHHL:
YPOKH TPAIHHECKOH HCTOPHH*
Pyccuu uapo euu e +uoeoopasuu;
xuu e meueuue eeuoe, +oxem xumo u auoue.
I.B. Bepuacuu**
Hcropnx Rro-3anano Pycn n ee nacenennx onroe npemx perymn-
ponanact: ]axrt, ne yxnatnanmnecx n o]nnnantnym nepcnm nsno-
xennx cotrn, nno ncxaxannct, nno npocro samanunnannct. Hpn-
uem, xax n cnoe npemx n conercxo, n conpemenno o]nnnantno yxpa-
nncxo ncropnorpa]nn +ro enaercx no neonornuecxnm mornnam. Poc-
cncxne nccneonarenn, sa pexnm ncxnmuennem, xax npannno, no nnep-
nnn npoonxamr npnepxnnartcx rouxn spennx yxpanncxo ncropnor-
pa]nn ne rontxo n nonpocax rpaxronxn ncropnuecxnx cotrn, no n n
ypennennn +rnonnmon, nepenoce ceronxmnnx peann n npomnoe.
Mexy rem ncropnx pycnnon (pycnaxon)
1
noxasarentna rem, uro,
necmorpx na mnoronexonoe npoxnnanne n cocrane pyrnx rocyapcrn,
nononnsannm, matxpnsannm, pymtnnsannm, xopennoe pyccxoe nacene-
nne Kapnarcxo Pycn (Iannunnt, Fyxonnnt, Hoxapnarcxo (Vropcxo)
Pycn) onroe npemx coxpanxno ne rontxo cnom pyccxocrt, no n ocosna-
nne cnoe npnnanexnocrn x ennomy pyccxomy napoy n enno pyc-
cxo xyntrype.
C XIII n. Hoxapnarcxax (Vropcxax) Pyct oxasanact n cocrane Ben-
repcxoro xoponencrna, c xonna XIV cronernx Iannunna - n cocrane
Hontcxoro xoponencrna. Onaxo nnrentnoe cymecrnonanne rocyap-
crnennocrn Rro-3anano Pycn (Iannnxo-Bontncxoe xnxxecrno)
2
co-
sano ycnonnx nx coxpanennx +rnoxyntrypno camotrnocrn pycnnon
n reuenne nnrentnoro ncropnuecxoro nepnoa. Hmenno noromy, uro
onacrn, nacenennte pycnnamn, nomnn n cocran pyrnx crpan ntcoxo-
pasnnrtmn n nonnrnuecxom, +xonomnuecxom, mpnnuecxom n xyntryp-
nom nnane, pycnnon ne nocrnrna yuacrt accnmnnnponanntx nemnamn
npyccon.
* or.ao oi. sa:umau 19 oeraop 2008 e. ua +erovuapoouo uav:uo-npar-
mu:ecro rouqepeuuu Ieuouo u rv.imvpui omuouo pvcuuoe Kapnamc-
ro Pvcu (roue XIX - ua:a.o XX ee.), e. Pocmoe-ua-ouv.
** Bepuaocru I.B. Ha:epmauue pvccro ucmopuu. CHo.: Hsoame.icmeo
Haui, 2000. C. 281.
8
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
B nepno oocrpennx optt sa Iannnxo-Bontncxoe nacnecrno mexy
Hontme, Bennxnm xnxxecrnom Hnroncxnm n Pyccxnm n Benrpne nos-
nnxaer npanocnannoe Monancxoe xnxxecrno (1359 r.). Ono tno co-
sano pycnnamn n nonoxamn na semnxx, nxonnmnx n cnoe npemx n co-
cran Iannnxoro xnxxecrna. Fyxonnna pernon xomnaxrnoro npoxnna-
nnx pycnnon - crana xpom xnxxecrna, ocnonannoro no pennepyccxnm
opasnam. Pycnnt no nropo nononnne XIV n. cocrannxnn 40% ero na-
cenennx. Pyccxn xstx roro npemenn (pycnncxn) tn o]nnnantntm
xstxom cpenenexono Monannn o nauana XVIII n., pycnnt npncyr-
crnonann n cocrane npanxmnx xnaccon na nporxxennn nce ncropnn
xnxxecrna. Cam rnponnm n rononnm Monona nponcxonr or penne-
cnanxncxoro cnona monn, mon (ent). pennne ]opmt +roro rono-
nnma Monya, Monyna
3
.
Bnocnecrnnn ontmax uacrt pycnnon nomna n cocran monancxo
naponocrn. Vuacrne pycnnon n +rnorenese monancxoro napoa oyc-
nonnno ]opmnponanne y monanan +rnoxyntrypntx ocoennocre, or-
nnuammnx nx or +rnnuecxn nnsxnx nm nanaxon (mynrxn). Pycnnt oxa-
sann orpomnoe nnnxnne na ]opmnponanne marepnantno n yxonno xynt-
rypt monanan. B ocnonnom ]one monancxoro xstxa nacunrtnaercx
cntme 2 rtcxu nocrounocnanxncxnx sanmcrnonann.
K cepenne XIX n. semnn, nacenennte pycnnamn (ne menee 4 mnn. uen.),
oxasannct n cocrane Anc1pnncxon (n 1772 r. Bocrounax Iannun-
na,1814-1815 rr. 3ananax Iannunna, n 1774 r. - ontmax uacrt Fyxo-
nnnt, Hoxapnarcxax Pyct (c 1687 r. Benrpnx n cocrane Ancrpnn, n
1867 r. cosana Ancrpo-Benrepcxax nmnepnx)) n Poccnncxon (Fecca-
pacxax ryepnnx (1812 r., onee 250 rtc. pycnnon) n Xonmmnna (3a-
yxnax Pyct nnn Xonmcxo-Honxmcxax Pyct), c 1815 r. n cocrane Hap-
crna Hontcxoro) nunepnn. Hemnorouncnennoe pycnncxoe nacenenne
coxpanxnoct n Tpancnntnannn (rora n cocrane Benrpnn) n Pymtnnn.
Pycnnt Hoxapnarcxo Pycn c cepennt XVIII n. nepecenxnnct na
Fanxant, na Faunancxym pannnny (conpemennax Boenonna).
Pycnnt Feccapann (Hpyro-necrponcxnx sement), npoxnnax n co-
crane Poccncxo nmnepnn, ne ncntrtnann nn nannonantnoro, nn penn-
rnosnoro rnera. Hpncoennennax x Poccnn Feccapanx npecrannxna
coo pasopennt rypxamn n rarapamn xpa. uncnennocrt nacenennx,
no pasnnuntm ncrounnxam, cocrannxna or 275 rtc. o 334 rtc. ueno-
nex
4
.
Hpncoennenne Feccapann x Poccnn naronpnxrno cxasanoct na ynyu-
mennn connantno-+xonomnuecxoro nonoxennx onacrn, uro npnneno x
ynennuennm uncnennocrn nacenennx. 3a 60 ner XIX n. nacenenne Poc-
cnn nospocno n nenom n 2 pasa, n Feccapann sa 50 ner, c 1812 no 1861 r.
n 4 pasa. 3ro nponsomno n sa cuer ntcoxoro yponnx ecrecrnennoro
npnpocra, n naroapx npnnnny nacenennx nsnne
5
.
9

Ocoenno nacenenntm tn Xornncxn yes. B 1812 r. sect npoxnna-
no 15,4 rtc. uenonex, n 1827 r. 114, 3 rtc. C 1812 no 1858 r. uncnen-
nocrt nacenennx yesa nospocna n 11,5 pas
6
. Fontmnncrno xnrene yes-
a tnn pycnnt (pycnaxn). Onn xomnaxrno npoxnnann raxxe n ccxom
n Copoxcxom yesax. Konnuecrno pycnnon ynennunnanoct sa cuer mnr-
panron ns ancrpncxo uacrn Fyxonnnt n Iannunnt. Fyxonnncxne py-
cnnt maccono npnxonnn na cesonnte paort n Feccapanm, mnorne
ns nnx sarem ocranannct n xpae. B 1859 r. uncnennocrt pycnnon n Fec-
capann cocrannxna 130 rtc. uenonex (1/7 uacrt nacenennx xpax), n
nauane XX n. cntme 250 rtc. uenonex (1/8 nacenennx ryepnnn)
7
.
Pycnnt cocrannxnn snaunrentnym uacrt nacenennx ropoon Feccapa-
nn. o nauana XX n. n Knmnnene coxpanxnoct npemecrte Iynynenxa,
nacenennoe ntxonamn ns Iannunnt rynynamn
8
.
O]nnnantnte poccncxne nnacrn orenxnn pycnnon (pycnaxon) Fec-
capann or manopoccon, npnsnanax nx ocoym +rnoxyntrypnym nen-
rnunocrt, cunrax nx, xax n manopoccon, uacrtm pyccxoro napoa. 3a
nce npemx n xannenxpnn eccapacxoro noennoro ryepnaropa tno
saneeno rontxo ono eno, xacanmeecx pycnnon: O ancrpncxono-
anntx, npntnammnx n Feccapacxym onacrt n ontmom xonnue-
crne (1867 r.). Ftno ormeueno, uro ner nnxaxnx cneenn, ammnx
nono saxnmunrt o nenaronaexnocrn anntx nnn. B ro xe npemx
nocroxnnoe nanmenne nenoct sa npoxnnanmnmn n Feccapann cra-
ponepamn, anrncramn, monoxanamn, nonxxamn
9
.
O nonnrnuecxnx nsrnxax mnoronannonantnoro nacenennx xpax ntc-
xasancx poccncxn nonnrnuecxn exrent B.B. Byntrnn: Oxpannt,
nacenennte rax nastnaemtmn nnoponamn, nnora ontme nennnn
Poccnm, nexenn npnponte pyccxne. B uacrnocrn, Feccapanx nocna-
na no nropym Iocyapcrnennym ymy H.H. Kpynencxoro, B.M. Hypnm-
xennua, H.A. Kpymenana, H.B. Cnnanno n pyrnx yexenntx cro-
ponnnxon monapxnn n nennunx Poccnn
10
.
B nnom nonoxennn oxasannct pycnnt Hoxapnarcxo, Iannnxo Pycn
n ancrpncxo uacrn Fyxonnnt. Pycnnt Iannnxo n Hoxapnarcxo Pycn
tnn n ocnonnom ynnaramn, xorx nepy cnom no-npexnemy nastnann
pyccxo. B 1596 r. n Fpecr-Hnroncxe uacrt sananopyccxoro ntcmero
yxonencrna saxnmunna nepxonnym ynnm c Pnmom, n 1646 r. tna sax-
nmuena Vxropocxax ynnx. Hecmorpx na +ro, napo n ontmnncrno
cnxmennocnyxnrene mnorne cronernx conpornnnxnnct oxaronnunna-
nnm n npononmo nnacrxmn nacnntcrnenno nonnrnxe nononnsannn n
matxpnsannn.
Co nropo nononnnt XIX n. naunnamrcx camte rparnuecxne crpann-
nt ncropnn pycnnon. K romy npemenn ontmnncrno npecrannrene
ntcmnx xnaccon yrparnnn namxrt o cnoem nponcxoxennn n crann no-
10
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
nxxamn, nenrpamn, pymtnamn, nemnamn. Pycnnamn ocranannct rontxo
cnxmennnxn n xonont (na Fyxonnne myxnxn - sect ne tno xpenocrno-
ro npana). Cnxmennnxn (ynnarcxne n npanocnannte), nsyuax ncropnm
npanocnannx, snaxomnnnct n c ncropne Pycn.
Becny napoon pycnnt ncrpernnn cosannem n 1848 r. nonnrnuecxo-
ro oprana rannnxnx pycnnon - Iononno pyccxo pat, ntxoom ee
neuarnoro oprana - 3opx Iannnxax n oprannsanne Iannnxo-pyccxo
marnnt
11
. Onaxo camo nepnoe pycnncxoe Bospoxenne nauanoct ne-
cxontxo nosxe. Hecomnenno, conepmenno rnnnornsnpymmee ecrnne
nponsneno na nero nnxenne crortcxuno apmnn Hacxennua n 1849 r.,
meme na noannenne nenrepcxoro noccrannx
12
, no ocnonnym pont
ctrpana npemecrnymmax exrentnocrt rannnxnx, yxonnncxnx n no-
xapnarcxn ynrene, o nexoroptx ns xoroptx nxparne yer paccxa-
sano nnxe.
Hemanym pont ctrpana nccneonarentcxax paora ennca Hnano-
nnua 3ypnnxoro (1777-1862), nsnecrnoro rannnxo-pyccxoro yuenoro,
nponcxonnmero ns crapnnnoro nopxncxoro poa. On sanoxnn ocnony
nauany nsyuennx ncropnn Iannnxo Pycn
n napontx otuaen. B 1852 r. 3ypnn-
xn nsan na mecrnom napeunn Hcropnm
pennero Iannnxo-Pyccxoro xnxxecrna,
nepnt nayunt rpy no ncropnn xpax.
Btmno na roma, nocnxmenntx ncropnn
Iannnnn o 1199 r. Tpern rom, coepxa-
mn ncropnm c 1200 no 1377 r., noxnnncx
n 1855 r. n tn nsxr nnacrxmn ns opa-
mennx.
3aunnarenem nnreparypnoro nanpanne-
nnx crana Pyccxax Tponna, cryenrt
Htnoncxoro ynnnepcnrera Rxon meo-
ponnu Iononanxnn (1814-1888), Hnan
Hnxonaennu Barnnennu (1811-1866) n
Mapxnan Ceuenonnu mamxennu
(1811-1843), ern ynnarcxnx cnxmennn-
xon. B 1837 r. onn ntnycxamr antmanax Pycanxa necrponcxax, n
xoropom onynnxonann crnxn, naponte necnn, nepenot, opasnt pen-
nnx oxymenron
13
.
Bennxa pont Mnxanna Anexceennua Kauxoncxoro (1802-1872), roxe
ctna ynnarcxoro cnxmennnxa, cytn. Orxastnax cee no ncem (nnra-
xct xapro]enem, uepntm xneom, xnnx n cxpomno xnaprnpe), on xonnn
ncm xnsnt cpecrna na naponoe eno. B 1861 r. Kauxoncxn ocnonan
no Htnone nepnym nesanncnmym ontmym nonnrnuecxym pyccxym ra-
ennc Hnanonnu 3ypnnxnn
11

sery n Iannnnn Cnono,
xoropax npocymecrnonana
o 1887 r.; peaxropom ee
on nspan Borana Anpe-
ennua ennxoro (1827-
1909). Bce cnoe cocroxnne,
oxono 60 rtc. py., Kauxon-
cxn saneman na naponte
nenn. Ha +rn cpecrna no
nnnnnarnne Hoanna Ipn-
roptennua Hayuonnua
(1826-1891) tno ocnonano
Omecrno nmenn M. Kau-
xoncxoro, crannnmee cno-
e saaue xyntrypnoe npo-
cnemenne napoa n nomomt
nenmymnm
14
.
Vnnarcxn cnxmennnx
Anexcanp Bacnntennu
yxnonnu (1803-1865) nep-
nt n Vropcxo Pycn cran
nncart no-pyccxn. o nero ynorpenxnnct nepxonnocnanxncxn, narnn-
cxn n nenrepcxn xstxn. A.B. yxnonnu - anrop crnxornopenn, nann-
canntx na pycnncxom napeunn, n rom uncne n pycnn tn, ecmt n
yy, cranmero nnocnecrnnn napontm rnmnom Hoxapnarcxo Pycn.
Kax ormeuan u.u. Apncron, cnonmn rpyamn A.B. yxnonnu yxasan
yrpo-pyccam ro nanpannenne, no xoropo-
my onxno conepmartcx nx nannonant-
noe pasnnrne. Ecnn Vropcxax Pyct, n npo-
rnnononoxnocrt Iannunne n Fyxonnne,
nnxora ne snana yxpanno]nntcrna n nce-
ra orcrannana omepyccxoe nannonant-
no-xyntrypnoe enncrno, ro +rnm ona n
snaunrentno crenenn oxsana nnoo-
rnopno exrentnocrn Anexcanpa Ba-
cnntennua yxnonnua
15
.
3acnyra ynnarcxoro cnxmennnxa Hna-
na Hnanonnua Paxoncxoro (1815-
1885), nomnmo nnreparypno exrentno-
crn, saxnmuanact n nocnnrannn nenoro
noxonennx xnrene cena Hst (Vropcxax
Pyct) n uncro npanocnannom yxe.
Rxon meoponnu Iononanxnn n
Hnan Ipnroptennu Hayuonnu (1883 r.)
Anexcanp Bacnntennu
yxnonnu
12
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Aontq Hnanonnu opnnc-
xnn-Cauypon (1817-1901), nponc-
xonnmn ns crapnnnoro nopxnc-
xoro poa, sannman pasnnunte ro-
cyapcrnennte onxnocrn (n rom
uncne tn nomomnnxom rpaxan-
cxoro xomnccapa npn 3-m xopnyce
renepana Pnnrepa, npexa narpn-
apxa Mocxoncxoro n ncex Pycn
Anexcnx II), nnen n enonponsno-
crno Vropcxo Pycn pyccxn xstx,
pyccxne nanncn na ynnnax, on-
nancx nasnauennx pycnnon na rocy-
apcrnennte onxnocrn. Hmenno
on nepntm nocrannn nonpoc o an-
ronomnn reppnropn, nacenenntx
pycnnamn. B 1849 r. nmecre c py-
rnmn yrpopyccxnmn narpnoramn or-
npannncx n Beny npocnrt nmnepa-
ropa o npncoennennn Vropcxo Pycn x Iannunne. Paspaoran Hpoexr
nonnrnuecxo nporpammt nx Pycn Ancrpncxo (1871), re oxast-
nan neoxonmocrt oennnrt n ono amnnncrparnnnoe nenoe pyc-
cxne uacrn Iannunnt, Fyxonnnt n Vropcxo Pycn
16
.
Hocne cosannx nyennoro rocyapcrna Ancrpo-Benrepnn n 1867 r.
naunnaercx nepno nemenxo-matxpcxoro rocnocrna no ncex c]epax
omecrnenno-nonnrnuecxo xnsnn. B Fyxonnne n Iannunne ancrpnc-
xne nnacrn crann noepxnnart yxpanncxoe napoonenxoe nnxenne.
Onaxo, xax cnnerentcrnyer M. Ipymencxn, nourn nce crapmee no-
xonenne ornocnnoct x nemy necouyncrnenno n onee nnn menee pemn-
rentno rxroreno n cropony mocxno]nntcrna (rax yxpanncxax ncropnor-
pa]nx oosnauaer pycnncxoe nnxenne C.C.). B pyxax mocxno]nnon
naxonnnct nce nannonantnte oprannsannn n n Iannnnn, n na Fyxonnne,
ne ronopx yxe o 3axapnarcxo Vxpanne (n onnctnaemt nepno - Vrop-
cxax Pyct - C.C.). Hapooncrno npecranneno tno neontmnmn nnmt
xpyxxamn, entmn n marepnantntmn cpecrnamn, n xyntrypntmn cn-
namn
17
. B ro npemx repmnn yxpannen nocnn nannonantno-nonnrn-
uecxym oxpacxy
18
. Taxontm tno anrnpyccxoe mentmnncrno
19
.
B Iannunne, Fyxonnne, Hoxapnarcxo Pycn ecrnonann mnorounc-
nennte pycnncxne oprannsannn, ntxonna nnreparypa, rasert n xypna-
nt na nnreparypnom pyccxom (omepyccxom) xstxe n rax nastnaemom
xstunn (na +rom xstxe pycnncxne ynrenn opamannct n x napoy)
cmecn nepxonnocnanxncxoro, pyccxoro nnreparypnoro xstxon n napo-
Aontq Hnanonnu opnncxnn
13

noro ronopa. enyrart-pycnnt tnn
npecrannent n Bencxom pexcrpa-
re, Fyxonnncxom n Htnoncxnm ce-
max.
Camax mnorouncnennax oprannsa-
nnx - Omecrno nmenn M. Kauxon-
cxoro nmena cnon orenennx (]n-
nnn) no nce Bocrouno Iannnnn.
Hourn nce unrantnn, nosnnxmne n
1871-1878 rr., oxsant cnonm cyme-
crnonannem exrentnocrn o. Hoan-
na Haymonnua. Hs 161 unrantnn, oc-
nonanno n cenax n 1871-1878 rr.,
rontxo mecrt tno cosano yxpann-
cxnmn nannonanncramn-napoonna-
mn. Hpocnnra nourn ne nmena n
cnonx pxax xpecrtxn (o 1873 r. -
rontxo 2), rora xax n Omecrne nm. Kauxoncxoro n 1875, 1876,
1877 rr. tno 645, 4791, 6123 unena coornercrnenno, npenmymecrnenno
xpecrtxne
20
.
Btcoxym onenxy npecrannrenxm rannnxo-pyccxoro nnxennx an n
cnoe crarte uopmantnt n peantnt nannonannsm (1889 r.) Hnan
upanxo, nncarent, yuent, omecrnennt exrent, croxnmn na nosn-
nnn yxpannnsma. Crartx tna nanncana n orner na nynnxannm ntnon-
cxoro nnreparypno-nonnrnuecxoro exemecxunnxa napoonnen Hpan-
a, re, n uacrnocrn, exrenn pycnncxoro nospoxennx nastnannct
npearenxmn, mycopom, peneraramn, sanpoannamn. Hepeunc-
nnn sacnyrn nnepon pycnncxoro nnxennx H. Haymonnua (eeo Ha-
vra u+e.a oro.o mpex mic: noonuc:uroe, :uc.o, romopoeo ue
oocmuea.a uu ooua vrpauuoqu.icra easema), I. Kynuanxo
("Hpaeoa pvccra" Ip. Kvn:aura pacxooumc e uapooe marre e
eeci+a oo.iuo+ :uc.e) n ene npocnemennx napoa, H. upanxo xon-
crarnpyer: H ne sayem, uro cpen nnrennnrenrntx rannnxo-yxpann-
cxnx (nncarent nocroxnno ynorpenxer +rnonnm yxpannen no orno-
mennm x pycnncxnm nonnrnuecxnm exrenxm omepyccxo opnenrannn
n ncemy nacenennm Iannnxo Pycn n Manopoccnn, n ro npemx raxont-
mn cex ne cunranmnmn - C.C.) "sanpoannen" naxoxrcx nmn (moxer
trt, nx ontme axe, uem cpen npanonepntx napoonnen), xoropte
pan myxnxa nnn no nonpocy o xstxe n nnctmennocrn yxpanncxo n
ecxrt pas cmenee ntcrynxr, n ecxrt pas cxopee saxnxr nporecr nna-
crxm n ncxxnm "cnntntm mnpa cero", uem mnorne napoonnt. He say-
em, uro mexy +rnmn "sanpoannamn" naxonnnct n naxoxrcx nmn,
Ipnropnn Hnanonnu Kynuanxo
14
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
xoropte nect nex xnnyr n camtx cxpomntx ycnonnxx, n recnore n nyx-
e, cnyxa eny, xoropoe nm xaxercx cnpanennntm, n xoropte ne noxo-
nenmrcx nanoxnrt na cex pyxy, ecnn ynnxr, uro eno, n xoropom onn
nnenn cnny n uecrt napoa, npnxonr n ynaox (Fanmx). Kora x cnt-
my, uro x raxnm nmxm npnnaramr cnono "sanpoannt", mne ncxxn pas
ncnomnnamrcx tnte netmt n xonyntn, xoroptx ncxuecxne opro-
oxct cxnrann na xocrpax sa ro, uro onn "npoannct uepry", xorx +rn
necuacrnte "sanpoannt" xnnn otuno n camo nennxo nnmere n nn-
xaxo xoptcrn or +roro sanpoancrna ne nmenn
21
.
B 1881 r. ancrpncxne nnacrn nponoxr rpomxn nonnrnuecxn npo-
necc Ontrn Ipaapt. Honoom nocnyxnn nepexo xnrene rannnxoro
cena Innnnuxn n npanocnanne. Ftnn apecronant A. opxncxn, ero
out O. Ipaapt, peaxrop ntnoncxo rasert Cnono B. Hnomancxn,
H. Haymonnu n p. Cy npncxxntx npnronopnn 4 uenonex x necxontxnm
mecxnam rmptmt. O. Hoann Haymonnu tn npnronopen x 8 mecxnam
rmptmt
22
.
Haxanyne nont ancrpo-nenrepcxne nnacrn npenpnnxnn mept no nnx-
nnannn pycnncxoro nnxennx. Onnm ns +]]exrnnntx cpecrn opt-
t crana mnnonomannx. C 1909 r. naunnaercx nonna apecron n ancrpn-
cxo uacrn Fyxonnnt. Hocrenenno ona nanpaer cnny. B mae 1910 r.
ancrpncxne nnacrn c noaun yxpanncxoro nannonanncra H. Bacnntxo,
pymtna no nponcxoxennm, saxptnn ontmnncrno pycnncxnx oprann-
sann Fyxonnnt: Omecrno pyccxnx xenmnn, Kapnar, Pyccxo-
npanocnannt napont om, Pyccxo-npanocnannt ercxn npnmr,
Pyccxo-npanocnannax unrantnx, Pyccxax pyxnna, a raxxe pycnn-
cxne ypct n uepnonnax n Cepere. Hpnunno saxptrnx tnn ronocnon-
nte onnnennx n rocyapcrnenno nsmene n nonnrnuecxo exrentnoc-
rn. Hmymecrno +rnx oprannsann tno xon]ncxonano n nosxe npoano
c ropron. Onaxo px pycnncxnx oprannsann (Haponax paa n Pyc-
cxn xny) npoonxan cnom exrentnocrt. B 1903 r. nauancx macco-
nt nepexo pycnnon Vropcxo n Iannnxo Pycn n npanocnanne. yxon-
ntmn nnepamn crann npanocnannte cnxmennnxn Anexcnn Kaanmx
(Vropcxax Pyct) n Maxcnu Canonnu (Iannnxax Pyct). B 1994 r.
Hontcxax anroxe]antnax npanocnannax nepxont npnuncnnna cnxmen-
nomyuennxa Maxcnma (Canonnua) x nnxy cnxrtx, n 1996 r. on tn
xanonnsnponan PHH3. B 2001 r. cxnapxnmanpnr Anexcn Kapnaropyc-
cxn (Kaanmx) xanonnsonan VHH Mocxoncxoro narpnapxara.
29 xnnapx 1913 r. n Vropcxo Pycn (Hoxapnarte) nauancx Bropo
Mapmapom-Cnrercxn nponecc (nepnt cocroxncx n 1904 r.). Mapma-
pomcxn nponecc tn enncrnenntm maccontm nponeccom n Ancrpo-
Benrpnn nepe nono. Hepnonauantno x cyy npnnnexnn 189 uenonex.
Bo npemx apecra n saxnmuennx xpecrtxne noneprannct nsenarent-
15

crnam n nsnennxm co cropont nenrepcxnx xanapmon. Bnocnecrnnn
npoxypop ymentmnn uncno onnnxemtx o 94 xpecrtxn, onnnnn nx n
nocrpexarentcrne npornn matxpcxoro napoa, rpexo-xaronnuecxoro
neponcnoneannx n yxonencrna, n napymennn saxonon. Hpnunno npo-
necca cran maccont ntxo nacenennx Vropcxo Pycn ns rpexo-xaro-
nnuecxo nepxnn n nepexo n npanocnanne. On tn cnpononnponan npo-
rnn npanocnanntx omnn cen Bennxne Hyuxn (nns Myxauena) n Hsa
(Xycrcxn paon). H +ro necmorpx na ro, uro n Ancrpo-Benrpnn npano-
cnanne tno paspemeno saxonom, n Fyxonnne xnnxnoct rocnocrnym-
mnm neponcnoneannem. 3 mapra 1914 r. tn ntnecen npnronop 32 o-
nnnxemtm. Hx npnronopnnn n ome cnoxnocrn x 39,5 roam rmptmt.
Maccont nepexo n npanocnanne pycnncxnx cen na Hemxonmnne, n
Coxantmnne n Konomtmnne (Iannunna) roxe ntsnan penpeccnn co
cropont ancrpo-nenrepcxnx nnacre. 17 mapra 1911 r. tnn apecrona-
nt na npanocnanntx cnxmennnxa - Hrnarn Iynma n Maxcnm Cano-
nnu, a raxxe Cemen Rptennu Fenacmx n cryenr-mpncr Bacnnn An-
peennu Konpa. Hx epxann n rmptme na c nononnno roa, ne
npexnnxx onnnenn. Hepe camo nono na nnmn no Htnone na-
uancx namymenmn na ncm Enpony nponecc o rocyapcrnenno nsme-
ne n mnnonaxe. Hocynmte tnn onpanant npncxxntmn sace-
arenxmn, necmorpx na annenne co cropont cytn.
C nauanom Hepno mnpono nont pernont npoxnnannx pycnnon oxa-
sannct n sone oentx ecrnn. B Ancrpo-Benrpnn nauancx maccont
reppop npornn pycnncxoro nacenennx. Pyco]nntcxne cnmnarnn crann
xapartcx xax rxruamee rocyapcrnennoe npecrynnenne. Ho sapanee
saroronnenntm yxpanno]nnamn cnncxam nonnrnuecxn nenaronaex-
ntx tna apecronana nourn ncx pycnncxax nnrennnrennnx n rtcxun
xpecrtxn. 3auacrym pacnpant ocymecrnnxnnct na mecre, es cya n
cnecrnnx. Tax, 15 cenrxpx 1914 r. nenrepcxne ronnet ynnn copox
uertpe rpaxancxnx nnna n Hepemtmne.
Mecr n rmptmax ne xnarano, n rora ancrpo-nenrepcxne nnacrn co-
sann nepnte n Enpone xonnenrpannonnte narepx: Tanepro], Tepesnn n
pyrne. Hepnte saxnmuennte npntnn n xonnenrpannonnt narept
Tanepro] (Brnpnx) ns Htnona 4 cenrxpx 1914 r. uepes Tanepro] npo-
mnn ne menee 20 000 pyccxnx rannuan n yxonnnnen. Tanepro]cxn na-
rept nocroxnno nononnxncx nontmn naprnxmn saxnmuenntx.
Hponnxenne pyccxnx nocx x Iannunne ntsnano eme ontmne pen-
peccnn cpen mnpnoro nacenennx. Boennax xomenarypa no Htnone ns-
ana cnennantnoe pacnopxxenne, cornacno xoropomy npn ncnonnennn
npnronopon onxno npnmenxrtcx coxpamennoe cyonponsnocrno,
cytn onxnt ocnoonrt cex or nenyxnoro ]opmannsma n trt
nnmenntmn ncxxo uyncrnnrentnocrn.
16
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Penpeccnn xocnynnct n ancrpncxo apmnn. Hsnecrna ncropnx paccrpe-
na conar 80-ro ancrpncxoro nexornoro nonxa, xoropt tn napan n
ocnonnom ns xpecrtxn Fpocxoro, Kamenenxoro n 3onouencxoro yeson
Iannunnt. Conart nonxa orxasannct crpenxrt n parten-pyccxnx.
Ha Bocrounom ]ponre pycnnt, ne xenax noenart npornn Poccnn, nepe-
xonnn na cropony pyccxo apmnn. Ho+romy ancrpo-nenrepcxoe xoman-
onanne ntnyxeno tno ornpannrt pycnnon na nrantxncxn ]ponr.
3nmo 1914-1915 r. cemnrtcxunt pyccxn xopnyc ocrnr Kapnar.
Mecrnoe pycnncxoe nacenenne c paocrtm ncrpernno pyccxnx conar,
a 238 pycnnon oponontno ncrynnnn n pyccxym apmnm. Kora apmnx
orcrynnna, ancrpo-nenrepcxax amnnncrpannx nauana macconte pen-
peccnn npornn nacenennx Vropcxo Pycn. Mnoxecrno nennnntx xpec-
rtxn tnn samyuent sa ro, uro onn nastnann cex pyctxnmn. Ben-
repcxne nnacrn, xoropte napanonantno oxnnct ncero pyccxoro, crann
noepxnnart yxpanncxn nannonannsm.
B 1915-1916 rr. cocroxnnct na nonnrnuecxnx nponecca, xoropte nt-
enxmrcx cpen pyrnx ]axron maccontx nsnenn, apecron n xasne
nn n uem nenonnnnoro mnpnoro nacenennx rem, uro npononnnct onn n
cronnne Ancrpo-Benrepcxo nmnepnn - Bene, a onnnxnnct cama nex
enncrna pyccxoro napoa n pyccxn nnreparypnt xstx. Hepnt Ben-
cxn pyccxn nponecc npoxonn c 21 nmnx no 21 anrycra 1915 r. B xaue-
crne onnnxemtx n rocyapcrnenno nsmene npnnnexannct apecronan-
nte n nepnte nn nont enyrart ancrpncxoro napnamenra
.A. Mapxon n B.M. Kyptnonnu, anoxart K.C. uepnmnuaxennu n
H.H. paromnpenxn, xypnanncr .I. nuenenxn, xpecrtxnnn uoma
txxon, xysnen Ianpnnn Myntxennu. B xauecrne cnnerene ntcry-
nann yxpanncxne nannonanncrt Kocrt He-
nnnxn, Knpnnn Crynncxn (yymn co-
nercxn axaemnx) n p. 3ror noenno-no-
nnrnuecxn nponecc nacunrtnan 40 ont-
mnx romon onnx rontxo crenorpa]nuecxnx
orueron. Inannt onnnxemt mnrpn
Anpeennu Mapxon n cnoem nocnenem cno-
ne cxasan: Menx samnmaer npana, a cnna
npant nenpeoonnma. 3ra npana - mox
nannonantnax nex, nex xyntrypnoro n na-
nnonantnoro enncrna pyccxnx nnemen.
Bce cemepo tnn npnronopent x cmeprno
xasnn. Hx cnac or cmeprn napt Hnxona II,
xoropt uepes ncnancxoro xoponx Ant]on-
ca XIII onncx sament cmeprno xasnn na
noxnsnennoe saxnmuenne.
Kaccnan un1pnennu
Bora1mpen
17

C 4 cenrxpx 1916 r. no 17 ]enpanx 1917 r. npoxonn Bropo Bencxn
nponecc. B rocyapcrnenno nsmene onnnxnnct 24 rannnxo-pyccxnx
omecrnenntx exrenx. Cnncox onnnxemtx nosrnannxnn yxonnnnt -
npanocnannt nporonepe Kaccnan Forartpen n Hnnapnon Hypxano-
nnu. Cpen onnnxemtx tno 9 cnxmennnxon, 5 anoxaron, 2 yunrenx,
2 cryenra, 2 xpecrtxnnna, xypnanncr, nomemnx, ncanommnx, memannn.
Kax n n nepnom nponecce, n xauecrne cnnerene npnnnexannct yxpa-
nncxne nannonanncrt. Hs-sa nnx ontmnncrno onnnxemtx tnn npn-
ronopent x cmeprno xasnn uepes nonemenne. Bnocnecrnnn onn tnn
nomnnonant. Cmenax peut Kaccnana Forartpna nponsnena cnntnoe nne-
uarnenne na noennt rpnynan.
Hacrynnenne ancrpo-repmancxnx nocx n mae-nmne 1915 r. sacrannno
pyccxne nocxa ocrannrt Iannunny. B yxace nepe ancrpnnamn n Poc-
cnm orrya exano ontmoe xonnuecrno nacenennx. Bcero no npemx
Hepno mnpono nont n Poccnn na nonoxennn exennen oxasanoct
oxono 200 rtc. rannuan. B onom rontxo Pocrone-na-ony nx tno oxo-
no 6 rtcxu. B ropoe axe tna orxptra cnennantnax rnmnasnx nx
pyccxnx rannuan.
Bo npemx noenntx ecrnn mnoro pycnnon oxasanoct n nneny na Bo-
crounom ]ponre. uacrt ns nnx ncrynnnn n pxt uexocnonanxoro xopny-
ca, n cocrane xoroporo tna c]opmnponana Kapnaropyccxax nnnsnx,
napannax ns oponontnen ns Iannnnn n Hoxapnarcxo Pycn, nexoro-
pte nosxe npncoennnnnct x Kpacno nnn Feno apmnxm.
Penonmnnonnoe poxenne, uenpantcxax n Oxrxptcxax penonmnnn
pasnoxnnn pyccxym apmnm. Bocrount ]ponr nauan pasnannnartcx.
Orpomnoe npocrpancrno, - no cnonam nemenxoro renepana 3. Hmen-
op]a, - sanoentnanoct cnatmn cnnamn. Fontmenncrcxne nocxa oxa-
stnann nnmt nesnaunrentnoe conpornnnenne, uexocnonanxne nocxa,
cocrannennte ns ancrpo-nenrepcxnx nnenntx, pannct mnoro nyume, n
c nnmn eno oxonno o oxecrouenntx oen.
B xonne exapx 1917 r. n uacrxx pyccxo apmnn na Pymtncxom ]pon-
re nauanoct ]opmnponanne orpxon nx ornpanxn na on n oponont-
uecxym apmnm Rra Poccnn. Hecmorpx na npornnoecrnne co cropo-
nt xomanymmero Pymtncxnm ]ponrom renepana Bepauena n pymtn-
cxoro xomanonannx, tnn c]opmnponant ne pnrat oponontnen.
Hocne npnxasa Bepauena o pocnycxe pnra nonxonnnx M.I. pos-
oncxn orxasancx pacnycrnrt c]opmnponannym nm n paone r. cct
1-m pnray. 23 ]enpanx 1918 r. pymtnt nontrannct pasopyxnrt o-
ponontnen cnno, onaxo, ncrpernn ornop, ntnyxent tnn art noes
nx nepenosxn oponontnen n Knmnnen. Fpnraa posoncxoro unc-
nennocrtm onee 1000 uen. npomna nyrt cntme rtcxun xnnomerpon no
reppnropnn, sanxro pymtnamn, nemnamn n ontmennxamn. 25 anpenx
18
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
(8 max) posonnt nomnn n Honouepxaccx. Ha
ase pnrat tna c]opmnponana nnnsnx, xo-
mannpom xoropo cran renepan posoncxn.
Hocne ero cmeprn nnnsnx nonyunna nasnanne
posoncxo. Ona crana onnm ns nyumnx co-
ennenn Feno apmnn. B ee cocrane noenann
ne rontxo pyccxne (nennxopocct, pycnnt, ma-
nopocct), monanane, no n npecrannrenn py-
rnx nannonantnocre. Hocnennm xomannpom
posoncxo nnnsnn tn ypoxenen Tnpacno-
nx A.B. Typxyn.
B exape 1917 r. pymtncxne xoponencxne no-
cxa nroprnnct n npeent Feccapann. Ho oro-
nopennocrn c Pymtnne ancrpo-nenrepcxne no-
cxa n xonne ]enpanx 1918 r. saxnarnnn cenep
Feccapann, re onn naxonnnct o pacnaa
Ancrpo-Benrpnn. B 1918 r. Pymtnnx annexcnponana Feccapanm n Fy-
xonnny.
Hpornn annexcnn ntcrynnno ontmnncrno nacenennx Feccapann.
pxnm npnmepom optt sa ocnooxenne Feccapann xnnnoct Xo-
rnncxoe noccranne. Ono nponsomno n nout na 19 xnnapx 1919 r. n mec-
rax xomnaxrnoro npoxnnannx pycnnon, onaxo nsnauantno nocnno nn-
repnannonantnt xapaxrep: n noccrannn, nomnmo pycnnon n monanan,
yuacrnonann n npecrannrenn pyrnx nannonantnocre. 3a necxontxo
ne uncno noccranmnx nospocno o 30 rtc. uen. Boccranne oxnarnno
Xornncxn yes n cenepnym uacrt Copoxcxoro yesa. 3apyunnmnct no-
epxxo nernmponcxo yxpanncxo npexropnn, pymtncxne nocxa no-
annnn noccranne. B nout na 1 ]enpanx tn ocrannen Xornn. B Hoo-
nnm nepemnn o 4 rtc. noncrannen c 40 nynemeramn n 6 opynxmn. Ha
nent eper necrpa, cnacaxct or penpeccn, nepemnn raxxe cntme
50 rtc. xnrene Cenepno Feccapann.
B Feccapann ycranonnncx pymtncxn oxxynannonnt pexnm.
B 1938 r. xoponencxn namecrnnx Feccapann renepan uynepx+ nsan
npnxas, sanpemammn ronopnrt n npncyrcrnenntx mecrax na pyccxom
xstxe. Hecmorpx na nontrxn nacnntcrnenno pymtnnsannn Feccapa-
nn, pymtncxax cnrypanna n 1933 r. npnsnana: Feccapacxax yma,
xoropax nce eme xnner nnennem crapo Poccnn, ne moxer trt oc-
rarouno nnsxo nannonantntm ycrpemnennxm oennenno Pymt-
nnn.
3a 22 roa oxxynannn Feccapanm noxnnynn ne menee 500 rtc. ueno-
nex (16,5% nacenennx). B CCCP exann cntme 100 rtc. uenonex.
Mnorne ns eccapanen, nepenpannnmnxcx na nent eper necrpa
nocne nopaxennx Xornncxoro noccrannx, ncrynnnn n noncranuecxne or-
An1on Bacnntennu
Typxyn
19

pxt. C nomomtm +rnx orpxon tn ocnooxen Mornnen-Hoontcxn
n ntnrt nernmponnt ns Hoonnn. Hosxe +rn orpxt tnn cneent n
eccapacxne nonxn Kpacno Apmnn. Font +rnx nonxon cpaxannct n
cocrane 45- Kpacnosnamenno Feccapacxo nnnsnn no xomanona-
nnem H. xnpa. 2- pnrao +ro nnnsnn xomanonan I.H. Ko1onc-
xnn.
Penonmnnx n Ancrpo-Benrpnn n oxrxpe 1918 r. npnnena x pacnay
nmnepnn. Bosnnxnn nonte rocyapcrna: uexocnonaxnx, Benrpnx, Ancr-
pnx, Rrocnannx n 3ananoyxpanncxax Pecnynnxa n Bocrouno Iann-
unne. Ftnn opasonant nente pycnncxne anxnant n n 3anano Iann-
nnn, xoropte nponosrnacnnn cnom nesanncnmocrt. Pycnncxne cena n
onnne p. Ocnant nosne mecreuxa Komanun cosann Komanucxym Pec-
nynnxy, xoropax npoepxanact na mecxna n nana no yapamn nontcxnx
nocx n xonne xnnapx 1919 r. C 5 exapx 1918 r. no xonen mapra 1920 r.
npocymecrnonana Pyccxax Haponax Pecnynnxa nemxon c nenrpom no
unopnnxe. B noxpe 1918 r. tna nponosrnamena Iynyntcxax Pecnynn-
xa, xonrponnponanmax ontmym uacrt Mapamypema. 22 exapx
1918 r. nenrepcxne nnacrn nnxnnnponann pecnynnxy, onaxo 7-8 xnna-
px 1919 r. nponsomno noccranne. Fonam IP (na arantona, rtcxua
onon) yanoct nponnnyrtcx o Mapamopom-Cnrera, onaxo nocne
cronxnonennx c pymtncxnmn nocxamn 20 xnnapx Mapamopom-Cnrer n
Bennxn Ftuxon tnn ocrannent. Ocrantnax reppnropnx yepxnna-
nact o max 1919 r. Vmemee n nononte pyxonocrno IP oparnnoct c
memopanymom o npncoennennn Mapamypema nmecre co nce Ho-
xapnarcxo Pyctm x uexocnonaxnn. 30 anrycra ontmax uacrt Mapa-
mypema (sa ncxnmuennem Mapamopom-Cnrera) tna npncoeennna x
uexocnonaxnn. B 1919 r. Hoxapnarcxax Pyct
crana anronomno nponnnnne n cocrane
uexocnonaxnn co cnonm repom, ]narom, rnm-
nom. Pycnnt Boenonnt oxasannct n cocra-
ne Koponencrna cepon, xopnaron n cnonen-
nen (yymax Rrocnannx).
B Bocrouno Iannnnn 13 noxpx 1918 r.
tna nponosrnamena 3ananoyxpanncxax
Haponax Pecnynnxa (3VHP) n cosana
Iannnxax apmnx. C cenepa n sanaa nauanoct
nponnxenne perynxpntx nontcxnx nocx.
Iannnncxoe npannrentcrno oparnnoct x
rermany H.H. Cxoponacxomy c npocto
ornycrnrt na nomomt ceuentx crpentnon
(+rn orpxt tnn c]opmnponant ns tnmnx
noennonnenntx rannuan). Onaxo nx yrono-
Ipnropnn Hnnanonnu
Ko1oncxnn
20
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
pnn ocrartcx yymn pyxononrent npexropnn B. Bnnnnuenxo, xoro-
pt xoren ncnontsonart ceuentx crpentnon n roronxmemcx noccrannn
npornn rermana.
Cosanne Iannnxo apmnn ocnoxnxnoct n rem, uro no npemx nont
ontmnncrno pycnnon ns-sa cnonx pyco]nntcxnx yexenn tno or-
npanneno noenart na nrantxncxn ]ponr, n nocne pacnaa Ancrpo-Ben-
rpnn onee 100 rtc. noennocnyxamnx-pycnnon npetnann n nneny n
Hrannn. Hmex npenocxocrno n noenno cnne n noopyxennn, nonxxn sax-
narnnn Htnon n 11 paonon. 3anxn Htnon 22 noxpx 1918 r., nontcxne
nocxa ycrponnn enpecxn norpom, n pesyntrare xoroporo nocrpaann
700 ceme n tno ynro oxono 150 uenonex.
Hono pesnennne npannrentcrna 3VHP cran r. Cranncnan (ntne
r. Hnano-upanxoncx). 22-26 noxpx 1918 r. na noxonrpontntx 3VHP
semnxx tnn nponeent ntopt n Vxpanncxym Haponym Pay. Hpe-
snenrom pecnynnxn cran ymepennt yxpanncxn nannonanncr, tn-
mn enyrar ancrpncxoro napnamenra Enrenn Herpymennu. Ftnn mo-
nnnsonant 100 rtc. uen., ns nnx rontxo 40 rtc. oecnocontx. Font-
mnncrno o]nnepon tnn pycnnamn, xpecrtxnamn nnn ntxonamn ns +roro
xnacca. 3ro cnococrnonano ycranonnennm nnsxnx ornomenn c con-
arcxo macco. Bonncxoe cnapxxenne nstmanoct c ancrpncxnx no-
cxontx cxnaon nnn nyrem pasopyxennx emopannsonanntx conar
nemenxo n ancrpncxo apmn, xoropte nosnpamannct uepes Iannun-
ny omo.
15 max nauanoct nacrynnenne nontcxnx nocx, ycnnenntx apmne Ian-
nepa. B +ro xe npemx pymtncxax apmnx nauana nacrynnenne na Hoxy-
rte, saxnarnn Konomtm. B pesyntrare rxxentx oen c npenocxoxmn-
mn cnnamn npornnnnxa Iannnxax Apmnx tna orpomena x p. 3pyu.
7 nmnx Iannnxax apmnx nepemna n nacrynnenne. Hecmorpx na neont-
mym uncnennocrt apmnn (ncero 25 rtc. oecnocontx conar), ya-
noct sacrannrt orcrynnrt npornnnnxa no nce nnnnn ]ponra. Vcnexn
apmnn ntsnann +nrysnasm nacenennx. B apmnm npnmnn oponontnt,
ns nnx rontxo 15 rtc. tnn oecnocontmn. He nmex nnemne noep-
xxn n ncntrtnax neocrarox noopyxennx, 10 nmnx xomanonanne Ia-
nnnxo apmnn nonncano no Htnone nepemnpne c nonxxamn.
14 nmnx 1919 r. conercxne nocxa ntrecnnnn ocrarxn nocx yxpannc-
xo npexropnn, pyxonoxmax pont n xoropo npnnanexana yxpannc-
xnm connan-emoxparam C. Hernmpe n B. Bnnnnuenxo, sa sanecy ra-
nnnxnx uacre, pacnonoxenntx nont p. 3pyu nx oxpant cnoe rep-
pnropnn, n onnaenn r. Bonouncxom.
B anpene 1919 r. Anranra nanpannna n Hontmy c]opmnponannym no
upannnn 60-rtcxunym apmnm renepana Hose]a Iannepa. Hecmorpx na
sanepennx npecrannrene Anranrt, uro apmnx ne yer cpaxartcx
21

npornn rannuan, a yer oportcx rontxo npornn ontmennxon, apmnx
Iannepa c camoro nauana ncrynnna n oente ecrnnx c Iannnxo ap-
mne. Hontcxoe npannrentcrno R. Hnncycxoro nonyunno ns Hapnxa
nonnomounx na noennym oxxynannm nce Bocrouno Iannnnn, oemax
n yymem npeocrannrt camoonpeenenne.
Hoxnnenne cnexnx uacre apmnn Iannepa nosnonnno nontcxomy xo-
manonannm, ntennn uacrt cnn nx ecrnn npornn 16- Kpacno
apmnn, rnanntmn cnonmn cnnamn opymnrtcx na apmnm nocrounora-
nnnxoro npannrentcrna, o cnx nop c ycnexom panmymcx sa ponym
reppnropnm no Htnonom n Hepemtmnem. B pesyntrare nyxmecxu-
no xamnannn +ra apmnx, ncntrtnanmax cnntnt neocrarox n oen-
pnnacax n nsmorannax n xoe ronuno nepanno optt, tna orpo-
mena sa norpannunym pexy 3pyu. B cnoem orcrynnennn 16-18 nmnx
Iannnxax apmnx ynnexna sa coom yxptnmnecx na rannnxo reppnro-
pnn n ycnenmne necxontxo coprannsonartcx ocrarxn nocx yxpanncxo
npexropnn, xoropte, npemecrnyx e, nnont nepemnn n Manopoccnm,
saxnarnnn r. Kamenen-Hoontcxn. Ho ornem nontcxo aprnnnepnn
nmecre c Iannnxo apmne uepes 3pyu nepemnn rtcxun rpaxancxnx
nnn.
Hepex na reppnropnm tnme Poccncxo nmnepnn, Iannnxax ap-
mnx crana onnm ns axrnnntx yuacrnnxon rpaxancxo nont n Poc-
cnn. Cpen ncex apmn, noenanmnx na Vxpanne npexropnn, ontme-
nncrcxo n Feno ona, nacunrtnanmax oxono 50 rtc. conar, n ro
npemx tna ono ns nanonee ncnnnnnnnponanntx n oecnocontx.
Hepexo Iannnxo apmnn n nxraropa E. Herpymennua na reppnropnm
Manopoccnn ne npnnen x nonnomy oennennm c yxpanncxo npexro-
pne, necmorpx na ro, uro eme n xnnape 1919 r. tna nponosrnamena
Bennxax Coopnax Vxpanna. Cnnmxom nennxn tnn npornnopeunx
mexy croponamn. Hpannrentcrno 3VHP tno ecnaprnnoe n anrn-
connanncrnuecxoe. Cnoe saaue ono cunrano npoonxenne optt c
Hontme n tno rorono na coms c ennxnntm. Komanonanne Iannn-
xo apmnn saxnnxno o cnoem nexenannn yuacrnonart n rpaxancxo
none. npexropnx xe nosrnannxnact connan-emoxparamn, xoropte
roront tnn oronopnrtcx c ontmennxamn n opte npornn opo-
nontuecxo apmnn ennxnna. Peantno cnno, na xoropym onnpanact
npexropnx c camoro nauana, tnn orpxt ceuentx crpentnon (oxo-
no 3,5 rtc. uenonex) no xomanonannem aramanon E. Kononantna n
A. Mentnnxa. Omee uncno nyx apmn Iannnxo apmnn n yxpannc-
xo npexropnn - ocrnrano 80 rtc. uenonex. Apmnx npexropnn npe-
crannxna coo pasnarammnecx ant, mnrnnronanmne n ne xenanmne
noenart. Iannnxax apmnx coxpanxna ncnnnnnny n oecnoconocrt, no
c norepe cnoe reppnropnn n crnmyna nx optt ocnooxennx
22
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
cnoe ponnt or nonxxon nana yxom. Oe apmnn ncntrtnann nyxy
n oexe, amynnnnn n ocoenno n opyxne n oenpnnacax. B cepenne
nmnx 1919 r. npornnopeunx mexy xomanonannem yxpanncxo n rannn-
xo apmnxmn nacrontxo ycyrynnnct, uro nernmponcxoe noennoe mnnn-
crepcrno orxasanoct or cnaxennx Iannnxo apmnn n nocrannno na rpa-
nnne c Iannunno crpaxy.
B anrycre 1919 r. apmnn VHP n 3VHP nauann conmecrnt noxo npo-
rnn ontmennxon. Ocnonnax uacrt apmn 1- n 2- Iannnncxne xop-
nyca n Hanenpxncxax rpynna sanopoxnen - no ome xomano ra-
nnnxoro renepana Anrona Kpanca nnnynact na Knen. 30 anrycra ont-
mennxn es ox ocrannnn ropo. 31 anrycra nameuannct ropxecrnen-
noe ncrynnenne oennenntx nocx n Knen n napa. Tora xe x nen-
py noomnn uacrn oponontuecxo apmnn no xomanonannem rene-
pana Fpeona. Iannuane orcrynnnn, necmorpx na ro, uro nx nmecre c
sanopoxnamn tno rpn xopnyca, a ennxnnnen ncero rpn nonxa. Kpanc
c rannnxnmn o]nnepamn nomen na neperonopt c Fpeontm n nonncan
or nmenn rpynnt rannnncxnx nocx oronop o oponontnom orcryn-
nennn or Knena.
uepes ent nocne nsxrnx Knena nocxamn renepana Fpeona mexy
nontcxnm xomanonannem n Hernmpo tno saxnmueno nepemnpne n
nauart neperonopt o comse, noenno n marepnantno nomomn n-
pexropnn nyrem ycrynxn Hontme Hernmpo Bocrouno Iannunnt (!),
ontme uacrn Bontnn. uepes necxontxo ne Hernmpe yanoct ye-
nrt rannuan ntcrynnrt npornn Feno apmnn. Iannnxax apmnx oxasa-
nact nrxnyra n nexenarentnt xon]nnxr. Vunrtnax nacrpo Iannnxo
apmnn, ennxnn no
npemx oentx e-
crnn an pacnopx-
xenne, n xoropom
yxastnanoct na ne-
oxonmocrt py-
xenmnoro orno-
mennx x rannua-
nam.
6 noxpx 1919 r., n
momenr, xora ap-
mnx ennxnna rep-
nena rxxenoe nopa-
xenne or ontme-
nnxon, xomanym-
mn Iannnxo ap-
mnn renepan Mnpon
Bc1peua renepana B. 3. Man-Maencxoro c an1enn-
un Knena. Hosan renepanm H.3. Bpeon n
R .. Kseqonnu. Knen. Cen1npt 1919 r.
23

Tapnancxn nonncan oronop c ennxnntm. Apmnx nepemna no xo-
manonanne Oennenntx cnn Rra Poccnn, a rannnxoe npannrent-
crno - no oxpany poccncxo oponontuecxo apmnn n tno nepene-
eno n Oeccy. Cornacno cornamennm, Iannnxax apmnx coxpanxna cnom
oprannsannm n nnyrpennn pacnopxox. Ftno oronopeno, uro apmnx ne
morna trt nanpannena npornn nernmponcxnx nocx. Iannnxax apmnx,
no cnnerentcrny A.H. ennxnna, coxpannna o xonna ncnnnnnny n
nonnym noxntnocrt. Ho norpxcennax mopantno, nsmoxennax ]nsnuec-
xn, crpamno nyxammaxcx, nmenmax o 10 rtcxu ontntx rn]om, n
ror xparxn cpox, xoropt tn npeocrannen pasneprtnammnmncx co-
trnxmn, apmnx ne morna nepnyrt cnoe oecnoconocrn.
B nauane 1920 r. coennennx Iannnxo apmnn nepemnn na cropony co-
nercxnx nocx, tnn nxnmuent n cocran 12- n 14- conercxnx apmn n
npnnxnn yuacrne n none c nonxxamn. B anpene 1920 r. nexoropte ra-
nnnxne uacrn nonxnn noccranne n tnn pasopyxent. B oxx c noc-
cranmnmn 1-x rannnxax pnraa norepxna 45% cnoero cocrana ynrt-
mn n panentmn. uacrt conar +ro pnrat coennnnact c uacrxmn
Kpacno apmnn n npoonxana yuacrnonart n oentx ecrnnxx.
Herom 1920 r. Kpacnax Apmnx ncrynnna na reppnropnm Bocrouno
Iannnnn. Ftn cosan Iannnxn penonmnnonnt xomnrer (Ianpenxom),
xoropt 15 nmnx npnnxn exnapannm o cosannn Iannnxo Conercxo
Connanncrnuecxo Pecnynnxn. Hauanoct ]opmnponanne Iannnncxo
Kpacno Apmnn (IKA). Ee ocnony cocrannnn 3- ocot rannnxn nonx
n 2 arantona n cocrane 45- (n ne noenann eccapant) n 60- crpen-
xontx nnnsn Rro-3ananoro ]ponra.
B cenrxpe 1920 r. Hontma nnont oxxynnponana Bocrounym Iannnnm,
ICCP nepecrana cymecrnonart. Ho ycnonnxm Pnxcxoro oronopa 18
mapra 1921 r. reppnropnx Bocrouno Iannnnn oromna x Hontme. Py-
cnncxoe nacenenne Iannunnt ne npnsnanano nontcxne nnacrn saxonntm
npannrentcrnom, oxornponano nepennct 1921 r. n ntopt n nontcxn
Cem n 1922 r. B 1923 r. na xon]epennnn nocnon n Hapnxe tno npnnxro
pemenne npncoennnrt Iannnnm x Hontme c ycnonnem naenennx ee
npanamn anronomnn. Hocnenee nontcxnmn nnacrxmn rax n ne tno
ntnonneno. Honnrnxa nononnsannn, nrnopnponannx npan pycnnon, rxxe-
noe +xonomnuecxoe nonoxenne npnnenn x pocry nonnrnuecxoro reppopa
co cropont OVH. Onnm ns oprannsaropon OVH n ee pyxononrenem
cran E. Kononanen, tnmn o]nnep ancrpncxo apmnn, xoropt yua-
crnonan n cosannn noopyxennoro ancrpncxoro nonncxoro ]opmnpona-
nnx Vxpanncxne ceuente crpentnt n Iannnxo-yxonnncxoro xype-
nx Henrpantno Pat, nepememero sarem na cropony npexropnn.
Hen panxantno nacrpoenntx yxpanncxnx nannonanncron naxonnn
orxnnx cpen monoexn.
24
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Taxnm opasom, nocne oxonuannx Hepno mnpono nont n rpaxanc-
xo nont n Poccnn nacenennte pycnnamn semnn nomnn n cocran Py-
mtnnn (uacrt Mapamypema, Fyxonnna, Feccapanx), Hontmn (Iannun-
na), uexocnonaxnn (Hoxapnarcxax Pyct), Rrocnannn (Boenonna).
Mnoro pycnnon oxasanoct na reppnropnn CCCP. B 20-30-e rr. XX n.
pycnncxoe nnxenne n Hoxapnarcxo Pycn (uexocnonaxnx) n Iannun-
ne (Hontma) nocrenenno nanpano cnny, necmorpx na noepxxy ue-
xocnonanxo n nontcxo amnnncrpannxmn xypca yxpannnsannn.
Xorx pycnncxoe nnxenne Iannunnt ntmno ns +noxn Hepno mnpono
nont oeccnnenntm n oecxponnenntm, n 20-e rr. naunnaercx Bropoe
pycnncxoe Bospoxenne. B 1921 r. cosaercx rannnxo-pyccxax nonnrn-
uecxax oprannsannx - Pyccxax naponax oprannsannx (c 1928 r. - Pyc-
cxax cenxncxax oprannsannx). B 1928 r. ona nacunrtnana 80-100 rtc.
uenonex. B 1919 r. nosononnno cnom exrentnocrt Omecrno
nm. M. Kauxoncxoro. K 1929 r. ono nacunrtnano 4 614 unenon (o no-
nt n ero pxax tno oxono 12 rtc. uenonex). Taxxe cnona naunnamr
paorart Omecrno pyccxnx am (1922), cryenuecxoe omecrno
pyr (1929), Pyccxax mxona (1923) n pyrne oprannsannn. Hs nepn-
onuecxnx nsann ntxonnn exeneentnnx 3emnx n nonx (opran
Pyccxo cenxncxo oprannsannn), Pyccxn ronoc, Kooneparnnnt
nicnnx, Bpemennnx Cranponnrnona. Tanepro]cxax rparenx oecx-
ponnna rannnxo-pyccxoe nnxenne n n ro xe npemx crana cnxmenntm
cnmnonom myuennuecrna sa omepyccxym nem. C 1924 r. naunnaer
ntxonrt Tanepro]cxn antmanax. B 1934 r. tn nponeen Tanep-
ro]cxn ces, copanmn 15 rtc. yuacrnnxon. Ha Htuaxoncxom xna-
nme no Htnone tn coopyxen namxrnnx xeprnam Tanepro]a. Paora
pyccxnx rannuan nenact, necmorpx na nontcxn nannonanncrnuecxn
npeccnnr n naxnm yxpanncxnx nannonanncron.
C 1926 r. naunnaercx maccont nepexo nemxoncxnx cen n npanocna-
nne. B 30-e rr. nontcxne nnacrn nosnonnnn nemxam nnecrn n pxe mxon
npenoananne na nemxoncxom napeunn n ocnonart nemxoncxne ome-
crnennte n xyntrypnte oprannsannn.
Onaxo n xonne 30-x rr. nauanact nonnrnxa nononnsannn, n xoe xoro-
po paspymannct npanocnannte nepxnn. Tontxo n reuenne nyx nernnx
mecxnen 1938 r. tno paspymeno 127 xpamon, rpert ncex nepxne, cy-
mecrnonanmnx na mro-nocroxe Hontmn. o ceronxmnero nx noccra-
nonneno rontxo necxontxo ns nnx. B 2008 r. npanocnannax nepxont
Hontmn ormernna rparnuecxym ary pxom meponpnxrn. Ocnonnte
ns nnx npomnn n oxrxpe n ropoe Xentme (Hmnnncxoe noenocrno,
tnmn pyccxn Xonm, cronnna Iannnxo-Bontncxoro xnxxecrna no npe-
mena annnna Iannnxoro). Ftn cosan cnennantnt car, nocnxmen-
nt rem pamarnuecxnm cotrnxm (www.cerkiew1938.pl).
25

Hoxapnarcxax Pyct n cocrane uexocnonaxnn tna pasenena: uacrt
ee - Hpxmencxax Pyct (250 rtc. pycnnon) - crana uacrtm Cnonaxnn.
Ha nce nocrt n amnnncrpannn Hoxapnartx nasnauannct unnonnnxn
uexn.
B nauane 1920 r. npanocnannoe nnxenne oxnarnno ncm Hoxapnarc-
xym Pyct. B nem npnnxno yuacrne oxono 50 rtc. uenonex. B 1928 r.
tna cosana Myxaueno-Hpxmencxax enapxnx no mpncnxnne Cep-
cxo npanocnanno nepxnn. C nepexoom n npanocnanne nepymmne no-
repxnn cnon xpamt, npnxocxne oma n nepxonnoe nmymecrno n nt-
nyxent tnn crponrt nonte. o 1936 r. tno nocrpoeno onee 150
xpamon. B xpae ecrnonann mnorouncnennte pycnncxne oprannsannn,
ntxonnn xnnrn, nepnonuecxne nsannx na pyccxom n pycnncxom xst-
xax. uexocnonanxne nnacrn npnsnanann pycnnon xax +rnoc. B 1921 r. ns
530 mxon 357 tnn pyccxnmn, n 20-30-e rr. XX n. ns 47 nonnrnuecxnx
naprn Hoxapnarcxo Pycn pasnnuno nonnrnuecxo opnenrannn (npo-
uemcxo, nponenrepcxo, cnonncrcxo, nponemenxo, npoyxpanncxo,
npopyccxo, xommynncrnuecxo) 17 tnn pyco]nntcxnmn. Onn ntnyc-
xann 7 raser.
Hocne Mmnxencxoro cornamennx 29 cenrxpx 1938 r. Hannonantnoe
Copanne uexocnonaxnn npnnxno no annennem Iepmannn saxon O
anronomnn Cnonaxnn n Hoxapnarcxo Pycn. Hpemtep-mnnncrpom
nocnene tn nasnauen yxpanncxn nannonanncr A. Bonomnn. 15 map-
ra 1939 r. tna nponosrnamena nesanncnmocrt Kapnarcxo Vxpannt.
B +ror xe ent Benrpnx npexnnna yntrnmarym o nepeaue nnacrn
nenrepcxnm noenntm opranam. 16 mapra Bonomnn c nnxamnmn cno-
nnxnnxamn +mnrpnponan n Iepmannm. K 18 mapra nenrepcxne nnacrn
nonnocrtm ycranonnnn xonrpont na nce reppnropne xpax. Ftna co-
sana rax nastnaemax Kapnarcxax reppnropnx, ennnmaxcx na rpn a-
mnnncrparnnnte ennnnt. Iocyapcrnenntmn xstxamn tnn oxn-
nent nenrepcxn n yrpopyccxn (pycnncxn). Benrepcxne nnacrn no-
ompxnn nonnrnxy ycxopennoro ]opmnponannx yrpopycnncxoro napoa.
Ha pycnncxom xstxe ntxonno 16 nponenrepcxnx raser, nsanannct
yuennxn n xnnrn na pycnncxom xstxe.
Hocne ocnooxennx Hoxapnarcxo Pycn or nemenxo-nenrepcxnx
saxnarunxon no xonrponem conercxnx nonnrnuecxnx opranon tn co-
snan nepnt (n nocnenn) ces napontx xomnreron 3axapnarcxo
Vxpannt, xoropt npnnxn mann]ecr O noccoennennn 3axapnarcxo
Vxpannt c Conercxo Vxpanno. Vxasom Hpesnnyma Bepxonnoro
Conera CCCP or 22 xnnapx 1946 r. anronomnax nponnnnnx uexocnonan-
xo Pecnynnxn Hoxapnarcxax Pyct crana 3axapnarcxo onacrtm
Vxpanncxo CCP.
4 ]enpanx 1945 r. n Mapmapom-Cnrere (Pymtnnx) cocroxncx ces
napontx xomnreron oxpyra, cosnannt no nnnnnarnne 17 pycnncxnx
26
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
cen. 426 eneraron cesa npnnxnn nernnnm o noccoennennn c 3a-
xapnarcxo Vxpanno. B mae 1945 r. npecrannrenn conercxo noen-
no amnnncrpannn no yrposo apecra norpeonann pocnycxa oxpyx-
noro naponoro xomnrera n nepeaun nce nnacrn pymtncxnm nnacrxm.
B cenrxpe 1939 r. Iannunna tna npncoennena x CCCP n nxnmuena
n cocran Vxpanncxo CCP. C +roro momenra npexparnnn cnoe cyme-
crnonanne nce rannnxo-pyccxne (pycnncxne) oprannsannn. Conercxo
nnacrtm tn nponrnopnponan ror ]axr, uro axe no npemx nepenncn,
npononnmecx nontcxnmn nnacrxmn n 1931 r., 1 196 855 rannuan oo-
snaunnn cnom nannonantnym npnnanexnocrt xax pyccxne. B rot
Bropo mnpono nont nn onn pyccxn rannuannn ne sanxrnan cex
corpynnuecrnom c rnrneponnamn.
B pesyntrare ntpannnnannx rpannn c Hontme nocne nont n o-
mena nacenennem ontme ncero nocrpaann pycnnt. Hepemtmnt n
Hemxonmnna tnn orant Hontme. B 1945-1946 rr. n CCCP tnn pe-
narpnnponant 518,2 rtc. uenonex, n rom uncne 481 rtc. pycnnon n 37
rtc. enopycon. Bce onn tnn paccenent no pasntm nacenenntm nyn-
xram. Ocranmnxcx n Hontme pycnnon xana rparnuecxax cyta no
npenorom roro, uro na Hemxonmnne ecrnonann aneponnt (na +ro
reppnropnn raxxe ecrnonann orpxt nontcxo Apmnn Kpaono, rep-
popnsnponanmne mecrnoe pycnncxoe nacenenne), necno 1947 r. oprana-
mn rocesonacnocrn Hontmn tna nponeena onepannx Bncna. 120
rtc. nemxon tnn ntcenent n pasnte paont 3anano Cnnesnn. B
pesyntrare ropnte paont Fema n Hnsxnx Fecxn n mxnax uacrt
Hmemtcnoncxoro nonxra oesnmenn. B Femaax, nanpnmep, paon
nnomatm 1,5 rtc. xn. xm, na xoropom tno pacnonoxeno cntme
70 cen, ocranancx nnnort o 1956 r. neonraemtm. B cnom ouepet
nonxxn-penarpnanrt ns CCCP nsmennnn emorpa]nuecxym cnryannm
n nexoroptx norpannuntx paonax na nocroxe Hontmn, nanpnmep, n
paone ropoa Xenm (Xonm, tnmax cronnna Iannnxo-Bontncxoro xnx-
xecrna) nnn n ropoe Hmemtcnt (tnmn pyccxn Hepemtmnt), re
onn cocrannnn oxono 25% nacenennx.
B anrycre 1940 r. Cenepnax Fyxonnna n Feccapanx nomnn n cocran
CCCP. Cenepnax Fyxonnna crana uepnonnnxo onacrtm Vxpanncxo
CCP. 2 anrycra 1940 r. na VII ceccnn Bepxonnoro Conera CCCP tn
npnnxr 3axon o opasonannn comsno Monancxo Conercxo Conna-
nncrnuecxo Pecnynnxn. K VCCP oromna ontmax uacrt Xornncxoro,
Axxepmancxoro n Hsmanntcxoro yeson Feccapann. Hocne Bropo
mnpono nont reppnropnantnoe enenne ne nsmennnoct
23
.
Hs-sa rxxenoro +xonomnuecxoro nonoxennx mnorne pycnnt (n ocnon-
nom nemxn ns Iannunnt, pycnnt ns Vropcxo (Hoxapnarcxo) Pycn n
ancrpncxo uacrn Fyxonnnt) co nropo nononnnt XIX n. ntnyxent
tnn +mnrpnponart n Amepnxy. K xonny XIX n. rontxo n CBA pycnnon
27

npoxnnano ne menee 200 rtc. uenonex. B Kanae x xonny Hepno mnpo-
no nont npoxnnano oxono 170 rtc. pycnnon, n ocnonnom ns Iannunnt
n Fyxonnnt. Mnorne yropcxne n rannnxne pycnnt nosnparnnnct n npa-
nocnanne. 25 mapra 1891 r. n npanocnannym nepy nepemen nepnt xap-
naropyccxn ynnarcxn npnxo n Mnnneanonnce (CBA), nosrnannxe-
mt o. Anexcnem Tonrom n nacunrtnanmn 405 uenonex
24
.
B CBA n Kanae ecrnonann mnorouncnennte pycnncxne oprannsa-
nnn. Hepntmn n CBA tnn cosant Pyccxn napont coms (]en-
pant 1894 r.), Pyccxoe npanocnannoe omecrno nsanmonomomn (an-
pent 1895 r.). Btxonnn nepnonuecxne nsannx. Opranom Pyccxoro
naponoro comsa crana rasera Cnono, nsananmaxcx na pyccxom
xstxe
25
. Crapeme pycnncxo rasero n Amepnxe tna ntnycxaemax
c 1886 r. Amepnxa opran pycxnx npecencnnox Iannunnn ra Benrpn.
Hanonee rnpaxntm cran Amepnxancxi pyccxi necrnnx (c 1892 r.).
Taxxe ntnycxannct rasert Cnnr (c 1894 r.), Hpana (c 1902 r.)
Hpanocnannn pyccxn necrnnx (c 1915 r.), Pyccxn necrnnx
(c 1917 r.) n p. Bcero n CBA pycnnamn nsananoct 38 nanmenonann
raser n xypnanon, n Kanae - 22 nanmenonannx, nexoropte ns nnx ntxo-
xr n nontne
26
.
Kax ncnomnnan apxnenncxon Bocrounoamepnxancxn n xepsecnrc-
xn Bnrann (Maxcnmenxo (1873 - 1960)), npnexanmn n Htm-Hopx n
oxrxpe 1934 r., amepnxancxax npanocnannax nacra cocroxna na 80%
ns xapnaropycon n rannuan
27
. Bnatxa n 1923 r. ocnonan onrent
npn. Hona Houaencxoro n Haomnpono n Kapnarcxo Pycn (Hpxmenmn-
na), re c 1928 r. cran ntnycxartcx nepxonno-napont opran npano-
cnannoro nnxennx na Kapnarcxo Pycn - rasera Hpanocnannax Kap-
narcxax Pyct. C 7 xnnapx 1935 r. rasera ntxonr no nontm nasnann-
em Hpanocnannax Pyct, cran onnm ns rnan-
ntx neuarntx opranon pyccxoro nepxonnoro
sapyextx. C xnnapx 1947 r. Hpanocnannax
Pyct nsaercx n Cnxro-Tponnxom monacrt-
pe (xopannnnnt, CBA).
B CBA c xnnapx 1959 r. o cepennt
90-x rr. XX n. ntxonn xypnan Cnoonoe
cnono Kapnarcxo Pycn, nepenmenonannt
n xonne 70-x rr. n Cnoonoe cnono Pycn.
Ero ocnonarenem n peaxropom n reuenne
30 ner (1959-1989) tn pycnn Mnxann Hntnu
Typxnnna. Xypnan orcrannan nen enno n
neennmo Poccnn, oponcx c camocrnnnue-
crnom.
Hpenpnnnmarent Herp Cemenonnu Iap-
t, n 15-nernem nospacre npnexanmn n
He1p Ceuenonnu
Iapmn
28
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Amepnxy ns cena Rpxonnt Cxnoxcxoro yesa nontcxo Hemxonmnnt,
oxasan ontmym nomomt n noccranonnennn npanocnanntx xpamon n
Hontme. B uacrnocrn, nm tna orpemonrnponana n nnont orxptra pyc-
cxax npanocnannax nepxont n r. Cxnox n 1958 r. Ha ero cpecrna tnn
nepensant n Amepnxe 4 ntnycxa Tanepro]cxoro antmanaxa c nosaro-
nonxom Boennte npecrynnennx Iacyprcxo monapxnn 1914-1917 roon
(Trumbull, Connecticut, 1964 r.), paort u.u. Apncrona Kapnaropyccxne
nncarenn. Hccneonannx no nensanntm ncrounnxam. T. 1. (Bridgeport,
Connecticut, 1977 r.), u.H. Cnncryna Hoxapnarcxax Pyct no nnaennem
Ancrpnn (Trumbull, Connecticut, 1970 r.) n mnorne pyrne.
Haunnax c 50-x rr. pycnncxax remarnxa n CCCP crana raynponanno.
Hccneonarenn crpan Henrpantno Enpont, nxonnmnx n connanncrn-
uecxn narept, raxxe nserann sarparnnart nonpoct ncropnn n xyntry-
pt pycnnon. Hcropnxn npn nsnoxennn cotrn crapannct ne ynomn-
nart annt +rnonnm, nnora samanunnax nente nnacrt ncropnn, x npn-
mepy, yuacrne pycnnon n opasonannn n cranonnennn Monancxoro npa-
nocnannoro xnxxecrna, maccont renonn pycnnon n rot Hepno mn-
pono nont, xora pycnnon ynnann rontxo sa ro, uro onn cunrann cex
pyccxnmn, nacnntcrnennoe nepecenenne pycnnon-nemxon n xoe onepa-
nnn Bncna n r..
Kax ronopnnoct ntme, pycnncxax nenrnunocrt npnsnananact n ue-
xocnonaxnn n Benrpnn n 20-40-e rr. XX n., n 1974 r. pycnnt crann onnm
ns nannonantntx mentmnncrn Boenonnt (Rrocnannx), c 1979 r.
nontcxne nemxn crann npononrt cno ]ecrnnant Barpa n rex pao-
nax, xya nx ntcennnn nontcxne nnacrn, a c 1983 r. - n cenax camo
Hemxonmnnt. Ho+romy nocne pacnaa Conercxoro Comsa n opasona-
nnx nontx nenrpantnoenponecxnx rocyapcrn rperte pycnncxoe Bos-
poxenne nepnonauantno oxnarnno re crpant, re coxpannnact mnoro-
uncnennax pycnncxax nnrennnrennnx: n yxpanncxom 3axapnarte, Cnona-
xnn, nontcxo Hemxonmnne, cepcxo Boenonne. B crpanax npoxnna-
nnx pycnnon nosnnxnn mnorouncnennte pycnncxne oprannsannn, crann
ntxonrt rasert n xypnant: Pycnn, Hapont nonnnxt, Info Py-
cnn (Cnonaxnx), Hoxapnarctxa Pyct (Vxpanna), Fecia (Hontma),
Pycnnctxt cnir (Benrpnx), Pycxe cnono, Pycnax (Cepnx), Pyct-
xa nipa (Pymtnnx), Pycnann y mnene (Kanaa) n r.. C 1992 r. npono-
nrcx Bcemnpnt xonrpecc pycnnon.
B xonne 2003 r. n Monannn tna cosana +rnoxyntrypnax oprannsa-
nnx pycnnon - Omecrnennax oprannsannx Pyct (c 2007 r. Ome-
crnennax acconnannx Pyct). C 2005 r. ona ntnycxaer mexynapo-
nt ncropnuecxn xypnan Pycnn, nonyunnmn narocnonenne nepno-
nepapxa Pyccxo npanocnanno nepxnn sa rpannne mnrpononnra Han-
pa, pycnna poom ns Cnonaxnn. B cocran pexonnernn xypnana nxoxr
29

nsnecrnte nccneonarenn n nnept pycnncxoro nnxennx ns yxpannc-
xoro 3axapnartx, Cnonaxnn, Cepnn, Poccnn, Monannn, Kanat. Hent
xypnana axrnnnsannx nayuno paspaorxn ncropnn pycnnon. 3nexr-
ponnte nepcnn xypnana pasmement na care Pycnnt Monannn -
http://rusyn.md.
Cosanne pycnncxnx +rnoxyntrypntx oprannsann n nauano nonoro py-
cnncxoro Bospoxennx cpasy ntsnann pesxoe npornnoecrnne co cro-
pont o]nnnantnoro Knena. B 1996 r. Kanner mnnncrpon Vxpannt npn-
nnmaer Hnan meponpnxrn no pemennm nponemt yxpannnen-pycn-
non. Hnan, ecrnne xoroporo nnxro o cnx nop ne ormenxn, npeyc-
marpnnaer xomnnexc anrnxoncrnrynnonntx mep no +rnonnxnnannn py-
cnnon 3axapnartx, a raxxe no noannennm pycnncrna sa npeenamn
Vxpannt, uro xnnxercx npxmtm nmemarentcrnom no nnyrpennne ena
pyrnx rocyapcrn. Anropom npecnonyroro Hnana meponpnxrn no
pemennm nponemt yxpannnen-pycnnon xnnxncx npexrop Hncrnryra
nonnrnuecxnx n +rnonannonantntx nccneonann HAH Vxpannt
H.u. Kypac (1939-2005), n ro npemx - nnne-npemtep-mnnncrp Vxpannt
no nonpocam rymannrapno nonnrnxn.
B uacrnocrn, n Hnane npenonaranoct ocymecrnnrt cncremy mep,
nanpannenntx na ycnnenne nosnnn yxpanncxocrn 3axapnartx (xstx,
xyntrypa, noop xapon n p.), nnrerpannm ero nacenennx n connant-
no-nonnrnuecxoe n yxonno-xyntrypnoe npocrpancrno Vxpannt, ocy-
mecrnnrt npeynpenrentno-pasxcnnrentnym paory c nnepamn n
axrnnncramn nnxennx "nonnrnuecxoro pycnncrna" n r..
B 2005 r. nam npnmnoct ncntrart ecrnne annoro Hnana na cee.
B oxrxpe 2004 r. Hocontcrno Vxpannt n Pecnynnxe Monona nanpa-
nnno monorpa]nm C.I. Cynxxa, nocnxmennym pycnnam Monannn, nx
+xcneprnst n Knen. Honyunn n nmne 2005 r. anonnmnt, nectma nns-
xoro nayunoro yponnx n rpemamn mnornmn necypasnocrxmn orstn c
rpynounraemtm nasnannem: Btnot o xnnre C.I. Cynxxa Ocxonxn
Cnxro Pycn. Ouepxn +rnnuecxo ncropnn pycnaxon Monannn. Hayu.
pe. H.M. Bopnnxon (Knmnnen: Hsarentcxn om Tartxna, (2004).
-240 c.) (Btepxxn ns +xcneprno onenxn, ocymecrnnenno Hncrnry-
rom nonnrnuecxnx n +rnonannonantntx nccneonann Hannonantno Axa-
emnn nayx Vxpannt, nosrnannxemtm axaemnxom HAH Vxpannt
H.u. Kypacom) (anropom npecnonyroro Hnana meponpnxrn no peme-
nnm nponemt yxpannnen-pycnnon - C.C.), nocontcrno crano neo]n-
nnantno pacnpocrpanxrt ero cpen npecrannrene omecrnennocrn
Knmnnena. Taxnm cnocoom, tna cenana nontrxa ncxpenrnponart
nccneonannx no pycnncxo remarnxe n Monannn.
B nmne 2005 r. c noaun o]nnnantnoro Knena n Knmnnene tna cosa-
na nexax rpaxancxax mnccnx Vxpannnt Monont, xoropax nauana
30
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
cnom exrentnocrt c nponoxannonno-cxanantntx saxnnenn, nanpan-
nenntx npornn pyxonocrna Omecrnenno oprannsannn Pyct, c ne-
ntm onopounrt ero exrentnocrt. Pasymeercx, noonte mept ne ann
xenaemoro pesyntrara, ncrpernn c name cropont aprymenrnponannt
n nayuno oocnonannt ornop.
Ceronx pycnnt o]nnnantno npnsnant n Cnonaxnn, Hontme, uexnn,
Benrpnn, Cepnn, Xopnarnn, Pymtnnn. B Benrpnn n 32-x nacenenntx
nynxrax ecrnyer pycnncxoe camoynpannenne. B Pymtnnn pycnnt
nmemr cnoero enyrara n napnamenre. O]nnnantno npnsnan pycnnon
nannonantntm mentmnncrnom, npannrentcrna ntmenepeuncnenntx
crpan (xpome Vxpannt) oxastnamr nm ]nnanconym noepxxy (npan-
a, nectma cxpomnym). Pycnncxn xstx cran yuentm npemerom n
nauantntx n cpennx mxonax Hontmn, Cnonaxnn, Benrpnn, Cepnn, noc-
xpecntx mxonax 3axapnartx.
B 2003 r., necmorpx na ro, uro pycnnt xax orentnt +rnoc tnn npn-
snant Hontme, Cepne, Benrpne, Cnonaxne, Pymtnne, a n yxpa-
nncxom 3axapnarte ecrnonann mnorouncnennte pycnncxne oprannsa-
nnn, ntxonnn xnnrn, rasert na pycnncxom xstxe, tnmn npesnenr
Vxpannt H. Kyuma n cnoe xnnre Vxpanna ne Poccnx saxnnn: Xorx
Cnonaxnx nnxax ne noepxnnaer pycnncxoe nnxenne, ono nce panno
nnocnr ncconanc n yxpanncxo-cnonanxne ornomennx
28
.
Hoonax nosnnnx o]nnnantnoro Knena ntstnaer neoymenne mnpo-
noro coomecrna. K npnmepy, n reuenne noctmn ner, naunnax c 1999 r.,
Iocenapramenr CBA n cnoem exeronom oruere Vxpanna. Coo-
mennx o crpane ornocnrentno conmennx npan uenonexa (Ukraine.
Country Reports on Human Rights Practices) ormeuaer napymenne npan
pycnnon 3axapnartx.
Kax nsnecrno, nmoe ecrnne ncrpeuaer npornnoecrnne. 7 mapra
2007 r. 3axapnarcxax onacrnax paa npnnnmaer ontmnncrnom rono-
con pemenne o npnsnannn pycnnon xopenno nannonantnocrtm xpax (sa
nporonoconan 71 enyrar ns 75). Ho o]nnnantnt Knen nmecro nano-
ra nauan nonym anrnpycnncxym xamnannm.
7 nmnx 2008 r. n Myxaueno (3axapnarte) cocroxncx Hepnt Enpone-
cxn xonrpecc noxapnarcxnx pycnnon, npnsnannt xonconnnponart
exrentnocrt pycnncxnx oprannsann annoro pernona. 25 oxrxpx
2008 r. n Vxropoe npomen Bropo Enponecxn xonrpecc noxapnarc-
xnx pycnnon. Ha nem tno npnnxro pemenne o noccranonnennn pycnnc-
xo rocyapcrnennocrn. Onaxo o]nnnantnt Knen onxrt oxasancx ne-
cnocontm necrn nanor. Bnacrn Vxpannt ntramrcx no-npexnemy pe-
mnrt pycnncxn nonpoc ontmennnxnmn meroamn.
ymaercx, cnoxnnmymcx n 3axapnarte cnryannm moxno tno t
paspemnrt nponeennem n onacrn nonoro pe]epenyma no xonrpo-
nem mnorouncnenntx mexynapontx nanmarene. H, ecnn ont-
31

mnncrno xnrene 3axapnartx ntcxaxercx sa anronomnm, ro npeoc-
rannrt ee. Bet xenanne saxapnarnen nnonne nernrnmno (ecnn, pasy-
meercx, sa anronomnm ntcxaxercx ontmnncrno nacenennx).
Bce ceuac sanncnr or xenannx o]nnnantnoro Knena, no npnnxrnm
pemennx memaer nonnrnuecxn xpnsnc.
Ceronx naroapx ycnnnxm npecrannrene pycnncxo nnrennnren-
nnn (H.P. Maroun (Kanaa), F. Iopant (CBA), M. Iopnxx, R. Kone-
cap, B. Banra, R. Pamau, H. Meemn (Cepnx), H. Hon (uexnx),
C. Hxnnnen (Benrpnx), o.nmnrpn Cnop, M. Anmamn, B. uenmn-
nen, H. Mnronnu, M. Fonnxap, H. Maxapa, M. Hon, B. Haxx (Vxpan-
na), A. 3osynxx, A. Hnnmxona, B. yp (Cnonaxnx) n p.) n mnornx nc-
cneonarene noromxam pycnnon nosnpamena ncropnuecxax namxrt,
uyncrno ropocrn sa npnnanexnocrt x pennemy +rnocy, nnecmemy
nxna n opasonanne pxa enponecxnx rocyapcrn n nann, coxpannn-
memy, necmorpx na onrne rot +rnonna, cnom +rnoxyntrypnym camo-
trnocrt.
Bpemx noxasano, uro pycnnt, necmorpx na rot +rnonna, renonna n
nacnntcrnenno yxpannnsannn, cmornn coxpannrt cnom +rnnunocrt n
naccnonapnocrt.
Onn nnecnn ontmo nxna n cosanne pennepyccxo rocyapcrnen-
nocrn, mnorne cronernx tnn ]opnocrom Pycn npornn xaronnuecxo
+xcnancnn 3anaa. Heonoxparno cosanann nnn ntrannct cosart cnom
rocyapcrnennocrt. B cpenne nexa, nocne saxnara Iannnxo Pycn
Hontme, a Hoxapnarcxo Benrpne, pycnnt nmecre c nonoxamn
opasonann npanocnannoe nonomcxo-pyccxoe Monancxoe xnxxecrno.
onroe npemx Monannx oxastnana noepxxy n coxpanennn npano-
cnannx n Iannnxo n Vropcxo Pycn.
Co nropo nononnnt XIX no nauano XXI n. npomno rpn pycnncxnx Bos-
poxennx: nropax nononnna XIX n. nauano Hepno mnpono nont
(1914 r.); 20-e rr. XX n. nauano Bropo mnpono nont (1939 r.),
80-e rr. XX n. no nacroxmee npemx.
Macconax yxpannnsannx xnrene Iannunnt, Fyxonnnt, Hoxapnar-
cxo Pycn tna nponeena rontxo n 50-e rr. XX n. naroapx nxoxe-
nnm anntx pernonon n cocran Vxpanncxo CCP. Hontrxa yxpannnsa-
nnn pycnnon, npoxnnanmnx sa npeenamn VCCP, noronxnyna snaun-
rentnoe xonnuecrno nacenennx x npnnxrnm rocyapcrnenno nenrnu-
nocrn. Onaxo o cnx nop mnorne noromxn pycnnon coxpanxmr namxrt
o cnoem nponcxoxennn.
Maccont renonn pycnnon n rot Hepno mnpono nont, xora tna
ynnuroxena snaunrentnax uacrt pycnncxo nnrennnrennnn, n conerc-
xax yxpannnsannx npnnenn x romy, uro camte xpynnte pernont npo-
xnnannx pycnnon (Iannunna n Fyxonnna) nepecrann n nacroxmee npemx
raxontmn trt.
32
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Ono ns nponem, ocnoxnxmmnx nponecc conpemennoro Bospoxe-
nnx pycnnon, xnnxercx orcyrcrnne rocyapcrna, xoropoe cmorno t n
cnny +rnoxyntrypnoro pocrna oxasart noepxxy n +rom nanpannennn.
Tpannnonno pycnnt opnenrnponannct na Poccnm xax na cnoe rocyap-
crno, nnecnn nemant nxna n poccncxym rocyapcrnennocrt, nayxy,
xyntrypy, xstx. Ho n nacroxmee npemx raxo noepxxn ner.
Kax, xaxnmn nyrxmn n n xaxnx ]opmax yer antme pasnnnartcx py-
cnncxoe nnxenne (mexynaponoe n pernonantnoe), noxaxer npemx.
HPHMEHAHHR
1. Pycnn camonasnanne nacenennx penne Pycn. Cam +rnonnm pycnn -
nponsnonoe or cnona Pyct. Vnomnnaercx n nnreparypntx namxrnnxax c X n. (n
rexcre oronopon c rpexamn xnxsx Onera (912 r.), xnxsx Hropx (945 r.), n Pyccxo
npane n r..). onroe npemx annt +rnonnm coxpanxncx na nce reppnropnn,
nxonnme n cocran pennepyccxoro rocyapcrna: Manopoccnn, Fenopyccnn,
Bennxopoccnn, Kapnarcxo Pycn. K cepenne XIX n. +rnonnm pycnn ocranancx
mnpoxo pacnpocrpanenntm n xauecrne camonasnannx nacenennx Kapnarcxo Pycn
(Iannunna, Fyxonnna, Vropcxax Pyct), utn semnn naxonnnct no nnaennem
Ancrpo-Benrpnn, a raxxe nacenennx cenepa Feccapann n Xonmmnnt. Bropo
+rnonnm nacenennx Kapnarcxo Pycn pycnax. 3ror nnemnn +rnonnm nosnnx
xax npornnonocrannenne +rnonnmy nonxx n npocnexnnaercx, no xpane mepe,
c nauana XV n. Pycnnt nopasenxnnct na px +rnoxyntrypntx rpynn: oxn,
nemxn, noonxne, rynynt, noxyrxne, nepxonnnnt, onnnxne n pyrne. Ancrpo-
nenrepcxne nnacrn nastnann cnonx pyccxnx noanntx pycnnt, pyrent (nem.
Russinen, Rutnenen), n ornnune or pyccxnx - poccncxnx noanntx.
Hoponee cm.: Cv.r C.I. Pycnnt n ncropnn: npomnoe n nacroxmee // Mexy-
napont ncropnuecxn xypnan Pycnn [Knmnnen]. 2007, N 4 (10). C. 29 - 30.
2. Hoponee ncropnm Iannnxo-Bontncxoro xnxxecrna cm.: Cv.r C. I. Ctn
camoepxna ncex Pycn // Mexynapont ncropnuecxn xypnan Pycnn [Kn-
mnnen]. 2005 . N 2 (2). C. 11 - 41.
3. 3e.eu:vr B.C. Hacenenne Monannn. Knmnnen: Brnnnna, 1973. C. 57.
Hoponee ncropnx pycnnon Monannn nsnoxena n pxe paor anropa, n uacr-
nocrn: monorpa]nn Ocxonxn Cnxro Pycn. Ouepxn +rnnuecxo ncropnn pycna-
xon Monannn (Knmnnen, 2004. 239 c.) n n crartxx, n uacrnocrn: Pycnaxn Fecca-
pann. Houemy nm ner mecra n yuennxax ncropnn? // Mtcnt. [Knmnnen]. 2003.
N 4 (22). C. 72 - 79; Fecapacxt pycnann // Pycnn. Xpicriantcxt uaconnc. Hpx-
men, 2003. N 3 - 4. C. 12; Mnrpannn pycnnon Fyxonnnt n Feccapanm // Hanno-
nantnte opast mnpa: enncrno - pasnoopasne - cnpanennnocrt. Marepnant
Mexynapono nayuno-npaxrnuecxo xon]epennnn. 22-23 oxrxpx 2003 r. Kn-
mnnen, 2004. C. 275 - 280; 3amena +rnonnma - npenmnx +rnoxyntrypno rpanc-
]opmannn // Mtcnt. [Knmnnen]. 2004. N 2 (24). C. 72 - 75; 3atrt +rnoc //
Mocxna. [Mocxna]. 2004. N 11. C. 186 - 191; 3rnoxyntrypnax nenrnunocrt pycna-
xon Feccapann n nauane XX nexa // Becrnnx Cnanxncxoro ynnnepcnrera. Btn. 11.
33

|Knmnnen]. 2004. C. 7 - 18; Pycnnt Monannn // Cnanxncxne urennx. Btn. 3.
|Knmnnen]. 2005. C. 107 - 115; ropxyct, uro x - pycnn // Mtcnt. [Knmnnen].
2005. N 2 (27). C. 91 - 95; Cemnrpacxax Pyct // Hnrt npemen. Marepnant nayuno-
npaxrnuecxo xon]epennnn Pyccxoe nacenenne Monannn: ncropnx n conpe-
mennocrt. Knmnnen, 2006. C. 77 - 85; 3rnoxyntrypnax nenrnunocrt pycnnon
cenepa Monannn // Mexynapont ncropnuecxn xypnan Pycnn. [Knmn-
nen]. 2006. N 4 (6). C. 141-149; Pycnnt Monannn: npano na coxpanenne +rnnuno-
crn // 3rnorpa]nuecxoe oospenne. 2007. N 1. C. 1 - 14; Pycnnn: samena ernonn-
ma - npenyn sa ernoxyntrypny rpanc]opmannm // Pycnnn. Pycnann. Ruthenians.
1745-2005. [Honn Ca, Cepnx]. 2006. C. 86 - 92.
4. 3e.eu:vr B.C. Hacenenne Monannn. C. 9.
5. Ipocv. B.C., Bvoar H.I. Ouepxn ncropnn naponoro xosxcrna Feccapann
(1812-1861). Knmnnen: Kaprx Mononenxcx+, 1967. C. 58.
6. 3e.eu:vr B. C. Hacenenne Feccapann n Honecrpontx n XIX n. (+rnnuecxne n
connantno-emorpa]nuecxne nponecct). Knmnnen: Brnnnna, 1979. C. 100.
7. Cv.r C.I. Ocxonxn Cnxro Pycn. Ouepxn +rnnuecxo ncropnn pycnaxon
Monannn. Knmnnen: Hsarentcxn om Tartxna, 2004. C. 97.
8. 3e.eu:vr B.C. Hacenenne Feccapann n Honecrpontx n XIX n. C. 265.
9. Cv.r C.I. Ocxonxn Cnxro Pycn. C. 91 - 92.
10. Lv.ieuu B. B. Iot // Iot. nn. 1920 ro. M.: Honocrn, 1990. C. 51.
11. Hauaeea H. M. Ouepxn ncropnn pyccxoro nnxennx n Iannunne XIX-XX nn.
M., Hmnepcxax rpannnx, 2007. C. 28, 32.
12. V.iuoe H. H. Hponcxoxenne yxpanncxoro cenaparnsma. M.: Hnpnx, 1996.
C. 209.
13. O exrenxx pycnncxoro (rannnxo-pyccxoro) Bospoxennx cm.: Baepur B. P.
Kparxn ouepx rannnxo-pyccxo nnctmennocrn. Hynen, 1973. 80 c.
14. Ceucmvu 4.H. Hoxapnarcxax Pyct no nnaennem Ancrpnn. Trumbull,
Connecticut, 1970. C. 229 - 230.
15. Apucmoe 4.4. Kapnaro-pyccxne nncarenn. Hccneonanne no nensanntm
ncrounnxam. T. 1. M., 1916. C. 54.
16. Tam xe. C. 149, 164.
17. Ipvueecru M. Hnnmcrpnponannax ncropnx Vxpannt. onenx: OOO HKu
FAO, 2002. C. 540.
18. Hauaeea H.M. Ouepxn ncropnn pyccxoro nnxennx n Iannunne XIX-XX nn.
C. 8.
19. V.iuoe H H. Hponcxoxenne yxpanncxoro cenaparnsma. C. 213.
20. Cv.r C. Hoxcnennx x crarte upanxo H. uopmantnt n peantnt nanno-
nannsm // Mexynapont ncropnuecxn xypnan Pycnn [Knmnnen]. 2006.-
N 3 (5). C. 188. 3ect xe npnneent xoporxne norpa]nuecxne cneennx o exre-
nxx rannnxo-, yxonnncxo-pyccxoro Bospoxennx. Fonee nopono norpa]nn
nsnecrntx yxonnncxnx n eccapacxnx exrene cm.: Cv.r C.I. Hmn ropnrcx
Monannx. Fnorpa]nn nexoroptx nsnecrntx omecrnenno-nonnrnuecxnx, penn-
rnosntx, noenntx n xyntrypntx exrene Monannn // Mexynapont ncropn-
uecxn xypnan Pycnn. [Knmnnen]. 2006. N 3 (5). C. 81 - 148.
21. 4pauro H. uopmantnt n peantnt nannonannsm. Counnennx n ecxrn
romax. T. 10. Crartn, nnctma. M., 1959. C. 241 - 241.
34
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
22. Hauaeea H.M. Ouepxn ncropnn pyccxoro nnxennx n Iannunne XIX-XX nn.
C. 68 - 69.
23. Fonee nonno annt nepno ncropnn pycnnon ocnemen anropom n cneym-
mnx crartxx: Pycnnt n nepno Hepno mnpono nont n pyccxo cmyrt // Mex-
ynapont ncropnuecxn xypnan Pycnn [Knmnnen]. 2006. N 1 (3).
C. 46 - 65; Hmn ropnrcx Monannx. Fnorpa]nn nexoroptx nsnecrntx ome-
crnenno-nonnrnuecxnx, pennrnosntx, noenntx n xyntrypntx exrene Mona-
nnn // Mexynapont ncropnuecxn xypnan Pycnn. [Knmnnen]. 2006. N 3
(5). C. 81 - 148; Hexoropte cnpanounte marepnant no ncropnn namero xpax //
Mexynapont ncropnuecxn xypnan Pycnn [Knmnnen]. 2007. N 1 (7).
C. 163-191; Pycnnt n ncropnn: npomnoe n nacroxmee // Mexynapont ncro-
pnuecxn xypnan Pycnn [Knmnnen]. 2007. N 4 (10). C. 29 - 56.
24. Hpomonpeceumep Hemp Koxauur. Hauano ncropnn Amepnxancxo Pycn //
Hpnxapnarcxax Pyct no nnaennem Ancrpnn. Trumbull, Connecticut, 1970.
C. 516, 490.
25. Meocuu H. Amepnnxn pycnann npes cnom npecy // Mexynapont ncro-
pnuecxn xypnan Pycnn [Knmnnen]. 2007. N 2 (8). C. 156.
26. Hpomonpeceumep Hemp Koxauur.Vxas. cou. C. 497, 499.
27. Meocuu H. Vxas. cou. C.158 - 159, 173 - 178.
28. Kv:+a H. Vxpanna ne Poccnx. M.: Hsarentcxn om Bpemx, 2003. C. 54.
35

Maxcnu HX
O HPELCTOPHH BOALHCKOH 3EMAH
(VI nauano X nexa)
1
B Iannnxo n Bontncxo semnxx n omonrontcxoe npemx cnoxnnnct,
xax nsnecrno, nexoropte ns ocnonntx ropoon-rocyapcrn penne
Pycn
2
. Onaxo nx nosnnxnonennm npemecrnonan nnrentnt nepno
pasnnrnx nocrounocnanxncxnx orocyapcrnenntx n nperocyapcrnen-
ntx connantno-nonnrnuecxnx oennenn n yxasanntx pernonax. B y-
yme Iannnxo semne +rnononnrnuecxoe pasnnrne npoxonno ornocn-
rentno cnoxono: c VI n. n nnnort o ]opmnponannx Iannnxo semnn
sect npoxnnann xopnart
3
, cosanmne momnoe +rnononnrnuecxoe oe-
nnenne Bennxym Xopnarnm, xax nastnaer ee Koncranrnn Farpxno-
pont
4
.
K cenepy or Bennxo Xopnarnn n yyme Bontncxo semne roxe
nosnnxnn momnte +rnononnrnuecxne oennennx nocrounoro cnanxn-
crna, no sect nx pasnnrne npoxonno onee ncxperno, uro noponno
nyrannny n ncrounnxax n, xax cnecrnne, xpane npornnopeunnym nc-
ropnorpa]nm. Hepecxastnart ee sect mt ne nnnm cmtcna, rax xax
mnoxecrno rnnorernuecxnx xonnennn npetcropnn Bontncxo semnn
cxopee sanyrann nccneonanne +roro nonpoca, uem cnococrnonann ero
pemennm. Ho+romy, na nam nsrnx, nyume noorn x nponeme nenoc-
pecrnenno ad fontem, ne opamax nnnmannx na mnorouncnennte npo-
rnnopeuamne pyr pyry n sauacrym nnuem ne noxpennennte ncropn-
orpa]nuecxne nocrpoennx.
Honecrt npemenntx ner, ronopx o npetcropnn +roro pernona, cnn-
erentcrnyer, uro cnauana sect xnnn yaane, sane ceoma no Byry,
nocneae nenmnnne
5
; ynen annnxy no Byry, re nmne nenmnn-
ne
6
.
Ecnn cneonart ee rexcry yxnantno, ro nonyuaercx, uro ynem n
yaane +ro nasnannx pennnx cnanxncxnx +rnononnrnuecxnx oen-
nenn, cymecrnonanmnx nexora ram, re ntne no npemena neronncna
naxoxrcx nonmnnne
7
. Heronnct nomoraer nponnrt cner n na npnun-
ny ncuesnonennx yneon n cment nx nontnxnamn, ronopx o rom, uro
Bs cn ae npeunna (no npemena nnsanrncxoro nmneparopa Hpaxnnx
(610-641) M..), mma n opn (anapt M..), nae xonma na
Hpaxnnn napn n uano ero ne nma. Cn ae opn noenaxy na cnone-
nex n npnuyunma ynem, cyman cnonenm n nacnnte 1nopnxy
36
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
aenau ynectxnus: ame noexa1n ynme ospnny, ne anme
nsnpnun xonn, nn nona, no nennme nsnpnun 3 nn, 4 nn, 5 nn
aens n 1enery n nonec1n ospnna n 1axo uyuaxy ynem
8
. Bmc1t
o ospe 1enous nennnn n yuou ropn, n Bors no1pen n, n
noupoma ncn, n ne oc1acn nn enns ospnns. H ec1t npn1sua n
Pycn o cero ne: nornoma axn ope; nxs ae nec1t nneuenn nn
nacnesxa
9
.
3ect anrop +roro neronncnoro ]parmenra nepecxasan, no nce nn-
nmocrn, xaxoe-ro cnanxncxoe +nnuecxoe cxasanne o none mexy ana-
pamn n yneaun
10
, n xoropom anapt naenent uepramn mn]nuecxnx
nennxanon, npemecrnonanmnx sacenennm semnn otuntmn nmtmn,
uro ronopnr o ero ouent rnyoxo pennocrn
11
. B xoe +ro nont cna-
nxne tnn pasrpomnent, n sanoenarenn nosnoxnnn na nnx nro rax n
penne Pycn oosnauannct yrnerenne n nacnnne, a nepnonauantno no
nce nnnmocrn, no npemena anpo-ynecxo nont xpmo, nonontx
ynpxxt
12
, n xoropym sanoenarenn sanpxrann ynecxnx xenmnn.
B.. Herpyxnn n .C. Paencxn nepno, na nam nsrnx, ormeuamr no
+romy nonoy, uro nnnmo, n neronncn mt nmeem eno c ]parmenramn
semneentuecxoro +noca, re +nnuecxne nparn ncnontsymr xenmnn n
xauecrne rxrnontx xnnorntx, nanarax na nnx xpmo nro. Otua
part ant c nnyra c pana (n penne Pycn n pyrnx pannnx cnanxn-
cxnx rocyapcrnax M..) noxpennxn +ro snauenne
13
.
H.B. Boronnu onontno oocnonanno, na nam nsrnx, arnpyer +ry
anpo-ynecxym nony 561-562 rr.
14
Hocne nee ynecxn coms pacnan-
cx, n uacrt yneon ymna na sana n uexnm n Hontmy, re xopomo
nsnecrna no pxy ncrounnxon
15
. Hocnenee ocroxrentcrno noynno
nexoroptx nccneonarene ornocnrt neronncnym nereny o anapo-
ynecxo none x sananocnanxncxnm yneau n nnert n ne orpa-
xenne nx +noca
16
, nnn xe x yneau nannoncxnm
17
. Ha nam nsrnx, +rn
nocrpoennx neocnonarentnt
18
. Cnanxncxne nerent o anpo-ynec-
xo none omne nx ncex nerne yneon ornocxrcx x romy npe-
menn, xoropoe npemecrnonano pacnay nx enncrna. H onn coxpann-
nnct n y nocrouno-, n y sananocnanxncxnx yneon
19
.
Cyta pannecpenenexontx yneon tna, n nsnecrno mepe, cxo-
no c cyto cocennx c nnmn xopna1on: ono ns pennemnx cnanxn-
cxnx +rnononnrnuecxnx oennenn
20
, ono tno pasrpomneno n xoe
anapcxoro namecrnnx n pacnanoct, a snaunrentnax uacrt xopna1on ymna
na sana
21
, re nnocnecrnnn npnnxna yuacrne n uemcxom n nontcxom
+rnorenese. Ho, n ornnune or xopna1on, yneau nocne anapcxoro pas-
rpoma ne yanoct coxpannrt omnnnpymmero nonoxennx n ncxonom
pernone cnoero npoxnnannx, n onn ycrynamr nnnpymmee mecro na
Bontnn nonmnnnau, o uem ronopxr npnneennte ntme neronncnte
37

cnnerentcrna. B ro xe npemx uacrt yneon ocraercx na mecre, xort
n repxer cnoe tnoe nonnrnuecxoe snauenne. B nauane X n. neronnct
ynomnnaer o nxoxennn nx n nocxo Onera npn ero noxoe na Koncran-
rnnonont
22
. H ner ocrarountx ocnonann cunrart +ro neronncnoe cnn-
erentcrno xnnxntm n neocronepntm
23
. Ono orpaxaer npecranne-
nnx neronncna o cymecrnonannn n ro npemx n nauane X n. nocrou-
nocnanxncxnx yneon n o coxpanennn nmn onpeenennoro +rnononnrn-
uecxoro enncrna n snauennx. O rom xe cnnerentcrnyer n ]nxcannx
nx +noca na crpannnax Honecrn npemenntx ner.
Pxom c nonmnnnaun nomemaer yneon n xauecrne nx conpemen-
nnxon n cepenne X n. n an-Macyn: Bcne sa +1nu poou (sa po-
om n.nnnana nontnxnamn M..) ns poon ac-caxanna (cnanxn
M..) Hc1pana, n n name npeun nx napt nasmnae1cn B.Caxnn-
nx (F.Caxnax). H po, uasmeae+m .uaeua (ynet M..).
Hasmnam1 nx napn Bana Annq (Banx Cnaq) (nteneno mno
M..)
24
.
3ect, npana, ouent cnoxno cxasart, ner nn n +rom ]parmenre peut
o nocrounocnanxncxnx yneax nnn o sananocnanxncxnx
25
. Kax nentsx
c ynepennocrtm cxasart n o rom, uro cneennx an-Macyn o n.nnnana
n .nanna nocxoxr x ennomy ncrounnxy n xnnxmrcx cnnxponntmn.
Cneennx +roro apacxoro anropa o nontncxnx n mnpe o cnanxnc-
xnx +rnocax n nonnrnuecxnx oennennxx n nenom nyxamrcx eme n
antnemem rnyoxom n ncecroponnem nccneonannn.
Ho, xax t ro nn tno, cornacno neronncn, na nepnt nnan n pernone
nocne pasrpoma anapamn yneon ntxoxr nonmnnne. Onaxo +ro ne
conponoxaercx xaxo-nno cmeno marepnantno xyntrypt pernona,
nosnonnnme t ronopnrt o npnxoe xaxoro-ro nonoro nacenennx. Ha-
npornn, n VI-IX nn. mt nnnm na Bontnn nocneonarentnoe pasnnrne
marepnantno xyntrypt or npaxcxo-xopuaxoncxo x nyxn-paxonenxo,
npnuem nropax +nonmnnonno ntpacraer ns nepno
26
. Hnxaxnx npnsna-
xon cment nacenennx nnn npocro npnxoa n pernon xaxnx-ro nontx +r-
nnuecxnx rpynn ne onapyxnnaercx
27
. Ho+romy, na nam nsrnx, nano-
nee yenrentntm oxcnennem +rnononnrnuecxnx nsmenenn n pern-
one xnnxercx mtcnt H.B. Boronnua, cornacno xoropo +ra reppnro-
pnx (Bontnt M..) tna sacenena, no mentme mepe, uertptmx-
nxrtm pocrnenntmn nnemenamn, xoropte nepnonuecxn cocrannxnn
nonnrnuecxne oennennx, nocnnmne nasnannx no nmenn nnemenn-re-
remona
28
. Hpome ronopx, na Bontnn na nepnt nnan ntnnranact ro
ona cnannnnn
29
, ro pyrax. H, ecnn nepntmn reremonamn na Bontnn
tnn ynem, ro nocne nx pasrpoma anapamn nepnencrno n pernone
nepexonr x nonmnnnau
30
.
38
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
K cuacrtm, o nnx y nac ecrt ne rontxo sanncannte n Honecrn npe-
menntx ner nonynerenapnte cneennx, xax +ro nmeno mecro c yne-
amn, no n annte nocrountx ncrounnxon, sanncannte onontno pano n
nesanncnmte or nocrounocnanxncxo rpannnn. Pasymeercx, nx nnrep-
nperannx noxa eme ne moxer trt npnsnana o xonna yonnernopn-
rentno, rem onee, uro onn opocnn orpomno ncropnorpa]ne, xoro-
pax sauacrym cxopee sanyrtnana eno, uem npoxcnxna ero. An-Macy-
n (ym. ox. 956/957 r.) n cnonx 3onortx xonxx n pocctnxx camonne-
ron
31
(ox. 947 r.) coomaer: H +1n <nsmunnxn> pasennm1cn na
pasnme pom: us uux po, y uomopoeo c euyouo peeuocmu mua
eocyapcmeeuuocmo. Bmu y uux uapo, uomopoeo uasmeauu Maxu
(Maan). H +mom po uasmeaemca e.uuuaua. B peeuocmu sa +mu+
poo+ cueoeauu ocmauoume pom ac-cauauua (cnanxn M..) <no
cumcny: +1o1 po nanonee sna1en ns ac-caxanna, 1.x. y nnx
nnepnme nonnnnact rocyapc1nennoc1t>, 1ax xax u+euuo y uux
<e.uuuaua> mu uapo, u pyeue ux uapu nouuuauuco e+y (ntene-
no mno M..).
H anee: H ac-caxanna unoro poon n pasnonnnoc1en. 31a
nama xnnra ne noxon1 nn onncannn ncex nx pasnonnnoc1en
n pasnnunmx nx pasne1nnennn. Panee um ynounnynn nsnec1ne o
nape, uomopo+y nouuuauuco ece ux uapu e peeuocmu, u +mo
Maxu <uapo> e.uuuaua. H +mom po ouu uopeuo us uopue <m.e.
oua us euaeumx uuacmu> ac-cauauua, nouumae+m e ux po-
ax. H +mo uem y uux c peeuocmu. 3ame+ noaeuuuco pasuoeua-
cua +exy ux poa+u, u ucues ux nopaou <uepapxua>. H ux pom
cmauu epaxeum pye pyey. Hapt xaaoro nx poa nnnne1cn
napeu, xax um ynounnynn, ns nx napen, no npnunne, o xo1opon
onro paccxasmna1t (nteneno mno M..)
32
.
Ananornunt paccxas ecrt n y Hpaxnma Hn Haxya an-Hcpannn
ar-Typrymn (o 912/913 nocne 966) enpecxoro xynna ns Toproct,
nocernnmero n 965 r.
33
cnanxncxne semnn n Henrpantno Enpone, a rou-
nee no nce nnnmocrn uexnm n semnn oopnron
34
. Henocpe-
crnenno counnenne Hpaxnma Hn Haxya o nac ne omno, no co-
xpannnnct ntnncxn ns nero, coepxamnecx n counnennxx onee nosnnx
anropon: an-Fexpn (XI n.), an-Hnmapnra (XI n.), an-Kasnnnn (XIII n.),
nn Cana (XIII n.)
35
. Hpana, nasnanne nontnxn y Hpaxnma Hn Ha-
xya snyunr necxontxo nnaue, uem y an-Macyn Wlinbb, a nmx ero
npannrenx Maha
36
. B ocrantnom onn npaxrnuecxn connaamr.
Bonpoc o rom, c xaxnm cnanxncxnm +rnononnrnuecxnm oennenn-
em cnxstnart +rn nsnecrnx apacxnx ncrounnxon, ntsnan ontmne cno-
pt. Hx ntrannct cnxsart c nomopcxnm ropoom Bonnnom
37
. Onaxo
+ra rnnoresa conepmenno esocnonarentna: n Homopte ne tno nnxa-
39

xoro cnanxncxoro nnemenn c noontm nasnannem
38
, a cam Bonnn cra-
nonnrcx snaunrentntm +xonomnuecxnm n nonnrnuecxnm nenrpom ront-
xo co nropo nononnnt, ocoenno c xonna X n., xorx nosnnx, cyx no
nocnennm anntm, eme n nepno nononnne IX n.
39
Taxnm opasom, pac-
nner +roro ropoa nauancx nocne roro, xax tno nanncano counnenne
an-Macyn
40
. H y nac ner ocrarountx ocnonann nx roro, urot
ypennxrt ero ncropnm xax snaunrentnoro +xonomnuecxoro n nonnrn-
uecxoro nenrpa n ornocnrt ee x npemenam, xoropte npemecrnonann
nanncannm paccmarpnnaemtx nocrountx ncrounnxon
41
. Eme onee ne-
neno
42
oroxecrnnenne cnanxncxoro +rnononnrnuecxoro oennennx
+rnx apacxnx nsnecrn c Bennxo Mopanne, raxxe npenaranmeecx
nccneonarenxmn
43
, rax xax ono xnnxercx conepmenno nponsnontntm,
rem onee uro y an-Macyn Bennxax Mopannx nasnana no cocrnen-
ntm nmenem
44
. A.. Iapxann cront xe esocnonarentno, na nam nsrnx,
oroxecrnnn n ono ns cnonx paor n.nnnany an-Macyn c Banaxn-
e
45
. Hpenaranoct oroxecrnnenne nasnannoro y an-Macyn n Hpa-
xnma Hn Haxya cnanxncxoro napoa c nene1aun-nm1nuaun, nos-
moxnoe, no mnennm nexoroptx yuentx, c nosnnn apacxo rpa]nxn
46
.
Onaxo n ono ne npecrannxercx ocnonarentntm
47
. Her nnxaxnx ocno-
nann ronopnrt o rom, uro nmrnun nexora rnanencrnonann na nexnm
snaunrentntm cnanxncxnm +rnononnrnuecxnm oennennem, nnocne-
crnnn pacnanmnmcx
48
. A nx nocrounoenponecxnx nontnxn +ro no-
rnepxaercx apxeonornuecxnmn marepnanamn, o uem nnxe yer eme
cxasano. a n o cnntno xnxxecxo nnacrn y nmrnue n o cymecrnona-
nnn y nnx xora-nno raxoro nennxoro npannrenx, xax ror, o xoropom
ronopxr namn anropt, raxxe nnuero ne nsnecrno ns pyrnx ncrounn-
xon
49
, a mexy rem nnemx +ro onncano n nnx nectma nopono.
H axe onee roro: ncrounnxn, xax nocrounte
50
, rax n sananoenpo-
necxne
51
, cornacno ronopxr o orcyrcrnnn y nmrnue cnntno xnxxec-
xo nnacrn
52
. uro xe xacaercx xonexrypt, nosnonxmme nnrepnpern-
ponart nasnannt y namnx anropon cnanxncxn napo xax neneron, ro
ona xnnxercx ncxyccrnenno n ne nmemme ocrarountx ocnonann
53
.
.E. Mnmnn neanno nontrancx oroxecrnnrt B.nnnany an-Macyn
n Wlinbb Hparnma Hn xya c nene1aun, xoropte y Hopana (VI
n.) ntcrynamr n xauecrne npexon ncex cnanxncxnx napoon
54
. Onaxo
+ro npenonoxenne raxxe ena nn ocnonarentno: nn n xaxnx nntx nc-
rounnxax, xpome ouent pannero counnennx Hopana, nene1m n xaue-
crne npexon ncex cnanxncxnx +rnocon (nnn xaxo-ro snaunrentno nx
uacrn) ne ]nrypnpymr. B onee nosnnx ornocnrentno counnennx Hop-
ana sanantx ncrounnxax nene1aun (nenaun) ncera nastnaercx
nnmt onpeenennax rpynna cnanxn,
55
n ner axe namexa na ro, uro
40
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
xora-ro onn (nene1m) nnacrnonann na pyrnmn cnanxnamn nnn nme-
nn n pennocrn cnoe snaunrentnoe nonnrnuecxoe oennenne.
Pemammee snauenne n nonpoce o rom, re xe pacnonaranact B.nn-
nana an-Macyn - na Bontnn nnn na Fanrncxom Homopte (n Bonnne
nnn n semne nmrnue) - nmeer, na nam nsrnx, paccmorpenne xonrexcra
+roro nsnecrnx, ro ecrt cnanxncxoro paccxasa an-Macyn n nenom n
onpeenenne roro, o xaxom pernone Bocrouno Enpont on paccxastna-
er. Hmenno n +rom pernone n cneyer, na nam nsrnx, ncxart B.nnnany.
Vxasannte ntme nontrxn ee noxannsannn tnn, n cymnocrn, npons-
nontntmn, rax xax ne onnpannct na nenocrnt ananns reorpa]nuecxo
cncremt cnanxncxoro paccxasa an-Macyn.
B xonrexcre coomennx o B.nnnane an-Macyn nepeuncnxer px
cnanxncxnx poon, xoropte onontno ynepenno npn nannunn orent-
ntx ncxyccnonntx momenron noxannsymrcx n Henrpantno-Bocrou-
no n oruacrn Rxno Enpone
56
. 3ra noxannsannx nornepxaercx n
pemapxo apacxoro anropa, npemecrnymme paccxasy o B.nnnane,
cornacno xoropo y nnx (cnanxn M..) uapu, u ueuomopme us uux
ucnoeeymm xpucmuaucmeo auoumcuoeo mouua (uecmopuaucuo-
eo)
57
. 3ro nnonne peantno nx cnanxn Henrpantno-Bocrouno Enpont,
no conepmenno nepeantno nx anrncxnx cnanxn.
anee an-Macyn ynomnnaer nexoero cnanxncxoro npannrenx: H
nepnmn ns napen ac-caxanna napt a-anp <yxonnoro nen1pa,
uec1a naxoaennn xpaua ac-caxanna>. H y nero ontmne ropo-
a n unorouncnennme nacenennme nynx1m. H mopeoeum-+ycyuo-
+aue npuesxamm e cmouuuy eeo euaeuua c pasuuuum+u moeapa-
+u (nteneno mno M..)
58
.
Hmx +roro cnanxncxoro napx a-anp
59
mnorne yuente unrann,
xax an-np n conocrannxnn, coornercrnenno, c neronncntm npou
60
.
Hpenarannct npemx or npemenn n pyrne napnanrt ero npourennx n
oroxecrnnennx
61
. .E. Mnmnn, cnpanennno orneprnyn panee npeno-
xennte napnanrt nxnmuax n oroxecrnnenne c neronncntm npom
xax conepmenno neoocnonannte
62
, npenoxnn neanno cunrart +ro
nmx ncxaxenntm nmenem npannrenx Bonxcxo Fonrapnn Anmyma
63
, xo-
roporo nn-uanan nastnaer n cnoem counnennn uannxou ac-caxa-
nna rocyapem cnanxn
64
. Onaxo raxoe oroxecrnnenne nnuyrt
ne yenrentnee ntnnranmnxcx panee n cnpanennno orneprnyrtx
.E. Mnmnntm.
Kax noxasana neanno E.C. Ianxnna
65
, +ro nmx cnanxncxoro npann-
renx cneyer unrart n nnrepnpernponart xax <npannrent> yxonnoro
nenrpa, mecra naxoxennx xpama ac-caxanna, uro ornonr nce panee
npenaranmnecx ero oroxecrnnennx. 3ro naneno nccneonarenx na
mtcnt o rom, uro a-anp +ro onn ns npannrene anrncxnx cna-
41

nxn, xopomo nsnecrntx cnonmn xpamamn
66
. Ho +ro ena nn nepno: an-
Macyn ronopnr o rom, uro n cronnny +roro cnanxncxoro npannrenx
npntnamr ropronnt-mycyntmane c pasnnuntmn ronapamn, uro co-
nepmenno nepeantno nx npannrenx anrncxnx cnanxn. Eme onee xpac-
nopeunnt cnona an-Macyn, cxasannte nm o cocenem c a-anp cna-
nxncxom npannrene: Bcne sa +1nu napeu (sa napem a-ap
M..) ns napen ac-caxanna napt ant-Anana <anana napo>
(napt ant-Hqpana). H y nero ropoa n omnpnme nocenennn, n
necxontxo noncx, unorouncnennme. H on nomem c Py+o+ (Bn-
sanrne M..) n ant-Hqpana (]panxamn M..) n an-nyxap,
n pyrnun napoaun. H nonna ueay nnun ne1 c nepeuennmu
ycnexou (nteneno mno M..)
67
.
He nanaxct n nponemy arpnynnn +roro cnanxncxoro npannrenx
68
,
ormernm, uro noenart c Pyuou, ro ecrt Bnsanrne, npannrent anrn-
cxnx cnanxn nnxax ne mor. 3ro sacrannxer ncxart ero nnaennx re-ro
n npeenax ocxraemocrn Bnsanrnn ro ecrt n Henrpantno-Bocrou-
no nnn, cxopee, Rxno Enpone.
anee an-Macyn ronopnr o rom, uro ncne sa +1nu napeu (sa
napem ant-Ananx M..) ns napen ac-caxanna napt 1mpxon
69
(ro ecrt nenrpon
70
, xoroptx nam anrop omnouno ornocnr x cnanxnam)
n +1o1 po (rmpxon-nenrpon M..) caumn xpacnnmn nnemnnu
nnou ns ac-caxanna n caumn unorouncnennmn n caumn oec-
noconmn <c1onxnn>
71
.
3ro nanonr na mtcnt, uro nyx npetymnx cnanxncxnx npannre-
ne nao ncxart re-ro no cocecrny c nenrpamn, uro nonnocrtm corna-
cyercx c anntmn an-Macyn o rom, uro n cronnne onoro ns nnx rop-
rymr mycyntmancxne xynnt, a nropo nomer c Bnsanrne
72
.
Taxnm opasom, notroxnnax cxasannoe, mt nnnm, uro nect xon-
rexcr paccxasa an-Macyn o B.nnnana cnxsan c Henrpantno-Bocrou-
no Enpono
73
, rpannuame c Benrpne, nnaennxmn ]panxon n Bnsan-
rne. Hmenno sect, a nonce ne na Fanrncxom Homopte, n nao ncxart
B.nnnany.
Oroxecrnnenne B.nnnana an-Macyn n Wlinbb Hpaxnma Hn
Haxya nmenno c nocrounoenponecxnmn nonmnnnaun
74
npecran-
nxercx na ceronxmnn ent nanonee yenrentntm
75
. 3ro oroxe-
crnnenne nornepxaercx n ynnxantntm coomennem Fanapcxoro reo-
rpa]a anonnmnoro namxrnnxa, cosannoro, xax noxasan A.B. Hasa-
penxo, n mnacxom monacrtpe Paxenay n 70-e rr. IX n. n nepno
naxoxennx ram Me]onx co cnonmn yuennxamn, or xoroptx n tna
nonyuena, no nce nnnmocrn, ero anropom cront noponax nn]opma-
nnx o mnoxecrne cnanxncxnx (n ocnonnom) +rnononnrnuecxnx oen-
nenn n Henrpantno n Bocrouno Enpone
76
. B +rom ncrounnxe rono-
42
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
pnrcx: Cepnnanm +1o xoponenc1no c1ont [nennxo], u1o ns nero
nponsomnn nce cnannncxne napom n ney1, no nx cnonau, [cnoe]
nauano
77
.
Hanonee yenrentntm xnnxercx oxcnenne +roro nasnannx ce-
pnnanm (Zerivani) or cnan. *Ctrvjane
78
uepnxne, uro ronopnr o
rom, uro xoponencrno (regnum) +ro cneyer nomemart n paone ne-
ronncntx
79
uepnencxnx rpaon
80
ro ecrt na Bontnn
81
. Cmtcnonax
napannent oonx paccxason an-Macyn n Hpaxnma Hn Haxya c
ono cropont n Fanapcxoro reorpa]a c pyro xnnxercx nonno:
n ram n ram ronopnrcx o cymecrnonannn y cnanxn n npomnom nexoero
snaunrentnoro +rnononnrnuecxoro oennennx, or xoroporo nponcxo-
xr mnorne cnanxncxne napot
82
. A pacnonoxenne +rnx nyx napo-
on-npaponrene, xort n nasnanntx nemnoro no-pasnomy n onom pe-
rnone, enaer roxecrno nonntm
83
.
Hex o cymecrnonannn na Bontnn snaunrentnoro +rnononnrnuecxo-
ro oennennx nontnxn npecrannxercx nnonne yenrentno
84
. Tont-
xo ner ocnonann conocrannxrt ero, xax +ro sauacrym enaercx
85
, c
paccxasom Honecrn npemenntx ner o anapo-ynecxo none n cun-
rart, uro nmenno anapt coxpymnnn B.nnnany. Peut n ncrounnxax ner
o pasntx +rnononnrnuecxnx oennennxx nocrounoro cnanxncrna, cy-
mecrnonanmnx na Bontnn n pasnoe npemx. Ecnn ynecxn coms tn
coxpymen n cepenne VI n. anapamn n pacnancx, yrparnn cnoe snauenne,
ro coms nonmnnn nosnnx nosxe n npnmen xax t na cmeny ynecxo-
my comsy. Hmenno rax nornunee ncero nonnmart cnona Honecrn npe-
menntx ner
86
.
arnponart npemx cymecrnonannx +rnononnrnuecxoro comsa nont-
nxn, o xoropom ronopxr an-Macyn, Hpaxnm Hn Haxy n Fanapc-
xn reorpa], ncxox rontxo ns nx anntx, ouent cnoxno. An-Macyn
ronopnr o nem, xax o cymecrnonanmem n rnyoxo pennocrn. He co-
epxnr arnpymmnx npnsnaxon nsnecrne Fanapcxoro reorpa]a (sa
ncxnmuennem nepxne art art cocrannennx camoro ncrounnxa
70-e rr. IX n.).
Tyr na nomomt npnxonr apxeonornx, marepnant xoropo nonnocrtm
nornepxamr coomennx namnx nnctmenntx ncrounnxon (a saono n
oxastnamr npannntnocrt nmenno nontncxo arpnynnn nasnannoro n
nnx pennero cnanxncxoro +rnononnrnuecxoro oennennx): n VIII-
IX nn. ns apeana nyxn-paxonenxo xyntrypt ntenxercx px noxant-
ntx xyntryp, ns xoroptx ntpacramr xyntrypt neronncntx nonmnnn,
pennnn, peronnuen, nonnn
87
. 3ra apxeonornuecxax xaprnna, no nce
nnnmocrn, orpasnna nponecc pacnaa +rnononnrnuecxoro comsa, nos-
rnannxemoro nonmnnnaun
88
, onncannt namnmn ncrounnxamn.
43

B nnreparype ne pas ntrannct nenrn]nnnponart nnunocrt cnanxn-
cxoro xnxsx Maaxa (Maana) npannrenx B.nnnanm. Ero ntra-
nnct oroxecrnnrt c Mesamnpom
89
nnn Mycoxnem
90
cnanxncxnmn npa-
nnrenxmn VI n., nsnecrntmn no nnsanrncxnm ncrounnxam, c nontcxnm
xoponem Memxo I (960-992)
91
, c nnecxnm Memexom
92
, c nerenap-
ntm pennecepcxnm npannrenem
93
, Camo
94
, axe c Kapnom Bennxnm
95
,
n nounnennn epxant xoroporo naxonncx px cnanxncxnx +rnocon.
Onaxo raxne oroxecrnnennx esocnonarentnt: uacrt ns nnx c Camo,
Memxo I, Kapnom Bennxnm n r. . n cnny roro, uro peut n ncrounnxe,
no-nnnmomy, nce xe ner o yyme Bontncxo semne, a uacrt c
Mesamnpom, Mycoxnem n r. . eme n n cnny ornocnrentno nosnero
cymecrnonannx comsa nonmnnn, noxasannoro ntme. a n x romy xe
nce +rn oroxecrnnennx crpaamr nponsnontnocrtm: nx anropt ]ax-
rnuecxn nrnopnpymr ror ]axr, uro Maax (Maan) nasnan n ncrou-
nnxe npannrenem cnanxncxoro poa B.nnnana, n xonrexcr - paccxas
o nem, coepxamncx n ncrounnxax. Ho camo no cee cxocrno nmenn
+roro nerenapnoro npannrenx pennnx nonmnnn, cnntno ncxaxennoro
n apacxo nepeaue, c nmenamn cnanxncxnx npannrene pannero cpe-
nenexontx, sa]nxcnponanntmn n ayrenrnuntx nnsanrncxnx n nntx nc-
rounnxax (Mycoxn, Mesamnp, Memxo n r. .), ouent nmontrno. Tem
ne menee, oroxecrnnrt ero c xaxnm-nno xonxperntm nnnom, nsnecr-
ntm no pyrnm ncrounnxam, noxa ne npecrannxercx nosmoxntm
96
.
Hmontrno n annom cnyuae ro, uro sa]nxcnponannte n ncrounnxax
napannenn x nmenn Maaxa (Maana) ornocxrcx npenmymecrnenno x
cocennm c Bontntm pernonam cnanxncxoro mnpa n nornepxamr
raxnm opasom npannntnocrt nmenno nontncxo noxannsannn B.nnna-
nm an-Macyn
97
.
Hecmorpx na cno pacna n ntenenne pxa nontx +rnononnrnuec-
xnx oennenn, nontncxn +rnononnrnuecxn coms npocymecrnonan
o xonna X n. n coxpannn sa coo reremonnm na Bontnn. Hocnenn
nepno ero ncropnn n ero nxoxenne n cocran Knencxo Pycn ntxoxr
yxe sa pamxn nacroxmero nccneonannx.
Kpome yneon n nonmnnn n pernone xnnn eme n yaane, nsnecr-
nte xax ns pyccxo neronncn, rax n ns Fanapcxoro reorpa]a (buzani),
npnuem onn nasnant ram pxom c nonmnnnaun (welunzani) xax nx
cocen n conpemennnxn
98
. Ho nce nnnmocrn, yaane tnn ono ns
noxantntx cnanxncxnx +rnononnrnuecxnx rpynn na Bontnn. Cxasart o
nnx uro-ro onee onpeenennoe cnoxno.
B Fanapcxom reorpa]e nasnant n nexoropte pyrne cnanxncxne
+rnononnrnuecxne rpynnnponxn, xnnmne n pernone
99
: thafnezi (1ann-
ne), lendizi (nensnne)
100
, prissani (npncane), lucolane (nyuane) n
r..
101
Hs pyrnx ncrounnxon mt snaem raxxe o cymecrnonannn 1epe-
44
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
onnnn
102
n pyrnx neontmnx +rnononnrnuecxnx rpynnnponox cna-
nxncrna na Bontnn n n cocennx c nem pernonax
103
, no cxasart uro-
nno o nx ncropnn npaxrnuecxn nenosmoxno, x romy xe nx npnnanex-
nocrt x nontncxomy maccnny cnopnax, xorx onn mornn nxonrt n nonn-
rnuecxoe oennenne no rnanencrnom nontnxn.
Kax nnnm, +rnononnrnuecxax xapra nontncxoro pernona n npero-
cyapcrnennt nepno ero ncropnn tna ouent necrpo, n sect napx-
y c ontmnm +rnononnrnuecxnm oennennem nontncxnm comsom
cymecrnonano n mnoxecrno manentxnx cnannnnn (cxopee ncero, nxo-
nnmnx n ero cocran). Ouent nmontren n nyxaercx eme n rnyoxom
nccneonannn nonpoc o coornomennn +rnononnrnuecxo xaprt pernona
n nperocyapcrnennt nepno c nosnnxmnmn sect nnocnecrnnn ro-
poamn-rocyapcrnamn
104
.
HPHMEHAHHR
1. Btpaxam orpomnym, ncxpennmm naroapnocrt ncem rem, xro cnonmn
coneramn, sameuannxmn n marepnanamn oxasan mne nomomt n paore na +ro
crarte: A.B. Maopony (Canxr-Herepypr, Poccnx), E.C. Ianxnno (Mocxna, Poc-
cnx), H.B. Hyxnny (Mocxna, Poccnx), H.B. Boronnuy (Htnon, Vxpanna), M. Hap-
uencxomy (Kpaxon, Hontma).
2. 4pouoe H.B., eopuu:euro A. P. Iopoa-rocyapcrna penne Pycn. H.,
1988. C. 103 - 156; Maopoe A.B. Iannnxo-Bontncxax Pyct: Ouepxn connantno-
nonnrnuecxnx ornomenn n omonrontcxn nepno. Knxst, oxpe n ropocxax
omnna. CH., 2001.
3. Bo nropo nononnne X n., cnacaxct or narncxa neueneron, n Bepxnee Hone-
crponte, npnnanexanmee xopnaram, nepecenxercx uacrt ynnue n rnnepnen (Ce-
ooe B.B. Bocrounte cnanxne n VI-XIII nn. M., 1982. C. 128). Hmenno xopnart
nmecre c +rnmn nepecenennamn n cranyr ocnono nacenennx yyme Iannn-
xo semnn.
4. OBennxon Xopna1nn, +rnorenese n panne ncropnn xopnaron cm. n ]yna-
menrantno paore A.B. Maopona: Maopoe A. B. Bennxax Xopnarnx: 3rnore-
nes n pannxx ncropnx cnanxn Hpnxapnarcxoro pernona. CH., 2006.
5. Hanpenrtencxax neronnct // Honnoe copanne pyccxnx neronnce. T. I. M.,
2000. Cr. 11; Hnartencxax neronnct // Honnoe copanne pyccxnx neronnce.
T. II. M., 2001. Cr. 8.
6. Hanpenrtencxax neronnct. Cr. 12 - 13; Hnartencxax neronnct. Cr. 9.
7. H. Hnepne nepno, na nam nsrnx, ormeuaer, uro nsanmnax cnxst mexy
+rnmn nanmenonannxmn nnemen nexcna, onaxo nce onn, nnnmo, neyr cnoe
nauano or onoro ontmoro, camoro sananoro pyccxoro nnemenn, xoropoe on-
rano mexy 3anantm n Rxntm Fyrom n ncropnuecxo Bontnn (Huoep.e H.
Cnanxncxne pennocrn. M., 2000. C. 169).
45

8. Cp. c paccxasom o npnrecnennn anapamn cnanxn n Xponnxe upeerapa:
Cno pennemnx nnctmenntx nsnecrn o cnanxnax. T. II (VII-IX nn.) / Cocr.:
C.A. Hnanon, I.I. Hnranpnn, B.K. Ponnn; Orn. pe. I.I. Hnranpnn. M., 1995. C. 367.
9. Hanpenrtencxax neronnct. Cr. 11 - 12; Hnartencxax neronnct. Cr. 9. Hocne-
nne cnona +roro paccxasa, npnuem, nmenno npnmennrentno x anapam, tnn
cxasant eme n 923/924 r. Koncranrnnonontcxnm narpnapxom Hnxonaem Mncrn-
xom n nocnannn onrapcxomy napm Cnmeony (Cm.: Ieoeouoe C.A. Bapxrn n Pyct.
B 2-x uacrxx / Anrop npencnonnx, xommenrapnen, norpa]nuecxoro ouepxa
B.B. uomnn. 2-e ns. M., 2004. C. 319), uro, nnnmo, oxcnxercx rem, uro onn
nmenn xapaxrep nnecxo npnrun (Tam xe. C. 318). Onaxo, ee npnmenenne
n nyx cnyuaxx npnmennrentno nmenno x anapam nmontrno. Ono moxer cnne-
rentcrnonart o rom, uro neronncen n paccxase o anapax mor ncnontsonart n
rpeuecxne (nno mxnocnanxncxne) ncrounnxn. O rom xe cnnerentcrnyer n ero
paccxas o none anapon c nmneparopom Hpaxnnem (nmeercx n nny, cyx no
ncemy, ocaa Koncranrnnononx 626 r.). Onaxo nosnonrt x xnnxntm ncrounn-
xam paccxas o anapax n yneax nennxom ner ocnonann (cp.: Bomoeu: H.B.
Bocrounoe Hpnxapnarte C. 8). Ho-nnnmomy, on xnnxer coo ]nxcannm na-
ponoro npeannx (o rom, uro n ocnone +roro paccxasa nexnr nmenno naponoe
npeanne, ronopxr coxpannnmnecx y sanantx cnanxn npeannx o anapax, no
mnorom cxonte c neronncntm paccxasom), opaorannym n yxe cpenene-
xono opnenrnponanno na Fnnnm xnnxnocrn.
10. K.m:eecru B.O. Kypc pyccxo ncropnn. B 9 r.. T. 1. uacrt I. M., 1987.
C. 123.
11. Hmontrno, uro n n craponontcxo rpannnn anapt-opt naenxnnct
onnxom onoronntx oncropnuecxnx ncnonnnon (Hempvxuu B.B., Paeec-
ru .C. Ouepxn ncropnn napoon Poccnn n pennocrn n pannem cpenenexonte.
M., 2004. C. 178), uro ronopnr o rnyoxo pennocrn +roro opasa n o nocxoxe-
nnn ero x npemenam cymecrnonannx ennoro +rnononnrnuecxoro oennennx
yneon, uacrt xoroptx n pesyntrare anapcxoro namecrnnx nepecennnact na sa-
na n uexnm n Hontmy, o uem nnxe yer eme cxasano.
12. vpae.ee A.4. Marepnantnax xyntrypa pennnx cnanxn no anntm npac-
nanxncxo nexcnxn // Ouepxn ncropnn xyntrypt cnanxn. M., 1996. C. 143.
13. Hempvxuu B.B., Paeecru .C. Ouepxn ncropnn C. 179.
14. Bomoeu: H.B. 1) Ernorepnropiantna niocnona ]opmynannx yintnnx
xnxsincrn Bonnnctxo semni // Bonnno-Hointctxi apxeonoriuni cryi. T.1. Ham`xri
I. K. Cncmnixona. Htnin, 1998. C. 286 - 294; 2) Bocrounoe Hpnxapnarte no nropo
nononnne I rtc. n. +. Hauantnte +rant ]opmnponannx rocyapcrnennocrn //
Rossica antiqua: Hccneonannx n marepnant. 2006 / Orn. pe. A.R. nopnnuen-
xo, A.B. Maopon. CH., 2006. C. 10 - 11. Her nnxaxnx ocnonann arnponart +rn
cotrnx onee nosnnm npemenem VIII-IX nn., xax +ro enan, nanpnmep,
A.A. Baxmaron, xoropt oxastnan, uro noxo na yneon anapt conepmnnn ne
n nepno cnoero nponnxennx na sana n Hannonnm, a nanpornn nnocnecrnnn
c sanaa na nocrox ns Hannonnn no naxnmom ]panxon (Lax+amoe A.A. pen-
nemne cytt pyccxoro nnemenn. Hr., 1919. C. 20). annax rnnoresa npornnope-
unr ocroxrentcrnam ynecxo mnrpannn, meme c noc1oxa na sana, a raxxe
ncropnxo-reorpa]nuecxnm peannxm, n xoroptx naxonnnct anapt n cnanxne,
46
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
xnnmne na Bontnn n VIII-IX nn.: Bomoeu: H. B. Bocrounoe Hpnxapnarte
C. 10 - 11.
15. Niederle L. Slovanske starozitnosti. T. II. Praha, 1906. S. 369 - 370.
16. Becmoepe 4. K anannsy nocrountx ncrounnxon o Bocrouno Enpone //
Xypnan Mnnncrepcrna naponoro npocnemennx. 1908. uenpant. C. 394 - 397;
Hpecuroe A. E. Knxxoe npano penne Pycn. Hexnnn no pyccxo ncropnn.
Knencxax Pyct. M., 1993. C. 264.
17. Kuczynski S.M. Stosunki polsko-ruskiedo schylku wieku XII // Slavia
Orientalis. 1958. N 2. S. 226 - 227; Kopo.mr B.. Anapt (opt) n ynet pyccxo
neronncn // Apxeorpa]nuecxn exeronnx sa 1962 ro. M., 1963.
18. Cp.: 4pouoe H.B. K ncropnn sapoxennx Pyccxoro rocyapcrna // 4po-
uoe H.B. Hauana pyccxo ncropnn. Hspannoe. CH., 2001. C. 725. Hpnmeu. 44.
19. Conepmenno nenepoxrno, na nam nsrnx, urot +ror paccxas, nmemmn
ouennnte ueprt napono nerent, nonan n pennepyccxym neronnct, ecnn
t on npnnanexan xaxomy-ro sananocnanxncxomy nnemenn yneon. Peut
ram xnno ner o nocrounoenponecxnx yneax, xnnmnx no Fyry, re ntne ne-
ntnxne. Her ocrarountx ocnonann n nx nosneennx +roro nsnecrnx x nexoe-
my nnreparypnomy ncrounnxy: Bomoeu: H.B. Bocrounoe Hpnxapnarte C. 8.
20. Hocxmee raxxe xax n xopnart ne cnanxncxoe, a nnoxstunoe no nce
nnnmocrn, repmancxoe nasnanne (4ac+ep M. 3rnmonornuecxn cnonapt pyc-
cxoro xstxa. T. I. M., 1964. C. 551; Tpvoa:ee O.H. Pannne cnanxncxne +rnonnmt
cnnerenn mnrpannn cnanxn // Bonpoct xstxosnannx. 1974. N 6. C. 52 - 53), uro
raxxe yxastnaer na rnyoxym npacnanxncxym pennocrt ero cnoxennx.
21. O rononnmnuecxnx cneax nx mnrpannn cm.: Lowmianski H. Poszatki Polski.
Warszawa, 1962. T. I. S. 258 - 259.
22. Hanpenrtencxax neronnct. Cr. 29; Hnartencxax neronnct. Cr. 21.
23. Bomoeu: H.B. 1) Ernoreppnropiantnax niocnona C. 286 - 294; 2) Boc-
rounoe Hpnxapnarte C. 7.
24. nontsymct ero neonynnxonanntm eme nepenoom, ntnonnenntm .n.n.,
onenrom xa]ept ncropnn ]axyntrera connonornn, +xonomnxn n npana Moc-
xoncxoro nearornuecxoro rocyapcrnennoro ynnnepcnrera Eneno Cepreenno
Ianxnno, xoropax nmesno mne ero npeocrannna eme o nynnxannn. Hontsy-
xct cnyuaem, ntpaxam e sa +ro cnom rnyouamym naroapnocrt.
25. Cp.: Maepoouu B.B. Opasonanne pennepyccxoro rocyapcrna. H., 1945.
C. 86. Hocnenn napnanr nexoroptm yuentm xaxercx onee npenournrent-
ntm, rax xax nmx nx npannrenx Bana Annq (Banx Cnaq) moxno conocrannrt c
nmenem uemcxoro xoponx Bannana (nnn Bennecnna, 921-929 rr.): Muuuu .E.
Caxanna (cnanxne) n ncnamcxom mnpe n pannee cpenenexonte. M., 2002. C. 63.
B ro xe npemx nmemmaxcx n Fanapcxom reorpa]e napannent x paccxasy an-
Macyn o n.nnnana, o xoropo nnxe yer eme cxasano n xoropax arnpyercx
70-mn rr. IX n., cnnerentcrnyer ne n nontsy raxoro conocrannennx, ecnn cunrart
nn]opmannm namero anropa o n.nnnana n.nanna cnnxponno. Hnn xe +rn na
naccaxa n rexcre an-Macyn nocxoxr x pasnonpemenntm ncrounnxam. Bonpoc
o rom, o xaxnx yneax nocrouno- nnn sananocnanxncxnx ner peut n +rom
ncrounnxe, ocraercx orxptrtm.
47

26. Bapau B.. Apxeonoriuni nam`xrxn VI-VII nn. na reppnropii 3axino Bonnni
saxnnno xepeno o nnnuennx nironncnnx ynein // Vxpainctxn icropnunn
xypnan. 1969. N 4; Pvcauoea H.H. Cnanxncxne pennocrn VI-IX nn. mexy nen-
pom n 3anantm Fyrom. M., 1973; Ceooe B.B. 1) Bocrounte cnanxne C. 90 - 101;
2) pennepyccxax naponocrt: Hcropnxo-apxeonornuecxoe nccneonanne // Ce-
ooe B.B. Hspannte rpyt. M., 2005. C. 41 - 50; Kv:iuro M.M. 1) Marepnantnax
xyntrypa nacenennx mexypeutx 3ananoro Fyra n Benpa n IX-XIII nn. // Hccne-
onannx no ncropnn cnanxncxnx n anxancxnx napoon: Knencxax Pyct n ee cna-
nxncxne cocen. M., 1972; 2) Icropnuno-xyntrypnn posnnrox 3axinoro Hoyx-
xx n IX-XIV cronirrxx. Hyntx, 1993; 3) Hapncn crapoannto i cepentoniuno
icropi Bonnni. Hyntx, 1994; 4) anntopyctxe roponme Ban n Hacrnp`. Hyntx,
1996; 5) Bonnnctxa semnx X cepennn XIV cr. Hyntx, 2002; Kv:iuro M. M.,
Oxpi+euro I.B. Apxeonoriuni nam`xrxn Bonnni. Hyntx, 1995; Glosik J.
Archeologiczne badania powierchniowe w r. 1956 nad Bugem w okolicy Hrubieszowa
// Wiadomosci Archeologiczne. T. 26. 1959-1960. Z. 3 - 4. S. 320 - 321;
Cynkalowski A. Materialy do pradziejow Wolynia I Polesia Wolynskiego. Warszawa,
1961; Kuczynski S. Wschodnia granica panstwa polskiego w X wieku przed rokiem
980 // Poczatki panstwa Polskiego. T.1. Poznan, 1962. S. 233 - 251; Skrzypek J. Studia
nad pierwotnym pograniczem polsko-ruskim w rejonie Wolynia i Grdow
Czerwienskich. Warszawa, 1962; Nowakowski A. Grne Pobuze w wiekach VIII-XI.
Zagadnienia kultury. Ldz, 1972; Parczewski M. 1) Poczatki ksztaltowania sie polsko-
ruskiej rubiezy etnicznej w Karpatach. U zrdel rozpadu Slowianszczyzny na odlam
wschodni i zachodni. Krakw, 1991; 2) Poczatki sasiedztwa polsko-rusko-slowackiego
w swietle danych archeologicznych // Poczatki sasiedztwa.Pogranicze etniczne
polsko-rusko-slowackie w sredniowieczu, pod red. M. Parczewskiego i S. Czopka,
Rzeszw, 1996, Szymanski W. Posag ze Zbrucza i jego otoczenie. Lata badan, lata
watpliwosci // Przeglad Archeologiczny. T. 44. Warszawa, 1996. B +rnx xe paorax
cm. xapaxrepncrnxy apxeonornuecxo xyntrypt +roro pernona n yxasannt ne-
pno.
27. H.B. Boronnu yxastnaer, uro ecnn t n VII-X nn. n Bontncxo semne
rpnxt nponsomna cmena nacenennx, ro raxoe nsmenenne nemnnyemo namno
t orpaxenne n apxeonornuecxom marepnane. Ho nnuero noonoro narn ne
yanoct (Bomoeu: H.B. Bocrounoe Hpnxapnarte C. 7).
28. Bomoeu: H.B. Bocrounoe Hpnxapnarte C. 7, 11 - 12. Cm. raxxe: Maepo-
ouu B.B. Opasonanne pennepyccxoro rocyapcrna. C. 85-86; Pioaroe B.A. Kn-
encxax Pyct n pyccxne xnxxecrna XII-XIII nn. M., 1982. C. 236 - 237.
29. Tax nastnann +rnononnrnuecxne oennennx cnanxn nnsanrncxne anro-
pt. Cm.: Humaepuu I.I. Cnannnnn VII-IX nn. connantno-nonnrnuecxne oprann-
sannn cnanxn // Humaepuu I.I. Bnsanrnx n cnanxne. CH., 2001. O npanomepnocrn
npnmenennx +roro nanmenonannx x nocrounocnanxncxnm +rnononnrnuecxnm
oennennxm rnna pennxn, nxrnue, panmnue n r. . cm.: Iopcru A.A. Pyct:
or cnanxncxoro Paccenennx o Mocxoncxoro napcrna. M., 2004. C. 9 - 19.
30. Innoresa, cornacno xoropo nontnxne +ro nnmt nonoe nasnanne yneon
(Bapau B.. Cxnaninn ra anrn y cnirni nonnx apxeonoriunnx xepen // Hponemn
noxoxennx ra icropnunoro posnnrxy cnon`xn. 3ipnnx nayx. crar. npncn. 100-
piuum s nx napoxennx B.H. Herpona. Knin; Htnin, 1997. C. 131 - 132), npecran-
48
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
nxercx esocnonarentno. Heronncen xcno pasenxer yneon n nontnxn xax
onee pannnx n onee nosnnx nacentnnxon Bontncxo semnn (Hanpenrtencxax
neronnct. Cr. 11 - 13; Hnartencxax neronnct. Cr. 8 - 9). Fonee cnpanennntm, na
nam nsrnx, ntrnxnr npenonoxenne H.B. Boronnua, yxasannoe ntme.
31. Tax neanno nepenen nasnanne ero rpya .B. Mnxyntcxn: Aov-.-Xacau
A.u uou a.-Xvcau uou A.u a.-Macvou. 3onorte xonn n pocctnn camonneron
|Hcropnx Aacncxo nnacrnn: 749-947 rr.] / Cocrannenne, nepeno c apacxo-
ro, npnmeuannx, xommenrapnn n yxasarenn . B. Mnxyntcxoro. M., 2002.
32. Hepeno E.C. Ianxnno (cm. npnmeu. 24). Cm. raxxe: Iapraeu A.B. Cxasa-
nnx mycyntmancxnx nncarene o cnanxnax n pyccxnx. CH., 1870. C. 135 - 138;
Lewicki T. Swiat slowianski w oczach pisarzy arabskich // Slavia Antiqua. T. 2.
Poznan, 1940/1950. S. 355 - 360.
33. 3ra arnponxa xnnxercx nanonee yenrentno: Becmoepe 4. Kommenra-
pn na sanncxy Hparnma Hn-xya o cnanxnax. CH., 1903. C. 77 - 78;
Kowalski T. Relasja Ibrahima ibn Jakuba z podrozy do no krajw slowianskich w
przekazie Al-Bekrego. Krakw, 1946. S. 40-41; Widajewicz J. Studia nad relacja o
Slowianach Ibrahima ibn Jakuba. Krakw, 1946. S. 10 - 14; Koea.eecru A.H. Cnanx-
ne n nx cocen n nepno nononnne X n. no anntm ant-Macyn // Bonpoct ncro-
pnorpa]nn n ncrounnxoneennx cnanxno-repmancxnx ornomenn. M., 1973.
C. 63; Muuuu .E. Caxanna C. 36 - 37, C. 47. Hpnmeu. 23.
34. Tam xe. C. 37.
35. Kvuur A.A., Poseu B.P. Hsnecrnx an-Fexpn n pyrnx anropon o Pycn n cnanx-
nax.- CH., 1878; Lewicki T. Swiat slowianski S. 356 - 367.
36. Bomoeu: H.B. Bocrounoe Hpnxapnarte C. 9.
37. Cm. nanpnmep: Charmoy M. Relation de Masody et dautre auteurs
musulmans sur les anciens Slaves. Paris, 1832-1833. S. 84; Lowmianski H. Poszatki
Polski.T. II. Warszawa, 1964. S. 358.
38. 3ror aprymenr moxer trt napnponan sameuannem, uro y an-Macyn
cnanxncxn po B.nnnana +ro xnrenn ropoa Bonnna, xoropte roxe onxnt
tnn nastnartcx nontnxnamn (naroapm E.C. Ianxnny, yxasanmym mne na
raxym nosmoxnocrt). Ho +ro sameuanne, na nam nsrnx, nentsx npnsnart yen-
rentntm. V an-Macyn peut nce xe ner o poe, a ne o ropoe. O ropoe y nero
ner nn cnona. Mor nn on nasnart xnrene Bonnna no nmenn nx ropoa, npn +rom
nn cnona ne cxasan o ropoe? Ham +ro xaxercx ouent comnnrentntm. Comnn-
rentntm noromy, uro pyrnx noontx npnmepon, xora t an-Macyn nastnan
ro nnn nnoe cnanxncxoe nnemx no nmenn ero ropoa, ner. Kax ner n pyrnx
npnmepon roro, urot apacxne anropt nastnann cnanxncxne nnemena no
nmenam nx ropoon. Hpn +rom eme n nn cnona ne ronopx o camnx ropoax.
39. Bpemx nosnnxnonennx Bonnna n ero pasnnrne na pannnx +ranax ntstnamr
nectma npornnopeunnte cyxennx n nnreparype. O nosnnxnonennn n panne
ncropnn +roro ropoa cm.: Bollnow H. Burg und Stadt in Pommern bis zum Beginn
der Kolonisationszeit // Baltische Studien. T.38. Stettin, 1936. P. 48 - 96;
Wojciechowski Z. Polska nad Wisla i Odra w X wieku. Katowice, 1939; Kowalenko
W. 1) Staroslowianskie grody portowe na Baltyku // Przeglad Zachodni. R. 6. 1950. Z.
5 - 6. S. 378 - 419; 2) Dalsze badania nad staroslowianskimi portami na Baltyku w IX-
XIV wieku. Poznan, 1953; Szczecin i Wolin we wczesnym sredniowieczu. Wroclaw,
49

1954; Kiersnowski R. 1) Glowne momenty rozwoju srodkow wymiany na Pomorzu
wczesnofeudalnym // Wiadomosci Archeologiczne. T.23. 1956. S. 229 - 251;
2) Wczesnosredniowieczne skarby srebne z Pomorza. Warszawa, 1959;
Leciejewicz L. Poczatki nadmorskich miast na Pomorzu Zachodnim. Wroclaw, 1962;
Rozenkranz E. Poczatki i ustrj miast Pomorza Gdanskiego do schylku XIV stulecia.
Gdansk, 1962; Kostrzewski J. Pradzieje Pomorza. Wroclaw, 1966; Olczak J.,
Siuchninski K. Zrdla archeologiczne do studiow nad wczesnosredniowiecznym
osadnictwem grodowym na terenie wojewdztwa koszalinskiego. T. 1-2. Poznan,
1966-1968; Filiopwiak W. 1) Wollin (Wolin) und Kammin (Kamien Pomorski) im
frhen Mittelalter // Lbecker Kolloquium zur Stadtarchologie im Hanseraum. Bd.
I: Stand, Aufgaben und Perspektiven / hrsg. von M. Glser. Lbeck, 1997; 2) Some
aspects of the development of Wolin in the 8th-11th centuries in the light of the
results of new research // Polish Lands at the Turn of the First and the Second
Millennia / red. P. Urbanczyk. Warsaw, 2004; Dulinicz M. Uwagi o poczatkach
osrodkow handlowych na poludniowym brzegu Baltyku (VIII-IX w.) // Centrum i
Zaplecze We Wczesnosredniowiecznej Europie Srodkowej / red. S. Mozdzioch.
Wroclaw, 1999; Duczko W. Obecnosc skandynawska na Pomorzu i slowianska w
Skandynawii we wczesnym sredniowieczu // Salsa Cholbergensis: Kolobrzeg w
sredniowieczu / red. L. Leciejewicz, M. Rebkowski. Kolobrzeg, 2000.
40. H, xcrarn, ncropnx nenpeptnnoro nosntmennx Bonnna n IX-XI nn. npxmo
npornnononoxna paccxasy an-Macyn: on nnmer o pacnae pennero nonnrn-
uecxoro oennennx, a n cnyuae c Bonnnom mt nnnm ncropnm nenpeptnnoro
nosntmennx +roro ropoa, nounnxnmero cocee. Tax uro pacxoxenne mexy
ncropne pannero Bonnna n namnm ncrounnxom ceptesnoe.
41. Hoeoce.iee A.H. 1) Opasonanne pennepyccxoro rocyapcrna n nepnt
ero npannrent // pennemne rocyapcrna Bocrouno Enpont. 1998 r. Hamxrn
un.-xopp. PAH A.H. Honocentnena / Orn. pe. T. M. Kannnnna. M., 2000. C. 471;
2) Bocrounte cnanxne n opasonanne pennepyccxoro rocyapcrna // Hcropnx
Poccnn c pennemnx npemen o xonna XVII n. / Orn. pe. A.H. Caxapon,
A.H. Honocentnen. M., 2000. C 47; Boronnu H. B. Bocrounoe Hpnxapnarte
C. 9.
42. Bomoeu: H.B. Bocrounoe Hpnxapnarte C. 10.
43. Cynkalowski A. Materialy do pradziejw Wolynia i Polesie Wolynnskiego.
Warszawa, 1961. S. 179.
44. Muuuu .E. Caxanna C. 63.
45. Harkavy A. Ya. Sur un passage des Prairies dOr de Macoudi concernant
lhistoire ancienne de Slaves. St-Petersbourg, 1881. S. 9.
46. Cm. nanpnmep: Westberg F. Ibrhm Ibn Jakbs Reisebericht ber die
Slawenlnder aus dem Jahre 965. Sankt-Petersburg, 1898. S. 49; Kowalski T. Relasja
Ibrahima ibn Jakuba... S. 48, 56; Lewicki T. 1) Jeszcze o wieletach w opisie
Slowianszczyzny arabskiego pisarza X w. Al-Masudiego // Pamietnik Slowianski:
Czasopismo naukowe poswiecone slowianoznawstwu. Krakw, 1956. S. 108 - 110;
2) Obrzedy pogrzebowe poganskie Slowian // Archeologia. T. 5. 1955. S. 150; Heeu-
ru T. Manonsnecrnt sananocnanxncxn napo no onncannm an-Macyn //
Fnnxnn n Cpenn Bocrox. M., 1962; Widajewicz J. 1) Studia nad relacja... S. 18 -
21; 2) Masudi o Wieletach // Pamietnik Slowianski.T. 2. Krakw; Wroslaw, 1951.
50
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
S. 55-82; Miquel A. La Gographie humaine du monde musulman jusqua milieu du
XI-e sicle. Paris, La Haye, 1975. S. 314; Be.uc B. M. K nonpocy o xonexrypax n
o nontrxax oroxecrnnennx +rnonnmon n rononnmon n rexcrax apacxnx anro-
pon IX-XIII nn. o Bocrouno Enpone // Bocrounoe ncropnuecxoe ncrounnxonee-
nne n cnennantnte ncropnuecxne ncnnnnnnt. Btn. 1. M., 1989. C. 57 - 58;
Muuuu .E. Caxanna C. 37, 47 - 48. Hpnmeu. 25.
47. Koea.eecru A.H. 1) Ay-n-Xacan Ani an-Macyn xx nuenn // Hpani
icropnunoro ]-ry Xapxinctxoro epx. yn-ry. T. 5. Xapxin, 1957. 2) Cnanxne n nx
cocen- C. 62 - 79; Labuda G. Fragmenty dziew Slowianszczyzny zachodniej.
Poznan, 1960. S. 56; Muuuu . E. Caxanna C. 66 - 67; Bomoeu: H. B. Bocrou-
noe Hpnxapnarte C. 9 - 10.
48. Bulin H. Nmecky prinos k djinam polabskych slovanu // Vznik a pocatky
slovanu. D. 3. Praha, 1958. S. 5, 71; Schuldt E. Die Ausgrabungen im Gebiet der 2
Alten Burg vom Sukov, Kreis Teterow // Bodendenkmalpflege in Mecklenburg:
Jahrbuch 1963. Meklenburg, 1963. S. 217 - 238; Herrmann J. Siedlung. Wirtschaft
und gesellshaftliche Verhltnisse der slawischen Stmme zwischen Oder Neisse
una Elbe. Berlin, 1968. - S. 164. Enncrnennoe, uro n ncropnn nmrnue moxer trt
conocranneno c paccmarpnnaemtmn nsnecrnxmn, +ro rontxo pacna nx nne-
mennoro comsa n cepenne IX n. (cm. o nem: Die slaven in Deuncschland. Ein
Handbuch. Hrsg. J. Herrmann. Berlin, 1985. S. 8), onaxo +ro cotrne cnoxno
coornecrn c nsnecrnxmn an-Macyn n Hpaxnma Hn Haxya, rax xax onn rono-
pxr o nponcxoxennn or nasnannoro poa ac-caxanna ncex ocrantntx nx po-
on (a rax onn nastnamr cnanxncxne +rnononnrnuecxne oennennx), uro ena
nn npnmennmo x neneram-nmrnuam (cp.: Muuuu .E. Caxanna C. 66 - 67).
49. Muuuu .E. Caxanna C. 37, 67.
50. O rom ronopnr, xcrarn, n cam Hpaxnm Hn Haxy n rom mecre cnoero
rpya, re on, eccnopno, onnctnaer neneron-nmrnue (Muuuu .E. Caxanna
C. 37). Ho ero cnonam, onn (nenert-nmrnun M..) ne nmemr napx n ne nosno-
nxmr ynpannxrt coo [onomy] npannrenm, a ocymecrnnxmmnmn nnacrt cpen
nnx xnnxmrcx nx crapnt (Kowalski T. Relasja Ibrahima ibn Jakuba S. 50).
He yem ceuac nanartcx n nonpoc, xoro Hpaxnm Hn Haxy nonnman no
crapnamn (starsi nepeno T. Konantcxoro). nx nac naxno yxasanne na
xonnernantnt xapaxrep npannennx y nmrnue n orcyrcrnne y nnx cnntno
xnxxecxo nnacrn. O connantnom craryce +rnx crapnen cm. n paore:
Hvruu H.B. Hapounrte myxn n crapnt. O repmnnonornn cnanxncxo nnemen-
no snarn // Poccnx n Vmyprnx: Hcropnx n conpemennocrt. Marepnant mex-
ynapono nayuno-npaxrnuecxo xon]epennnn, nocnxmenno 450-nernm nxox-
ennx Vmyprnn n cocran Poccncxoro rocyapcrna. Hxencx, 20-22 max 2008 r. /
cocr. n om. pe. B.B. Hysanona n A.E. 3arpenna. Hxencx, 2008.
51. Tnrmap Mepseyprcxn n nauane XI n. yxastnan na ro, uro ncemn remn,
xoropte nmecre nastnamrcx nmrnuamn, nnxaxo nnacrnrent ennonnuno ne yn-
pannxn (Hiis autem omnibus, qui communiter Liutici vocantur, dominus specialiter
non presidet ullus): Thietmari Merseburgensis episcope chronicon // Monumenta
Germaniae Historica. Scriptores rerum Germanicarum. Nova Series. T. IX. B., 1935.
Hg. von R. Holtzmann. Vl. 25 (18). S. 304. Cm. raxxe: Tum+ap Mepseovpecru.
Xponnxa. B 8 xn. / Hepeno c nar. H.B. txxonona. M., 2005. C. 103. Hpnnomy
51

ncxpennmm naroapnocrt H.B. Hyxnny, yxasanmemy mne na +ro naxnoe nsnec-
rne Tnrmapa Mepseyprcxoro.
52. Kcrarn, ecnn npnsnart, uro no wlinbb, or xoroptx nponcxoxr ocrantnte
cnanxncxne napot, Hpaxnm Hn Haxy nopasymenaer neneron-nmrnue,
ro conepmenno nenonxrntm cranonnrcx, nouemy on ronopnr o nnx n pasntx
mecrax cnoero counnennx n nastnaer nx nemnoro pasntmn nmenamn.
53. Labuda G. Fragmenty dziew S. 56; Bomoeu: H.B. Bocrounoe Hpnxap-
narte C. 9.
54. Tam xe. C. 67. Cp.: Hopoau. O nponcxoxennn n exnnxx reron (Getica) /
Bcryn. crartx, nep., xommenr. E.u. Cxpxnncxo. CH., 2000. C. 67.
55. Cm. o ne: Ceooe B.B. Cnanxne: Hcropnxo-apxeonornuecxoe nccneonanne
// Ceooe B.B. Hspannte rpyt. C. 324 - 402.
56. Muuuu .E. Caxanna C. 63 - 65.
57. Hepeno E.C. Ianxnno (cm. npnmeu. 24).
58. Hepeno E.C. Ianxnno (cm. npnmeu. 24).
59. Hexoropte yuente nonarann, uro sect mt nmeem eno ne c nmenem, a c
nasnannem napoa nnn crpant. Cm. nanpnmep: Ratko P. Pramene k dejinm Velkej
Moravy. Bratislava, 1968. S. 310; Shboul A. M. H. Al-Masd and his World.
A Muslim Humanist and his Interest in non-Muslims. London, 1979. S. 185 - 186.
60. Lelewel L. La geographie du Moyen ge. T. 3. Bruxelles, 1852. S. 50;
Iapraeu A. B. Cxasannx C. 137; Dorn B. Caspia. Uber die Einfalle der alten Russen
in Tabaristan // Mmoires dt lAcademie Imprial des Sciencts de St.-Ptersbourg.
XII-e srie. T. XXIII. N 1. St.-Ptersbourg, 1875. S. XXXIII; Hauptmann L. Dolazak
hrvata // Zbornik kralja Tomislava. Zagreb, 1925. S. 106; Maepoouu B. B. Opasona-
nne pennepyccxoro rocyapcrna. C. 218; Pritsak O. The origin of Rus. Harvard,
1981. S. 142, 176; Kom.p H. 4. pennxx Pyct n Knen n neronncntx npeannxx n
nerenax. Knen, 1986. C. 54; Hoeoce.iee A.H. 1) Opasonanne pennepyccxoro
rocyapcrna C. 472; 2) Bocrounte cnanxne C. 61 - 62 n r. .
61. Charmoy M. Relation de Masoudy S. 97, Lewicki T. Panstvo wislan-
chorwatw w opisieal-Masudego // Sprawozdania Polskiej Akademii Umiejetnosci.
T. 49. 1948. S. 22 - 34; Koea.eecru A. H. Cnanxne n nx cocen C. 71.
62. Muuuu .E. Caxanna C. 68 - 69.
63. Tam xe. C. 69 - 70.
64. Knnra Axmea Hn uanana o ero nyremecrnnn na Bonry n 921-922 rr. /
Crartn, nepeno n xommenrapnn A.H. Konanencxoro. Xaptxon, 1956. C. 121 - 148.
65. Hccneonarenem nororonnen nonnt xommenrnponannt nepeno ncex
nsnecrn an-Macyn o cnanxnax n nx cocexx n Bocrouno n Henrpantno Enpo-
ne, xoropt ynnnr cner n rpertem rome exeronnxa Rossica antiqua: Hccneo-
nannx n marepnant / Orn. pe. A.R. nopnnuenxo, A.B. Maopon. CH.
66. Vcrnoe pasxcnenne E.C. Ianxnno.
67. Hepeno E.C. Ianxnno (cm. npnmeu. 24).
68. Osop ncropnorpa]nn cm.: Muuuu .E. Caxanna C. 6 9 - 70. Hs ne
yurenntx .E. Mnmnntm ormernm nosnnnm A.H. Honocentnena, xoropt npo-
unran nmx +roro cnanxncxoro npannrenx xax an-Onnanr n oroxecrnnn ero c nero-
nncntm Onerom: Hoeece.iee A.H. 1) Opasonanne pennepyccxoro rocyap-
crna C. 472; 2) Bocrounte cnanxne C. 62.
52
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
69. Hepeno E.C. Ianxnno (cm. npnmeu. 24).
70. Muuuu .E. Caxanna C. 70.
71. Hepeno E.C. Ianxnno (cm. npnmeu. 24).
72. uro xe xacaercx nmenn nepnoro ns rpex cnanxncxnx npannrene, nasnan-
ntx an-Macyn, n ero cemanrnxn a-ap <npannrent> yxonnoro nenrpa,
mecra naxoxennx xpama ac-caxanna, a raxxe cneymmero sa paccxasom o
rpex cnanxncxnx npannrenxx paccxasa o cnanxncxnx xstuecxnx xpamax, xoro-
pte conasnnrentno cnxsart c mnpoxo nsnecrntmn xpamamn anrncxnx cnanxn,
ro nx n cnere ncero ntmecxasannoro raxxe cneyer ncxart, ynt, ne n Fanrncxom
Homopte, a re-ro n Henrpantno-Bocrouno Enpone. Hanpnmep, n Hpnxapnarte,
re nocnenne nccneonannx ntxnnnn snaunrentnt cnanxncxn xyntront nenrp
c pxom snaunrentntx xpamon. Cm.: Pvcauoea H.H., Tu+ouvr B.A. stuecxne
cnxrnnnma pennnx cnanxn. M., 2007.
73. Ecnn xe nnert n nem (nnn xorx t n xaxnx-ro ero uacrxx) orpaxenne nn-
]opmannn o Fanrncxom Homopte, ro conepmenno nenosmoxno oxcnnrt ror
]axr, uro nn an-Macyn, nn xro-nno ns ero npemecrnennnxon nnn conpemen-
ntx emy anropon, a panno n anropon eme nectma onroro npemenn ne snan o
cymecrnonannn Fanrncxoro mopx n nn pasy ne ynomxnyn ero. He snann apac-
xne anropt roro npemenn n nn o xaxnx napoax, xnnmnx n paone Fanrncxoro
mopx, n noome cenepa Bocrouno Enpont: Ia.ruua E.C. 1) Tant Pyccxoro
xaranara. M., 2002. C. 72 - 81; 2) Homat Bocrouno Enpont: +rnoct, connym,
nnacrt (I rtc. n. +.). M., 2006. C. 204 - 207 n p.
74. Cm. nanpnmep: K.m:eecru B.O. Kypc pyccxo ncropnn- C. 122-124;
Westberg F. Ibrhm Ibn Jakbs S. 47; Motylinski A. de C. ChroniquedIbn
Saghrsur les imams rostemidesde Tahert // Fctes du XIV-e Congrs des orintalistes.
Alger, 1905. III partie. Paris, 1908. S. 10 - 11; Tpemiroe H.H. Bocrounocnanxncxne
nnemena. M., 1953. C. 298; Labuda G. Okres wsplnoty slowianskej w swietle
zrodel I tradycji historycznej // Slavia Antiqua. Poznan, 1948. I. S. 203-225;
4pouoe H.B. K ncropnn C. 724 - 727; Bomoeu: H.B. Bocrounoe Hpnxapna-
rte C. 8 - 11 n cn. n r. .
75. .E. Mnmnn neanno nonepr ero xpnrnxe, yxastnax na ro, uro noncx
n.nnnana na Bontnn, onaxo, naranxnnaercx na px nospaxenn. Moxno nn no-
pyunrtcx, uro n nepno nononnne X n. cnanxne Henrpantno Enpont nnn cnanx-
no-repmancxoro pernona (nmenno orrya nonyunn, no mnennm .E. Mnmnna, an-
Macyn nn]opmannm o n.nnnane M..) eme nomnnnn o cotrnxx na Bontnn
npnnnsnrentno uertpexnexono annocrn (rocnocrno yneon o npnxoa anap).
Taxoe, xoneuno, nosmoxno, no nouemy rora nasnanne napoa ntcrynaer ne n
opnrnnantno, ynorpenxnmecx rora ]opme, a n pyro, xoropax noxnnnact
nosnee, n nntx ncropnuecxnx ycnonnxx? (Muuuu .E. Caxanna C. 66). Onaxo
+rn comnennx yuenoro conepmenno esocnonarentnt n ocnonant na rom, uro
on cneyer sa pacnpocrpanenntm n ncropnorpa]nn, no nenepntm oroxecrnne-
nnem ynecxoro n nontnxncxoro comson n ornecennm nx (rounee ero) x oa-
napcxomy npemenn. Ha ene xe coms nontnxn xax pas n npnmen na cmeny yne-
cxomy, pasrpomnennomy anapamn, n cymecrnonan, xax yer noxasano nnxe, cy-
mecrnenno nosxe anapcxoro namecrnnx.
76. Hasapeuro A.B. pennxx Pyct na mexynapontx nyrxx: Mexncnnnnn-
53

napnte ouepxn xyntrypntx, roprontx, nonnrnuecxnx cnxse IX-XII nn. M., 2001.
C. 51 - 70.
77. Hasapeuro A.B. 1) Hemenxne narnnoxstunte ncrounnxn IX-XI nn. Texcrt,
nepeno, xommenrapn. M., 1993. C. 14; 2) pennxx Pyct C. 54 - 55.
78. Lehr-Splawinski T. Najstrsze nazwy plemion polskich w obych zrdlach //
Jezyk Polski. T. 41. Krakw, 1961. - S. 265; Hasapeuro A.B. Hemenxne narnnoxstu-
nte ncrounnxn C. 34 - 35. Kommenr. 40.
79. Onn ynomnnamrcx n neronncn n cnxsn c cotrnxmn xonna X nauana XI n.:
Hanpenrtencxax neronnct. Cr. 81, 150; Hnartencxax neronnct. - Cr. 69, 137.
Hosnee n +rom pernone cymecrnonana Uepeeucra se+., ynomnnaemax n Hna-
rtencxo neronncn: Hnartencxax neronnct. Cr. 746. 3ra xe neronnct nastnaer n
xnrene +ro semnn :epeu: Hnartencxax neronnct. Cr. 487. Ho nosnnxnone-
nne camnx +rnx nonxrn rounee - uaseauu, ouennno, cneyer ornocnrt x ro-
paso onee pannemy npemenn x +noxe, npemecrnonanme ]opmnponannm
ropoon-rocyapcrn, nastnanmnxcx n pennepyccxnx ncrounnxax n cnoem reppn-
ropnantno-nonnrnuecxom snauennn se+.+u. Ho nce nnnmocrn, xnnmee sect
cnanxncxoe nnemx :epeu npn nponsomeme na pyexe X XI nn. cmene
omecrnenno-nonnrnuecxoro ycrpocrna nosnnxnonennn ropoon-rocyapcrn
(4pouoe H.B., eopuu:euro A.P. Iopoa-rocyapcrna C. 39-40) - ano nasna-
nne nonomy nonnrnuecxomy oennennm, nosnnxmemy n pernone Uepeeuc-
ro se+.e. B +rom nnane cyta nmenn :epeu ananornuna cyte nmenn eo.i-
uu, xoropoe ano nasnanne Bontncxo semne. Vxpennennoe roponme n uepne-
ne nosnnxno eme n cepenne X n. (Kvsa A.B. pennepyccxne roponma X-XIII nn.
Cno apxeonornuecxnx namxrnnxon. M., 1996. C. 153), ro ecrt o nxnmuennx +rnx
sement n cocran Knencxo Pycn. 3ror ropo tn, ouennno, nenrpom :epeu,
noono romy, xax ropo Bontnt tn nenrpom eo.iuu. O uepnencxnx rpaax n
nx ncropnn cm. ntnonnennte c pasntx nosnnn nccneonannx: Houeuuoe A.B.
uepnencxne ropoa. Bapmana, 1885; Hcaeeu: .B. 1) Tepnropix i nacenennx uep-
nentcxnx rpaon (X-XIII cr.) // Vxpaincxn icropnunn sipnnx. Knin, 1971. Bnn.
1; 2) Ipat uepnencxne n Hepemtmntcxax semnx n nonnrnuecxnx nsanmoor-
nomennxx mexy nocrountmn n sanantmn cnanxnamn (xonen IX nauano
XI n.) // Hccneonannx ncropnn cnanxncxnx n anxancxnx napoon. 3noxa cpene-
nexontx. M., 1972; Poppe A. Grody Czerwienskie // Slownikstaroziytnosci
slovianskich. T. 2. Wroclav etc., 1964.; Kom.p H.4. uopmnponanne reppnropnn n
nosnnxnonenne ropoon n Iannnxo-Bontncxo Pycn IXXIII nn. Knen, 1985.
C. 24 - 33.
80. Labuda G. Okres wsplnoty slowianskej S. 203-225; Iopcru A.A. Fa-
napcxn reorpa] n +rnononnrnuecxax crpyxrypa nocrounoro cnanxncrna // pen-
nemne rocyapcrna Bocrouno Enpont. 1995 ro. M., 1997. C. 277 - 278; Kpun-
reeu: I.H. Iannntxo-Bontncxoe xnxsincrno. Htnin, 1999. C. 29, 81, 84;
Bomoeu: H.B. 1) uepn`xnn y npanxx I.Kpnn`xxennua (o nnrannx npo nouarox
epxannocri) // Vxpana: xyntrypna cnamnna, nanionantna cniomicrt, ep-
xannicrt. T. 8. Inan Kpnn`xxennu y ponnni rpanni, nayni, cycnintcrni. Htnin,
2001. C. 818 - 822; 2) Bocrounoe Hpnxapnarte C. 23.
81. Pxom c Zerivani uepnxnamn n Fanapcxom reorpa]e nasnant n co-
crnenno nontnxne Velunzani (Hasapeuro A.B. 1) Hemenxne narnnoxstunte
54
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
ncrounnxn C. 14; 2) pennxx Pyct C. 54 - 55). 3ro oxcnxercx ouent cnox-
ntm xapaxrepom crpyxrypt namxrnnxa: n nem sauacrym nnepememxy nasnant
cnanxncxne +rnononnrnuecxne oennennx pasnoro yponnx es xaxoro t ro
nn tno nx pasrpannuennx (cm. noponee n npnmeu. 90).
82. B +ro cnxsn moxno n nopxxe paoue rnnorest ntcxasart ono npeno-
noxenne: no mnennm pxa yuentx, paccxas an-Macyn o B..uuaua nocxonr x
onomy ns apacxnx anropon IX n., notnanmnx n nnsanrncxom nneny: Mycnn-
my an-xapmn nnn Xapyny Hn Haxte (Hoeoce.iee A.H. 1) Opasonanne pen-
nepyccxoro rocyapcrna C. 471 - 472; 2) Bocrounte cnanxne C. 47 - 48), ro
ecrt, n xoneunom cuere, x nnsanrncxo rpannnn. K ne xe, cyx no ncemy,
nocxonr (uepes Me]onx n ero yuennxon) n pxe cnonx uacre n Fanapcxn
reorpa]. Ho+romy nnonne nornuno onycrnrt, uro +rn npaxrnuecxn connaam-
mne naccaxn n namnx ncrounnxax xnnxmrcx orpaxennem enno nnsanrnc-
xo, n xoneunom cuere, rpannnn. Onaxo nacrannart na +rom npenonoxennn
mt ceuac ne cunraem nosmoxntm. Bonpoc rpeyer antnemero ceptesnoro
nsyuennx (rax, .E. Mnmnn, nanpnmep, cnxstnaer paccxas an-Macyn oB..uua-
ua c sanantmn ncrounnxamn: Muuuu .E. Caxanna C. 68 n cn. Onaxo ocnon-
ntm ero aprymenrom n nontsy raxoro npenonoxennx xnnxercx npenoxennoe
nm ]anracrnuecxoe oroxecrnnenne Maorra c Kapnom Bennxnm, ne nmemmee
no coo nnxaxnx ocnonann, o uem nnxe yer eme cxasano). Vxsnnmtm mec-
rom anno nepcnn xnnxercx nannune ananornunoro paccxasa eme n y Hpaxnma
Hn Haxya, xoropt uepnan nn]opmannm o cnanxnax n ocnonnom ns sanantx
ncrounnxon. Xorx mt, pasymeercx, ne moxem c ncuepntnamme rounocrtm cxa-
sart, uro on ne mor nontsonartcx remn xe ncrounnxamn, uro n an-Macyn. Bon-
poc ocraercx orxptrtm.
83. Hepnnne +ro, no nce nnnmocrn, uacrt nontnxn, nosmoxno, rocno-
crnonanmax n reuenne nexoroporo npemenn n nx +rnononnrnuecxom oenne-
nnn (Bomoeu: H. B. Bocrounoe Hpnxapnarte C. 11), nasnanne xoropo cnxsa-
no (xax n nmx uacrn xopnaron enme xopna1m) c nnerono reorpa]nuecxo ce-
manrnxo. Kpacnt nner yxastnan otuno na mxnoe pacnonoxenne roro +rno-
ca nnn nonnrnuecxoro oennennx, n nasnannn xoroporo ]nrypnponan:
Maopoe A.B. Koncranrnn Farpxnopont o nponcxoxennn n panne ncropnn
xopnaron: Bennxax Xopnarnrx n ente xopnart // Rossica antiqua: Hccneonannx
n marepnant. 2006 / Orn. pe. A.R. nopnnuenxo, A.B. Maopon. CH., 2006.
To, uro noonte uepnonnte nasnannx cnanxncxnx nnemen tnn pac-
npocrpanent n pannem cpenenexonte, nornepxaer neronnct nona yxnxnn-
na, ynomnnammero o cymecrnonannn n anmannn Uepeouuo Xopnarnn:
Luuuh 4. Heronnc nona yxxnnna. Feorpa, 1928. C. 16 - 18.
84. Cm.: K.m:eecru B. O. Kypc pyccxo ncropnn C. 122 - 124; Huoep.e H.
Cnanxncxne pennocrn. C. 169 - 170; Ipvueeciru M. C. Icrpix Vxpainn-Pycn. T. I.
Knin, 1991. C. 377; Iperoe B. . 1) Fopta Pycn sa cosanne cnoero rocyapcrna.
M.; H., 1945. C. 25 - 31; 2) Knencxax Pyct. M., 1953. C. 441 - 443; Maepoouu B.B.
Opasonanne pennepyccxoro rocyapcrna. C. 85 - 86; Tpemiroe H.H. Bocrou-
nocnanxncxne nnemena. C. 297 - 298; Ceooe B.B. Bocrounte cnanxne C. 93 - 94;
4pouoe H.B. K ncropnn sapoxennx C. 724 - 727; Ceepo.oe M.B. omonront-
cxax Pyct: Knxst n xnxxecxax nnacrt na Pycn VI nepno rpern XIII n. CH., 2003.
55

C. 92; Bomoeu: H.B. Bocrounoe Hpnxapnarte C. 8 - 12 n r. .
85. Cm. nanpnmep: Harkavy A. Travaux de la III-e Session du Congres international
des Orientalistes. T. 2. SPb., 1876. S. 335; K.m:eecru B.O. Kypc pyccxo ncro-
pnn C. 122 - 124; Marquart J. Osteuropische und ostasiatische Streifzge. Leipzig,
1903. S. 147; Bpa:eeciru M. P. Hpo erniuny npnnanexnicrt uepnxxinctxoi
xyntrypn // Apxeonorix. T. 10. Knin, 1957. C. 122 - 125 n r. .
86. Hanpenrtencxax neronnct. Cr. 11 - 13; Hnartencxax neronnct. Cr. 8 - 9.
Hpn +rom monuanne neronnce o cymecrnonannn n VIII-IX nn. snaunrentnoro
+rnononnrnuecxoro oennennx mro-nocrountx cnanxn no rnane c nontnxna-
mn, na nam nsrnx, ne moxer cnyxnrt aprymenrom n nontsy antrepnarnnntx
oroxecrnnenn B.nnnanm, rax xax nn o Bonnne, nn o nmrnuax n r. . nsnecrn,
xoropte moxno tno t nocrannrt n napannent x paccxasy an-Macyn, raxxe
ne nmeercx. A oroxecrnnenne B.uuuaum an-Macyn nmenno c nontnxnamn
nornepxaercx n napannentntm coomennem Fanapcxoro reorpa]a, n apxeo-
nornuecxnmn marepnanamn, n nce cncremo nornxn reorpa]nn cnanxncxoro
paccxasa an-Macyn, nosnonxmme ynepenno noxannsonart +ror cnanxncxn
po nmenno n Henrpantno-Bocrouno Enpone, a ne na Fanrncxom Homopte.
a n ena nn nontnxne ocoo nnrepeconann pennepyccxnx neronncnen. Cp.:
Bomoeu: H.B. Bocrounoe Hpnxapnarte C. 10.
87. Ceooe B.B. pennepyccxax naponocrt. C. 46 - 50.
88. O npnunnax opasonannx +roro comsa mt moxem nnmt oratnartcx.
B ncropnorpa]nn ormeuanoct, uro npnnecrn x oennennm pxa cnanxncxnx
nnemen n ono nenoe no rnanencrnom nontnxn morna opta c Bnsanrne nnn
c xouennnxamn. Cm. nanpnmep: K.m:eecru B.O. Kypc pyccxo ncropnn
C. 124; 4pouoe H.B. K ncropnn sapoxennx C. 726. He ocnapnnax naxnocrn nn
roro, nn pyroro, cneyer ormernrt, uro x opasonannm noontx comson nenn,
n nepnym ouepet, saxonomepnocrn nnyrpennero connantno-nonnrnuecxoro pas-
nnrnx. Tem onee, uro nnxaxax opta c Bnsanrne n +ror nepno Bontntm ne
nenact, a nocne namecrnnx anap e ne yrpoxann n xouennnxn.
89. Harkavy A. Travaux de la III-e Session S. 335; Marquart J. Osteuropische
und ostasiatische S. 147; Bpa:eeciru M.P. Hpo erniuny npnnanexnicrt
C. 122 - 125.
90. Harkavy A. Ya. Sur un passage S. 8; Niederle L. Slovanske starozitnosti.
T. IV. Praha, 1924. S. 79.
91. Charmoy M. Relation de Masoudy S. 94.
92. Becmoepe 4. Kommenrapn na sanncxy Hparnma Hn-xya o cnanxnax.
CH., 1903. C. 60.
93. Labuda G. Okres wsplnoty slowianskej S. 224 - 225.
94 Muuuu .E. Caxanna.C. 67.
95. Tam xe. C. 67-68. Taxoe oroxecrnnenne xnnxercx conepmenno ]anracrn-
uecxnm, rax xax nonnocrtm nrnopnpyer xonrexcr paccxasa an-Macyn o +rom
cnanxncxom npannrene n pacnae nosrnannxemoro nm nonnrnuecxoro oenne-
nnx, onncannoro xax nnyrpennn nponecc cnanxncxoro mnpa.
96. Cp.: Bomoeu: H.B. Bocrounoe Hpnxapnarte C. 11.
97. B ro xe npemx n nmenocnone anrncxnx cnanxn nnxaxnx noontx nmen
ne sa]nxcnponano, uro ronopnr o nenosmoxnocrn oroxecrnnennx +roro cna-
56
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
nxncxoro xnxsx c xaxnm-nno npannrenem Bonnna nnn nmrnue.
98. Hasapeuro A.B. 1) Hemenxne narnnoxstunte ncrounnxn C. 14; 2) pen-
nxx Pyct C. 55.
99. Crpyxrypa +roro namxrnnxa ouent cnoxnax n anexo eme ne xcna conpe-
menno nayxe (ee ananns c pasntx nosnnn cm. n paorax: Keltsch V. von. Der
bairische Geograph // Alpreussische Monatschr. N 23. 1886; Kralicek A. Der
sogenannte bairische Geograph und Mahren // Zeitshrift der Vereins fr die
Geschichte Mahrens und Schlesiens. T. 2. 1898; Kucharski E. Polska w zapisce
karolinskiej zwanej niewlasciwie geografem bawarskim // Pamietnik IV
powszechnego Zjazdu historykow polskich. T.1. Lww, 1925; Fritze W. Die Datierung
des Geographus Bavarus // Zeitschrift fr Slavische Philologie. Bd. 21. Heft. 2.
Berlin, 1952; Lowmianski H. 1) O pochodzeniu Geografa bawarskiego // Roczniki
historyczne. R. 20. 1951-1952; 2) O identyfykacji nazw Geografa bawarskiego //
Studia Zrdloznawcze. T. 3. 1958; Xepp+au H. Ruzzi. Forsderen liudi. Fresiti. K non-
pocy o ncropnuecxnx n +rnorpa]nuecxnx ocnonax Fanapcxoro reorpa]a (nep-
nax nononnna IX n.) // pennocrn cnanxn n Pycn: x 80-nernm axa. F.A. Ptaxona
/ Orn. pe. F.A. Tnmomyx. M., 1988; Iopcru A.A. Fanapcxn reorpa];
Ceooe B.B. pennepyccxax naponocrt. C. 63 - 65; Hasapeuro A.B. 1) Hemenxne
narnnoxstunte ncrounnxn C. 13 - 51; 2) pennxx Pyct C. 51 - 70; To+eu:vr B.
Piuxoni mnxxn n reononirnunnx sn`xsxax Henrpantno i Cxino Cnponn on Ce-
pentoniuux (sa Fanapctxnm Ieorpa]om) // Ernorenes ra pannx icropix cnon`xn:
Honi nayxoni xonnenni na snami rncxuonirt. Htnin, 2001 n r. .). anexo ne nce
nasnannte n nem +rnonnmt n nonnronnmt moxno ynepenno oroxecrnnrt c
nsnecrntmn no pyrnm ncrounnxam. Moxno nonarart, uro on sauacrym nastna-
er n ennom nepeune cnannnnn pasnoro nopxxa: nepnnunte n nropnunte (co-
croxnmne ns oennenn onee nnsxoro yponnx). Ho+romy ne nce ns nnx yaer-
cx narn n pyrnx ncrounnxax: onn ocoenno +ro ornocnrcx x Honecrn npe-
menntx ner nastnamr nnmt cnannnnn nroporo yponnx. Cp.: Ceooe B.B. pen-
nepyccxax naponocrt. C. 64 - 65.
100. Hx ynomnnaer n Koncranrnn Farpxnopont n uncne c.aeuuu, noun-
nenntx pycam (Koucmaumuu Baepuopooui. O ynpannennn nmnepne. M.,
1989. C. 45, 157), uro cnnerentcrnyer o nx npoxnnannn na nocroxe Bontncxo
semnn (o rom xe ronopnr yxasanne Koncranrnna Farpxnoponoro na nx coce-
crno c v.imuua+u (ynnuamn), oepe.euuua+u (pennxnamn) n na:uuaruma+u (ne-
ueneramn): Tam xe. C. 157. Cm. raxxe na c. 390. Kommenr. 15 (anrop: F.H. unopx)),
rax xax rontxo npn ycnonnn raxo noxannsannn onn mornn naxonrtcx n cepenne
X n. n nounnennn Pycn (Bontncxax semnx n ro npemx ee cocran eme ne nxonna).
Ho nce nnnmocrn, +ro ona ns nerne ontmoro npacnanxncxoro raxoro xe,
xax xopnart n ynet +rnononnrnuecxoro comsa nensxn (nasnanne nponcxo-
nr or omecnanxncxoro *led- (cp: leda neopaorannoe none). Heuosue
+ro, cneonarentno xnrenn neopaoranno semnn: Lehr-Splawinski T. Ledzice
Ledzanie Lachowie // Opuscula Casimiro Tymienniecki septuagenario dedicate.
Poznan, 1959), pacnanmerocx n xoe nennxoro cnanxncxoro paccenennx. Cxasart c
ynepennocrtm, npoxnnann nn nensxne Fanapcxoro reorpa]a n Koncranrnna
Farpxnoponoro, nentsx. Bnonne nosmoxno, uro onn ronopxr o pasntx rpynnn-
ponxax +roro pennero +rnononnrnuecxoro maccnna. Hexoropte yuente nonara-
nn, uro Koncranrnn Farpxnopont nastnaer nensxnamn nce nacenenne Bontn-
57

cxo semnn n nenom (c nexoroptmn pasnnunxmn: Lowmianski H. Ledzanie // Slavia
Antiqua. T 4. Poznan, 1953.; Dulebowie-Ledzianie-Chorwaci. Z zagadnien osadnictwa
plemiennego i stosunkw politycznych nad Bugiem, Sanem i Wisla w X wieku //
Przeglad Historyczny. Warszawa, 1967. R. 67, N 2), nno uro on rax nastnaer pan-
mnue (H.iuucru I.A. Kro tnn cvovivoi Koncranrnna Farpxnoponoro? //
Slavia. 1925-1926. T. IV). Onaxo +rn nocrpoennx neoocnonant (Koucmaumuu
Baepuopooui. O ynpannennn nmnepne. C. 316 - 317 . Kommenr. 20 (anropt:
F.H. unopx, B.. Herpyxnn, E.A. Mentnnxona), C. 390. Kommenr. 15 (anrop:
F.H. unopx). Cxopee ncero, Koncranrnn Farpxnopont nastnaer nensxnamn
neontmoe nocrounocnanxncxoe +rnononnrnuecxoe oennenne, npoxnnanmee
na nocroxe Bontncxo semnn n nonnacrnoe yxe n ro npemx Kneny (Bontncxax
semnx n nenom tna sanoenana Knenom, ouennno, nnmt npn Bnanmnpe).
101. Hasapeuro A. . 1) Hemenxne narnnoxstunte ncrounnxn C. 14; 2) pen-
nxx Pyct C. 55.
102. Xorx, nnpouem, +ro yxe ne Bontnt: rpannna mexy nontncxnmn nneme-
namn n xopnarcxnmn uerxo npocnexnnaercx no nooeny accenon 3ananoro
Fyra n Hpnnxrn c accenamn Cana n necrpa, n oxpncrnancxn nepno y nnx
pasnnune n mornntnnxax. Tepeooe.ue ornocnnnct x uncny xopnarcxnx nnemen.
Hpnnomy ncxpennmm naroapnocrt H.B. Boronnuy, yxasanmemy mne na +ror
nmanc.
103. Bomoeu: H.B. Bocrounoe Hpnxapnarte C. 17 - 26.
104. Onpeenennax paora n +rom nanpannennn yxe npoenana H.B. Boronn-
uem: Bomoeu: H.B. Ernorepnropiantna niocnona...


nn1epne1-uarasnn
Knnrn n nannunn:
- Vntxnon H. Hponcxoxenne yxpanncxoro cenaparnsma
- Pyccxax Iannnnx n "masennnnt"
- Cnopenxo C. Vxpanna - roxe Poccnx
- uyen C. Vxpanncxn Hernon
- Ieponcxn I. stx Hoxapnarcxo Pycn
- Apncron u. Hnreparypnoe pasnnrne Hoxapnarcxo Pycn
- Hon H. 3nnnxnonenx Hoxapnarcxo Pycn
- Xypnan Pycnn n mnoroe pyroe...
Conuec1nmn npoex1 can1on Ennan Pyct (www.edrus.org), Yxpanncxne
c1pannnm (www.ukrstor.com) n Manopyccxon naponon nc1opnuecxon
nnno1euxn (mnib.malorus.org).
Apec marasnna n Hnrepnere: http://magazin.malorus.org
e_mail: magazin@malorus.org Ten.: +7 (903) 53 44 218
Apec: Poccnx 109028 Mocxna. o nocrpeonannx.
Hpexnnrenm O3H 5 IN 1196995
Hepnt remarnuecxn xnnxnt
marasnn no yxpanncxomy nonpocy.
Btctnaem xaranor no noure n
nomoxem c npnoperennem
menxoonrontx naprn xnnr.
58
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Onexcanp MAmKIH
BIHOmEHHR YPROBHX KIA
ABCTPO YIOPmHHH
O MOCKBOmIAIB IAAHHHHH,
BYKOBHHH I 3AKAPHATTR
B POKH HEPmO CBITOBO BIHHH
Bnsnauamun cyrnicrt mixnaponoro nporncroxnnx 1914-1918 pp. xx
nonn eran oportn sa nepein panime nxe posinenoro cniry, axae-
miuno nayxa nepm sa nce mac na ynasi ry sminy xoponin ra reononirnuno
cnryani, mo icno mana micne, cxaximo, n Cnponi. Hpn ntomy, onax, n
cyrinxax ocninnntxo ynarn, na xant, sannmamrtcx ri xonxperni mero-
n peanisani nnmesasnauennx namarant, xorpi nxnnanncx epxanamn-
yuacnnxamn xon]nixry na soncim uyxnx nx nnx sa monom i peniricm
repnropixx. Oconnno x ane rnepxennx crocycrtcx rorouacnnx Fep-
nina Binx, un nonirnunn omon, rpannino nonoimun snaunnmn,
erniuno inaxmnmn no ninomennm o repmanctxo nani, anxnanamn na
Cxoi xonrnnenry, rax i ne nanunnncx nnaxarn x cnomn s rouxn sopy
nnyrpimntoro pinnonpan`x.
x niomo, 18 nnnnx 1914 p. Imneparop Bintrentm II Iorennonnepn
oronocnn cnom xpany na nictxonomy cranonnmi, a me uepes oy
soncim oronocnna nixpnrn xpecronn noxi nporn nennxoro cxino-
ro cycia
1
. 21.07. nimentxn xpecep nian manenomy ocrpiny s mopx
pocictxn nopr Hiany, npexpacno snamun npo re, mo essaxncne micro
ne smoxe nunnnrn e]exrnnnoro onopy
2
. Hanpnxinni pyroro x micxnx
nira roro x raxn poxy nouanncx nepecniynannx niannx napx Mnxonn
II nxe na eperax Peny, npnuomy mnan roi nanaxnnncx nanirt c
ontmo narnocrtm saepxart n otcxart noes camo nmneparpnnt
Mapnn ueooponnt
3
. 3axonnnmn 3 cepnnx micro Kanim y Hpnnicninctxo-
my xpa, "onecni conarn Kasepa" nnme sa nepmn rnxent nepey-
nannx ryr esnnnno cxapann na cmeprt 22 uononixn
4
. Kpim roro, n Ha-
iannnxx nnmn yno spynonano Hpanocnannn monacrnp ra xocren, n
uencroxoni norpaonano uyoiny ixony inn Mapi. A xxmo nsxrn o
ynarn mapoepcrno ancrpinin n saxonnenomy nnpoonx 17-20 cepnnx
1914 p. Kam`xnni-Hointctxomy, ro crane sposyminnm, mo ro maxonnx
penpeci, n pesyntrari xxoro, nanpnxna, oxrop Fapromennu nrparnn
xnrrx nnme sa ycnn oxip apxicnncxony Hosnanctxomy n spai cnon-
59

xnctxo ie
5
, npoonxynan posxpyuynarncx no nncxini. Haintm
onicno, snicna piu, napxmun no rax snannm nanionantnnm oxpanam
nimentxomonnoro cniry, n un xonrypn norpannnn sraynani y nasni
ano crarri saxini perionn nnnimnto Vxpann. Bipnime, no rnm is mem-
xannin x, xorpi, nonpn necnpnxrnnni sonnimni ocrannnn, npoonxynana
cnoniynarn ymxn npo Bennxy Pyct, xorpa posnxrnacx na npocropax
ni Kapnar i o Kamuarxn.
Ha nouarox XX cronirrx nixro s o]ininnx oci nxe, nenne, ne
nam`xran, mo noxaronnuena 3axina Iannunna, aminicrparnnnnm nen-
rpom xxo y cxnai Ancrpo-Vropmnnn ymonno nnaxancx Kpaxin, sanna
yna npanocnannom repnropicm, minno s`cnanom cnintnom Bipom, mo-
nom ra xyntrypom s ricm x Marip`m micr pyctxnx. H rintxn npocrn
napo, narino xnnuyun ry many Fartxinmnny cnom Hemxinmnnom, na
incrnnxrnnnomy pinni me noexyn niuynan ne rnxn noson anexo
mnnynmnnn, norepnamun sa nnacni nepexonannx ni ramremnix mox-
nonnanin.
3oxpema, nanirt sa nentmn nenonnnmn cniuennxmn nnininnx xepen,
n Kopocnxnctxomy noniri xpam n nepio s nepecnx 1914 o uepnnx
1915 p. penpeci sasnann memxanni monamenme 5 cin. Tax, n Fonapinni
yrncxin sasnan ncanommnx n nncapt Herp 3anocxn - yma mecrnoro
cxoa, crapannxmn n rpyamn xoroporo ocrannennoe semnnm nomemn-
xom nmenne tno paseneno ncxnmunrentno mexy pyccxnm nacenenn-
em
6
. V cennmi Bapinxa ni yap nonini norpannnn I. M. ra I.C. By]na-
rn (ocranni, sannmnnmn noma xnopy pyxnny uornptox ire, n xon-
nenrpaninomy raopi ni nepexnnant sa x noantmy onm nrparnn posym
sarnnyn ni xonecamn norxry), a raxox i H.Moronnnxx, nponnna xxnx
nponxrana n romy, mo nci rpoc o xinnx cnoniynann Foroponnm mo-
nnrncx no "Orue nam"
7
. Kpacna roi x nrparnna cnoro crapocry
O. nonctxoro, nncapx C. Bapxonnxa, ncanommnxa H.Bosnxxa ra xpa-
mapx H. Ias axa, npnuomy ni nmn, saapemronani es xonnx noxc-
nent, na crannnn opo nnnsn Baonnn ena ne cenannct xeprno
camocya osnepenme uepnn, nocrpexaemo xaxnm-ro ]ent]eenem
8
.
B uopno pixax, sa cnoraamn mocxno]ina Inana Mixnonctxoro, sa rparn
norpannnn xpecrtxne Mnxann Bosnxx, mnrpn, Crenan, Ipnropn
Cenuaxn n ctn nocnenero uae, a n Pinnnxy syxnanicrt ancrpict-
xnx xanapmin imna o roro, mo nonn sipnann nnnicxy s yinni sacno-
nano me 1844 p. y pocictxo mxonn, rnxent apemno nepnmcrpynann
xopecnonennim cnxmennxa ornx Herpa (Mepenn), sa unrannx ntninctxo
rasern Hpnxapnarcxax Pyct sarpnmann oro cnna ueopa, y niospi n
npnnanexnocri o mi]iunoro pyccxo-cepcxoro Kpacnoro xpecra 1912
roa saxynann y xaann cenxnnna H. Iantxo
9
.
He menm npncrono nnrnxana cymnosnicna nooa no ninomen-
nm o pisnnx nani i naponocre Hicapctxo epxann n Crpnxenct-
60
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
xomy non. Bese, re npoxnnxnact sect y nac pyccxax mtcnt, -
nimiuan, nanpnxna, onn s yuacnnxin rnx ypxnnnnx noi, - xya oxo-
nnn neuarnte pyccxne nsannx, osnonennte nensypom n axe nane-
uarannte ne na nnreparypnom xstxe, a na mecrnom rannnxo-pyccxom
ronope c coxpanennem enncrnenno ncropnuecxoro +rnmonornuecxoro
npanonncannx nese c nacrynnennem noennoro npemenn nponnxnn my-
nantna ancrpncxoro npannrentcrna n nnne rannucxoro xanapma n ns-
nnexann ns napontx macc noospenaemtx n nenaronaexnom nx
Bent opase mtmnennx. Knouox cnyuano nonanmero n om xeprnt
pyccxoro nnctma, saem na noxynxy centcxoxosxcrnennoro nnnenrapx,
nonyuennt xpecrtxnnnom n onom ns xpenrntx pyccxnx ronapnmecrn
roro xe Htnona, monnrnennax xnnxxa, naneuarannax xnpnnnnne, nce
+ro cnyxnno yontm npenorom x ecuncnenntm apecram n maccono-
my ncrpenennm pyccxoro nmenn, xonxperntmn nocnrenxmn xoero n
namem cnyuae ntcrynann armmxa Mnxann (Apremonnu) c centcxnm
crapocro H. Henuaxom ns Fnnsnxnxn, cnxmennnxn Mnxann (Cemxo) ns
Onaponxn, Mnxann (Tnepoxne) n Hnxona (Mentnnunn) ns Iopoxa n
rpoe poccncxonoanntx ns Hapcrna Hontcxoro. Ha noxsane n Crpn-
xene nce onn tnn nonapno cxonant n raxnm opasom ornpannent n
Canu, re no otxnonennm copanmnecx mecrnte xnrenn ncxuecxn
nsenannct na necuacrntmn, rpeyx or xonnox nemenenno nx xas-
nn
10
.
A oct mo niynanocx npnnnsno roi x n mexax Cxnontxo oxpyrn,
cero semni, e cnoro uacy naponncx nnarnn pocictxn icropnx ra-
nnntxoro noxoxennx .I. 3ypnntxn (1777-1862)
11
: Bo npemx apec-
ron pyccxnx nme n yese onepenntmn xomnccapamn na cyenom
ncrpnxre Ptmanon cocroxnn noe cnxmennnxon yxpanno]nnon
H. Hennnxn n B. Mnrant. Hs nnx no eny npecneonannx cnonx npo-
rnnnnxon ocoenno nonnsancx Mnrant n npnxoe cena annena, re n
ro npemx tna pyccxax unrantnx, pyxnna n xpenrnoe ronapnmecrno
Bospoxenne. Osnauennt Mnrant nmecre c xanapmamn ns cnncx
npecneonan n npeanan nemnntx emy nnn ns mecrnoro pyccxoro nace-
nennx. Kora xe nexoropoe npemx cnycrx poccncxne nocxa sanxnn
yes, yxpanno]nn Mnrant nonsan n norax y xnrenx cena Cyponnnt roc-
nonna Xypnx, ymonxx ero o sacrynnnuecrne nepe cmennnmecx nna-
crtm. 3ror +nnso onontno xapaxrepen nx nyumero nonnmannx ncn-
xonornn rex rpycnnntx n o mosra xocre ncnopuenntx nme, xoro-
pte, ne nsnpax na cno can n nospacr, npeneperax ncxxo mopantm, ne
yoxnnct sanauxart cnonx pyx parcxo xpontm nn n uem ne nonnnntx
nme n yroy ancrpncxomy nponsnony n nnuntm cenaparncrcxnm
crpemnennxm
12
. Posrpomnnmn, oxpim nctoro inmoro, me peaxnim
nopoxoro uaconncy Ionoc Hapoa
13
.
61

3a noinnm cnenapicm posropranncx noi i na Cxini Iannunni, mo
aminicrparnnno sanxn rxxina o sacnonanoro panime 1256 p. xnxsem
annnom Pomanonnuem nasnanoro nnm na uecrt nnacnoro cnna micra
Htnona
14
. Pyccxoro napoa sect, - nocrino nixpecnmnan na sacian-
nxx Cemy 1909 p. ancrpo-yropctxn namicnnx xoponincrna Hoomepix
npo]ecop Fopxnnctxn, mamun, nenne, na ynasi re, mo samicrt nasnn
"Htnin" rpea nnmonnxrn un ro "Heonontmrar", a moxe uncro "yx-
panctxe" "Hemepr", - ner, nnxora ne tno n ne yer
15
. Henne, ne
es yuacri ntoro x raxn ixua npnnnsno roi x mocxno]intctxa Pyc-
cxax Haponax Haprnx posxononacx na rax snannx crapoxypcnnxin,
xxi, spixmnct ieanin nnacno monoocri, saxnnnn npo cnom noxntnicrt
nnacri Iacyprin ra yxpanctxomy nanionanismoni, npniunnxin no-
noro nanpxmxy na uoni s mpncrom, nnnycxnnxom Incpyxctxoro (Ancr-
pix) yninepcnrery . Mapxonnm ra B. ynxennuem
16
. Came ocranni,
mamun nepenary n yxe sraynannx nnme noxexno-rimnacrnunnx Pyc-
cxnx pyxnnax, cepe xepinnoro cxnay cintctxnx unranent npo-
cnirnnntxoro Tonapncrna imeni M. Kauxonctxoro, n 106 xooneparnnax
Pyccxoro Pennsnonnoro Comsa, y nnannnuomy nenrpi Iannnxo-Pyc-
cxax Marnna, Cranponiriantnomy Incrnryri ra ntninctxomy Hapono-
my omi, npoonxynann nnepry oporty, cnnpamunct na rpanni poc-
ictxoro nennxoepxannoro moninismy
17
. 3 ycima nayrnmn uepes ne
ocxrnennxmn (rax, y 1913 p., na ocrannix nepe Bennxom ninom nno-
pax y rannntxn Cem ra sarantnoimnepctxn Pexcpar, nonn, nirpn-
manmn racno o neoxonmocrn nepexoa xpax n Pyccxoe Hpanocna-
nne onamun uncentni nepenonn s oxy ononenrin, orpnmann ninoni-
no 1 i 2 enyrarctxnx manarn)
18
, yrncxamn nponemamn.
ocremenno niomo, mo 18-19 cepnnx 1914 p. pocictxe xomanynan-
nx cnnamn cnoro Hinenno-3axinoro ]ponry nnanynano posnouarn rpan-
iosnn nacryn, mamun na meri ne nnme nocnpenxrcrnonart orxoy
snaunrentntx cnn npornnnnxa na mr, sa necrp, no n na sana, x Kpaxo-
ny
19
. H, snicna piu, ancrpictxn Ienepantnn Bra, namaramunct npo-
rncroxrn ntomy, man npano na ooponni xonrpsaxon. 3 onicm, npore,
ymonom an xomannpn (o namonomoro o]inepa nxnmuno) ni 2 ra
3- x apmi, xorpi crpnmynann cynpornnnnxa n nanpxmxy Htnin-Iannu,
ani nauantnnx ninonino rpynn nictx Kenec ne ixnn nacrintxn es-
ninoniantno ra xopcroxo nepm sa nce cynporn nnacnnx cninniruns-
nnxin. Ha nirnepxennx x ntoro nentmn cymnoro nncnonxy osnonnmo
coi nanecrn exintxa xpecromarinnx npnxnain.
Bxe 8.08. Iannntxe namicnnnrno, a me uepes rnxent i Hauantna
xomana Htnona onynixynann posnopxxennx npo npenenrnnni (cero
sanoixni esoxasoni O.M.) apemrn nonirnuno-niospinnx mocx-
no]inin ra nanpannennx x y micneny n`xsnnnm
20
. 3a nxasinxy xanap-
62
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
mam, - nncan emo nisnime n raseri "Pyccxoe Cnono" Birani Aycnanep,
- na pocictxoro narpiora nictxona ancrpictxa xomenarypa cnnauy-
nana onomnxoni ni 50 o 500 xpon
21
. Hsarenn n anropt, - net
uyrno onirac o nac, nnnimnix yxe nxe nanionantno opicnronannx,
ronoc inmoro xepena, - ocmennnmnecx rora neuarart n Ancrpo-Ben-
rpnn marepnant o Poccnn, nonepramrcx cypontm xapam, nnnort o
cocrannxmme nencxoe nsoperenne "rxxeno rmptmt c xneom n no-
o" n rax nastnaemoro "remnoro xapnepa" - yupexenn, no cpanne-
nnm c xoroptmn "yxact pyccxnx xasemaron" noxaxyrcx ecnn ne sem-
ntm paem, ro no ncxxom cnyuae nectma cnocno xapo
22
. Onax un
ne naintmom sanonannnicrm n anomy nnani nisnauancx, nenne, nce
x raxn xomenanr Hepemnmntctxo ]opreni, uex sa nanionantnicrm,
renepan-]entmapman Iepman Kycmanex (1860-1934).
xmo y nnipenomy meni nonem Horo Bennunocri micri, - penerynan y
xonrni 1914 p. ro, xro rpoxn sroom cam neorpynronano san ne no-
ryxnn crpareriunn nynxr noporoni yn niann sa ne ni cy nictxo-
noro rpnynany, - sannmnrtcx xoua onn pycnn, ro x ne necy ninoni-
antnocri sa naxnni yxpinnennx
23
. Cnponoxonani noinoro poy es-
rnysom saxnom, ninerni namoro repox, ane panrom rpoxn nnxue, na-
nncx o manennx penpeci nporn ropoxn, xeprnom xxnx, nanpnxna,
15 nepecnx 1914 p. rintxn sa nin ronnn ni manmxamn nantxonannx
nontctxo-cnpectxom mpom maxpctxnx ronnein nnano 40 (sa inmom
nepcicm 49 O.M.) npecrannnxin pocictxoro cenxncrna ra inreni-
renni
24
. Bo, sasnaunmo ni cee, ne sananno rpoxn nisnime ypxoni
ononneno nxe Vropmnnn nocrannrn nnm xaram n Fyanemri, na nnomi
Fema, oenicx s ponsn y nnrnxi nena s nanncom: "Hepemnmnt, 1914-
1915. Ha uecrt cnanno nam`xri namnx parin, repouno nonernnx n He-
pemnmntctxi ]opreni xonern", rpomactxicrt micra snenn 1932 poxy.
Foponncx xx nenn y noporax Fartxinmnnn. Hexa x nonnr ye niunnm
25
.
Hopyu is raxnm nmsnipcrnom nanirt ronapnm Cranin, xxnm oci nx-
xamrt ire y emoxparnuni Cnponi, m`xxo xaxyun, ninounnac!
He xpame nonoxennx cxnaanocx nanxono nnmesasnauenoro nace-
nenoro nynxry. Hami nictxa, - noryc onn s nicapctxnx noxxin, xxomy,
sacrtcx, nanocx macnnno ynnxnyrn xopcroxoro (mornn, nanpnxna,
es nnpoxy ninimennm rpnmarn na ni nporxrom monamenme on
O.M.) noxapannx "sa esin]opmanim cycnintno ymxn", - ni rncxom
pocixn nicrynamrt. Hamnnxypyu sminmmrtcx yxpinnennx. Bnxopuo-
nymrt nicn cnanmmrt cena. Txxxe npaxennx cnpannnn na nac posra-
monani nenoanix ni micra nanamui cena Hononnui, Xinonnui, Hnxin,
posonnui. Hina oxonnnx sarxrnyra nornem i nmom. Hepionuno nyna-
mrt nnyxn: ro n nonirpx nerxrt myponani ynnxn pocictxi nepxnn,
xxnx n oxonnnxx Hepemnmnx c araro (xaxyrt, syonani na pocictxi
63

rpomi). x mamrt sa opicnrnpn aprnnepncrn, romy x nci rpea snnmn-
rn
26
. Komy is semnepoin noranannno, ro, napasnnmnct na noaxan-
nx ancrpictxnx o]inepin rnny: 3anparect xyn sanrono, an noani
ni ]opreni, imon na npnnerni xyropn iynarn ra ouexanmnct, na-
pemri, nenpnxrenx, sneprarncx o ntoro no onomory, ocxintxn pocixnn
oxoue anann is nnacnnx nictxonnx marasnnin xapui
27
. Fintm nemacni
(soxpema, y Fintnini ra Hnronnxx) nrpauann oexy, nnacni peui, npnxpa-
cn, conomy, cino, omxn, sixxx, xyoy, arponomiuni snapxx mamn-
nn
28
. Pemra x...
18 xonrnx 1914 p. y ceni Cnntonoctxe Crpnctxoro noniry 11 xn-
renin npocro rax, nn sa uro, nn npo uro, tnn nonement npoxonnmn-
mn mnmo nenrpamn
29
. Hpnnnsno roi x nnnaxn noinoro poy nan-
anismy mann micne n Cyoni-Bemni, Cxopnxy, Kanarapinni na Tepnon-
intmnni, Onpnmnnnxx, Fyunni, Hentxax, Haroinni ni Fpoamn, romo.
Hpn nininnax Tnymauctxoro non. Cranicnaninctxo ry., - ononiann
nauantcrny cninpoirnnxn xanapmctxoro ynpanninnx Tnmuaconoro re-
nepan-ryepnaropa Iannunnn Kononenxo Foronmon, - mn aunnn, xx
ancrpini s naxxnx rapmar nmenr spynynann cena Ipymxo-Ipnninni ra
Koninni
30
. A ynrep-o]inep pocictxnx cnencnyx uypman cxnan nanirt
snir npo ne na xintxox apxymax, n xxomy, mix inmnm, unracmo: B micreuxy
Hicent sa pyco]intcrno saapemronano nira, 62-piunoro nonxxa na
Maxenctxoro. V ceni Crapo- Hicent crpaueno pycnna Inana 3annna sa
re, mo nin pasom is nnacnom xnynem cnannn nanxrt n`xrt nopoxnx
rycapin pasom s x xintmn. A cycinc s nnm ceno Pycnnnx nrparnno cnoro
ronony, xorporo nonicnnn sa cnpnxnnx namnm sponnm cnnam. Onax
nepe rnm, xx snnmnrn ntoro uononixa, s ycix oxin yno ninaneno oro
macrnicrt, mo nona na nnacni oci aunna, xx noront nannmxnrt naa-
ne naxxom npanem opo. Ta nxe nanirt nnnmn, npoonxynann sny-
marncx na meprnnm rinom, posnannnmn ni nnm narpy sannmn n
pora rpynoni nmntxy
31
. Ox ne apemno, nenne, nonepexann nxe roi
mayrni ini sonoronoronnnxn cnox ninernnx: He nonaarect,
parnt, n nnen x ancrpnnam, no onn cymne snepn: moryr n rnasa
ntxonort, n ymn opesart!
32
. Cyuacna x yxpano]intctxa icropiorpa-
]ix noxmypo xoncrarynana: rintxn nouarxonomy nepioi Bennxo ninn
noxxn Tpocroro Comsy snnmnnn na Iannunni o 36 rncxu pycnnctxo ra
pocictxomonno nmnocri, n romy uncni nennuesny xintxicrt xinox,
ire, ninirxin
33
.
Moxyrt sannrarn: Henxe, nanirt nicnx roro, xx na nnacny Ionro]y
simna raxa nennuesna xintxicrt nepeciunnx rpomaxn, a Monox nsacm-
no arpecnnnocri nouan sarxrynarn o xaxnnno esoni nxe nemon-
nxr, nixro ne ninxn nnacnoro ronocy na saxncr esnnnnnx xeprn?
Binonit npocra: i cnpo y ntomy nnani ionnx sicneno ne yno
64
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
nannaxn, ri, xomy ne nnunno xoua sa nanionantnom npnnanexnicrm,
uacro-rycro npocro mronxann cno xeprnn y npipny.
3oxpema, 27 xonrnx 1914 p. npnponn yxpanent ra manonnn eny-
rar ni xpam n micnenomy Cemi H. Herentctxn onpnnmnnn memo-
panym ni ocnrt npnnannnom nx neoisnannx nasnom Hpana npo
spay n Cxini Iannunni, e ninepro nasnan ycix es nnxnmuennx
mocxno]inin noporamn napoy
34
. Vxpano]in C. Fapan, ronopxun roi x
npo xonnenrpaninn raip Tanepro] n Ancrpictxnx Antnax, nixpec-
nmnan, mo intmicrt s inrepnonannx o ntoro 4800 oci (nn]pa nanirt
xx na ro uac snauno npnmenmena O.M.) nepeynamrt ram cnpane-
nnno orpynronano. Konn x xonro-naxnrna rasera ino n rpyne-
nnx roro x raxn poxy nomepax cnox nouana nncarn npo ne micne cxop-
orn i snymannx, arartom nanirt y crani ononenrin sanocx, mo oct,
napemri sa ncix npnrniuennx ra cxpnnxennx npomonneno ryune, pimy-
ue cnono. apemne peaxnim nixannnn nnme cno, , ymimymun na
mnantra nixonrpontnoro nnannx crarri npo snintnennx nnaom is
apemnnx ropryp namnx parin, ocninymun nnamixy ntoro nponecy
(77 oci onnnnnocx na cnooi o 7.11., me 110 o 12 rpynx 1914 p., a
nctoro 190 uononix)
35
, nonn rnm camnm onosnauno saxnnnn (Ho cno-
no, ronopnrt napo, - ne nopoe, ntnernr ne nomaemt, rem onee
cnono neuarnoe!), mo onx inmnx 4600 npoxnxrnx xananin, xorpi
npoonxynann cxnirn na ripctxomy aepopomi ni cocnamn, x soncim
ne oxonrt. Tax camo, xx i esnexa rnx cynpornnnnxin, xro naen yn
sa npany Foxy naxnaarn nnacnnm xnrrxm.
21 uepnnx 2 cepnnx 1915 p. n nnisinomy nictxonomy rpnynani
Binx posnouancx nponec na unenamn mocxno]intctxoro Haponoro
Conera. Ha nani nicynnx onnnnnncx enyrarn . Mapxon i B. Kypn-
nonnu, anoxarn I. paromnpentxn ra K. uapnanuaxennu, xopecnon-
enr rasern Honoe Bpemx . nuenentxn, xonant I. Myntxennu, ce-
nxnnn T. txxin. Bcix x aconmrno esoxasono nnsnann npnnanexnn-
mn o xepinnnnrna racmno opranisani, mo mana na meri npncnarn Ia-
nnunny, Fyxonnny i Hinniuno-3axiny Vropmnny o Poci i sacynnn o
cmeprno xapn. Ipamun n monapme mnnocepx, Imneparop upann-Ho-
cnn (1848-1916) saminnn crpary oniunnm yn`xsnennxm
36
. Ha ntomy mox-
na yno nocrannrn xpanxy, onax...
3nauno intme, anix nnpox roro onynoro mpnnunoro sipannx, xorpe
ne nncrauac cnin nasnarn cyom, anropa nnx pxxin xnnnmc xomenrap
cnryani s oxy oxpemnx neynepexennx ocninnxin nisnimnx uacin.
Tax, n oni s xnnxox, mo noaunna cnir nxe y 1999 p., uopnnm no ino-
my crort: un yn ro ronxo posirpann nonirnunn cnexraxnt? Bnnme
nctoro, mo rax, axe norpino yno n xxict ]opmi noxasarn rymanism
Iacypstxo epxann, xorpa nanirt nineprnm snounnnxm ac manc na
65

nnnpannennx
37
. Oct rax, ne cino , ni nnano, crort: ninepri snounnni
npniunnxn pocictxo epxann (n ocranntomy cnonocnonyuenni no-
nnicrm sepiracmo op]orpa]im anropa. O.M.) npnmann yuacrt y
nonirnunomy cnexraxni! A s inmoro oxy, uomy nnynarncx, xxmo ex-
intxa cropinox sasnauenn nentmnmanonnn ocninnx ra me cnyxau
nnnomarnuno Axaemi M3C Vxpann, samicrt ninoninoro o reono-
nirnuno cnryani ric anexo enoxn repminy Hpnnncnnncxn xpa sna-
xonmo raxn ne soncim sposyminn anaxponism, xx Koponincrno
Hontctxe
38
. Brim, roi npo croponni pinnni snepnemocx o no-
antmoro nnxnay namiueno remn.
B cenepo-nocrounom yrny Benrpnn, - rnepnna intmicrt nirunsnx-
nnx ernorpa]in pyro nononnnn XIX cr., - no mxntm orporam Kapnar,
yxe c annnx nop xnnyr pyccxne ro xe napono nernn, uro n pyccxne
rannuane. C mro-sananoro xe xonna cpennnoro Kapnarcxoro xpera,
nenocpecrnenno n camo Cenepno Benrpnn, pyccxoe nacenenne nourn
nenocpecrnenno ynnpaercx n ncnonnncxne yrect Tarp, sannmax rep-
pnropnm c sanaa na nocrox or rpannn Cemnrpatx n Fyxonnnt
39
.
Maxe npo re came y 1915 p. nncan i nienctxn axaemix rnu: B
Hpnxapnarcxo Pycn yxpanno]nntcxax repmnnonornx, panno xax n nce
yxpanncxoe nnxenne, xnnxmrcx uyxtmn pacrennxmn, nsnne sanecen-
ntmn npoyxramn nopaxannx. O nceomem ynorpenennn nmenn yx-
pannen n anntx, sacenenntx pycnnamn onacrxx Ancrpnn ne moxer
trt n peun; axe rocnoa, crpacrno xenammne +roro, ne n cocroxnnn
yrnepxart oparnoro es pncxa trt nsonnuenntmn n snocrntx npe-
ynennuennxx
40
. Onax nci ni xonnenni nonaxnnx nuennx sanxn irnopy-
nanncx ycima es nnxnmuennx nonirnxamn, nounnamun s rpa]a uexeni,
xorpn y 1830 p.. nexrymun noyrom 500 rncxu yrpo-pycnn, ao x pyc-
naxin, saxnnn: Pyccxo Vropmnnt ner n trt ne moxer
41
i saxinuym-
un nponinninom maxpctxom aminicrpanicm nocnnoro nepioy.
Kax rontxo crano nsnecrno o crpemnrentnom nacrynnennn Pyccxo
apmnn, - xoncrarynann anropn onoro s emirpanrctxnx sipnnxin, - nenr-
pt opymnnn na npnnanexanmee nm rora 3axapnarte mxnan xecro-
uamnx penpeccn. Hme rpannn, cronxnn c nexamn nacnxenntx mecr,
nenoxopntx ynnann. Hono nx ncex +rnx esopasn ncera ntc-
rannxncx onn n ror xe: "Bosmoxno, cma cxopo n npnyr pyccxne, no
xnntmn nnxro ns nac nx ne oxercx!" Cxontxo xponn n cnes mecrntx
xnrene nponnnoct rora, onomy Fory nsnecrno!
42
.
Ananoriuna cnryanix cnocrepiranacx na repenax Fyxonnnn rnyxo-
ro, satroro nnnnnnsanne xpax, orxya n necrn ne nponnxann nopo n
mnpoxn mnp
43
. Bxe y 1911-1912 pp. nepecniynannx mocxno]inin ryr
ocxrno raxoro pinnx, mo, nanpnxna, ni pocictxnx orocnonin, xxi sax-
inuynann micneny ceminapim, nnmarann nnctmonoro soon`xsannx nacryn-
66
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
noro smicry: 3axnnxm, uro orpexamct or cnoe pyccxo naponocrn,
uro orntne ne yy nastnart cex pyccxnm, nnmt yxpannnem n rontxo
yxpannnem
44
. Tnm xe, xro ne noroxynancx na noinoro poy pyni
npannna rpn, sannmanocx, na orpnmanmn napa]i, uexarn un ro ro-
nono cmepri, ao x nonnx, ananoriunoro rnny, nnpnxin nnan. Korpi,
o peui, ne npnmycnnn cee onro uexarn, no ram, re rpemxr nymxn,
mpncrt monuar.
13 nepecnx 1914 p. xpaonn npesnenr Fyxonnnn P. Mepan nnan
Oronomennx, un smicr osnonxn paonnnm xomenanram crpinxrn
na micri ncix, xro ye saniospenn y spai ao inmnx nopoxnx nx ep-
xann nunnxax
45
. 3nicna piu, ni npec raxo nmenr rymanno i emoxpa-
rnuno nocranonn norpannnn nepm sa nce ri, xoro moxna yno npnrxrrn
o ninoniantnocri came sa mocxno]intctxi cnmnari. Hanpnxna, sa
cniuennxmn anoxara T. Ianina, ronnenn oronocnnn spannxamn a-
rartox ramremnix rynynin, nipnnamun s oxnrnx micnnn ninpannxm-
un nrnn Vropmnnn, ni cnntnom naprom, s naxamn ra nonrrxmn, ire,
xinox, sropnennx cnnonycnx iin
46
. V Bnxnni (ciuent 1915 p.)
ancrpictxi xanapmn nnnn nox cenxn, nanirt nicnx roro, xonn onn s
nnx noniomnn, mo n ntoro noma sannmnnocx mecrepo ire, n onomy
is cin nenoanix ni sasnauenoro micra naxmicrp Haxinrep, naxasanmn
cnannrn sasnauenn nacenenn nynxr, nonicnn 41 semnepoa, a y Innoni
oep-nerenanr upanc sinxn na rinnxxy 5-x onnarenin ra manoro
xnonunxa
47
. 3ycrpiuanncx raxox nnnaxn, xonn posparonani nenaua-
mn na ]ponri conarn cnanmnann ynnxn s saunnennmn n nnx xinxamn
ra irtmn
48
. Koppecnonenr Rxno Konexn rax onnctnaer ent
yxac, oxnarnnmn yxonnncxoe nacenenne npn nsnecrnn o nropnunom
nacrynnennn ancrpnnen: B onom ns mecreuex 20 matxp nopnannct
n xary x onnoxo crapyxn n na rnasax y marepn nsnacnnonann, a norom
n ynnn ee ouepe. B cocenem ome, re npoxnnan nepnemn na
ncm oxpyry orare, nx cocnyxnnnt rora xe sacrannnn xosxnna sape-
sart ncex 4-x cnonx ere. Onn paccxas cneonan sa pyrnm, n coep-
xanne nx tno xoporxo n necnoxno: "Honecnnn. Paccrpenxnn. Cxnrann
nmymecrno npocro nx ocrpacrxn. Hacnnonann pyccxnx xenmnn n e-
nymex. Hcrxsann n ynnann ere"
49
.
Orxe, crannennx nocaonnin Ancrpo-Vropmnnn o ric uacrnnn xn-
renin Iannunnn, Fyxonnnn i 3axapnarrx, xorpi n ri un inmi mipi cxnnx-
nnct o mocxno]intcrna, nisnauanncx pa]inonanom xopcroxicrm, xor-
pa, xx npannno, anexo nnxonna nanirt sa pamxn nnmor nocnnoro uacy.
67

AITEPATYPA TA EPEAA
1. Bennxax Bona n opasax n xaprnnax. Ho pe. H. Hasapencxoro. B 14-rn
ntnycxax. Btn. 1. M., 1914. C. 18.
2. Tam camo. C. 19.
3. Tam camo. C. 19 - 20.
4. Bennxax Bona n opasax n xaprnnax. Ho pe. H. Hasapencxoro. Btn. 2. M.,
1915. C. 16.
5. Tam camo. C. 20.
6. Tanepro]cxn antmanax. Hponamxrnax xnnra ancrpncxnx xecroxocre, nsy-
nepcrn n nacnnn na xapnaropyccxnm napoom no npemx ncemnpno noni 1914-
1917 roon. B 4-x ntnycxax. Btn. 2. Htnon, 1925. C. 35.
7. Tam camo. C. 35 - 36.
8. Tam camo. C.6 - 37.
9. Tam camo. C. 7 - 38.
10. Tam camo. C.9.
11. Mann cnonnnx icropi Vxpann. K., 1997. C. 68.
12. Tanepro]cxn antmanax. Hponamxrnax xnnra ancrpncxnx xecroxocre,
nsynepcrn n nacnnn na xapnaropyccxnm napoom no npemx ncemnpno noni
1914-1917 roon. B 4-x ntnycxax. Btn. 2. C.39 - 40.
13. Tam camo. C. 40.
14. Mann cnonnnx icropi Vxpann. K., 1997. C. 242 - 243.
15. e-Bumme E.H. Ancrpo-Benrpnx n ee cnanxncxne napot. Bamopnno,
1912. C. 71 - 72.
16. Honur C. Vxpanni n Ancrpi 1914-1918 poxin. Ancrpictxa nonirnxa n yxpa-
nctxomy nnranni nepioy Bennxo ninn. K., uepninni, 1999. C. 33.
17. Tam camo. C. 37, 39.
18. Tam camo. C. 39 - 40.
19. Copnnx oxymenron mnpono nmnepnanncrnuecxo noni na pyccxom
]ponre (1914-1917 rr. Manenpennt nepno 1914. Bocrouno-npyccxax onepa-
nnx. M., 1939. C.29; Beprxoecru .B., Hxoe B.4. Hepnax mnponax nona 1914-
1918 rr. Boenno-ncropnuecxn ouepx. M., 1964. C. 74 - 75.
20. Honur C. Bxas. npanx. C. 85.
21. Tam camo. - C. 85 - 86.
22. 3e+u: A. Pasen Ancrpnn. u. 1. Hayrnna ancrpncxoro pacrna. K., 1914.
C. 11 - 12.
23. Honur C.Bxas. npanx. C. 82.
24. Tam camo. C. 90; Bir . Cnoran s moro nepeynannx y Hepemnmni ni uac
pocictxo onorn 1914-1915 poxin. Hepexna I.Carana. Htnin, 2003. C. 41.
25. Bir . Bxas. npanx. C. 42.
26. Tam camo. C. 12.
27. Tam camo. C. 21.
28. Tam camo. C. 12 - 13, 20.
29. Honur C. Bxas. npanx. C. 90.
30. HIAK Vxpann. u. 365. On. 1. Cnp. 186. Apx. 6 - 6 sn.
31. Tam camo. Cnp. 186. Apx.7 - 7 - sn.
68
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
32. Bim B. Bxas. npanx. C. 17.
33. Honur C. Bxas. npanx. C. 90.
34. Tam camo. C. 88.
35. Tam camo. C. 87.
36. Tam camo. C. 96.
37. Tam camo. C. 97.
38. Tam camo. C. 109.
39. e-Bumme E.H. Bxas. npanx. C. 54 - 55.
40. Bvmeuro H. uro onxen snart xaxt o yxpannnax. Mmnxen, 1948.
C. 14.
41. e-Bumme E.H. Bxas. npanx. C. 71 - 72.
42. Pyccxoe 3axapnarte: nuepa, ceronx, sanrpa. Fenrpa, 1936. C. 42-43.
43. V.iuoe H.H. Hponcxoxenne yxpanncxoro cenaparnsma. M., 1996. C. 204.
44. Leeo.ee C.H. Vxpanncxoe nnxenne xax conpemennt +ran mxnopyccxo-
ro cenaparnsma. K., 1912. C. 477.
45. Honur C. Bxas. npanx. C. 91.
46. Tam camo. C. 90.
47. Tam camo. C. 91.
48. Tam camo. C. 90.
49. Tanepro]cxn antmanax. Hponamxrnax xnnra ancrpncxnx xecroxocre,
nsynepcrn n nacnnn na xapnaropyccxnm napoom no npemx ncemnpno noni
1914-1917 roon. B 4-x ntnycxax. Btn. 2. Htnon, 1925. C. 60 - 62.
50. Tam camo. C. 93.
Ennan PYCL
http://www.edrus.org
Car cosan n 1999 r. nx npornnocroxnnx cranme
o]nnnantno nannonanncrnuecxo nepcnn ncropnn na
Vxpanne. Coepxnr marepnant no ncropnn yxpanncxoro
pacxona, cosannx ncxyccrnenno "mont" n ronenn na
omepyccxn xstx, pasmtmnennx o xyntrype n reononnrnxe,
anannrnuecxne crartn n apxnnnte oxymenrt.
Ha care moxno narn xnaccnxy nonemnxn c
yxpanno]nnamn (H. Vntxnon, H. Bonxoncxn, xnxst
Tpyenxo n p.) n conpemenntx xpnrnxon yxpanncxo nen
(C. Cnopenxo).
69

Cepren CYARK
TAAEPIOm H TEPE3HH:
3ABLTLH IEHOHH*
Bnn Iannua ctnt n uyxnny,
Hpennnntmn pxamn mnn
H rpycrt n xryuym xpyunny
Pontx Kapnar c coo necnn.
Bce mnn no xnexor ecnonantx,
Ho pxsr oxon n nxsr nene,
H nonnt nocnenero npomantx,
Kax nnxpt, cronan ns nx rpye.
Bce mnn n naann n ncrome
Or nynt, npnxnaon n mrtxon,
B necxe, sanmnnnenno conome
Hamnn npoxnxrt Tanepro].**
Maccont renonn rannnxnx n yxonnncxnx pycnnon n rot Hepno
mnpono nont o cnx nop ne nonyunn onxnoro ocnemennx n conpe-
menno ncropnorpa]nn. B conercxne npemena pycnncxax remarnxa tna
no sanperom. O]nnnantnym poccncxym ncropnorpa]nm, noxoxe, an-
nax rema ne nnrepecyer. Vxpanncxne nccneonarenn ceronx n ont-
mnncrne cnoem croxr na nosnnnxx nacnopantno ncropnorpa]nn, xo-
ropax n rot xonono nont ntranact nanxsart resnc o xxot pas-
nnunom +rnnuecxom nponcxoxennn yxpannnen (manopoccon n pycnnon)
n nennxopoccon (conpemenntx pyccxnx) n cymecrnymmem mexy nnmn
mnoronexonom +rnnuecxom anraronnsme. Hsyuenne cotrn, nponsome-
mnx n rot Hepno mnpono nont na semnxx conpemenno 3anano
Vxpannt, nosnonnr nepeocmtcnnrt nexoropte nocrynart, nneennte
n nayunt n maccont oopor conercxnmn n yxpanncxnmn +mnrpanrc-
xnmn ncropnxamn nocne 1917 r.
* oxna tn saunran 15 oxrxpx 2008 r. na nayuno-reopernuecxo xon]epen-
nnn Cnanxncxne urennx V (Cnanxncxn ynnnepcnrer Pecnynnxn Monona,
r. Knmnnen).
** Hs Hponora x nepensannm Tanepro]cxoro antmanaxa (ntmen no na-
snannem Iannnxax Ionro]a (Trumbuull, Conn., 1964)).
70
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Hepe Hepno mnpono nono ontmax uacrt sement, nacenenntx
pycnnamn
1
, oxasanact n cocrane Ancrpo-Benrpnn (Bocrounax Iannun-
na - c 1772 r., Fyxonnna - c 1774 r., Vropcxax (Hoxapnarcxax) Pyct n
cocrane Benrepcxoro xoponencrna c XIII n.). Hccneonarenn onpeenx-
mr uncnennocrt pycnnon na reppnropnn Ancrpo-Benrpnn x nauany
XX n. or 3,1 o 4,5 mnn. uenonex.
Bo nropo nononnne XIX n. n Ancrpo-Benrpnn naunnaercx pycnncxoe
Bospoxenne. Ono nocnpnnnmanoct exrenxmn rannnxo-pyccxoro nos-
poxennx xax nosnpar x omepyccxo xyntrype, ocosnanne cnoe npn-
nanexnocrn x ennomy pyccxomy napoy or Kapnar o Kamuarxn. B
yxpanncxo ncropnorpa]nn pycnncxoe Bospoxenne nonyunno nasnanne
mocxno]nntcxoro. Ho cnnerentcrny M. Ipymencxoro, n pyxax moc-
xno]nnon naxonnnct nce nannonantnte oprannsannn n n Iannnnn, n na
Fyxonnne, ne ronopx yxe o 3axapnarcxo Vxpanne, a napooncrno xonna
1860-x n sarem 1870-x roon npecranneno tno nnmt neontmnmn
xpyxxamn, entmn n marepnantntmn cpecrnamn n xyntrypntmn cn-
namn
2
. B ro npemx repmnn yxpannen nocnn, xax oocnonanno cunra-
er H. Hamaena, cxopee nannonantno-nonnrnuecxn xapaxrep
3
. 3ro
tno anrnpyccxoe mentmnncrno
4
.
Haxanyne Hepno mnpono nont ancrpo-nenrepcxne nnacrn npe-
npnnxnn px mep npornn nanpanmero cnny pycnncxoro nnxennx. O-
nnm ns +]]exrnnntx cpecrn crano onnnenne n mnnonaxe n nontsy
Poccnn. C 1909 r. naunnaercx nonna apecron n ancrpncxo uacrn Fyxo-
nnnt. B 1910 r. ancrpo-nenrepcxne nnacrn saxptnamr ontmnncrno
pycnncxnx oprannsann n xpae. B 1913 r. n Vropcxo Pycn naunnaercx
Bropo Mapmapom-Cnrercxn nponecc, na xoropom 32 onnnxemtx npn-
ronopnnn n ome cnoxnocrn x 39,5 roam saxnmuennx sa nepexo n
npanocnanne. Bo Htnone nepe camo nono npomen namymenmn npo-
necc npornn nyx npanocnanntx cnxmennnxon - Hrnarnx Iynmt n Max-
cnma Canonnua, C.R. Fenacmxa n cryenra-mpncra B.A. Konpt,
xoropte na c nononnno roa npocnenn n rmptme es npexnnennx
onnnenn n sarem tnn onpanant
5
.
C nauanom Hepno mnpono nont nauannct macconte penpeccnn
npornn pycnncxoro nacenennx. Ho sapanee saroronnenntm cnncxam no-
nnrnuecxn nenaronaexntx tna apecronana nourn ncx pycnncxax
nnrennnrennnx n rtcxun xpecrtxn. 3auacrym pacnpant ocymecrnnx-
nnct na mecre, es cya n cnecrnnx. Tax, 15 cenrxpx 1914 r. nenrepc-
xne ronnet ynnn copox uertpe rpaxancxnx nnna n Hepemtmne
6
.
Penpeccnn xocnynnct ancrpo-nenrepcxo apmnn. Hsnecrna ncropnx
paccrpena conar 80-ro ancrpncxoro nexornoro nonxa, napannoro ns
xpecrtxn Fpocxoro, Kamenenxoro n 3onouencxoro yeson Iannunnt sa
orxas noenart na pyccxom ]ponre. B 1915 n 1916-1917 rr. n Bene npo-
71

mno na nonnrnuecxnx nponecca, na xoroptx onnnxnact cama nex
enncrna pyccxoro napoa n pyccxoro nnreparypnoro xstxa. Ha cxamte
nocynmtx tnn enyrart ancrpncxoro napnamenra, nnrennnrenrt,
xpecrtxne. Fontmnncrno onnnxemtx (cpen nnx . Mapxon, B. Kypt-
nonnu, K. Forartpen, H. Hypxanonnu) tnn npnronopent x cmeprn.
Bnocnecrnnn cmeprnym xasnt samennnn na noxnsnennoe saxnmuenne,
a necno 1917 r. saxnmuenntx amnncrnponann.
Mecr n rmptmax ne xnarano (x 28 anrycra 1914 r. rontxo no Htnone
oxasanoct oxono 2 000 ysnnxon), n rora ancrpo-nenrepcxne nnacrn co-
sann nepnte n Enpone xonnenrpannonnte narepx Tanepro] n Brnpnn,
Tepesnn n Cenepno uexnn n pyrne. 3rn xonnnarepx tnn npenecrnn-
xamn nanncrcxnx xonnnarepe axay, Ocnennnma, Tpennnxn. Cpen an-
crpncxnx xonnnarepe Tanepro], no cnnerentcrny ysnnxa Tanepro]a
n Tepesnna B. Banpnxa, tn nmremn sacrenox ns ncex ancrpncxnx
rmpem n Iacyprcxo nmnepnn.
Harept npecrannxn coo yuacrox nenosenannoro nonx n nne nnn-
noro uertpexyrontnnxa n nxrn xnnomerpax or Arnccenop]a n xenes-
no oporn. Ha nepntx nopax +ry nnomat conart orennnn epenxn-
ntmn xontxmn n xonmue npononoxo. Co npemenem narept Tanepro]
pacmnpnncx. Hepnym naprnm pycnnon npnrnann n Tanepro] 4 cenrxpx
1914 r. B o]nnnantnom panopre ]entmapmana Bneepa or 9 noxpx
1914 r. coomanoct, uro n Tanepro]e n ro npemx naxonnnct 5 700 py-
co]nnon.
o snmt 1915 r. n Tanepro]e ne tno apaxon. Hmn nexann na sem-
ne no orxptrtm neom n oxt n mopos. Hs-sa anrncannrapnn saxnm-
uenntx xocnnn onesnn.
Oxpana mopnna ronoom n nsnnana saxnmuenntx. Ouennnamn onn-
cant mnorouncnennte cnyuan yncrn n nsenarentcrn.
enyrar ancrpncxoro napnamenra uex Rpn Crpmnpnt ormernn n
cnoe peun 14 nmnx 1917 r., uro nmeer cneennx or 70 saxnmuenntx,
uro n Tanepro]e ymepnn 2 000 uenonex. enyrar roro xe napnamenra
nonxx Cnrnsmyn Hxconxn nnuno copan neomocrn o Tanepro]e na
mecre n n cnoe peun 12 mapra 1918 r. cxasan, uro n Tanepro]e o 20
]enpanx 1915 r. nexann 1 360 rxxeno ontntx, ns xoroptx 1 100 ymepnn
n crpamntx ycnonnxx. B ro npemx 464 uenonexa saonenn rn]om. B
reuenne nonyropa ner ymepno 15% ranepro]nen, r.e. cntme 3 000 rann-
uan n yxonnnnen.
uepes Tanepro] npomnn ne menee 20 000 pyccxnx rannuan n yxonnn-
nen. Tanepro]cxn narept nocroxnno nononnxncx nontmn naprnxmn sax-
nmuenntx. B Hpnxapnarte ne tno cena nnn cemtn, ne nocrpaanmnx
or ancrpo-nenrepcxnx nnacre. B 1914-1915 rr. nepexnm xnnennem tnn
macconte apecrt nentx cenenn.
72
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Ttcxun nme tnn saxnmuent n Tepesnncxo xpenocrn. Onn onx-
nt tnn nect ent ntnonnxrt rpxsnym paory n xpenocrn n ropoe:
uncrnrt ynnnt, xanant, yopnte n sapasntx nasaperax, rpynrtcx n
oropoax n n none. Fontmym noepxxy ysnnxam oxastnano mecrnoe
uemcxoe nacenenne. 3axnmuenntx Tepesnna uepes nexoropoe npemx
ornpannxnn n Tanepro]
7
.
B xoe Iannnncxo nrnt pyccxne nocxa 21 anrycra (3 cenrxpx)
1914 r. nsxnn Htnon, a x 8 (21) cenrxpx 1914 r. tna sanxra ncx Boc-
rounax, uacrt 3anano Iannnnn n nourn ncx ancrpncxax uacrt Fyxo-
nnnt c uepnonnamn. B xonne max 1915 r. repmano-ancrpncxnm noc-
xam yanoct npopnart ]ponr, n pyccxax apmnx ntnyxena tna npe-
menno ocrannrt Bocrounym Iannnnm. Mnoxecrno rannuan exano npn
npnnnxennn repmano-ancrpncxnx nocx n Poccnm, onacaxct mecrn
co cropont ancrpo-nenrepcxnx nnacre. Tontxo sa nocnenmm neenm
nepe ocrannennem Htnona xannenxpne renepan-ryepnaropa tno
ntano 10 926 nponycxon. Hpnuem nponycxa anannct na myxunn npn-
stnnoro nospacra, 18-50 ner, a n nponycxe yxastnanoct xonnuecrno une-
non ero cemtn. Ttcxun exennen noxnann cnon ponte mecra es npo-
nycxon. Mnoxecrno rannuan namnn npnmr n Pocrone-na-ony, re tna
axe opasonana cnennantnax rnmnasnx nx nx ere
8
. 3anxn Bocrou-
nym Iannnnm, ancrpo-nenrepcxne nnacrn nosononnnn penpeccnn c no-
no cnno. Komenanr Htnona renepan Pnmnt, nasnauennt na +ror nocr
nocne orcrynnennx pyccxnx nocx, n cnoem cexpernom panopre nann-
can, uro rannnxne
pyccxne enxrcx
na ne rpynnt:
pyco]nnon n yx-
p a nno]nn on .
Bnny roro, uro
pyco]nnt xnnx-
mrcx rocyap-
crnenntmn ns-
m e n n n x a m n ,
cneyer nx ec-
nomano ynnuro-
xart
9
.
Tanepro]cxn
narept npocyme-
crnonan c cen-
rxpx 1914 no
ma 1917 r. Hoc-
ne cmeprn nmne-
Taneproqcxoe xnanme Ho cocnaun. 1917 r.
Hcmouuuu: Antom cnnmxon ns xonnenrpannonnoro
narepx nx noenno-apecronanntx pyccxnx rannuan n y-
xonnnnen n Tanepro]e, n Brnpnn, 1914-1917 rr. Hsanne
Tanepro]cxoro xomnrera. Htnon, 1923.
73

paropa upanna-Hocn]a nont nmneparop Kapn I pacnopxnncx ntnyc-
rnrt ncex saxnmuenntx. B cnoem pecxpnnre or 7 max 1917 r. on nann-
can: Bce apecronannte pyccxne nennnonnt, no tnn apecronant, uro-
t ne crart nnmn, - rem camtm npnsnan, uro ecrnnx ancrpo-nenrep-
cxnx nnacre tnn nanpannent npornn neno +rnnuecxo rpynnt.
Ho nexoroptm onenxam, ancrpo-nenrepcxne nnacrn ynnuroxnnn no
npemx Hepno mnpono nont ne menee 60 rtc. pycnnon, noanntx
Ancrpo-Benrpnn: crapnxon, myxunn, xenmnn, ere
10
.
Tanepro] cran nx pycnnon Pyccxo Ionro]o, cnxmenntm mecrom
myuennuecrna sa omepyccxym nem. C 1924 r. naunnaer ntxonrt Ta-
nepro]cxn antmanax, re npnneent oxymenrantnte cnnerentcrna,
nocnomnnannx ouennnen n xeprn renonna. B npencnonnn x nepnomy
ntnycxy nnnt exrent pycnncxoro nospoxennx R. nopcxn nann-
can: Heuantnax n xyrxax +ra xnnra. Horpxcammax xnnra trnx, ncxy-
ca n myx mnorocrpaantno Iannnxo Pycn n xommapnte nn mnnyn-
mero rposnoro nnxonertx. Hpocnannt nomxnnnx esnnnno ntcrpaan-
no em ncxynnrentno, neuepne xeprnt sa Ennym, Cnxrym Pyct!
11
.
B 1928 n 1934 rr. no Htnone tnn nponeent Tanepro]cxne cest.
Hocnenn copan onee 15 rtc. yuacrnnxon. Ha Htuaxoncxom xna-
nme no Htnone tn coopyxen namxrnnx xeprnam Tanepro]a. Ha nem
cenann nannct: Xeprnam Tanepro]a 1914-1918. Iannnxax Pyct. Ho-
onte namxrnnxn nosnnxnn no
mnornx nacenenntx nynxrax
Iannunnt.
Tanepro]cxoe xnanme
Ho cocnamn tno nnxnnn-
ponano n 1936 r. Hpax myuenn-
xon tn nepesaxoponen n par-
cxo mornne na xnanme n
epenne uentxnpxen. Cornac-
no mexynaponomy corname-
nnm no oxpane noenntx mornn,
na parcxo mornne nocrpoena
uaconnx n nnyrpn ee nomeme-
na nannct Bann or Ponnt
sect noxoxrcx 1 767 myxunn,
xenmnn n ere ns Iannunnt
n Fyxonnnt, xeprn mnpono
nont 1914-1917 rr.. Ha mec-
re narepx ceronx naxonrcx
mexynapont a+ponopr
Graz-Thalerhof. Haconnn na xnanme n mentxnpxene.
74
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Bo nropom ntnycxe Tanepro]cxoro antmanaxa npnneent npexpac-
nte cnona: A xax trt c neannnm npomntm? onxno nn ono trt
satrtm? Her, +ro tno t npecrynnennem, ontmnm roro, xaxoe co-
nepmnnn nparn. Hycrt xe xpont rannnxo-pyccxoro napoa, ero crpaa-
nnx, cnest xen n ere, non n cnpor, nenennma ero ycat n cenenn
yyr, xorx t n manentxo uacrn, sanecent na crpannnt ncropnn pyc-
cxoro napoa
12
.
Ceronx na Vxpanne ne nmxr ncnomnnart o +rnx rparnuecxnx co-
trnxx. Bet onn ne nnnctnamrcx n omn xonrexcr xyntrnnnpyemoro
ram ncropnuecxoro mn]a. Conpemennt yxpanncxn nynnnncr O. Fy-
snna n cnoe xnnre Tanax ncropnx Vxpannt-Pycn nocnxrnn ntmens-
noxenntm cotrnxm cnennantnym rnany Konnnarept nx nenpannnt-
ntx rannuan. B xonne ee on saan nonpoc: Mnnax Ancrpnx c nantca-
mn n oneperramn, xax xe rt nmnna cnonx yxpanncxnx (na mo nsrnx,
ymecrno tno t nsxrt cnono yxpanncxnx n xantuxn C.C.) no-
anntx! Hnrepecno, pocrnennnxn n ono]amnntnt xeprn nomnxr o
+ro nmnn? A ecnn nomnxr, nouemy monuar?
13
ecrnnrentno, nouemy?
HPHMEHAHHR
1. Pycnn camonasnanne nacenennx penne Pycn. Cam +rnonnm pycnn -
nponsnonoe or cnona Pyct. On ynomnnaercx n nnreparypntx namxrnnxax c X n.
(n uacrnocrn, n rexcrax oronopon c rpexamn xnxsx Onera (912 r.) cemt pas, xnxsx
Hropx (945 r.) - mecrt, n Pyccxo npane). onroe npemx annt +rnonnm
coxpanxncx na nce reppnropnn, nxonnme n cocran pennepyccxoro rocyap-
crna. Tnepcxo xynen A]anacn Hnxnrnn nncan n Xoxennn sa rpn mopx
(XV n.): A n rom n umnepe xan y menx nsxn xepena, a ynean, uro xs ne ecepme-
nxnnn pycnn. K cepenne XIX n. +rnonnm pycnn ocranancx mnpoxo pacnpo-
crpanenntm n xauecrne camonasnannx nacenennx Kapnarcxo Pycn (Iannunna,
Fyxonnna, Vropcxax Pyct), utn semnn naxonnnct no nnaennem Ancrpo-Benr-
pnn, a raxxe nacenennx cenepa Feccapann n Xonmmnnt. Ancrpo-nenrepcxne
nnacrn nastnann cnonx pyccxnx noanntx pycnnt, pyrent (nem. Russinen,
Rutnenen), n ornnune or pyccxnx (poccncxnx noanntx). Camn pycnnt nast-
nann cex n enncrnennom uncne pycnn, a no mnoxecrnennom uncne - pyccxnmn,
nepy cnom - pyccxom, cno napo n xstx - pyccxnmn. B cnom ouepet pycnnt
nopasenxnnct na px +rnoxyntrypntx rpynn: oxn, nemxn, noonxne, rynynt,
noxyrxne, nepxonnnnt, onnnxne n pyrne. Bropo +rnonnm nacenennx Kapnar-
cxo Pycn pycnax. Hacenenne Kapnarcxo Pycn nsanna npoxnnano n coce-
crne c xaronnxamn-nonxxamn. Camo cnono pycnax nosnnxno xax npornnonoc-
rannenne +rnonnmy nonxx. Hoponee cm.: Cv.r C. Pycnnt n ncropnn: npo-
mnoe n nacroxmee // Mexynapont ncropnuecxn xypnan Pycnn [Knmn-
nen]. 2007. N 4 (10). C. 29 - 30.
75

2. Ipvueecru M. Hnnmcrpnponannax ncropnx Vxpannt. Honoe ononnennoe
nsanne. onenx: OOO HKu FAO, 2002, C. 540.
3. Hauaeea H. Ouepxn ncropnn pyccxoro nnxennx n Iannunne XIX- XX nn.
M.: Hsarentcrno Hmnepcxax rpannnx, 2007. C. 8.
4. V.iuoe H.H. Hponcxoxenne yxpanncxoro cenaparnsma. M.: Hsarentcrno
Hnpnx, 1996. C. 213.
5. Cv.r C. Pycnnt n nepno Hepno mnpono nont n pyccxo cmyrt //
Mexynapont ncropnuecxn xypnan Pycnn [Knmnnen]. 2006. N 1 (3).
C. 47 - 48.
6. Haeaceciru I. Icropix yxpanctxo epxann. Knn: Bnannnnrno Vxpanct-
xn nnctmennnx, 1994. C. 56. Hoponee cm.: Matxpcxi ronnen yini 44-ox n
Hepemnmni n 1914 p. Htnon, 1937.
7. Hoponee cm.: Baepur B.P. Tepesnn n Tanepro] // Ienonn xapnaropyc-
cxnx mocxno]nnon samonuannax rparenx XX n. M., 2007. C. 69 - 111. Tam xe
onynnxonana Fnnnorpa]nx Tanepro]a P.. Mnponnua. C. 111 - 144. 3nexr-
ponnax nepcnx xnnrn cm. http://www.ukrstor.com
8. Hauaeea H. Ouepxn ncropnn pyccxoro nnxennx n Iannunne XIX- XX nn.
C. 114 - 115.
9. Tanepro]cxn antmanax. Hponamxrnax xnnra ancrpncxnx xecroxocre,
nsynepcrn n nacnnn na xapnaropyccxnm napoom no npemx ncemnpno nont
1914-1917 rr. Hsanne Tanepro]cxoro xomnrera. Tnnorpa]nx Cranponnrnc-
xoro nncrnryra no ynpannennem A.H. ctxona. Btnycx nepnt. Htnon, 1924. C.
30 - 31. Bcero ntmno 4 copnnxa (n 1924, 1925, 1930, 1932 rr.). 3nexrponnte nep-
cnn pasmement na care http://www.ukrstor.com Ftnn nepensant n copnnxe
Pyccxax Iannnnx n "masenencrno" (M.: Hsarentcrno Hmnepcxax rpannnx,
2005).
10. Tanepro]cxn antmanax // Pyccxax Iannnnx n masennncrno. M., Hsa-
rentcrno Hmnepcxax rpannnx, 2005. C. 210.
11. Tanepro]cxn antmanax. Hponamxrnax xnnra ancrpncxnx xecroxocre,
nsynepcrn n nacnnn na xapnaropyccxnm napoom no npemx ncemnpno nont
1914-1917 rr. Btnycx nepnt. C.VII.
12. Tanepro]cxn antmanax. Hponamxrnax xnnra ancrpncxnx xecroxocre,
nsynepcrn n nacnnn na xapnaropyccxnm napoom no npemx ncemnpno nont
1914-1917 rr. Hsanne Tanepro]cxoro xomnrera. Tnnorpa]nx Cranponnrnc-
xoro nncrnryra no ynpannennem A.H. ctxona. Btnycx nropo. Htnon, 1925. C.
VII.
13. Bvsuua O. Tanax ncropnx Vxpannt-Pycn. K.: Hsarentcrno onipa, 2006.
C. 290.
76
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Bix1op KIHEPA
IHCTHTYHIHHA PO3BYOBA HPOBIHHI
HHHY BACHAIAH HA 3AKAPHATTI
Y HEPIO HPABAIHHR MYKAHIBCLKOIO
CHHCKOHA AHPIR BAHHHCLKOIO
(1773-1809)
ocnixynann nepio ocrarnto xoporxn xpononoriuno, onax came
y ne uac niynacrtcx incrnrynina crpyxrypnsanix nponinni unny Cnx-
roro Bacnnix Bennxoro (uCBB) n Vropmnni. ann nepio nacnnianctxo
icropi n icropiorpa]i ne orpnman cneniantnoro nncnirnennx, xou, esy-
monno, icnymrt ocnixennx, xorpi nennnm unnom crocymrtcx ano
nponemn.
Cepe cyuacnnx ocnixent yxpanctxnx nuennx, xxi crocymrtcx es-
nocepento nocrari nnanxn Anpix Faunnctxoro rpea nninnrn npa-
nm mnrpa annnmxa, y xxi noano, n nepmy uepry, iorpa]iuni ani [1,
22]. Inmnmn npecrannnxamn monomo renepani icropnxin, xxi cryim-
mrt nepxonny icropim c Bononmnp uennu ra Opecr Hanynnu y poori
xxnx sycrpiuacmo naxnnni ]axrnuni niomocri incrnryninnx smin [11,
42]. Bennxn nnecox y onpanmnannx xepen sicnnn yropctxn ocni-
nnx Imrnan Vnapi, xorpn onynixynan ninn px posnopxxent cnncxo-
na Anpix Faunnctxoro. Hi posnopxxennx posxpnnamrt nepenaxno cro-
cynxn cnncxona i uennin, a raxox nxasymrt na opranisaniny posyony
unny n Vropmnni. un ne naintmn nxna y pospoxy anoro nnrannx
sicnnn cnonantxn ocninnx Bononmnp Hoca]ar Tnmxonnu, xorpn
mac napncn npo Fyxinctxn [13, 98] i Kpacnopictxn [14, 50-71] mona-
crnpi, e, noano oxpemi acnexrn x penirinoro ra incrnryninoro pos-
nnrxy. Homy x nanexnrt conina npanx (ni ncenonimom Hornad) npo
nepxny na Hixapnarctxi Pyci, n xorpi oconnna pont y posyoni nep-
xnn na 3axapnarri ninonrtcx came nacnnianam. ocnixennx anropa
nisnauacrtcx nixannmn reopernunnmn nncnonxamn s oxpemnx nnrant
ra noxcnennxm nepxonno repminonori [12, 220].
Hicnx crnopennx nponinni n Vropmnni (1733 p.) niynancx axrnnnn
incrnryninn posnnrox unny ra sacnynannx nonnx onrene. Honpn
posxnir monacrnpctxoro xnrrx, is npnxoom o nnan nicapx Hocn]a II
(1780-1790), cranonnme onrene sminmcrtcx. Be 1 uepnnx 1770 p.
Hocn] II oconcro ninian mxony Myxauinctxoro monacrnpx i nncno-
77

nnn s ntoro npnnoy cnom nirpnmxy. 3a narnnctxom rpamorom, e c
erantnn onnc ntoro nisnry, niomo, mo s oxy nnmoro yxonnoro xe-
pinnnnrna yn npncyrni cnncxon Ioan Fpaau ra nporoirymen nacnnian
Cnntnecrp Koneuax. Ha rperi ent nepeynannx mayrni nicap nanirt
ninian cnyxy, xxy ninpannxn cnncxon [2, 1]. Bsarani, monapx sann-
mnncx saononenn nnm monacrnpem, mo crano inyntrennicm nx a-
rartox onrene uCBB n Vropmnni, ni uac x saxpnrrx. Hesnaxamun
na snaunn posnnrox uCBB n Vropmnni, imneparop Hocn] II y rpanni
1788 p. nixniynan yci mapamopomctxi monacrnpi. Ocnonnnmn npnunna-
mn saxpnrrx ynn: nicyrnicrt orocnonctxnx mxin, narounnnocri , mo
narononnime, yxe mana xintxicrt monaxin [3, 42]. B nncrax o. Iarex,
nacroxrenx parinctxoro monacrnpx, ni 24, 30 epesnx ra 3 xnirnx
1788 p. nncnonnmcrtcx rnnoxa cryponanicrt is npnnoy saxpnrrx mo-
nacrnpx [3, 7, 9-10]. 3 1790 p. sycrpiuacrtcx ocranni onnc Vrnxnctxoro
monacrnpx, xxn yn sponenn Anronicm Konaxom, nepe oro saxpnr-
rxm [3, 24-25]. He c me onnm oxasom npo nanexnicrt nnx onrene o
o`cnanoro unny Bacnnian. Bctoro yno saxpnro 13 xnxmropin, a came:
y Foponxni, paroni, Kpnuoni, Bintxinni, Feenni, Fini Hepxni, Fnuxoni,
Fapcanoni, xynnni, Mocecni, Bnmni Bnmani, Vrni ra saxpnra Cnxnct-
xa onrent. Hixnianix sarpoxynana i inmnm, nanpnxna, Fyxinctxomy,
ane nin ne yn nixnionann. Ha ymxy Hoca]ara Tnmxonnua, nnme san-
xxn mixnaponi oposi, xxa nponxrana uepes monacrnp, i nasnnanact
"ose]inxa" [13, 98].
V 1788 p. Foponxnctxn i inmi monacrnpi ynn nnsnani xoponinctxom
nnaom [8, 65-68]. Foponxnctxn xnxmrop, xx nnaxacrtcx nicnx pe]op-
mn yn npncnann o Myxauinctxoro [11, 43]. Ane Bacnni Hponin crnep-
xyc, mo nicnx nixniani monacrnp yn npncnann ne o Myxauinctxo-
ro, a o Imcrnuinctxoro xnxmropy, a irymenom o`cnanoro monacrnpx
cran Anpaam Konecap [9, 277]. Hx nepcix nirnepxycrtcx ocoonnm
nepenncom ni 1795 p., sa xxnm nacrannnxom n Imcrnueni icno sra-
ycrtcx Anpaam Konecap [6, 1-2]. Tnm intme, Imcrnuinctxn monac-
rnp cran o]inino nnsnannm ra reorpa]iuno nin yn nnxue o Fopo-
nxnctxoro. Taxnm unnom, nicnx pe]opmn Hocn]a II ixnn nacrynni mo-
nacrnpi, xxi ninopxxonynanncx myxauinctxomy nporoirymeny: Myxaui-
nctxn, Kpacnopictxn, Fyxinctxn, Mapixnonuanctxn, Manoepes-
nxnctxn, Imcrnuinctxn ra Fixcactxn.
Orxe, nicnx pe]opmn imneparopa Hocn]a II, na repnropi Vropctxo
Pyci imunmn sannmanncx cim monacrnpin uCBB Myxauinctxn, Kpac-
nopictxn, Fyxinctxn, Mapixnonuanctxn, Manoepesnxnctxn,
Imcrnuinctxn ra Fixcactxn.
Bnacniox nixniani intme ecxrxa monacrnpin, sposymino, smenmn-
nact i xintxicrt uennin nctoro uCBB. 3a ocoonnm nepenncom 1795 p.,
78
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
xonix xxoro sepernacx, nporoirymenom unny i nacroxrenem Myxauinct-
xoro monacrnpx yn Hoannxi Fasnnonnu, a nctoro ram xnno 16 monaxin
[6, 1-2]. 3rino s onncom uncentnicrt monaxin, xxnx yno n ninomy 69,
smenmycrtcx, nopinnxno s ocoonnm onncom yctoro Bacnnianctxoro unny
sa 1775 p. (78 monaxin). He cniunrt nnme npo nennn sanena uCBB n
Vropmnni, xoua xintxicni noxasnnxn ne sanxn c nnsnauantni.
Baxnnno synnnnrncx na crocynxax uennin unny Bacnnian s cnncxo-
nom Anpicm Faunnctxnm, xxn noxonn is napa]ixntnoro xnipy. Hapo-
nncx nin 14 nncronaa 1732 p. y c. Fenxrina (ctoroni Cnonauunna) n
cim` cnxmennxa. Ocniry soyn n Vxropoctxi rimnasi i Tnpnanctxi
ceminapi [1, 22]. Be 1775 p. monaxn uCBB nncnonnnn cim nnmor o
cnncxona Anpix Faunnctxoro, xxi crocynanncx ninocnn mix ooma cro-
ponamn. Tyr mnocx n ocnonnomy npo saopony cnncxony nrpyuarncx y
nnyrpimni cnpann monacrnpx, sa nnxnmuennxm nepxonnnx nopm, a raxox
posnopxxarncx oro yinnxmn es sron na ne monaxin [5, 4]. Taxnm
unnom, monaxn naani namaranncx nimexynarncx ni cnirctxoro nep-
xonnoro ninopxxynannx, yxpinnmmunct xx anronomna rinxa nepxonno
nnan n Vropmnni. He cniunno npo x nnsnannx o]ininom nnaom, mo
mano npxrynarn x ni saxpnrrx. x nxe sraynanoct, monaxn ocnrt
cxenrnuno nocrannnncx o cnncxona, nnmaramun ni ntoro me 25 nepec-
nx 1775 p. ne nrpyuarncx y nnyrpimni cnpann monacrnpin. Moxnnno, ne
yno symonneno rnm, mo me 19 rpannx 1775 p. Anpi Faunnctxn nnan
posnopxxennx, sa xxnm napoxam saoponxnocx s napa]ixnamn xonrn
na ninycrone cnxro 3icnannx Cnxroro o Kpacnoro Fpoy [10, 52-53].
Taxnmn ixmn nnanxa axan nnme nanecrn na y nnacni cnapxi, ane
nx monacrnpin ne osnauano smenmennx nanomnnxin, a ninonino i npn-
yrxin, o ninycrn sannmanncx un ne cnnnm xepenom npnyrxin nx
intmocri s nnx. Mamun nnmy nepxonny mpncnxnim n Myxauinctxi
cnapxi, Anpim Faunnctxomy mann ninopxxonynarnct i monacrnpi
uCBB. Fesymonno, cnncxon xopncrynancx nnnnnom na nepxonni amin-
icrparnnni posnopxxennx moo xnxmropin, ane n camy opranisanim unny
nin ocryny ne man, npnnamni raxy xx oro nonepennxn.
Bo crocycrtcx penirinnx i aminicrparnnnnx nonnonaxent, ro ryr
cnncxon man intme npan. Hanpnxna, 17 nepecnx 1780 p. Anpi Fa-
unnctxn sanpomyc Cnntnecrpa Koneuaxa, irymena Mapixnonuanctxo-
ro monacrnpx, i me onoro monaxa ocnxrnrn 4 xonrnx nony Vxropoct-
xy cnncxonctxy pesnennim, xxy noapynana imneparpnnx Mapix-Tepe-
six [10, 69-72]. He sanpomennx emoncrpynano, s onoro oxy, nepena-
xannx cnncxonctxo nnan y penirinnx nnrannxx, a s inmoro, ne cnmno-
niunn axr emoncrpynan monaxam npo nenopymnicrt nonepenix omo-
nnenocre. Toro cnncxon ne nrpyuancx y nnyrpimni cnpann Myxauinct-
xoro monacrnpx, xxn onrn uac sannmancx cnncxonctxom pesnennicm.
79

Be onnm nirnepxennxm cnncxonctxnx nepenar c npoxannx ni 5 rpynx
1780 p. o Cnntnecrpa Koneuaxa, n xxomy cnncxon npocnrt na nporxsi
micxnx monnrncx n Mapixnonuanctxomy monacrnpi sa noxiny imnepar-
pnnm, a raxox sa sopon`x mayrntoro imneparopa Hocn]a II [10, 78-
80]. Kpim roro, cnncxon man nonnonaxennx oronomynarn nocrn, xxi no-
mnpmnanncx i na monamy cnintnory. Ha ne nxasyc posnopxxennx An-
pix Faunnctxoro ni 30 nnnnx 1799 p. npo saopony crn m`xco ni uac
nocry, ocxintxn monaxn, xxi ann oirnnnm, nounnamrt nexrynarn nnm
naxnnnnm npannnom [10, 142-144]. Heoxino nisnaunrn, mo ne posno-
pxxennx nnanxn asynanoct na nnctmonomy npoxanni camnx monaxin,
pimennx xxnx yno npnnxro na coopi uCBB 5 nnnnx 1798 p. n Kpacno-
pictxomy monacrnpi.
uaxrom nepenarn piment cnncxona moo nnpimennx aminicrparnn-
nnx nnrant c in]opmynannx nacroxrenin nacnnianctxnx monacrnpin npo
npnsnauennx irymenom Fixcactxo onreni Ianpnna Faunnctxoro, oro
sacrynnnxamn xona Banxonnua ra monaxa Aranacix Anpnmxonnua [10,
81-82]. Ocxintxn cnncxon ponrt npnsnauennx irymena, ro ne onosnau-
no ronopnrt npo nnmy aminicrparnnny mpncnxnim na monacrnpxmn.
B ntomy x oxymenri naronomycrtcx, mo n anomy monacrnpi ne na-
nocx nponecrn nnopn onouacno s inmnmn monacrnpxmn na sarantnnx
sopax. Tomy ne yn intme nnmymenn xpox i nnnxrox s npannn, nix
saxonomipnicrt. Biomo, mo nnopn nacroxrenin ynn ocnrt emoxpa-
rnunnmn, a npano onparn mann nnme monaxn.
Heoxino, na namy ymxy, posrnxnyrn nnopn irymenin. 3epiramun
nesanexnicrt, monaxn camocrino onpann irymenin ra nporoirymenin.
Hopxox x opannx y Mapixnonuanctxomy monacrnpi yno sarnepxeno
cnncxonom Anpicm Faunnctxnm. Tax, y nnpxynxpi ni 22 nmroro 1786 p.
cnncxon naronomyc, mo opannm moxe yrn nnme monax nacnniannn,
xxn mac can icpex, a onparn mamrt npano nnme monaxn uCBB, xorpi
mamrt xxnct can. Ionocn npocrnx monaxin ne npaxonymrtcx, npnuomy
xoxen mac nnxnmuno onn ronoc. Honepento niynacrtcx napaa, na
xxi ysroxynanacx xannarypa mayrntoro irymena (xxn, o peui,
man nonoirn narnnctxom monom), a nicnx noroxennx npoxonrt rono-
cynannx sa xanarypy, xxa onpacrtcx npocrom intmicrm ronocin.
Honoopann irymen pasom is noma npecrannnxamn s coopy mac npn-
yrn o cnncxona, xxn oro sarnepxyc. Tintxn nicnx ntoro nacroxrent
moxe npncrynarn o nnxonannx cnox oon`xsxin, a xonn sarnepxen-
nx ne niynocx, ro ni ]ynxni npoonxyc nnxonynarn nonepeni xepin-
nnx [10, 88-91]. Ha nacrynnnx nnopax irymena y Mapixnonuanctxomy
monacrnpi ni posnopxxennx nonropmmrtcx y nocnanni ni 18 nmroro
1789 p. [10, 92-96].
3ananocx , mo cnncxon mac snauny nnay na monacrnpxmn, o sar-
nepxyc irymena, ane xx cniunna npaxrnxa, ne yna nnme ]opmantnicrt.
80
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
V icnocri ne sa]ixconano xonoro nnnaxy, xonn cnncxon ne saxorin
sarnepxynarn opanoro monaxamn nacroxrenx. Taxnm unnom, ]axrn
cniuart, mo monaxn mann nonny nesanexnicrt, a cami nnopn ynn o-
cnrt emoxparnunnmn. Cnncxon ne man xonoro nnnnny na nponec nn-
opin, nncrynamun na nnx nnme n poni apirpa, xoua e-mpe man nnnnn
na sarnepxennx opannx xannaryp.
Cxoxnm yn nopxox opannx nporoirymena ra inmnx xepinnnxin unny.
erantno nm nponeypy y pyri nononnni XIX cr. onncan Anaroni
Kpannntxn, xxn cam yn monaxom i ne onn pas oconcro pan yuacrt
y ronocynanni. Coop npnsnauancx xoxni rpn poxn i nasnnancx renepant-
nom xanirynom. Cam repmin "xaniryna" ne narnnctxe sanosnuennx, a
romy y nnnaxy is nacnnianamn npannntnime ronopnrn npo monamn co-
op [12, 220]. Bin niynancx n Myxauinctxomy, Mapixnonuanctxomy
Kpacnopictxomy monacrnpxx, npo mo nxe sraynanoct. x sasnauac
Anaroni Kpannntxn, coop cxnnxac nporoirymen, sanuacno nonepe-
xac ncix irymenin i micnenoro cnncxona [7, 53]. Xoua sa uacin cnncxon-
crna Anpix Faunnctxoro coop cxnnxan came nnanxa, npo mo macmo
oxymenrantni cniuennx. B onomy s nocnant Anpi Faunnctxn san-
pomyc ncix nacroxrenin n cynponoi onoro monaxa (xxoro cnintno on-
pamrt n monacrnpi) npnyrn na coop, xorpn mac niyrncx 19 cepnnx
1792 p. [10, 96]. He nxasyc na re, mo nxe s roro uacy nporoirymenn i
irymenn monacrnpin onpanncx na sarantnnx sopax uCBB n Vropmnni,
a nnopn irymena Mapixnonuanctxoro monacrnpx sa uacin Anpix Fa-
unnctxoro npoxonnn, monipno, sa oxpemom cxemom. Ane uacri sminn
xepinnoro cxnay, sanosnueni ni saxinnx openin, npnnnocnnn nerarnnni
momenrn. Taxi porani ne osnonxnn xepinnnxam nrinmnarn cno nporpa-
mn i ononrn x o xinnx [12, 569].
Hoantma nponeypa opannx nporoirymena n Vropmnni yna cxo-
xom s nnopamn irymena. Ha renepantni xaniryni (cooponi) mann npa-
no parn yuacrt: nporoirymen, 4 pimnreni (definitores), xxi ynn na-
nnxunmn pannxamn nporoirymena, 8 irymenin ra 8 npecrannnxin ni
xoxnoro monacrnpx. Ionona coopy, xxn o peui ne man npana ronocy,
npnsnauan onoro cnirctxoro cexperapx, inmn onpancx s uncna mo-
naxin [7, 53]. Monaxn mann npnxarn sa ent o coopy, a nneuepi ronona
coopy oconcro necrn posmony s xoxnnm npecrannnxom npo mayr-
ntoro xannara. Hicnx raxo posmonn nnsnauanncx rpn ocnonni xann-
arypn. Ha pyrn ent saunrynanacx cnncxonctxa rpamora, sa xxom
npnsnauancx ronona coopy. xmo ne nnnnxano sanepeuent, npncrynann
o opannx. Hepe camnm ronocynannxm xoxen mir nncnonnrn cno ymxn
npo posnnrox unny un naxnnicrt y ntomy nennnx neonixin. Vcni sa rnm
nporoirymen noanan snir npo cnoc rpnpiune npanninnx [7, 53-54]. Birax,
na 1-1,5 ro. ncx nnaa xonnenrpynanacx n pyxax rononn, ocxintxn nci
81

cxnaann nepe nnm cno nonnonaxennx, a nosaxx nin ne ronocynan, ro
mir nnme nnnnnarn na xi ncxyci. Hicnx ntoro mno npecrannennx
rptox xannarin na nocay nporoirymena, xxi nnxonnn s sany, a ronona
npononynan oparn s nnx naocronimoro. Cexperap anan xoxnomy
rpn nncrxn s npisnnmamn xannarin. Onn nncrox xnancx n cxpnntxy,
a pemra opasy snnmynanncx. Opannm nnaxancx ro, xxn napan
intmicrt ronocin. V nepxni, n ypouncri ocranonni nin cxnaan nepe
ycima npncyrnimn npncxry [7, 54-55]. Haani, nnopn nporoirymena i na-
croxrenin niynanncx onouacno xoxni rpn poxn.
Hponeypa opannx nporoirymena ra irymenin sacniuyc opranisani-
ne nocxonanennx uCBB n Vropmnni. unn ycm cnom nnyrpimnm
ixntnicrt npononn camocrino, a cnncxony ninopxxonynancx nnme n
penirinnx ra ]opmantno aminicrparnnnnx nnrannxx. Kpim roro, sminm-
mrtcx ymonn nponeennx xaniryn. xmo sa npanninnx Anpix Faunnct-
xoro coop npnsnauan cnncxon, ro s uacom nnanxa nnme noniomnxncx
npo uac mayrntoro coopy, nx ninpannennx cnoro npecrannnxa.
Hesnaxamun na re, mo cnncxon npnsnauan ronony coopy i mir yrn npn-
cyrnim npn opanni, ao nicnnan cnoro npecrannnxa, nin ne man xo-
nnx naxenin nnnnny na nponec nnopin. x aunmo, uepneue xnrrx nisna-
uanocx snaunnm nnyrpimnim emoxparnsmom i mano nesanexnicrt, nanirt
ni micnenoro cnncxona.
Ha nouarox XIX cr. uCBB n Vropmnni man ocnrt ope opranisona-
ny crpyxrypy, xxom moxna i neoxino yno cxopncrarncx. Ocnonom sac-
nynannx unny crana narnnctxa moent opranisani, ane nnme nx nporn-
croxnnx intm opranisonani saxini nepxni. Monaxn sanxn ynn noci-
xmn annto nisanrictxo rpanni i ne ope posymin cnncxon Anpi
Faunnctxn, xxn ponn nce nx sepexennx nnx ninnocre, i, snnuano,
crapocnon`xnctxo monn. Came crapannxmn cnncxona, ynn orpnmani
nanctxi pene (yxasn) na nonni ninycrn n 1806-1807 pp., xxi mann npono-
nrnct na cnxra npn ncix monacrnpxx uCBB n Vropmnni. Kpacno-
pictxn monacrnp orpnman nanctxe pene 11 uepnnx 1806 p. na cnxro
3icnannx Cnxroro yxa [14, 71]. V uepnni 1806 p. ninycr na cnxro Cn.
Mnxonax ra 3icnannx Cnxroro yxa orpnman Manoepesnxnctxn xnxm-
rop, a Imcrnuinctxn na cnxro Apxanrena Mnxana; pimennxm Konrpe-
rani nx cxinnx nepxon Fixcactxn monacrnp orpnman inyntrennim
na cnxro Herpa i Hanna; Mapixnonuanctxn orpnman ninycr na Foro-
ponuni cnxra [4, 1-3]. Panime ninycrn na cnxro Mnxonax ra Vcninnx
mana Myxauinctxa, a raxox Fyxinctxa onrent na cnxro 3icnannx Cnx-
roro yxa. osnin yno orpnmano me 17 rpannx 1738 p. ni nann Kne-
menra XII [13, 51].
Kpim roro, sa nanctxnm pene nci nacnnianctxi monacrnpi Myxauinct-
xo cnapxi orpnmann nonni Foroponuni ninycrn. x rnepnrt Hoca]ar
82
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Tnmxonnu, naoxecrno o Foroponni y Bepxni Vropmnni c ocnrt
annim, a ocnonnnm cnxrom c Vcninnx Hpecnxro Foroponni, xxy nouann
cnxrxynarn Kpacnopictxn (1731 p.) ra Manoepesnxnctxn (1734 p.)
monacrnpi, a s 26 cepnnx 1753 p., sa mnianctxnm xanenapem, i Myxaui-
nctxn [14, 50]. Taxnm unnom, xpim xpamonnx cnxr npn onrenxx, npono-
nnncx ninycrn i n uecrt Foroponni. Haintmnm cnxrom yno Vcnin-
nx Hpecnxro Foroponni. Orpnmannx ninycrin crapannxmn Anpix Fa-
unnctxoro, oconnno cnxra Vcninnx, mano nennxe snauennx nx sepe-
xennx annix cxinocnon`xnctxnx rpanni npn monacrnpxx. Cni say-
naxnrn, mo Foroponuni cnxra yxe pao cnpnmanncx micnennm nace-
nennxm, a ne osnauano sintmennx xintxocri ninirpnmin i apynant.
Orxe, na nouarxy XIX cr. y Myxauinctxi rpexo-xaronnntxi cnapxi
ixnn cim monacrnpin uCBB. Foponxnctxa onrent na ne uac me ne
yna ninonnena, a romy monacrnpin napaxonynanact raxa xintxicrt, xx i
n nepennci 1795 p., ane xintxicno uncno unny sintmnnocx snony s 68
o 86 monaxin. He cniunno npo exxe xintxicne noxpamennx n crano-
nnmi uCBB n Vropmnni, nicnx pe]opmn Hocn]a II. Hanaxnnnima ]yn-
xnix pe]opmn cananina, osoponnennx monacrnpctxoro xnrrx., nnac-
niox xxnx ninnmnnnct nnmorn o ixntnocri onrene. Hinxom nnen-
neno moxemo ronopnrn npo sanepmennx incrnryninoro o]opmnennx unny
n ne uac. Ane nenennxn nepio ninecennx openy (xinent XVIII
nouarox XIX cr.), raxox, yn pesyntrarom npocnirnnntxo ixntnocri
nnanxn Anpix Faunnctxoro ra roimntoro nporoirymena Hoannxix
Fasnnonnua.
AITEPATYPA
1. auu.mr . Cnncxon Anpe Faunncxn (1732-1809) / . annnmx
// Fnaronicnnx. 2008. N 1 (187). C. 22.
2. epxannn apxin 3axapnarctxo onacri (ani A3O). u. 64. Mo-
nacrtpt opena Bacnnnan r. Myxaueno. On. 1. Cnp. 736. Onncanne no-
cemennx Hose]om II xoponem Benrpnn Myxauencxoro monacrtpx
n 1770 r. Ha 1 apx.
3. A3O. u. 64. Monacrtpt opena Bacnnnan r. Myxaueno. On. 1.
Cnp. 1170. eno o pocnycxe monacrtpe opena Bacnnnan n Mapamo-
pomcxo xyne n cnxsn c pacnopxxennem xoponx Benrpnn Hocn]a II.-
Ha 27 apx.
4. A3O. u. 64. Monacrtpt opena Bacnnnan r. Myxaueno. On. 2.
Cnp. 118 a. Fynna Hant Hnx VII o npoaxe nnyntrennnn Mapnx-
Honuancxomy, Fnxcacxomy, Hmcrnuencxomy n Manoepesnxncxomy
monacrtpxm. Ha 7 apx.
83

5. u. 64. Monacrtpt opena Bacnnnan r. Myxaueno. On. 4.
Cnp. 152. Tpeonannx monaxon-nacnnnan Myxauencxomy enncxony Fa-
unncxomy Anpem. Ha 2 apx.
6. A3O. u. 64. Monacrtpt opena Bacnnnan r. Myxaueno. On. 5.
Cnp. 214. Beomocrt o nnunom cocrane Bacnnnancxnx monacrtpe n
Myxauencxo enapxnn.- Ha 2 apx.
7. Kpa.uiru A. unn cooponanix y namnx monaxon / A. Kpa-
nnntxn // Hncrox. 1885. N 4. C. 53 - 55.
8. Hnctmo n peaxnim // Hncrox. 1890. N 6. C. 65 - 68.
9. Hpouuu B. Hcropnx npanocnanno nepxnn na 3axapnarte / B. Hpo-
nnn. Myxaueno: Cnxro-Hnxonaencxn Myxauencxn monacrtpt, 2005.
527 c.
10. Voeapi I. 3nptxa xepen npo cryi pycnnctxoro nncemcrna. Kn-
pnnnuni yixnnxt myxauonctxoro cnncxona Anpix Faunnctxoro /
I. Vnapi. Htpetrasa: IMI Print KFT, 2002. u. 1. 239 c.
11. 4euu: B. Manoepesnxnctxn Cnxro-Mnxonanctxn monacrnp
ra napnc icropi unny cn. Bacnnix Bennxoro na 3axapnarri / B. uennu,
O. Hanynnu / VxHV.-Vxropo: Bn-no B. Haxxa, 2004.- 188 c.
12. Hornad V. de juxta. Dejiny greckokatolikov Podkarpatska (9.18.
storocie) / V. de juxta Hornad. Kosice, 2004. 956 s.
13. Timkovic V. Jozafat, OSBM. Letopis Bukovskeho monastyra : a
historicke zmienky o inych basiliansrych monastyroch na vychodnom
Slovensku / V. Timkovic. Presov: p. Juraj Kusnir, 2004. 304 s.
14. Timkovic V. Jozafat, OSBM. Letopis Krasnobrodskeho monastiera :
alebo kusok zo slavnych dejin greckokatolikov na Slovensku / V. Timkovic.
Presov: Blahovistnik, 1995. 129 s.
ypnan xoncepna1nnnon umcnn
"3ono1on Aen":
www.zlev.ru
84
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Bacnnt MImAHHH
OKYMEHTH EPABHOIO APXIBY
3AKAPHATCLKO OBAACTI
HPO AIPAPHY HOAITHKY
HA 3AKAPHATTI B 1944-1950 poxax
Arpapna nonirnxa na 3axapnarri y nepmi nonocnni poxn yna came rnm
xnmuonnm naxenem, xxn xapnnantno sminnn cncremy cycnintnnx nino-
cnn i coniantno-exonomiune onnuux xpam. Cintctxe rocnoapcrno
ominymua ranyst nnponnnrna i rononnn o`cxrnnnn cncremornop-
un unnnnx posnnrxy micneno exonomixn, coniantno, emorpa]iuno i
npocropono-nocenenctxo crpyxrypn 3axapnarrx n 1944-1950 pp. crano
ocnonnom c]epom, s xxo y mono noss`cnanomy s Vxpanom perioni
nonirnuno-npnmyconnmn meroamn micnennmn xomynicramn i nenrpant-
nnmn xomnaprino-epxannnmn opranamn CPCP i VPCP posropnynocx
ninecnpxmonane nacaxennx paxnctxo moeni nonirnunnx i coniantno-
exonomiunnx ninocnn, rocnoapmnannx i aminicrparnnno-npexrnnno-
ro ynpanninnx. Cenxncrno xpam yno niuyxene ni semni i saxpinauene
xonrocnno-parocnnnm naom. Posnouanacx pynanix nixonnx rpanni,
xyntrypn i mopantnnx ninnocre saxapnarctxoro cena, oro nponerapn-
sanix i maprinanisanix. Komynicrnuna nonirnxa n arpapnomy cexropi yna
cxnaonom uacrnnom nponecy npncxopeno paxnisani 3axapnarrx y nepmi
nonocnni poxn.
Bnpoonx nesnaunoro sa rpnnanicrm icropnunoro nepioy saxapnarctxe
ceno nepexnno na panxantni nepenoporn. Cnouarxy sementny pe-
]opmy 1944-1945 pp., xxa rnmuacono crnopnna macy cepenix i pinnx
npnnarnnx nnacnnxin xasxn semni. I nipasy x norim xonexrnnisanim
1946-1950 pp., xxa nixniynana raxoro xasxna. Heoxino nixpecnnrn,
mo arpapna nonirnxa na 3axapnarri sanepmantnoro erany pyro cniro-
no ninn i nepmnx nonocnnnx poxin, ]opmynanacx i sicnmnanacx y emo
niminnnx ymonax icnynannx xnasiepxannoro yrnopennx 3axapnarct-
xa Vxpana n 1944-1945 pp., e ]opmantno me icnynano nirpynrx nx
camocrinoro pe]opmynannx nonom nnaom sementnnx ra inmnx arpap-
nnx ninocnn, a norim n 3axapnarctxi onacri n 1946-1950 pp. cxna-
oni aminicrparnnno-repnropiantni onnnni Vxpann, e camocrinicrt
i onacnnx i micnennx opranin nnan y c]epi arpapno nonirnxn yna
maxe nnxnmuena.
85

Innoxn nayxonn ananis nponecy ]opmynannx i peanisani nonocnno
nonirnxn arpapnnx nepernopent na 3axapnarri ra o`cxrnnna oninxa
pesyntrarin norpeymrt perentnoro nnnuennx i snaunoro posmnpennx
xona xepen nx neynepexenoro ocnixennx nponemn. Taxn nixi
osnonxc aprymenronano nepernxnyrn exxi crepeornnn nepenaxno ie-
onoriuno saanraxonannx poir s icropi arpapnnx ninocnn i naprino-
epxanno nonirnxn n c]epi cintctxoro rocnoapcrna paxnctxoro nepi-
oy. A romy, sanyuennx oxymenrin, nacamnepe, is micnennx apxinin
osnonnrt nponnrn cnirno na px nponem s icropi xpam ocnixynano-
ro nepioy.
xepena s icropi nonocnno arpapno nonirnxn na 3axapnarri neoxi-
no nninnrn n exintxa ocnonnnx rpyn. Hpn ntomy, rpynynannx napro
sicnmnarn ne rintxn sa rpanninnm nixoom neonynixonani ao
onynixonani xepena, ane nx sepexennx norixn icropnunoro nsac-
mosn`xsxy noi, xnnm i nponecin raxox sa smicrom i xpononoricm un
eranamn arpapno nonirnxn. Pasom s rnm naxnnno nnsnaunrn cepe sa-
rantnoro macnny xepen rpynn oxymenrin, mo xapaxrepnsymrt cra-
nonnennx i ]ynxnionynannx mexanismy peanisani npnnxrnx nonirnunnx
piment s nepernopent n arpapnomy cexropi n nepio 1944-1950 pp.
Hponeenn namn ananis ocrynnnx nynixani s remn ocnixennx
sacniuyc, mo nnnuennx icropi arpapnnx nepernopent i nonirnxn xonex-
rnnisani na 3axapnarri n 1946-1950 pp. n yxpanctxi icropiorpa]i 50-
80-x pp. XX cr. ra nonirntoro uacy (s 1991 p.) sicnmnanocx n ocnonno-
my na asi omexenoro xona oxymenrantnnx marepianin is ]onin nen-
rpantnnx i perionantnnx apxinin Vxpann. Ocnonnn macnn oxymenrin s
icropi arpapno nonirnxn i posnnrxy cintctxoro rocnoapcrna xpam, spo-
symino, sepiracrtcx n epxannomy apxini 3axapnarctxo onacri
(A3O). Ta, no cyri, pixo xonn nanirt xnani]ixonani cnenianicrn s npo-
nemn xoua noixno nnnuann intmicrt ]onin ntoro apxiny, xxi crocy-
mrtcx naintm naxnnnnx acnexrin ocnixynano remn. Bonn npoxn-
nxnn cnocpinn nparmarnsm, cxonnenrpynanmnct na erantnomy ananisi
nepenaxno nnme nox ]onin A3O: H-1 axapnarctxn oxom Ko-
mynicrnuno napri Vxpann ra P-195 3axapnarctxn onacnn nnxo-
nanun xomirer. icno, ryr sepiramrtcx corni oxymenrin npo ar-
papni nepernopennx na 3axapnarri ocnixynanoro nepioy, pisnomanirni
posnopxxennx, npexrnnn, nocranonn i snepnennx, naxasn ra incrpyxni
naprinnx i paxnctxnx opranin nepioy 1946-1950 pp. Menmnm unnom,
ane nce x sanyuanncx nx nncnirnennx nponemn i oxymenrn is ]ony
H-4 Henrpantnn xomirer KH3V, e micrnrtcx 255 cnpan s napr-
innmn i epxannnmn oxymenramn 3axapnarctxo Vxpann nepioy 1944-
1945 pp.
86
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
3asnnua n icropnunnx poorax paxnctxoro nepioy s nonocnno ar-
papno nponemarnxn nnmn oxymenrantnnmn niipxamn i nnuepnyna-
nacx apxinno-xepentna asa. Taxa npaxrnxa sepiracrtcx, na xant, i n
exxnx cyuacnnx icropnunnx ocnixennxx. Hosa ynarom npo]ecinnx
icropnxin sannmacrtcx nennuesna maca oxymenrantnoro marepiany s
inmnx ]onin A3O. Hanirt intme, perentno osnaomnnmnct is apxin-
nnmn sipxamn, moxemo is nnennenicrm crnepxynarn, mo snauna uac-
rnna i xomnaprinnx ]onin, xxi crocymrtcx, y anomy nnnaxy, nonocn-
nnx arpapnnx nponem, soncim ne onpantonana nuennmn-icropnxamn.
A ocnonna maca oxymenrin me nixonn ne yna nneena o nayxonoro
oiry.
Heoxino nixpecnnrn ro ]axr, mo y A3O sepiracrtcx nona 1600
]onin nosnauxn H (naprini) oxymenrin xomnaprinnx i xomco-
montctxnx opranisani ni perionantnoro o nepnnnnoro pinnx. Ipyny-
nannx marepianin y naprinnx ]onax A3O sicneno nacrynnnm un-
nom:
1) na pinni paonin
a) oxymenrn oxpyxnnx xomirerin xomnapri sa 1945 p., nanpnxna:
Cnanxnctxn paxom Komnapri Vxpann (1946-1991 pp.) uon (ani
u.) H-6; Cnanxnctxn oxpyxnn xomirer napri (1945 p.) u. H-7; Cna-
nxnctxn paxom HKCMV (1946-1991 pp.) u. H-8; Feperinctxn pa-
xom Komnapri Vxpann (1946-1991 pp.) u. H-15; Feperinctxn oxpyx-
nn xomirer napri (1945 p.) u. H-16; Feperinctxn paxom HKCMV
(1946-1991 pp.) u. H-17; Mixripctxn paxom Komnapri Vxpann (1946-
1991 pp.) u. H-22; Mixripctxn oxpyxnn xomirer napri (1945 p.)
u. H-23; Mixripctxn paxom HKCMV (1946-1991 pp.) u. H-24.;
) oxymenrn paonnnx xomirerin xomnapri (ra, xx npannno, i pa-
xomin HKCMV) sa 1946-1991 pp.;
2) na pinni nepnnnnnx naprinnx opranisani, soxpema, xonrocnin s
1945-1946 pp. i o nx npnnnnennx icnynannx, peopranisani un snnrrx s
inmom aprinnm (ane maxcnmantno o 1989 p.), nanpnxna: Hepnnnna
napropranisanix xonrocny Crannncxax xoncrnrynnx c. Fepesono Xyc-
rctxoro paony (1945-1960 pp.) - u. H-37; Hepnnnna napropranisanix
xonrocny Honax xnsnt c. Komeneno Xycrctxoro paony (1945-1960
pp.) u. H-44; Hepnnnna napropranisanix xonrocny Conercxn norpa-
nnunnx c. Hynx Bennxoepesnxnctxoro paony (1946-1950 pp.)
u. H-75; Hepnnnna napropranisanix xonrocny im. Opxonixise c. Hmra
Bennxoepesnxnctxoro paony (1946-1983 pp.) u. H-76; Haprxom xon-
rocny Icxpa c. Vrnx Txuinctxoro paony (1945-1976 pp.) u. H-113;
Hepnnnna napropranisanix xonrocny im. Kipona c. Hnxni Cryenn
Mixripctxoro paony (1946-1989 pp.) u. H-228; Hepnnnna napropra-
nisanix xonrocny Fintmonnx c.Cnnennpctxa Honxna Mixripctxoro pa-
ony (1945-1953 pp.) u. H-235; Haprxom xonrocny im. Henina c. Hnnn-
87

nent Mixripctxoro paony (1946-1989 pp.) u. H-239; Haprxom xonroc-
ny Ananrap c. nopono Vxropoctxoro paony (1945-1989 pp.)
u. H-1620.
Ha paonnomy i micnenomy pinnxx, xx sacniuymrt peccrpanini sann-
cn n A3O, ocnonna uacrnna oxymenrantnoro xomnaprinoro marepia-
ny nuennmn ne npoananisonana i n nayxonnx poorax ne nnxopncrana.
Tomy i sapas napro ronopnrn nnme npo nouarox nnnuennx i nnxopncrannx
apxinno xepentno asn arpapno nonirnxn, n r. u. sementno pe]opmn i
nonirnxn xonexrnnisani na 3axapnarri nepmnx nonocnnnx poxin.
Maxe soncim nosa ynarom icropnxin sannmamrtcx oxymenrn s
]onin onacnnx opranin epxanno nnxonanuo nnan, xxi esnocepe-
nto samanncx peanisanicm epxanno arpapno nonirnxn. 3oxpema, rintxn
uacrxono y nayxonnx nynixanixx nnxopncronycrtcx marepian s ]ony
A3O P-179 Onacne ynpanninnx cintctxoro rocnoapcrna. x nxa-
sycrtcx y nepemoni o Onncy 1 uony P-179, naxasom Minicrepcrna
semnepocrna VPCP ni 26 ciunx 1946 p. n 3axapnarctxi onacri yno
crnopeno Onacnn sementnn niin, a n oxpyrax oxpyxni niinn
cintctxoro rocnoapcrna. Haani, srino s naxasom N8-471 Minicrep-
crna cintctxoro rocnoapcrna VPCP ni 5 xnirnx 1947 p. c]opmonano
Onacne ynpanninnx cintctxoro rocnoapcrna, crpyxrypa i ]ynxni xxoro
ynn snauno posmnpeni. Kpim inmoro, n oro cxnai yrnopnnncx noni
crpyxrypni onnnni opranisanino-xonrocnnn niin i ynpanninnx ma-
mnnno-rpaxropnnx cranni (MTC). 3-nomix nnnuennx namn oxymenrin
]ony P-179 na oconnny ynary sacnyronymrt: Hnan ninonnennx i pos-
nnrxy cintctxoro rocnoapcrna onacri, sarnepxenn nocranonom Pan
Minicrpin VPCP ni 20 epesnx 1947 p.
1
, Hnan saxoin s niomy cintctxo-
ro rocnoapcrna 3axapnarctxo onacri na 1947-1950 pp.
2
, onixn npo
picr xintxocri xonrocnin y 1946-1948 pp. ra x exonomiunn cran
3
, na
romn oxymenrin npo xi xonexrnnisani n onacri y 1948 p. n pospisi
oxpyrin
4
, nox niroronunx marepianin 1950 p. s yxpynnennx xonrocnin ra
x nnanin poorn na 1950-1955 pp.
5
ra inmi. Kpim roro, y ]oni P-179 n
oxpemn onnc 1 a nnineno marepiann, xxi panime snaxonnncx na cnen-
iantnomy pexnmi sepirannx. 3nauna uacrnna is nnx oxymenrin crocy-
nanacx nictxono-ooponnnx nnrant
6
.
V ninomy neocnixennm raxox sannmacrtcx yxe naxnnnn marep-
ian s nnpimennx sementnoro nnrannx y 3axapnarctxi onacri n nepmi
nonocnni poxn, mo micrnrtcx y ]oni P-329 Biin semneycrpom 3a-
xapnarctxoro onacnoro ynpanninnx cintctxoro rocnoapcrna (1946-
1955 pp.). Oconnnn inrepec s nic sipxn npecrannxmrt mopiuni snirn
npo posnoin semni sa yrixmn i semnexopncrynauamn cranom sasnnua
na 1 nncronaa norounoro poxy, sa 1946-1950 pp.
7
. C raxi snirn i n pospisi
exxnx paonin (oxpyrin)
8
. Tyr micrxrtcx raxox naxnnni oxymenrantni
88
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
ani npo xintxicrt onoocinnx rocnoapcrn ra npnmycony nixnianim
xyripctxnx nocenent
9
. oxymenrn s ntoro ]ony sacniuymrt, mo me n
1947 p. cxnaanncx cnncxn nomimnntxnx (xypxyntctxnx) rocnoapcrn
3axapnarrx
10
.
xepentnn marepian s ]onin A3O s nponemarnxn ncepranino-
ro ocnixennx moxna raxox srpynynarn sa remarnunnm npnnnnnom. V
ntomy xonrexcri uirxime npocrexymrtcx ocnonni nanpxmn i mexanismn
peanisani arpapno nonirnxn na 3axapnarri 1944-1950 pp. Hpoinmcrpyc-
mo ne na npnxnai naprino-epxanno nonirnxn n c]epi cintctxoro roc-
noapcrna pyro nononnnn 1940 pp.
Ananis sarantnoro macnny apxinnnx oxymenrin sacniuyc, mo maxe
n xoxnomy is ]onin A3O micrxrtcx nacrynni remarnuni noxn mare-
pianin moo mexanismin ]opmynannx i peanisani arpapno nonirnxn:
Ho-nepme, oxymenrn nenrpantnnx i pecnynixanctxnx naprino-pa-
xnctxnx opranin, xxi nnsnauann i npexrnnno ncranonnmnann rononni
sanannx arpapno nonirnxn n CPCP, Vxpani ra n pospisi perionin, n r. u.
3axapnarri. 3oxpema, y ]oni H-1 oxpemnmn cnpanamn nnineno nocra-
nonn i npexrnnni nncrn HK KH()V i Pan Minicrpin Vxpann s nnrant
cintctxoro rocnoapcrna
11
. Binonino, n xxocri snopornoro sn`xsxy, ryr
xe micrxrtcx in]opmani 3axapnarctxoro oxomy napri o nenrpantnnx
naprinnx opranin npo nnxonannx x piment s arpapnnx nnrant
12
.
Ho-pyre, npexrnnni marepiann onacnnx naprinnx i epxannnx
opranin paonnnm (oxpyxnnm) naprinnm i nnxonanunm xomireram s ar-
papnnx nnrant ra in]opmani s micnt npo nnxonannx npexrnn
13
.
Kpim roro, me one remarnune rpynynannx naxnnnx apxinnnx marepi-
anin moxna sicnnrn sa nnamn i nanpxmamn naprino-nonirnuno poo-
rn:
1) oxymenrn s exonomiuno nonirnxn ra arpapno-nnponnunx nnrant;
2) ieonoriuna i ariranino-nponaranncrctxa poora na ceni;
3) opranisanino-naprina i xapona poora.
x aunmo, nanirt s xapaxrepncrnxn nenennxo xintxocri ne onpanto-
nannx nuennmn o nac ]onin A3O, nepepaxonannx nnme, xepentna
asa nnnuennx nponem nonocnno arpapno nonirnxn na 3axapnarri moxe
yrn naararo mnpmom. Tomy camoomexennx ocnixent s icropi sa-
xapnarctxoro cena pyro nononnnn 1940-1950-x pp. rintxn ysarantnenn-
mn ]onamn H-1 i P-195 ne mac norixn i o`cxrnnnnx nicran, ane moxe
yrn cy`cxrnnno noxcnene, no-nepme, rnm, mo snauna uacrnna onyni-
xonannx poir s icropi nonocnnoro saxapnarctxoro cena noyonana sa
nanepe saanom ocninnxom ao sanosnuenom ect cxemom i oxy-
menrantnn marepian nnxopncronycrtcx nnme nx inmcrpani nayma-
nnx inrenexryantnnx xoncrpyxni anropa. A nanpocrime snarn ysa-
rantnmmui aprymenrn nx yxe nonepento c]opmyntonannx nncnonxin
89

moxna n ysarantnmmunx ]onax perionantno naprino ra epxanno
nnan. He ne norpeyc oarxonnx sycnnt i rpnnanoro uacy nx cnincran-
nennx i xpnrnunoro ananisy oxymenrantnnx xepen. Xoua xoxnomy
neynepexenomy ocninnxy ope nioma xapaxrepna nx paxnctxo
on saxonomipnicrt perymynannx ao noxpamennx oxymenrin y xoi
pyxy x snnsy nnepx no manxx naprino-mpoxparnuno crpyxrypn. Io-
nonnnm nx naprinnx i rocnoapctxnx ]ynxnionepin yno nuacno nipa-
noprynarn nnmomy sa panrom naproprany nanirt sa paxynox npnnncox.
A posynannx annx npo cintctxorocnoapctxe nnponnnrno nsarani yno
xponiunom xnopoom paxnctxo cncremn. Hpo ne cniunrt npocre no-
pinnxnnx nouarxonnx s micnt i xinnennx na pinni onacri crarncrnu-
nnx annx, xxi micrxrtcx n apxinnnx oxymenrax.
Ho-pyre, nnnuennxm nponemn saxapnarctxoro cena nepioy nepmnx
nonocnnnx poxin samamrtcx nepenaxno oni ri x nueni, xxi cnenianisy-
nanncx na remi i n paxnctxi poxn. Toi nanirt nipnnx neninnin nnme
osonano onycxann snaomnrncx is oxymenrantnnm marepianom, xxn
sepirancx n onacnomy naprinomy apxini. Ta cami nonn ne sanxn i
axann snarn, mo ryr, xpim oxymenrin oxomy xomnapri, micrxrtcx
marepiann ncix nepnnnnnx naprinnx opranisani. Tintxn xomnaprix mana
monononim na icropnuny npany i icrnny. ]ynxnionepn nnsnauann, mo
came s naxnnnx apxinnnx marepianin moxyrt nnnuarn nueni. Ti, y cnom
uepry, nnnaxono snamonmn oxymenrn s ]axramn, xxi ne nnncynanncx
n pycno o]inino xonnenni, nanpnxna, npo onip nacenennx 3axapnarrx
nonirnni xonexrnnisani, nnme sanoronynann x nx cee. 3apas xe c smo-
ra onpnnmnnrn raxi marepiann. I noexonn rapxui ]axrn nynixymrt-
cx ocninnxamn si craporo araxy - es snipxn is renepimnim rpynynan-
nxm ]onin, onncin i cnpan y A3O.
Hama rpnnana poora na oxymenramn onacnoro apxiny noxasana,
mo ocnrt naroma uacrnna oxymenrantnnx marepianin sa ocnixyna-
nn nepio snaunrtcx nnynnmn. unmano is nnx esnocepento cro-
cycrtcx pisnnx acnexrin arpapno nonirnxn na 3axapnarri n 1946-1950 pp.
Ananis onncin cnncxin cnpan sacniuyc, mo n A3O nnpoonx 1970-
1991 pp. yno sicneno, npnnamni, rpn pasn perentnn nepernx i nnny-
uennx marepianin.
Hepmn y 1973 p., xonn is naprinnx ]onin niipann manosna-
unmi marepiann i ninpannnn xx maxynarypy na nepepoxy, xoua yt-
xxn apxinnn oxymenr naxnnnn s nornxy icropnuno nam`xri i oro
snnmennx c monamenm napnapcrnom. He moxemo aprymenronano crnep-
xynarn, ane raacmo, mo raxe nnnyuennx yno non`xsano nacamnepe
is crnopennxm s nouarxy 70-x poxin xyntry H.I. Fpexncna, xxn omac-
nnnnn 3axapnarrx cnocm npncyrnicrm n 1944 p. Heaxani oxymen-
rantni cniuennx npo rencexa nanpx un mornn sannmarncx n apxini.
90
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
pyrn y xonrni 1990 p., xonn ninecnpxmonano nnnyuancx nect ma-
repian, mo crocynancx nsacmoi naprinnx i penpecnnnnx opranin, nep-
conantnnx cnpan xepinnnx epxannnx i naprinnx xapin romo. Fesy-
monno, nin snnmenn i snnx esnonoporno. Vnarn sacnyronyc ara nic
penisi xonrent 1990 p. Toro, me maxe sa pix o posnay CPCP,
saoponn KHPC i KHV (nicnx cepnnenoro 1991 p. nyruy IKuH) ra
ycamocrinennx Vxpann. 3naunrt, yxe roi nonepento samiranncx
xnocrn i xomynicrnunn pexnm ycniomneno snnmynan oxymenrantni
cniuennx npo cnom nesaxonny i xapantny ixntnicrt ra xomnpomerym-
un xomnapriny nomenxnarypy marepian, n romy uncni sa nepio 40-
50-rnx pp. XX cr. V 1990 p. naintmy uncrxy oxymenrin yno spone-
no y uoni H-1, nacamnepe n marepianax racmno uacrnnn oconnnoro
cexropy oxomy napri. 3 nic sipxn meronuno pix sa poxom nnnyua-
nncx marepiann npo ixntnicrt paxnctxo xapantno cncremn moo no-
annennx yxpanctxoro nanionantno-nnsnontnoro pyxy, cenxnctxnx nn-
crynin ra inmnx ]axrin nixpnroro npoxny nenononennx nacenennxm
3axapnarrx xomynicrnunnm pexnmom
14
.
Ane nanixanime, mo rperc s niomnx nam nnnyuent apxinnnx marep-
ianin is ]onin A3O niynocx 16 cepnnx 1991 p. nctoro sa rpn (!) ni
o nyruy IKuH 19-21 cepnnx 1991 p. Hpocro rax cninnacrn axnix uncr-
xn apxiny s nyruem nanpx un morna. Bnacrtcx, mo rnopni ra nnxonanni
nyruy cami nanepe ne nipnnn y moxnnnicrt peanimani xomnaprino nx-
rarypn, nnaxann nncryn npnpeuennm i rorynanncx o naripmoro. B xoi
cepnnenoro 1991 p. nnnyuennx apxinnnx marepianin niunmeno yno nanirt
]onn paonnnx xomynicrnunnx xomirerin, nanpnxna, Myxauinctxoro
15
.
Taxnm unnom, paxnctxa xomynicrnuna cncrema cniomo snyxynana
xepentno-apxinny asy nnnuennx icropnunoro mnnynoro 3axapnarrx.
Onax, nonnicrm ninenmnarn oxymenrantny icropnuny cnamnny ne
smorna. Tomy y ]onax A3O micrxrtcx me naxnnni neonynixonani
oxymenrn, n romy uncni s icropi arpapno nonirnxn n xpa pyro nono-
nnnn 1940-x pp.
uepes pax ocxry, synnnnmocx na niomi nnme omexenomy xony
icropnxin rpyni apxinnnx oxymenrin, xxi sacniuymrt icnynannx antrep-
narnnnoro napianry nnopy arpapno nonirnxn i mnxxy posnnrxy cintctxoro
rocnoapcrna xpam y 1950 p. Vxropoctxnmn icropnxamn B.I. Intxo ra
I.B. Intxo n A3O nnepme yno nnxnneno nasnnuano naxnnnn nx
posyminnx nponem arpapno pe]opmn i arpapno nonirnxn na 3axapnarri
n nepmi nonocnni poxn oxymenr. V nmromy 1950 p. xepinnnxn micnennx
naprinnx i epxannnx opranin 3axapnarrx cnpoynann onecrn Kncny
neonintnicrt i exonomiuny nee]exrnnnicrt cynintno xonexrnnisani xoua
y cmysi ripctxnx nacenennx nynxrin. o HK Komynicrnuno napri
(intmonnxin) Vxpann 4 nmroro 1950 p. yno nanpanneno onixy npo
91

Hpo cran i noantmn posnnrox cintctxoro rocnoapcrna y ripctxnx
cenax 3axapnarctxo onacri, ninncany rononom 3axapnarctxoro on-
nnxonxomy I.I. Typxnnnem i nepmnm cexperapem oxomy xomnapri
I.. Komnannem
16
.
V namomy posnopxxenni c nonna xonix anoro oxymenry. Ocnonnnm
oro nncnonxom yno nonoxennx, mo opranisanix n ripctxnx cenax
cintctxorocnoapctxnx aprine c neonintnom. Bncrynnrn s raxom
neopnnapnom ininiarnnom y nepio craninctxoro nxrary ra xypcy na
cynintny xonexrnnisanim n 3axapnarri npocro rax onacne naprino-ep-
xanne xepinnnnrno ne morno. He napro nepeoninmnarn pinent camo-
crinocri, cminnnocri i pimyuocri roimnix nomenxnarypnnx xapin. Hpn-
unnn noxnn ntoro oxymenry nonxrann n inmomy.
Hponeenn namn oarxonn ananis marepianin ]onin A3O sacni-
uyc, mo cnpoa saxapnarctxoro xepinnnnrna nsxrn ni cymnin onintnicrt
cynintno xonexrnnisani n ripctxnx paonax 3axapnarrx yna nnxnnxana
mnnme coniantno-exonomiunnmn unnnnxamn. Konexrnnne rocnoapcrno
y ripctxi soni npocro yno nee]exrnnnnm, a nx oro neennx enemen-
rapno ne nncrauano semni. I nsarani xnreni ripctxo cmyrn nepenaxno
ynn sanxri na nicopospoxax ao samanncx nixinnnrnom, rax xx
nemoxnnno yno icnynarn sa paxynox xynnx sementnnx nainin. In]op-
manix npo raxi nerarnnn yna sipana i npoananisonana nnanono-exonom-
iunnm niinom onacnoro ynpanninnx cintctxoro rocnoapcrna. V ]on-
ax A3O namn nnxnneno px npnnnnnono nonnx oxymenrin onynpan-
ninnx moo ntoro: 3neeni exonomiuni noxasnnxn 12-rn ripctxnx xon-
rocnin nx pospoxn saxoin s posnnrxy cintctxoro rocnoapcrna y xon-
rocnax no oxpyrax onacri na 1950-1955 pp., Hepenix exonomiunnx no-
xasnnxin ripctxnx xonrocnin nx pospoxn saxoin is posnnrxy cintctxoro
rocnoapcrna n xonrocnax Bennxoepesnxnctxoro, Bononentxoro i Bon-
inctxoro oxpyrin onacri na 1950-1955 p.
17
.
Haneeni y nnx oxymenrax xonxperni ani nxrnn n ocnony aprymen-
rani nnctmonoro snepnennx onacnoro xepinnnnrna o Kncna is npono-
snnicm ne nomnpmnarn xonexrnnisanim na cena ripctxo cmyrn. Ane i
came onacne ynpanninnx cintctxoro rocnoapcrna raxox 4 nmroro
1950 p. nanpannno ranysenomy pecnynixanctxomy minicrepcrny cnen-
iantny in]opmanim npo noantmn posnnrox cintctxoro rocnoapcrna y
ripctxnx xonrocnax 3axapnarctxo onacri
18
. 3a smicrom, nncnonxamn i
nponosnnixmn nx in]opmanix yna nnstxom o nncra-snepnennx saxap-
narctxoro onacnoro xepinnnnrna o HK KH()V.
Taxnm unnom, noni apxinni xepena sacniuymrt, mo y nmromy
1950 p. xepinnnnrno 3axapnarctxo onacri sponno cnpoy ne nomnpnrn
cynintny xonexrnnisanim na ripctxi paonn. Ane yno nxe nisno. Banc na
snaxene xoonepynannx cintctxoro rocnoapcrna 3axapnarrx sa napo-
92
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
no-emoxparnunom moennm cycinix xpan Cxino Cnponn nrparnncx
me n 1944-1946 pp.
CHHCOK BHKOPHCTAHHX EPEA
1. Hnan noccranonnennx n pasnnrnx centcxoro xosxcrna onacrn, yrnepxen-
nt nocranonnennem Conera Mnnncrpon VCCP (20.03.47 r.) // u.P-179. On. 1.
Cnp. 52. A. 1 - 7.
2. Hnan meponpnxrn no ntnonnennm nocranonnennx ]enpantcxoro 1947 r.
Hnenyma HK BKH() no nonpocy noema centcxoro xosxcrna n nocnenoennt
nepno no onacrn na 1947-1950 rr. // u.P-179. On. 1. Cnp. 66. A. 1 - 16.
3. Cnpanxa n cneennx o xonnuecrne n pocre xonxoson sa 1946-1948 rr., +xono-
mnuecxne annte no nnm n yuer ncnontsonanntx sement no oxpyram onacrn
(1.09.-22.11.1948 r.) // u.P-179. On. 1. Cnp. 198. A. 1 - 5.
4. Oruert n nn]opmannn o xoe xonnexrnnnsannn xonxoson n +xonomnuecxne
annte n paspese oxpyron sa 1948 ro . T. I. (28.01.-30.08.1948 r.) // u.P-179. On. 1.
Cnp. 203. A. 1 - 145; Oruert n nn]opmannn o xoe xonnexrnnnsannn xonxoson n
+xonomnuecxne annte n paspese oxpyron sa 1948 ro . T. II. (1.09.-12.12.1948 r.)
// u.P-179. On. 1. Cnp. 204. A. 1 - 55.
5. Hn]opmannn, oruert o xoe xonnexrnnnsannn xpecrtxncxnx xosxcrn, yx-
pynnennn xonxoson sa 1950 ro (20.04.-1.12.1950 r.) // u.P-179. On. 1. Cnp.582. A.1
- 45; oxymenrt (nporoxont, cnpanxn, axrt n pyrne) o nponepxe xosxcrnen-
no exrentnocrn n xoe yxpynnennx xonxoson no onacrn sa 1950 ro (15.04.1950-
10.06.1951 rr.) // u.P-179. On. 1. Cnp. 583. A. 1 - 206.
6. Hepenncxa c ncnonnnrentntm xomnrerom onacrnoro Conera enyraron
rpyxmnxcx c nonncxnmn uacrxmn o ntenennn yuacrxon, centcxoxosxcrnenntx
yron, tnmnx monacrtpcxnx sement n r. Myxauene nx cnennaonocrn, o
nponepxe nomae na can n pyrnm centcxoxosxcrnenntm nonpocam (25.01.-
24.10.1946 r.) // u.P-179. On. 1 a. Cnp.1. A.1 - 18; oxymenrt (nocranonnennx,
pemennx, xaprt, nnant-cxemt n nepenncxa) o ntenennn sement no oxpyram
onacrn no noennte nonnront, narepx n crpentnma n pyrne noennte nenn
(13.03.-21.12.1946 r.) // u.P-179. -On. 1 a. Cnp. 4. A. 1 - 52; Hepenncxa c Mnnn-
crepcrnom centcxoro xosxcrna VCCP, ncnonxomom onacrnoro Conera enyra-
ron rpyxmnxcx n pyrnmn o ornoe necno nnoman n o nepeaue sementntx
yuacrxon nx a+popomon, norpannuntx crannn, narepe, crpentnm, annano-
nnronon n oexron panocamoneronoxennx (7.01.-29.12.1947 r.) // u.P-179. On. 1
a. Cnp.6. A. 1 - 39; Hepenncxa c Mnnncrepcrnom centcxoro xosxcrna VCCP c
Vnpannennem semneycrpocrna n cenoooporon no ornoy sement no a+popo-
mt n annanonnront (9.01.-29.12.1948 r.) // u.P-179. On. 1 a. Cnp.10. A. 1 - 149;
Hepenncxa c Conerom Mnnncrpon VCCP, Mnnncrepcrnom cnxsn VCCP, ncnonnn-
rentntm xomnrerom onacrnoro Conera enyraron rpyxmnxcx n c pyrnmn o
ntenennn sement nonncxnm uacrxm no crponrentcrno a+popomon, cnenyuac-
rxon n pyrnx nonncxnx nene (1.01.-1.12.1949 r.) // u.P-179. On. 1 a. Cnp.15.
A. 1 - 12; oxymenrt (npnxast, oruert, nnant, nepenncxa n p.) o pasnnrnn
93

centcxoro xosxcrna n xnnornonocrna n oxpyrax, o nepeaue nomae n ]on
H.C.A. n o ntenennn sement no a+popomt - T. I. (29.01.-7.05.1949 r.) //
u.P-179. On. 1 a. Cnp.28. A.1 - 101; oxymenrt (npnxast, oruert, nnant, nepe-
nncxa n p.) o pasnnrnn centcxoro xosxcrna n xnnornonocrna n oxpyrax, o nepe-
aue nomae n ]on H.C.A. n o ntenennn sement no a+popomt. T. II.
(16.05.-19.10.1949 r.) // u.P-179. On. 1 a. Cnp.29. A. 1 - 126; oxymenrt (npnxast,
oruert, nnant, nepenncxa n p.) o pasnnrnn centcxoro xosxcrna n xnnornono-
crna n oxpyrax, o nepeaue nomae n ]on H.C.A. n o ntenennn sement no
a+popomt. T.III. (24.10.-28.12.1949 r.) // u.P-179. On. 1 a. Cnp.30. A. 1 - 84;
Hpnxast onacrnoro ynpannennx centcxoro xosxcrna no amnnncrparnnno-xo-
sxcrnenntm n ooponntm nonpocam sa 1950 ro (10.01.-13.12.1950 r.) // u.P-179.
On. 1 a. Cnp. 32. A. 1 - 54.
7. Oruer o pacnpeenennn semnn no yrotxm n semnenontsonarenxm no 3axap-
narcxo onacrn sa 1946 ro // u.P-329. On. 1. Cnp.16. A. 1 - 15; Oruer o pacnpee-
nennn semnn no yrotxm n semnenontsonarenxm no 3axapnarcxo onacrn sa
1947 ro // u.P-329. On. 1. Cnp.47. A. 1 - 70. Oruer o pacnpeenennn semnn no
yrotxm n semnenontsonarenxm na 1 noxpx 1948 roa. T. I. // u.P-329. On. 1.
Cnp.73. A. 1 - 59; Oruer o pacnpeenennn semnn no yrotxm n semnenontsonare-
nxm na 1 noxpx 1948 roa. T. II. // u.P-329. On. 1. Cnp.74. A. 1 - 63 ; Oruer o
pacnpeenennn semnn no yrotxm n semnenontsonarenxm no 3axapnarcxo ona-
crn na 1 noxpx 1949 roa // u.P-329. On. 1. Cnp.108. A. 1 - 92; Oruer o pacnpee-
nennn semnn no yrotxm n semnenontsonarenxm no 3axapnarcxo onacrn na 1
noxpx 1950 roa // u.P-329. On. 1. Cnp. 142. A. 1 - 105.
8. Oruer o pacnpeenennn semnn no yrotxm n semnenontsonarenxm no Bonon-
cxomy oxpyry sa 1947 ro // u.P-329. On. 1. Cnp.50. A. 1 - 26; Oruer o pacnpeene-
nnn semnn no yrotxm n semnenontsonarenxm no Bononcxomy oxpyry na 1 nox-
px 1948 roa. // u.P-329. On. 1. Cnp. 78. A. 1 - 24.
9. Cnonte neomocrn ennnuntx nopon n xyropon no 3axapnarcxo onacrn
sa 1950 ro // u.P-329. On. 1. Cnp. 132. A. 1 - 400; oxymenrt o ccenennn xyropc-
xnx xosxcrn c omecrnenno semnn xonxoson (nocranonnennx, nnant, neomoc-
rn n p.) sa 1950 ro // u.P-329. On. 1. Cnp. 133. A. 1 - 229.
10. Cnncxn nomemnutnx xosxcrn n 3axapnarcxo onacrn sa 1947 ro //
u.P-329. On. 1. Cnp. 34. A. 1 - 6.
11. npexrnnnte nnctma HK KH()Vxpannt no nonpocam centcxoro xosx-
crna (5.02.48 r. 28.11.48 r.) // u.H-1. On. 1. Cnp. 595. A. 1 - 49; Hocranonnennx
Conera Mnnncrpon CCCP no nonpocam centcxoro xosxcrna (16.01.48 r.
17.12.48 r.) // u.H-1. On. 1. Cnp. 596. A.1 - 121.
12. Hn]opmannn, cnpanxn, oruert oxoma naprnn o xoe ntnonnennx nocra-
nonnenn HK KH() Vxpannt no nonpocam centcxoro xosxcrna (21.01.48 r.
25.09.48 r.) // u.H-1. On. 1. Cnp. 616. A. 1 - 59; Hn]opmannn, oruert oxoma
naprnn HK KH()V o xoe xonnexrnnnsannn centcxoro xosxcrna (25.03.48 r.-
27.12.48 r.) // u.H-1. On. 1. Cnp. 617. A.1 - 36; Hn]opmannn, oxnante sanncxn
oxoma naprnn HK KH()V no nonpocam centcxoro xosxcrna (21.01.48 r.
25.11.48 r.) // u.H-1. On. 1. Cnp. 618. A. 1 - 123; Hn]opmannn, cnpanxn oxoma
naprnn HK KH()V no nonpocam centcxoro xosxcrna (21.01.48 r. 25.11.48 r.) //
u.H-1. On. 1. Cnp. 619. A. 1 - 70; Hepenncxa oxoma naprnn c Conerom mnnncrpon
94
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
VCCP no nonpocam centcxoro xosxcrna (1.04.48 r. 28.12.48 r.) // u.H-1. On. 1.
Cnp.618. A. 1 - 123; Hn]opmannn cnpanxn paornnxon orena centcxoro xosx-
crna o xoe ntnonnennx nocranonnenn HK KH()V no nonpocam centcxoro xo-
sxcrna (6.03.48 r. 11.11.48 r.) // u.H-1. On. 1. Cnp.772. A. 1 - 60.
13. npexrnnnte nnctma oxoma naprnn oxpyxxomam no nonpocam centcxo-
ro xosxcrna (2.02.48 r. 31.12.48 r.) // u.H-1. On. 1. Cnp. 774. A. 1 - 19; Hn]opma-
nnn Hepeunncxoro, Paxoncxoro, Cennmmcxoro, Txuencxoro oxpyxxomon naprnn
no nonpocam centcxoro xosxcrna (19.04.48 r. 22.06.48 r.) // u.H-1. On. 1.
Cnp. 776. A. 1 - 7.
14. oxnante sanncxn, cnpanxn, cnenonencennx Vnpannennx MIF o an-
]opmnponannxx, nnxnnannn oynoncxoro nonontx, nannonanncrnuecxnx opra-
nnsann (09.02.47 r. 31.12.47 r.) // u.H-1. On. 1. Cnp. 253. A.1 - 124; Cnpanxn,
oxnante sanncxn, nn]opmannonnte coomennx ynpannennx MIF o pennrn-
osno cnryannn, anrnconercxnx ecrnnxx nexoroptx cnyxnrene pennrnosntx
xyntron (08.02.47 r. 11.11.47 r.) // u.H-1. On. 1. Cnp. 254. A. 1 - 26; oxnante
sanncxn, nn]opmannonnte coomennx ynpannenn MIF, MB, onnpoxypopa
o enoprannn ns onacrn rpaxan uemcxo, cnonanxo, nenrepcxo nannonant-
nocrn, ]axrax napymenn rocyapcrnenno rpannnt, o ecrecrnennom nnxennn
nacenennx (07.01.47 r. 23.01.49 r.) // u.H-1. On. 1. Cnp. 258. A. 1 - 54; Hn]opmannx
oxoma naprnn HK KH()V o ntnonnennn nocranonnennx HK KH()V
or 1 nmnx 1948 r. O ynyumennn maccono-nonnrnuecxo paort, antnemem
pasnnrnn xonxosnoro crponrentcrna n nnxnnannn ocrarxon an yxpanncxo-ne-
menxnx nannonanncron n sanantx onacrxx VCCP (06.08.48 r.) // u.H-1. On. 1.
Cnp. 576. A. 1 - 11; Hn]opmannn paornnxon oxoma, oxpyxxomon naprnn o
reppopncrnuecxnx axrax an OVH na reppnropnn onacrn (26.07.48 r.
20.08.48 r.) // u.H-1. On. 1. Cnp.586. A.1 - 23; Cnpanxn, oxnante sanncxn, cnen-
onecennx opranon MIF n MB o annrcxnx npoxnnennxx OVH na reppnropnn
onacrn (05.03.48 r. 14.12.48 r.) // u.H-1. On. 1. Cnp. 587. A. 1 - 82.
15. Xapaxrepncrnxn o cocroxnnn xonxoson Myxauencxoro oxpyra sa 1947 ro
(1947 r.) // u.H-9. On. 1. Cnp. 18. A. 1 - 75. (Vnnuroxeno 3HK N18 16.08.1991 r.);
Cnpanxn, nn]opmannn orena n nporoxont snententx xonxoson no nonpocam: o
meponpnxrnxx no nororonxe necennero cena, npononouno n yopouno xam-
nannn, o noeme omecrnennoro xnnornonocrna, o paore naproprannsann
no oecneuennm ntnonnennx xonxosnnxamn, pnraamn, snentxmn n MTC ox-
sarentcrn nsxrtx n nnctme Crannny, o ntnonnennn xneosaroronox no oxpyry, o
mepax no ynyumennm, oprannsannn, nontnennm nponsnonrentnocrn onnart
rpya n xonxosax, o naprnno-oprannsannonno paore nepnnuntx naproprann-
sann oxpyra n pyrne (Vnnuroxeno 16.08.1991 r.) (19.01.-28.10.1948 r.) // u.H-9.
On. 1. Cnp.46. A.1 - 52.
16. Hn]opmannn, oxnante sanncxn oxoma naprnn HK KH()V no nonpo-
cam xonnexrnnnsannn centcxoro xosxcrna. T. 1 (4.01.50 r. - 28.07.50 r.) //
u.H-1. On. 1. Cnp. 1276. A. 36 - 44.
17. Cnonte +xonomnuecxne noxasarenn 12 ropntx xonxoson nx paspaorxn
meponpnxrn no pasnnrnm centcxoro xosxcrna no oxpyram onacrn na 1950-
1955 rr. // u.P-179. On. 1. Cnp.631. A. 1 - 34; Hepeuent +xonomnuecxnx noxasarene
ropntx xonxoson nx paspaorxn meponpnxrn no pasnnrnm centcxoro xosxcrna
95

n xonxosax Bennxoepesnxncxoro, Bononenxoro n Bononcxoro oxpyron onacrn
na 1950-1955 rr. // u.P-179. On. 1. Cnp. 632. A. 1 - 104; Hepeuent +xonomnuecxnx
noxasarene ropntx xonxoson nx paspaorxn meponpnxrn no pasnnrnm centc-
xoro xosxcrna n xonxosax Hpmancxoro, Myxauencxoro n Hepeunncxoro oxpyron
onacrn na 1950-1955 rr. // u.P-179. On. 1. Cnp.633. A. 1 - 105; Hepeuent +xonomn-
uecxnx noxasarene ropntx xonxoson nx paspaorxn meponpnxrn no pasnnrnm
centcxoro xosxcrna n xonxosax Cnanxncxoro, Cennmmcxoro n Paxoncxoro oxpy-
ron onacrn na 1950-1955 rr. // u.P-179. On. 1. Cnp. 634. A. 1 - 104; Hepeuent
+xonomnuecxnx noxasarene ropntx xonxoson nx paspaorxn meponpnxrn no
pasnnrnm centcxoro xosxcrna n xonxosax Txuencxoro, Vxropocxoro n Xycrcxo-
ro oxpyron onacrn na 1950-1955 rr. // u.P-179. On. 1. Cnp. 635. A.1 - 104.
18. Hn]opmannx Mnnncrepcrny centcxoro xosxcrna VCCP o cocroxnnn n
antnemem pasnnrnn centcxoro xosxcrna n ropntx xonxosax onacrn
(4.02.1950 r.) // u.P-179. On. 1. Cnp. 680. A. 1 - 16.
96
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Bacnnnn KOHAH
THHH OIOPO, X EBOAKHIR TA
KOHCTPYKTHBHI OCOBAHBOCTI
HA 3AKAPHATTI KIHHR XIX HEPmO
HOAOBHHH XX c1oni11n
3ayona nopin y namnx cenax yna rnnoxo npoymana y rocnoapct-
xomy ninomenni i saranom nnsnauanact posmipamn sementnnx nainin.
uacan yinent ynn snepneni o nynnni ao connx, rnntnom croponom
o npncanno inxnxn. Oropoxi, nopora, xniprxn, saropon sana-
noct n, nema n romy uoroct oconnnoro. Ta es nnx ne moxna yxnnrn
coi cenxnctxoro oicrx. He nnno, mo n arartox yxpanctxnx nicnxx
c cnona npo nopora, oropoxi. Fararo s nnx rax i nounnamrtcx: O, nn-
y, x sa nopora. 3raymrtcx nopora i y niomi nicni, nomnpeni na 3a-
xapnarri, Bxe n m yna xana, nxe n m yna mna...:
Bxe n m yna xana,
nxe n m yna mna.
Hnm cnom noporam,
ne nxnonnnact x.
Knanxmct nam nopora,
e croxna xnonni pora,
intm ne yyrt ne yyrt [1].
Tema ocnixennx oropox, xx i naponoro xnrnonoro ra rocnoapct-
xoro yinnnnrna 3axapnarrx, cranonnrt neni`cmny uacrnny sarantno-
nanionantno cxapnnni yxpanctxoro napoy. Cni nimirnrn, mo na 3a-
xapnarri cnocrepiracrtcx unmano micnennx oconnnocre, xxi cxnannct
ynpoonx nixin, nnacniox ninoninnx unnnnxin. Htomy cnpnxna raxox
ernorpa]iuna mosaxa cepe yxpanctxoro ernocy 3axapnarrx. 3oxpe-
ma, ryr pospisnxmrt ernorpa]iuni rpynn onnnxn, nemxin, oxin ra ry-
nynin. Be onnm unnnnxom c esnocepenc cycicrno s yropnxmn, cno-
naxamn ra pymynamn.
Oni is nepmnx niomocre npo xnrno ra oro cxnaoni isnacmoct is
npani Amani Koxminono Hixapnarctxa Pyct. Bona, soxpema, nano-
nrt xapaxrepncrnxy sonnimntoro nnrnxy nepxonnnctxoro cena (Vxan-
mnnn): xnrna, rocnoapctxnx yinent, oropox. Onax, ne ]parmenrapni
niomocri [38].
ueip Bonx, y monorpa]i Cryi s yxpanctxo ernorpa]i ra anrpono-
nori (nnmna nocmeprno), sponn onnc rynyntctxo rpaxn, can oxin
i nemxin (rax snannx onrnx xar) [4].
97

V crarri B. Ciunnctxoro Erpyctxn im i rynyntctxn oceox e-
rantno onncano rynyntctxy cany-rpaxy ra nisnaueno nnonnxny
cxoxicrt s erpyctxnm omom. Tyr xnani]ixonano posrnxnyro rnnn, napi-
anrn can, xoncrpyxrnnni npnomn i rexnixy yinnnnrna [22, 1-15].
Cni nnecox y ocnixennx naponoro yinnnnrna yxpannin 3axap-
narrx sponn paxnctxn ernorpa] I.u. Cnmonenxo. Bin sipan nennn
nontonn marepian i na oro ocnoni sponn cnpoy nnsnaunrn nnanynantni
rnnn nocenent i can, apeann x nomnpennx, noan cnom xnacn]ixanim
xnrnonnx yinent i enonmnim yxono neui. Onax, anrop ponrt
nocnimni nncnonxn. Hosa ynarom oro ocnixennx sannmnnoct snaune
uncno nocenent xpam [23; 24; 25].
V xnnsi H.I. Rpuenxa epen`xne souecrno Vxpann nenne micne
nineene xapaxrepncrnni naponoro xnrna xapnarctxnx ernorpa]iu-
nnx rpyn (rynynin, oxin, nemxin), posrnxamrtcx npnxmerni pncn apxi-
rexrypn xnrna, xoncrpyxrnnni oconnnocri romo [37].
Cnpoy npoananisynarn cnintni ra niminni pncn yxpanctxnx xapnarct-
xnx ernorpa]iunnx rpyn ra cnonantxoro nacenennx xpam sponna y cno
crarri H.M. Ipanianctxa. Xoua nx naromnx nncnonxin i ysarantnent
xnno paxynano ]axronoriunoro nontonoro marepiany ra apxinnnx xe-
pen [8].
Oxpemnm nnrannxm naponoro yinnnnrna Vxpanctxnx Kapnar xintxa
npant npncnxrnn Rpi Iomxo [6; 7]. Hi oro xepinnnnrnom ra sa esno-
cepento yuacri niroronneno ysarantnmmui monorpa]i Foxinmnna
ra Iynyntmnna [2; 10]. Ha xant, y oro poorax nnxopncrano mano
nixanoro ]axronoriunoro marepiany, mo crocynancx saxapnarctxo ua-
crnnn Kapnar.
Hponemy nononnnctxoro rocnoapcrna, oropox, saropo nx onent
na Iynyntmnni ocnixyc y cnox npanxx ernorpa] M.. Mannypa [16;
17]. Anrop erantno onncyc ninuapctxi xonnn, micnx nx onnx onent
(crpynxn, crpynrn), sneprac ynary na x xoncrpyxrnnni oconnnocri.
Hnrannm xnnnx i rocnoapctxnx sayon na nononnnax Iynyntmnnn
npncnxrnn cnom crarrm I. Mornrnu [18]. Anrop nninxc uornpn nnn
xnnnx sayon: sacraxn, xonnn, cra, snmapxn, noamun x
erantnn onnc.
3 npaxrnuno ra nopinnxntno rouxn sopy nixannmn c ocnixennx npo
erniuny cnenn]ixy yropnin, ernoxyntrypnn posnnrox nimnin 3axapnar-
rx. He, nacamnepe poorn I.H. Iposono ra T.. uinimonono [9; 36].
V npanxx nnx anropin nnineno micne nx xapaxrepncrnxn naponoro
xnrna nnme sraannx nanionantnnx menmnn xpam.
Onn is posinin cnoc npani xnnnm i rocnoapctxnmn yinnxm xpam,
n romy uncni oropoxam, npncnxrnn H.I. Maxymenxo [15]. Onax, ma-
repian noano ]parmenrapno. Hinnicrt anoro nnannx nonxrac n romy,
98
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
mo anrop noac 74 inmcrpani is sopaxennxmn cintctxnx xpacnnin, cra-
pnx epen`xnnx xar, nepxon s x xoncrpyxrnnnnmn enemenramn, pisni rnnn
oropox, nanxono oropox. B ani xnnsi posrnxamrtcx nam`xrxn XVII
nouarxy XX cr.
Hinnom npn ocnixenni rnnin oropox na 3axapnarri c npanx
B.H. Camononnua [21]. B ani monorpa]i posrnxamrtcx oconnnocri
xyoxntoro i xoncrpyxrnnnoro nnpimennx naponoro xnrna, rocnoapct-
xnx yinent i mannx apxirexrypnnx ]opm (soxpema, oropox, nopir). Oc-
rannim npncnxueno oxpemn posin. Anrop noac nixani marepiann ra
samantonxn npo rnnn nopir na 3axapnarri, soxpema, erantno sopaxyc
macnnni pistneni nopora, mo noyrynann cepe pymynctxoro nacenennx
xpam.
Hennn marepian no oropoxam soxpema, ra rocnoapctxnm yinnxm
n ninomy, nmimeno y xonexrnnni npani Hapona apxirexrypa Vxpanct-
xnx Kapnar XV-XX cr. [20].
x nopinnxntnn marepian moxna nnxopncrarn monorpa]im niomoro
yxpanctxoro ernorpa]a Apxnna annnmxa [11]. ana icropnxo-ernor-
pa]iuna xnnra nnepme nonynxpno nncnirnmc yxpanctxe napone xnrno
y cnnresi noyronoro apxirexrypnoro ra ecrernunoro acnexry. Posrnx-
nyro pisni rnnn nnanynannx rpannino oceni rocnoapctxnx cnopy
pisnnx perionin Vxpann. Posxpnro sn`xsox ecrernunoro opasy yxpa-
nctxo xarn s yxonnom cyrnicrm napoy, oro icropnunom nam`xrrm.
nx nac xnnxc coom inrepec posin Iocnoapctxn nip, soxpema,
oro niposin O nny x sa nopora. 3oxpema, anrop ryr nanonrt
xapaxrepncrnxy ]parmenrin oropox neprnxantnoro i ropnsonrantnoro
nnerinnx, noac marepian npo nepenasn [11, 93-107].
Hasnnuano ninnom c monorpa]ix Mnxana Tnnoapa [30]. Tyr nnepme
n yxpanctxi ernonori na ocnoni nayxono orpynronannx xpnrepin i a-
rarnx nontonnx, apxinnnx ra icropiorpa]iunnx marepianin anropom npo-
neeno ysarantnmmue nnnuennx rpanninoro cxorapcrna Vxpanctxnx
Kapnar n crarnni pyro nononnnn XIX nepmo nononnnn XX cr. i y
nnamini ernoxyntrypnnx, ernoconiantnnx ra ernononirnunnx nponecin I-
II rnc. o n.e. Bocrn posin ano npani micrnrt marepian npo nono-
nnnctxi rocnoapctxi yinni. Tyr noano erantny xapaxrepncrnxy pisnnx
nnin oropox, saropo: nepenocni ra nenepenocni xomapn, xomapn nx
onent nepe onnxm (oxin), cneniantne niammx nx onnx onent
(crpynxa) ra in. [30, 279-294].
He oirnct, snnuano, npn ocnixenni yt-xxnx acnexrin napo-
no apxirexrypn xpam i es poir H.M. ueaxa [31; 32; 33; 34; 35]. An-
rop nnepme n yxpanctxi ernonori na ocnoni nontonnx, apxinnnx ra icro-
piorpa]iunnx marepianin nceiuno ocninn rnnn i ]opmn rpanninnx
cintctxnx nocenent, can, nopin, xnren i rocnoapctxnx yinent yx-
99

pannin 3axapnarrx XVIII nouarxy XX cr., npocnixynan x posnnrox s
20-x pp. o XX cr.
Orxe, oxapaxrepnsynanmn icropiorpa]im ocnixynano namn remn,
mn moxemo xoncrarynarn, mo oxpemo npani no rnnam oropox ra x xon-
crpyxrnnnnx oconnnocrxm na 3axapnarri nema. Bci ani npo nnx micrxrt-
cx n oxpemnx posinax ra naparpa]ax sarantnnx npant ra crare na
ernorpa]iuny remarnxy. Anrop anoro ocnixennx nparne siparn nm
in]opmanim n cnne nine, sanyunnmn o ne nnacni cnocrepexennx ra
nontoni marepiann, a raxox ]oroinmcrparnnnn marepian, ocmncnnrn ra
cncremarnsynarn .
Baxnnny pont y xoncrpyxrnnni sayoni cintctxnx can, nynnuni
cncremi niirpanann cnopyn mannx apxirexrypnnx ]opm: nopora, xniprxa,
pisni oropoxi, saropon. Bonn xpim ninoninoro ]ynxnionantnoro npn-
snauennx naanann cani i nocenennxm n ninomy apxirexrypno-xyox-
nto onepmenocri, cnocpinocri i nenonropnoro noxantnoro xonopnry.
Pisni nnn oropox y nocnanni is senennm ne nnme noxpamymrt naro-
ycrpi i naamrt cani onepmenoro nny, ane i n snauni mipi onon-
nmmrt i sarauymrt apxirexrypnn ancamnt xnno xarn, nin sn`xsym-
un ra inmi sayonn n cnne nine. He cnpnxc crnopennm ancamnm
sayonn ne nnme cann, ane ycic nynnni.
Apxirexrypa mannx ]opm sanexnrt ni sacroconannx micnennx yi-
nentnnx marepianin, a raxox ni apxirexrypno-xyoxnix rpanni, mo
cxnannct n romy un inmomy perioni.
Bopora (nopora, nopornnnx, pama, nopra, xanypa) n
cintctxnx canax 3axapnarrx moxna posinnrn na exintxa nnin:
1) y ripctxnx paonax onn is npontorin oropoxi s xepnn (nopnn-
nx);
2) nnereni nopora;
3) nopora na ryxnax, mo saxpnnamrtcx na epen`xnn rax (xnyx):
a) nnereni;
) s xepnn.;
4) nopora s npornnarom;
5) omari nopora:
a) omxn mintno npnnxramrt ona o ono y ropnsonrantnomy na-
npxmxy;
) ropnsonrantno yxnaeni omxn s nennnm npomixxom mix coom;
n) o pamn y neprnxantnomy nanpxmxy xpinnrtcx (npnnnacrtcx)
mraxernnx.;
6) nennxi macnnni nopora s amxom. Hoyrynann na Mapamopomnni
[32, 262, 291].
Onnm is nanpocrimnx napianrin nopir yna nonna x nicyrnicrt.
Hoini xnnma sycrpiuamrtcx y ripctxnx paonax 3axapnarrx, soxpema,
100
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
na Foxinmnni (Bononentxn ra Mixripctxn paonn), Iynyntmnni (Pax-
inctxn paon), oxinctxo-nemxinctxomy norpannuui (Bennxoepes-
nxnctxn paon). Oconnnocri oxinctxnx nocenent cxnannct ni nnnn-
nom icropnunnx, coniantno-exonomiunnx, reorpa]iunnx ra noyronnx
]axropin.
V nepxonnnctxnx paonax 3axapnarrx sycrpiuamrtcx cann, y xxnx
rocnoapctxi yinni posmimeni oxpemo ni xnrnonoro ynnxy i rno-
pxrt H-noini sayonn. x cnopyxynann na micnxx, n xxnx yi-
nentnn maanunx omexenn ropom ao piuxom, un xpom. V samox-
nnx rocnoapcrnax, xpim nennxnx rocnoapctxnx npnmiment, yynann
oxpemo nnnnnnm, cymapnm nx ]pyxrin (osnnnm) ra onn ao xintxa
ooporin. Hi cann nepenaxno ne oropoxynann s ycix cropin, a nnme
ry uacrnny, xxa nnxonna na opory [2, 160; 24, 77].
Oropoxynann x cany cneniantnom xoncrpyxnicm is ropnsonrant-
nnx xepnn (nopnnn, nopnnnx) (erantno nn. ani). Came onn is
npontorin ano oropoxi (nicrant ni onoro xonnxa o inmoro) cny-
xnn noporamn. Hpn norpei nnsy, n`sy na nonip`x cann xepnnn
snimannct, a norim snony crannnnct na micne.
Inmnm nnom nopir, mo noyrynann y nnsnnnnx ra neperipnnx pao-
nax, ynn nnereni nopora. Bnxonynannct ani nopora rexnixom ropnson-
rantnoro ao neprnxantnoro nnerinnx. Ocnonnnm marepianom nx x
nnroronnennx snnuano x, cnyxnno epeno. Pama ponnact is epen`x-
nnx xono (pycin). Bnyrpimnx nnomnna pamn (cirxa) onniranact
nimnnonnmn, epesonnmn, neponnmn, yxonnmn, rpaonnmn npyramn [32,
262].
3apas, mn cnpoycmo nanecrn exintxa npnxnain nnerennx nopir, arn
xapaxrepncrnxy x xoncrpyxrnnnnm oconnnocrxm. Tax, soxpema, nopo-
ra inx xarn s cena Opixonnnx Vxropoctxoro paony (excnosnnix 3a-
xapnarctxoro mysem napono apxirexrypn ra noyry) mamrt nacrynny
xoncrpyxnim. B x ocnoni nexart na neprnxantni cronnn (xpyrnxxn),
nnri n semnm. Vnepxy i nnnsy o nnx npnnri raxi x xpyrnxxn y ropnson-
rantnomy nonoxenni. B ropnsonrantnnx pycax npocnepneni ipouxn,
na nicrani 10-20 cm, n xxi ncrannxnoct nimnnone ao nepone npyrrx
(rnuxn). V nepxni uacrnni rnuxn nncrynann s xpyrnxxa npnnnsno 5-
10 cm ynn sarocrpeni. Homix rnuxn n ropnsonrantnomy nonoxennx
nnniranoct nimnnone npyrrx, mo mintno snnanocx sa onomorom coxn-
pn. Hpyrrxm sanonnmnann ncm nnomnny nopir [1].
Hoini nopora sycrpiuacmo inx xarn s cena Feennx Txuinctxoro
paony (excnosnnix 3axapnarctxoro mysem napono apxirexrypn ra no-
yry). Tyr rax camo n ocnoni nopir nexart cronnn (xpyrnxxn), onax
nonn mamrt saoxpyrnene, nnrecane sanepmennx. Cama x pama, na niminy
ni nopir inx xarn s cena Opixonnnx c oxpemom ni cronnin xoncrpyx-
101

nicm. Bona cxnaacrtcx s nox xpyrnxxin s npopisnnmn ornopamn, n xxi
ncrannxnnct rnuxn. Cnoci nnerinnx npyrrx noinn o roro, mo mn
cnocrepirann na noporax inx xarn is c. Opixonnnx. Onax, n anomy
nnnaxy npyrrxm onniracrtcx ne ncx nnomnna nopir. Bintnom sann-
macrtcx nepxnx uacrnna (npnnnsno 20-30 cm). o ano nnereno pamn
xpinnxrtcx no onna oxn cronnn (xpyrnxxn), iamerpom nnstxo 5
cm. B micnxx s`cnannx s pamom (roro y nepxni i nnxni uacrnni) nonn
crecani ni npxmnm xyrom nx mintnimoro npnnxrannx. Bcx nx xoncr-
pyxnix xpinnrtcx o ocnonnnx macnnnimnx xpyrnxxin sa onomorom ne-
pen`xsxn (ryxnn, nyxonxn). V nnsnnnnx paonax 3axapnarrx sycrp-
iuamrtcx noini nopora s neprnxantnnm cnocoom nnerinnx [1].
Cnocpinnm rnnom nopir c nopora na ryxnax, mo saxpnnamrtcx na
epen`xnn rax (xnyx). Bonn moxyrt yrn cnnerennmn (xx i nnmesra-
ani) ao x nnroronnennmn is xepnn. 3 onic croponn pama raxnx nopir
sa onomorom ryxnn xpinnrtcx o croxxa. Ha inmomy croxxy nmonro-
nycrtcx epen`xnn rax (xnyx). Iax moxe yrn i npnponim. Ha nopo-
rax is xepnn na xnyx uinnxcrtcx ona is nnx, mo rpoxn nncrynac sa
mexi pamn. Ha nnerennx xe noporax na rax uinnxcrtcx nnonxena uac-
rnna nepxntoro ropnsonrantnoro xpyrnxxa pamn nopir [1].
Heanxxy nnnaxinnnicrt i npaxrnunn xncr nnxnnnn cenxnn Xycrct-
xoro paony ni uac posn`xsannx nponemn nopir. Ocnona noinnx
nopir y cc. Creninxa, Kpannxono mana nacrynni xoncrpyxrnnni oco-
nnnocri. ni neprnxantni crixn cxnaannct s nox omeuox, mix xxi
nnnann ropnsonrantno noxnaeni omxn s nennnm npomixxom mix nnmn
(10-15 cm). Hocepenni nonn cxpinneni mnpoxom neprnxantnom om-
xom, mo innrt pamy na ni
pinni nononnnxn. Koxna s nnx
nononnnox n cnom uepry
cxpinnena me onicm om-
xom, npnnrom no iaronani.
Bepxnm nonepeunny pamn
nnricynann s onic xonon
raxnm unnom, mo ronxa
(crecana) uacrnna yna nep-
xntom on`xsxom nopir, a
neorecana, yxe macnnna
uacrnna, nncrynamun sa
pamy nopir, nnxonynana pont
npornnarn. Orxe, aunmo,
mo pemiruacre nonornnme
nopir npnxpinnmnann o ma-
cnnnoro pyca, xxn oep-
Hne1eni nopo1a 1a oropoaa inn cann s
c. Beennn Tnuinctxoro panony (excnosnnin
3axapna1ctxoro uysem napono apxi1ex1ypn
1a noy1y).
102
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
racrtcx nanxono cronna. Onn xinent pyca i cnyxnrt npornnarom. Ta-
xnm unnom, mo niunnnrn nopora rpea yno nnme narncnyrn na npo-
rnnary i pyrn xinent pyca pasom s noporamn cam nixonrt y ix. V
ceni Kpannxono sraanoro paony raxy xoncrpyxnim nopir nasnnann o-
rom [1; 11, 99-100; 32, 262; 21, 287].
Hoyrynann na 3axapnarri nonnicrm omari nopora, snri s mintno
yxnaennx omox, omox s npomixxamn mix nnmn ao neprnxantno na-
nrnx omox.
V ceni onre na Ipmanmnni noyrynann nopora nacrynnoro rnny. o
macnnnnx, recannx cronnin is nnrecannmn y ]opmi poma nepxinxamn, na
cneniantni epen`xni raxn xpinnncx mraxernnx, sarecann y nepxni ua-
crnni. V 30-40-x poxax XX cr. samicrt epen`xnnx raxin nouann sacro-
conynarn meraneni cxon (mapxn). o annx mraxernnxin y nepxni i
nnxni uacrnni npnnnannct ropnsonrantni omxn. Taxy xoncrpyxnim
omnnann (onnann) mraxernnxom na nicrani 5 cm onn ni onoro.
nx roro, mo nixpnrn nopora, x pama s onic croponn snimanact s
epen`xnnx raxin, a nisnime npocro nixpnnanact sa onomorom merane-
nnx cxo [1].
Hixany xoncrpyxnim mamrt nopora inx xarn cena Paxomnno Myxau-
inctxoro paony (excnosnnix 3axapnarctxoro mysem napono apxirex-
rypn ra noyry). B x ocnoni raxox nexart nennxi, macnnni cronnn. V
nepxni uacrnni nonn mamrt saoxpyrneny ]opmy. nnyrpimnx nnomnna s
oox cropin saxomnononana ]irypom y nnrnxi uornpn- ra mecrnnenmc-
rxono posern cnmnony connx, renna. Pama nopir, npnxpinnena o
macnnnnx cronnin, cxna-
acrtcx s nox onaxo-
nnx uacrnn. x nonornn-
me snre s nox ropn-
sonrantnnx omox,
s`cnannx rpertom no
iaronani. o raxo xon-
crpyxni nannacrtcx
mraxernnx y napocram-
uomy nopxxy, roro
xoxen nacrynnn
nnme sa nonepeni. B
pesyntrari ntoro ni
uacrnnn nopir y no-
cnanni yrnopmmrt
]opmy rpnxyrnnxa. na
nannmi (nenrpantni)
mraxernnxn mamrt sa-
oma1i nopo1a s npo1nnarom inn cann s
c. C1eninxa Xyc1ctxoro panony (excnosnnin
3axapna1ctxoro uysem napono apxi1ex1ypn 1a
noy1y).
103

oxpyrnene sanepmennx is nnpistnennmn uornpn- ra mecrnnenmcrxonn-
mn poseramn. 3axpnnamrtcx i nixpnnamrtcx nopora sa onomorom
cneniantno ]irypno omeuxn, mo ncrannxcrtcx n epen`xni raxn [1].
Onn is namacnnnimnx i nonouac naxcxpanimnx npnxnain nopir c
nopora s amxom, mo noyrynann na Mapamopomnni (Xycrctxn, Txui-
nctxn, uacrnna Paxinctxoro paony).
Hanpocrimn nn noinnx nopir sycrpiuacmo na Xycrmnni. x pama
snra s ropnsonrantno nocrannennx omox, yxnaennx mintno ona o
ono. o nepxnto uacrnnn pamn xpinnrtcx amox, noxpnrn panxom.
Cnocpinnmn sa crnnem sayonn c nopora y cc. Vcrt-uopna, Pyctxa
Moxpa i Himentxa Moxpa (s 1947 p. - Komcomontctx) na Txuinmnni, e
npoxnnann ancrpini. Tyr yynannct onornnni ynnouxn s onaxonn-
mn macnnnnmn (o 3 m) noporamn. B x ocnoni nexann nennxi recani
cronnn, na xxi xpinnncx amox, noxpnrn panxom. Pama nopir cxnaa-
nact s nox uacrnn, snrnx is mnpoxnx omox. Bixpnnannct nopora
ncepenny [1].
erantnime xoncrpyxrnnni oconnnocri noinnx nopir posrnxnemo na
npnxnai nopir inx xarn s cena Cepenc Boxne Paxinctxoro paony
(excnosnnix 3axapnarctxoro mysem napono apxirexrypn ra noyry).
Cncrema noyonn nopir nacrynna. Ha ninonini nicrani, pospaxo-
nani na nopora ra xniprxy, n semnm nnro rpn macnnni, recani pycn
(iamerpom 20-25 cm). Ha semnem nonn nncrynamrt 1 m. o annx
onopnnx cronnin xpinnxrtcx intm macnnnimi cronnn, xxi c ocnonom ca-
mnx nopir i cxramrt y onxnni o 2,5-3 m. Ha cronnn ncranonnmcrtcx
amox. Horo ocnony cranonnxrt mintno nanri omxn nocxnna xap-
xacna xoncrpyxnix, noxpnra panxom. amox i npo]intni cronnn y nepxni
uacrnni saxpinneni xnaparnnmn pycamn, xxi exoponani npopisnnmn
]irypxamn y nnrnxi xnirouox. Hpo]inmmui cronnn, y nnxni uacrnni
osoneni pistom. Opnamenrantna xomnosnnix cxnaacrtcx s pinnx
namannx nini y nocnanni s nnpistnennmn xpyxeuxamn, mo yrnopmc
cnocpinn nisepynox, naac noporam nnmnocri.
Koncrpyxrnnni oconnnocri camnx nopir uirxo npocnixonymrtcx is
nnyrpimnto croponn (s nopy). Bopora cxnaamrtcx s nox uacrnn.
Kapxac xoxno s nnx yrnopenn s nox ropnsonrantnnx pycin (nepxnto-
ro i nnxntoro), s`cnannx pycom, nocrannennm no iaronani. Ha ann
xapxac nannamrtcx omxn mnpnnom 30-50 cm, ronmnnom 2 cm. om-
xn nannamrtcx y napocramuomy nopxxy, roro xoxna nacrynna nnma
sa nonepenm. V pesyntrari ntoro npn nocnanni oox uacrnn nopir
yrnopmcrtcx ]opma naninxona. 3i croponn nopy onni uacrnnn nopir
saxpnnamrtcx sa onomorom onroro epen`xnoro pyca, saxpinnenoro
y meraneni cxon na npo]intnnx cronnax. Cami x nopora npnxpinneni o
cronnin sa onomorom nennxnx meranennx cxo y nepxni i nnxni uac-
rnni, a raxox meranenoro rpocy, saxpinnenoro na cxon [1].
104
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Orxe, xx aunmo npn sayoni noinnx macnnnnx nopir ocnonny yna-
ry sneprac na cee exoparnnne osonennx cronnin. B intmocri nn-
naxin na 3axapnarri npnxpamanact nnxnx uacrnna cronnin. Xapaxrep-
nn nisepynox nennxo pentc]no pistn, nixpecnenn ninoninom rinnm,
no cyri c ocnonnnm mornnom apxirexrypno-xyoxntoro nnpimennx nxoy
o cann. Inoi pista raxoro rnny rapmonino nocnycrtcx s npopisnom
pistom [21, 286].
Hoini rnnn nopir ra npnomn x exopynannx mnpoxo sacroconyna-
nnct na 3axapnarri, nanirt y 60-x pp. XX cr., ynn xcxpanom oxpacom
nynnnt.
Finx nopir nnamronynann xniprxn (xniprxn, nepni, nepnxra,
nepnuxa, nica), xxi ynn cxoxi s noporamn y xoncrpyxrnnnomy nnani
i nnxonynanncx n onomy crnntonomy xnmui. V cenax ninenno uacrnnn
Xycrctxoro, Txuinctxoro, uacrxono Paxinctxoro paonin na xniprxamn,
xx i na noporamn, snonnn nocxnni amxn.
x i npn xapaxrepncrnni nopir, moxemo xoncrarynarn, mo naxcxpan-
imnm napianrom xniprox c xniprxn y cncremi nopir na Mapamopomnni,
soxpema, cepe pymynctxoro nacenennx xpam. 3nauny pont y x nnpi-
menni niirpac nnomnna, mo snaxonrtcx na xniprxom. exoparnnne
osonennx sarauyc i nixpecnmc nxi o cann. Tyr moxna sycrpirn
cnocpini npnomn npopisno pistn, xxa cnnyerno npornxacrtcx na
cnirni, snaomn nisepynox xonrypno, rnyxo pistn, y nnrnxi reomer-
pnunoro ao pocnnnnoro opnamenry, inoi nixpecnennx cnirnom, nanirt
enemenrn exoparnnnoro posnncy no epeny [21, 286].
Baxnnnnm xomno-
nenrom cenxnctxoro
oicrx na 3axapnarri
ynn oropoxi. Cncrema
oropox snonrt yci
yinni nopy n cnnn
ancamnt. He ocx-
racrtcx sanxxn sopo-
nomy e]exry ni mac
xnrnonnx i rocnoapct-
xnx yinent ra ocnrt
nanom cncremom oro-
pox. Hpnpono nnncy-
munct n orouennx, oro-
poxi ononnmmrt apx-
irexrypy xnrnonoro
xomnnexcy. He snaxam-
un na nennxy xintxicrt
Macnnni nopo1a s amxou 1a pistnenom
xnip1xom inn xa1n s c. Cepenc Bonne Paxinct-
xoro panony (excnosnnin 3axapna1ctxoro uysem
napono apxi1ex1ypn 1a noy1y).
105

oropox y ceni ne niuynacrtcx cxyrocri, omexennx. Tonxi xepnnn,
npyrrx, mo nnxopncronymrtcx xx ocnonnn yinentnn marepian nx
oropoxi, ne crnopmmrt cynintno crinn, a opraniuno nnncymrtcx n rpa-
]ixy rinox epen, nocaxennx nanxono.
Ocnonne npnsnauennx oropoxi: yrn nepemxoom nx xyon, niconnx
snipin. Kpim roro, nona, a raxox epena i xymi y cani sarpnmymrt
cnironi samern, nnnmxy s nynnni, nonin. Konnct oropoxa mana ooponne
snauennx (snicn i noxonrt oropoxynannx roponm). Ane oropoxa
ne me nnxn nennnx npnnnnnin nsacmoninocnn nmnnn s npnpoom, xxi
cxramrt rnnoxo annnnn. Oxpecnmmun nem nenny inxnxy, nmnna
saxnnxc na ne npana, ncranonnmc na ni cno saxonn i na. He mixpocnir,
nnrnopenn srino innniyantnoro cmaxy, npo xxn nona nixnycrtcx ,
xxn ocromc, e nanpacrtcx nacnarn [11, 95].
3a annimn naponnmn nipynannxmn oropoxa oepirac nme ni ne-
uncro cnnn. He mariune xono, xyn ne norpannrn, a romy moxna cno-
xino npanmnarn i ninounnarn. Pynynannx oropoxi ao nopir, ra me
na nouarxy poxy, cnpnmanoct xx nnxn, neopn snax. V poni oepery
xnrna oropoxi nanexnrt nepmi sycrpirn nenpoxannx rocre, a romy
marn ninoporny cnny, xx oct y ntomy npncnin`: Finx nopy sanisnn
rnn; mo uepes ne rnn ne mir nonacrn ni nmrn snip, ni ra, ni snn
uononix, ni i niconn. Bicyrnicrt y cenxnnna yna osnaxom nxpa
saneanoro rocnoapcrna. Mayrt, xnacnunn onnc oropoxi n yxpa-
nctxomy ceni sponn B. ant y cno nonicri Hetnanoe n tnom: A
ina masana xarxa ni nepamn, nnir ao oueperxnn manentxn rnn i
raxi x nopora?! Bce ono, mo ponrtcx na nopi, nce neceno, sarnmno;
ca i ropo npn xoxnomy nopi [11, 96].
Orxe, oropoxi naanann cani xomnosnnino sanepmenocri, a y no-
cnanni is epenamn - cnocpinn xonopnr i mantonnnuicrt. V ro xe
uac oropoxi saxnmann ropo, ca, cinoxocn i ncm cany ni xyon i
omamnto nrnni, a raxox nosnauann mexi.
Ha 3axapnarri noyrynano exintxa rnnin oropox. V ripctxnx pao-
nax (Iynyntmnna, Foxinmnna, oxinctxo-nemxinctxe norpannuux) no-
mnpenom yna oropoxa s ropnsonrantnnx xepnn (nopnnn, nopnn-
nx). V ripctxnx paonax, oconnno y cenax posramonannx y nystxnx
onnnax, nsonx noroxin mypynann xam`xni oropoxi (myp, mypn).
Ha nonxnax, nononnnax, naconnctxax, cinoxicnnx yrixx sa oropoxy nn-
xopncronynann monoi cmepexn s ne opyannmn rinxamn ao rinxn si
crapnx cmepex (nomn). Ocranni uacro cnyxnnn oropoxem nx xyo-
n. B nnsnnax ra neperip` yn nomnpenn rnn nnereno oropoxi (nnir,
nnyr). Icnyc exintxa oro pisnonnin. Ha ninni Xycrctxoro Txui-
nctxoro paonin noyrynann oropoxi s ropnsonrantno noxnaennx ona
na ony omox ao posxonornx na nononnny xono (nnacrnn). Hoini
106
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
oropoxi nasnnamrt nananox. V 30-40-x pp. XX cr. y nnsnnnnx i nepe-
ripnnx paonax 3axapnarrx nounnamrt nomnpmnarnct oropoxi si mra-
xernnxa: xonori ao pisani nysentxi omxn neprnxantno npnnnann o
epen`xno pamn [32, 262-263].
A sapas mn synnnnmoct na intm erantni xapaxrepncrnni xoxnoro
is nnin oropox. Hanpocrimnm is nnx c oropoxa s ropnsonrantnnx xep-
nn (nopnnn, nopnnnx), mo noyrynann y ripctxi micnenocri. Taxa
oropoxa cxnaanact s neprnxantnnx xonnxin, ropnsonrantnnx xepnn,
nepen`xsxn (ryxna, ryxonxa, nyxonxa) i nixnaox (ninixox).
yxna s`cnynana nonapno nnri n semnm xinxn i nopnnn. Bicrant mix
xonnxamn (npecno) sanexana ni onxnnn nopnn, a xintxicrt nopnn n
onomy npontori (npxcni) ni nncorn oropoxi.
Fintm cxnannm y xomnosnninomy ninomenni c rnn nnerennx oro-
pox (nnir, nnyr), mo noyrynan y nnsnni ra neperip`, uacrxono y
ripctxnx paonax. 3ycrpiuanoct xintxa napianrin nnorin: ropnsonrantno-
ro, neprnxantnoro nancxicnoro (no iaronani) nnerinnx.
Bn ropnsonrantnoro nnerinnx oropoxi moxemo cnocrepirarn na npn-
xnai cann s c. Opixonnnx Vxropoctxoro paony (excnosnnix 3axap-
narctxoro mysem napono apxirexrypn ra noyry) ra s c. Iaom Vx-
ropoctxoro paony. B oox nnnaxax n ocnoni oropoxi croxrt nnri n
semnm xinxn. Bicrant mix xinxamn morna yrn pisnom. Ane n ocnonno-
my nona mexynana ni 80 cm o 1,5 m. Bnri n semnm xinxn onnirann
npyrrxm nimnnn, epesn, nosn. Hpyrrx nxnaann ropnsonrantno, mintno
snnamun one o onoro.
Bapianr oropoxi s neprnxantnnm cnocoom nnerinnx nnrnxac nacryn-
nnm unnom. B semnm
nnri macnnni epen`xni
pycn (xpyrnxxn). o
nnx npnnnamrt y ropn-
sonrantnomy nonoxenni
xepnnn, mo pasom si
cronnamn yrnopmmrt
cnocpiny pamy oro-
poxi. Ocnony noino
oropoxi (pamy) o-
nniramrt npyrrxm, xxe
yxnaacrtcx neprn-
xantno. Hnerinnx npo-
xonrt noueprono: onn
npyr s onoro oxy,
inmn s pyroro. B
pesyntrari sacrocynan-
Oropoaa nopnnnn inn xa1n s c. Iyxnnne Bono-
nentxoro panony (excnosnnin 3axapna1ctxoro uy-
sem napono apxi1ex1ypn 1a noy1y).
107

nx raxoro cnocoy nnerinnx yrnopmcrtcx xomnosnnina ocnona oropoxi.
cxpannm npnxnaom noinnx oropox (nnorin) c nnir nanxono xarn s
c. Tnana Cnanxnctxoro paony (excnosnnix 3axapnarctxoro mysem na-
pono apxirexrypn ra noyry) [1].
Cxnanom xomnosnninom crpyxrypom, oconnnom mantonnnuicrm
ra nenonropnicrm nnpisnxmrtcx ropnsonrantni nnorn, xonn nnenn rpto-
ma, uornpma npyramn nancxic. ann rnn oropoxi oxapaxrepnsycmo na
npnxnai nnereno oropoxi nanxono cann s c. Feennx Txuinctxoro
paony (excnosnnix 3axapnarctxoro mysem napono apxirexrypn ra no-
yry). B ocnoni nexart nnri n semnm xinxn, xxi y nepxni uacrnni
sarecani. ann npnom naac oropoxi neanxxo nnronuenocri. Kinxn
onniramrt npyrrxm ropnsonrantno xnaxn. Horim niynacrtcx no-
cnannx ropnsonrantnoro nnerinnx ra nnerinnx no iaronani (nancxic).
Tpn, uornpn ropnsonrantni npyrn onnirann nancxic raxnmn x npyramn.
Hepmn cxicnn px nnerertcx nnepx no iaronani, a pyrn nnns i r. .
Bnacniox ntoro yrnopmcrtcx cnocpinn opnamenr. Hpn pisni napiani
anoro rnny nnerinnx yrnopmmrtcx cxnani opnamenrantni xomnosnni
(n pomnxn, na xonxy, n pxxn). B anomy nnnaxy cminnno mox-
na crnepxynarn, mo rananr naponoro souoro cninsnyunn s mncren-
rnom nnmnnannx, opnamenrantnnm mncrenrnom. Hoino romy, xx nn-
mnnantnnnx sa onomorom ronxn ra nnrxn rnopnrt na nonorni opnamen-
rn, rax yinnnun, nnxopncronymun epenxni cronnni i npyrrx nrinmc n
xnrrx nnacni ie, nepernopmmun x y cnpanxni nnrnopn mncrenrna.
I sananoct n, npocra oropoxa, xxa cama no coi niuoro ne ronopnrt!
Onax, ocxonana ]opma, nnronuenicrt xoncrpyxrnnnnx oconnnoc-
re ponxrt cany npnnannnom, a rocnoapx niomnm n yci oxpysi
[1; 32, 263].
Kpim nnerennx oropox, snnuano x, na 3axapnarri noyrynann o-
mari. Onnm is npnxnain noinnx oropox moxe yrn omara oropoxa
inx cann s c. Creninxa Xycrctxoro paony (excnosnnix 3axapnarct-
xoro mysem napono apxirexrypn ra noyry). B ocnoni nexart recani
macnnni cronnn, posmimeni na nicrani 3-4 m onn ni onoro. o nnx
ropnsonrantno nanri mnpoxi omxn (mnpnna 10-15 cm). mix omxamn
naxnni npomixxn, mo n ninomy crnopmc e]exr pemiruacroro nonornnma.
Bepxnx ropnsonrantna omxa s`cnana s omxom, nocrannenom na
npo]intni cronnn. Pasom nonn yrnopmmrt cnocpinn mini amox [1].
3pasox oropoxi si nocxnnnm amxom moxemo cnocrepirarn inx xarn
s c. Cepenc Boxne Paxinctxoro paony (excnosnnix 3axapnarctxoro
mysem napono apxirexrypn ra noyry). B anomy nnnaxy o macnn-
nnx cronnin npnnri ropnsonrantno noxnaeni ona na ony mnpoxi om-
xn, mo yrnopmmrt rnyxy criny. Komnosnninnm sanepmennxm oropoxi c
nocxnnn amox, noxpnrn panxom. Hoini oropoxi noyrynann n
108
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Xycrctxomy, Txuinctxomy, uacrxono n Paxinctxomy paoni (cepe py-
mynctxoro nacenennx xpam) [1].
Onnm is nnin oropox, mo noyrynann n nnsnnnnx ra neperipnnx
paonax xpam c oropoxa s ronxnx xono i pycin (nananox). B ocnoni
nexart epen`xni pycn is npopisnom pistom nnyrpimntom uacrnnom.
B ni npopisn ncrannxmrtcx recani naninxonon. Konon yxnaamrtcx
mintno ona o ono [1].
3 30-x pp. XX cr. n nnsnnnnx ra neperipnnx paonax 3axapnarrx no-
unnac nomnpmnarnct oropoxa si mraxernnxa: xonori ao pisani nystxi
omxn neprnxantno npnnnann o epen`xno pamn [32, 263].
Cnocpinom sa cnomn xoncrpyxrnnnnmn npnomamn c oropoxa na-
nxono nepxnn s c. Benecrono Myxauinctxoro paony (excnosnnix 3axap-
narctxoro mysem napono apxirexrypn ra noyry). Crpyxrypa ano
oropoxi nacrynna. Ha nennxi xaminnx ropnsonrantno xnayrtcx epe-
n`xni pycn (xpyrnxxn). Fpycn posmimeni y uornpn pxn, mix xxnmn
naxnni npomixxn (10 cm). an pycn ne npociann mix nnmn ncranneni
nenennxi epen`xni xinouxn. V cneniantni sarnnnnn nepxntoro pxy pycin
ncranonneno nocxnny xoncrpyxnim axy, noxpnroro panxom. panxa
nannacrtcx y na nacrnnn. Hpnuomy nnxni xinent nepxntoro pxy
nepexpnnac nepxni xinent nnxntoro pxy. panxa y nepxntomy pxi na-
nnacrtcx rax: ona is pinnnm nepxom (sanepmennxm), a inma is saroc-
rpennm (y nnrnxi rpnxyrnnxa). Taxn npnom naac oropoxi onepme-
nocri i axypnocri. Bona nopx is nopirtmn rapmonino nnncycrtcx n apxi-
rexrypnn ancamnt sayonn nepxnn, oxpecnmc repnropim posmimennx
[1].
nx npoxoy s nopy n ropo, o nynnni, cyciin romo n oropoxax po-
nnn nepenasn (nepenas), mo nipisnxnnct pisnomanirnnmn xoncrpyx-
rnnnnmn oconnnocrxmn. Hepenasn xx micne sycrpiui mononx, ocninani
n naponnx nicnxx i xonomnxax. 3oxpema, niomom na ncm xpany c nicnx
Hepenas, nepenas, ni cycia i o nac...:
Hepenas, nepenas,
Bi cycia i o nac:
Cycictxn nerinm,
Cycictxn nerinm,
uom ne npnem o nac?
o ree x imon,
Tee x ne snamon.
Hiuxa remna yna,
Hiuxa remna yna,
Tee x ne snamon.
o ree xonrn,
x ree nmnrn?
109

Tn ime monoa,
ime monon,
Fyem cx rantnrn.
Hepenas, nepenas,
Bi cycia i o nac:
Cycictxn nerinm,
Cycictxn nerinm,
uexacme rx o nac.
Pospisnxmrt nepenasn n cncremi nnerennx i omarnx oropox. Han-
pocrimnm napianrom nepenasin c nacrynnn. Hnir onnirann rpoxn nnx-
ue i no onna oxn sannann no cronnunxy, mo spyuno yno nepenasn-
rn. Inmn napianr, xonn na ni cronnunxn crannxrt omeuxy. 3ycrpiua-
mrtcx intm cxnani y xoncrpyxrnnnomy ninomenni nepenasn. He
cnocrepiracrtcx roi, xonn nonn nxoxrt (nepecixamrt) nnereny uacrn-
ny. V cncremi omarnx oropox nepenasn mamrt raxy camy cncremy
noyonn.
Oxpemo xorinoct n nninnrn nnrannx npo cncremy oropox na nono-
nnnax, naconnctxax xpam. Iocnoapctxi yinni na naconnctxax ne nisna-
uannct pisnomanirnicrm i ararcrnom ]opm. o nnx ninocnmo nixpnri
nenepenocni i nepenocni saropoxi (xomapn). Cnono xomapa O. Cy-
nemanon nnnonrt ni nononentxoro xom raip, crinme, saropo-
a nx onent [28, 183; 26, 155, 174, 234, 263M]. Ix rnm, cnono xomapa
nnerena saropoxa nx xyon sycrpiuanoct n npacnon`xnctxnx ia-
nexrax, a n anntoyxpanctxi moni nono ]ixcycrtcx y XVIII cr. Iyny-
nn onnnn p. Fino Tncn xomapy nasnnann me ropo y snauenni sa-
ropoxa, orpoxa, roponrn [14, 188-200].
V sanexnocri ni npnsnauennx crinma, xyon, xxa yrpnmynanact n
ntomy, rocnoapctxnx ]ynxni, marepiany i rexnixn cnopyxennx xoma-
pn ynn niomi ni raxnmn nasnamn: ropo, onrapxa, naxapxa,
xonemnx, craapxa, mypn, renxrnnx, xrnauapxa, xninnnx,
xpomapxa ra in. [28, 184; 30, 280; 18, 29; 23, 29]. Vci saropon nesanex-
no ni x npnsnauennx ra marepiany, s xxoro nonn cnopyxeni mamrt
pisni nasnn i xoncrpyxrnnni pimennx. 3a nasnamn pospisnxmrtcx: nomn
(sapy, sapya). Taxi xomapn me nanirt y 20-30-ri pp. XX cr. crann-
nnct y pisnnx paonax Iynyntmnnn, n cenax nepxin`x p. Tepecnn, n oxpe-
mnx cenax nepxin`x p. Vx. M.H. Tnnoap y c. Hyrn na Paxinmnni sann-
can xonomnxy:
A xanm, xaxy xanm,
Cxintxn x ree mam.
Xia na rx, xx na ninni,
3apy sapyam.
A sapy sapyam,
110
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Hi nononnnom.
Korpi pnni xant nennxn,
Ha ie sa mnom [27, 161; 30, 281].
Homn (sapyn) saropon s nonanennx cmepex. 3apyn xx nn ne-
nepenocnnx xomap, o 20-30-x pp. XX cr. ope sepernnct na Mixripmnni
(n cc. Pennnne, Isxn, Ionxrnn, Honymne, Topynt ) ra na nononnnax Iy-
nyntmnnn. x crannnn rax, mo spyynann nennxi epena (rycri cmepexn)
i s nnx nnxnaann npxmoxyrnn nan nncorom 1,5 2 m, a na rynyntctxnx
nononnnax sannnmxn 2 3 m. 3 nnyrpimntoro oxy nirnnamrt nci cro-
nypn i rinxn. Hnmn saxnaann nnxnneni ornopn, uepes xxi mir y sapy
nponnxnyrn nonx un nnparnct s ntoro ninnx. Ha oni is crin sapyn
nnamronynann nopora. Taxi nomn (sapyn) anann ninnxm opn sa-
xncrox ni xnxaxin, oconnno nemein, o namaramunct icrarnct n
sapy nonn narnxannct na cyuxn, nnyrannct n rinxax, a ninxrn nnmn
rpicx i mym ynnn ninuapin [19, 160; 30, 281].
3arantnonomnpennmn n XIX XX cr. ynn nenepenocni xomapn, mo
yynannct s nnrnx n semnm xonin i ropnsonrantno npnxpinnennx o
nnx 5-6 m xepnn (nopnn, nopnnc). Inxonn raxi xepnnn ynn recani
un nanirt xonori. Taxy xomapy uacro nasnnann nopnnxnxa, a n cenax
nepxin`x p. Vx sapy. cnopyxynann rax, mo n semnm nnnann
cnapeni xonn na raxi nicrani, mo mix nnmn nmicrnnact 5-6 m xepxa
(nopnna, nopnnxa). Xepxn nxnaannct mix napamn xonin rax, mo
na x xinni n nepmi crinni onnpannct xinni xepxn pyro crinxn. Tax
nnnonnact crinxa xomapn ax o nncorn 1,2 1,5 m. Bropi napa xonin
xpinnnact ryxnom. Finx xoxno napn xonin na semnm xnann xameni, mo
nnxnx nopnna ne nexana na semni i ne rnnna. B oni is crinox nopnnn
nnrxrann i uepes ornip onent sanycxann i nnnycxann s xomapn [7, 113; 30,
283].
Inxonn nonin, nxin ra rennnt na oxpemnx nononnnax 3axapnarrx sa-
unnxnn nnoui o saropo, mo yynann nanxono 2-3-x rycrnx epen. He
ponnoct nx roro, mo n uacn neron xyoa morna cxonarnct ni e-
penamn. Taxi saropon (xomapn) nx nennxo poraro xyon maxe
nonnicrm cxoxi o nnme onncano nopnnxnxn. Bonn ponnnct rax, mo
o nnrnx n semnm cnapennx xinxin npnn`xsynann ryxnamn rpn pxn
minnnx xepnn (nopnn). Bxi o raxo xomapn saunnxncx noma xep-
xamn, mo nintno nncynannct s-nomix cnapennx xinxin. Taxi xomapn nx
nonin n cenax nepxin`x p. Vx ynn nomnpeni ni nasnom sapy, sapy-
a. Bonn nnamronynannct npn necnxnomy i ocinntomy nnnaci nonin na
nyxax s merom x xomapynannx [3, 257; 5, 177; 30, 283].
Ha Foxinmnni uacro crinxn xomapn nnroronnxnn rax, mo o nox
160-170 m cronnin napanentno xpinnnn rpn narn ao nexonori xepxn
(xnpx, nopnnxa, ninnni, nepnnnn, ninnnnn). Taxi xomapn mann
111

]opmy npxmoxyrnnxa. Fyynann x s oxpemnx cexni, rax snannx nic,
npxcen. o nox cronnin npnnnann rpn xonori cmepexoni nopnnn, ia-
merpom 8-10 cm, xxi neprnxantno nepennirann cyxnmn cmepexonnmn rinxa-
mn (cyuuxm). Iorona nica noina o uacrnnn nnory. V micnxx s`cnan-
nx nox nic, a raxox nocepenni nnnann n semnm no na xinxn, cxpinneni
snepxy ryxnom. onxnna nicn cranonnna n cepentomy 2-4 m, nncora
1,6-1,7 m. Fiuna cropona xomapn cxnaanact s 2-3 nic, nosonxnx s 10-
12 [17, 109].
B cenax nepxin`x p. Vx ynn nomnpeni nixpnri xomapn nx onent
(rnnxnxn). Cnom nasny nonn icrann ni xonornx un recannx cmepexo-
nnx omeuox (rnnxnox, rnn), mnpnnom 10-15 cm, onxnnom 1,6
2 m un 2,5 3 m. Crinxn ponnn rax, mo rpn napanentno saxpinneni
narn nepennirannct rnnxnxamn. onxnna crinxn (nicn) xonnnanact
ni 3 o 4,5 6 m. B cenax nepxin`x p. Vx onxnna xonnnanact y mexax
3 4 m. 3 raxnx crinox nnroronnxnn nxe xomapn norpinnx posmipin.
Komapn ponnn mnpnnom na 7 nic, a onxnnom na 10 nic. Posmipn
xomapn sanexann ne nnme ni xintxocri onent, a ni nennunnn sement-
no inxnxn, mo xomapynanact. V xomapax nasnannx posmipin nmimyna-
noct 150 200 onent. Ane ynn niomi xomapn nnomem o 1000 m
2
[30,
284].
V 20-30- ri poxn XX cr. nomnpennmn ynn xomapn, mo yynannct is
crinox, xxi nnroronnxnnct s xepnn i npnnrnx o nnx rnisxamn mraxe-
rox. Hi crinxn nnroronnxnnct rax, mo o nox 5-7 m napanentno nocran-
nennx nar (nopnn, n cenax Mixripmnnn x nasnnann ninnnxmn)
rnisxamn npnnnann xonori un recani omeuxn (rinnuxn). Ioroni
crinxn yxpinnmnannct mix cnapennmn, nnrnmn n semnm xinxamn. Ha
Mixripmnni raxy crinxy inxonn nasnnann mrpaxirn, nanicar, y cenax
Txuinctxoro paony nica. nx xomapn nnroronnxnoct 8-12 crinox.
Ona is crinox y xomapi xpinnnact ryxnamn i niunnxnact xx nopora.
Taxy xomapy yno nerxo nepenecrn na none micne. B rynynin 3axapnar-
rx n 20-30-ri pp. XX cr. nona sycrpiuanact ononi uacro [17, 109-110; 29,
26; 30, 285].
Kpim xomap nx ennoro i niunoro ninounnxy onent na nononnnax
cnopyxynann xomapn, o xxnx saunnxnn onent nepe onnxm. B oni
s crinox nnamronynanoct micnx nx onnx (crpynxa). Iynynn npx-
moxyrny, onantny un xonyconoiny xomapy nx onent nasnnann cnonom
oxin (oxyn, oxyn). B onnx nnnaxax nnm cnonom nosnauann
nixpnri xomapn npxmoxyrno un onantno ]opmn, n inmnx xomapn s
amxom, n rperix naninnixpnri un saxpnri xomapn [14, 204-207]. Cno-
no oxin, oxyn, oxon n yropctxnx nnctmonnx xepenax ]ixcycrtcx
n 1086, 1193, 1291 ra nacrynnnx poxax. I. Caar]anni nnaxac, mo came
cnono pasom is nixpnrom xomapom yropctxi nacryxn sanosnunnn ni
112
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
cxinnx cnon`xn. Cnono oxin (oxyn, oxon) yno nomnpennm y npac-
non`xnctxi ra crapocnon`xnctxi monax, a n anntopyctxi y snauenni
oxon sraycrtcx n 941 p., a y snauenni oropoxa, crina n XI cr.
Bono mac sarantnoyxpanctxe nomnpennx i oro ernmonorim non`xsymrt
s yxpanctxom monom [12, 126; 13, 169; 14, 204; 28, 185-186].
Oxin nnamronynann xx oxpemy xomapy ao y nocnanni is xomapom
nx ennoro i niunoro ninounnxy onent. Ha Foxinmnni uacro crann-
nact ona nennxa xomapa, mo crinxom innnact na ni nennxi uacrnnn:
menma oxin, intma xomapa (sapy). Hpn nontonomy nnnaci
onent s xomapynannxm rpynrin xoxna nepenocna xomapa s nnamrona-
nnm micnem nx onnx onent nnxonynana pont oxony [28, 186; 30, 286].
Onamronane niammx un micne nx onnx onent n oni is crinox
xomapn noncmno n Kapnarax nasnnann crpynxom (crpynrom,
crpnnxom, crpenrom, sacrpynrom i r..). Crpynrn s niammxm
annc xnnme nacrinnnntxo xyntrypn Kapnar. Oni cnono crpynra
nnnoxrt s ]paxictxo monn, inmi non`xsymrt oro si crapocnon`xnct-
xnm crpanra, a . Kpanxanon s xapnarctxnmn ianexramn cno-
n`xnctxnx mon [28, 186].
Orxe, xx aunmo is npoananisonanoro namn marepiany, nesnaxamun
na perionantni oconnnocri, oropoxi na 3axapnarri mamrt unmano
cnintnnx pnc. Hpocnixynanmn pisni rnnn oropox ra nopir, mo noyryna-
nn n xpa, moxemo crnepxynarn, mo x yno esniu. Taxa araronapi-
anrnicrt nxasyc nam na ararmmn rananr naponnx sounx. Ori npocri
cenxnctxi narpyxeni pyxn rnopnnn pisni mon]ixani oropox ra nopir. I
nanirt nanpocrimn rnn nnerennx oropox sacnyronyc na re, mo na ntoro
sneprann ynary. Axe, n ntoro cenxnnn nxnaan cno ie, narxnennx,
marepiantni moxnnnocri. Bicyrnicrt oropox nanxono xnnnx ra rocno-
apctxnx yinent ronopnna npo nonny sanymenicrt rocnoapcrna, xa-
narnoro crannennx o ntoro oro nnacnnxa.
Homirnnmn c, snnuano, perionantni oconnnocri oropox ra oropo-
xynantnnx cncrem na 3axapnarri. V ripctxnx paonax (Iynyntmnna,
Foxinmnna, oxinctxo-nemxinctxe norpannuux) nomnpenom yna oro-
poxa s xepnn (nopnnnx). V nnsnnnnx ra neperipnnx paonax pos-
noncmxynannct nnereni oropoxi (nnir). V nnsnnnnx ra neperipnnx
cenax, oconnno na ninni Xycrctxoro i Txuinctxoro paonin noyrynann
oropoxi s ropnsonrantno noxnaennx ona na ony omox ao posxono-
rnx nanononnny xono. Bonn yrnopmnann cynintny rnyxy criny. Onnm is
napianrin raxo oropoxi c oropoxa s ronxnx xono i pycin (nananox).
3 30-x pp. XX cr. y nnsnnnnx ra neperipnnx paonax 3axapnarrx noun-
nac nomnpmnarnct oropoxa si mraxernnxa. nx npoxoy n ropo, o
cyciin n oropoxax ponnn nepenasn, mo mann pisnomanirny ]opmy.
113

Oxpemo cni nimirnrn cncremy oropox na nononnnax, naconnctxax
onacri. Tyr, soxpema, sa oropoxy nnxopncronynann monoi cmepexn s
ne opyannmn rinxamn ao rinxn s crapnx cmepex (nomn). Homn uac-
ro cnyxnnn oropoxem nx xyon. Cnocpini xoncrpyxrnnni oconnnocri
mamrt pisni nnn xomap nx onent: nopnnxnxn, xepxnxn, rnnxn-
xn, nanicar, nica. Hpnnepramrt ynary raxox cneniantni saropon
nx onnx onent oxin ra crpynxa.
CHHCOK BHKOPHCTAHO AITEPATYPH
1. Hontoni marepiann // Apxin anropa.
2. Foxinmnna. Icropnxo-ernorpa]iune ocnixennx. K., 1983. 304 c;
3. Bupoc E. Hononnnctxn xnnor y cinm // Ham pono xpa. Txueno, 1927.
N10. C. 257 - 258.
4. Boer 4. Cryi s yxpanctxo ernorpa]i ra anrpononori. Hpara, 1927. 237 c;
5. Bopou A. Hixapnarctxi rynynn // Ham pono xpa. Txueno, 1936. N 8. C.
177.
6. Iouro P.I. Haponoe souecrno Vxpanncxnx Kapnar // Kapnarcxn cop-
nnx. M., 1972. C. 111 - 145.
7. Iouro P.I. Hacenennx Vxpanctxnx Kapnar XV XVIII cr. 3acenennx.
Mirpani. Hoyr. K., 1976. 205 c.
8. Ipauaucra H.H. Conpemennte xyntrypno-tronte nponecct y cnonaxon
3axapnartx // Kapnarcxn copnnx. M., 1972. C. 108 - 115.
9. Iposooea H.H. 3rnnuecxax cnenn]nxa nenrpon 3axapnartx // Kapnarcxn
copnnx. M., 1972. C. 95 - 107.
10. Iynyntmnna. Icropnxo-ernorpa]iune ocnixennx. K., 1987. 471c.
11. auu.mr A.I. Vxpanctxa xara. K., 1991. 112 c.
12. seuose.ieciru H.O. Onnenouecxax nexcnxa saxapnarcxnx ronopon //
Omecnanxncxn nnnrnncrnuecxn arnac [Marepnant nccneonannx]. M., 1965.
C. 123 - 139.
13. Ernmonoriunn cnonnnx yxpanctxo monn. K., 2004. T.4. 452 c.
14. K.enuroea H. Cnanxncxax nacrymecxax repmnnonornx. M., 1974. 289 c.
15. Marvueuro H.H. Haponax epenxnnax apxnrexrypa 3axapnartx (XVIII
nauana XX nexa). M., 1976. 160 c.
16. Mauoiovpa M.. Iynyntcxoe nononnncxoe xosxcrno nropo nononnnt
XIX nauana XX n. // Kapnarcxn copnnx. M., 1972. C. 7 - 19.
17. Mauouovpa M.. Hononnnctxe rocnoapcrno Iynyntmnnn pyro nono-
nnnn XIX 30-x poxin XX cr. K., 1978. 192 c.
18. Moeimi: H.P. Xnnte n xosxcrnennte nocrpoxn na nononnnax Iynynt-
mnnt // Kapnarcxn copnnx. M., 1972. C. 28 - 38.
19. Moeumu: I.P. Hononnnctxe yinnnnrno // Hapona apxirexrypa Vxpanct-
xnx Kapnar. K., 1987. C. 112 - 123.
20. Hapona apxirexrypa Vxpanctxnx Kapnar [ni pe. R.I. Iomxo, T.H. Kimyx
ra in.]. K., 1987. 271 c.
114
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
21. Ca+o.oeu: B.H. Haponoe apxnrexrypnoe rnopuecrno Vxpannt. K., 1989.
344 c.
22. Ci:uuciru B. Erpyctxn im i rynyntctxn oceox. Oxpemn ninrox.
Hpara, 1930. C.1 - 15.
23. Cu+oueuro H.4. Ftr n nacenenne 3axapnarcxo onacrn (no marepnanam
+xcnennnn 1945 1947 rr.) // Conercxax +rnorpa]nx. 1948. N 1. C. 63 - 89.
24. Cu+oueuro I.4. Hocenennx, cann ra xnrno na 3axapnarri // Marepiann s
ernorpa]i ra xyoxntoro npomncny. K., 1956. Bnn. II. C. 60 - 109.
25. Cu+oueuro I.4. Conianicrnuni nepernopennx n noyri rpyxmnx cena He-
pecnnnx 3axapnarctxo onacri. K., 1957. 121 c.
26. Cv.e+auoe O. As n . Anma-Ara, 1975. 342 c.
27. Tueooap M.H. Iocnoapcrno i marepiantna xyntrypa nacenennx ripctxnx
paonin 3axapnarrx // ocnixennx crapoannto icropi 3axapnarrx. Vxropo,
1972. C. 121 - 134.
28. Tueooap M.H. Erniuni rpanni y cxorapcrni yxpannin Cxinnx Kapnar
pyro nononnnn XIX nepmo nononnnn XX cr. // Hayxonn sipnnx 3axapnarct-
xoro xpacsnanuoro mysem (ani H33KM). Bnn. VIII. Vxropo, 2007. C. 154-232.
29. Tueooap M.H. Haponte rpannnn n nononnncxom nacrymecrne yxpann-
nen Paxonmnnt // Kapnarcxn copnnx. M., 1972. C. 20 - 27.
30. Tueooap M.H. Tpannine cxorapcrno Vxpanctxnx Kapnar pyro nononn-
nn XIX nepmo nononnnn XX cr. Icropnxo-ernonoriune ocnixennx. Vxropo,
1994. 560 c.
31. 4eoara H.M. Iocnoapctxi yinni cenxnctxo cann yxpannin 3axapnar-
rx pyro nononnnn XIX nouarxy XX cr. // H33KM. Bnn. II. Vxropo, 1996. C. 144
- 158.
32. 4eoara H.M. Hapone xnrno yxpannin 3axapnarrx XVIII XX cr. Vxro-
po, 2005. 352 c.
33. 4eoara H.M. Cann, rnnn nopy, ]opmn oro sayonn n yxpannin 3a-
xapnarrx y XIX na nouarxy XX cr. // H33KM. Bnn. V. Vxropo, 2002. C. 110 - 150.
34. 4eoara H.M. Tnnn nopy na 3axapnarri (pyra nononnna XIX nouarox
XX cr.) // Hapona rnopuicrt ra ernorpa]ix (ani HTE). 1983. N 2. C. 35 - 41.
35. ueaxa H.M. Tnnn i napianrn naponoro xnrna na 3axapnarri (XIX nouar-
xy XX cr.) // HTE. 1981. N 2. C. 69-72.
36. 4u.u+ouoea T.., Lvu M.4. K nonpocy o +rnoxyntrypnom pasnnrnn nem-
nen 3axapnartx // Kapnarcxn copnnx. M., 1972. C. 116 - 138.
37. Pp:euro H.I. epen`xne souecrno Vxpann (XVIII XX cr.). K., 1949
432 c.
38. Kogminova A. Podkarpatska Rus. Praga, 1932. 231 c.
115

Bix1op KIHEPA
MICIHHA IRALHICTL
PEmOPMOBAHHX MOHAXIB-BACHAIAH
HA 3AKAPHATTI Y 20-30-x poxax XX c1oni11n
Hasnnuano naxnnne snauennx mana micina ixntnicrt nacnnian
Hixapnarctxo Pyci, xxa nicnx nepmo cnirono ninn onnnnnacx n cxnai
uexocnonauunnn. Micinn pyx yn cxnaonom uacrnnom snaunoro pos-
nnrxy penirinoro xnrrx na Hixapnarri. Ocnonnnm sanannxm ntoro
pyxy yno napanisynarn nepexi nipnnxin y npanocnanic, mo crano na-
cnixom esrnyso maxpnsani rpexo-xaronnntxoro yxonencrna i nep-
xnn saranom. Bnacniox ntoro inepnino sepiranocx macone neonip`x
yxpanctxnx rpexo-xaronnxin o cnoc nepxnn. Tomy came sanxxn micixm
monaxn mann ninonnmnarn onip`x nipnnxin o cnoc nepxnn.
B icropiorpa]i ane nnrannx nepeynac na nouarxonomy erani nnn-
uennx. 3arantnnx ocnixent, xxi n crocynanncx micinoro pyxy ne icnyc.
Paxnctxa icropiorpa]ix ocnrt nerarnnno nncnirnmnana micinn pyx
nacnnian. Mnxano Fonnxap nnaxan, mo ocnonnnm sanannxm uennin c
oporta s nporpecnnnnmn iexmn xomynismy [2, 91]. oxymenrn nin-
panncx rex ocnrt renennino, a xxmo nopinnmnarn s opnrinanamn cyrt
x cnornopmnanact. Hpnxnaom moxe yrn oxymenr n xxomy nanonrtcx
npoyropctxa ariranix uectxnx rpomaxn ni uac ninycrin y Mapixnon-
uanctxomy monacrnpi, xxn cran cxnaonom Vromnnn [17, 138]. Mox-
nnno raxi nnnaxn icno ynn n ymonax roimnto mixnapono nonirn-
xn, ane ne norpino ni nncnonxn nomnpmnarn na nect unn. exxi nio-
mocri npo miciny ixntnicrt monaxin uCBB c n Hapnci icropi Bacnni-
xnctxoro unny Cnxroro Hoca]ara, xxn nnmon y Pnmi 1992 p. Tyr
noniomnxcrtcx, mo sacnonnnxamn micinoro pyxy y 1924 p. ynn
oo. Cre]an Pemernno, Honixapn Fynnx ra Hanno Ionu [20, 400]. Ox-
pemi acnexrn nacnnianctxnx mici c n xonexrnnni npani Bononmnpa
uennua ra Opecra Hanynnua no uCBB na 3axapnarri, xxa nnmna n
Vxropoi n 2004 p. Hinnnm c ananis micinnx ronapncrn, nennnx crarnc-
rnunnx annx ra nosnrnnnnx nacnixin micinoro pyxy nx nepxnn n nino-
my [25, 58-59]. B ninomy nnrannx maxe ne nncnirneno, ao nepeynac
ni nnnnnom snaunnx ieonoriunnx namapynant.
Haniomimnm micionepom, xxn nmino npononn npononii, man nenn-
xy npnxnntnicrt micnennx nipnnxin ra nennxn nnnnn cepe penirinoro
xnipy yn o. Cre]an Pemernno. Kpim roro, cepe niomnx micionepin i
116
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
npononinnxin uCBB oconnno ]irypynann oo. Honixapn Fynnx, Icponim
Mannntxn, Hanno Ionu, Herpo Koronnu, a nisnime i Xpncro]op
Mnctxin, Hoca]ar Pora ra inmi. Hanpnxna, y 1924 p. niynocx 9 mici
ornin nacnnixn 3 n Hpxminctxi i 6 n Myxauinctxi cnapxi, e yno n
sarantnomy 159 nayx, a nnme npnuacnnxin yno 12 rnc. nipnnxin [5, 1]. B
1925 p. yno ano 7 mici [5, 1]. Ieorpa]ix mici yna ocnrt mnpoxom
Hnnnnx Bennxn, Hone Micro, Fapion, Ocrypnx (Hpxminctxa cnap-
xix); uopnn Apon, Tepnono, yone, 3apiuux, parono, 3onorapeno,
Typ`x-Hacixa (Myxaunictxa cnapxix) romo.
Cnouarxy nnaa ne npninxna nennxy ynary micini poori ornin-pe-
]opmaropin, xxi necnn npoyxpanctxi mornnn y cnox npomonax. exxi s
nnx nanirt orpnmann uexocnonantxe rpomaxncrno (oo. Honixapn Fynnx
ra Icponim Mannntxn), a onn orpnman rnmuaconn osnin na npoxn-
nannx (o. Herpo Koronnu) [4, 49-50]. Ane exorpi s micionepin i soxpema
o. Cre]an Pemernno nect uac yn ni nnntnnm oxom nonininnx opranin
pecnynixn sa cnom nenoxnrny nosnnim. B renerpami mix nonininnmn
opranamn sa 1924 p. ronopnrtcx, mo n cepnni 1924 p. n npomoni na cnxri
n Myxauinctxomy monacrnpi (monipno, Vcninnx) nin nncnonnmnan ie,
xxi sarpoxymrt npanam uectxnx rpomaxn, mo nirnepnnn px cnixin
[4, 80]. B inmi renerpami ronopnrtcx, mo nxe n uepnni 1925 p., yno
sponeno px xpoxin sa xxnmn saoponxnocx anomy npononinnxy ne-
peynarn n uexocnonauunni [4, 81]. V racmnomy sniri Honinino ynpann
27 xnirnx 1926 p. crnepxycrtcx, mo intmicrt nacnnianctxoro openy c
yxe xnepnxantnnm i npornuectxnm [4, 54]. 3a nnm snirom onnm is
sanant micionepctxo poorn yno napanisynarn npanocnannn pyx, xxn
nanpan nennxoro posmaxy [4, 50]. Bnnnxac nnrannx uomy nnaa nama-
ranacx nncnarn o. Cre]ana Pemernna, xxn npononn nnxnmuno miciny
poory, nx, xx nin nnaxan, yxpannin? Fintm niporino, mo ne sicnm-
nanocx uepes nonirnuni mornnn (oxsnt nnnnny yxpanctxnx renenni),
a nce nnrnxano rax, nin nnaa mac intmy noxntnicrt o npanocnan-
nnx, xxi n raxnx cnpnxrnnnnx ymonax ocnrt ope posnnnanncx.
Hesnaxamun na ne micinn pyx npoonxynan axrnnno posnnnarncx i
nanparn uirxo opranisonano crpyxrypn. Bennxy pont n micini poori
niirpanann penirini ronapncrna, xxi sacnonynanncx nx nomnpennx xpn-
crnxnctxnx ninnocre. O. Cre]an Pemernno yn opranisaropom ronapn-
crna Oopona nipn, sanannxm xxo yno sepirarn icnymun opx [4,
49]. V 1924 p. sa ininiarnnn o. Hanna Ionua yno sacnonano Tonapn-
crno Hpecnxroro Cepnx Xpncronoro, sa craryrom xxoro nci unenn mann
mon`xrnnni monnrncx sa rpixn ycix nme, npononrn cynnixanim (na-
rannx Cnxrnx Tan) i npononrn ninycr na cnxro Hpecnxroro Cepnx
Xpncronoro [24, 81-82]. Hanpnxna, n 1926 p. yno 3 rnc. nanomnnxin, s
xxnx 2 rnc. npnnxnn npnuacrx, a n 1934 p. napaxonynanoct 6 rnc. unenin
117

ronapncrna [24, 83]. He nnno, mo oro sacnynann, nosaxx o. Honixapn
Fynnx, y cno nepenncni s Pnmom 22 xnirnx 1926 p. naronomynan npn-
nineonany pont n naoxnocri o Hpecnxroro Cepnx Xpncronoro [12, 1].
3a ininiarnnn o. Herpa Ieex o.Cre]an Pemernno 30 xnirnx 1925 p.
sacnonyc Micine ronapncrno cnxmennnxin Cn. Hoca]ara, uncentnicrt
xxoro sa pix spocno s 15 o 42 oci [25, 58]. Bce ne naanano micinomy
pyxoni ocnrt nennxy opranisonanicrt i npnnocnno snauni pesyntrarn.
Bennxy onomory n micinomy pyxoni naanan Anocrontctxn npe-
cron i, soxpema nana Hi XI. Ha miciny ixntnicrt monaxin uCBB Pnm
20 nnnnx 1926 p. nninnn 8 rnc. iranictxnx nip [6, 1]. Henrpantnnm niny-
cronnm microm yn Mapixnonuanctxn monacrnp, xxn cran cxnaonom
uacrnnom Vropmnnn. Tomy nx intmo spyunocri nonnm ninycronnm
microm cran Myxauinctxn monacrnp na uepneui Iopi. nx ntoro nana
Hi XI nnirxy 1926 p. noapynan monacrnpm annm cxiny ixony Foropo-
nni, xxa ni 1453 p. nepeynana n Pnmi [3, 97]. Hepeauem ixonn sa-
mancx nennxn npnxnntnnx nacnnian o. nonici Hapxi, xxn n ro uac
npanmnan y Pnmi i nncan s ntoro npnnoy nncrn o Myxauinctxnx nacn-
nian [12, 5-6]. 26 uepnnx 1926 p. ixona npnyna o Vxropoa, nicnx uoro
yna nepenecena o Myxauena i 27 uepnnx posmimena n monacrnpi na
uepneui Iopi [1, 5]. Bxe n 1928 p. na Vcnenctxi cnxra npnmno o 50
rnc. nipnnxin, a na cnxri yn npncyrni mnrpononnr A. Benrnntxn, xxn,
o-peui cam yn nnxinem is nacnnian [22, 107]. Oconnno nonynxpnnmn
crann Foroponuni cnxra Crpirennx, Fnaronimennx, Vcninnx, Poxe-
crno, Hoxpona, Bneennx ra Henopoune 3auarrx. Hicnx ntoro Myxaui-
nctxn monacrnp cran nenrpom nanomnnnrn s ycic Hixapnarctxo Pyci.
Kpim roro nacnniann, xx i n anni uacn, crann onopom nx cnncxonct-
xo nnan. Oconnno nnina cninnpanx yna sa cnncxonctxoro npanninnx
Herpa Ieex, a nisnime inmnx cnncxonin. 3 camoro nouarxy monaxn-
nacnniann cnpnmanncx xx yxe opi npononinnxn, a romy micneni na-
poxn yxe uacro sanpomynann x nx nponeennx mici. Hanpnxna, 22
uepnnx 1923 p. Ipyminctxn rnmuaconn aminicrparop o. Bononmnp
Xenrna npocnn osnony y cnncxona nponecrn cnyxy na micni xonnm-
ntoro Ipyminctxoro monacrnpx, na xxi monax uCBB mir n pos`xcnnrn
nipnnxam snauennx ntoro micnx [15, 1]. V 1925-1926 pp. naxonno ara-
ro nncrin micnennx cnxmennnxin, xxi npocnnn nporoirymena, un nanirt
oconcro o. Cre]ana Pemernna, npononrn mici, soxpema, s Bapomno-
roxy, yonoro, Feenni ra inmnx cin [11, 42-55]. 3 ntoro sposymino
ixntnicrt monaxin-nacnnian yna ocnrt nninom i nooanact nipnn-
xam, xxi yxe pao i n nennxi xintxocri npnxonnn nocnyxarn xni npo-
nonii.
Xou ycnix micionepctxo poorn yn ocnrt snaunn nnaa naani
ynepexeno crannnacx o nomnpennx yxpanctxnx ie, xxi nanynann n
118
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Myxauinctxomy nacnnianctxomy monacrnpi. Hacrynnom yxpanctxom
nponemom crana mxinnna pomypxa, xxa yna nomnpena y monac-
rnpi. Honinina npexnix n Vxropoi 16 ciunx 1926 p. noana xepinnnnr-
ny Honirnunoro ynpanninnx snir npo xnnxxy epxanni smarannx Hixap-
narctxo Pyci, xxa yna n Myxauinctxomy monacrnpi, a smicr nin sar-
poxyc epxanni esneni [4, 9]. Oconnno, na ymxy nonininnx opranin,
neesneuni nx epxann ynn nacrynni ymxn s nic pomypxn: no-
nepme Hixapnarctxa Vxpana c uacrnnom yxpanctxnx sement; no-py-
re nx uacrnna sement yna npncnana oponintno i s uacom cranonnme
x mac nepernxarncx; no-rperc intmicrt nacenennx ne xorino npncny-
narncx o uexocnonauunnn, o xxmo ne naann anronomim yropni, ro ne
naayrt i uexn; no-uernepre Hixapnarctxa Pyct mac yrn s`cnana s
Vxpanctxom epxanom romo [4, 9-11]. Hi ymxn ynn ninxom nopmant-
nnmn, a xxnxoct anrnepxannnx saxnnxin n ni ne yno. 3 inmoro oxy
epxana moxe rpaxrynarn ne xx nennn cenaparnsm, xou nacnpani nnc-
nonnmnanact nnme ymxa intmocri, moo noantmo oni Hixapnarct-
xo Pyci.
3a nm ixntnicrt i inmy micionepctxy poory y rpyni 1927 p. o. Cre-
]an Pemernno smymenn nnxarn o Iannunnn [25, 58]. Ane nenonsi
nin yxe nonepnyncx na 3axapnarrx, ocxintxn o. Hoaxnm Xoma n nncri
11 cepnnx 1928 p. o rannntxoro nporoirymena npocnrt ne nixnnxarn o.
Cre]ana Pemernna o Iannunnn, o nnaa oro nxe ne rypyc xpim
roro, nin opn npononinnx, ninonnmc Manoepesnxnctxn monacrnp,
intm roro moxe nnxnaarn i ope nonoic narnnctxom monom [7, 53].
Baxnnnnm nanpxmxom ixntnocri nacnnian crano crnopennx n 1925 p.
xnpnnnuno pyxapni npn Vxropoctxomy monacrnpi, e nnananact ne-
penaxno nireparypa penirinoro smicry. o 1935 p. nx pyxapnx nnnyc-
rnna 181 250 npnmipnnxin momicxuno rasern Fnaronicnnx,
150 920 npnmipnnxin penirinnx raser, 76 767 penirinnx xnnxox,
78 100 monnronnnxin, 26 800 nepxonnnx xanenapin, 20 000 nayxonnx rnopin
ra 173 250 penirinnx pomyp [25, 58]. Iononnom merom crnopennx py-
xapni ne emena xnnra nx inoro pycnna, mo n npnnnnni i yno
ocxrnyro [23, 65.]. icno pyxapnx mana nennxn nnnnn na cycnintny
cnryanim n xpa, a xpim roro, nacnniann nomnpmnann xpncrnxnctxi ninnocri
cepe nme i pyxapnx nonnicrm nnxonynana noxnaeny na ne pont.
yxe naxnnnnm eranom micino ixntnocri uCBB ne poora sa
xoponom, nx nnxinin is Hixapnarctxo Pyci, nepeoncim n Cnonyue-
nnx Brarax Amepnxn. o-peui nepmnm nacnnianctxnm micionepom y
CBA yn came nnxoent is 3axapnarrx o. Knpnno Iynonnu, xxn npo-
nonn ryr mici s 1889 p. [26, 124]. Ha sanpomennx o. Bacnnix Taxaua n
nncronai 1928 p. o CBA nnpymnnn na pe]opmonani icpomonaxn
oo. Teo]an Cxna ra Teoop Heresa [13, 8-9]. 3 nncra o. Teo]ana Cxnn
119

22 nncronaa 1928 p. o o.Honixapna Fynnxa, crac sposymino, mo ni na
orni o Pisna mamrt nponecrn 5 noctmnnennnx mici n pisnnx micrax,
a sa xoxny micim orpnmarn no 200 onapin CBA [13, 10-11]. Hpnuomy
o nnx xomrin monaxn oanann i oconcri apynxn, ocxintxn ne mann
npano nonoirn yt-xxnm manom, a rpomi ynn yxe neoxini nx
nirpnmxn noniniary nnacniox nepmo mici n Hircroni, xxa nasnnua-
no nanacx, monaxn nncnann o Myxauena 283 onapn CBA [13, 1].
Fintm roro mici npnsnonnn o noxnnxant, ocxintxn o. Teo]an Cxna
noniomnxn irymena, mo o nira 1929 p. moxna ye niiparn 4-5 no-
nnxin na noniniar n Myxaueno [8, 1]. B nncri micionepin 20 epesnx
1929 p. s Iomcrea mrar Hencintnanix, sposymino, mo uepes nennxn
ycnix mici nonn npoonxnnnct i orni-nacnniann nnpimnnn nponecrn me 6
mici [8, 2]. Taxnm unnom, mici n CBA npnsnonnn, ne rintxn o sao-
nonennx yxonnnx norpe, ane npnnocnnn npnyrxn, xxi ynn yxe ne-
oxini nx yrpnmannx noniniary n Myxaueni, sintmynannct noxnnxan-
nx, a cami mici nporpnnann maxe pix i monaxn nonepnynncx ax y nncro-
nai 1929 p. [8, 16].
Hicnx opomnntctxo pe]opmn 1931 p., nnacniox xxo opann nenr-
pantne xepinnnnrno uCBB, naano xintxa posnopxxent, xxi me intme
crpyxrypnsynann unn i oro ixntnicrt. Baxnnna pont mana naanarncx
nnannnnrny, xxe posinxnocx na ni cxnaoni nayxone ra nonynxpne
(nx mnpoxoro unraua) [9, 28]. Hpn xoxnomy monacrnpi mann ponrnct
momicxuni oronomennx, sa xxnmn nacroxrent naanan xoxnomy uenneni
nnxonynarn nenni penirini ]ynxni, xxi nin man oon`xsxono sponrn [9,
29]. B xoxnomy monacrnpi sanonnact xnnra e sanncymrtcx yci oro-
cnyxinnx, mici i ninpann, a raxox naxoxennx ni nnx, nanirt npn ymo-
nax napinimnx apin [9, 29-31]. Oxpemo mana icnynarn xnnra n xxy
mann sanncynarn xintxicrt npnuacnnxin, a nacroxrenxm mopoxy sniry-
narncx s ntoro npnnoy [9, 31]. Boo pexonexni ro nonn mamrt sicnm-
narncx oxpemo nx cxonacrnxin, cnxmennnxin i parin [9, 31-32]. Hicnx
nnx posnopxxent ixntnicrt unny crana intme opranisonanom, xx nce-
penni rax i sonni. Hi npannna nomnpmnanncx i na pe]opmonani monac-
rnpi Hixapnarctxo Pyci, ocxintxn opasy nicnx pe]opmn rnxneni oro-
nomennx icnynann n Myxauinctxomy monacrnpi. Hanpnxna na 27 ne-
inm (6 rpynx) 1931 p. posnopxox rnxnx yn nacrynnn: n cepey Cnyx-
y Foxy na uecrt Cn. Hocn]a nponee Maricrp; rpanesy narocnonnxc
Coni; n cepey npnuacrx na uecrt Cn. Hocn]a noxeprnyc par Cnme-
on Fyxapa; na nporxsi rnxnx npnuacrx i poxanent sa posnnrox unny
par Ianpnn Xannx. Bsarani nporxrom 1921-1931 pp., ornxmn-nacnnia-
namn na Hixapnarctxi Pyci yno nponeeno 110 naponnx mici,
132 saxpnri pexonexni i nncnyxann nona 20 rnc. cnonie [25, 58].
Hpo snauny opranisanim micionepctxo poorn cniunrt posnopxxen-
nx nporoirymena nponinni o. Honixapna Fynnxa ni 24 ciunx 1934 p., npo
120
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
nopxox niroronxn i nponeennx mici. Kpim ocnonnnx nosnni cxnane-
nnx opomnntctxom pe]opmom 1931 p., n posnopxxenni nporoiryme-
na oxpemnm nynxrom nxasynanoct na niroronxy npononie. exxi mo-
naxn ne xxicno rorynanncx o mici, a romy nin naan nacrynni posnopx-
xennx: no-nepme micinn npononinnx nanepe mac noniomnrn cnox
cninronapnmin, xxi npononii nin mac ronopnrn, i ni nnx ne nicrynac,
nnme y nnnaxy nasnnuannx npnunn; no-pyre xoxna npononit mac
yrn ope onpantonana i ncecroponnto oymana, a raxox, mo naxnn-
no, ope noxcnena; no-rperc monomi micionepn oon`xsxono mamrt
yrn sanyueni o ntoro nponecy, nx orpnmannx ocnon moo snauennx,
cnocoin i yoni mici ra pexonexni [10, 4]. Hesnaxamun na nenni npo-
nemn nce cniunrt npo re, mo monaxn perentno rorynanncx o npono-
nie, a xpim roro npaxrnuno nanuann mayrnix nacrynnnxin, mo yno
yxe nosnrnnno nx unny. Bennxy pont micixm naanann n xonnmntomy
Mapamopomi. Hiroronxa mici yna ocnrt rpynronna i sxoopnnonana
s micnenom nepxonnom nnaom.
Hanpnxna, na nponosnnim micnenoro nacroxrenx, micix n m. Xycr mana
rpnnarn nnme 4 ni, ane n nponosnnixx no niroronni mici nporoirymen
o. Honixapn Fynnx npononynan nponecrn micim s 12 o 20 rpannx 1934 p.,
a nctoro mann nnronocnrn 20-24 nayx (npononie) [10, 37]. Kpim roro
micnena nnaa mana in]opmarnnno nirorynarn nipnnxin, oparn onrn-
mantnn uac nx npononie (spyunn nx nipnnxin), uepes micneni mxintni
oprann sanyunrn mxintny monot, noniomnrn npononinnxin npo neo-
nixn micnennx nipnnxin, mon nonn n npononixx ne mornn nixpecnnrn,
oronocnrn npo micim y cycinix napoxixx romo [10, 37]. 3 ntoro sposym-
ino niroronxa o mici i pexonexni yna ocnrt rpynronnom sanyua-
nact monot, nipnnxn cycinix cnapxi, a cami mici rpnnann n cepento-
my 8 nin i sanepmynannct cnonim i npnuacrxm. Taxa opranisanix npn-
nocnna nennxi nnon.
Hicnx crnopennx nponinni Cn. Mnxonax na Hixapnarri (1932 p.) mo-
naxn uCBB npoonxynann yrn onopom nx cnirctxo nepxnn i, soxpe-
ma, cnncxona o. Onexcanpa Croxn, o micneni nacroxreni npoonxy-
nann sanpomynarn came monaxin-nacnnian, xxi ynn nnpannnmn npononi-
nnxamn. Hanpnxna, nporxrom 1935-36 pp. reorpa]ix sanpoment yna
ocnrt omnpnom Ieneponnnx, Iannui, Hyxono, uanunxono, Pyctxi
Komapinni, uoma, Conounn romo [16, 1-12]. B experi o. Onexcanpa
Croxn 12 xonrnx 1935 p. naanannct posnopxxennx micnennm nacro-
xrenxm npononrn pos`xcnennx micnennm nipnnxam npo snauennx mici,
xxi mann npononrnct, a s 20 xonrnx npnsnaueno micinn rnxent [16,
15]. He cniunno npo nirpnmxy cnncxonom i Pnmom micionepctxo poo-
rn, xxa npononnact n nepmy uepry monaxamn-nacnnianamn.
Hpo snaunn posnnrox micinoro pyxy cniunrt nponeennx nacnnix-
namn nporxrom epesnx-xnirnx 1935 p. uornptox mici (Iannui, Mnna,
121

uanunxono, Onox) i mecrn pexonexni n Vxropoi [10, 90]. Baxnnno, mo
nx nipnnxin, xxi ne nonoinn pyctxom (yxpanctxom) monom, mici npono-
nnnct pinom monom, nanpnxna, y Mnnam i uanunxoni o. Teoop He-
resa npononiynan no-yropctxn [18, 79-80]. V sniri o. Anrona Cranxa-
nnnnx 25 xnirnx 1935 p. noniomnxcrtcx npo pexonexni n xinoui cemi-
napi (npononn o. H. Fynnx), Iopoxanctxi mxoni (o. H. Cranxannnent),
uononiui ceminapi (o. I. Carmapi), rimnasi (o. B. Banpnx), nx micnennx
xinox (o. A. Cranxannnent), yxonna ceminapix (o. M. Honx), npnuomy
na ocranni pexonexni yn npncyrni cam cnncxon, a n cepentomy yno
nnstxo 200 yuacnnxin, xxi nncnyxann n cepentomy nnstxo ecxrn nayx
[10, 90]. 3 nnx mici i pexonexni sposymino monaxn cami npnxonnn o
nipnnxin, a romy nonn mann nasnnuann ycnix. Hosnrnn yn came n
romy, mo ne nipnnxn npnxonnn o nepxnn, a came nepxna, n ocoi mo-
naxin-nacnnian, npnxonna o nnx, npnuomy npononiynann i na pini moni.
x nxe sasnauanocx mici npononnncx ne nnme na Hixapnarrm. 3
1933 p. oo. Teoop Heresa ra Map`xn Cranxannnent nouann sicnmna-
rn mici n CBA [21, 96]. Micionepom y Fpasnni yn o. Hoca]ar Pora,
xxn n 1934 nnxan y cni pinn Hpyenrononic, snixn y Hncri s Fpa-
snni noniomnxn, mo nanuarn no-yxpanctxn ram saoponeno [19, 150].
Bennxy micionepctxy poory npononn o. Xpncro]op Mnctxin, xxn na-
anan nennxy pont y cno poori s monom nnxonannx n xpncrn-
xnctxomy i narpiornunomy yci. Be 29 rpynx 1933 p. nin yn npnsnaue-
nn cnncxonom nanuarn peniri n 5 naponnx mxonax Kocrtona-Hacrint,
Posroxa-Hacrint, Ferenxr-Hacrint, Mouapi i Mnpui [14, 2]. 3oxpema,
nin npononn mici mix yxpannxmn n Hpasi ra oxonnnxx nporxrom 18
xnirnx 14 rpannx 1935 p., npo mo ertcx n sniri 22 rpannx 1935 p.
nporoirymeny [10, 93]. 3a ne uac o. Xpncro]op nponin nennxy poory
nncnonian 140 yxpannin, n neinm i na cnxra npononiynan; nporxrom
25-28 xnirnx npononn pexonexni, e monx man no ni npononii; npnro-
ronnxn nennxnx ire o xpemennx, mnponomasannx, cnonii, Cn. Hpn-
uacrx; naniynancx o yxpanctxnx ronapncrn i ponn npononii na penirini
remn; saxonn nanirt o oxpemnx ponn, mo namonnrn x na cnonit i
neranisynarn nopyxxx; npononn ncnyrn na penirini remn, xxi npnno-
nnn o ycnixin; opranisonynan yxpanctxnx cryenrin y Hpasi; man ni
cnyxn n Penninax, ra miciny excxypcim n Hiromepinax [10, 93].
Bsarani oro ymxa npo micim ocnrt npnxpa, xou oro ryr pao nira-
nn, o ymennn cran nipnnxin na yxe nnstxomy pinni (ne xpecrxrt ire,
ne cnoniamrtcx romo), a romy o Hparn neoxino nncnarn, xx minimym
rptox cnxmennxin nx pycin, nx yxpannin i nx yxpannin y inmnx micrax
uexi [10, 90]. Bsarani micina poora yna yxe neoxinom i saranom
nanacx, xoua poorn, xx cniunrt ann snir yno yxe araro, a ncm
sa ony micim nnxonarn nemoxnnno. O. Xpncro]op Mnctxin pasom is
o. Inanom Carmapicm ncrynnnn o yxpanctxoro nnacry npn roprinentni
122
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
axaemi crann xypinnnmn xanenanamn [25, 93]. Bin opranisynan
Mapictxy pyxnny (rnnoxe nounrannx Hpecnxro inn Mapi), sacny-
nan ronapncrno Fopnin Xpncra romo [25, 93]. ixntnicrt ntoro micio-
nepa n Hpasi i na Hixapnarrm mano nennxe snauennx.
Orxe, micina ixntnicrt monaxin-nacnnian sa nnnxrxom penirinnx
acnexrin i peanimani onipn o rpexo-xaronnntxo nepxnn, yna cxna-
onom pe]opmn uCBB. Ane na Hixapnarctxi Pyci xpim ocyuacnennx
uepneuoro xnrrx monaxn ninonnmnann micneni rpanni i xyntrypy. Came
n ne uac ryr nomnpmmrtcx npoyxpanctxi mornnn i nornxn, xxi ne cnpn-
manncx o]ininom nnaom, xou ne ne yxe nnnnnyno na ycnix raxo ixnt-
nocri. Torantna maxpnsanix unny n ancrpo-yropctxn nepio net ne
npnsnena snnxnennx openy, ane s inmo croponn nnme na ecxrnnirrx
npnsnenn nonoro posxniry uCBB na 3axapnarri. Cami x mici npononnn-
cx ne nnme na Hixapnarctxi Pyci, a n ycix xyrouxax semni, e ynn
nnxini s ntoro xpam, mo cniunrt npo nasnnuano nennxy pont micio-
nepctxo poorn monaxin uCBB nponinni Cn. Mnxonax.
AITEPATYPA
1. Beuoac . Cnncxon Herpo Iee. Bnarnn xyntrypno-ocnirni ixu Myxa-
uinctxo cnapxi // Fnaronicnnx. 2004. N 9 (148). Piunnx 13. Cepnent. C. 5.
2. Bo.ourap M. Anrnnaponax exrentnocrt ynnarcxo nepxnn (na marepna-
nax Vxropocxo ynnn). Htnon: Bnma mxona, 1980. - 200 c.
3. Bennxoe ropxecrno n Myxauencxom monacrtpe // Fnaronecrnnx. uncno 7.
Pounnx VI. 1 mnix, 1926. C. 97-98.
4. epxannn apxin 3axapnarctxo onacri (ani A3O). u. 9 c/2. Hpesnix
3emctxoro ypxy Hixapnarctxo Pyci n Vxropoi. On. 2. Cnp. 779. Hepenncxa s
minicrepcrnom nnyrpimnix cnpan, minicrepcrnom napono ocnirn, nonininnmn i
xynanarctxnmn opranamn npo ixntnicrt monacrnpin nacnnixn na Hixapnarctxi
Pyci. T. 1. Ha 176 apx.
5. A3O. u. 64. Monacrtpt opena nacnnnan r. Myxaueno. On. 3. Cnp. 1291.
Btnncxn c nepxonntx mnccn, naxoxmnxcx na reppnropnn Hoxapnarcxo Pycn.
Ha 4 apx.
6. A3O. u. 64. Monacrtpt opena nacnnnan r. Myxaueno. On. 3. Cnp. 1327.
Coomenne anocrontcxo nynnnarypt n r. Hpara nacroxrenm Vxropocxoro
monacrtpx o accnrnnponannn enexntx cpecrn na oprannsannm mnccnonep-
cxo exrentnocrn n Pnme. Ha 1 apx.
7. A3O. u. 64. Monacrtpt opena nacnnnan r. Myxaueno. On. 3. Cnp. 1371.
Hepenncxa monaxon nacroxrene monacrtpe opena nacnnnan no nepxonno-
amnnncrparnnntm nonpocam n p. Ha 75 apx.
8. A3O. u. 64. Monacrtpt opena nacnnnan r. Myxaueno. On. 3. Cnp. 1421.
Hepenncxa naxoxmnxcx n Amepnxe monaxon-mnccnonepon c renepantntm na-
croxrenem opena nacnnnan o pesyntrarax nepxonntx mnccn. Ha 16 apx.
123

9. A3O. u. 64. Monacrtpt opena nacnnnan r. Myxaueno. On. 3. Cnp. 1504.
Hocranonnennx renepantnoro xannryna monacrtpx opena nacnnnan n r. Pnme sa
1931 r. Ha 33 apx.
10. A3O. u. 64. Monacrtpt opena nacnnnan r. Myxaueno. On. 3. Cnp. 1623.
Hepenncxa cnxmennnxon Myxauencxo enapxnn c nacroxrenem Myxauencxoro
monacrtpx o oprannsannn mnccnonepcxo paort nepomonaxamn opena na-
cnnnan n cenax enapxnn n no p. nepxonntm nonpocam. Ha 100 apx.
11. A3O. u. 64. Monacrtpt opena nacnnnan r. Myxaueno. On. 4. Cnp. 525.
Hnpxynxp nporonrymena nacnnnancxoro opena n nepenncxa c yxonencrnom o
mnccnxx n no pyrnm nonpocam. Ha 87 apx.
12. A3O. u. 64. Monacrtpt opena nacnnnan r. Myxaueno. On. 5. Cnp. 452.
Hpenncxa c Ipnropnancxnm nncrnryrom n Pnme no amnnncrparnnntm nonpo-
cam. Ha 6 apx.
13. A3O. u. 64. Monacrtpt opena nacnnnan r. Myxaueno. On. 5. Cnp. 461.
uacrnax xoppecnonennnx nrymena Honnxapna Fynnxa. Ha 24 apx.
14. A3O. u. 64. Monacrtpt opena nacnnnan r. Myxaueno. On. 5. Cnp. 473.
Hnunte oxymenrt monaxon. Ha 139 apx.
15. A3O. u. 151. Hpannenne Myxauencxo rpexo-xaronnuecxo enapxnn,
r. Vxropo. On. 7. Cnp. 1130. Hpomenne rpymencxoro npnxoa o ntaue paspeme-
nnx na ornpannenne nnryprnn na mecre tnmero monacrtpx. Ha 2 apx.
16. A3O. u. 151. Hpannenne Myxauencxo rpexo-xaronnuecxo enapxnn,
r. Vxropo. On. 25. Cnp. 3108. Hocnanne enncxona Anexcanpa Croxn o snaue-
nnn mnccnonepcxnx neent n saxnnennx npnxocxnx cnxmennnxon cen uanunxo-
no n Conounn nrymeny Myxauencxoro monacrtpx o nanpannennn monaxon nx
nponeennx mnccnonepcxo paort. Ha 15 apx.
17. oxymenrn posnoniamrt: sipnnx crare ra oxymenrin / Vnopxnnxn
A. Iaom, H. Knpnnmx. Vxropo: Kapnarn, 1971. 189 c.
18. 3 mnci // Fnaronecrnnx. 1935. uncno 5. Pounnx XV. Ma. C. 79 - 80.
19. Hncr s Fpasnni // Fnaronecrnnx. 1934. uncno 10. Pounnx XVI. Oxroep.
C. 149 - 150.
20. Hapnc icropi Bacnnixnctxoro unny Cnxroro Hoca]ara. Pnm: Bnannnnrno
OO. Bacnnixn, 1992. 640 c.
21. Honnna // Fnaronecrnnx. 1934. uncno 6. Pounnx XIV. Rni. C. 96.
22. Herap A. UCBB. Mnrpononnr A. Benrnntxn i saxapnarctxi yxpanni //
Kapnarctxn xpa. N 5-8 (111). Vxropo, 1995. Tpanent-cepnent. Piunnx 5.
C. 106 - 108.
23. Horpont nam mnnne // Kanenap Fnaronecrnnxa na nepecrynnn pox
1936. C. 61-65.
24. Cmaurauuuei H. uCBB. 10-nerx sanoxennx Tonapncrna Hpecnxroro Cep-
nx Xpncronoro npn nepxnn OO. Bacnnixn n Vxropoe // Fnaronecrnnx. 1934.-
uncno 6. Pounnx XIV. Rni. C. 81 - 84.
25. 4euu: B. Hanv.u: O. Manoepesnxnctxn Cnxro-Mnxonanctxn monac-
rnp ra napnc icropi unny cn. Bacnnix Bennxoro na 3axapnarri / VxHV. Vxropo:
Bn-no B. Haxxa, 2004. 188 c.
26. Lrpaomr H. Monamn unn Ornin Bacnnixn y nanionantnomy xnrri Vxpa-
nn. Htnin: Micionep, 2005. 439 c.
124
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Bacnnt MImAHHH
3AKAPHATCLKA MOAOL
B mKOAAX m3H: HABHAHHR HH
3MYmEHA MIIPAHIR?
ocninnxn sa ocranni poxn crnopnnn snauny xintxicrt nireparypn, n
xxi na ocnoni apxinnnx i oxymenrantnnx marepianin no-nonomy nncnir-
neno raxy naxnnny noim n icropi yxpanctxoro cenxncrna xx xonexrnni-
sanix. Onynixonani raxox marepiann npo meron nponeennx i na sax-
inoyxpanctxnx semnxx, nicnx x noss`cnannx s Vxpanctxom PCP.
Hixpecnmcrtcx, mo ryr ne nponec sicnmnancx mnxxom npxmoro
xonimnannx ocniy, nayroro n cxinnx onacrxx Vxpann, ne npaxo-
nymun oconnnocre periony. Hponec xonexrnnisani cintctxoro rocno-
apcrna ne omnnyn i namonomy onacrt Vxpann 3axapnarctxy
(mo yna crnopena 22 ciunx 1946 p.).
Onax oneanna xi xonexrnnisani n icropnuni nireparypi npecran-
nxncx rintxn n nosnrnnnomy nnani. I nnme n ocranni poxn, s noxnom oc-
ryny o apxinnnx marepianin, posxpnro px nerarnnnnx xnnm, xxi nopo-
nna xonexrnnisanix. V ani crarri mn nnonmo n nayxonn oir noni
apxinni marepiann, xxi xapaxrepnsymrt meron nponeennx xonexrnni-
sani n 3axapnarctxi onacri ra nerarnnni nacnixn nx cena i, nacam-
nepe, cintctxo monoi.
Bipasy x nicnx nnsnonennx 3axapnarrx uepnonom apmicm n xonrni
1944 p., nonoopana Hapona Paa 3axapnarctxo Vxpann (HP3V), npo-
ninmn sementny pe]opmyc 1944-1946 pp., namirnna i nponeennx xonex-
rnnisani cintctxoro rocnoapcrna xpam. 3icnennx xxo nxrno na 3a-
xapnarctxn oxom KH()V i onnnxonxom. 1948-1949 pp. crann nepe-
nomnnmn poxamn y nponeenni xonexrnnisani 3axapnarrx, ao poxamn
macono xonexrnnisani.
Came n ne nepio i s`xnnxcrtcx araro nesaononennx npnmyconom
xonexrnnisanicm. V micneno nnan yno xintxa cnocoin x nosyrncx: a)
nxnmunrn o cnncxin xypxynin; ) nncennrn y ninenni ra cxini paonn
VPCP; n) mo crocycrtcx monoi, ro nanpannrn n mxonn u3H
1
.
Maxe ne nnnuenom cropinxom xnrrx 3axapnarrx c onx monoi, xxa
na saxonoanui ocnoni ninpanacx ni artxin i ninpannxnacx n rax
snani mxonn u3H cxinnx onacre. ire, xxi nrixann nasa o artxin,
apemronynann, nianann pisnnm noxapannxm. Ti, xorpi sannmnnncx, sa-
xinunnmn xoporxouacne nanuannx, nepernopmnanncx na maxrapin, me-
125

ranyprin. Hoonnoxi s nnx nonepranncx n pinn xpa, imena exxnx sas-
nyuann cepe nponinnx cnenianicrin ra nixro rouno ne cxaxe, cxintxn
yno rnx, xxi y ntomy nnxonanni snnxnn escnino.
Bo xnnxnn coom mxonn u3H? 3nepnemoct o paxnctxnx ennnxno-
nei
2
. Bxonn ]apnuno-sanoctxoro nanuannx nnxun npo]ecino-
rexniunn saxna. Fynn crnopeni n cncremi epxannnx rpyonnx pesepnin
na nnponnui asi npomncnonnx ninpncmcrn, yon s merom niroron-
xn xapin poirnnxin nx nyrintno, ripnnuopyno, meranyprino, na]ro-
no, yinentno ra inmnx ranyse npomncnonocri. Tepmin nanuannx n
mxonax u3H cranonnn 6 micxnin. V mxonn sanyuanact monot 16-18
poxin s yt-xxom sarantnoocnirntom niroronxom; nx niroronxn npo-
]eci, non`xsannx s nisemnom poorom, poorom n rapxunx nexax, na
yinnnnrno rintxn mnaxn s 18 poxin. Vuni snaxonnnct na epxannomy
saesneuenni. Iononna ynara n mxonax u3H npninxnact nnponnuomy
nanuannm, reopernunnm sanxrrxm npninxnocx nnstxo 25% uacy. B 1949
p. mxonn u3H nyrintno i ripnnuopyno npomncnonocri peopranisonani n
ripnnuonpomncnoni mxonn s 10 micxunnm repminom nanuannx, n 1955 p.
mxonn u3H yinentno npomncnonocri n 10-micxuni yinentni yunnn-
ma.
Cni nisnaunrn, mo 3axapnarctxa onacrt yna ocranntom n saxi-
noyxpanctxomy perioni, xxa ninpannxna monot na nanuannx o mxin
u3H. Moxnnno, paxnctxn pexnm ne xorin nipasy rypynarn nace-
nennx xpam i sanxn ouixynantny nosnnim cnouarxy paxnisynarn, xo-
nexrnnisynarn, a sroom moxna i nicenxrn, nepecenxrn, nanpan-
nxrn.
Hepmn naip monoi niyncx ect y epesni 1948 p. Tax, is oxy-
menra, snaenoro y apxini, aunmo, mo n ciuni-epesni 1948 p. npnsony is
3axapnarrx ne yno
3
.
3rino nocranonn Pan minicrpin VPCP i HK KH()V, nporxrom nto-
ro x poxy is 3axapnarctxo onacri nnanynanoct npnsnarn n mxonn u3H
7000 mnaxin, n romy uncni 1000 no nini 3axapnarctxoro onnictxxo-
mary. Hesaapom sacrynnnx rononn nnxonanuoro xomirery 3axapnarct-
xo onacno pan enyrarin rpyxmnx R.Hxmenxo cminnno panopryc n
Knn: 3ano n mxonn u3H nctoro 7 037, n r.u. uepes onnictxxomar
1007 uononix...
4
.
Bxe nepmi naopn noxasann, mo micnene xepinnnnrno ne rorone o
raxo ninoniantno mici. B oxpemnx nnnaxax xomici no sapaxynan-
nm npnsonmxonn u3H ]opmantno nixonnn o nnsnauennx crany so-
pon`x monoi, mo npnsnnanact. Mann micne nnnaxn, xonn sapaxonannx i
ninpannennx mnaxin na micni ne npnnxnn i noneprann oomy.
Inmnm noinnm npnnoom crano nenipne o]opmnennx oxymenrin,
ynn raxox nnnaxn, xonn npnsonnnxn nanmncno npnxonynann oxymen-
126
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
rn. Ha ne onacnomy xepinnnnrny nxasynan sacrynnnx cexperapx Pan
Minicrpin VPCP s ooponnnx cnpan H. 3aentnnxon. Bin nncan: ...npn-
yno sa ocranni uac n mxonn u3H Craninctxo onacri npnsonnnxin ne-
snxrnx s nictxonoro onixy... is 3axapnarctxo onacri
5
.
uacrnna ninpannennx y mxonn u3H no oposi y nynxrn npnsnauennx
nrixana.
Hoxcnmnanoct ne, xx sanxn, neocrarnicrm macono-pos`xcnmnant-
no poorn ra neocrauem ynonnonaxennx, xorpi saxpinnxnnct o xox-
noro emenony
6
. Fartxn i exxi micneni xepinnnxn ncinxxo namarannct
ne ninycxarn ire y nasnani mxonn. Oxpemi nnxonxomn cintctxnx, ce-
nnmnnx, mictxnx i oxpyxnnx pa enyrarin rpyxmnx ninimann neorpyn-
ronani nnrannx npo snintnennx s poorn n maxrax, ertcx n onomy
s oxymenrin
7
. Taxox cnocuacnomy nnxonannm nnany npnsony monoi
sanaxamrt xepinnnxn exxnx opranisani i ninpncmcrn comsnoro i pec-
nynixanctxoro ninopxxynannx (s/oporn, nicnpomrpecr ra in.), xxi n
nepio raopy n mxonn u3H npnmamrt na poory monot, xxa mac
npnsnnarnct...
8
.
Haip o mxin u3H npoxonn ni npxmnm xepinnnnrnom pecnyni-
xanctxnx i comsnnx opranin. 3rino nocranonn comsnoro ypxy N2932-
12060 ni 4 cepnnx 1948 p. o 1 nmroro 1949 p. is onacri mano yrn
npnsnano i niroronneno 500 poirnnxin yinentnnx cneniantnocre. x
yno ninpanneno y Bopomnnonorpactxy onacrt
9
.
Hpo neaxannx monoi rn na nanuannx cniunrt xoua raxn ]axr.
Is nnany npnsony 1000 uononix y Craninctxy onacrt na 15 nnnnx 1948 p.
npnsnano i ninpanneno 1306 uon.; npnyno na micne 845; sapaxonano
693 uononixn. Ha xinent micxnx s npnxoom nonnx emenonin sapaxonano
yno 919 uononix, ao 91,9% ni nnany
10
. He yn ocnrt nncoxn nico-
rox. Ho Vxpani is 46 952 uononix yno sapaxonano n mxonn u3H 18 094
uon. 25% ni nnany
11
. Bo npnsnarn i ninpannrn monot y mxonn
u3H, nnxonanmn nxasinxn intmonnntxo napri i ypxy, micnene xepin-
nnnrno nnxopncronynano pisni ]opmn i meron. Hanpnxna, y Bnnorpa-
inctxomy oxpysi ynonnonaxenn oxpyxxomy KH()V no npnsony n mxonn
u3H ixonctxn sarpnman artxin 12-rn npnsonnnxin, xxi yxnnxnnct
ni npnsony i nanpannn x y niinennx MBC y xxocri sapyunnxin. A y
Hepeunnctxomy oxpysi ynonnonaxenn no npnsony, sacrynnnx rononn
oxpnnxonxomy Ciannntxn an posnopxxennx naxnaarn apemr na
mano cime npnsonnnxin, xxi yxnnxmrtcx ni npnsony n mxonn u3H
12
.
30 xonrnx 1949 p. Paa Minicrpin VPCP npnmac nony nocranony Hpo
uepronn npnson (moinisanim) monoi n mxonn ]apnuno-sanoctxoro
nanuannx Minicrepcrna rpyonnx pecypcin. Binonino o ne is 3axap-
narrx mano yrn s 10 nncronaa no 15 rpynx nanpanneno 1000 mnaxin y
Craninctxy onacrt. Onacrt nnan nepennxonana. Ha 5 rpynx 1948 p.
yno ninpanneno 1024 mnaxin
13
.
127

Hpo nesaonintne cranonnme nepecenennin ertcx n onomy s apxi-
nnnx oxymenrin: Ha ninpncmcrnax xominarin "Craninnyrinnx" i "Ap-
remnyrinnx" npnxonrtcx na onoro yunx xnrnono nnomi 2,8 xn. merpn,
samicrt ncranonneno nopmn 4 xn. merpn na uononixa. Ha maxri im. Py-
m`xnnena yuni mxonn N 63 xnnyrt n xopnopi ryproxnrxy...
14
.
3axapnarctxa monot nanpannxnact y Cxini i Hinenni onacri VPCP.
He npn romy, mo y 3axini Vxpani ynn cno mxonn ]apnuno-sanoct-
xoro nanuannx. Ha 1 ciunx 1946 p. x yno 23, a na 1 rpynx ntoro x poxy
35: 7 y poronntxi onacri; 13 y Htninctxi; 6 y Pinnenctxi; 9
y uepninentxi
15
. Mayrt paxnctxn ypx nnaxan, mo unm ani ye
niinena monot, rnm menmn norxr o pinoro xpam.
Haip o mxin npoonxynancx i n 1949 p. Hnme s 1 epesnx no 10
xnirnx 1949 p. yno npnsnano 3 000 mnaxin 1929-1931 pp. napoxennx
16
.-
Tenep nnan npnsony yno nnxonano na 71% (2 131 uononix).
V mxonn u3H nanpannxnoct n ocnonnomy cintctxe nacenennx. Hasn-
nannct i npnunnn neoopy. Cepe nnx i nxe nam niomi:
1. Hpnsonna xomicix ne yna niroronnena o npnomy monoi. Tax, 3
epesnx 1949 p. n Myxauinctxomy oxpysi na sipnn nynxr s noniomnen-
nxmn oxpnnxonxomin s`xnnnoct nnstxo 70 uononix, ane cxopncrynannct
rnm, mo na sipnomy nynxri nixoro s xepinnnnrna oxpnnxonxomy ne yno i
npnsonna xomicix n ne uac yna nicyrnx... nci npnsonnnxn posimnnct
no ominxam i intme na sipnn nynxr ne xnnxnnct.
2. Henpannntne o]opmnennx oxymenrin. Tax, s Feperinctxoro oxpy-
ry na sipnn nynxr 4 epesnx 1949 p. yno ninpanneno xomany 163
uononix es oxymenrin. 7 epesnx s Xycrctxoro oxpyry npnyna xoman-
a 84 uononixn, 53 s xxnx es nacnoprin.
3. Hesaonintna poora menunnx xomici. He npononnnct canirapni
opoxn. Tax, nnstxo 50% ninpannennx mann nenxyntos.
4. He orpnmannx nixonnx nopm npnsnanoro xonrnnrenry. Cepe npn-
snannx yno araro 1932-1933 poxin napoxennx, ]isnuno ne roronnx o
poorn y nyrintni npomncnonocri
17
.
Hnanom na 1950 p. nepeauanoct ninpannrn y mxonn u3H Crani-
nctxo onacri 645 uononix. 3 nnx: 165 16-piunnx; 480 17-piunnx
mnaxin
18
.
Taxnm unnom, npnsonn cintctxoro nacenennx y mxonn u3H nennct no
nci 3axapnarctxi onacri. Tintxn sa 1949-1950 pp. is onacri na na-
nuannx yno ninpanneno inx 10 rncxu mnaxin. Binpannxnnct nonn,
nepenaxno, y Hinenni i Cxini onacri Vxpann. Biuyrnnm yn nnnnn
xonexrnnisani na emorpa]iuny cnryanim n xpa.
128
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
EPEAA TA AITEPATYPA:
1. I.iro B.I., I.iro I.B. Konexrnnisanix cintctxoro rocnoapcrna na 3axapnarri:
nepeymonn, cyrt i oconnnocri //Axryantni ra manoocnixeni nponemn icropi
Vxpann. Bnnycx rperi. Vxropo, 1998. C. 66 - 93; Miuauuu B. Arpapna nonirnxa
na 3axapnarri (1944-1950 pp.). Vxropo: 3axapnarrx, 2000. 138 c; Miuauuu B.
o nnrannx npo mirpanim nacenennx 3axapnarrx n onacri VPCP nanpnxinni 40-x
- nepmi nononnni 50-x poxin XX cr. // Axryantni ra manoocnixeni nponemn
icropi Vxpann. Vxropo, 1998. Bnnycx pyrn. C.45 - 49; auu.mr .., Miuauuu
B.B. Konexrnnisanix i mirpanini nponecn na 3axapnarri y xinni 40-x pp. XX cr. //
Vxpanctxn cenxnnn. 3ipnnx nayxonnx npant. uepxacn, 2002. C.103 - 109.
2. Fontmax Conercxax 3nnnxnonenx 3-c ns. T.29. M.: Conercxax +nnnxnone-
nx, 1978. C. 426; Vxpanctxa Paxnctxa Ennnxnoneix. K.: Ionon. pe. VPE, 1964.
C. 341.
3. Henrpantnn epxannn apxin rpomactxnx o`cnant Vxpann
(HAIOV).u. 1. On. 30. Cnp. 1017. Apx. 14.
4. epxannn apxin 3axapnarctxo onacri (ani A3O). u.P-195. On. 24.
Cnp. 13. Apx.1.
5. Tam camo. On. 1. Cnp. 89. Apx. 135.
6. Tam camo. On. 24. Cnp. 13. Apx. 2.
7. Tam camo. Apx. 4.
8. Tam camo.
9. Tam camo. On. 1. Cnp. 70. Apx. 22, 47.
10. HAIOV. u. 1. On. 30. Cnp. 1046. Apx. 25, 34.
11. Tam camo. Apx. 29.
12. A3O. u.P-195. On. 1. Cnp. 89. Apx. 57.
13. HAIOV. u. 1. On.30. Cnp. 1016. Apx. 64 - 65, 79.
14. Tam camo. Cnp. 1017. Apx. 4.
15. Tam camo. On. 75.- Cnp. 216. Apx. 106.
16. A3O. u. P-195. On. 24., Cnp. 30. Apx. 2.
17. Tam camo. On. 5. Cnp. 10. Apx. 50.
18. Tam camo.
129

Hnna HAmAEBA
KAPHATOPYCCKHE HHTEAAHIEHTL
B POCCHH B 1-n nononnne XIX nexa:
OPAAH, BAAYILRHCKHH, AOHH,
KYKOALHHK, BEHEAHH*
Kora mt nsyuaem ncropnm cnxse Kapnarcxo Pycn n ee exrene c
Poccne, mt oxsarentno ncnomnnaem nmena yuentx xapnaropoccon
nepno nononnnt XIX n., nancera cnxsanmnx cnom cyty c Poccne.
Kax nsnecrno, nepnte rot npannennx Anexcanpa I osnamenonannct
pe]opmamn n onacrn n cpenero n ntcmero opasonannx. Cosaercx
ennax cncrema oyuennx n opasonannx. B 1802 r. nosnnxno Mnnncrep-
crno naponoro npocnemennx, nsxnmee na cex pyxonocrno nnsmnmn,
cpennmn n ntcmnmn yuentmn saneennxmn, Axaemne nayx, rnnor-
pa]nxmn, nnnorexamn n mysexmn. Honax cncrema oyuennx nxnmua-
na n cex npnxocxne n yesnte yunnnma, rnmnasnn n ynnnepcnrert, no
ncex yesntx ropoax cosanannct rnmnasnn, xya es +xsamenon no-
crynann yuamnecx no oxonuannn yesnoro yunnnma. Inmnasnn roronn-
nn cnonx yuennxon x nosmoxnomy nocrynnennm n ynnnepcnrer. Homnmo
Mocxoncxoro ynnnepcnrera, npomnn peoprannsannm nnn nnont nosnnx-
nn epnrcxn (1802), Bnnencxn (1803), Kasancxn n Xaptxoncxn (1804)
n, naxonen, Herepyprcxn (1819) ynnnepcnrert. Hapannentno nosnnx-
no necxontxo nnneen, cpen nnx, xpome snamennroro Hapcxocentcxoro
(1810), Pnmentencxn n Oecce (1817), nnne xnxsx Fesopoxo n He-
xnne (1820) n p. Ocoennocrt nnneen saxnmuanact n rom, uro cryen-
rt nonyuann ne rontxo rnmnasnuecxoe opasonanne, no raxxe +nemen-
rt ynnnepcnrercxoro. Cocrnenno nnne roronnn opasonanntx nme,
yxe ne oxsarentno nyxanmnxcx n nonyuennn ynnnepcnrercxoro o-
pasonannx [1, c. 19-20]. T. Fanypa, anrop monorpa]nn, orxya mt npn-
nonm +rn xparxne annte, aer na cnonx crpannnax pasnepnyrym xap-
rnny rex rpannosntx saau, nentm xoroptx tna nororonxa opaso-
nanntx nme nx crpant n ee nayuntx n nearornuecxnx xapon. Ha
nepnom +rane omymancx ocrpt neocrarox n npo]eccopon, n npenoa-
narene. Hx npnxonnoct npnrnamart ns-sa rpannnt. Cpen nnx - nt-
* oxna tn saunran na cemnnape Hoxapnarcxne pycnnt n Poccnx
20 exapx 2007 r. n nnnorexe-]one Pyccxoe sapyexte (r. Mocxna).
130
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
xont ns 3axapnartx, xapnaropocct. Hx-
repo, o xoroptx noer peut, ocrannnn o-
pt cne n name nayxe n xyntrype.
Hepntm ns nnx tn Hnan Ceuenonnu
Opnan (1770-1829), yuent menx, nea-
ror, ncropnx, omecrnennt exrent.
On nonyunn opasonanne n Vxropocxo n
Bennxoxapnoncxo rnmnasnxx, Hotxpa-
cxo (Bennxonapanncxo) axaemnn,
Htnoncxom ynnnepcnrere, na orocnoncxom
]axyntrere Hemrcxoro ynnnepcnrera.
B 1789 r. cran unenom opena nnapncron,
paoran npo]eccopom Bennxoxapnoncxo
rnmnasnn nnapncron, no n 1790 r. Opna
nonpocnn nasnauennx n ony ns cnercxnx
rnmnasn. B anrycre emy tno orxasano. B noxpe roro xe roa on
ntrancx nonyunrt onxnocrt amnxra npn npo]eccope ]nsnxn n ma-
remarnxn nome Xopnare n ynnnepcnrere n Hemre, nyume ncex nt-
epxan +xsamen - n nonyunn orxas. Hn opasonanne, nn rananr ne mornn
narn npnmenennx n Ancrpncxo nmnepnn, re cnanxnam ncxuecxn npe-
nxrcrnonann sannmart ornercrnennte onxnocrn [1, c. 40; 2, c. 286].
Hosnee ctn B.K. Kyxontnnxa Hecrop cxaxer: Kapnaropoccy n ynna-
ry ne npecrannxnoct nnxaxnx cpecrn nponoxnrt cee n Benrpnn nnn
Ancrpnn nouernym opory [3, c. 4]. B 1791 r. Opna +mnrpnponan n
Poccnm, n 1792 r. nocrynnn n Canxr-Herepyprcxoe menxo-xnpyprn-
uecxoe yunnnme, oxonunn ero ocpouno n n 1793 r. nonyunn nnnom npa-
ua. B antnemem on npomen nce crynenn cnyxeno xaptept o ro]-
xnpypra n ro]-menxa n napcxom nopne, tn yuentm cexperapem
Menxo-xnpyprnuecxo axaemnn (1808-1817), peaxropom Bceome-
ro xypnana npaueno nayxn, enncrnennoro rora n Poccnn mennnn-
cxoro xypnana, n epnrcxom ynnnepcnrere samnrnn oxropcxym nc-
ceprannm no mennnne (1806), tn unenom mnornx pyccxnx n sapyex-
ntx nayuntx omecrn. Ero npnrnamann na mecro npo]eccopa n n Xapt-
xoncxn (1811) n n Mocxoncxn (1820) ynnnepcnrert, no n Menxo-xn-
pyprnuecxo axaemnn on nen npaxrnuecxn onn ncm oprannsannonnym
paory, n ero onro ne ornycxann. B 1821-1826 rr. on - npexrop Inmna-
snn ntcmnx nayx xnxsx Fesopoxo n Hexnne, a c 1826 r. o xonna xnsnn
(1829) nosrnannxer Pnmentencxn nnne n Oecce.
Opna tn nepntm cpen saxapnarcxnx nearoron n yuentx, npax-
rnuecxn ntnyxenntx noxnnyrt cnom manym ponny. Xorx neapom
ero yuennx, ctn B.I. Kyxontnnxa Hecrop, ncnomnnan nosnee, uro y
Opnax nmont x anexo ponne nnxora ne yracna [1, c. 25]. 5 mapra
1803 r. Opna npeocrannn noneunrenm Herepyprcxoro yuenoro ox-
Hnan Ceuenonnu Opnan
131

pyra H.H. Honocnntneny npoexr, n xoropom, no cnnerentcrny roro xe
Hecropa Kyxontnnxa, yxasan na ... nectma nerxoe, nepnoe n ecrnn-
rentnoe cpecrno nmert n camom cxopom npemenn cnocontx n snam-
mnx npenoanarene, xoropte t mornn n camt nenpoonxnrentnt
cpox nsnarart nayxn no-pyccxn. Cpecrno +ro saxnmuanoct n npnrna-
mennn nnosemntx nacrannnxon cnanxncxoro nponcxoxennx, n npenmy-
mecrnenno xapnaropoccon, rax xax onn otxnonenno snamr ocnonarentno
nepxonnocnanxncxn xstx [1, c. 26]. Hpoexr H.C. Opnax nocnn nasna-
nne 3anncxa ro]-xnpypra Opnax o nexoroptx xapnaropyccxnx npo]ec-
copax. B cnoe 3anncxe Opna nncan: Orropoxennte n cmyrnte
npemena or marepn cnoe Poccnn poccnxne nacenxmr ns pennnx npe-
men Kapnarcxne ropt, onpeenennte nm rocnocrnonanmnm na nnmn
napoom. xo nernt, orceuennax or pena cnoero, xorx n tnn onn npe-
neperaemt necxontxo nexon, n axe neronncarenxmn pyccxnmn ocran-
nent n sanennn; no oymennxxct uyncrnonannem nsxmnoro cnoero na-
uana n nennunem napoa, xoero cyrt orpacnt, ne nmenn onn no nce npe-
mena neocrarxa n ocrontx cex myxax, xoropte n nonpnme cnoem
npocnannxnn nmx poccnxn. Texymn nex, ornnunnmncx npe ncemn
nperexmnmn npocnemennem, nponsnen n xapnaropoccncxom napoe
myxe, npnnecmnx n npnnocxmnx neno Pnmcxo nmnepnn nontsy n cna-
ny [1, c. 26]. anee Opna aer xapaxrepncrnxy rem mecrn xanna-
ram, xoroptx pexomenyer. Bcem tnn nocnant ntsont, ns nnx n Poc-
cnm npnexann rpoe - Fanyxncxn, Kyxontnnx n Hon [1, c. 30]. Her
comnennx,- nnmer n ro xe 3anncxe Opna, - urot cnn xapnaropoc-
cnxne, ynpaxnxmmnecx n npocnemennn nnonepnen n nnonnemenntx, pas-
ntmn npornny nx npepaccyxamn sapaxenntx, ne nocnxrnnn oxorno
rpyon cnonx n cnoconocre pennemy oreuecrny cnoemy Poccnn, o-
pasyx ym parten cnonx nmecro uyxesemnen, xoropte xorx n ne poxe-
nt nx nocnnrannx poccnxnnna, no x romy ynorpenxmrcx n c nemant-
mn nsepxxamn, raxonoe co cropont Poccnn x nnm onepne npnmyr rem
c nxmem paocrnm, uro xpome yonontcrnnx trt nonesntm cnonm
ennonepnam n ennoponam, ynonamr onn npnopecrt n Poccnn ntro-
t, morymne nosnarpanrt cnoconocrt nx n ycepne, uero n ancrpn-
cxo cnyxe no npeyexennm xaronnxon n no pyrnm nonnrnuecxnm
npnunnam es xpanero rpya ocrnrnyrt onn ne moryr [1, c. 27]. Poc-
cnx ne omanyna naex npnexanmnx xapnaropoccon, nm tnn cosant
coornercrnymme ycnonnx nx paort, a nocne oxonuannx cnyxt onn
mornn nepnyrtcx nasa. Ho +rnm npanom ne nocnontsonancx nnxro, nx
noromxn, yxe pyccxne, ocrannct n Poccnn. (Hoponee [1, c. 52-54; 3, c.
8]).
uenonex mnpoxo opasonannt, Opna tn raxxe ncropnxom, c
1809 r. unenom, a c 1823 r. ecrnnrentntm unenom Mocxoncxoro ome-
crna ncropnn n pennocre poccncxnx [3, c. 9]. O ncropnn Vropcxo
132
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Pycn n Poccnn nsnecrno tno ouent mano. Ha crpannnax xypnana Ce-
nepnt necrnnx, nsananmerocx n Herepypre (1804, u. 1, 2 n 3), Op-
na onynnxonan crartm Hcropnx o xapnaropoccax. Xorx px nono-
xenn n ne ne ncera npnnnmaercx conpemenno nayxo, +ro tna nep-
nax n Poccnn paora no ncropnn 3axapnartx, nosnonnnmax nayuno
omecrnennocrn ysnart o onom ns pernonon cnanxncxoro mnpa [3, c.
2]. 3namenarentno, uro Opna n cnoem nsnoxennn ocranannnnaercx na
ncropnn nneennx n 3axapnarte ynnn: ...cxaxy rontxo nxparne, uro
xapnaropoccnxne xecrouame ntrxe nonepxent tnn rora, xora
yrpt napnapcxnmn n necntxanntmn cpecrnamn npnnyxann nx npn-
nxrt ynnm nnn cornacnrtcx na coennenne c pnmcxo-xaronnuecxom nep-
xontm. 300 cnxmennnxon c nnmxom, ne xorenmnx npnnxrt cnm ynnm,
saxnmuent tnn n Epnancxne rmptmt. pyrne oxpyxennte n Vnnapc-
xom samxe nocxom npnnyxaemt tnn nonncart Vnnm... B 1798 roy
.ontmax uacrt xapnaropoccnxn npnsnanana yxe nancxoe nro. O ce
Vnnn r. Hamne ronopnr cneymmnm opasom: "Xorx nexoropte ns cnx-
mennnxon nonoccxnx, rpeuecxnx, ]paxncxnx n pyccxnx ncrynnnn n ne-
xoropym ynnm c Pnmcxom nepxontm, onaxo napo nmeer nectma nenn-
xoe ornpamenne or ono" [3, c. 63-65].
Cnonnxnnxom Opnax tn Mnxann Anpeennu Banynncxnn (nnn
Fanyrtxncxn, xax on snan cex cam n xax npoonxann nncart cnom
]amnnnm ero noromxn) (1769-1847), pyccxn +xonomncr, oxrop npana,
nearor n nonnrnuecxn exrent. I-n Fanorxncxn,- unraem mt n ns-
necrno nam 3anncxe Opnax, - n Bennxonapacxo axaemnn n Benr-
pnn nyn. op. npo]eccop npana ecrecrnennoro, nynnunoro n napono-
ro ynnnepcantnoro n nonnrnxn. Poom
xapnaropoccnxnnn. Kypc ]nnoco]nn
xonunn n Komnnxo axaemnn n Benr-
pnn, a mpncnpyennnn n ynnnepcnrere
Bencxom. Ce myx nese tn nepnt,
nese nenoenmt n nayxax [1, c. 28].
Ha ponne tn yuacrnnxom rano xxo-
nncxo nenrepcxo oprannsannn. Hoc-
ne ee pasrpoma n xasnn 5 pyxononre-
ne ntnyxen tn yrn n nponnnnnm,
re naxonncx no nocroxnntm naso-
pom nonnnnn. Hpxmtx ynnx npornn nero
ne namnn. Ho npnrnamennm Fanyrtxnc-
xn npntn n Poccnm n nauane 1804 r.,
n c +roro xe roa on - npo]eccop nonnr-
-+xonomnn, nosrnannxer xa]epy nonn-
rnuecxnx nayx n Canxr-Herepyprcxom
nearornuecxom nncrnryre, a nocne ero
Mnxann Anpeennu
Banynncxnn
133

npeopasonannx n Herepyprcxn ynnnepcnrer - nepnt ero pexrop
(1819-1821). Hm nneen repmnn nonnr+xonomnx [2, c. 286]. Hapan-
nentno c nearornuecxo paoro Fanyrtxncxn c momenra npnesa n
Poccnm pasnepnyn npaxrnuecxym exrentnocrt n onacrn npanonee-
nnx. B 1804 r. on nxnmunncx n paory Komnccnn cocrannennx saxonon, c
npeopasonannem Komnccnn no nropoe orenenne nmneparopcxo xan-
nenxpnn on o]nnnantno yrnepxen n xauecrne ero rnant (1809). Fany-
rtxncxn paoran n Komnrere no ]nnancontm enam, mnoro cenan n
onacrn ]nnancono nonnrnxn, ero nepy npnnanexar mnorouncnennte
npoexrt rocyapcrnenntx yupexenn, xomnccn n r.. [1, c. 68 n a-
nee]. Fontmoe nnnmanne ornonn on n cnonx sanxrnxx xpecrtxncxomy
nonpocy, npnnxn yuacrne n paspaorxe nonoxennx o rocyapcrnenntx
xpecrtxnax, xoropoe, onaxo, ne tno nponeeno n xnsnt [1, c. 74-76].
Ornpanntm momenrom pe]opmaropcxnx samtcnon M.A. Fanyrtxnc-
xoro tno orpnnarentnoe ornomenne x xpenocrnnuecxomy crpom n rpe-
onanne ero nnxnnannn Ananns ero nsrnxon noxastnaer, uro on tn
croponnnxom nponeennx pe]opm cnepxy, nosnarax naext na nnn-
nnarnny npannrentcrnenntx xpyron [1, c. 77].
Ha rot, xora Fanyrtxncxn tn pexropom, npnxonrcx nepno pes-
xoro ycnnennx peaxnnn. 1821 r. cran npemenem pasrpoma Herepyprcxo-
ro ynnnepcnrera, pacnpant, xoropym yunnnnn no nnnnnarnne cnepxy
noneunrent Herepyprcxoro yuenoro oxpyra .H. Pynnu n npexrop
Herepyprcxoro ynnnepcnrera .A. Kanennn na neyrontmn npo]ec-
copamn. Fanyrtxncxn tn norpxcen cyom, npoxonnmnm na nnmn n
ynnnepcnrere, xax on c]opmynnponan, n ocranonxe ]opmenno nnxnn-
snnnn [4, c. 139]. (Hoponee [4, c. 135-151]). On ntrancx sacrynnrtcx
sa nennnno ronnmtx, no, nonxn, uro +ro ecnonesno, cnoxnn c cex on-
xnocrt pexropa n noan n orcranxy. Kax nncana n nocnomnnannxx ero
out, +ro pemenne coornercrnonano ero cnntnomy n nesanncnmomy
xapaxrepy: on ne saymancx na rem, uro y nero ontmoe cemecrno, a
cpecrna orpannuent, n nn mnnyrt ne xoneancx noxeprnonart cnonm
narococroxnnem nx samnrt nennnntx nme [4, c. 137]. M.A. Fany-
rtxncxn tn rananrnnntm cnonnxnnxom M.M. Cnepancxoro, xpyn-
nemnm no ymy rocyapcrnenntm exrenem cnoero npemenn [1, c. 85],
necrxmnm saxononeom. On tn nnxamnm nomomnnxom M.M.Cne-
pancxoro n ctrpan xpynnym pont n ene xon]nxannn saxonon Poccn-
cxo nmnepnn [1, c. 83]. B 30-e rr. on cran, naxonen, pyccxnm noan-
ntm, nonyunn noromcrnennoe nopxncrno (1837), cran cenaropom (1840).
Ha nnm ontme ne rxroren sanper ancrpncxoro nmneparopa nosnpa-
martcx na ponny, nanoxennt npn ntese n Poccnm. Onaxo, xora
yxe crapnxom on nocernn Hemr, uro nonnart cnonx pyse, cexper-
nax nonnnnx Benrpnn npoonxana sa nnm cnenrt [4, c. 195].
134
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
B cnoe 3anncxe 1803 r. Opna npnnonr xparxne cneennx eme o
onom xapnaropocce, roronom ntexart n Poccnm: I-n Kyxontnnx. B
3amocnxo axaemnn, uro n uepmno Poccnn (Iannnnx), ]nsnxn +xcne-
pnmenrantno n maremarnxn nyn. op. npo]eccop. Poom xapnaropoc-
cnxnnn. 3a aponannx n ycnexn n nayxax c cornacnx axaemnxon npons-
neen n npo]eccopt. Hexnnn npenoaer na narnncxom xstxe [1, c. 27-
28]. Bacnnnn Ipnroptennu Kyxontnnx (1765-1821) - nearor, ]n-
snx, arponom, mpncr - no ntsony npntn n Herepypr n 1803 r.
H B. Kyxontnnxa, n H. Honx Opna xopomo snan eme co npemen yuennx
no Htnoncxom ynnnepcnrere. Heapom, xora n 1787 r. ancrpncxn nm-
neparop Hocn] I nocernn ynnnepcnrer, on noxenan, urot emy npe-
crannnn nyumnx cryenron. Hmn tnn Opna, Kyxontnnx n Hon.
H oa xonnern ne omanynn naex Opnax [3, c. 4]. Kyxontnnx npenoa-
nan mpnnuecxne npemert, npnnnman yuacrne n Komnccnn cocranne-
nnx saxonon, xya n 1816 r. tn onpeenen na onxnocrt ynpannxmme-
ro nx ocotx nopyuenn [1, c. 88]. Ha cnoe nono ponne,- nnmer
ero norpa],- Kyxontnnx npoxnnxer neycrannym n pasnocroponnmm e-
xrentnocrt. Ftcrpo ycnonn pyccxn xstx, on unraer ]nsnxy, xnmnm,
rexnonornm n centcxoe omonocrno n nearornuecxom nncrnryre, pnm-
cxoe n uacrnoe poccncxoe npano n rnannom nearornuecxom nncrnryre
n npenoaer n reuenne uertpex ner (1813-1817) mpnnuecxne nayxn
nennxnm xnxstxm nourn n xaxo orpacnn nayx, xoropte Kyxontnnx
npenoanan, on ocrannn nnreparypnte rpyt [1, c. 88-89]. Hpnnox
+ry nnrary, T. Fanypa ryr xe noxcnxer, uro peut ner o omnpno
yueno nnreparype, nocnxmenno npenmymecrnenno nonpocam +xono-
mnxn n npana [1, c. 89]. Cnom exrentnocrt n Hearornuecxom nncrn-
ryre Kyxontnnx nauan c 6 anrycra 1803 r. [1, c. 30], n xora n 1819 r.
Hearornuecxn nncrnryr tn npeopasonan n ynnnepcnrer, Kyxontnn-
xa ymann ynnert nepntm pexropom. Onaxo +roro ne nponsomno.
19 anpenx 1820 r. n Hexnne na cpecrna parten A.A. n H.A. Feso-
poxo tna ocnonana rnmnasnx, a nouerntm noneunrenem ee cran nnyx
H.A. Fesopoxo A.I. Kymenen-Fesopoxo, yuennx Kyxontnnxa. On-
ro n npnrnacnn Kyxontnnxa na nocr npexropa Hexnncxo rnmnasnn, a
n yymem nnnex. 3aaue +roro yuenoro saneennx, xax n noome
roramnnx nnneen, tno art cnonm nnromnam ononpemenno n cpe-
nee, n ntcmee opasonanne. Cno yxo ns ynnnepcnrera n ores ns
Hnrepa Kyxontnnx oxcnxer cnaocrtm sopontx, npexnonntm nos-
pacrom, xorx emy tno rora ncero 55 ner [1, c. 108]. Menee nonyroa
npopaoran on npexropom rnmnasnn, ycnen mnoroe cenart, no 6 ]en-
panx 1821 r. on nnesanno ymep, o]nnnantno - or anonnexcnuecxoro ya-
pa. Ho, no cnnerentcrny ero ctna Hecropa , ero oren noxonunn xnsnt
camoyncrnom, ntpocnnmnct ns oxna rpertero +raxa [1, c. 110].
Ceuac axe na crpannnt +nnnxnonenn nonaaer nepcnx, cornacno
135

xoropo npnunno rxxeno enpeccnn, npnneme B.I. Kyxontnnxa x
camoyncrny, tn pasptn co cronnuntm xpyrom yuentx [2, c. 226].
Onaxo ena nn moxno satrt, uro rax nastnaemte ena o nontno-
ymcrne n 1816 r. yxe npomnn n Xaptxoncxom ynnnepcnrere, n 1819 r.
- n Kasancxom n o norpoma n Herepyprcxom ynnnepcnrere ocrana-
noct rontxo uyrt onee nonyroa [1, c. 126]. Hosnee ouepet omna n
o Hexnna. B 1827-1830 roax npoxonn eme onn nponecc, na xoro-
pom n ponn nocynmtx npecrana rpynna nanonee nporpeccnnno mtc-
nxmnx npenoanarene rnmnasnn [1, c. 144-145].
Hocne cmeprn B.I. Kyxontnnxa na nocr npexropa rnmnasnn tn npn-
rnamen H.C. Opna. On nosrnannxn rnmnasnm n reuenne nxrn ner. Kax
nnmer nccneonarent, ]axrnuecxn Hexnncxax rnmnasnx tna nep-
ntm yuentm saneennem, re on (Opna) ntrancx ocymecrnnrt cnon
nearornuecxne samtcnt n onontno yauno, emy yanoct cenart
ouent mnoroe nx pasnnrnx rnmnasnn [1, c. 120]. Konnennnx
H.C. Opnax onnpanact na neonornm npocnernrentcrna, na nem opt-
t pasyma n opoerenn npornn nenexecrna n sna. Cyta uenonexa,
omecrna n rocyapcrna, cornacno ero nsrnxam, recnemnm opasom
cnxsana c ycnexamn pasnnrnx pasyma... Hornuecxnm sanepmennem npo-
cnernrentcxoro mnponosspennx H.C. Opnax tna nex nceomero ec-
cocnonnoro opasonannx napoa [1, c. 112-113]. H nouemy t ern
nenmymnx ponrene onxnt trt ncxnmuent or uyncrnonann o-
poerenn n uecrn, - ormeuan on. - Pasne mt ne snaem, uro n enocrn
orxptnamrcx nepexo nennuamne aponannx n ornnunte rananrt?
Pasne eccmeprnt nam Homonocon ne ns ptautero manama nosnec
cex cnanom ntme mnornx oraue n nopxn? [1, c. 113]. Hponecrn
+rn npnnnnnt n xnsnt nonnocrtm rora ne tno nosmoxnocrn, no nce
xe ycnnnxmn Opnax yanoct onrtcx npnema nontnonpnxoxmnx yue-
nnxon n npnnnnernponannym saxptrym rnmnasnm c nancnonom n ome-
xnrnem . Onn ns ero nnromnen mnoro nosxe ncnomnnan: 3ror no-
nnnmomy cnat, paspaxnrentnt, crpannt nauantnnx ymen cnnc-
xnnart nmont x cee ere nourn neorpannuennym. Hnxro n npncyr-
crnnn ero nnxora ne satnancx, no nnxro n ne crecnxncx ero npncyr-
crnnem. Bannnn nanponanym, yunnnct eme nyme n nanmann rontxo
sa rem, urot n manocrn rnx nonocrn ne sanesna. Taxoe nanpannenne
nonyunno xapaxrep ptnapcxn, n ocoennocrn c orxptrnem 7-ro xnac-
ca. Tora Hnan Cemenonnu ocranannnnan monoext, ecnn ontno ma-
nnna, cnonamn: Henonxo, rocnoa! Bet nt yxe o]nnept.H mnome-
crno ponnxnoct, yxnatnanoct n naroponte ]opmt, nesno, pnanoct
trt opasonanntm, axe yuentm [1, c. 118-119].
Btnycxnnxamn rnmnasnn cpen pyrnx tnn nsnecrnt yxpanncxn
no+r E.H. Ipeenxa, n yymem npo]eccopa H.. Pexnn n B.u. om-
poncxn, ynomnnanmncx namn ctn B.I. Kyxontnnxa Hecrop n , xoneu-
136
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
no, Hnxona Bacnntennu Ioront, yxe rora npoxnnnmn nnrepec x nn-
reparype, xnnonncn, onapyxnnmn n cee axrepcxn rananr. O Op-
nae Ioront ne pas ynomnnaer n cnonx nnctmax omo - ero oren tn
snaxom c Opnaem nnuno.
npexropom rnmnasnn Opna npotn nxrt ner, mnoroe ycnen ce-
nart, no n 1826 r. on nepexonr na onxnocrt npexropa Pnmentencxo-
ro nnnex n Oecce (c 1826 - o camo cmeprn 29 ]enpanx 1829 r.). Bnn-
marentnt nccneonarent n snarox apxnnntx marepnanon Tamapa Fa-
nypa, paory xoropo mt nocroxnno nnrnpyem [1], cnpanennno saaer
nonpoc, nouemy Opna, crontxo cenanmn nx rnmnasnn, ymen ns nee,
n npeocrannxer nam rontxo ]axrt n npano camnm ncxart orner. Tax,
no cnnerentcrny H.I. Kynxnncxoro, yunrenx Hexnncxo rnmnasnn,
npexrop c yrpa o noun nncx xax pta o ne n pexo n xom naxonn
couyncrnne nnn nocone H.C. Opna upesntuano rxrornncx cnonm
nonoxennem n Hexnne [1, c. 121]. Kax npexrop rnmnasnn on npoxnnxn
ontmym saory o npenoanarentcxnx xapax. B 1825 r. no ero npnrna-
mennm mnamnm npo]eccopom rnmnasnn cran monoo rananrnnnt
npanone H.I. Fenoycon, o roro npo]eccop Knencxo rnmnasnn, pase-
nxnmn nepeonte nsrnxt Opnax. Axrnnntm nparom Fenoycona (a
xocnenno n Opnax) cran noepxannt nexora Opnaem mnamn npo-
]eccop rnmnasnn M. B. Fnnennu, roxe xapnaropocc. Bpaxy x Feno-
ycony nnora oxcnxmr rem, uro Fnnennu onacancx, xax t onee
rananrnnnt, uem on, Fenoycon, ne cran crapmnm npo]eccopom nonn-
rnuecxnx nayx (na +ro nperenonan on cam). C sanncrtm cnenn on sa
pacrymnm nnnxnnem Fenoycona n rnmnasnn. Cnom paspymnrentnym
exrentnocrt Fnnennu pasnepnyn yxe nocne yxoa ns rnmnasnn Opnax,
no, nepoxrno, xon]nnxr naspenan yxe pantme n tn noxasarenem cron-
xnonennx nyx npornnononoxntx nanpannenn n ncropnn cpenero n
ntcmero opasonannx Poccnn nepno rpern XIX n. [1, c. 146-147]. y-
maercx, nensexnocrt n omem-ro ecnonesno optt sa nepeonte
neant npornn roramne nosnnnn pyccxoro npannrentcrna Opna no-
nnman n yuacrnonart n +ro opte npocro ne mor. Hnrpnrn Fnnennua
npornn Fenoycona nmenn ycnex, ero noepxnnana peaxnnonno nacrpo-
ennax uacrt npenoanarene [1, c. 146]. B 1827 r. Fnnennu nanncan 5
onocon na Fenoycona [1, c. 147], nauanoct ouepenoe eno o nontno-
ymcrne. Hs rnmnasnn tnn ynonent camte nyumne yunrenx, a mno-
rnx nnocnecrnnn nnmnnn nosmoxnocrn paorart n onacrn npocneme-
nnx [1, c. 148]. Cpen nnx tn n Fenoycon, nnxora yxe ne nepnynmn-
cx na xa]epy. Cronr eme ncnomnnrt, uro n ero samnry ntcrynnn yue-
nnx rnmnasnn H. Ioront.
uerneprtm yuentm xapnaropoccom, ocrannnmnm cnernt cne n
ncropnn oreuecrnenno nayxn n npocnemennx, tn He1p un1pne-
nnu Aonn (1764-1829). Pexomenyx npnrnacnrt ero n Poccnm, n cno-
137

e 3anncxe 1803 r. Opna nncan: Herp
Hon. Kapnaropoccnxnnn no Htnoncxom
ynnnepcnrere nornxn, ]nnoco]nn mopant-
no, mera]nsnxn n maremarnxn nyn. op-
nnap. npo]eccop. Hepnonauantno ynpax-
nxncx c ontmnm ycnexom n Bennxonapa-
cxo axaemnn n no ornnuntm aponann-
xm n nayxax sannmaer nacroxmee mecro
onee 12 ner. Hexnnn npenoaer na poc-
cncxom xstxe [1, c. 27]. B rom xe 1803
roy, 1 anrycra Hon nocrynnn na poccn-
cxym cnyxy [1, c. 46]. B Hearornuec-
xom nncrnryre Hon unran nornxy, mera-
]nsnxy, npancrnennym ]nnoco]nm, ecre-
crnennoe, nynnunoe, rocyapcrnennoe n
naponoe npano, npnnnman axrnnnoe yuac-
rne n xnsnn nncrnryra, npenoanan, xax Fanyrtxncxn n Kyxontnnx, na
nynnuntx xypcax npn nncrnryre. 3ry axrnnnym exrentnocrt on npo-
onxnn n rora, xora n 1819 r. Hearornuecxn nncrnryr tn npeopa-
sonan n Canxr-Herepyprcxn ynnnepcnrer. Tax, c exapx 1819 r. no
anrycr 1825 r. on tn exanom ]nnoco]cxo-mpnnuecxoro ]axyntrera,
ononpemenno conernnxom, a norom sacearenem npannennx n r.. He-
yxopnsnennte npannna xnsnn, npxmoymne, uecrnocrt, opora, pasno-
croponnne n ocnonarentnte snannx, xorx or npemenn n necxontxo ycra-
penmne, npnopenn Honm nceomee ynaxenne n onepennocrt, - nn-
can nosnee onn ns ero cnymarene H.A. Hnernen [1, c. 61]. Cnonm
nepeontm yexennxm Hon ocranancx nepntm o xonna xnsnn, ne-
apom n 1823-1828 rr. on tn npnnneuen no cexpernomy eny O npe-
nom npenoanannn ]nnoco]cxnx nayx [1, c. 149]. Ho pacnpannrtcx c
nnm ne ycnenn - on npopaoran n ynnnepcnrere o xonna cnoe xnsnn n
ymep 20 nmnx 1829 r. [1, c.61].
Fanyrtxncxn, Kyxontnnx, Hon npnexann n Poccnm no npnrname-
nnm yxe cnoxnnmnmncx cnennanncramn, Opna nmen ontr npo]ecco-
pa rnmnasnn. K romy xe n cnonx nocnyxntx cnncxax onn yxastnann
cnoe naroponoe nponcxoxenne, uro, nepoxrno, cnococrnonano no-
nyuennm nmn na ponne ceptesnoro opasonannx [1, c. 12-13]. Hnuero
+roro ne tno y camoro mnamero ns nnrennnrenron-xapnaropoccon
Kpnn Hnanonnua Benennna (1802-1839). Rpn Benennn, ncropnx,
]nnonor, +rnorpa], apxeorpa], ponncx n cene Bennxax Tnana n 3axap-
narte n cemte centcxoro ynnarcxoro cnxmennnxa Iynt (nnn Xynt).
Oxonunn n Vxropoe rnmnasnm n nocrynnn n cemnnapnm, on, xax nyu-
mn yuennx, nonyunn nosmoxnocrt nsyuart ]nnoco]nm n Carmapcxom
He1p un1pnennu Aonn
138
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
enncxonantnom nnnee. B 1822 r. on nocrynnn na ]nnoco]cxn ]axyntrer
Htnoncxoro ynnnepcnrera, nexoropoe npemx cnyman nexnnn npo]ecco-
pon Cerenncxo axaemnn (rora Cerenn tn npaxrnuecxn xaronn-
uecxnm ropoom). B Carmapcxom nnnee n sarem n Cerenncxo axae-
mnn yunncx n nompont par n pyr Iynt Hnan Hnanonnu Monnap.
Hesaypxnte cnoconocrn n rpyonmne nyx semnxxon oparnnn na
cex nnnmanne xaronnuecxoro nauantcrna, n oonx namepenannct no-
crpnut n monaxn npornn nx xenannx. B 1821 r., xora ncnecrnne nponc-
xon monaxon nocrpnxenne oxasanoct nensexntm, onn pemnnn exart
n Poccnm [1, c. 49-50]. 3rn xparxne cneennx, npnnonmte nccneona-
renem, noxastnamr ntnyxennt xapaxrep ercrna nyx parten ns
Ancrpncxo nmnepnn, onaxo sarem Tamapa Fanypa nnmer: Bmecre
c rem onpeenennoe snauenne n nx nepeese nmenn annne cnmnarnn x
pyccxomy napoy, x Poccnn, n xoropo nnenn ponny cnonx npexon.
Hosnee H.H. Monnap ncnomnnan: "Benennn, xapnaropyc no poxennm,
ncera crpemnncx n Poccnm n nnamenno xenan nocennrtcx nocpen ca-
motrnoro napoa, x xoropomy npnnanexan cam n xoroporo ncropne
npenmymecrnenno sannmancx" [1, c. 50]. Ionopx o nosspennxx Benenn-
na, moxno ncnomnnrt eme, nanpnmep, ntcxastnanne na crpannnax ero
xnnrn O ncrounnxe napono no+snn noome n o mxnopyccxo n oco-
ennocrn, ntmeme n Mocxne n 1834 r. On nnmer: Hn cenepxne, nn
mxane camn cee ncrounnxom trt ne moryr: no cxontxo onn nn no-
yr n camnx cex, nce nter ono n ro xe. Camo coom cneyer, uro
ncrounnxom mnororo xopomero, mnororo no+rnuecxoro nx Cenepno Pycn
ecrt Rxnax Pyct; ncrounnxom Rxno - Cenepnax. Ona es pyro
mnoro t norepxna; ona pyrom rontxo n moxer ynyumnrtcx, cyme-
crnonart; no nn ra, nn pyrax ne cocran-
nxer nenoro napoa, a uacrt ero (Hnr.
no [5, c. 163]).
B 1823 r. Rpn Iyna nepemennn ]amn-
nnm na Benenonnu n Benennn. Bce ero
neuarnte paort ntmnn yxe no ]amn-
nne Benennn. H n +rom xe roy partx
tnn yxe n npeenax Poccnn, n Knmnne-
ne, ycrponnnct c nomomtm ryepnaropa
H.H. Hnsona n pyrnx nnn n nancnon npn
Knmnnencxo cemnnapnn, re oa nonyun-
nn mecra nocnnrarenx n npenoanarenx:
Benennn - apn]mernxn, a Monnap - narnn-
cxoro xstxa [1, c. 37]. B Knmnnene Bene-
nnn nomen n recnte xonraxrt c xnnmn-
mn ram onrapamn, nosnaxomnncx c nx Kpnn Hnanonnu Benennn
139

xstxom n trom, conpan marepnant xacammnecx ncropnn, ]ontxno-
pa, nnnrnncrnxn onrapcxoro napoa [6, c. 98-99]. B 1825 r. partx nepe-
exann n Mocxny n c nomomtm H.C. Opnax n H.. Honx nocrynnnn na
mennnncxn ]axyntrer Mocxoncxoro ynnnepcnrera, xoropt Monnap
oxonunn n 1828 r., a Benennn - n 1829 r. B +rom xe roy ntmna n cner
nepnax ontmax paora Benennna pennne n ntnemnne onrape n no-
nnrnuecxom, napoonncnom, ncropnuecxom n pennrnosnom nx ornome-
nnn x poccnxnam (rom I. M.,1829. 256 c.). Knnra tna naneuarana no
nnnnnarnne M.H. Horonna n ntsnana xnno orxnnx ne rontxo n Poc-
cnn, no n sa pyexom (H.H. Ba]apnx n p.). Ho rnannax sacnyra Bene-
nnna cocroxna n rom, uro necuacrnt napo, nexora naroponemn
ns ncex cnanxncxnx nnemen, nopaomennt rypxamn, nonyunn cnom
nepnym ncropnm. Ho cnonam H. Fecconona, norpa]a Benennna, on na-
uepran cnom monorpa]nm ne na ymare, a n cepnax nenoro nosponn-
merocx napoa, nauepran ne nepom, a xnntm nnnxnnem cnoe nnunocrn,
cosan, noepxan +neprne cnoe ntnxo exrentnocrn [5, c. 12].
Honyunn cno ynnnepcnrercxn nnnom, Benennn npopaoran npa-
uom Mocxoncxoro noennoro rocnnranx n 1829-1830 rr. n ontme x men-
nnne ne nosnpamancx. B 1830-1831 rr. on conepmnn no nopyuennm Poc-
cncxo Axaemnn nayx na ee cpecrna nyremecrnne no reppnropnn
Fonrapnn, Banaxnn n Monannn - ono ns nepntx n Poccnn nayuntx
nyremecrnn. 3a xoporxn cpox on cymen copart orart marepnan.
Bcero nyremecrnne nnnoct ro n nocemt mecxnen (596 ne). Hano-
nee naxntmn nroramn nyremecrnnx tnn Bnaxo-onrapcxne nnn axo-
cnanxncxne rpamort n Ipammarnxa ntnemnero onrapcxoro nape-
unx [1, c. 170-171]. Ipamort tnn onynnxonant uepes ro nocne xon-
unnt Benennna n 1840 r., Ipammarnxa - nepnax rpammarnxa onrapc-
xoro xstxa - nosxe, uepes nonropacra ner nocne xonunnt anropa, ee
nororonnn n nsan n 1997 r. I.K. Benenxron. Hororonxa nayuntx
rpyon, nanpxxennax nccneonarentcxax paora Benennna npoxonna
nenpeptnno nce nocnenne rot ero xnsnn no snaxom onesnn, nnn,
xax on ntpaxaercx, nesopontx n romero xapmana. 3ro reme no-
cnxmena cnennantnax neontmax crartx n copnnxe oxnaon, noro-
ronnenntx x mnneno xon]epennnn Tparnuecxax cyta yuenoro.
Anrop ee O. Masypox npenapxer em nynnxannm necxontxnx nncem
Benennna A.A. Kpaencxomy, nsarenm Oreuecrnenntx sanncox. Oco-
enno rxxenoe nneuarnenne nponsnonr nocnenee, or 24 ]enpanx
1839 r., re Benennn nnmer: C Poxecrna x nourn nocroxnno neso-
pon... nor yxe ro xax nn xonexn oxoy, mexy rem xax pacxot pac-
ryr. uepes mecxn, 26 mapra 1839 r., yuenoro nopasnn yap, on ynan na
nopore cnoe xomnart n ymep uepes necxontxo uacon na pyxax cnoero
pyra n para npaua H. Monnapa n Hannoncxo ontnnne [5, c. 128-
134].
140
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Hocne Benennna ocranoct onee 50 nayuntx paor, nnmt ouent ne-
mnoroe tno onynnxonano npn ero xnsnn. Kax nepnoorxptnarent-cne-
nnanncr no ncropnn Fonrapnn on npnsnan tn cpasy, n naroapntmn
onrapamn ero nmx ontne ynomnnaercx cpen onrapcxnx ynrene.
Ho neapom renept nce uame mt cntmnm, uro Benennn croxn y xont-
enn pyccxo cnanncrnxn, cenan mnoro nx ee pasnnrnx na nauantnom
+rane cymecrnonannx (cm. nanp. [1, c. 168]). Hacnene Benennna-cna-
nncra noxastnaer mnpory nnrepecon yuenoro, orpomnym paory, xoro-
pym on nen. B ero nnne mt nnnm ncropnxa-pomanrnxa, xoropt nonno-
crtm ne nnnctnancx npn xnsnn n ne nnnctnaercx ontne n xnaccnuec-
xne pamxn ncropnorpa]nn. Tpyt, xoropte on ocrannn, - ne yuennx, a
namxrnnx noncxon, naxoox, pemenn, nopo nyxanne sameuarentno-
ro pyccxoro cnanncra.
***
Mt ronopnnn sect o nxreptx yuentx-xapnaropoccax - +nrysnacrax,
cranmnx pyccxnmn yuentmn, n saxonunm namy crartm cnonamn Tama-
pt Fanypt, xnnry xoropo nocroxnno nnrnponann: 3rn nmn npnna-
nexann x uncny rananrnnntx n opnrnnantntx nccneonarene. Hauan
cnom rnopuecxym exrentnocrt n nayxe n ror momenr, xora sapoxa-
nnct n nepexnnann nepno cranonnennx ee orentnte orpacnn... no mepe
cnonx cnn n nosmoxnocre onn nnecnn cno nxna n coxponnmnnny npo-
cnemennx n nayxn Poccnn [1, c. 186].
HPHMEHAHHR
1. Bavpa T. 3axapnaroyxpanncxax nnrennnrennnx n Poccnn n nepno nono-
nnne XIX nexa. Fparncnana-Hpxmen: Cnonantxe nearoriune nnannnnrno n Fpa-
ricnani; Biin yxpanctxo nireparypn n Hpxmeni, 1971. 230 c.
2. Hon H. 3nnnxnonenx Hoxapnarcxo Pycn. Vxropo: Hsarentcrno B. Ha-
xxa, 2001. 431 c.: nn.
3. Op.a H.O. 3 nayxono cnamnnn. Vxropo: Iocnpospaxynxonn peaxni-
no-nnannnun niin ynpanninnx y cnpanax npecn ra in]opmani, 2005. 144 c.
4. Koca:eecra E.M. Mnxann Anpeennu Fanyrtxncxn n Herepyprcxn ynn-
nepcnrer nepno uerneprn XIX nexa. Hennnrpa: Hsarentcrno Hennnrpacxoro
ynnnepcnrera,1971. 272 c.: nn.
5. Hayxonn nicnnx Vxropoctxoro yninepcnrery. Cepix icropix. Bnnycx 8.-
Vxropo: Bnannnnrno B. Haxxa, 2003 188 c.: nn.
Bect ntn. 8 coepxnr marepnant xon]epennnn, nocnxmenno 200-nernm co
nx poxennx R.H. Benennna.
6. Cnanxnoneenne n openonmnnonno Poccnn. Fnonnnorpa]nuecxn
cnonapt. M.: Hayxa, 1979. 430 c.
141

nnxon Onexcanp MOHHH
IRALHICTL MAPAMOPOmCLKOIO
CBRTHTEAR IOCHmA (CTOHKH)
Onnm is naniomimnx cnoninnxin Hpanocnanno Hepxnn na 3axap-
narri y XVIII cr. yn npocnannenn 9 nepecnx 2003 p. Pymynctxom Hpa-
nocnannom Hepxnom xx cnoninnx Hpanocnan`x cnncxon Iocn] (Cro-
xa) (1690-1711)
1
.
Cnncxon Iocn] (Croxa) yn nocrpnxennxom Vrontctxoro monacrnpx
i nacrynnnxom cnncxona Me]oix
2
. Hoxonn enncxon Iocn], rax camo,
xxi Ioanixi (3exan) is micnenoro nopxncrna
3
. Moxnnno ne yn crporo-
ro monamoro xnrrx, xoua oro i nemoxna snnnynarnrn n esmopant-
nocri
4
. Orent Crenan Han nnme, mo Iocn] Croxa yn cnxmennx niep-
rnn-cnoinn, poom is uymantona, mo inx Xycra, e yn napoxom.
3nirn nepemon o Fnuxona, e nomepna oro pyxnna i nin ncrynnn o
Vrontctxoro monacrnpx
5
. ymxy npo noxoxennx Iocn]a (Croxn) s
uymanena posinxc i apximanpnr Bacnni (Hponin). Ocranni npnno-
nrt cnoran nporoicpex Mnxana Posmana, xxn posnonian, mo n ceni
uymaneno, npn posnpanni onic crapo xarn y 1910-1912 pp. snamnn na
repeni (anni), sannc, mo ram xnn cnncxon Croxa, cnyxnn n Vrni ra n
paroni
6
.
Biomo, mo xnrrx cnncxona yno esnocepento non`xsane s Ipymi-
nctxnm ra Vrontctxnm monacrnpxmn. Hpn ntomy n xinni XVII cr.. yna
spynonana Ipyminctxa onrent.
Bnanxa nocnn oconnnn rnryn, xxn cniunn npo annm narpiapmy
cranponirim Ipyminctxoro monacrnpx: Hocn] Croxa mnnocrnm Fo-
xnem apxnenncxon npanocnannt Mapamopnmcxn, +xsapxa cranponn-
rnn narpnapme or Haptrpaa Honaro Pnma, amnnncrparop mnrpono-
nnn Fenrpacxo Cemnrpaa n nce npanocnannn no crpanax Vropc-
xnx
7
. Tpoxn nnosminenn rnryn cnncxona Iocn]a noamrt: orent Ioann
ynnmxonnu, M. Hyuxa ra A. Hexap. 3oxpema, nepmn anrop nano-
nrt raxn rnryn Iocn]a: Iocn] Croxa, Foxiem mnnocrnm cnncxon
npanocnannt mapamop exsapxa Cranponnrin narpiapx Haperpaa no-
naro Pnma amnnncrparop mnrpononnn Fenrpacxix Cemnrpaa n nce
npanocnanno Hepxnn no crpanax Vropcxnx n npouee
8
. V M. Hyuxax
rnryn Croxn ]irypyc nacrynnnm unnom: Hocn] Croxa s Foxo nacxn
i npeocnxmennn cnncxon Mapamopoctxn, exsapx narpiapmo cranponiri
Hapropoa, aminicrparop mnrpononi Fenrpactxo, Cemnrpactxo
romo
9
. V A. Hexapa Iocn] rnrynycrtcx, xx: Mnnicrm Foxom npano-
142
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
cnannn enncxon Mapamopoctxn, excapx napropoctxo narpixpmo cran-
poniri, aminicrparop mnrpononi Finropoctxo Houanctxo i np. i np.
10
.
Tnrynn cnncxona Iocn]a sycrpiuamrtcx i n crannennntxnx rpamorax ni
13 rpannx 1695 p., 31 epesnx 1696 p., 2 nnnnx 1704 p.
11
.
Biomo, mo cnncxon Iocn] man nennxy neuarxy, na xxi yno sopa-
xennx apxanrena Mnxana i nanxono nannc Hocn] Croxa
12
.
Ha nnrannx npo re, e i xnm yn nncnxuenn n cnncxonn Iocn] (Cro-
xa), nemac cnno ninonii. ocninnxn posxoxrtcx n cnox npnnymen-
nxx. Mnxano Hyuxa nnaxac, mo Hocn] Croxa, neniomo xnm i e
yn nncnxuenn ra npnsnauenn cnncxonom; nin camonintno saxonnn nep-
xonni nocan i snannx
13
. B. uennu, o. Crenan Han ra apximanpnr Ba-
cnni (Hponin) nnaxamrt, mo Iocn] (Croxa), yn npnsnauenn npano-
cnannnm cnncxonom rpancnntnanctxnm xnxsem Mnxanom Ana]i i cnnc-
xonctxy xiporonim na nnm snepmnn Cyuanctxn npanocnannn mnrpo-
nonnr ocn]e
14
. He ]axr na onnri n xnirni 1725 p., xoncrarynann i
Mapamopomctxi cnxmennxn
15
. Hirnepxennxm saxonnoro nnpannx i
sarnepxennx Tpancnntnanctxnm pe]opmaropctxnm xepinnnnrnom Cro-
xn, xx cnncxona c npoxannx ni 14 rpannx 1715 p. Mapamopoctxo cronnni
o pe]opmaropctxo (Tpancnntnanctxo) xoncncropi
16
.
V nnopax cnncxona Croxn pano yuacrt ne nnme yxonencrno, ane
cnirctxi nnnx. 3a cnonamn O.H. Herpona, npx nn t npanocnannoe
pyccxoe n pymtncxoe nopxncrno onycrnno ycrpanenne cex or yuac-
rnx n cront naxnom ene
17
.
Croconno arn nncnxuennx Croxn rex c exxi posixnocri. 3a cno-
namn o. Crenana Hana, ocrannc niynocx 15 epesnx 1692 p., nicnx roro,
xx Croxa yn opann na coopi npanocnannoro yxonencrna Mapamo-
pomnnn
18
. Hponin nnaxac, mo cnncxonctxa xiporonix morna yrn snep-
mena cxopime, spasy nicnx roro xx cnncxon Me]oi sannmnn Myxaui-
nctxn monacrnp, a moxnnno nicnx oro ni`sy n Hontmy n 1690 p.
19
.
B. uennu ncni sa O. Fapanom, nnaxac mo xiporonix Iocn]a niynacx
15 xnirnx 1690 p.
20
. O.H. Herpon nnaxan, mo Iocn] Croxa cran cnncxo-
nom nicnx cmepri Me]oix (1693 p.), a, moxnnno, nanirt i npn oro xnrri
21
.
Bnepme ninnc cnncxona Iocn]a (Croxn) sycrpiuacrtcx n 1693 p. na
anrnminci is cena Hnnnnnx. 3oxpema na anrnminci micrnncx raxn nannc:
Onrapt pyxoecrnen n narocnonen Iocn]om Croxa, npanocnan-
ntm enncxonom Mapamopomcxnm, Excapxom Cranponnrin narpiap-
mecxo, amnnncrparopom mnrpononin Fenrpacxo Cemnrpaa n
np.
22
.
Onax, sa cnonamn O.H. Herpona y Heprpymennua c niomicrt, es
nxasinxn xepena, mo Croxa mir yrn cnncxonom i panime, moxnnno
yxe 1691 p.. Ha xameni n xpami Hynnxonctxoro monacrnpx na Bonnni
sopaxenn ]ynarop cnxrtx onrenn nan Anpi Xypaxonctxn i
143

micrnrtcx nannc npo yinnnnrno xpamy: 3auarcx poxy Foxix 1687, co-
nep. 1691. 3raann xpam nporn noni Htninctxoro cnncxona Iocn]a
Bymnxnctxoro yna nocnxuena Iocn]om (Croxom), cnncxonom is Ma-
pamopoma, xxoro Anpi Xypaxonctxn ni cnntnom ecxoprom cynpo-
noxynan na Bonnnt o cnncxona Xaoxpnntxoro
23
.
Is panntoro nepioy npanninnx cnncxona Iocn]a (Croxn) niomo, mo
nin uacro cxnnxan coopn narounnnnx (nporononin), na xxnx posnpa-
nncx nepxonni cnpann. Taxi coopn niynncx n 1698, 1699, 1704 pp.
Is ntoro moxna sponrn nncnonox, mo ]opma ynpanninnx cnncxona cnap-
xicm yna coopna. Cynepeuxn i nesron mix nipymunmn nnnocnnncx na
nnpimennx coopy ni xepinnnnrnom cnncxona i n npncyrnocri nporo-
icpen
24
.
3oncim inmo ymxn npo npanninnx cnncxona Iocn]a R. Xarxonnu ra
M. Hyuxa. Ocranni nnaxac, mo manpinnn cnncxon ne yn naine-
nn nixxnmn cnncxonctxnmn npanamn i es xonoro crpaxy posanan
nocan, anan posnyuennx, narocnonnxn snepmynarn orocnyxinnx Tpe-
ymanctxnm npecnirepam nocxennxm Irnarim ra Mnxonam i r.. An-
rop npnnonrt exintxa oxymenrin, xxi npo ne cniuart
25
.
x i nci Mapamopomctxi cnncxonn, Iocn] (Croxa) exxn uac npoxn-
nan y Ipyminctxomy, Vrontctxomy, ra Kpnuenctxomy monacrnpi. 3e-
pernncx niomocri npo re, mo npoxnnan cnncxon Iocn] i n uymaneni. Hi
uac niniynannx napoxi cnncxonom Mannnom Ontmanctxnm (1743-1767)
nmn nanirt nasnnamrt Croxy cnncxonom uymanenctxnm
26
.
Te, mo cnncxon Hocn] exxn uac xnn n Ipyminctxomy monacrnpi, c
esnepeunnm. 3a cnonamn A. Kpannntxoro n 1693 ao 1690 p. y Ipymi-
nctxomy monacrnpi yn nanirt naneuarann Anrnmnnc cnncxona Cro-
xn
27
. Ha ymxy apxim. Bacnnix, nicnx spynynannx Ipyminctxo onreni n
xinni XVII cr. cnncxon Hocn] man exintxa pesnenni: c. uymaneno,
monacrnp n mnemrax (mna]anna), Xycr, monacrnp n Vrni ra inmi
28
.
Hixannm i neopnnapnnm n xnrri cnncxona Croxn c eniso nncnxuen-
nx nnm Hyntxoro npanocnannoro cnncxona nmnrpix (n monamecrno io-
nicix) Xaoxpnntxoro ra ocnxuennx nnm na Bonnni xpamy Hynnxonctxo-
ro monacrnpx
29
. Cnpana n romy, mo nicnx cmepri n 1695 p. Hyntxoro
cnncxona Iocn]a (Bymnxnctxoro), xxn npnnxn ynim, na npanocnanno-
ro cnncxona yxonencrno nnpano nuenoro Hyntxoro nncapa nmnrpix
Xaoxpnntxoro. Hesnaxamun na re, mo Xaoxpnntxn yn xonarn na
noni, nin nparnyn, mo oro nncnxrnnn s osnony Mocxonctxoro narpi-
apxary, onax narpiapx Apian nepean cnpany na nnpimennx o Kon-
cranrnnononm. uac imon, a cnpana rax i ne nnpimynanacx. Toi nm xipo-
ronim noronncx snepmnrn Iocn] (Croxa). 3a cnonamn apxim. Bacnnix
(Hponina), Iocn] (Croxa) moxnnno rnrynymunct +xsapxom Koncran-
rnnonontctxoro narpiapxa, nnaxan cee npanosarnnm nnpimynarn nce
144
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
ni imeni narpiapxa
30
. Onax ntoro nocnxuennx ne npnsnann ni yniarn, ni
npanocnanni. 3room, y 1708 p. Xaoxpnntxn yn ninpannenn o yn`x-
snennx.
3a cnoc cnncxonctxe cnyxinnx cnncxon Iocn] nncnxrnn yxe araro
cnxmennxin, mo snnuano yno nnxnnxane rnmn ocrannnamn, n xxnx
onnnnnocx Hpanocnan`x na Mapamopomnni. Tax, n 1707 p. neoxinicrt
nirnepxennx n cnncxonn Ioanna Ioemapctxoro mornnynanacx rnm,
mo cnncxon Croxa arartox icpen pyxononarac (rax nxe nona 60 icpen
nncnxrnn) i nepenonrt rpoman na npanocnan`x (16 rpoma x npano-
cnan`m npncoennnn)
31
.
Hi uac npanninnx Ioemapctxoro yna sponena cnpoa nepenecrn
Croxy n Myxauinctxn monacrnp, onax esycnimno. 3a cnonamn
R. Xarxonnua, nontrxa cnx ne yanacx, onaxo cnntno nsnonnonana,
xax napcxn, rax n nancxn nopt
32
. Apxim. Bacnni (Hponin) nnaxac,
mo R. Xarxonnu xnno nepeintmyc snauennx cnncxona Croxn. Hx cnpo-
a nctoro-nanctoro nonxrana n romy, mo na apxinxxonn ynn nocnani
apximanpnrom Herponicm is Myxauinctxoro monacrnpx, mo npnsnarn
n ntoro Mapamopomctxoro cnncxona Hocn]a
33
.
Bnxoxun s roro, mo Croxa yn crannennnxom Tpancnntnanctxoro
xnxsx, xxn sa cnom nepexonannxm yn nporecranrom, yxonencrno ne
sanxn ntomy paino. Tomy ne nnno, mo Croxy ne nci cnpnmann sa
cnncxona, a yxonencrno nocrino snnnynauynano oro n romy, mo nin
nee cnapxim o xantninismy
34
. Onax, cnouarxy mapamopomctxe yxo-
nencrno npnnxno Croxy sa cnncxona s ymonom, mo nin ye pxnrn
cnapxicm npn onomosi cnapxiantnoro cnnoy
35
. Hpore, sa cnonamn
A. Hexapa, Croxa noropnn cnapxiantnnm cnnoom i roi, xx yxonen-
crno rxrornno o yni, nin nouan cxnnxrncx na ix nporecranrin
36
. Tomy
ne nnno, mo s uacom mix npanocnannnm xnipom i cnncxonom nouann
nnnnxarn cyrnuxn i nenoposyminnx. Hpemer nnx nenoposymint yn onn
npnnxrrx yni s Pnmom. Konn na cnncxona nouann rncnyrn Croxa n
oporti nporn yni s Pnmom, saxnmunn ynim s xantninicramn n 1694 p.
37
Ha ymxy ocninnxin, ne yna cnna npanocnanno-xantninicrctxa ynix n
nepxonni icropi Cxino Cnponn
38
.
B 1701 p. cnncxon yn nnxnnxann y Beny. Tam omy sanpononynann
nepern n ynim s Pnmom, ni uoro cnncxon, xx nnno, nimonnncx
39
.
Hicnx roro, xx cnncxon ne orpnman oinxnnx npnninen ni Kantnini-
crctxo Hepxnn n Cemnropoi, y 1705 poni Croxa yn cxnnenn cnap-
xiantnnm cnnoom s nnannrna nepeann o cniuo n`xsnnni n Xyc-
rctxomy samxy. Ha ocnoni cyonoro cnicrna nacrynnoro poxy cnncxona
Croxy snintnnnn s ynpann cnapxicm, a oro macrxn cxon]icxynan xomi-
rar
40.
145

Ha micne Croxn yn opann pymynctxn cnxmennx Ion Hipxa, o-
nax uepes n`xncrno nerine nonoxennx Hipxy snxnn
41
.
V 1710 p. aminicrpanim cnapxi snony nepeann cnncxony Iocn]y. y-
xonencrno npnnxno Croxy s ymonom, mo xnxst Paxoni sarnepnrt
oro na nnanuomy npecroni
42
.
B ro camn uac xnxst upann II Paxoni ninxn noncrannx nporn Ia-
cyprin. Hi uac noncrannx na Croxy nocnnanncx snnnynauennx n amo-
pantnomy xnrri. Paxoni naxasan xanirany Xycrctxoro samxy nponecrn
poscniynannx. uacrnna nipnnx, nepenaxno pymyn Mapamopoma npore-
crynann nporn ntoro
43
.
Cnncxon uacro nncan posnopxxennx i rpamorn na pymynctxi moni.
B ntomy moxna aunrn nnnnn xantninismy, xxn nnmaran nnxopncrannx
napono monn. Hi uac npanninnx Paxoni, Croxa yn nnmymenn ome-
xynarn cnom ixntnicrt
44
.
Ocranni pas im`x cnncxona Iocn]a sraycrtcx n 1711 p.
45
3 ornxy na re, mo cnoninnntxa ixntnicrt cnxrnrenx Iocn]a npnna-
ac na cxnani nx Hpanocnan`x uacn nnponaxennx ra nacaxennx
Vxropoctxo yni 1646 p., oro oconcricrt sacnyronyc oxpemo nayxo-
no-ocninnntxo ynarn.
Ha ann uac oxpemnx npant na yxpanctxi moni, npncnxuennx ixnt-
nocri cnxrnrenx, nemac. V ni samirni sponena cnpoa sipannx naintm
nonnoro napianry xnrrx ra ixntnocri cnxrnrenx Iocn]a (Croxn), xxe
icnyc na ctoronimni ent y 3axapnarctxi icropiorpa]i. Onax i ni
xpynnni ne osnonxmrt nam sponrn mnpoxi o`cxrnnni nncnonxn npo
ixntnicrt Mapamopomctxoro cnxrnrenx.
Cnoinacmocx, mo n mayrntomy icropnuni nomyxn ra ricnimi sn`xs-
xn s Pymynctxom ra Monanctxom Hpanocnannnm Hepxnamn npnne-
cyrt noni marepiann ra osnonxrt intm rnnme onncarn ixntnicrt nxa-
sanoro nnanxn ra sponrn snauni ononnennx o oro iorpa]i.
BIBAIOIPAmIR
1. v.uuroeu: Ioauu, omei. Hcropnuecxix ueprt Vrpo-Pyccxnx. T. III. Vnr-
nap, 1875-1877.
2. amroeu: P. Enncxont Mapamopomcxne // Hncrox. N 22. 15 noxpx. Io
VII.
3. Kpa.uru A. Cnet xnnroneuarannx monacrtpx Ipymencxoro // Hayunt
copnnx Iannnxo-pyccxo Marnnt. Btn. II. Htnon, 1865.
4. Kpa.uru A. Cnncox monacrtpe unna cn. Bacnnnx Bennxoro // Hayunt
copnnx Iannnxo-pyccxo Marnnt. Btn. I. Htnon, 1865.
5. Hv:ra M. Icropix Kapnarctxnx pycnnin. Historia Carpato-Ruthenorum. T. III.
Vxropo: Bnannnnrno 3axapnarrx, 2000-2002.
146
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
6. Heose.icru E. Ouepx xapnaropyccxo nnreparypt. Vxropo, 1923.
7. Han Cmenau, omei. Icropix 3axapnarrx. T. II. Inano-upanxinctx: Bnannnn-
rno Hona 3opx, 2002.
8. Herap Amauaci, UCBB. Hapncn icropi Hepxnn 3axapnarrx. T. I. Pnm; Htnin:
Bnannnnrno Ornin Bacnnixn Micionep,1997.
9. Hempoe A. Crapax nepa n ynix n XVIIXVIII nn. Hoxcnnrentnax sanncxa
// Marepiant nx ncropin Vropcxo Pycn. T. II. CH., 1906.
10. Hpouuu Bacu.u, apxu+auopum. Hcropnx Hpanocnanno Hepxnn na 3a-
xapnarte. Cnxro-Hnxonaencxn Myxauencxn monacrtpt: OPH 4iokuiu, 2005.
11. 4euu: B. o nnrannx npo icropim nsacmoninocnn mix cnncxonamn Myxa-
uena i Mapamopoctxnmn npanocnannnmn nenrpamn // Pymynctxoyxpanctxi
ninocnnn: icropix i cyuacnicrt. Satu Mare, 1999.
12. 4euu: B. Hepxna na 3axapnarri (cepenna XVII nouarox XVIII cr.) // Mo-
not Vxpani (Hayxoni sanncxn mononx nuennx Vxropoctxoro epxannoro yn-
inepcnrery). T. III. Vxropo, 1994.
13. 4u.un opoqe, +umpono.um Hparcru u ece Uexoc.oearuu. Hacnnt-
crnennoe nneenne ynnn n 3axapnarte 1646-1649 rr., oporta c nem n ee nnxnn-
annx n 1949 roy; pasnnrne Hpanocnanno Hepxnn o cero nx n 3axapnarte.
ncceprannx na concxanne yueno crenenn xannara orocnonnx Hennnrpac-
xo yxonno Axaemnn. Hpxmen, 1964. (Mamnnonnct).
AITEPATYPA
1. Hpouuu Bacu.u, apxu+auopum. Hcropnx Hpanocnanno Hepxnn na 3axap-
narte. Cnxro-Hnxonaencxn Myxauencxn monacrtpt: OPH 4iokuiu, 2005.
C. 252.
2. nn.: Heose.icru E. Ouepx xapnaropyccxo nnreparypt. Vxropo, 1923. C.
45; Hpouuu Bacu.u, apxu+. Vxas. cou. C. 253; Hempoe A. Crapax nepa n ynix n
XVIIXVIII nn. Hoxcnnrentnax sanncxa // Marepiant nx ncropin Vropcxo Pycn.
T. II. CH., 1906. C. 33.
3. Hempoe A. Vxas. cou.T. II. C. 36.
4. Hpouuu Bacu.u, apxu+. Vxas. cou. C. 253.
5. Han Cmenau, omei. Icropix 3axapnarrx. T. II. Inano-upanxinctx: Bnannnn-
rno Hona 3opx, 2002. C. 235.
6 Hpouuu Bacu.u, apxu+. Vxas. cou.T. II. C. 253 - 254.
7. Hempoe A. Vxas. cou. C. 34; Hpouuu Bacu.u, apxu+. Vxas. cou. C. 254.
8. v.uuroeu: Ioauu, omei. Hcropnuecxix ueprt Vrpo-Pyccxnx. T. III. Vnr-
nap, 1875-1877. C. 28.
9. Hv:ra M. Icropix Kapnarctxnx pycnnin. Historia Carpato-Ruthenorum.
T. III. Vxropo: Bnannnnrno 3axapnarrx, 2000-2002. C. 133.
10. Herap Amauaci. Hapncn icropi Hepxnn 3axapnarrx. T. I. Pnm; Htnin: Bn-
annnnrno Ornin Bacnnixn Micionep, 1997. C. 70.
11. Hempoe A. Vxas. cou. T. II. C. 34.
12. nn.: Hv:ra M. Bxasana npanx. C. 133; Hpouuu Bacu.u, apxu+. Vxas. cou.
C. 255.
13. Hv:ra M. Bxasana npanx. C. 133.
147

14. nn.: 4euu: B. o nnrannx npo icropim nsacmoninocnn mix cnncxonamn
Myxauena i Mapamopoctxnmn npanocnannnmn nenrpamn // Pymynctxoyxpanctxi
ninocnnn: icropix i cyuacnicrt. Satu Mare, 1999. C. 190; Han Cmenau o. Bxasana
npanx. C. 235; Hpouuu Bacu.u, apxu+. Vxas. cou. C. 253.
15. v.uuroeu: Ioauu, o. Vxas. cou. C. 63 - 73; Herpon A. Vxas. cou.T. II. C. 34.
16. Hempoe A. Vxas. cou. T. I. C. 22; Herpon A. Vxas. cou. T. II. C. 34.
17. Hempoe A. Vxas. cou. T. II. C. 36.
18. Han Cmenau o. Bxasana npanx. C. 235.
19. Hpouuu Bacu.u, apxu+. Vxas. cou. C. 253.
20. 4euu: B. Bxasana npanx. C. 190.
21. Herpon A. Vxas. cou. T. II. C. 33.
22. Tam xe.
23. Hempoe A. Vxas. cou. T. II. C. 33 - 34.
24. Herap Amauaci, UCBB. Bxasana npanx. C. 70; Hpouuu Bacu.u, apxu+.
Vxas. cou. C. 253.
25. nn.: Hv:ra M. Bxasana npanx. C. 133 - 134; amroeu: P. Enncxont
Mapamopomcxne // Hncrox. N 22. 15 noxpx. Io VII. C. 256.
26. Hpouuu Bacu.u, apxu+. Vxas. cou. C. 254 - 255.
27. Kpa.uru A. Cnet xnnroneuarannx monacrtpx Ipymencxoro // Hayu-
nt copnnx Iannnxo-pyccxo Marnnt. Btn. II. Htnon, 1865. C. 111-114; nn.
raxox, oro x: Cnncox monacrtpe unna cn. Bacnnnx Bennxoro // Hayunt cop-
nnx Iannnxo-pyccxo Marnnt. Btn. I. Htnon, 1865. C. 52.
28. Hpouuu Bacu.u, apxu+. Vxas. cou. C. 256.
29. 4u.un opoqe, +umpono.um Hparcru u ece Uexoc.oearuu. Hacnnt-
crnennoe nneenne ynnn n 3axapnarte 1646-1649 rr., oporta c nem n ee nnxnn-
annx n 1949 roy; pasnnrne Hpanocnanno Hepxnn o cero nx n 3axapnarte.
ncceprannx na concxanne yueno crenenn xannara orocnonnx Hennnrpac-
xo yxonno Axaemnn. Hpxmen, 1964. (Mamnnonnct). C. 75.
30. Hpouuu Bacu.u, apxu+. Vxas. cou. C. 255.
31. Hpouuu Bacu.u, apxu+. Vxas. cou. C. 256.
32. amroeu: P. Bxasana npanx. C. 183.
33. Hpouuu Bacu.u, apxu+. Vxas. cou. C. 256.
34. Han Cmenau o. Bxasana npanx. C. 235.
35. Herap Amauaci, UCBB. Bxasana npanx. T. I. C. 70.
36. Tam camo.
37. 4euu: B. Bxasana npanx. C. 190.
38. 4euu: B. Bxasana npanx. C. 190; oro x: Hepxna na 3axapnarri (cepenna
XVII nouarox XVIII cr.) // MonotVxpani (Hayxoni sanncxn mononx nuennx
Vxropoctxoro epxannoro yninepcnrery). T. III. Vxropo, 1994. C. 30 - 44.
39. Hpouuu Bacu.u, apxu+. Vxas. cou. C. 257.
40. Herap Amauaci, UCBB. Bxasana npanx. T. I. C. 70.
41. Tam camo.
42. Tam camo.
43. v.uuroeu: Ioauu, o. Vxas. cou. C. 61-76.
44. Hpouuu Bacu.u, apxu+. Vxas. cou. C. 257.
45. v.uuroeu: Ioauu, o. Vxas. cou. C. 28.
148
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Kpnn AHHAEH
APXHEHHCKOH
HOHAmAH (KOHOAOBHH):
OKYMEHTL H MATEPHAAL
Hnan Mnxanonnu Konononnu ponncx n
c. Onemnnx Bnnorpaoncxoro paona 3axapnar-
cxo onacrn n cemte xpecrtxn: Mnxanna (yua-
crnnxa Mapamopom-Cnrercxoro nponecca 1913-
1914 rr.) n Tepest Hononnu. B 1919-1923 rr. yunn-
cx n nauantno mxone n ponom cene. B 1923-
1927 rr. nonyuan opasonanne n Vxropocxo
rnmnasnn. Eme no npemx yuet n rnmnasnn pe-
mnn nocnxrnrt cnom xnsnt cnyxennm Fory n
no+romy n 1927 r. nocrynnn n orocnoncxym ce-
mnnapnm n Cpemcxnx Kapnonnax, xoropym oxon-
unn n 1932 r. 3 cenrxpx 1932 r. enncxon amac-
xnn (Ipannuxn) npnrnacnn ero na onxnocrt nn-
capx n xannenxpnm Enapxnantnoro ynpannennx
n Myxauene. B 1933 r. H. Konononnu xennncx
na Bepe Mnnnu, ouepn pemecnennnxa-ropronna ns Honoro Caa. 21
noxpx 1933 r. pyxononoxen n can naxona, a 7 xnnapx 1935 r. n can
nporonaxona.
C 1 oxrxpx 1935 r. no 29 ]enpanx 1936 r. H. Konononnu conar
uexocnonanxo apmnn. Cnyxnn n Komnnax, Hpare, Vxropoe. 19 max
1936 r. n Myxauene pyxononoxen enncxonom Myxauencxo-Hpxmencxnm
amacxnntm n can cnxmennnxa. Hocne nonncxo cnyxt paoran n
Enapxnantnom ynpannennn n Myxauene apxnnapnycom (1935-1937), nep-
xonntm pe]epenrom (1937-1939). 27 anpenx 1939 r. nasnauen cexpera-
pem Enapxnantnoro ynpannennx. C +ro onxnocrn cmemen nenrpamn n
1941 r. C 1 oxrxpx 1941 r. no noxpt 1944 r. paoran npenoanarenem
3axona Foxtero n Xycrcxo rnmnasnn. B exape 1944 r. n cocrane e-
nerannn esnn n Mocxny no nonpocy nepexoa Myxauencxo-Hpxmencxo
enapxnn n cocran Pyccxo npanocnanno nepxnn.
B oxrxpe 1944 r. nspan unenom npesnnyma n nepntm samecrnre-
nem rnant Xycrcxoro ropocxoro naponoro Conera. Ha I Cese ene-
raron napontx xomnreron, xoropt npoxonn n Myxauene 26 oxrxpx
1944 r., tn nspan unenom Hapono Pat 3axapnarcxo Vxpannt.
C xnnapx 1945 r. naxonncx na onxnocrn rnant upesntuano xomnc-
149

cnn yuera npea, paccneonannx n ycranonnennx npecrynnenn, conep-
menntx nemenxo-nenrepcxnmn ]amncramn no npemx oxxynannn 3axap-
nartx.
C 1 exapx 1944 r. no noxpt 1949 r. cexperapt Myxauencxo-Vxro-
pocxo npanocnanno enapxnn. C noxpx 1949 r. no 15 exapx 1954 r.
amnnncrparop pyccxnx n nenrepcxnx npanocnanntx npnxoon n npe-
crannrent Harpnapmero npecrona n Benrpnn. B 1947 r. nonyunn can
nporonepex. C 15 exapx 1954 r. no 10 nmnx 1955 r. nacroxrent xa-
]epantnoro coopa n Myxauene n cexperapt Enapxnantnoro ynpanne-
nnx.
Ho npomecrnnn nexoroporo npemenn paoran nomomnnxom enncxona
n Hpxmene, samnrnn oxropcxym ncceprannm na remy Knpnnno-Me-
]onencxax nepxont n Bennxomopancxo epxane n ee xanonnuecxoe
nonoxenne. 3nan ontme cemn nnocrpanntx xstxon.
Hocne cmeprn cynpyrn npnnxn monamecxn nocrpnr, a n 1966 r. nosne-
en n can enncxona c nmenem Hona]an. Paoran npenoanarenem Moc-
xoncxo yxonno axaemnn, tn enncxonom Fepnnncxnm n Cpeneen-
ponecxnm, +xsapxom Cenepno n Rxno Amepnxn n Aneyrcxnx ocrpo-
non, enncxonom Tamoncxnm n Mnuypnncxnm, apxnenncxonom Monan-
cxnm n Knmnnencxnm. B 1987 r. no cocroxnnm sopontx ntmen na nen-
cnm. Vmep 21 max 1990 r. n Myxauene, norpeen na uepneue rope.
Harpat: n 1937 r. or enncxona amacxnna nonyunn naepennnx n
xpacnt noxc; n 1939 r. or enncxona Bnanmnpa (Panua) nporonepe-
cxym xamnnanxy; n 1944 r. or amnnncrparopa enapxnn, nrymena ueo-
]ana (Caona) nporonepecxn nanepcnt xpecr; n 1949 r. or narpn-
apxa Anexcnx I xpecr c yxpamennxmn; n 1951 r. or narpnapxa
Anexcnx I nocox; n 1954 r. or narpnapxa Anexcnx I nropo xpecr c
yxpamennxmn; n 1955 r. or narpnapxa Anexcnx I mnrpy.
B +ro nynnxannn nnepnte neuaramrcx oxymenrt ns nnuntx en
apxnenncxona Hona]ana (Konononnua), xoropte naxoxrcx n apxnne My-
xauencxo-Vxropocxo enapxnn n Myxauene 3axapnarcxo onacrn Vx-
pannt. stx n crnnt oxymenron coxpanent.
OKYMEHTL
N1
Hnctmo M. Konononnua enncxony Hpnnem (unpnu) c npocto o npn-
nxrnn ero ctna H. Konononnua n orocnoncxym cemnnapnm n Cepnn
11 anpenx 1927 r.
3rpem
Mnxann Konononnu n 3rpemn.
Hpomenie o npnnxrin ero ctna Hnana n orocnoncxym cemnnapnm.
150
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Ero Hpeocnxmencrny Hpanocnannomy Enncxony Honocacxomy n
Kapnaropyccxomy Hpnnem.
B Vxropoe.
Honncanmicx cmnpennnmi pa Kapnaropyccxo Hpanocnanno
nepxnn, npomy o nacxonoe npnnxrte moero ctna Hnana pox. nx 8
nmnx 1912 n 3rpemn, yuennxa IV xn. epx. rnmnasin n Vxropoe
n yxonnym cemnnapim Honocacxo npanocnanno Enapxin.
nx opnenrannn onoxy Bamemy Hpeocnxmencrny x cneennm, uro
xnnxmct or moe mnocrn npanocnanntm n npn npanocnannom nn-
xenim yxe or roa 1903 tn exrentntm, uro nmeno n nocne-
crnim n onnnenie npn Mapamopom-Cnrorcxom nponecce.
Kax nonen n manosementnt c nennxnmn xeprnamn an ctny
ocnonnoe opasonanie n cmorpx na moe pennrnosnoe yexenie xenan
t ero nocnxrnrt na cnyxy Bcentmnero Fora n Ip. nocrouno Hpano-
cnanno nepxnn.
Cmorpx na moe cxynoe marepnantnoe nonoxenie npomy o npnsnaue-
nin unm ontmnx ]nnancontx ntro.
Hpomy o nacxono narononyunoe ncnonnenie moero npomenix n ocra-
mct npocxme Bamero narocnonenix.
Bam noxopnt ctn n Xpncre
Mnxann Konononnu.
N2
Coomenne M. Konononnuy o npnnxrnn ero ctna n orocnoncxym
cemnnapnm n Cpemcxnx Kapnonnax
11 nmnx 1927 r.
Vxropo
o. Hacroxrenm Hepxnn cena Iopxn
Enapxiantnoe Vnpannenie nopyuaer nam coomnrt r. Konononnuy
ns 3rpema, uro ero ctn onpeenen n cemnnapim n Cpemcxnx
Kapnonnax, xya onxen xnnrtcx 30-ro anrycra cero roa. Hpexe
cero nao npecrannrt, ne nosxe xonna mecxna, neoxonmte oxy-
menrt n Enapxiantnoe Vnpannenie, xoropoe npenpononr nx no npn-
nanexnocrn.
3a Enapxiantnoe Vnpannenie
C..
N3
Coomenne M. Konononnuy o ]nnancontx pacxoax na noesxy n
orocnoncxym cemnnapnm n Cpemcxnx Kapnonnax
151

20 nmnx 1927 r.
Vxropo
Mnxanny Konononnuy (Erpem)
B orner na Bame npomenie or 19 anrycra c.r. coomaercx Bam,
uro nyrente pacxot, no nenomy nnery, nyxnt o rpannnt Rrocna-
nin, o Kenenin n ntpasxrcx n cymme npnnnsnrentno o 190 uem. xpon.
Or rpannnt Rrocnanin (Kenenix) o Cpemcxnx-Kapnonen, re naxo-
nrcx cemnnapix, Bam ctn nonyunn cxnxy n onxen nnarnrt ront-
xo 0,25% nnera, xoropt yer cronrt npnnnsnrentno 15 xu. 3ror
ntrornt nner noctnaercx Bam n nnctme.
3a Enapxiantnoe Vnpannenie
C..
N4
Hpocta o paspemennn na saxnmuennn paxa
23 nmnx 1933 r.
Myxaueno
Bame Hpeocnxmencrno
B nny roro uro x oxonunn yxonnym Cemnnapim n rem camtm
yxe ncnonnnn ono ns neoxonmt ycnoni nx npnnxrix cnxmenn-
uecxoro nnn ixxoncxaro cana, n rax xax nx npnnxrix rex xe canon
nyxno cnauana xennrtcx, x ocmennnamct noxopneme npocnrt Bamero
Apxiepecxaro narocnonenix n paspemenix na saxnmuenie paxa c e-
nnne Bepo Mnnnu, oxonunnme IV-rt xnacc yunrentcxo Cemn-
napin n Honom Cay.
Mox yymax nenecra, Bepa Mnnnu ou r-na Cre]ana Mnnnua,
ropronna n Honom Cay. C paspementem ex orna n marepn n no
namemy nsanmnomy n oponontnomy xenanim, mt pemnnn npnnxrt cn.
Tanncrno paxa. Fpaxocounranie, c paspemeniem Bamero Hpeocnx-
mencrna, cocroxnoct npnnnsnrentno n nepno nononnne cenrxpx
mecxna n Honom Cay.
Haexct, uro Bame Hpeocnxmencrno naronsnonnr yonnernopnr
moemy cxpomnomy npomenim n art Cnoe Apxiepecxoe narocnonenie
na saxnmuenie paxa, ocramct ncnpamnnax cn. monnrn Bamero Hpe-
ocnxmencrna n Bamero Apxiepecxaro narocnonentx, notsax Bamy
cn. Apx. ecnnny.
Bamero Hpeocnxmencrna cmnpennt nocnymnnx:
Hnan M. Konononnu, unnonnnx Enapx. Vnpannenix.
N5
exper o nasnauennn H. Konononnua nncapem Enapxnantnoro ynpan-
nennx
152
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
22 noxpx 1933 r.
Myxaueno
iaxony orny Ioanny Konononnuy,
Myxaueno
Hasnauaem Bac nncapem Enapxiantnoro Vnpannenix Hpanocnan-
no Enapxin Myxauencxo-Hpxmencxo n Myxauene c xanonaniem
12.000 xopon n ro.
Hpanocnannt Myxauencxo-Hpxmencxi Enncxon
. amacxnn.
N6
Vocronepenne o pyxononoxennn n can cnxmennnxa
20 anpenx 1936 r.
Myxaueno
Vocronepenie
Vocronepxem cocrnennopyuno nonnctm n npnnoxeniem neua-
rn, uro npexnnrent cero cnxmennnx Ioann M. Konononnu, unnon-
nnx Hpanocnannaro Enapxiantnaro Vnpannenix n Myxauene, pyxono-
noxen namn n can cnxmennnxa, n myxauencxom xpame Cn. Apxn-
crparnra Foxix Mnxanna, nx 19 anpenx 1936 roa.
Hpanocnannt Myxauencxo-Hpxmencxi Enncxon
. amacxnn.
N7
exper o nasnauennn o.H. Konononnua cexperapem Enapxnantnoro
ynpannennx Myxauencxo-Hpxmencxo enapxnn
27 anpenx 1939 r.
Myxaueno
exper o nasnauenin
Cnm nasnauaercx namn cnxmennnx o. Ioann Konononnu, nepnt
pe]epenr Enapxiantnoro Vnpannenix Hpanocnanno Enapxin Myxauen-
cxo-Hpxmencxo cexperapem Enapxiantnoro Vnpannenix naunnax or
1 max 1939 roa n.cr. c xanonaniem 200 nenrto (no-npexnemy cuery
1400 xu.) n mecxn.
Bnanmnp
Hpanocnannt Enncxon Myxauencxo-Hpxmencxi.
N8
Hnpxynxp amnnncrparopa Myxauencxo-Hpxmencxo npanocnanno
enapxnn, nrymena ueo]ana (Caon) o nasnauennn o.H. Konononnua npe-
menntm ynpannxmmnm enapxnn
153

15 anpenx 1941 r.
Myxaueno
Enapxiantnomy Vnpannenim
Hpanocnanno Myxauencxo Enapxin
n Myxauene.
Vesxax, no ntsony mnnncrepcxaro conernnxa r. p. cencxaro, n
Fyanemr no enam name Enapxin, x ononnomounnam cnxmennnxa
o. Hnana Konononnua, cexperapx Enapxin, ynpannxrt myxauencxo npa-
nocnanno Enapxie n moem orcyrcrnin n na ror cnyua, ecnn no
nenpennenntm npnunnam x ne cmory tcrpo nepnyrtcx n Myxa-
ueno.
Amnnncrparop Enapxin:
Hrymen ueo]an.
N9
Hnctmo cexperapx Enapxnantnoro ynpannennx npor. H.Conxa
o. H. Konononnuy
29 noxpx 1941 r.
Myxaueno
Cnxmennnxy o. Ioanny Konononnuy
Karexnry rnmnasin
n Xycr
B orner na Bame npomenie c nx 10.11. c.r. no pacnopxxenim I-na
Amnnncrparopa, Orna Hporonpecnnrepa -pa M. Honona, nmem uecrt
coomnrt Bam cneymmym pesonmnim. Kaxt cnxmennnx oema-
ercx cnyxnrt n nepxnn ram, re ero npecrannrenn nnacrn nocra-
nxr, n on ne nmer npana ocrannxrt cnoe mecro, es paspemenix na
+ro cnonx nnacre.
Ho nynxram I n II. yxe neperonopeno, no noxa eme ne pemeno n
nonoxnrentnom cmtcne, no naemcx uro yer yononernopeno.
3a Bac yxe monoro cenano, xax yer antme ycntmano name
rpeonanie nx Bac ne snaem, no mnoro sanncnr or Bac.
3a Amnnncrparopa: cexperapt npor. I. Conxo.
N10
exper o nosnpamennn o. H. Konononnua na onxnocrt cexperapx
Enapxnantnoro ynpannennx
24 noxpx 1944 r.
Myxaueno
Ero Btcoxonpenoonm cnxmennnxy o.Hoanny Konononnu, saxono-
yunrenm rnmnasnn
154
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Xycr
Bnny roro, uro nama Ponna ocnoonnact, mt cunraem neoxon-
mtm nepnyrt n namy nepxonnym xnsnt n nopmantnte pentct. Ho+ro-
my x xax samecrnrent npanocnannoro Myxauencxo-Hpxmencxoro ennc-
xona n amnnncrparop Myxauencxo-Hpxmencxo npanocnanno enapxnn,
nopyuam Bam nepnyrtcx cnona n Myxaueno n sanxrt cnoe npexnee me-
cro cexperapx Enapxnantnoro ynpannennx, c xoroporo mecra Bac n cnoe
npemx matxpt n nxnne arenrt npornann, no c xoroporo (mecra) Bt
saxonno nepxonno nnacrtm o ceronxmnero nx ne tnn ynonent.
uro xacaercx Bamero xanonantx, ro o +rom namn yer nsan or-
entnt exper n sanncnmocrn or roro, xaxnmn cpecrnamn enapxnx
yer pacnonarart.
onxnocrt cnom nsnontre sanxrt o 1 exapx 1944 r., c xaxoro npe-
menn yer Bam cunrartcx n xanonante.
Ha mecro saxonoyunrenx rnmnasnn n Xycre namn nasnauen pyro
xannar.
ueo]an
3amecrnrent enncxona n amnnncrparop
npanocnanno Myxauencxo-Hpxmencxo enapxnn.
N11
exper o narpaxennn o. H. Konononnua nporonepecxnm nanepc-
ntm xpecrom
31 exapx 1944 r.
Myxaueno
Ero Btcoxonpenoonm cnxmennnxy o.Hoanny Konononnuy, cexpera-
pm npanocnannoro Enapxnantnoro Vnpannennx
n Myxauene
Bame Btcoxonpenoone,
3a Bamn ocote sacnyrn n nontsy Hpanocnanno Hepxnn nacroxmnm
narpaxam Bac nporonepecxnm nanepcntm xpecrom, c npanom npe-
croxrentcrna npe ncemn nepexmn. Ho+romy paspemam Bam nocnrt
nporonepecxn sonoro nanepcnt xpecr, noapennt Bam Mocxonc-
xo Harpnapxne n Mocxne nx 9-ro exapx cero roa.
Hrymen ueo]an
3amecrnrent enncxona n amnnncrparop
npanocnanno Myxauencxo-Hpxmencxo enapxnn.
N12
Vxas o yrnepxennn o. H. Konononnua na onxnocrn cexperapx My-
xauencxo-Vxropocxo npanocnanno enapxnn
155

31 exapx 1945 r.
Myxaueno
Vxas
Hpexnnrent cero cnxmennnx Konononnu Hoann Mnxanonnu yr-
nepxaercx mnom n onxnocrn cexperapx enapxnn Myxauencxo n
Vxropocxo, c uem n ntaercx emy nacroxmn yxas.
Hecrop
Enncxon Myxauencxn n Vxropocxn.
N13
Manar o nasnauennn npor. H. Konononnua amnnncrparopom npano-
cnanntx npnxoon n Benrpnn
15 noxpx 1949 r.
Mocxna
Harpnapx
Mocxoncxn
n ncex Pycn
MAHAT
Hacroxmnm mt ynonnomounnaem nporonepex Hnana Mnxanonnua
Konononnua, cornacno namero n Cnxmennoro Cnnoa pemennx, trt
narounnntm (amnnncrparopom) nenrepcxnx npanocnanntx npnxoon
n Benrpnn n nonnomountm npecrannrenem namero Harpnapmero Hpe-
crona npe ncemn oprannsannxmn Benrepcxo Hapono Pecnynnxn.
Anexcn, Harpnapx Mocxoncxn n ncex Pycn.
Kpyrnax neuart.
N14
Hnctmo mnrpononnra Kpyrnnxoro n Konomencxoro Hnxonax enncxony
Myxauencxo-Vxropocxomy Hnnapnony o coxpanennn sa npor. H. Kono-
nonnuem mecra paort n xnaprnpt n Myxauene na npemx ero paort n
Benrpnn
17 noxpx 1949 r.
Mocxna
Mocxoncxax Harpnapxnx
Cnxmennt Cnno
Pyccxo Hpanocnanno Hepxnn
Oren
Bnemnnx Hepxonntx Cnomenn
N196
156
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Bame Btcoxonpeocnxmencrno!
18 cero noxpx nporonepe o.Hoann Konononnu nanpannxercx namn n
sarpannunym xomannponxy n xauecrne narounnnoro nenrepcxnx npa-
nocnanntx npnxoon n r. Fyanemre.
Cornacno cymecrnymmero nonoxennx, na nce npemx ero orcyrcrnnx
n xomannponxe sa nnm coxpanxercx ero nocroxnnoe mecro paort n
xauecrne cexperapx Myxaueno-Vxropocxoro Enapxnantnoro Vnpanne-
nnx, c ntnnaro sa cuer Bamero Vnpannennx nonnoro mecxunoro co-
epxannx ero cemte.
Fnarononnre, Bame Btcoxonpeocnxmencrno, art coornercrnymmee
pacnopxxenne o axxyparno ntnnare ero sapaorno nnart xene npor.
H. Konononnua, Bepe Crenanonne Konononnu, npoxnnamme no apecy:
r. Myxauen, yn. 8-ro mapra, om N14, a raxxe n npoonxart oxastnart
esnosmesno coornercrnymmne xommynantnte n tronte ycnyrn n
npouee coecrnne.
Hpecearent orena Hnxona, mnrpononnr Kpyrnnxn n Konomenc-
xn.
N15
Ipamora Harpnapxa Mocxoncxoro n ncex Pycn Anexcnx nporonepem
H. Konononnuy o npane nomennx nyx nanepcntx xpecron
21 xnnapx 1954 r.
Mocxna

IPAMOTA
Fnarounnnomy amnnncrparopy
nenrepcxnx npanocnanntx npnxoon n Benrpnn
nporonepem Hoanny Konononnuy.
Bo nnnmanne x ycepntm rpyam nporonepex Hoanna Konononnua no
oxopmnennm npanocnanntx npnxoon n Benrpnn, naxoxmnxcx n nee-
nnn Mocxoncxo Harpnapxnn, naxoxy cnpanennntm npncnonrt emy n
xauecrne narpat nomenne nyx nanepcntx xpecron c yxpamennxmn.
Anexcn
Harpnapx Mocxoncxn n ncex Pycn.
/neuart/
N16
Btnncxa ns xypnana saceannx Cnxmennoro Cnnoa or 30 nmnx
1954 r. o ynontnennn npor. H. Konononnua c onxnocrn amnnncrparo-
pa npanocnanntx npnxoon n Benrpnn
157

30 nmnx 1954 r.
Mocxna
Hporonepem Hoanny Konononnuy
Konnx: nporonepem uepnsy Fepxn
Btnncxa ns xypnana N11
3aceannx Cnxmennoro Cnnoa or 30 nmnx 1954 r.
B saceannn Cnxmennoro Cnnoa no npecearentcrnom Harpnap-
xa no coomennm npecearenx Orena Bnemnnx Hepxonntx Cno-
menn mnrpononnra Hnxonax.
Hocranonnnn: narounnnoro amnnncrparopa nenrepcxnx npanocnan-
ntx npnxoon n Benrpnn nporonepex Hoanna Konononnua, n reuenne 5
ner c uecrtm norpynnmerocx nx ena npanocnannx n Benrpnn, ocno-
onrt, cornacno npocte, or yxasanno onxnocrn, c narocnonennem
nepnyrtcx x mecry npexnero cnyxennx n 3axapnarcxo onacrn.
Fnarounnntm amnnncrparopom nenrepcxnx npanocnanntx npnxo-
on n Benrpnn nasnaunrt nporonepex Cn.Hnxonaencxoro xpama n r. Fy-
anemre uepnsa Fepxn n nomomnnxom narounnnoro nasnaunrt nporo-
nepex nepxnn Cn. Ieoprnx Hoeonocna n r. Htnpetxasa Ceprnx Ia-
nenxoro, c ocrannennem nocnenero npn osnauenno nepxnn.
Vnpannxmmn enamn Mocxoncxo Harpnapxnn nporonpecnnrep
H. Konunnxn.
Kpyrnax neuart.
N17
Hnctmo mnrpononnra Kpyrnnxoro n Konomencxoro Hnxonax enncxony
Myxauencxo-Vxropocxomy Hnnapnony o coxpanennn sa npor. H. Kono-
nonnuem mecra paort n xnaprnpt n Myxauene na npemx ero paort n
uexocnonaxnn
13 nmnx 1955 r.
Mocxna
Mocxoncxax Harpnapnx
Cnxmennt Cnno
Pyccxo Hpanocnanno Hepxnn
Oren Bnemnnx
Hepxonntx Cnomenn
Ero Hpeocnxmencrny Hpeocnxmennememy Hnapnony, enncxony My-
xauencxomy n Vxropocxomy
Myxaueno
Bame Hpeocnxmencrno,
nosnmnennt o Iocnoe Copar!
158
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Ho narocnonennm Ero Cnxremecrna n n coornercrnnn c npocto
Inant Hpanocnanno Hepxnn n uexocnonaxnn Fnaxennemero Enen]e-
pnx, mnrpononnra Hpaxcxoro n ncex uexocnonaxnn, nporonepe Hoann
Mnxanonnu Konononnu npemenno nanpannxercx Mocxoncxo Harpnap-
xne na nepxonnym paory n npeenax Hpanocnanno Hepxnn n uexoc-
nonaxnn.
Hpomy Bame Hpeocnxmencrno, n coornercrnnn c ycranonnenntm
nopxxom, coxpannrt sa nporonepeem H.M. Konononnuem na npemx ero
npetnannx na sarpannuno paore ero nepxonnym n amnnncrparnn-
nym onxnocrn: nacroxrenx Cnxro-Vcnencxoro xa]epantnoro coopa
n r. Myxauene n cexperapx Enapxnantnoro Vnpannennx Myxaueno-Vx-
ropocxo enapxnn, x ncnonnennm xoroptx on nnont npncrynnr no oxon-
uannn sarpannuno xomannponxn.
Hpomy Bac raxxe n o coxpanennn sa ornom nporonepeem sannmae-
mo ero cemte xnaprnpt n enapxnantnom ome n Myxauene n na npe-
mx ee npecroxmero oresa n uexocnonaxnm.
C nensmenno parcxo x Bamemy Hpeocnxmencrny o Xpncre nmo-
ntm
unen Cnxmennoro Cnnoa Hnxona, mnrpononnr Kpyrnnxn n Kono-
mencxn.
N18
Hnctmo mnrpononnra Hpaxcxoro n ncex uexocnonaxnn opo]ex ennc-
xony Myxauencxo-Vxropocxomy Foroneny c naroapennem sa mnccn-
onepcxym exrentnocrt npor. H. Konononnua n uexocnonaxnn
24 noxpx 1964 r.
Hpara
Ero Hpeocnxmencrny,
Hpeocnxmennomy Foronepy,
Enncxony Myxauencxomy n Vxropocxomy,
Myxaueno
Bame Hpeocnxmencrno, mnoroynaxaemt Bnatxo!
Hacroxmnm nmem onr onecrn x cneennm Bamero Hpeocnxmen-
crna, uro npor. Hoann Konononnu, xomannponannt Mocxoncxo Har-
pnapxne na nepxonnym paory n uexocnonaxnm 1955 roa, nem 1-ro
exapx 1964 roa nosnpamaercx na ponny n xnnp Myxauenexo enap-
xnn.
Vnomxnyrt npor. H. Konononnu c narocnonennx Inant Hpanocnan-
no nepxnn n uexocnonaxnn, naxenno namxrn mnrpononnra Enen]e-
pnx, tn nasnauen nnxamnm monm corpynnxom n Hpxmencxo enap-
xnn n onxnocrt renepantnoro nnxapnx.
159

Fnaroapx ero mnoronernemy amnnncrparnnnomy ontry, oprannsa-
ropcxomy rananry n npnpontm cnoconocrxm, ero rpyt npnnecnn
onntnt nxna n eno naroycrpocrna ynomxnyro enapxnn, xoropax
cocronr ns 86 % coennenntx namnx parten tn. ynnaron.
Cnxmennt Cnno Hpanocnanno nepxnn n uexocnonaxnn ntcoxo
onennnaer rpyt o. Hoanna Konononnua, a no+romy Ero Fnaxencrno,
Fnaxennemn Mnrpononnr Hoann, narpann ero openom cnn. Knpnn-
na n Me]onx 3-1 crenenn n npanom conepmennx Foxecrnenno nnryp-
rnn npn orxptrtx napcxnx nparax, o Xepynnmcxo necnn. B 1962
roy o. Konononnu ycnemno samnrnn nayunym ncceprannm na npano-
cnannom orocnoncxom ]axyntrere n Hpxmene, xoropt npncnonn emy
ntcoxym nayunym crenent oxropa orocnonnx.
B nocnenee npemx ynomxnyrt npor. H. Konononnu cran npocnrt
Cnxmennt Cnno ornycrnrt ero na Ponny na cnyxy Marepn Pyc-
cxo Hepxnn. Vonnernopxx ero npomennm, Cnxmennt Cnno ntpa-
xaer emy npnsnarentnocrt n naroapnocrt sa camoornepxennte rpy-
t na naro Cn.Hpanocnanno Hepxnn n uexocnonaxnn. Mt npocnm
Iocnoa, a noacr emy opoe soponte na antnemne ero rpyt n
Hepxnn, Heecnym nomomt n Foxne narocnonenne.
Hontsyxct +rnm cnyuaem, x ropxuo npnnercrnym n nospannxm Bac,
Bame Hpeocnxmencrno, c nacrynnennem cn. Poxecrnencxoro nocra, c
noxenannem nponecrn ero n opom spannn, mnpe n cnoxocrnnn. Ouent
pa, uro Iocnot cynn Bam nonarart Cnxrnrentcxne rpyt na xa]e-
pe Myxauencxo n Vxropocxo enapxnn, xnnpnxom xoropo x nmen cua-
crte trt n nmont x xoropo x omymam n cnoem cepne, xax yxonno
moe Marepn.
Haemct, uro yer y menx yont cnyua nnuno nosnaxomnrtcx c
Bamnm Hpeocnxmencrnom.
Bamero Hpeocnxmencrna cmnpennt oromonen n nmxmn Bac n
Hncyce Xpncre nnxamn copar.
opo]e
mnrpononnr Hpaxcxn n ncex uexocnonaxnn.
HCTOHHHKH H AHTEPATYPA:
1. Apxnn Myxauinctxo-Vxropoctxo npanocnanno cnapxi.
2. oeeauu: O.. Konononnu Inan Mnxanonnu // Ennnxnoneix 3axapnarrx.
Bnsnauni ocon XX cronirrx. Vxropo: Ipaxa, 2007. C. 171 - 172.
3. o:uuei M., Haeup B. Ennnxnoneix Myxauena n imenax. Myxaueno: Kap-
narctxa nexa, 2006. C. 259 - 260.
160
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
un1po AHHAKK
HAYKOBA CHAmHHA KPIR BEHEAIHA
Y CBITAI HOBHX OCAIEHL
Xnrrx i ixntnicrt R.I. Benenina
ypoxennx 3axapnarrx, onoro is ]yn-
aropin cnanicrnuno nayxn i sacnonnn-
xa onrapncrnxn n Poci xpame nnnueni
sa xoponom [1, 306 c.]. emo sponeno
i nayxonnxmn Vxropoctxoro nanionant-
noro yninepcnrery [20, 21, 22, 23]. 3axo-
nomipno, mo nepmicrt y ni naroponi
cnpani nanexnrt pocictxnm nuennm.
A sininimnan I.I. Cpesnenctxn cnocm
nixpnrom nexnicm 16 xonrnx 1842 p.
nepe cryenramn i nnxnaauamn Xap-
xinctxoro yninepcnrery. 3axnnxamun x
o nnnuennx icropi cnon`xnctxnx na-
poin, nin nisnaunn, mo ne moxna sa-
ynarn npant Hine, Bnmxona i Pocictxo Axaemi, Bocroxona, Py-
mxnnena, Hapymennua i Kapamsina, noopoxe Kennena i Kyxapctxoro,
ocnixent Xoaxonctxoro i Benenina [2, c. 122]. Bymamocx, xxo
narn mann yrn nayxoni soyrxn saxapnarnx, xxmo I.I. Cpesnenctxn
oro im`x nocrannn n onn px s imenamn nannarnimnx cnanicrin nep-
mo nononnnn XIX cr.
R.I. Benenin sannmnn nennxy nayxony cnamnny, intma uacrnna xxo,
sepiracrtcx n pyxonncax i nenioma cyuacnnm ocninnxam. V ani
crarri crannmo coi sa mery noxasarn poory ocninnxin na ynopx-
xynannxm cnamnnn nuenoro, nynixanicm nononnxnnennx oxymenrin
npo nm neopnnapny nocrart n nayxonomy cniri.
3axonomipno, mo o nic poorn nepmnmn npncrynnnn nueni Poci. Bipa-
sy nicnx xonunnn R.I. Benenina y pocictxi npeci nxasynanocx na nayxo-
ny ninnicrt oro pyxonncno cnamnnn, na neoxinicrt nnopxxynannx
i nnannx. Hepmnm sa nm naropony cnpany nsxncx oro nompinn
par I. Monnap. Bin nnctmono snepnyncx o arartox pocictxnx i on-
rapctxnx yuennx, peaxni uncnennnx xypnanin s npoxannxm nnopxxy-
narn pyxonncny cnamnny Rpix Inanonnua. V 1856 p. nin opranisynan
nynixanim pyroro nnannx monorpa]i pennie n ntnemnie onrape...
i nomicrnn y ni oxnany iorpa]im R.I. Benenina. V ni s nouyrrxm
161

nnxonanoro oon`xsxy nimirnn: ncnonnnn onr nmnn n namxrn x
noxonomy. nepm n yexen, uro cnona ero ne ocranyrcx es nnnxnnx,
uro na-rpn nnmnnx uenonexa, nmemmnx npounrart xnnry, nosnarpax-
ent yyr sa nnnmanne mnornmn optmn cemenamn ymcrnennoro
pasnnrnx [3, c. XLVI]. Hocmeprno yno nnano px oro npant: Bna-
xo-onrapcxne nnn axo-cnanxncxne rpamort, copannte n oxcnen-
nte R. Benennntm. 1840. 359 c., xxa nmimyc 66 rpamor i 20 snimxin
nireparypnnx nam`xrox onrapctxoro napoy XIIIXIV cr.; y 1847 p. n
xypnani urennx n nmneparopcxom Omecrne ncropnn n pennocre
poccncxnx yna napyxonana oro crarrx O conxnom osepe Halmyris,
xxom yno sanouarxonano ocnixennx pyctxo-nisanrictxnx i pocict-
xo-rypentxnx nsacmnn, soxpema roprinentnnx. V ni, o peui, crnep-
xycrtcx, mo Typeuunna nocrino orpnmynana cint is Kapnarctxnx, sox-
pema Cnrorctxnx conexonanent no piuni Tnci [4, c. 1946]. uepes pix y
ntomy x xypnani yna napyxonana crarrx O nepnom n nropom name-
crnnn sanncnxncxnx cnanxn na Pyct o Pmpnxoncxnx npemen [5, 45 c.].
V ni nnepme nam xpa nasnann 3axapnarrxm.
3a ynixoniunennx oporo imeni namoro semnxxa nsxnocx unmano po-
cictxnx i onrapctxnx nuennx, sa mo i cami sacnyronymrt rnnoxo mann.
Axe sanxxn m cyuacnn unrau mac moxnnnicrt osnaomnrncx s rnop-
uicrm R. Benenina. Haintme sponn H.O. Fesconon, xxn nnepme y
xypnani Mocxnnrxnnn (1856), a norim y Xypnane Mnnncrepcrna na-
ponoro npocnemennx (1882) erantno onncan noopox Rpix Inanonn-
ua n Fonrapim, nncnirnnn nayxony ixntnicrt i noan oxnany oro ior-
pa]im. Bin xapaxrepnsyc oro ne nnme xx icropnxa, a xx ernorpa]a,
ninrnicra, xorpn ope snan rpentxy i narnnctxy monn, nintno posmon-
nxn no-yropctxn, no-nimentxn i no-]pannystxn, posymin iranictxy, icnanct-
xy, rypentxy i, snnuano, nci cnon`xnctxi napiuux [6, c. 165]. Cniuen-
nxm ntomy c mnpoxn ianason oro nayxono poorn ocnixennx s
icropi Bisanri, rpentxo mi]onori, rnnoxe snannx anrnuno i cepenton-
iuno icropi, crnopennx npant s icropi cnon`xnctxnx napoin, yxnaannx
rpamarnx nx nnx. He yna nmnna ennnxnonenunnx snant. Horo im`x
nnncane y nci ]axoni nnannx XIXXX cr. I ne nce y 37 poxin.
V nepemoni o pyroro nnannx monorpa]i pennie n ntnemnie
onrape... H. Fesconon nisnaunn, mo nin ... nourer cex cuacrnn-
ntm, ecnn, no onry rnyouamero ynaxennx x noxonomy, +ro crarte
nanomnnr n yxcnnr cxontxo-nnyt xo n snauenne ero nonnra, conep-
mennoro nx coorunue n onrap [7, c. XXXVII]. A camomy nnannm
iorpa] sanonin: a nocnyxnr nacroxmee nsanne namxrnnxom nx
nocnomnnammnx, sepxanom nx oospenammnxcx [7, c. XLIV].
opy cnpany sponn pyrn pocictxn ocninnx C. I. Coxonon, nn-
anmn n 1899 p. xnnry Fymarn R.H. Benennna [8, 19 c.], e oxapaxre-
162
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
pnsynan nennxy pyxonncny cnamnny, nxasanmn na micne sepirannx.
Taxa poora nnx ra inmnx pocictxnx yuennx i ctoroni cnyryc opnm
npnxnaom annnoro crannennx o xyntrypno cnamnnn nporpecnn-
nnx ixuin namoro napoy i saxnnxac ne nnme sepirarn , a nponaryna-
rn cepe mnpoxnx nepcrn napoy.
nx sepexennx pyxonncno cnamnnn Rpix Inanonnua araro spo-
nn I.C. Cnennintxn [9]. Ha nouarxy XX cr. nin onynixynan ni xnnrn,
n xxnx ynepme noan mnpoxy xaprnny xyntrypnnx nsacmnn 3axapnarrx s
Pocicm n nepmi nononnni XIX cr. Ha ntomy rni nin oxapaxrepnsynan
xyntrypno-ocnirnm i nayxony ixntnicrt arartox saxapnaroyxpannin y
Poci n xinni XVIII na nouarxy XIX cr. (I. Opnax, H. Hoix, M. Fany-
xnctxoro, B. Kyxontnnxa ra in.). I. Cnennintxomy mn nonnnni oconnno
yrn nxuni sa re, mo nin y cnox Marepnanax... nomicrnn uornpn npani
R. Benenina. Tpn is nnx (Maxpcxne cnona, nsxrte ns pyccxoro xst-
xa, Kapnaropyccxne nocnonnnt, O yxpanncxom npanonncannn)
ne ocnixennx ninrnicrnunoro xapaxrepy i ona s icropi 3axapnarrx
Hecxontxo cnon o poccixnax nenrepcxnx.... Hicnx ntoro poora na
cnamnnom nuenoro npnnnnnnacx maxe na nine cronirrx. snony nino-
nnnn pocictxi nayxonni y nam uac.
V poori na cnamnnom R. Benenina oconnno cni niarn nanex-
ne nayxonnxm Incrnryry cnon`xnosnancrna Pocictxo AH. Bnpo nox-
xn, soxpema, sacnyronyc I.K. Benenxron. V 1997 p. nin onynixynan
Ipammarnxy ntnemnero onrapcxoro napeunx [10, 252 c.], pyxonnc
xxo s 1834 p. nponexan y apxini. V ncrynni crarri I. K. Benenxron
nncoxo oninnn nm ninrnicrnuny npanm: Heyracammn nnrepec conpe-
menntx nccneonarene x "Ipammarnxe" Benennna enaer ee nynnxa-
nnm nenecoopasno n ocrono namxrn ee anropa sacnyxennoro
saunnarenx oreuecrnenno onrapncrnxn [10, c.XXI]. uepes pix nin nnac
sipnnx R.H. Benennn n onrapcxom nospoxennn (11, 206 c.), mo
micrnrt nanonnimy iniorpa]im npant nuenoro i ocnixent npo nto-
ro. A n 2005 p. sipnnx oxymenrin Vuenoe nyremecrnne R.H. Be-
nennna n Fonrapnm [12, 153 c.], n xxi nnepme noano o]inini oxy-
menrn moo opranisani nayxono noopoxi nuenoro i oro nncrynannx s
niomnmn pocictxnmn ixuamn. Ocxintxn ni marepiann neniomi n nami
icropnuni nayni, naneeno exxi s nnx.
3axonnnmnct iecm nanncannx araroromno icropi onrapctxoro na-
poy, Rpi Inanonnu nnpimnn sicnnrn nayxony nosxy n Fonrapim. V
sn`xsxy s nnm nin snepracrtcx o Pocictxo axaemi nayx s npoxannxm:
Xenax npoonxnrt n pacnpocrpannrt cnon nstcxannx, x ocmennnamct
npenoxnrt Axaemnn, ne yrono nn e yer, nontsyxct ntnemnnmn
naronpnxrntmn ocroxrentcrnamn, nosnoxnrt na menx conepmenne
yuenoro nyremecrnnx no Fonrapnn, crpane xnaccnuecxo nx ncropn-
163

xon n ]nnonoron cnanxncxnx noury cex cuacrnnntm, ecnn yocro-
mct cero naxnoro nx nontst nayx n necrnoro nx menx nopyuennx
[12, c. 19]. Axaemix nayx saonontnnna npoxannx R. Benenina, mo cra-
no me onnm nirnepxennxm nnsnannx oro xx yuenoro-icropnxa.
18 nepcenx 1829 p. nin snepracrtcx s nncrom o npesnenra axaemi
O.C. Bnmxona, n xxomy nnxnnxc roronnicrt o raxo nosxn i nnme:
Cuacrnnn yy, ecnn ncnonnennem naxnoro nopyuennx, na menx nosna-
raemoro Axaemnem, nosmory npnnecrn xaxym-nno nontsy ncropnn n
xstxy cnanxncxomy, xoropt nmeer n Bac ocronemero noxponnrenx
n oeperarenx. I ani nin oinxc: n rem oxaxy ropxecrnenno npe
ncemn, uro x ne concem neocronn Bamero ntcoxoro noxponnrentcrna
[12, c. 20].
Posrnx npoxannx R. Benenina yn nasnnuano cxnann. o ntoro
yno sanyueno ne rintxn xepinnnnrno Axaemi, a nncoxi epxanni no-
caonni, nnnomarn, unnonnnxn na micnxx Monani, Banaxi, Fonrapi.
Hpoexr nnana noopoxi cxnan cam R. Benenin, smicr xxoro noxasyc
mnpoxn nayxonn xpyrosip monooro nuenoro. Bin nepeauan siparn
icropnuni, ernorpa]iuni, nireparypni xepena. Bennxy ynary npninnn
crapoxnrnocrxm. B npoexri nxasynanocx: Hyremecrnennnx onxen
crapartcx o ortcxannn n onncannn ocranmnxcx namxrnnxon pennero
xstxa cnx crpan ... counnenn cnxrtx ornon, orocnyxente xnnrn,
neronncn, cxasannx, nanncn [12, c. 21].
Bin yn npecrannenn npesnenry axaemi nayx O.C. Bnmxony.
V Hncrpyxnnn axaemi (22 nmroro 1830 p.) yno oxpecneno xonxperni
sanannx, mo crannnncx nepe R.I. Beneninnm. V ni, soxpema, nisna-
uanocx: Inannax oxsannocrt nyremecrnymmero ecrt: nocernrt nce
xnnroxpannnnma xnxxecxne n monacrtpcxne, crapte apxnnt n axe
copannx xnnr n pennocre, ecnn nnaernnn nx nosnonxr oospert onte
[12, c. 31]. Im`x saxapnarnx sasnyuano i y nnmnx epxannnx xepinnnx
xonax. Hpesnenr axaemi snepnyncx o minicrpa saxoponnnx cnpan,
nine-xannnepa Kapna Bacnntonnua Hecentpoe s npoxannxm crnopnrn
cnpnxrnnni ymonn nx nayxono noopoxi R.I. Benenina, mo nin mor
nmert cnoont ocryn n apxnnt xnxxecrn Monannn n Banaxnn, uro-
t or ramomnnx enapxnantntx nauantcrn ant tnn npenncannx
monacrtpxm orxptrt cemy nyremecrnennnxy monacrtpcxne nnno-
rexn nnn apxnnt... [12, c. 27]. Minicrp, y cnom uepry, an ninonine
opyuennx renepan-]entmapmany I.I. iiuy-3aanxanctxomy nixpn-
rn R.I. Beneniny ocryn o apxinin xoncyntcrn n cax i Fyxapecri. V
ciuni 1830 p. nin yn nnxnnxann y Herepypr nx orpnmannx osnony na
nosxy n Fonrapim na onn pix. Merom nosxn yno nnnunrn i onncarn
apxinn i iniorexn, posiparn pyxonani i pyxonncni nam`xrxn annto
cnon`xnctxo nireparypn, a raxox nnnunrn onrapctxy mony, cxnacrn rpa-
164
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
marnxy romo. Hemonipny paicrt sa naannx raxo moxnnnocri mono-
n ocninnx nncnonnn y cnocmy moennnxy raxnmn cnonamn: noy
rya, xya pocaer menx cyta, nx ycnyrn napoy, xoero rax xapxo
nmnn [6, c.169].
Is xnirnx 1830 p. o xonrnx 1831 p. R. Benenin xnn i npanmnan ne
rintxn nnacne n Fonrapi, a y Monani, Banaxi. Horo ninxom sanononnn
nnonnxnn cnir esninnnx cnon`xnctxnx pyxonncin. Koxnn is nnx yn
nx ntoro xnnnm cniuennxm cnanno mnnynmnnn parntoro onrapct-
xoro napoy. He nirnepxymrt raxi oro cnona: Henym nourn nout x
ne mor cnart or paocrn, n naexe npnopecrn +ro coxponnme, cxont-
xo t sa nero ne sanpocnnn [6, c.175]. Boenna nenromna npanx, nora-
ne marepiantne cranonnme nncnaxnnn monooro ocninnxa i nin sax-
nopin. 3 onem n ymi nin nncan y Mocxny M.H. Horoiny: crpaam
ncem, nmesnt Mnxann Herponnu, renom n xapaxrepom. onnox,
nor n uem moe necuacrte. Paorart ne mory, no x onem ymom [13,
c. 134]. Cran oro sopon`x oconnno noripmnncx y cepnni 1830 p., nepe-
ynamun y Cinicrpi. Hoonanmn xpnsonn cran, nin nncan Mnxany Her-
ponnuy: nexan es namxrn... Cyx no crpaannxm, x ne yman nepe-
xnrt +ro onesnn... Tenept, cnana Fory, nonxncx yxe na norn, a x
nemnoxxo yxe npnoxpen. Hoxa nnramct eme onnm cynom[12, c. 100].
Cnpanxnc noxeprnynannx n im`x nayxn!
Honepnynmnct y Mocxny, R. Benenin npncrynnn o onpanmnannx sipa-
noro ni uac nayxono noopoxi ararmmoro marepiany i nynixani pxy
crare. Hanonernnni sycnnnx ryr xe ynn nisnaueni opannxm oro n
1833 p. icnnm unenom Mocxonctxoro ronapncrna icropi i crapoxnrno-
cre pocictxnx, npnsnauennxm cninpornnxom arartox nayxonnx xyp-
nanin.
Bnsnannx oro nncoxoro anropnrery y nayxonnx xonax nirnepxycrtcx
i rnm, mo n nepio posroprannx cnanicrnunnx ocnixent i niroronxn
o nixpnrrx xa]epn cnon`xnosnancrna Paa Mocxonctxoro yninepcn-
rery came omy opyunna cxnacrn Koncnexr npenoanannx ncropnn
cnanxncxoro xstxa n nnreparypt. Cexperap Pan 21.05.1834 p. nncan
omy:
Mnnocrnnt rocyapt, Rpi Hnanonnu!
Ho nopyuennm Conera Hmneparopcxaro Mocxoncxaro Vnnnepcnrera
nmem uecrt yneomnrt Bac, uro on onpeeneniem cnonm or 2 cero max
nonoxnn npenoxnrt Bam cocrannrt xoncnexr npenoanannx ncropin
cnanxncxaro xstxa n nnreparypt noome n npecrannrt n cnonecnoe
orenenie na pascmorpenie... [14, c. 121]. I raxn xoncnexr R.I. Be-
nenin cxnan. He yn nepmn oxymenr meronunoro cnpxmynannx s nnx-
naannx y nysax cnanicrnxn. Ha xant, nin rax i sannmnncx n pyxonncy, a
165

onynixynan oro pocictxn npo]ecop H. Hanpon y 1898 p. [14, c. 110
121]. He nnannx i ctoroni sannmacrtcx iniorpa]iunom pixicrm.
xi x ocnonononoxni npnnnnnn meronxn nnxnaannx icropi y
R. I. Benenina? Hacamnepe, nin nisnauac neoxinicrt snannx nnacno
icropi. Cnpanennno saynaxyc: ... ner nn manemero napoa, xorx ne-
cxontxo nmemmero npnrxsanne na opasonannocrt, xoropt ne opa-
man t ncntrymmne nsopt cnon na npomemee cnoe trne, xoropt
ne yrnynxncx t n camoro cex n ne orxptnan t cee nontx ncrou-
nnxon naponoro cnoero cymecrnonannx [14, c. 113]. Hpnuomy mnnyne
cni nnnuarn na ocnoni xepen, a romy +ra nayxa ecrt ona ns omnp-
nennx n rpynemnx. Hinxom nonnm y meronni R. I. Benenina yno
rnepxennx npo neoxinicrt nnnuennx pino monn, o ne ro saci,
xxn sepirac i nocnyc mnnyni ra npnemni noxoninnx. Mona, sa oro
nnsnauennxm, onn ns oraremnx myseen, n xoropom nectma mnoroe
nepexonr ns crapnnt or npaornon n oranennemee noromcrno ... no
nnuro rax nentno n rax onronpemenno ne coxpanxercx, xax cnono n
ycrax uenonexa, cnono, xax xna, sanemannt nam oranennemnmn
npexamn [14, c. 113114]. 3 raxnm xe rennnm nouyrrxm nin crannncx
i o icropi pinoro xpam 3axapnarrx i saxnnxan o nnnuennx oro icropi.
Hpncnyxamocx o oro saynaxennx: Kro t nmen cront cxorcxoe cep-
ne, urot ne xaxan snaxomcrna c cnonmn ornamn, eamn, npexa-
mn ... c xopnem camoro cex, c uacrtm camoro cex??? [23, c. 1617].
Baxnnny cnpany sponn mocxonctxn ocninnx Hanno Tynacn i cno-
nenctxn xomepcanr Rcr Pyrent y 2004 p. nonn sicnnnn penpnnrne
nnannx soncim neniomo n nayxonomy cniri monorpa]i R. I. Benenina
pennne n ntnemnne cnonene [15, 384 c.]. Fesmexna m nxunicrt sa
sepexennx uacrxn oporoninno cnamnnn saxapnarctxoro nuenoro.
Bnxnnxcrtcx, mo R.I. Benenin nixpnn cnironi me onn, nopx s onra-
pamn, nixamn sayrn napo cnonennin.
Onax naropona cnpana sartmapena nonirnunnm nirinxom. Ax nixx
ne ninoniac cyuacnnm nonirnunnm peanixm raxe rnepxennx anropa:
B ycnonnxx nannonantnoro noema na Vxpanne n xonne XX nexa y
nexoroptx mecrntx anropon nosnnxno xenanne ncronxonart nnunocrt
Benennna xax "yxpanncxoro nccneonarenx". Hpn +rom n xauecrne rnan-
noro aprymenra ynomnnaercx: ero nponcxoxenne, ero ]amnnnx n nmx
Ieoprn Iyna, nonyuennte or ponrene, a raxxe rot mnocrn, npone-
ennte n Vxropoe n Htnone. 3ro no-uenoneuecxn nonxrnoe crpemne-
nne ntnemnnx yxpannnen ynnert n Benennne npexe ncero cnoero sem-
nxxa ne ntepxnnaer nayuno xpnrnxn. Onaxo ormaxnnartcx or nero
nentsx, no sa ncxyccne o nannonantno npnnanexnocrn anropa cronr
nonpoc o nponcxoxennn n cymnocrn Pycn-Vxpannt xax raxono [15,
c. 19]. Cnpani, ormaxnnartcx ne moxna, ane ononrn nixone icny-
166
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
annx yxpanctxo epxannocri yno npnnnxennxm nx icropnuno na-
yxn, o nono oneeno me n XIX cr., a ctoroni nona yrnepxena ocra-
rouno i esnonoporno.
3nepnemo ynary na inmn eniso. Anrop ncrynno crarri H. Tynacn
nnaxac, mo cam R. Benennn nnxora ne cunran n ne nastnan cex
"yxpannnem". On tn "xapnaropyc no poxennm" [15, c. 20]. He
npana. Tax ienrn]ixynann saxapnarctxnx yxpannin y XIX cr. Ta npn
ntomy anrop samonuyc ro ]axr, mo ernonimn Vxpana, yxpanent sa
xnrrx R. Benenina ni rncxom nennxoepxanno moninicrnuno nonirn-
xn napnsmy samonuynanncx, a Banycnctxnm nnpxynxpom (1863 p.) nsa-
rani ynn saoponeni. Tomy ne moxna opixarn R. Beneniny n romy, mo
nin ne nasnnan cee yxpannem. Onax nin nnstxo niimon o posymin-
nx ntoro. He nnno xoua s oro penensi na sipxy M. Maxcnmonnua
Vxpanctxi naponi nicni! (1834). R. Benenin y nenrpi Pocictxo imnepi
nxnnac ne o]ininy repminonorim manopocct, a yxpannnt, yxpan-
nen, yxpannxa. Bin ononrt , mo yxpanctxn napo ne rintxn icnyc,
a mac nnacny icropim, nennxi xyntrypno-ocnirni naannx. A cnom art-
xinmnny nasnnac ne Vrpicm, a 3axapnarrxm.
He ninoniac icnocri i raxe rnepxennx nana H. Tynacna: ... ne
moxer trt comnennx n rom, uro Rpn Hnanonnu Benennn tn pyc-
cxnm uenonexom no yxy, xstxy n yexennxm. Onax re, mo R. Be-
nenin posmonnxn i nncan no-pocictxn, me ne osnauac, mo nin yn pyc-
cxnm uenonexom, o snan npaxrnuno nci nennxi cnponectxi monn. Cni
naraarn, mo cam nin ropo saxnnxn: Hmex uecrt, no nnemenn n no
poxennm, npnnanexart x Rxno Pycn.... Fiorpa] R. Benenina poc-
ixnnn H. Fesconon, y 1856 p. saynaxnn, mo nin nmen rnyoxo +rnuecxym
mxnopyccxym narypy i nnxonann n none Kapnarcxo npnpot [7, c.
21]. Biomn pocictxn ernorpa] O.M. Hnnin y 1890 p. onosnauno
crnepnn: Benennn, poom xapnarcxn pycnn [16, r. 1, c. 363].
Ta npn ncix ncxycinnx momenrax niacmo nanexne mocxonctxnm
nuennm sa x nniny npanm no sepexennm nayxono cnamnnn ypoxen-
nx 3axapnarrx R.I. Benenina. Tnm intme, mo H. Tynacn npoonxyc
nm naropony cnpany y 2006 p. nin nepennan raxox neniomy n Vx-
pani raxy npanm R.I. Benenina xx Oxpyxnte xnrenn Fanrncxoro mopx:
cnanxne [17, c. 2447].
Baxnnnnm xpoxom na ntomy mnxxy yna mixnapona xon]epennix,
nponeena 31 rpannx 2002 p. Fonrapctxnm xyntrypnnm nenrpom y Mocxni
cnintno s Incrnryrom cnon`xnosnancrna PAH, npncnxuena 200-nirrm ni
nx napoxennx R.I. Benenina. Vuacnnxn ]opymy rapxue cnpnnxnn
nponosnnim, nncnonneny Hocnom Fonrapi n Pocictxi ueepani I. Ba-
cnntcnnm ninonnrn spynonann nam`xrnnx R. Beneniny y Mocxni i
nanncarn xnnry, mo noni noxoninnx snann npo ntoro [18, c. 111].
167

I saxonomipno y unraua nnnnxac sannrannx a xx nmanonana nam`xrt
nnarnoro saxapnarnx na oro pini semni? A o ntoro saxnnxan me y
1902 p. niomn nuenn B. Inarmx: Ionrtcx nam sraarn cnannoro
semnxxa, xxoro ocrannnn nonecnn na cnyxy inmnm cnon`xnctxnm na-
poam [19, c. 4]. He saxnnx yn nouyrn rintxn y 1989 p. [20, 328 c.] i
2002 p. [21, 188 c.; 115117], xonn n Vxropoctxomy yninepcnreri ynn
nponeeni mixnaponi nayxoni xon]epenni, npncnxueni oro nam`xri.
Hoxnnnacx i oxpema xnnra npo ntoro [22, 45 c.]. opy cnpany sponnn
cnanxnni, xxi y nenrpi micra y 1991 p. ncranonnnn nam`xrnnx cnocmy
cnannomy semnxxy. Ha xant, nenirnacn nxe uepes uornpn poxn snemxo-
nnn oro.
Hapemri cepe nayxonnin yno nouyro i ronoc I. Monnapa, xorpn me n
cepenni XIX cr. nanxo saxnnxan seperrn cnamnny nuenoro: Htra-
mct eme pas nmenem noxonoro nanomnnrt o nacnecrne ero, ocrannen-
nom nx onrap n pyccxnx: nooxy eme, ne saxorxr nn nm nocnontso-
nartcx nacnennxn [3, c. XLVII] uexarn onenocx o 2002 p., xonn
anropom nnx pxxin y cepi Onnuuxm o cnamnnn ynepme n Vxpani
yno nnano sipxy pixicnnx npant nuenoro R. Benenin. 3 nayxono
cnamnnn nnsnaunoro cnanicra [23, 184 c.]. Ona s nnx O ncrounn-
xe napono no+snn noome n o mxnopyccxo n ocoennocrn, xapaxre-
pnsyc nonn oro nornx na axryantni nponemn icropi Vxpann. V ni
mona e npo raxe ]enomenantne xnnme ne rintxn n icropi Vxpann, a
ncic Cnponn, xx nnnnxnennx xosanrna i oro pont n icropi yxpanctxoro
napoy. R. Benenin nepmn an nanexny niciu imnepctxi icropiorpa]i,
xxa sopaxynana xosaxin rintxn n uopnnx ]apax, oconnno rnx, xxi pann
yuacrt y oporti nporn Mocxoni. Taxnx nasnnann ne inaxme xx nopt
n pasonnxn, yyun ns sanopoxcxoro napoy nocrannennte cnoenont-
nt, nnyrt, snoen n esentnnxn, xxi mtcnx raxo o rpanrentcrne,
yconeronannct rantm ycnonnem mexy coom c npncxxntm oxsa-
rentcrnom, urot neormenno orcrynnrt or Poccncxoro epxancrna n
cenartcx naxn nm nontntm [24, c. 385].
R. Benenin nepmnm npannntno nnsnaunn npnunnn nnnnxnennx xosan-
rna, o ope snan cranonnme yxpanctxoro napoy ni rnirom uyxnnnin.
Or nonn: uro ocrananoct enart mxannny, xoropt n cocrnennom
cnoem oreuecrne ouyrnncx xpenocrntm nnoxstunnxa, xoropt nnmen
tn ncex npan noromy rontxo, uro tn pycnn, xoropt nsnemoran no
ncennaemmem monononnem mnxxrt n nceecrnymmem xnxon, xo-
ropt naxonen tn npecneyem sa nepy, uro ocrananoct, nonropm, emy
enart, xax ne exart, exart no ntcrpent rarapcxne, na xnnym onac-
nocrt trt cxnauenntm n ynneuenntm n nenonm [23, c. 3839].
V nenrpi Pocictxo imnepi R. Benenin nacminnncx rax nnsnaunrn pont
yxpanctxoro xosaxa: Fyyun ernenom ns oreuecrna, on ne nmen ore-
168
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
uecrna, necmorpx na +ro, cnyxnn emy nepntm nepeontm crpenxom,
nocroxnntm crpaxem, oeperarenem [23, c. 38]. nx ntoro xosax ne
mopxx, canep, xananepncr, nexornnen nce nmecre ... +ro ptnapn mec-
rn n cmeprn. xmo n rononax npnnopnnx icropiorpa]in 3anopixxx sa-
nnmanocx me n osnauennxx s yxasy Karepnnn II (1775 p.) xx nonnrn-
uecxoe ypocrno, nencronoe ynpannenne, ro saxapnarctxn nuenn
nasnnan oro ropo 3anopoxcxax Bontnnna. Posnpamun sipxy
yxpanctxnx naponnx nicent, xxy nnan M. Maxcnmonnu y Mocxni
1834 p., saxapnarctxn yuenn man na meri osnaomnrn pocictxy rpo-
mactxicrt s nnm yxonnnm naannxm Vxpann. Bin s nennxom nmo-
n`m ananisyc nicni, nixpecnmmun, mo n nnx niopaxeni cnanni cropinxn
repouno oportn napoy nporn nontctxnx xonnipin, rarapctxnx op
ra coniantnoro rnonennx. Cnpanennnnm c oro sannrannx: Kaxoro xe
poy morna trt yma nnn necnx yxpannna? I ryr xe ninoniac:
B necne, xax n sepxane, ornnnaercx yx uenonexa. 3anononenn me-
pirm i saymennicrm yxpanctxo nicni, nin nnronomyc: Hoonoro na-
ponoro orarcrna ne npecrannr nn ono ns enponecxnx nnemen, ecnn
ne npnuncnxrt cma nnreparypntx pomancon [23, c. 79].
o posyminnx neoxinocri nnnuarn yxonny cnamnny napoy
R. I. Benenin imon ni nnnnnom ie niomoro nimentxoro npocnirnre-
nx H.I. Iepepa (17441803). Came nin saxnan ocnonn nnnuennx yxon-
nocri napoy, soxpema nicent, neren, nauamun n nnx apxin naponoro
xnrrx.
Hi nnnnnom saxinocnponectxoro npocnirnrentcrna R. Benenin
posponn nonn, me neniomn n pocictxi nayni mero icropnunoro
ocnixennx. Bin orpynrynan, mo rononnnm o`cxrom icropnunoro oc-
nixennx mac yrn napo is nnnuennxm y ricnomy nsacmosn`xsxy
nnyrpimnix i sonnimnix pnc oro posnnrxy. eno ner o napoe, crnep-
nn nin, i nnxnan nporpamy nnnuennx oro icropi. cni nounnarn s imeni
i monn, nsopasnrt ymy napoa, crenent napono exrentnocrn,
or xoropo enncrnenno sanncnr ero nesanncnmocrt, rpanni, snnua i
r. in. V Poci noinnx ocnixent ne yno i romy nanonynxpnimy npanm
roro uacy Hcropnm Iocyapcrna Poccncxoro M.M. Kapamsina
R. Benenin cnpanennno nasnan xnsneonncannem nennxnx xnxse, a
ne icropicm napoy. Horo nporpama nonoro meroy ocnixennx yna
onynixonana nxe nicnx cmepri anropa, n 1847 p. y crarri Mtcnn o
ncropnn noome n pyccxo n uacrnocrn, a crana ocrynnom nx nac
rintxn n nam uac [23, c. 1129].
Taxa x onx cnirxana i npanm O nocnnrannn mnomecrna, xxa sacn-
iunna naxnnicrt y R.I. Benenina nporpecnnnnx nornxin na ]opmynan-
nx cncremn nnxonannx monoi [25, c. 588593]. Cnocpinnm xnmuem o
nisnannx pyxonncno cnamnnn nuenoro mononmn ocninnxamn c crar-
169

rx C.I. Coxonona Fymarn R.H. Benennna, xpanxmnecx n nnnorexe
Omecrna ncropnn n pennocre poccncxnx (1899), xxa raxox no-
mimena y sraanomy sipnnxy npant [23, c. 113132].
Onax npoyxrnnna nayxona poora monooro nuenoro saonontnxna
ne ncix, soxpema n axaemi, i nona nimonnna omy n marepiantni
nirpnmni. Fynn crnopeni nepemxon na mnxxy o yninepcnrerctxo xa-
]epn, xou nci nnaxann oro npnarnnm na nm nocay. 3 ocaom y
cepni Rpi Inanonnu sisnancx: Ionopeno tno o yupexennn xa]e-
pt npn Mocxoncxom ynnnepcnrere cnanxncxnx napeun n nx nnrepary-
pt. Mnorne ronopnnn, coneronann mne sanxrt ee; coneronann, n nce
monuar. uro xe, npnxaxere camomy enart? Ta nin ne sanancx, om-
ircx ayicnni y camoro onixyna yninepcnrery rpa]a Crporanona, xxn
snan oro nayxony poory. Rpi Inanonnu sraynan: tn 8 xnnapx
1836 r. y rpa]a pasa na-rpn; on npnnxn menx onontno nacxono, no xon-
cnexr xypca o cnanxncxnx napeunxx n nx nnreparypax, cocrannennt
mnom no npenncannm ]axyntrera, nosnparnn mne oparno, yrnepxax,
uro on +ry xa]epy nasnauaer Kauenoncxomy [14, c. 122].
Hayxoni ocxrnennx monooro nuenoro ne ynn nnsnani mocxonctxom
axaemiunom nepxinxom ra me nosannnn oro nocan. 3 npnnoy nto-
ro cnpanennnom c soraxa cyuacnoro pocictxoro noninynaua nayxo-
no cnamnnn R.I. Benenina H. Tynacna: Ono ns npnunn raxoro neo-
pasymennx tno xononoe, ecnn ne cxasart orpnnarentnoe ornomenne
x nemy neymnx anropnreron roro npemenn. B pycnne, npnexanmem ns
3axapnartx, onn nnenn nnmt oapennoro nponnnnnana n nneranra,
xoropt co npemenem moxer cocrannrt nm xonxypennnm. B +rom cmtcne
cyta Benennna uem-ro nanomnnaer pamy Ioronx n Benuenxo, renn-
antntx nncarene, nonanmnx ns renntx n ymrntx ropoxon "nentxn
Vxpann" n cryente npocropt cenepntx cronnn [15, c. 16].
Pyxonncny i pyxonany cnamnny R.I. Benenina nncoxo oninnnn nueni-
cnanicrn nxe y XIX cr. Is oninox arartox ixuin onrapctxoro npocnirn-
rentcrna naneemo nnme ony, any B. Anpinonnm. V nncri o R. Be-
nenina ni 28 uepnnx 1837 p. nin nncan: Bn yxe soon`xxere ncix mox
cninnirunsnnxin, xxmo ne nepecranere rpynrncx na xopncrt x icropi.
Bonn nmicrxrt nac n uncno cnox naroinnxin, i noromcrno nnnme name
im`x y xpam escmeprx [6, c. 201]. Pocictxn ocninnx H. Fesconon
nenromny i naropony npanm R.I. Benenina y 1856 p. sacniunn raxn-
mn rnnoxo uyrnnnnmn cnonamn: Hamxrt noxonoro ocranact nancer-
a n cepnax ncrnnntx onrap, xax cnxmennax namxrt naroerenx.
3ro nepnoe nmx, xoropoe cntmnr peenox, npnxox n onrapcxoe yun-
nnme; nepnoe nmx, xoropoe neser c coo mnoma, nmymn opasonannx
n ntcmnx yuentx saneennxx Poccnn [7, c. XXXVIII]. A n nonirnix
icropiorpa]iunnx ocnixennxx R.I. Benenina cnpanennno nineceno
170
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
o onnx s nepmnx yxpanctxnx cnanicrin, ixntnicrt xxoro yna xou xo-
porxouacnom, ane camoyrntom ra xcxpanom [26, c. 127, 342]. Cno
cnanicrnuni cryi nin posnouan panime raxnx niomnx ocninnxin xx
I. Cpesnenctxn, O. Foxnctxn, B. Ipnroponnu.
Tax cnintna npanx ocninnxin ac smory xpame ocxrnyrn cxnann
xnrrcnn i rnopun mnxx ypoxennx 3axapnarrx o cnponectxo cna-
nn, im`x xxoro y nenonni 37 poxin xcxpano sacnirnnocx na neocxnni cno-
n`xnctxoro nayxonoro cniry.
uncnenni noxnantni oninxn nic icropnuno nocrari, sacrtcx, nceocxx-
no ninri n raxi: Ena nn n ncropnn mnpono xyntrypt moxno ortc-
xart noonoe ]enomenantnoe xnnenne, xora monoo yuent onoro
napoa oxasan t cront momnoe nosecrnne na yxonnym xnsnt py-
roro napoa [27, c. 5]. Cnpani, noinnx npnxnain nama icropix ne
snac. Feperrn im`x R.I. Benenina, oro nayxony cnamnny nx cyuacnnx
i npnemnix noxonint nam ne rintxn nayxonn, ane i rpomaxnctxn
oon`xsox.
AITEPATYPA
1. Bavpa T. Rpi Inanonnu Benenin. Fparicnana, 1968.
2. Cpesueecru H.H. Bcrynnrentnax nexnnx n Xaptxoncxom ynnnepcnrere 16
oxrxpx 1842 r. // Xypnan Mnnncrepcrna naponoro npocnemennx (ani XMHH).
CH. 1893. u. CCLXXXVII.
3. Mo.uap H. Hpencnonne x xnnre: Benennn R.H. pennie n ntnemnie onra-
pe Hsanne nropoe. M., 1856.
4. Beue.uu P.H. O conxnom osepe Halmyris // urennx n nmneparopcxom ome-
crne ncropnn n pennocre poccncxnx npn Mocxoncxom ynnnepcnrere. M., 1847.
N 6.
5. Beue.uu P.H. O nepnom n nropom namecrnnn sanncnxncxnx cnanxn na Pyct.
o Pmpnxoncxnx npemen. // Tam camo. 1848. N 5.
6. Bescouoe H. Rpn Hnanonnu Benennn // XMHH. 1882. u. CCXXI. N 5.
7. Beue.uu P.H. pennie n ntnemnie Fonrape Hsanne nropoe. M., 1856.
8. Coro.oe E.H. Fymarn R.H. Benennna, xpanxmnecx n nnnorexe nmnepa-
ropcxoro Omecrna ncropnn n pennocre poccncxnx // urennx Omecrna ncro-
pnn n pennocre poccncxnx. M., 1899.
9. Ceeuuru H.C. Marepnant no ncropnn nospoxennx Kapnarcxo Pycn.
Htnon, 1905; Horo x. Osop cnomenn Kapnarcxo Pycn c Poccne n nepnym
nononnny XIX n. CH., 1906.
10. Beue.uu P.H. Ipammarnxa ntnemnero onrapcxoro napeunx. Hynnxannx
nororonnena I.K. Benenxrontm. M., 1997.
11. R.H. Benennn n onrapcxom nospoxennn / Orner. pe. oxrop ]nnonorn-
uecxnx nayx I.K. Benenxron. M., 1998.
171

12. Vuenoe nyremecrnne R.H. Benennna n Fonrapnm (18301831). Hynnxa-
nnx nororonnena I. K. Benenxrontm. M., 2005.
13. Hurv.uua M.B. Hyremecrnne R.H. Benennna n Fonrapnm n ero mecro n
nauantno ncropnn onrapncrnxn n Poccnn // R.H. Benennn n onrapcxom nos-
poxennn. M., 1998.
14. Beue.uu P.H. Koncnexr npenoanannx ncropnn cnanxncxoro xstxa n nnre-
paryp. Hynnxannx H. Hanpona // Tpyt cnanxncxo xomnccnn nmn. Mocxoncxo-
ro apxeonornuecxoro omecrna pennocre. T. 2. M., 1898.
15. Beue.uu P.H. pennne n ntnemnne cnonene. M., 2004. Penpnnr c nsannx
1841 r. / Cocrannrenn n nsarenn: Hanen Tynaen, Rcr Pyren. M., 2004.
16. Hinuu A.H. Hcropnx pyccxo +rnorpa]nn: B 3-x r. CH., 1890.
17. Beue.uu Ppu. Oxpyxnte xnrenn Fanrncxoro mopx: Cnanxne. Hpenc-
nonne H.B. Tynaena. M., 2006. 48 c.
18. 4po.oea M. Hayunax xon]epennnx Rpn Hnanonnu Benennn: 200 ner co
nx poxennx (18021839) // Cnanxnoneenne. M., 2003. N 1.
19. Iuammr B. Kintxa npnunnxin o iorpa]i Rpix Inanonnua Iynn (Benenina)
// Hayxoni sanncxn ronapncrna Benuenxa. Htnin, 1902.
20. R.I. Iyna-Benenin i cnon`xnctxn cnir // Marepiann mixnapo. nayx. xon]e-
penni / Vnopxnnxn I.M. Ipanuax, M.I. 3nmompx. Vxropo, 1992.
21. Hanionantno-xyntrypne nipoxennx cnon`xnctxnx napoin i Kapnarctxn
perion. o 200-piuux ni nx napoxennx R.I. Benenina // Hayxonn nicnnx Vxro-
poctxoro yninepcnrery. Bnn. 18. Vxropo, 2003; ocma.i M.P., 4a.iroeu: C.M.
Mexynaponax xon]epennnx // Cnanxnoneenne. M., 2003. N 1.
22. auu.mr .P. I. Iyna-Benenin. Vxropo, 1995.
23. Beue.iu P. 3 nayxono cnamnnn nnsnaunoro cnanicra / Vxnaannx . ann-
nmxa. Hepemona B. Iicema, I. Kemenxma, . annnmxa. Icrop. napnc . ann-
nmxa. uaxcnm. nn.: 1834, 1847, 1899, 1905. Vxropo, 2002. Cepix Onnuuxm o
cnamnnn.
24. Puee.i+au A. Heronncnoe nonecrnonanne o Mano Poccnn n ex napo n
xosaxax noome. M., 1847. uaxcnm. nn. K., 1994.
25. Beue.uu P. O nocnnrannn mnomecrna (Hynixanix . ueaxn) // Pyxonnc:
Vxpanctxn antmanax cnorain, moennnxin, nncrin, oxymenrin, cnirnnn: V 2 r. /
Hi sar. pe. I.M. smn. T. 1. K., 2004.
26. Konu.oe C.A. Hponemn icropi cnon`xnctxnx napoin n icropnuni ymni
Vxpann (ocrannx rpernna XVII nouarox XX cr.). Kam`xnent-Hointctx, 2005.
27. C+o.iuuuoea M.I. Rpn Benennn n onrapcxax nnreparypa +noxn nann-
onantnoro nospoxennx // R.H. Benennn n onrapcxom nospoxennn. M., 1998.
172
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Kpin AHHAEHL
HAM`RTI IBAHA KAAHHHHA
Haponncx Inan Anpionnu Kannnnu 4 nm-
roro 1924 p. n c. Komentono npncinox Pynx n
cim` cenxnnna-inxxa. 3 mecrn poxin posno-
uan ocniry n naponi mxoni n npncinxy Pynx. V
mxoni nnxnnn neopnnapni sinocri o nanuan-
nx i nunrent sanpononynan artxam niarn
xnonnx o Xycrctxo peantno rimnasi.
V 1944 p. I.A. Kannnnu saxinunn rimnasim s
niminnnm arecrarom. Hanuannx n rimnasi nn-
xnnno oro sinocri ne rintxn o sarantno-
ocnirnix npemerin, ane i o opasornopuoro mn-
crenrna. Ha ypoxax manmnannx ni xepinnnnr-
nom ocniuennx nunrenin nin onanynan ocnonn
opasornopuo rpamorn i xontoposnancrna, cncremarnuno pan yuacrt
y nncranxax yuninctxnx poir. V 1944 p. nicnx nnsnonennx 3axapnarrx,
oponintno ncrynnn o nan Paxnctxo apmi, n imunx uacrnnax xxo
npomon ycm Vropmnny. Hicnx emoinisani s 1947 p. npanmc nunrenem
sarantnoocnirnto mxonn, a nesaapom oro npnsnauamrt npexropom,
na nocai xxoro ninpanmnan y mxonax Xycrctxoro paony inx 34 poxin.
V 1948 p. I.A. Kannnnu ncrynac na saoune niinennx ]axyntrery po-
cictxo ]inonori Vxropoctxoro epxannoro yninepcnrery, xxn saxin-
unn s uepnonnm nnnomom y 1952 p. V 1956 p. cran unenom KHPC.
Hpanmnan na xannarctxom ncepranicm Ecrernune i nisyantne nn-
xonannx yunin na ypoxax manmnannx n mxonax Vropctxo Hapono Pec-
nynixn. Ha xant, y 1971 p. ne cran omararncx saxncry, s npnunn
sacrinnx xnnm y cycnintcrni.
V 1964 p. I.A. Kannnnu yn onnm is unenin ininiarnnno rpynn, xxa
crnopnna n m. Xycr o`cnannx camoixntnnx xyoxnnxin Mnrent Bep-
xonnnn, e oro na nporxsi arartox poxin onpann ninoniantnnm cex-
perapem, a s 1984 p. npexropom.
Cno npo]ecini nannuxn I.A. Kannnnu nocxonanmnan n isocryi npn
Xycrctxomy ynnxy xyntrypn, opranisaropamn i xepinnnxamn xxo ynn
niomi xyoxnnxn Haranix Cemeninna ra Rpi mnrponnu Iepnn. Benn-
xe snauennx nx Inana Anpionnua, xx xyoxnnxa mann oro ricni sn`xs-
xn s nnarnnmn xyoxnnxamn 3axapnarrx: A.A. Konxom, H.H. Foxmacm,
I.M. Inmxom, B.B. Mnxnrom, 3.I. Bonrecom. Hounnamun s 1961 p.
I.A. Kannnnu axrnnnn yuacnnx maxe ncix onacnnx ceminapin camo-
173

ixntnnx xyoxnnxin ni xepinnnnrnom nnarnnx saxapnarctxnx macrpin
nensnx. 3 1964 p. nin epe yuacrt n ycix paonnnx, onacnnx, pecnyni-
xanctxnx i ncecomsnnx nncranxax, sa nicymxamn xxnx neonopasono
naropoxynancx rpamoramn i nnnomamn. 3oxpema nin c nnnomanrom
Hepmoro Bcecomsnoro uecrnnanm napono rnopuocri, npncnxuenoro
40-piuum nepemorn y Bennxi Birunsnxni nini, naypearom pyroro Bce-
comsnoro uecrnnanm napono rnopuocri, npncnxuenoro 70-piuum Xon-
rneno penonmni.
B uepnni nnnni 1979 p. niynacx oro nepma perpocnexrnnna nnc-
ranxa n m. Xycr, a n rpyni 1979 ciuni 1980 p. y m. Vxropo. pyra
perpocnexrnnna nncranxa I.A. Kannnnua niynacx n uepnni nnnni
1984 p. n m. Xycr. V xaranosi o nic nncranxn ncrynny uacrnny nanncan
naponn xyoxnnx VPCP A. A. Konxa. Haneemo exxi nnrarn: . . .
Hpn nepernxi poir mninxpa npncmno npaxac oro npanenmnicrt i npa-
nesarnicrt. . . , . . . Xnnonnc I. Kannnnua nosannenn manona,
mramna, sayueno manipnocri, romy maxe nci oro poorn c mnpom,
saymennom posnonim npo re, mo nin nmnrt un mo oro xnnnmnano,
npasnno . . . . Ha nncranni 1984 p. excnonynanocx intme 60 rnopin
xnnonncy, cepe xxnx: Becnxni posnnnn, 1964; Ocranni cnir, 1974;
Maxn, 1978; 3nma n Hnnonni, 1981; Hoprper cnoprcmena A.I. Ta-
uenxa, 1978; Moposnn ent, 1983. Tnopn rpa]ixn: V nici, 1971;
Kpnmctxn mornn, 1982. Kpim roro I.A. Kannnnu npononn snirni nn-
cranxn n xonrocnax i parocnax, na ninpncmcrnax. Hanpnxna sa 8 micxnin
1988 p. nin nponin n`xrt raxnx nncranox. V rpanni 1988 p. n`xrt xpamnx
oro rnopin excnonynannct y Foni (Himeuunna) s naron II Konrpecy
ncecnirntoro pyxy Hearorn sa mnp. Htoro x poxy mnrni Xycrmnnn
nponenn nncranxy n m. Cnimctxa Hona Bec (uexocnonauunna), sa nicym-
xamn nncranxn I.A. Kannnnuy npncnocne nncoxe snannx nouecnoro rpo-
maxnnna micra Cnimctxa Hona Bec s npyuennxm omy nnaxara micra i
ninoninoro nocniuennx.
Bocenn 1988 p. y Caonu-Carmapctxi onacri Vropmnnn npomna
nepecynna nncranxa xyoxnnxa. V epesni nnnni 1989 p. y m. Xycr
niynacx snirna nepconantna nncranxa Inana Anpionnua. Tyr na oni-
nxy rnxaua yno nncranneno inx 50 narmpmoprin i intme 60 nesaxin.
Vnmnennmn xanpamn xyoxnnxa ynn nesax i narmpmopr, ane y oro
rnopuocri snaxonmo i noprperni xomnosnni. V 1993 p. yxasom Hpesn-
enra Vxpann H.M. Kpanuyxa I.A. Kannnnuy npncnocno snannx 3acny-
xenoro macrpa napono rnopuocri Vxpann. 3 npnnoy nic noi rase-
ra Bicnnx Xycrmnnn nncana: B Kapnarctxi canon-ranepe niynacx
nepemonix npyuennx nnnoma npo npncnocnnx snannx "3acnyxenoro
macrpa napono rnopuocri Vxpann" I. Kannnnuy. Horo im`x, xx xyox-
nnxa niome i n Vxpani i nosa mexamn. Hporxrom ocrannix 20 poxin nin
nponin nona 20 nepconantnnx nncranox, is nnx 5 saxoponom. B.C. Mon-
174
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
nu npyunn nnnom xyoxnnxy. Cnocpinicrm rnopuocri xyoxnnxa c
nmonne, nixne, inoi nanirt xasxone crannennx o roro un inmoro.
Fintmicrt rnopin c posxpnrrx camoro cee. . ..
Kpim roro I.A. Kannnnu niomn nam i n ranysi nireparypn. Ha oro
noernuni rexcrn xomnosnropamn nanncano nona 30 nicent. V cninan-
ropcrni s I. Marynom y 1963 p. nin nanncan xnnry Xycrctxa mxona-
inrepnar, oro noesi pyxynanncx y sipnnxy Xycr na Tncom
1994 p., n paonni ra onacnnx raserax. 3 1995 p. Inan Anpionnu no-
unnac nncarn na pycnnctxi moni. V 1996 p. y nnannnnrni Enapa nn-
mna nepma oro sipxa ni nasnom Cmiccx Bepxonnna s nepemonom
C. Hononnua. o nic sipxn nnimno 125 noesi, anrop posinnn x na
mopantno-noyroni ra cycnintno-nonirnuni.
Pasom s pyxnnom Ontrom, mo npanmnana nunrentxom o nnxoy na
nencim, nnpocrnnn nox ontox, Terxna nixap y m. Xycr, Mapix nun-
rent n Vxropoi.
V 2000 p. y Xycrctxi mictxi pyxapni nnmna pyxom pyra sipxa
noera Hoernuni icxpnnxn. x nncan anrop y nepemoni o nnannx
noernuni icxpnnxn ne xoporxi nipmonani rnopn nepenaxno n uornpn
pxxn. 3ipxa nmicrnna intme nicri raxnx icxpnnox, posinennx ymon-
no na 4 noxn: epornuno-noyroni, nmonno-epornuni, ]inoco]ctxi ra
cycnintni. V ntomy x poni I.A. Kannnnu onynixynan rperm sipxy
Bepxonnnctxi neuypnnni, o ne nnimno nona 150 nipmin. Inan Anp-
ionnu araro nncan i npo pine ceno i marepnnctxy ominxy, nanpnxinni
2003 p. nin nepean anropy nnx pxxin rpn nipmi raxo nponemarnxn, xxi
me ne ynn onynixonani, noacmo x nx unraua n cnirny nam`xrt npo
I.A. Kannnnua, mo nomep 10 uepnnx 2004 p.
oporyn uauni
Hamnxram, Mamxo, Bami renni pyxt,
Hornx Bam nacxant smyuentx oun,
Henocnntnn rpy Bam, paocrn n myxt,
V xorptx mt xnnn nnnny n nnoun.
3 monoxom ry Bamnm nnnran x y cepne
Paocrt xonomtxt n nmon n rntn,
3aymenni, uncri monnrnt y nepxnn,
Pynoro nam cnona menonunt cnin.
Hpnxn x ncm Bamy opy ecra]ery,
Bt nx nayunnn xnrn y rpyi,
ann cre mn xptna nx rnopuoro snery,
Bt opo rnopnrn nmtom na 3emnn.
175

B cepne mn sanana payxna npnpoa,
ymy mn sannxna Foxa naroart,
cranan uacrnuxon cnooro napoa,
Xort tna nepmnna uysosemna snart.
Ftnn Bt nx mene, nma mox Mamxo,
Conntom xnr+sarntm sa yct rot,
Bt ponnn nyrt my esonacntm, xcntm,
Kyntxo t y Tnci ne crexno not.
Cnirnt Bam x opas coxpanm na niuno,
Biuno ye n cepnn esyrimnt mem,
Bro-m cx ne yxunn nuacno n ycnimno,
ne ncrnr cnacrn Bac y mnortx nponem.
Xant mn, mro anno rax Bt nac sannmnnn,
Mt na cnonx xptnax muanncx cami
Ta mapmpyr ynect nam Bt nam ocnirnnn:
noxnon cepeunt mnm Bam y 3emni!
3. 04. 2003 p.
Myn o1umn ou
My orut om crapentxa xtxa
Hc nnax yxontx y cay,
Conomon npaiom noxptra
Ho opy sntuni rtx uacy.
Hycninynaro n cnir nnnna
uepes oxonnx y crini,
opom ycttx sarn mannna
x cepe nira, rax nsnmi.
Poora n yni ryr xtnina,
Vunna xnrn nac n rpyi,
Cepnx rennom ycttm nam rpina,
Cny nyrt yunna nac narn.
Mt cninanxt n rpyi cninann
H nonmnnn pynt xpa,
Mt norom semnm nonnnann,
Ot semnt crnopnrn pa.
Posnpannncx snt uac ns xtxon,
Xort npocroxna na nixt,
176
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Bxe ne nnnre ponna pyxon,
Bci pospenncx rxo xyt!
Vcrancx x oen s ponnt,
He nerxo no xnrm ny
Ta cepne rpic mn ontni
Crapentxa xtxa y cay.
29. 07. 2002 p.
Pynoc rniso
ponncx n ropax, e Kamint uennent
Ha osepom uncrtm s xpycrantnon noon,
Kono noonaa, mro Iyxanom snecx
Tor xpa onncarn ne mam x cnon.
Ma ane ns nina na camy nepmnni
Moro npexa xamint ynepro cronr
H npncrantno nnxar y nns na onnny,
Xnrx ram cnonranno nynxanom xtnnr.
V xamn yxony ram rpnamn naxne,
Mannnontm nnirom nnnre nnan-ua.
uopnnni mannnt y naramn naem,
Xort xrot crnrnt n xomapxy snpa.
Hy yxom posnortm xtpnnnm ynnnm
Hc uncron npospaunon ninmmon noon
Tam, xono xtpnnni, rt onenx crpirnm,
Bro parnni mtc nspana pocon.
Cnycxamrcx s nea Kapnart seneni,
Ha cxnonax nonortx npnrnxnn cat,
3a nnmn cx npxuyr npnnirni oceni,
Ha xptnax nerinn ry mni rot.
Hanecni nicni mn ram nramxt cninann
ymenni n mnpi xort nmnrxi es cnon,
A apxarni noun cnt mn naninann
Iopxui n renni, xx nepma nmon.
Cect saxyrox nmt na pyny nnaneri
V cepnn x nomy ncto cnoc xnrx,
Hs ntoro uepxm, nonim no cexpery,
H nipy n cnnt na opi ina.
177

PYCHHCKAR TEMATHKA
B H3AHHRX HOCAEHHX AET
B onom ns nomepon mexynaponoro ncropnuecxoro xypnana Pycnn
(N 4 (10), 2007 r., c. 173 - 185) mt nauann osop nccneonann no ncropnn,
xyntrype, xstxy xopennoro nacenennx Kapnaro-necrponcxnx sement - pycnnon
(pycnaxon), ntmemnx sa nocnenne rot. Ceronx n name nynnxannn npo-
onxaercx osop paor, ntmemnx n 3axapnarcxo onacrn Vxpannt.
YKPAHHA
3axapna1cxan onac1t
BBK 63.3(4 YKP) 5-8
O 66
YK 94(477.87) "18/19"
ISBN 978-966-2921-08-3
Inan Ceuenonnu Opnan. 3 nayxono cnamnnn. Bn-
annn pyre, ononnene /Ynop. npoq. .. annnmx.
Yaropo: KH "Yaropoctxa uictxa pyxapnn",
2007.- 192 c.
Knnra snaxomnr unrarenx c rnanntmn +ranamn xns-
nn n exrentnocrn nsnecrnoro exrenx H. Opnax. Hnan
Cemenonnu Opna (1771-1829) - ypoxenen 3axapnartx,
menx, ncropnx, nearor n nocnnrarent H.B. Ioronx,
axrnnnt yuacrnnx nayuno n xyntrypno-opasona-
rentno xnsnn Poccnn. Onaxo ero nayunoe nacnene, n uacrnocrn, ncropnuec-
xoe, ocrananoct neocrynntm axe cnennanncram. A mexy rem nmenno on
cntme nyxcor ner nasa onynnxonan n Poccnn nepnt rpy no ncropnn 3axap-
nartx, npeocrannn nosmoxnocrt nayuno omecrnen-
nocrn ysnart o onom ns pernonon cnanxncxoro mnpa.
B monorpa]nn onynnxonant ]axcnmnne rpyon H.
Opnax - ocronpnmeuarentnocre saxapnarcxo ncro-
pnorpa]nn XIX cr., a raxxe oxymenrt poccncxoro
npannrentcrna, xoropte cnnerentcrnymr o npnrname-
nnn saxapnarcxnx yuentx na nayunym paory n Poc-
cnm.
YK 26/28:502.3(063)
BBK 33-n(o)
H44
ISBN 978-966-96888-0-4
Hepxna i nanxonnmnc cepeonnme: cnponenctxnn
ocni 1a yxpanctxi nepcnex1nnn: Ma1epiann uiana-
178
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
pono nayxono-npax1nuno xonqepenni, Yaropo, 14-17 uepnnn 2007 / Koui-
cin s exonori i uirpan1in xonqepenni pnuctxo-xa1onnntxnx cnncxonin Yxpa-
nn, Yaropoctxa orocnonctxa axaeuin iu. Bnaaennoro Teoopa Pouai,
Yaropoctxnn nanionantnnn yninepcn1e1, epaanne ynpanninnn oxoponn na-
nxonnmntoro npnponoro cepeonnma y 3axapna1ctxin onac1i. Kouicin s exo-
nori Myxauinctxo rpexo-xa1onnntxo cnapxi, Ka1onnntxnn exonoriunnn qo-
pyu Cnponn; ninoniantnnn peax1op Boxo1en O.M. Yaropo, HH Ipaqixa.
120 c.: in.
B copnnxe onynnxonant marepnant ynnxantno +xymennuecxo xon]e-
pennnn, nocnxmenno nponemam coxpanennx oxpyxamme cpet. Hpecran-
nen xax oreuecrnennt, rax n sapyexnt ontr nepxnn n paore no ynyumennm
cocroxnnx oxpyxamme cpet. Copnnx npecrannxer nnrepec nx +xonoron,
paornnxon nepxonntx n npnpoooxpanntx yupexenn, axrnnncron HIO, npe-
noanarene n cryenron ntcmnx yuentx saneenn n mnpoxo omecrnenno-
crn.
ISBN 5-88-60-154-4
Pauyx I. Honnannx Pycn Kapna1cxon. Apxnuan-
pn1 Hon (Kynpn). M.: Hanounnx, 2008. 288 c.
Ono ns camtx ranncrnenntx crpannn n ncropnn
nepxnn xnnxercx xapnaropyccxoe crapuecrno. annax
xnnra nocnxmena crapny Hony (Kynpe) (1902-1985),
xoropt sannmaer ocooe mecro cpen yxonnnxon
Pycn Kapnarcxo. O +ro neotxnonenno nnunoc-
rn n ero ynnnrentno cyte o cnx nop xoxr neren-
t. Bnepnte unrarenm npenaraercx nonnoe xnsne-
onncanne +roro nonnxnnxa n uyornopna.
Apxnmanpnr Hon (Kynpx) npomen cnoxnt nyrt:
nosnan npecneonanne sa npanocnanne n ercrne or
nenrepcxo nnacrn, cnen n conercxnx narepxx, yuacrno-
nan no Bropo mnpono none, nepexnn arencrnuecxym rpannm n 1950-1980 rr.
B npencnonnn anrop ormeuaer, uro paora nanncana na ocnone nocnomnna-
nn, nynnxann n apxnnntx oxymenron (nmemrcx n nny nnunte apxnnt yxo-
nencrna n monacrtpe).
Hpnnneuenne xnnoro cnona n nayuntx n xpaeneuecxnx nccneonannxx xn-
nxercx upesntuano naxntm, onaxo ono nyxaercx n cxpynynesno nponepxe
n nepexpecrnom onpoce. Knnra morna t nnmt ntnrpart, ecnn t anrop
nxnmunn n ananns apxnnnte marepnant ns ]onon A3O n orentnte nayunte
crartn saxapnarcxo ncropnorpa]nn.
Anrop pasennn rpy na ne uacrn. Hepnax ns nnx nocnxmena onncannm xnsnn
n exrentnocrn o.Hona. Bo nropo - orentnte ononnennx (ouepxn, crartn).
I. Pauyx paccmarpnnaer xnsnennt nyrt apxnmanpnra n recno cnxsn c nonnrn-
uecxnmn n nepxonntmn cotrnxmn n xpae. Xopomo onncant ercrno n mnocrt
o.Hona. Vxasant ]axropt, xoropte nonnnxnn na ]opmnponanne ero xax nnuno-
crn. Feccnopno, uro ontmoe nnnxnne na mnponosspenne mnoro Hnana (mnpc-
xoe nmx apxnmanpnra) oxasann Mapamopom-Cnrercxn nponecc 1913-1914 rr. n
xecroxne nsenarentcrna na ero npanocnanntmn onocentuanamn.
179

Anrop paccxastnaer o nepexoe o.Honom rpannnt c CCCP n ero cxnrannxx no
conercxnm narepxm (Hepnar-Cnepnar-Bopxyra-Kontma...). Kax rpaxannn uexoc-
nonaxnn on tn monnnsonan n xopnyc Hmonnxa Cnoot, c xoroptm npomen
o xonna nont, nmen oente narpat.
C 1962 r. n o camo cmeprn n 1985 r. o. Hon cnyxnn n centcxom npnxoe
Cnxroro mnrpnx Conyncxoro n Mano Vrontxe Txuencxoro paona. 18 cenrxpx
2008 r. o.Hon xanonnsnponan VHH.
Tnpax xnnrn - 7 000 +xsemnnxpon, ona ntmna no narocnonennm npexnero
enncxona Xycrcxoro n Bnnorpanncxoro Hnnonnra.
(Hoponee cm. http://pravoslavye.org.ua/index.php?action=fullinfo&r_type=
news& id=22326)
BBK T3 (4 YKP - 4 3ax) 6
-39
YK 94 (477.87)
ISBN 966-8764-55-2
a1xonnu Kpin. E1norpaqnuecxnn ouepx yropo-
pyccxnx: Kounnexcne nnannn / Ynopnxynannn i
nepeu.O.C. Masypxa. Yaropo: Mnc1entxa ninin,
2007.- 392 c.: in.
3ro ynnxantnoe nccneonanne nsnecrnoro saxap-
narcxoro yuenoro Rpnx Xarxonnua (1855-1920), na
xoroptm on paoran cntme ecxrn ner. 3ro nropoe
nonnoe (nocne 2001 r.) nsanne +roro rpya, no nepnoe
axaemnuecxoe, nocxontxy sect onynnxonant nce
nsnecrnte na ceronx rexcrt +roro nponsneennx.
Hepnonauantnt ero rexcr na nenrepcxom xstxe oemom oxono 12 neuarntx
nncron ne naen n o cnx nop. Bepoxrno, on xpannrcx n onom ns apxnnon Fya-
nemra.
Hynnxannx nmeer n xomnnexcnt xapaxrep, noromy uro n ne noan rexcr
Ouepxon nnnomarnuecxnm cnocoom, ro ecrt meroom neuarnoro (xomntm-
repnoro) naopa c coxpanennem ncex ocoennocre xstxa opnrnnana, xpanxme-
rocx n Knene, a raxxe ]axcnmnne +roro xe rexcra, uro nosnonxer nayuntm paor-
nnxam nmert nonnoe npecrannenne o +rom opnrnnantnom nccneonannn sa-
xapnarcxoro ncropnxa n +rnorpa]a. Hccneonanne npecrannxer nnrepec nx nc-
ropnxon, +rnorpa]on, nnnrnncron, xpaeneon, yunrene, ncex, xro nnrepecyercx
ncropne 3axapnartx. Hsanne moxer trt ncnontsonano xax xpecromarnx nx
cryenron ncropnuecxoro ]axyntrera Vxropocxoro nannonantnoro ynnnepcn-
rera npn nsyuennn nopmarnnnoro xypca 3rnorpa]nx 3axapnartx.
BBK 63.3+74.58(4YKP)
O 53
ISBN 978-966-8924-40-8
Onamnn M.B.
Ic1opnunnn qaxynt1e1 Yaropoctxoro nanionantnoro yninepcn1e1y (1945-
2007): Kopo1xnn ic1opnunnn napnc 1a onixoni ua1epiann / MOH Yxpann,
180
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Yaropo, nan. yn-1; Bin. sa nnn. I.O. Manpnx.- Ya-
ropo: Ipaaa, 2007. 124 c.
B npenaraemom nayuno-cnpanounom nsannn npe-
crannen xparxn ouepx ncropnn ncropnuecxoro ]axynt-
rera Vxropocxoro nannonantnoro ynnnepcnrera (opra-
nnsannx n oprannsannonnax crpyxrypa, yueno-mero-
nuecxax paora, nayuno-nccneonarentcxax exrent-
nocrt, mexynaponte cnxsn n omecrnennax xnsnt
]axyntrera). Hpnnoxrcx cnncxn cryenron, xoropte no-
nyunnn nnnom c ornnunem, nepeuncnent nce, xro sa-
mnrnn xannarcxne n oxropcxne ncceprannn, cocran
xa]ep n romy noonoe.
Hsanne npenasnaueno nx npenoanarene, acnn-
panron, cryenron, nccneonarene ncropnn opasonannx n nayxn.
BBK 63.3 (4 Yxp-3ax)
C 31
YK 908 (477.88)
ISBN 966-347-037-2
Centxo I. Keneunn pine ceno Anryc1nna Bono-
mnna: Ic1opnxo-e1norpaqiunnn napnc. Yaropo: BAT
Bnannnn1no "3axapna11n", 2007. 376 c.: in.
B xnnre na ocnone ncropnuecxnx ncrounnxon, na-
pontx npeann n marepnanon +rnorpa]on n xpaene-
on 3axapnartx orpaxent ncropnx, connantno-+xono-
mnuecxoe n xyntrypnoe pasnnrne nepxonnncxoro cena
Keneunn, n xoropom ponncx n nponen ercrno npesn-
enr Kapnarcxo Vxpannt Anrycrnn Bonomnn. B ncro-
pnxo-+rnorpa]nuecxom ouepxe npocnexnnaercx pasnn-
rne xeneunncxo centcxo omnnt co npemen ocnona-
nnx cena (1457) o nacroxmero npemenn.
Anrop nsannx - xannar ncropnuecxnx nayx, onenr Hnan Centxo. Penensen-
ramn ncropnxo-+rnorpa]nuecxoro ouepxa ntcrynnnn oxrop ncropnuecxnx nayx,
sanxa]ept ncropnn Vxpannt npo]. ..annnmx, oxrop ncropnuecxnx nayx,
npo]. M.H. Tnnoap, xpaene M.B. Moropnra.
Cneyer ormernrt, uro xnnra Keneunn - ponoe ceno Anrycrnna Bonomnna,
nmeer opnrnnantnym crpyxrypy n samtcen. Anrop paspaoran nonym xonnen-
nnm, uro xapaxrepnsyercx mnpoxomacmrantm npnnneuennem nncrpymenra-
pnx pasntx orpacne nayxn.
H. Centxo naunnaer nsnoxenne marepnana c osnaxomnennx unrarene c reo-
rpa]nuecxnm nonoxennem cena n na ocnone mnorouncnenntx nnctmenntx n
ycrntx ncrounnxon onnctnaer ero xnnmarnuecxne ocoennocrn. Hpn +rom an-
rop axrnnno ncnontsyer nnctmennte ncrounnxn (ypapnantnte rpamort, Iyx-
nnncxym neronnct) n naponym namxrt (nocnomnnannx H. Hnxnxa, M. Bonnx-
xa-Kosaxa n p.).
181

B pasene Cemenax xnsnt Hnan Centxo nccneonan ncropnm xeneunncxnx
ceme n npnmen x ntnoy, uro nepntmn xnrenxmn cena tnn H. Fesera, partx
uepnen, 3yannun, Mapnnnt. 3naunrentnoe nnnmanne anrop yenxer nsyuennm
poocnonno cnoero cnannoro semnxxa Anrycrnna Bonomnna.
B cneymmnx pasenax - B nore nnna n Kora nec pxom - yuent opama-
er nnnmanne na sanxrnx ropnen, cpen xoroptx ena nn ne rnannoe mecro sannma-
nn necopaspaorxn. Anrop ntxnnn n onncan ynnxantnte opasnt napono oex-
t xeneunnnen, ]ororpa]nn xoroptx moxno narn n pasene urot n yono,
n xpacnno.
Onnpaxct na anropnrernte ncrounnxn, H. Centxo enaer ntno, uro ceno Ke-
neunn tno ocnonano o XV n., n ntnonr ero nasnanne or ]amnnnn semnenna-
entna Kanaunnn. Ho cnnerentcrny nenrepcxoro nccneonarenx Bnntmoma
Fnnan, n Keneunne n 1542 r. tno yxe 6 nopon. Baxnoe mecro n paore ornee-
no n pennrnosno ncropnn cena. Honxn nent nnacr apxnnntx oxymenron,
H. Centxo npnmen x ntnoy, uro n Keneunne sa ncm ero ncropnm cymecrnonano
uertpe nepxnn. Hpn +rom nropax nepxont, ouennno, tna nocrpoena n xonne
XVII nauane XVIII n. Ona nonaana no nnacrt npanocnanntx Mapamopomcxnx
nnatx Hocn]a Croxn n ocn]ex ueoponnua.
B xnnre unrarent naer nnrepecnym nn]opmannm o rpannnonno napo-
no xyntrype xeneunnnen, o centcxnx mystxanrax, npauax n cnoprcmenax. H. Cent-
xo erantno ocranannnnaercx raxxe na pennrnosntx npasnnxax n ocoennocrxx
nx nponeennx n Keneunne. nx nyumero nocnpnxrnx marepnanon xnnrn anrop
npenaraer n xonne xnnrn cnonapt nanexrnsmon.
Tpy onenra H. Centxo craner nacroxmnm yxpamennem saxapnarcxo ncro-
pnorpa]nn n nocnyxnr xopomnm opnenrnpom nx mnornx nccneonarene.
BBK 86.37(4YKP-43AK)
YK 281.9:271(477.87)
M 77
ISBN 978-966-8760-45-7
Monnu Onexcanp, nnxon
Mapauopomctxa cnn1nnn: napncn s ic1opi Ipymi-
nctxoro uonac1npn / Hi sar. pe. Bix1opa Bet.- Ya-
ropo: BAT Ha1en1, 2008. 256 c.: in.
Anropom xnnrn xnnxercx monoo yxropocxn
orocnon Anexcanp Monnu. On uerxo c]opmynnpo-
nan nasnanne xnnrn, net monacrtpt n Ipymene ctr-
pan nesaypxnym pont n cranonnennn npanocnannx ne
rontxo n 3axapnarte, no n n Pymtnnn. Knnra ntmna no
narocnonennm naxennemero Bnanmnpa, mnrpono-
nnra Knencxoro n nce Vxpannt, npecroxrenx VHH.
uopmnpyx crpyxrypy xnnrn, A.Monnu ncnontsyer npenmymecrnenno xpono-
nornuecxn npnnnnn nsnoxennx marepnana. B cnxsn c +rnm on ntenxer rpnna-
nart rnan (pasenon) - c XII-XIII nn. n o namnx ne. B npencnonnn npecrannena
nnnorpa]nx rpyon no anno nponeme, nepeuncnent nasnannx ocnonntx
apxnnntx en, rpamor, experon, monorpa]n n crare. Kax yrnepxaer anrop,
182
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
mnoro nn]opmannn o Ipymencxom monacrtpe coepxnrcx n paorax I. Hyuxax,
O. Honona, A. Fanyxncxoro, A. Kpannnxoro, R. Xarxonnua n p.
Mnoro nnnmannx n xnnre yeneno anne ncropnn monacrtpx, n uacrnocrn,
nonpocam ocnonannx monacrtpx n nonyuennm cranponnrnn or Koncranrnno-
nontcxoro narpnapxa n 1391 r. Hpoanannsnponan ocrynnte rpyt n apxnnnt
marepnan, anrop npnxonr x ntnoy, uro monacrtpt mor trt ocnonan n XII nnn
n nauane XIII n. Cnom mtcnt on nornepxaer rem, uro monaxn Ipymencxoro
monacrtpx nocne orxoa rarap nncann xoponm Benrpnn Fene IV (1215-1270), uro
npn nanaennn rarap nponann nce nx oxymenrt n rpamort n tno orpaneno
monacrtpcxoe nmymecrno.
Btcoxo n xnnre onenena rpamora Koncranrnnonontcxoro narpnapxa Anronnx
or 1391 r. o npeocrannennn monacrtpm n Ipymene npana cranponnrnn. Hcro-
pnx aponannx narpnapme cranponnrnn Ipymencxomy monacrtpm noxastna-
er, - xax nnmer O. Monnu, - nacxontxo cnntntm n rnyoxnmn tnn cnxsn monac-
rtpx c mnpontm npanocnannem.
Hccneyx annmm ncropnm monamecrna na 3axapnarte, nenosmoxno ne cxa-
sart o rnnorpa]nn n Ipymencxom monacrtpe. B onom ns pasenon anrop erant-
no npoanannsnponan rpyt cnonx npemecrnennnxon n npnmen x cneymmnm
ntnoam: rpymencxne monaxn mornn nepennctnart, nepenonrt n neuarart xnn-
rn npn monacrtpe; onn nmenn nx +roro neoxonmte ]nnanconte nosmoxno-
crn; cosanne rnnorpa]nn morno trt ntsnano saxnmuennem Vxropocxo ynnn
n ee pacnpocrpanennem na Mapamopomnne.
na saxnmunrentntx pasena nocnxment nacroxmemy onrenn n apxeonorn-
uecxnm pacxonxam na reppnropnn monacrtpx.
Ceuac n Ipymene no pyxonocrnom ontrnoro nacroxrenx apxnmanpnra
Crparonnxa (Herau) npoxnnamr uertpe nepomonaxa n necxontxo nocnymnnxon.
Bropym uacrt xnnrn (oxono 130 crp.) cocrannxmr ononnennx. 3ro npenmyme-
crnenno narnncxne rpamort ns ncropnn monacrtpx. Hexoropte ns nnx yxe pac-
mn]ponant.
Tpy naxona Anexcanpa Monnua noyxaer ncropnxon n nnnrnncron yrny-
nrtcx n nccneonanne anne ncropnn xpax.
M 31
ISBN 966-8269-20-8
ounnent M. yma Myxauena. Hapncn, ece. My-
xaueno: Kapna1ctxa neaa, 2008. 384 c.
B xnnre copant crartn nsnecrnoro na 3axapnarte
xypnanncra, no+ra n nncarenx M. ounnna. Bceome-
my nnnmannm npecranneno ontme 50 crare o ns-
necrntx saxapnarnax exrenxx nayxn, xyntrypt, rex-
nnxn, nonnrnxn n r.. Cpen nnn, xoropte nnrepecona-
nn anropa, moxno nasnart Moncex Vrpnna, u. Kopxro-
nnua, T. Heronxoro, o.Bacnnnx (Hponnna), B. Harnpm,
M. Toxapx, O. Hnxonn Knnra npenasnauena nx
npenoanarene, acnnpanron, cryenron, nccneonare-
ne ncropnn opasonannx n nayxn.
183

BBK 83.3(4YKP)
58
ISBN 978-966-8924-76-7
onrannu O.. Tax nauanncn oni penpeconannx
saxapna1nin: C1opinxaun onacnoro 1ouy Peaini-
1onani ic1opicm / Hicnnuona Mnxonn Onamnna -
Yaropo: Ipaaa, 2008. 292 c.
B xnnre onynnxonant nspannte rasernte cra-
rtn n ouepxn anropa o penpeccnponanntx conercxo
rorannrapno cncremo saxapnarnen. Texcrt nonno-
crtm asnpymrcx na pexnx apxnnntx oxymenrax n
nocnomnnannxx n snaunrentno ononnxmr ]axrnuec-
xn marepnan ncrynnrentnoro pasena nepno xnnrn
n ouepxon nropo xnnrn onacrnoro roma Peannn-
rnponannte ncropne. 12 crare nanncant no npenoxennm peaxropa rasert
Cpina 3emnx - uecr, pyrne neuarannct pantme. B xonne xnnrn oannen
cnncox rpyon anropa no +ro nponeme, onynnxonanntx sa nocnenne 20 ner.
Knnra ntmna x 15-nernm npetnannx anropa n onxnocrn pyxononrenx nayu-
no-peaxnnonnoro orena onacrno xnnrn Peannnrnponannte ncropne npn
3axapnarcxo onacrno rocyapcrnenno amnnncrpannn.
mennu B. Hyai cepe cnox, cno cepe uy-
anx. Ipexo-xa1onnxn Myxauinctxo cnapxi ni uac
1a nicnn noss'cnannn 3axapna11n s Pannctxom
Yxpanom. Yaropo, 2007. 108 c.
B xnnre xannara ncropnuecxnx nayx, onenra, e-
xana ncropnuecxoro ]axyntrera VXHV B. uennua ana-
nnsnpyercx nonoxenne rpexo-xaronnuecxo (ynnarc-
xo) nepxnn na 3axapnarte n ycnonnxx nono Conerc-
xo nnacrn n HP3V. B +ro npemx xonnuecrno npnxoon
ynnaron pesxo coxparnnoct, nnacrt cnococrnonana ne-
pexoy n npanocnanne. Hocne yncrna ynnarcxoro
enncxona Teoopa Pomxn mnorne rpexo-xaronnuec-
xne cnxmennnxn nonann n conercxne narepx. Anrop
yrnepxaer, uro ontmnncrno nacenennx Hoxapnar-
cxo Pycn tno npornn npncoennennx x Conercxo Vxpanne.
BBK 63.3. (4YKP)6
18
ISBN 966-7112-87-X
annnent K. B. Hpanocnanni uonac1npi Xyc1ctxoro panony (XX c1oni11n) /
Hepeuona npoq. . annnmxa. Yaropo: Ipaaa, 2004. 168 c.: in.
B npenaraemom nsannn anrop orpannunn cnoe nccneonanne ncropne npa-
nocnanntx monacrtpe onoro paona 3axapnarcxo onacrn - Xycrcxoro. unra-
rent nosnaxomnrcx c npenoctnxamn nx ocnonannx, pontm nsnecrntx ]nryp n
+rom nponecce, n uacrnocrn, o. Anexcnx (Kaanmxa). Ha ocnone oraroro oxy-
menrantnoro marepnana anrop oxapaxrepnsonan connantno-+xonomnuecxym n
184
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
mnccnonepcxym xnsnt monaxon n nsanmoornomennx
c rocyapcrnenntmn opranamn na nporxxennn XX n.
ocronepnte annte, nouepnnyrte ns rocyapcrnen-
ntx n monacrtpcxnx apxnnon, nocnponsnoxr nenpnn-
nexarentnym xaprnny saxptrnx monacrtpe n 1958-
1961 rr. Ho n xonne 80-x rr. roon nonoxenne n rocyap-
crne n xopne nsmennnoct. Hponex nexoropte emox-
parnuecxne npeopasonannx n omecrne, npanxmax
nepxymxa no rnane c M. Iopauentm yxe ne morna
yepxart no cnonm xonrponem nce c]ept xnsnn na-
cenennx, cpen xoroporo naunnaercx pennrnosnt pe-
neccanc. Boccraer ns pynn rpexo-xaronnuecxax nep-
xont, nospoxamr cnon omecrna enanrenncrt, an-
rncrt, anenrncrt, nxrnecxrnnxn. Bosnpamamrcx x cnonm paspymenntm mo-
nacrtpxm npanocnannte monaxn.
BBK 63.3. (4YKP)6
18
ISBN 966-7112-82-9
annnent K.B. Hpanocnannnn uonac1np Pisna
Boroponni y ceni Annua. Yaropo: Ipaaa, 2005.
88 c.: in.
Bo nropo monorpa]nn anropa nccneyercx ex-
rentnocrt npanocnannoro monacrtpx n c.Hnnua Xycr-
cxoro paona 3axapnarcxo onacrn. 3ror monacrtpt
tn ocnonan n nauane 1920-x rr. rpynno enymex no
rnane c Hapacxeno (Hpoxon). B 1930-e rr. monacrtpt
tn nenrpom xencxoro monamecrna na Hoxapnarc-
xo Pycn. Monamecxax omnna nena cocrnennoe na-
rypantnoe xosxcrno, sannmanact pyxoennem n r.. Ha ocnonannn apxnnntx o-
xymenron anrop anannsnpyer mnccnonepcxym exrentnocrt monaxnnt n uemc-
xn, nenrepcxn n conercxn nepno. B xnnre raxxe npecrannent norpa]nn
nacroxrene n cnxmennnxon monacrtpx, cnncxn mo-
naxnnt, ]ororpa]nn.
BBK 63.3(4YKP)6
18
ISBN 966-8924-02-9
annnent K.B. Hpanocnannnn uonac1np Ycninnn
Boao Ma1epi n ceni ouoxn. Yaropo: Ipaaa,
2006. 104 c. + 4 c. xon. nxn.: in.
B npenaraemom nsannn anrop ncnontsonan mno-
rouncnennte apxnnnte n onynnxonannte ncrounn-
xn. Bnepnte nnoxrcx n nayunoe opamenne oxymen-
rt o exrentnocrn xencxoro monacrtpx n omoxax,
n uacrnocrn, +ro marepnant ns ]onon Iocyapcrnen-
185

noro apxnna 3axapnarcxo onacrn, apxnna Vnpannennx cnyxt esonacnocrn
3axapnarcxo onacrn, rexymero apxnna Myxaueno-Vxropocxo npanocnanno
enapxnn, nnuntx apxnnon monaxon n monaxnnt. 3acnyxnnamr nnnmanne mnoro-
uncnennte nnctma, xoropte nponnnamr cner na npomnoe monacrtpe n nx na-
centnnxon.
BBK 83.3(4YKP)8-1
E61
ISBN 978-966-8924-33-0
Ennnxnonein 3axapna11n. Bnsnauni ocon XX c1o-
ni11n. Hayxonnn peax1op O.. onrannu. Yaropo:
Ipaaa, 2007. 400 c.
B +nnnxnonenm nomnn nanonee nsnecrnte npe-
crannrenn nonnrnuecxo, xosxcrnenno, nayuno-npo-
cnernrentcxo n xyntrypno xnsnn 3axapnartx, xoro-
pte nnecnn n ero pasnnrne n nponneranne mnoro rpy-
a, nnuno +neprnn n rnopuecxoro noxnonennx.
ISBN-10: 963-7336-57-5
ISBN-13: 978-963-7336-57-7
HU ISSN 1216-9986
An1onnn Ionnxa. Kax annn namn cnnmennnxn.
Pycnncxne 1exc1m copan, ynopnounn n npoxouuen-
1nponan Mnxann Kanpant. Studia Ukrainica et
Rusinica Nyiregyha-ziensia 19. Hnpetxasa, 2006.
116 c.
B xnnre npecrannent rexcrt axaemnxa Benrepc-
xo Axaemnn nayx, neymero ncropnxa Myxauenc-
xo rpexo-xaronnuecxo enapxnn XX n. Anronnx Io-
nnxn (1864-1946). Btxoen ns xnepnxantno cpet,
yuent nepntm npecrannn na onxnom yponne nc-
ropnm nepxnn, xoropax na nporxxennn necxontxnx
nexon npn orcyrcrnnn cocrnenntx rocyapcrnenntx
opasonann y pycnn ]axrnuecxn ocrananact enn-
crnenntm nncrnryrom, samnmanmnm n rom uncne n xyntrypnte nnrepect xo-
pennoro cnanxncxoro nacenennx Hoxapnartx.
Hocneonarentnt croponnnx ]opmnponannx pycnncxoro nnreparypnoro
xstxa na ocnone mecrntx ronopon, nenrepcxn yuent y cex na ponne onroe
npemx ocranancx onnm ns nemnornx, nnmymnx na ponom pycnncxom xstxe.
Eme n nauane 20-x rr. npomnoro nexa on nororonnn x nsannm pycnncxn cno-
napt rnaronon (]axcnmnne nsano n 1991 r.), ntnycrnn na pycnncxom, anrnncxom
n ]pannyscxom xstxax ncropnm ponoro xpax (Vrnmsnnna, rasycrno n npo-
mnocrt mxnoxapnarctxtx pycnnyn, nepensano ]axcnmnne n 2000 r.), onynn-
xonan px nayuntx n nayuno-nonynxpntx marepnanon na crpannnax yxropoc-
xnx macc-mena (cm. uac rypme rn noa..., Hnpetxasa, 2005).
186
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
B nacroxmn rom nomnn oennennte remarnuecxn (xnsnt n exrentnocrt
cnxmennnxon Slavia Orthodoxa o XVIII n.) n npoxommenrnponannte cocrannre-
nem nacroxmero nsannx crartn ns apxnna Anronnx Ionnxn n rasert
Amerikanskij russkij viestnik (Pittsburg, 1936). B npnnoxennxx npecrannent
cnpanounte marepnant x nsannm, n rom uncne cnncox xnrene xomnrara Feper
no pesyntraram nepenncn 1570 roa.
ISBN 966-8272-22-5
Bacnnt Harnpn. Mene nee noxnnx nisnannn...
ouinin cnona: Hop1pe1n-in1epn`m. Knnra N4. Yno-
pnnnx 1a peax1op ounnent Mnpocnan.- Myxaue-
no: Kapna1ctxa neaa, 2008. 52 c.
Bacnnn Harnpx, crapemnna nnreparypnoro xop-
nyca 3axapnartx, nsnecrnt xpaene, c ntcort npo-
xnrtx ner pasmtmnxer o cnoe xnsnn, o nepnnernxx
ncropnn n conpemennocrn, o cexperax rnopuecxoro
onronernx. B xnnre ncnontsonant ]parmenrt nn-
repntm M. ounnna, M. uennnmnnna, H. Xnanrt.
ISBN 966-8278-32-1
Kpin annnent. Ham xpan n Yxpani c qenoue-
nou. ouinin cnona: Hop1pe1n-in1epn`m. Knnra N5.
Ynopnnnx 1a peax1op ounnent Mnpocnan. My-
xaueno: Kapna1ctxa neaa, 2008. 80 c.
B ouepeno xnnre cepnn omnnnn cnona pac-
cxastnaercx o cranonnennn monooro yuenoro-ncro-
pnxa Rpnx annntna, o ero yuee, nccneonarentc-
xo n nynnnncrnuecxo n exrentnocrn. B xnnre npe-
crannent raxxe penensnn n orstnt na xnnrn R. a-
nnntna n ero nnnorpa]nm.
ISBN 966-8273-31-5
Ouennn onrannu. R
ne nnnaxono c1an ic1opnxou. ouinin cnona: Hop1-
pe1n-in1epn`m. Knnra N6. Ynopnnnxn annnent
Kpin 1a ounnent Mnpocnan. Myxaueno: Kapna1ct-
xa neaa, 2008. 96 c.
Knnra o nsnecrnom yxpanncxom ncropnxe n xpa-
enee, onom ns nepntx cxpynynesntx nccneonare-
ne rparnuecxnx crpannn ncropnn xpax nepnoa Bro-
po mnpono nont n xecroxnx penpeccn saxap-
narnen onoennoro n nocnenoennoro npemenn. o-
anneno raxxe npoonxenne nonnnorpa]nuec-
xoro yxasarenx Omentxn onrannu, nsannoro x
75-nernm anropa n 2005 r.
187

Axaqnc1 npenoonouy n oronocnouy o1ny na-
meuy Hony Yrontcxouy. n1ne. Xyc1: Hsa1entc-
xnn o1en Xyc1cxon enapxnn, 2008. 56 c.
Knnra nsana n cnxsn c xanonnsanne apxnmanpn-
ra Hona (Kynpn), xoropax cocroxnact 18 cenrxpx
2008 r. n c.Manax Vrontxa Txuencxoro paona 3axap-
narcxo onacrn. Xnrne npenoonoro Hona noro-
ronneno paornnxamn enapxnn na ocnonannn rpyon
Ipnropnx Pauyxa (Honnxnnx Pycn Kapnarcxo. Ap-
xnmanpnr Hon (Kynpx). M.: Hanomnnx, 2008) n
Rpnx annntna (Apxnmanpnr Hon (Kynpx): xns-
nennt nyrt n narocnonennte rpyt nonnxnnxa //
Mexynapont ncropnuecxn xypnan Pycnn. Kn-
mnnen. 2007. N3. C. 157-163; raxxe http://h.ua/
story/123597).
ISBN 966-8273-31-4
Harnpn B. Apxiuanpn1 o.Bacnnin Hponin. My-
xaueno: Kapna1ctxa neaa, 2008. 80 c.
B xnnre nncarenx B. Harnpn npecrannena cepnx
crare o nsnecrnom n 3axapnarte n anexo sa ero
npeenamn crapne apxnmanpnre Bacnnnn (Hponn-
ne). Kpome nnuntx crare, nomemeno raxxe necxont-
xo rpyon camoro apxnmanpnra n pyrnx nnn, xoro-
pte xopomo snann nonnxnnxa. Knnra nnnmcrpnpo-
nana ]ororpa]nxmn ns nnunoro apxnna xannara nc-
ropnuecxnx nayx Rpnx annntna.
BBK 91.9.83. (4 YKP-33AK)
B 59
YK 016:398 (477.87)
Kauxan Bononunp. Inan Xnan1a: Bioiniorpaq-
iunnn noxaaunx. Yaropo: BAT Ha1en1, 2008.
458 c., in.
B nonnnorpa]nuecxn yxasarent nomnn xnn-
rn n penensnn na nnx, crartn no ]ontxnopy, ncxyccr-
ny, nnreparype, xoropte nynnxonannct n raserax,
xypnanax, remarnuecxnx copnnxax. Taxxe nepeunc-
nent crartn o exrentnocrn n rnopuecrne xannara
ncropnuecxnx nayx, oxropa ncxyccrnoneennx, sac-
nyxennoro exrenx ncxyccrn Vxpannt H.B. Xnanry.
188
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
BBK86.37(4YKP-43AK)+63.3(4YKP^3AK)
m63
YK 281.9(477.87)+94(477.87)
ISBN 978-966-8760-32-7
mnn K. Hepexas y posyuax npo ceno Bennxi Aasn
n coopnin ponni Xpnc1ono Hepxnn. Yaropo: Ha-
1en1, 2007. 584 c.: in.
B nono xnnre nsnecrnoro saxapnarcxoro nncarenx
na ocnone Cnxroro Hncannx, mnornx ocronepntx
]axron, cneenn ouennnen, ]orooxymenron, ap-
xnnntx n pyrnx ncrounnxon nccneonana n orpaxe-
na ncropnx nepxnn n xnrene cena Bennxne Hast My-
xauencxoro paona 3axapnarcxo onacrn.
Anrop ne es nnrepeca paccxastnaer o nepxonntx exrenxx n uenoneuecxnx
cytax na ncropnuecxom nyrn sananoro n nocrounoro xpncrnancrna o n nocne
pacxona (1054 r.). Hccneonanne mepo nactmeno nynnnncrnuecxnmn orcryn-
nennxmn, +xcxypcamn, pasmtmnennxmn, oomennxmn rpaxancxoro n ]nno-
co]cxoro coepxannx.
3ro nsanne - opnrnnantnoe xnsneonncanne paocrn n neuann Bcenencxo
Hepxnn c camtx annnx o namnx npemen. B nem yauno coennent no+snx c
nposo n paccxasax o cnxrom n rpemnom. Knnra apecyercx xaxomy, xro ne
espasnnuen x yxonnomy nacnecrny n nponemam pennrnosno xnsnn pono-
ro napoa.
ISBN: 966-8279-23-2
Apxiuanpn1 Bacnnin (He1tonxa). Hpn nocxonin
cniuni. yxonni nipmi. Myxaueno: Kapna1ctxa neaa,
2008. 60 c.
B xnnre nnepnte nynnxymrcx crnxn nsnecrnoro
na 3axapnarte npanocnannoro monaxa-nennrenx ap-
xnmanpnra Bacnnnx (Hertonxa) (1933-2002). Crnxn
nororonnnn x nynnxannn no+r Herp Mnxnxa n xan-
nar ncropnuecxnx nayx Rpn annnen. B nauane
xnnrn naneuarant npencnonne H. Mnxnxn Bnco-
xa neuart yxa n norpa]nuecxn ouepx xnsnn ap-
xnmanpnra Bacnnnx (Hertonxn) R. annntna.
Horo1onnn Kpnn AHHAEH
189

KPEO IBAHA XAAHTH
3BEPEITH YXOBHY
CHAmHHY PYCHHIB!
B yxropoctxomy nnannnnrni
Harenr noaunna cnir xnnra ox-
ropa mncrenrnosnancrna, xannara
]inonoriunnx nayx Inana Xnanrn ni
nasnom Cninare Foroni namomy,
cninare. yxonni nicni 3axapnarrx.
3ipnnx yxonnnx nicent nnmon s
narocnonennx Fnaxennimoro Bono-
nmnpa, mnrpononnra Knnctxoro i
ncic Vxpann, Hpecroxrenx Vxpa-
nctxo Hpanocnanno Hepxnn. Penen-
senramn npani nncrynnnn nonaxni na-
yxonni oxrop ]inonoriunnx nayx
M. mnrpenxo, oxrop orocnon`x,
npo]. O. Iyx, oxrop mncrenrnosnan-
crna, on. u. Konnnent.
I.Xnanra naponncx 20 xnirnx
1941 p. n c.Konamneno Xycrctxoro
p-ny n araroirni cim`. 3axinunn
]inonoriunn ]axyntrer Vxropoct-
xoro epxannoro yninepcnrery (1964), cranionapny acnipanrypy Incrn-
ryry mncrenrnosnancrna, ]ontxnopy ra ernorpa]i im. M. T. Pnntctxoro
Axaemi nayx Vxpann (m. Knn, 1974). Cnyxnn y apmi n m. Xapxin (1964-
1965). Hpanmnan nunrenem, npexropom mxonn, incnexropom Txuinct-
xoro paniiny napono ocnirn, nnxnaauem, onenrom xa]epn yxpa-
nctxo nireparypn Vxropoctxoro yninepcnrery. 3 2001 p. saniynau
nayxono-xyntryponoriunoro niiny 3axapnarctxoro onacnoro nenrpy
napono rnopuocri.
Hayxony ixntnicrt sicnmc n xintxox nanpxmxax xx ]ontxnopncr,
nireparyposnanent, iniorpa], ernorpa], mncrenrnosnanent. Hanncan,
ynopxxynan ra onynixynan nona 75 xnnr. Cepe nnx raxi ]ynamen-
rantni nnannx, xx Hicnx na Kapnaramn (1994), 3axapnarctxn nep-
ren (1995), Hireparypne 3axapnarrx y XX cronirri (1995), Foropo-
nuni nicni (2003), O nnno ceno (2003), Hicni Ipmanmnnn (2005).
Hoxaxnni ra noxoponni nicni (2007) ra in.
190
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
I.B. Xnanra ininiarop ra opranisarop Kpaonoro mysem nirepary-
pn, ]ontxnopy ra mncrenrna n Konamneni Xycrctxoro p-ny. Haropoxe-
nn meannm 3a onecny npanm, Houecnnmn rpamoramn Minicrep-
crna ocnirn Vxpann, Minicrepcrna xyntrypn i mncrenrn Vxpann ra in.
Horo im'x nnncane n Houecny Knnry antmanax 3onorn ]on Foxin-
mnnn.
oxrop mncrenrnosnancrna, xannar ]inonoriunnx nayx, unen Ha-
nionantno cninxn xypnanicrin Vxpann, naypear Bceyxpanctxnx npemi
im. B. Anrononnua, I. upanxa, ]ontxnopno-ernorpa]iunoro xonxypcy im.
M. 3ypnntxoro, sacnyxenn ixu mncrenrn Vxpann.
3ipnnx noyonano sa xpononoriuno-remarnunnm npnnnnnom. Cno-
uarxy yrt xonxxn, n xxnx ycnannmcrtcx napoxennx Icyca Xpncra,
ani nicni mo nnxonymrtcx na Foroxnnennx i r.. Bnineno oxpemi no-
xn-posinn: Hicni na cnxra Iocnoni, Bocxpecni nicni, Hicni o Icyca
Xpncra, Hicni o Cornopnrenx, Hicni na cnxra Foroponuni, Hicni
o Hpeuncro inn Mapi, Hicni o cnxrnx, Hicni ni uac cnyxn
Foxo, Hicni nx ire, Hoxaxnni nicni, Hoxoponni nicni. 3aranom
ne ax 580 rexcrin is noramn.
V ncrynnomy cnoni I.Xnanra naronomyc, mo crannn nepe coom san-
annx seperrn yxonni nicni, o exxi s nnx cninamrt nnme n oxpemnx
cenax, a exxi nxe ne cninamrtcx, nam`xramrt x nnme crapi xxn.
xmo ni nicni ne sanncarn s noramn, ro nonn snnxnyrt nasanxn. Tomy
ynopxnnx ne sanosnuynan nicni is panime onynixonannx poir, a cam,
cxpynyntosno myxan x mix nme. Hanpnxna, C. uepnnuxo s Finonapnin
smorna nacninarn 80 nicent, B. Croxa s Kpnuena 60, O. Ciuxa s Vxro-
poa 70, H. Pomxo s Isn 75, B. ueopxnnu s Kepentxnx 48 nicent i
r..
Bpaxac nepenix nicent y smicri xnnrn. Tam nxasano rouna in]opmanix
xonn sanncana nicnx, n xxomy nacenenomy nynxri ra im`x nnxonannx.
Hanpnxinni xnnrn anrop-ynopxnnx noan cnonnnx manonxnnannx cnin,
xxn onomoxe sposymirn smicr nicent.
Taxnm unnom, onynixonane nnannx sa cnom smicrom (580 nicent) ra
ocxrom (848 crop.) c naintm nonnnm ra rpynronnnm na 3axapnarri.
Moxemo s nnennenicrm cxasarn, mo nnxi xnnrn crane naxnnnom noicm
y xnrri xpam ra Vxpann saranom. Bnannx npnxpacnrt cnirctxi ra
nepxonni iniorexn, crane n naroi ncim, xro nixannrtcx yxonnom cna-
mnnom cnoro napoy.
Kpin AHHAEHL
191

KHHIA HPO ICTOPIK TA KYALTYPY
OHOIO CEAA HA TRHIBmHHI
V myxauinctxomy npnnarnomy nnannnnrni
Kapnarctxa nexa nnmna xnnra xonnmntoro
nnnycxnnxa icropnunoro ]axyntrery VxHV
Inana uonnxa-Mnxynn. Penensonana npanx, mo
mac nasny Icropix ra xyntrypa cena Tepenx
oonpantonann napianr nnnomno poorn
anropa. Kpim roro, npecrannene nnannx nxe
pyra xnnra monooro ocninnxa. Xpononoriuni
mexi, xxi oxpecnnn I. uonnx-Mnxyna ne cep.
XIX XX cr., onax y nepmomy posini nin nopn-
nac y intm annm icropim cena. 3a crpyxry-
pom xnnra noinxcrtcx na uornpn posinn: Ceno:
ocnonni cropinxn icropi, Tpannine rocnoap-
crno i marepiantna xyntrypa, Cim`x i cimenn noyr, Kanenapni
cnxra opxn rocnoapctxoro poxy.
Cni nimirnrn, mo ana npanx c nepmom cnpoom ocninrn icropim
Tepeni n yxpanctxi icropiorpa]i. V sn`xsxy s nnm anrop cnnpancx n
ocnonnomy na nontonn marepian, sipann y c.Tepenx ra oxpemi npani
reopernxin yxpanctxo ernorpa]i (u. Horymnxxa, M. Tnnoapa, C. Ma-
xapuyxa).
Bo posxpnrn nocnionnicrt icropnunoro posnnrxy cena anrop nan-
cx o crnopennx xpononoriuno rannni (ni naannimnx uacin o cy-
uacnocri). V xponini Tepeni nin niopasnn nanaxnnnimi noi, nanpnx-
na 1389 p. nepma nnctmona sraxa npo Tepenm; 1720 p. nonint y
ceni, mo cnpnxna nepenecennm oro na none micne; 1902 p. nepexi y
npanocnan`x; 1917 p. napoxennx A. Harpyca-Kapnarctxoro i r..
Ocnonnnm sanxrrxm xnrenin repenxnctxo onnnn yno semnepo-
crno. Cenxnn n ocnonnomy nnpomynann nmennnm, xyxypysy, xapronnm,
rexniuni xyntrypn (xononnx). Baxnnne micne n xnrri cena samano ninuap-
crno, s xxnm yn non`xsann piunn nnxn xnrrx repenxnnin.
3a cnonamn anropa, rononnnm marepianom nx yinnnnrna xnrnonnx
ra rocnoapctxnx cnopy yn y. Hx epennna c rnepom ra npaxrnu-
nom, npo mo cniuart unmano excnonarin s ]onin 3axapnarctxoro my-
sem napono apxirexrypn ra noyry. Xarn nxpnnann conomom, crinn
omasynann rnnnom.
erantno onncan anrop naponn oxr xnrenin Tepeni mnnynnx
cronirt. Bin npocnixynan nnponnnrno oxry ni nociny xononent o
192
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
nnmnnxn ra nnxopncrannx y nxnrxy. x sasnauac anrop, oxr man px
]ynxni: saxncny (saxncr ni xonoy, cnexn, cniry...), oeperony (saxncr
ni mariunnx cnn), opxony (necintnn, noxoponnn), crareno-nixony.
Bo ynaounnrn noann marepian I.uonnx-Mnxyna niipan ninn
px ]ororpa]i s icropi c.Tepenx. Heniomi ]oromacrpn sepernn nx
nac nnrnx caxpantnnx o`cxrin, mxonn, cintctxo pan ra snnuannx
repenxnnin.
Hasnnuano ninnn marepian sipano y posini Kanenapni cnxra
opxn rocnoapctxoro poxy. Anrop nirnopnn piunn nnxn xnrrx ce-
nxn, noxasan oconnnocri nisnauennx roro un inmoro penirinoro cnxra.
Bpaxac nncoxa penirinicrt xnrenin Tepeni, xxi nonpn nci xnrrcni nes-
ron minno rpnmanncx nepxonnnx opxin cnox npexin ra npanocnanno
nipn.
Ha namy ymxy, anrop mir nponecrn exxi nopinnxnnx ra cnincrannen-
nx marepiantno ra yxonno xyntrypn Tepeni s noinnmn un niminnn-
mn pncamn n xyntrypi inmnx cin 3axapnarrx ra Vxpann saranom. Fyno
nixano isnarncx, xxi oconnnocri yxonnoro posnnrxy repenxnnin na
niminy, nanpnxna, ni nenxrnnnin, ropinuinnin ao ncrpxn.
Hona xnnra I.uonnxa-Mnxynn c ninicnnm ocnixennxm icropnxo-
ernorpa]iunoro xapaxrepy. Biuynacrtcx nnnnn ra onomora nayxonoro
xepinnnxa npo]. M.H. Tnnoapa, xxn c nponinnm ocninnxom ano
nponemarnxn.
Hpanx crane n naroi yunxm, cryenram, nunrenxm ra ncim, xro
nixannrtcx icropicm ra xyntrypom 3axapnarrx. Bona ye opnm
nsipnem nx icropnxin, xxi rorymrt nnacni ocnixennx npo mnnyne pinnx
nacenennx nynxrin.
Ha1anin AHHAEHL
193

OECCKHE BOPOHHOBCKHE HTEHHR
Haunnax c 2007 r., n
Oecce nponoxrcx
mexynaponte nayu-
no-npaxrnuecxne xon-
]epennnn Boponnonc-
xne urennx, no nroram
xoroptx nsamrcx ma-
repnant oxnaon, co-
pannte n Boponnon-
cxn copnnx. Bro-
pte Boponnoncxne ure-
nnx cocroxnnct 6-7
noxpx 2008 r. n tnn
nocnxment 200-nernm
Cnaco-Hpeopaxencxoro xa]epantnoro coopa. B pamxax xon]epen-
nnn paorann ne cexnnn: Iocyapcrnennax, amnnncrparnnnax n no-
ennax exrentnocrt n Poccnn no npemena M.C. Boponnona n Pont
npanocnanno nepxnn n ocnoennn Cenepnoro Hpnuepnomoptx n oycr-
pocrne Honopoccnn. B paore xon]epennnn npnnxnn yuacrne 25 nc-
cneonarene ns nxrn ropoon n rpex crpan (Poccnx, Vxpanna, Mono-
na).
B oxnae H.C. Ipenono (Oecca) uacrnax narornopnrentnocrt
n cranonnennn n pasnnrnn Pnmentencxoro nnnex n Oecce ronopnrcx
o ocnonannn Pnmentencxoro nnnex na ase yxe cymecrnonanmnx n
nauane XIX n. yuentx saneenn r. Oecct. Anrop paccmarpnnaer
ncrounnxn ]nnancnponannx nnnex, cocroxnmne, n ocnonnom, ns noxepr-
nonann uacrntx nnn. Venxercx nnnmanne n nomomn, oxasanno Pn-
mentencxomy nnnem M.C. Boponnontm, ntpasnnmecx n nepeaue
npana na ntnycx cnpanounoro exeronnxa Honopoccncxn xanenapt.
Hpocnexnnaer anrop n nnamnxy n nsmenennn connantnoro cocrana
cryenron nnnex n 40-50-x rr. XIX n. Cneymmax crpannna n ncropnn
Oecct, ncropnn opasonannx n exrentnocrn M.C. Boponnona pac-
xptnaercx n oxnae C.E. Fepesnna (Oecca) Or Pnmentencxoro nn-
nex x Honopoccncxomy ynnnepcnrery: x nonpocy o npeemcrnennocrn
pasnnrnx ntcme mxont n Oecce. 3ect paccmorpen cnoxnt n nn-
rentnt nponecc npeopasonannx nnnex n ynnnepcnrer, nauart eme
noneunrenem Oeccxoro yuenoro oxpyra .M. Knxxennuem. Anrop
ormeuaer pont M.C. Boponnona n ero exrentnoe yuacrne n +rom npo-
necce.
194
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Hent px oxnaon tn nocnxmen nonpocam connantno-+xonomn-
uecxoro pasnnrnx Honopoccncxoro xpax n Feccapann no pyxono-
crnom cnernemero xnxsx Mnxanna Cemenonnua Boponnona. C.B. Mn-
nennu (Oecca) orpasnna ocoennocrn connantno-+xonomnuecxo no-
nnrnxn renepan-ryepnaropa M.C. Boponnona (na npnmepe pasnnrnx
napoxocrna n ropronnn), ntpasnnmnecx n pocre ropronoro oopora,
npenpnnnmarentcrna, pasnnrnn nopra n nce nn]pacrpyxrypt ropoa.
oxnaunx ormeuaer, uro M.C. Boponnon coxpannn n npoonxnn nyu-
mne rpannnn cnonx npemecrnennnxon n, nonnmax, uro ]nnanconoe
narononyune ropoa n xpax asnpyercx na nnemne ropronne, yenxn
npncrantnoe nnnmanne oycrpocrny ne rontxo oeccxoro nopra, no n
menxnx noprontx ropoon Axxepmana n Hsmanna. Pasnnrne +rnx nop-
rontx ropoon tno xpane naxno, r.x. rnanno cocrannxmme mxno-
poccncxoro +xcnopra tna ropronnx nmennne. Eme ono naxno
orpacnn centcxoro xosxcrna Poccnn nocnxmancx oxna O.B. Bonoy-
ena n O.O. Bonoyena (Mocxna) Bnnorpaapcrno n nnnoenne n Kpt-
my n nepno nononnne XIX n., n xoropom tna c]opmynnponana nex o
rocyapcrnenno crparernn xosxcrnennoro ocnoennx Honopoccncxo-
ro xpax, paspaoranno n amnnncrpannn M.C. Boponnona. K ocnonntm
nanpannennxm anno crparernn ornocnnoct n pasnnrne npomtmnenno-
ro nnnorpaapcrna n nnnoennx, uro nopasymenano ne rontxo ntpamn-
nanne cocrnenno nnnorpano nost, no n orxptrne nepepaartnam-
mnx xomnnexcon, a raxxe oyuenne cnennanncron-nnnorpaape, ocy-
mecrnnxnmeecx n orxptrom n 1849 r. uertpexronunom yunnnme. Temy
xopomo npoymanno crparernn n arpapno c]epe npoonxnn n
A.A. Cypnnon (Oecca) n oxnae Hnnonannonnax nonnrnxa ryepna-
ropa M.C. Boponnona. K 180-nernm co nx ocnonannx Omecrna arpa-
pnen Rra Poccnn. Hmenno M.C. Boponnon n exape 1828 r. ncxoa-
racrnonan or nmneparopa Hnxonax I paspemenne na yupexenne n Oec-
ce Omecrna centcxoro xosxcrna Rxno Poccnn, eccmenntm npesn-
enrom xoroporo tn o xonna cnonx ne. Ho conpemenntm nonxrnxm
+ro omecrno tno nacroxme centcxoxosxcrnenno axaemne co
cnoe nayuno-nponsnocrnenno aso n nne 15 ecxrnn semnn pxom
c Forannuecxnm caom n nayuntm nsannem. antnemee pasnnrne
arpapnax rema nonyunna n oxnae C. A. Mxcnna (Knen)
M.C. Boponnon, H.A. Crontnnn n .u. Axnxon yxonnte n ncropn-
uecxne napannenn. B oxnae cenant nnrepecnte ncropnuecxne co-
nocrannennx +xonomnuecxo nonnrnxn Mnxanna Cemenonnua n Herpa
Apxatennua: Boponnon nepntm eme n nepno nononnne XIX n. oosna-
unn nponemy uacrno cocrnennocrn na semnm, a Crontnnn peannso-
ntnan +ry nem n nauane XX n. O rnyoxo sannrepeconannocrn Mnxa-
nna Cemenonnua n nponnerannn Honopoccnn cnnerentcrnyer n oxna
195

O.F. emnna (Oecca) Hpoexrt nepecenennx enpeen nauana 1840-x
roon n M.C. Boponnon, n xoropom enaercx ananns npenoxenn Bo-
ponnona npannrentcrny no nonoy nepecenennx enpeen ns sanantx o-
nacre n xpynnte ropoa. Mnxann Cemenonnu npenaran npornnono-
noxnoe pemenne nponemt, a nmenno npenpamenne nepecenxemtx en-
peen n semneentnen sa cuer xasenntx cpecrn. Kpome roro, on nera-
rnnno orstnancx o npenoxennom npannrentcrnom enennn enpecxo-
ro napoa na nonesntx n ecnonesntx, uro ronopnr o ero nporpeccnn-
ntx nosspennxx. O narornopnom nnnxnnn nonnrnxn M.C. Boponnona na
connantno-+xonomnuecxoe pasnnrne Feccapann ronopnnoct n oxnae
C.I. Cynxxa (Knmnnen) Ornomenne amnnncrpannn Feccapann x py-
cnnam (nepnax nononnna XIX nexa). Fyyun namecrnnxom Feccapac-
xo onacrn, Mnxann Cemenonnu crponn nepxnn, orxptnan yunnnma,
oycrpannan oporn n mocrt. Bce +ro ne morno ne cxasartcx n na pocre
uncnennocrn nacenennx, n ecnn n cenepntx n nenrpantntx yesax unc-
nennocrt ynennunnanact sa cuer ecrecrnennoro npnpocra, ro n mxntx
n sa cuer nepecenennen. K npnmepy, n Xornncxom yese uncnennocrt
nacenennx nospocna c 1812 no 1858 r. n 11,5 pasa. Cnoxnomy nonpocy o
exrentnocrn Boponnona no npemx rax nastnaemoro uymnoro ynra
nocnxmen oxna A.A. uecenxo n H.E. Bnaxono (Cenacronont) Pont
M.C. Boponnona n noannennn noccrannx n ropoe Cenacronone n 1830
roy. Ananns ncrounnxon. Apxnnnte oxymenrt, a nmenno nepenncxa
xomannpa uepnomopcxoro ]nora n nopron A.C. Ipera c M.C. Bopon-
nontm nosnonnna anropam cenart ntno o rom, uro npnxast nocne-
nero ne ncera ornnuannct oexrnnnocrtm, uro n cnpononnponano
cam ynr, a nmemarentcrno Boponnona n ena Cenacronontcxoro noen-
noro ryepnaropa, xoropt emy ne nounnxncx, oocrpnno tnmne o
rex nop npnxrentcxnmn ornomennx mexy nnm n Iperom.
Hoxponnrentcrnennax nonnrnxa, xapaxrepnax nx M.C. Boponnona
no ornomennm x nayxe n xyntrype, namna cnoe orpaxenne n necxontxnx
ntcrynnennxx, sacnymanntx na xon]epennnn. C nomomtm Boponnona
tnn orxptrt mysen pennocre n Oecce (1825) n Kepun (1826), n
copannxx xoroptx snaunrentnoe mecro tno orneeno moneram pen-
nerpeuecxnx ropoon-xononn. O nononnennn +rnx xonnexnn ronopnrcx
n oxnae T.A. Hsam-Ionxan n H.H. Bxnxena (Oecca) M.C. Bopon-
non n pasnnrne nymnsmarnuecxnx mryn n Oecce. Cemtx Boponno-
ntx noapnna oeccxomy mysem nent px nenntx apre]axron, xyn-
nenntx sa cno cuer, xpome roro, Mnxann Cemenonnu oxastnan ncx-
uecxym noepxxy Hnany Hannonnuy Fnapamepry nepnomy npex-
ropy oonx myseen n cnennanncry n onacrn anrnuno nymnsmarnxn.
O menenarcxo exrentnocrn Boponnona n onacrn ncxyccrna cooma-
noct n oxnae R.A. Hnctmaxa (Oecca) M.C. Boponnon noxponn-
196
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
rent ncxyccrn. C nnunocrtm renepan-ryepnaropa Honopoccncxoro
xpax cnxsano rnopuecrno apxnrexropon Tomaca Xappncona, 3yapa
Fnopa, upanna Fo]]o, Ieoprnx Toppnuennn, xyoxnnxon H.K. Anason-
cxoro, Hynst ecceme, Kapna Iamnentna n p. K npnmepy, npn noep-
xxe Mnxanna Cemenonnua no npoexram Toppnuennn tnn nosneent
nepxont Cn. Hoanna 3naroycra n nre n Mnxanoncxax nepxont n Oec-
ce; Boponnon cran n nnnnnaropom nosneennx namxrnnxa repnory
A.3. e Pnmente, paory na xoroptm onepnnn Hnany Maprocy. Ho
saxasy Boponnona xyoxnnx Kapno Focconn cosaer nnt Oecct, a
nocne craxnponxn n Hrannn no npnrnamennm Mnxanna Cemenonnua n
Ennsanert Kcaneptennt nepeesxaer n Anynxy, re cosaer nent nnxn
nnon Kptma. O rnopuecrne xyoxnnxa n ero nsanmoornomennxx c Bo-
ponnontmn nonecrnyer oxna H. A. Bepnnt (Oecca) M.C. Bopon-
non n Kapno Focconn. O cnoxntx nepnnernxx ornomenn Anexcanpa
Cepreennua Hymxnna n rpa]a Boponnona paccxastnaercx n oxnae
T.A. Cannnono (Oecca) M.C. Boponnon n A.C. Hymxnn. Tema, npn-
nnexammax nnnmanne ncropnxon n ]nnonoron ne nepnoe cronerne, oc-
nemanact anropom c rouxn spennx rnopuecrna Hymxnna n oeccxn
ero nepno. Ha nocry Honopoccncxoro renepan-ryepnaropa Boponnon
nosaornncx n o ocymecrnnennn neuarntx nsann n Oecce. B ox-
nae A.. Kaprenxn (Oecca) A.I. Tponnnxn nynnnncr n ome-
crnennt exrent +noxn M.C. Boponnona ronopnrcx o peaxrope nyx
oeccxnx nepnonuecxnx nsann - Oeccxoro necrnnxa n Journal
d`Odessa (c 1834 r.) - Tponnnxom. Anrop anannsnpyer nepenncxy n
npnxonr x ntnoy, uro Boponnon npoxnnxn nocroxnnt n ncxpennn
nnrepec x coepxannm anntx nsann, ocosnanax nx omecrnenno-
nonnrnuecxym snaunmocrt. Hsnecrno, uro rpa] Boponnon tn ntcoxo-
opasonanntm uenonexom, n ne cnyuano n Anynxnncxom nopne co-
pana orpomnax nnnorexa. K coxanennm, n xnnrn, n meent co npe-
menem nonepramrcx nopaxennm nacexomtmn. O cnoxntx n neeso-
nacntx paorax no ]ymnrannn ]onon nopna paccxastnaercx n ox-
nae A. C. Mapuyx (Knen) Pecranpannonnte paort n memopnantno
nnnorexe Boponnontx. Tontxo ]ymnrannx pomncrtm mernnom no
nnenountm yxptrnem nomorna coxpannrt nnnorexy or antnemero
nopaxennx n paspymennx.
B ocroxrentnom oxnae A.H. A]anactena (Mocxna) Pyccxax
Hpanocnannax nepxont n nonpoct omeuenoneuecxo npancrnennocrn
sarponyrt nponemt coornomennx xpncrnancxo n omeuenoneuecxo
mopann, mopantntx npnnnnnon n Poccnn XIX n. n conpemennoro ueno-
nexa. O coornomennn cnonx nocrynxon c rnyoxnmn pennrnosntmn yex-
ennxmn ronopnrcx n oxnae O.E. Hnxaueno (Oecca) Hepxonnoe
nocnnranne. Ho marepnanam memyapon npenoanarenx Pnmentencxoro
197

nnnex A.H. Ieoprnencxoro. B nocnomnnannxx Ieoprnencxoro namnn
orpaxenne mnorne ]axropt, nonnnxnmne na ]opmnponanne ero nnunoc-
rn, n nepnym ouepet, pennrnx, uro neonoxparno nouepxnnan anrop.
B oxnae M.B. Crynxo (Cenacronont) Ieoprnencxn monacrtpt n
noncxn xpama nant n XIX n. pacxptnaercx pont monacrtpcxnx nna-
cre n apxeonornuecxom nsyuennn pennnx cnxrnnnm, n uacrnocrn, xpa-
ma Apremnt n paone mtca unonenr (n Cenacronone), raxxe nouep-
xnnaercx nonantnoe ynneuenne anrnunocrtm, xapaxrepnoe nx nopon-
noncxo +noxn +noxn pomanrnxon n nyremecrnennnxon. Teme nxnaa
npanocnanno nepxnn n pasnnrne apxeonornuecxnx nosnann, a raxxe
cranonnennm nepxonno apxeonornn nocnxmen oxna E.. Typonc-
xoro n A.A. unnnnnenxo (Cenacronont) Hpanocnannax nepxont Kptma
n apxeonornx n openonmnnonnt nepno. Anropt ormeuamr sacnyrn
mnrpononnra Enrennx (n mnpy E.A. Fonxonnrnna), utx paora O cne-
ax pennero rpeuecxoro ropoa Xepcona ocrannna snaunrentnt cne
n ncropnorpa]nn. Ocooe nnnmanne yeneno exrentnocrn apxnennc-
xona Xepconcxoro n Tanpnuecxoro Hnnoxenrnx, xoropt ntcxasan nem
crponrentcrna xpama cnxroro Bnanmnpa n namxrt o ero xpemennn n
Xepconece, xpama, saymannoro xax pexoncrpyxnnx penne nepxnn, n
xoropo n nponcxonno xpemenne. Btcoxax yxonnocrt n cneonanne
mopantntm npnnnnnam xpncrnancrna xapaxrepnt nx nce exrentno-
crn Mnxanna Cemenonnua Boponnona na nocry renepan-ryepnaropa
Honopoccncxoro xpax. O orxptrnn n ero trnocrt na +rom nocry
nepxnn cnxroro Apxanrena Mnxanna, o yupexennn xencxoro Mnxa-
no-Apxanrentcxoro monacrtpx ronopnrcx n oxnae u.A. Camonona
(Oecca) uera M.C. n E.K. Boponnontx n ncropnn Oeccxoro xa]e-
pantnoro Cnaco-Hpeopaxencxoro coopa. Hopono paccmarpnnaercx
ncropnx nosneennx rnannoro xpama Oecct, nouepxnnaercx nocro-
xnnax saora Boponnona o sanepmennn crponrentcrna xonoxontnn n
ononnennn coopa.
Coueranne cyryo ncropnuecxnx nonpocon, nonnmaemtx n oxna-
ax, c ntcoxnm npancrnenntm nacrpoem ntcrynnenn, nocnxmenntx
npanocnannm, nosnonnno cosart ocoym rnopuecxym armoc]epy xon-
]epennnn. 3romy cnococrnonano n camo mecro ee nponeennx xpa-
cnnemn Anpeencxn san noccranonnennoro Cnaco-Hpeopaxencxo-
ro coopa.
Ho nroram xon]epennnn cocroxnact nnoornopnax ncxyccnx, n xo-
ropo mnpoxo tn ormeuen ntammncx nxna cnernemero xnxsx
M.C. Boponnona n xyntrypnym, +xonomnuecxym, noennym xnsnt Poc-
cncxo nmnepnn nepno nononnnt XIX n.
Ta1tnna H3BAm-IOHKAH, Hropt mKAREB
198
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
PYCHHCKOE BO3POEHHE
HA MOCKOBCKOH 3EMAE
Pycnnt napo c rparnuecxo ncropne. B rot nonnrnuecxoro n
+xonomnuecxoro nnxonertx mnorne ero npecrannrenn uacro ne no cno-
e none tnn ntnyxent noxnnyrt pono xpa. uacrt ns nnx npn no-
xnnnmecx nosmoxnocrn nepnynact, pyrne ocrannct no nnont oxn-
rtx mecrax. B nontx ycnonnxx nepecenennt ncrpeuann na cnoem nyrn
pasnnunte nponemt, otuno npnxonnoct naunnart xnsnt c uncroro
nncra, npeoonenax marepnantnym nyxy, no, necmorpx na ecrecrnen-
noe nnnxnne nntx xyntryp, ncera rnanntm tno ne accnmnnnponartcx
n coxpannrt cnom camotrnocrt.
Conpemenntx noxapnarcxnx pycnnon n Poccnn ycnonno moxno or-
necrn x nym nonnam mnrpannn: conercxoro n nocrconercxoro nepnoa.
Hepnt, oycnonnennt xomnnexcom npnunn nnrerpannn nonoro nace-
nennx n conercxoe omecrno, nauancx c momenra npncoennennx Ho-
xapnarcxo Pycn x CCCP. Bropo - pesyntrar paspasnnmerocx n nepe-
nomnte nocnenne na ecxrnnernx xonna XX n. cncremnoro xpnsnca,
sanepmnnmerocx pacnaom conercxoro rocyapcrna n nocneymmnm
crponrentcrnom nontx connantntx cncrem. Hpnuem, annt nepexo-
nt nepno, conponoxanmncx pasnnuntmn +xonomnuecxnmn rpyno-
crxmn, o cnx nop n nonno mepe nentsx cunrart narononyuno sanep-
menntm.
C xpaxom conercxoro noxa n Bocrouno n Henrpantno Enpone npo-
necct nnepannsannn tcrpo nponnxamr no nce c]ept xnsnn, npoxo-
xr noncemecrno. Hoxnnxmrcx nnemnne npenoctnxn peneccanca py-
cnncxo xyntrypt. Tax, n Cnonaxnn, Hontme n na reppnropnn Hoxap-
narcxo Pycn crann nosnnxart mnorouncnennte pycnncxne xyntrypnte
oprannsannn. Cronr ormernrt, uro npnunno nx noxnnennx tno cyme-
crnonanne narenrno nannonantno pycnncxo xyntrypt, xnnme n xon-
xperntx ee npecrannrenxx ns pasntx cnoen omecrna - or xpecrtxn-
crna o nnrennnrennnn. A ]axrop emoxparnsannn omecrna xnnxncx
cxopee rontxo nnmnrnpymmnm.
Cxoxne nponecct nponcxonnn n n pycnncxo nacnope na Bocroxe.
Tontxo nx ]opmnponannx cocrnenntx omecrnenntx nncrnryron rpe-
onancx onee npoonxnrentnt cpox. Ceuac xe, c o]nnnantno pe-
rncrpanne n Poccnn n xonne 2007 r. pernonantno omecrnenno opra-
nnsannn Kapnarcxax Pyct, cmeno moxno ronopnrt o npeoonennn +roro
naxnoro pyexa.
199

Hex cosannx pycnncxoro semnxuecrna nepnonuecxn nosnnxana y
pasntx axrnnncron n xonne 90 rr. XX n. Onaxo ona rax n ocrananact
onroe npemx rontxo xopome saymxo. Hanepnoe, rnanno npnunno,
memanme ee peannsannn, moxno cunrart yanennocrt or Mocxnt oc-
nonntx reppnropn xomnaxrnoro npoxnnannx pycnnon. Bet nx orxpt-
rnx n nocneymmero pasnnrnx raxo oprannsannn neoxonmo nannune
recntx pyxecxnx xonraxron c npecrannrenxmn pycnncxo xyntrypt
na pono semne. B orptne or nponcxoxmnx ram nponeccon raxax crpyx-
rypa ocranact t rontxo na ymare, tna t nnxuemntm meprntm
opasonannem.
Bno npemx, n sa necxontxo ner yanoct noccranonnrt nexora npe-
pnannoe xyntrypnoe enncrno poccncxnx pycnnon c Ponno. B nepno
mnorouncnenntx noesox nyumnx unenon mocxoncxoro pycnncxoro nn-
xennx n pasnnunte nenrpt pycnncxo xyntrypt n Kapnarcxom pernone
nponcxonnn omen mnennxmn, nsanmnax yuea n noepxxa. 3ect, n
Mocxne, renept raxxe n xypce ocnonntx nanpannenn paort n ene
nonnonennoro cranonnennx pycnncxoro xstxa, pasnnrnx cncremt nann-
onantnoro opasonannx, rearpa, cpecrn maccono nn]opmannn, nayxn
n r. . Hocrenenno ns cemenn pyxt n oomno paort pocno enne-
nne, nxnmuenne poccncxnx pycnnon n omym cemtm pycnncxoro napo-
a. a n xax morno trt no-pyromy, xora nmecre npasnonann oue-
pente neontmne, no ouent naxnte noet, yt ro ntxo xnnrn na
ponom xstxe nnn nnrepecno nepeaun n pano+]npe, n na npnunna-
mn neyau uacro ymann cooma.
Inyoxo cnmnonnuno, uro yupenrenn pycnncxoro semnxuecrna n
Mocxne crann ntpasnrenxmn rpex ocnonntx nanpannenn, xoropte
otuno xnnxmrcx ocnono xnsnn nx nmo nacnopt: npecearent
Hose] Innnxa, ncemn ynaxaemt npecrannrent nepno nonnt pycnn-
cxo mnrpannn, yxonnnx oren Mnxann uapxonen, nacroxrent npanocnan-
noro xpama n Mocxne, n samecrnrent npecearenx ncropnx-pycnnncr
Mnxann ponon, ntnycxnnx Hpxmencxoro ynnnepcnrera.
ecrnnrentno, ncem nsnecrna orpomnax pont nepxnn n ene coxpa-
nennx camonenrn]nxannn nmo omnocrtm, oropnanno or oreuec-
xoro oma. Hmenno xpam n pasnnunte nannonantnte orocnyxente
rpannnn xnnxmrcx rem oasncom pono xyntrypt n nno connantno
cpee. Baxnoe snauenne n xnsnn omnnt raxxe nmemr yuente nccne-
onarenn ncropnn, xstxa, connonornn. Hanpnmep, cpen axrnnntx une-
non mnoromnnnonno Hononnn ncera moxno ncrpernrt nononncron, n
pxax nemenxo nacnopt repmanncron n r. . uacro onn axe ne
nmemr coornercrnymmero rnryntno nannn nponcxoxennx, uro, ona-
xo, ne memaer nm trt snaroxamn xyntrypt n napono rpannnn,
nontsonartcx sacnyxenntm ynaxennem pyrnx unenon omnnt. Cyme-
200
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
crnonanne semnxuecrna nenosmoxno npecrannrt es rax nastnaemtx
crapemnn, xax npannno, nme onee pannero noxonennx mnrpanron,
ymypenntx xnsnenntm ontrom, snammnx ne nonacntmxe o ncex rx-
rorax nepecenennx.
Kaxoe semnxuecrno n cnoe exrentnocrn crpemnrcx ocrnrnyrt
pasnoopasntx nene, narn nopo nenerxoe pemenne nocrannenntx
saau. Hpn +rom rnannoe - ne orropaxnnartcx or oxpyxammero mnpa,
ne samtxartcx n camom cee, a naoopor, necrn n pyrym xyntrypy
cnon rpannnn n nonnmanne rex nnn nntx nonpocon, yuacrnonart c ee
nocnrenxmn n pannonpannom nanore. Kax npannno, raxne xoncrpyxrnn-
nte nsanmoornomennx nyr na nontsy oenm croponam. A saxptrocrt
n oruyxennocrt npnnoxr rontxo x naxonnennm nsanmnoro nenonnma-
nnx n nepemenntx nponem, uacro onaammnx paspymnrentno cn-
no.
B +ro cnxsn noxasarentno nepnoe nynnunoe meponpnxrne, oprann-
sonannoe no +rno Kapnarcxo Pycn n Mocxne. 20 exapx 2007 r. n
Fnnnorexe-]one Pyccxoe 3apyexte cocroxncx ncropnxo-xyntry-
ponornuecxn cemnnap Hoxapnarcxne pycnnt n Poccnx. B xauecrne
ntcrynammnx n axrnnntx cnymarene n nem npnnxnn yuacrne rnana
Coma noxapanrcxnx pycnnon oren nmnrpn Cnop ns Vxropoa,
yuente ns pasnnuntx nayuntx oprannsann, n rom uncne rpex nncrnry-
ron Poccncxo Axaemnn nayx (cnanxnoneennx, +rnonornn n anrpono-
nornn, nayuno nn]opmannn no omecrnenntm nayxam), Henrpa yxpan-
nncrnxn n enopycncrnxn Mocxoncxoro rocyapcrnennoro ynnnepcnre-
ra, Iocyapcrnenno nynnuno ncropnuecxo nnnorexn Poccnn, a
raxxe npanocnannoe yxonencrno, nxnmuax narounnnoro Vcnencxoro
narounnnx Mocxnt orna Cre]ana Hpnnax. Cnon npnnercrnnx nocnann
cexperapt Bcemnpnoro Conera pycnnon Anexcanp 3osynxx (Hpxmen,
Cnonaxnx) n npesnenr Omecrnenno oprannsannn Pyct Cepre Cynxx
(Knmnnen, Monannx). Hpnmeuarentna axrnnnocrt mnpoxo npecran-
nenno monoexn - cryenron n acnnpanron nsnecrntx mocxoncxnx
nyson.
Hsnauantno, xax n tno saxnneno oprannsaropamn, rema cemnnapa
cnyxnna rontxo opnenrnpom nx ocnonntx nocrannenntx nonpocon, uro
nopasymenano onee mnpoxoe n ncecroponnee nx ocnemenne. Cocrnen-
no nayunym uacrt saceannx ymecrno pasennrt na rpn noxa, cornac-
no oennxmme nx nponemarnxe. B nepnom paccmarpnnannct reo-
pernuecxne n npaxrnuecxne acnexrt ]opmnponannx pycnncxo nanno-
nantno nenrnunocrn. Pasnnrne +roro nponecca n ero ananns ocnema-
nnct n oxnaax Fopta pycnnon 3axapnartx sa nannonantnym nen-
rnunocrt n ee orpaxenne n ncropnorpa]nn (M. ocrant, x.n.n.), Hc-
ropnxo-npanonte oocnonannx rpeonannx pycnnamn camoynpannxemo
201

reppnropnn (o. . Cnop, x. .), Pyccxocrt n pycnncrno (O. Hemen-
cxn). B nnx tnn sarponyrt ncropnorpa]nx no anno nponeme, co-
npemennoe nonoxenne en, a raxxe reopernuecxne npenoctnxn, no-
snonxmmne npoanannsnponart nponecct ]opmnponannx pasnnuntx na-
nnonantntx npoexron. Bropax uacrt nocnxmanact poccncxo-pycnnc-
xnm xonraxram n nsanmoornomennxm. Cymecrnymmne nanpannennx nx
nsyuennx n annte no nanonee nsnecrntm nepconannxm poccncxnx
pycnnon nposnyuann n coomennxx Poccncxo-pycnncxne cnxsn: axry-
antnte nonpoct nsyuennx (M. ponon) n Kapnaropyccxne nnrennn-
renrt n Poccnn (Opna, Fanyxncxn, Hon, Kyxontnnx, Benennn)
(H. Hamaena, . n. n.). Tpern nox ntenen namn no reppnropnantno-
my npnsnaxy. Hcropnx Hpxmencxoro pernona uepes npnsmy nsanmoe-
crnnx pyccxnx n pycnnon npecrannena n ntcrynnennxx: Pycnnt rna-
samn pyccxoro nyremecrnennnxa 1- nononnnt XIX n. (H. Kynpnxnon,
x.n.n.), K nonpocy o nepnonxe Hpxmencxo Pycn (1919-1944 rr.) (E.
Iypxo-Kpxxnna) n Hpanocnannax mnccnx n Haomnpono n 20-40-e rr.
XX n. (C. Cnoncron).
B nepeptnax mexy paoro rocrn n yuacrnnxn cmornn ne rontxo
npoonxnrt oxnnnennte ncxyccnn, no n osnaxomnrtcx c ocrarouno
omnpno ntcranxo pycnncxnx nsann n notnart na npesenrannn
pycnncxnx marepnanon Manopyccxo napono ncropnuecxo nnno-
reuxn, nmesno nororonnenno A. uypnxontm. Hanontmym sann-
repeconannocrt ntsnann xnnrn n noconx no pycnncxomy xstxy, a rax-
xe nsannx no ncropnn n xyntrype Hoxapnarcxo Pycn.
3anepmax cnoe xparxoe oospenne, xorenoct t nouepxnyrt nax-
nocrt raxnx meponpnxrn xax nx cranonnennx eme concem monooro
oennennx Kapnarcxax Pyct, rax n nx ncero pycnncxoro nnxe-
nnx. Koneuno, npecronr ouent mnoro cenart, no net nmenno ns no-
ontx nynnuntx axnn nocrenenno ]opmnpyercx omn opas xonx-
perno oprannsannn, a c nnm n ocnonnte nanpannennx pycnncxoro nos-
poxennx n annom pernone. H or roro, xya yyr npnnoxent cnnt,
sanncxr nacroxmee n yymee pycnncxoro napoa, xnnymero n pasntx
rocyapcrnax, no ncera ennoro n cnoe nannonantno xyntrype n rpa-
nnnxx.
Cepren CAOHCTOB
202
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
BCTPEHA C HPEKTOPOM MY3ER
PYCCKA OAOIA,
IPEKO-KATOAHHECKHM CBRmEHHHKOM
O. MHXAHAOM XOAOmHREM
25 cenrxpx n
ontmom sane
Fnnnorexn yx-
panncxo nnre-
parypt n Mocx-
ne cocroxncx
neuep "Pycnnt n
Cepnn". Me-
ponpnxrne npo-
mno no +rno
Cn a nxncxoro
monoexnoro
xnya (npece-
arent - Anna
Tpanxnna), nor
yxe onee roa
ecrnymmero
npn nnnorexe.
Inanntmn ecrnymmnmn nnnamn ncrpeun crann rocrn ns pycnncxoro
cena mpeno - saneymmn myseem Pyccxa Onora (Pyccxax Co-
xponnmnnna) rpexo-xaronnuecxn cnxmennnx o. Mnxann Xonomnx n
ero nnemxnnnna, cryenrxa xoncepnaropnn r. Honn Ca Anronnx Fapna.
Ben neuep unen xnya ncropnx-pycnnncr Mnxann ponon.
Hocne ropxecrnenntx mnnyr, no npemx xoroptx nposnyuan Bcecna-
nxncxn rnmn, M. ponon nnen npncyrcrnymmym nynnxy n cyrt pycnn-
cxo nponemarnxn, yennn ocooe nnnmanne +rnoxyntrypno cnenn]n-
xe pycnnon, npoxnnammnx n Boenonne. Taxxe neymn noennncx
cocrnenntmn nocnomnnannxmn o nocemennn mpena n 2002 r.
O. Mnxann paccxasan o conpemenno cnryannn n pycnncxo omnne
Cepnn, xoropax nacunrtnaer oxono 17 rtc. uenonex, onaxo nmeer
neuantnym renennnm x ymentmennm. Taxxe rocrt paccxasan o cnoem
npnxoe Poxecrna Hpecnxro Foroponnt, npn xoropom ecrnyer
pycnncxn nannonantnt myse Pyccxa Onora. B ero ]onax co-
203

pant ynnxantnte xnnrn, nxnmuax peuamne nsannx, nanpnmep, ona
ns xnnr Hnana ueopona, arnpyemax xonnom XVI n.
Orentno armmxa ocranonnncx na ncropnn mpencxoro rpexo-xa-
ronnuecxoro xopa Posanon, nasnannoro n uecrt ero ocnonarenx - pyc-
cxoro enornapena. Honan nocne rpaxancxo nont n mpeno,
Posanon cran perenrom nmenno pycnncxoro xopa, necmorpx na nannune
n cene cepcxoro npanocnannoro npnxoa. 3arem o. Mnxann ornernn na
mnorouncnennte nonpoct, xacammnecx axryantntx nponemt pennrn-
osno n omecrnenno-nonnrnuecxo xnsnn.
npexrop Fnnnorexn yxpanncxo nnreparypt H.I. Bapnna nona-
roapnna rocre sa nnrepecnt paccxas n npyunna nm apt or nmenn
nnnorexn ncx c +nexrponntmn nsannxmn, cosannt ntammn-
mncx yuentmn, corpynnxamn Hncrnryra cnanxnoneennx PAH axae-
mnxom R.A. Hatnnentm n x.].n. H.H. Bannncxo, a raxxe xnnry, na-
nncannym +rnmn xe yuentmn, - Haneuarano Hnanom ueopontm -
.Mocxnnrnnom, nsannym Fnnnorexo yxpanncxo nnreparypt.
Bo ncrpeue npnnxnn yuacrne monote ncropnxn, ]nnonorn, ]ontxno-
pncrt n nce, xro nepannoymen x ncropnn n xyntrype cnanxncxnx napo-
on. Taxxe n xauecrne nouerntx rocre neuepa npncyrcrnonann npe-
cearent Pycnncxoro semnxuecrna Kapnarcxax Pyct H.M. Innnxa,
nnyuxa ocnonarenx Kapnaropyccxoro mysex n Mocxne u.u. Apncrona
(1888 - 1932) H. Apncrona n neymn conernnx annapara Komnrera Io-
cyapcrnenno ymt Pu no enam monoexn H.I. Hanpnnenxo, npn-
nxnmne camoe axrnnnoe yuacrne n nnrepecno ncxyccnn.
B nporpamme tno npeycmorpeno uaennrne, nororonnennoe ycn-
nnxmn unenon Cnanxncxoro monoexnoro xnya. Hmnrenn ]ontxnopa
nonyunnn nosmoxnocrt nosnaxomnrtcx c mystxantntmn sanncxmn xen-
cxoro naponoro xonnexrnna c. mpeno. B xynyapax meponpnxrnx ax-
rnnno snyuano cpasy necxontxo parcxnx xstxon: pyccxn, pycnncxn,
cepcxn, cnonanxn n nontcxn. Beuep npomen n nouepxnyro pyxe-
crnenno n ncxnmunrentno opoxenarentno armoc]epe.
Hpecc-cnyaa Bnnno1exn yxpanncxon nn1epa1ypm
204
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
RUSKA MATKA.
RUSKI KERESTUR
U 2008. ROKU
PRI RI HTOVANY ZA X VI L EJ NI KON] RES
Dze{ at i [ vet ovi kon}r es
Rusnacoh/ Rusi noh/ Lemkoh i 4.
[ vet ovi f or um ml adi h RRL ,
ht or i max buc ot r i mani od 4.
do 7. x ni y 2009. r . u Ruski m
Ker est ur e u or }ani zaci <Ruskej
mat ki , budu ot r i mani pod
p o k r o v i t e l q s t v o m
Mi ni st er st va za l x dski i
men{ i nski pr ava i Vl adi
Republ i ki Ser bi <.
P o k r o v i t e l q s t v o
x vi l ej nogo kon}r esa
ut ver dzene 17. sept embr a 2008.
r . u r ozgvar koh Svet ozar a ^ i pl i ~a, mi ni st r a za l x dski i
men{ i nski pr ava u Vl adi Republ i ki Ser bi <zoz Dx r om Papu}om,
pr edsi dat el qom Ruskej mat ki i Sl avkom Or osom, pr edsi dat el qom
Naci onal nogo sovi t u r uskej naci onal nej men{ i ni u Ser bi <. U
r ozgvar koh u Mi ni st er st vu u~ast voval i i Y}oda Vw{ t i ca,
pomocn<k mi ni st r a i Zor ana ^ ambl er , { ef kabi net a mi ni st r a za
l x dski i men{ i nski pr ava u Beo}r adu.
DL UGORO^ NE SOTRUDN>CTVO
Mi ni st er ^ i pl i ~ i j ogo sot r udn<ki i nf or movani o pot er a{ n<h
dzevec { vet ovi h kon}r esoh Rusnacoh/ Rusi noh/ Lemkoh, zoz ht or i h
t r eci ot r i mani 1995. r . u Ruski m Ker est ur e u or }ani zaci <Ruskej
mat ki , pod pokr ovi t el qst vom Vl adi Republ i ki Ser bi <, yk i o st anu
medzi Rusnacama/ Rusi nami / L emkami u Pol qskej , ^ eskej ,
Sl ovackej , Madyr skej , Rumuni <, Gor vat skej , na Podkar pat x u
Ukr a<ni i Si ver no-amer i cki m kont i nent u, <h akt i vnoscami i
r ezul t at ami sot r udn<ct va zoz Rusnacami u Ser bi <.
U r ozgvar koh u Mi ni st er st ve za l x dski i men{ i nski pr ava
okr ema uvaga bul a po{ vecena Pr ogr ami or gani zaci j ni h, t ehn<~ni h
205

i f i nansi j ni h pr i r i ht ovanqoh 10. [ vet ovogo kon}r esa Rusnacoh/
Rusi noh/ Lemkoh i { t var t ogo [ vet ovogo f or uma ml adi h RRL,
ht or a ut ver dzena na per { ej shadzki Or }ani zaci j nogo odbor u
Kon}r esa, 24. ynuar a 2008. r . u Dome kul t ur i u Ruski m Ker est ur e
i pr i l apena na por ydnej Ro~nej skup{ t i ni Ruskej mat ki , 23.
f ebr uar a 2008. r . u pr ost or i j oh Ruskogo kul t uno-umet n<ckogo
dr u` t va Dr Gavr i <l Kost el qni k u Kul i .
Mi ni st er ^ i pl i ~ poi nf or movani i o Pr ogr ami pr i r i ht ovanqoh
wdnogo kon}r esnogo dny (6. x ni y 2009.) u Pet r ovcoh u Republ i ki
Gor vat skej , u or }ani zaci <Dr u` t va Rusnacoh Rusnak.
Rozpat r eni i pr i l apeni i F i nansi j ni pl an 10. [ vet ovogo
kongr esa Rusnacoh/ Rusi noh/ Lemkoh, a okr em pokr ovi t el qst va
dogvar ena i or }ani zaci j no-t ehn<~na pomoc i u~ast vovanw
pr edst avn<koh naj vi s{ i h der ` avni h or }anoh Republ i ki Ser bi <na
x vi l ej ni m kon}r esu RRL.
Yk dogvar ene u Mi ni st er st vu za l x dski i men{ i nski pr ava u
Beo}r adze pomoc za ot r i movanw10. [ vet ovogo kon}r esa Rusnacoh/
Rusi noh/ L emkoh i 4. [ vet ovogo f or uma ml adi h RRL u
f i nansi j ni m i or }ani zaci j no-t ehn<~ni m pogl ydze budze vi t vor ena
vwdno zoz kompet ent ni ma or }anami Skup{ t i ni i Vi ver { nej r adi
Avt onomnej Pokr a<ni Voj vodi ni .
PRI WM U VI VER[ NEJ RADI AP VOJ VODI NI
Ana Tomanova - Makanova, podpr edsi dat el qka Vi ver { nej r adi
Skup{ t i ni Avt onomnej Pokr a<ni Voj vodi ni i pokr a<nski
sekr et ar za i nf or maci <, del e}aci x Ruskej mat ki i Naci onal nogo
sovi t u Rusnacoh pr i yl a 13. novembr a 2008. r . U r ozgvar koh, u
ht or i h u~ast voval i Dx r a Papuga i Sl avko Or os, pot ver dzene
opr edzel wnw` e Vi ver { na r ada AP Voj vodi ni bezpo{ t r edno i
pr ej } svo<h sekr et ar i yt oh budze pokr ovi t el q 10. [ vet ovogo
kongr esa Rusnacoh/ Rusi noh/ Lemkoh i 4. [ vet ovogo f or uma ml adi h
RRL. Vi ver { na r ada APV i Pokr a<nski sekr et ar i yt za i nf or maci <
budu ukl x ~eni i do or }ani zaci j no-t ehn<~ni h pr i r i ht ovanqoh
x vi l ej nogo kon}r esa RRL , a <h naj vi s{ i pr edst avn<ki budu
u~ast vovac i na j ogo { vet o~ni m ot ver anx .
RUSKI PI SN>I [ PI VANKI NA BI WNAL U
Pi yt i Medzi nar odni bi wnal e l emkovskej / r usi nskej kul t ur i ,
ht or i ot r i mani 23. i 24. may 2008. r . u Kr i n<ci u Pol qskej , bul o
u znaku r uskej pi sn<, r uskogo mal x nka, r uskej { pi vanki i r uskogo
206
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
t ancu. U pol ni m
zna~enx t i h
sl ovoh.
Za l aur eat a
{ vet ovej Nagr adi
A l e k s a n d r a
Duhnovi ~a za
poezi x na r uski m/
r u s i n s k i m/
l emkovski m yzi ku
za pr e{ l i r ok
p r e g l a { e n a
poet esa zoz Ser bi <
I r i na Gar di -
Kova~evi ~, za
zbor n<k pi snqoh pod nasl ovom Wdnozl o` nosc u vi danx Novi nsko
vi davat el qnej ust anovi Ruske sl ovo zoz Novogo Sadu. Nagr adu
wj pr i dal Dx r a Papu}a, podpr edsi dat el q [ vet ovej r adi Rusnacoh/
Rusi noh/ Lemkoh, a bl agodar nu zawdn<cku { pi vanku Mnogay l <t a
zapo~al i ~l eni or kest r i i Muzi ~no f ol kl or nogo ansambl a Doma
kul t ur i zoz Ruskogo Ker est ur a pod ~as per { ogo koncer t a na
Bi wnal u, a pr edl u` el i x { i cki , vecej od 500 pr i sut ni u
Koncer t nej sal i Gl avnej Pi yl qn<L<~i l <| a Zdr oj u Kr i n<ci .
Na uhodze do Koncer t nej sal i pr ed t i m bul a ot vor ena vi st ava
mal x nkoh l emkovski h/ r usi nski h mal yr oh, medzi ht or i ma i
mal x nkoh Bi l yni Roman zoz Ruskogo Ker est ur a.
I st ogo ve~ar a u Pogost i t el qni m obwkt u Ve}i er ska Kor ona
ot r i mane Li t er at ur ne st r et nuce, na ht or i m okr em l aur eat ki
I r i ni Gar di - Kova~evi ~ nast upel i poet a i muzi ~ar Vl adi mi r
Mal acko zoz Ruskogo Ker est ur a.
Dr ugogo dny pi yt ogo Bi wnal a u Kr i n<ci ot r i mani popul ar no-
naukovi si mpozi x m o Su~asnej l emkovskej / r usi nskej kul t ur i i
wj mesce u Evr opi , na ht or i m o dosygoh kul t ur i Rusnacoh u Ser bi <
be{ edoval Sl avko Or os, pr edsi dat el q Naci onal nogo sovi t u
Rusnacoh u Ser bi <. Posl e si mpozi x ma ot r i mani dr ugi koncer t
pi yt ogo Bi wnal a na ht or i m oznova nast upel Muzi ~no-f ol kl or ni
ansambl Doma kul t ur i zoz Ruskogo Ker est ur a.
ODU[ EVEL I RUSI NOH U BUDAPE[ TU
U or }ani zaci < Ruskej mat ki 19. i 20. sept embr a 2008. r .
vi t vor ene dvodnqove goscovanw del e}aci < Ruskej mat ki i
207

Nac i onal nogo
sovi t u Rusnacoh
u Ser bi <i dvoh
monodr amoh zoz
R u s k o g o
Ker est ur a u
B u d a p e { t u .
Go s c o v a n w
vi t vor ena na
p o v o l a n k u
M a r i a n i
L y v i n e c ,
pr edsi dat el y
R u s i n s k e j
men{ i nskej samoupr avi za gor od Budape{ t i Andr i y Manaj l a,
pr edsi dat el y Vseder ` avnej r usi nskej men{ i nskej samoupr avi u
Madyr skej , a del egaci x Rusnacoh zoz Ser bi <pr edvodzel i Dx r a
Papu}a, pr edsi dat el q Ruskej mat ki i Sl avko Or os, pr edsi dat el q
Naci onal nogo sovi t u r uskej naci onal nej men{ i ni .
Per { ogo dny goscovany u Budape{ t u gosci zoz Ruskogo Ker est ur a
u budi nku Vseder ` avnej r usi nskej man{ i nskej samoupr avi
na| i vel i Rusi nsku bi bl i ot eku, Rusi nski muzej i Redakci x
~asopi sa na r usi nski m yzi ku u Madyr skej Rusi nsqki j svi t . U
ur ydovi h r ozgvar koh nagl a{ ena pot r eba ~ast ej { ogo st r et any
Rusnacoh zoz Ser bi <i Rusi noh zoz Madyr skej zoz obdumani ma
kul t ur no-umet n<cki ma pr ogr amami , a okr emna uvaga bul a po{ vecena
i r ozpat r anx mo` l <voscoh za po~at ok r obot i Rusi nskogo t eat r a u
Budape{ t u, z pomocu Ruskogo nar odnogo t eat r a Pet r o Ri zni ~
Dydy zoz Ruskogo Ker est ur a.
U mul t i medi yl nej sal i buv{ ogo budi nka Madyr skej akademi <
naukoh, t er az opr edzel wnogo za r obot u naci onal ni h men{ i nski h
samoupr avoh za gor od Budape{ t , dr ugogo dny goscovany, posl e
na| i vi i st or i j ni m i kul t ur ni m pamyt n<kom u gor odu, pr ed vecej
od 120 Rusi nami i <h goscami pr i kazani :
- ZALX BENA DO KRAVKI SLAVKI - dzeci nska monodr ama
Rober t a Takar i ~a, u vi vodzenx Adr i ani Nadq, u r e` i <Vl adi mi r a
Nady A~i ma i u r eal i zaci <Mesnogo odbor u Ruskej mat ki u Ruski m
Ker est ur e, i monodr ama
- BARON MI NHAUZEN (Voj na zoz Tur kami ) ] ust ava Av}ust a
Bi r ger a, u vi vodzenx Emi l a Nyr adi y, u r e` i <Vl adi mi r a Nady
A~i ma i u r eal i zaci < Dr amskogo st udi y "Ar t " Doma kul t ur i u
Ruski m Ker est ur e.
208
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Rusi ni zoz Budape{ t u bul i odu{ eveni zoz pr i kazani ma
monodr amami zoz Ruskogo Ker est ur a, a posl e n<h pr i r i ht al i i
kr at { i koncer t svo<h { pi vankoh i t ancoh.
RUSKI VI TYZ ZA F OTO] RAF I >U VERBA[ E
U r ami koh pr owkt a
Ruski vi t yz 20.
sept embr a 2008. r . u
p r o s t o r i j o h
K u l t u r n o -
pr osvi t nogo dr u` t va
Kar pat i u Ver ba{ e
ot r i mane { vet o~ne
u r u ~ o v a n w
p r i p o z n a n q o h
i podzekovanqoh za
u ~ a s t v o v a n w
na per { i m f ot o-
k o n k u r s u
u or }ani zacp<Mesnogo odbor u Ruskej mat ki u Ver ba{ e. Konkur s
mal i nt er naci onal ni har akt er , a na n<m u~ast voval i 18 avt or e i
t o 13 zoz Voj vodi ni , 3 zoz Sl ovackej i po wden zoz Rusi <i Kanadi .
Na konkur s sci gl i vecej od 500 f ot o}r af i <, t a komi si y kot r a
pr avel a uz{ i vi bor mal a nai sce ~e` ku r obot u vi dvo<c kol o 120
f ot o}r af i <i vi br ac t r oh avt or oh.
Komi si y u kot r ej bul i Mi r osl av Si l ad<, dr Mi haj l o Fej sa i
Ynko Se}edi odl u~el i ` e pr e kval i t et { i cki h u~a{ n<koh dodzel <
3 r ovnopr avni nagr adi a dost al i i h Tany ^ ovs zoz Novogo Sadu,
Sl avko Pavl ovi ~ i Vl ado Nyr adi zoz Ver basu.
KUL YNCI GOSCOVAL I U VUKOVARE
Mesni odbor Ruskej mat ki u Kul i i 2008. r . naj zna~nwj { u
akt i vnoscom vi t vor el na ukl x ~ovanx svo<h ~l enoh do
pr i r i ht ovany pr edst avoh za Ruski f est i val monodr ami , do r obot i
hor skej i r eci t at or skej sekci <, yk i do akt i vnoscoh u r ami koh
Spor t ski h bavi skoh Y{ a Bakov.
U pr ost or i j oh Ruskogo kul t ur no-umet n<ckogo dr u` t va Dr
Gavr i <l Kost el qni k u Kul i 2008. r . goscoval i kul t ur no-umet n<cki
dr u` t va zoz [ i du i Vukovar u. Kul ynci i m vr acel i na| i vu i vwdno
dzel wl i pr i wmni hvi l qki zoz r usku pi snx i t ancom.
209

NOVI ODBOR U NOVI M SADZE
Posl e uspi { no zapr ovadzenej r obot i , ht or a po~al a zoz pi yt i m
Fest i val om monodr ami , dr ugi ma mani f est aci ymi yk co t o Kr a~un
pr ed Kr a~unom i Vel qka noc pr ed Vel qku nocu, pr edl u` ena zoz
na| i vami Beo}r adu, Kocur a, Kul i , [ i du, Sr i mskej Mi t r ovi ci ,
Dx r dqova i dr ugi m na{ i m mest om, a zakon~ena zoz Zmaganqom
nar odni h or kest r oh u [ i du, u Gor odski m odbor u Ruskej mat ki u
Novi m Sadze { t r edkom 2008. r . ot r i mana vi ber ankova shadzka.
Pot edi { n< pr edsi dat el q Gor odskogo odbor a Ruskej mat ki
Yr osl av Sabol na vi ber ankovej shadzki podnwsol zadzekovanw, pr e
vel qku an}a` ovanosc u Dr u` t vu Rusnacoh Mat ka. Za novogo
pr edsi dat el y Gor odskogo odbor a Ruskej mat ki u Novi m Sadu
vi br ani Vl adi mi r Gar ga<, za podpr edsi dat el y Ani t a ] ovl y, a za
~l enoh Ynko Pap, Yki m Gar ga<i Vl adi mi r Cap.
Co { e dot i ka F est i val a u [ i du t r eba nadpomnuc ` e w
or }ani zovani u sot r udn<ct ve Dr u` t va Rusnacoh Novogo Sadu -
Voj vodi ni Mat ka, Gor odskogo odbor u Ruskej mat ki i Kul t ur no-
pr osvi t nogo dr u` t va Dx r a Ki { zoz [ i du. Na F est i val u
nast upel i dva or kest r i zoz [ i du i po wden zoz Novogo Sadu,
Dx r dqova, Novogo Or ahova i Pet r ovcoh u Gor vat skej .
U novi m Sadze od 21. do 23. novembr a 2008. r . ot r i mani { est i
Ruski f est i val monodr ami , ht or i zawdn<cki or }ani zoval i Dr u` t vo
Rusnacoh Mat ka i Gor odski odbor Ruskej mat ki .
PODOBOVA KOL ONI Y U KOCURE
U or }ani zaci <
Mesnogo odbor a
Ruskej mat ki u
K o c u r e
i Podr u` n<ci
Dr u` t va za r uski
yzi k, l i t er at ur u i
k u l t u r u
u pr ost or i j oh Et no
kl uba Odnyt e od
z a b u c a
20. sept embr a 2008.
r . u Kocur e ot r i mana
Podobova kol oni y
Zoz na{ ej pr e{ l osci - na{ ej budu~nosci . Zoz podobovu
210
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
kol oni x , na ht or ej u~ast voval i 18 mal yr e zoz Kocur a, Savi nogo
Sel a i Ver basu, ozna~ena 60-r o~n<ca od { mer ci dr Gavr i <l a
Kost el qni ka.
Zoz zawdn<cku r obot u i u t i m r oku u Kocur e pr edl u` eni
akt i vnosci na u{ or enx pr ost or i j oh Et no kl uba i zber anx st ar i h
pr edmet oh zoz na{ ej pr e{ l osci yk eksponat oh Kl uba. Snovat el qna
skup{ t i na Et no kl uba ot r i mana 30. x l i y 2008. r ., a za pr edsi dat el y
Skup{ t i ni vi br ani o. Vl adi sl av Rac. Pr i nw{ eni St at ut i dr ugi
pr ovadzaci akt i za r e}i st r ovanw, a za pr edsi dat el y Et no kl uba
Odnyt e od zabuca vi br ani Dx r a Maka<. [ vet o~ne ot ver anwEt no
kl uba ot r i mane za 9. novembr a 2008. r . u r ami koh Kul t ur nej
mani f est aci <Kost el qni kova w{ ena.
MASKENBAL F ORUMA ML ADI H
F or um ml adi h Ruskej mat ki 31. okt obr a 2008. r . uspi { no
or }ani zoval Maskenbal u pr ost or i j oh Ruskogo kul t ur no-
pr osvi t nogo dr u` t va u Novi m Sadze. I nt er akt i vna babkar ska
pr edst ava St udi y Abr akadabr a pod nazvu Radosna vi st ka bul a
uvod do t ogo uspi { nogo ve~ar a. Dzeci ht or i pr i { l i pat r i c t ot u
pr edst avvu bul i t i ` maski r ani i dze~nwu~ast voval i u wj
vi vodzenx .
Na Maskenbal u Novi m Sadze vek{ i na ml adi h pr i { l a maski r ana.
Muzi ka bul a odl i ~na, a gosci vesel i i pr i r i ht ani za t anwc. Kol o
pol noci pr egl a{ eni naj l wp{ i maski , a dr u` enwpr edl u` ene do
r ana.
U or }ani zaci < F or uma ml adi h Ruskej mat ki 17. decembr a
2008. r . u Novi m Sadze ot r i mani I st or i j ni ve~ar zoz ` i vot a i
obi ~aj oh Rusnacoh, a ot r i mani vecej st r et nuca ml adi h Rusnacoh
u na{ i h mest oh.
ROZPI SANI DVA KONKURSI
Upr avni odbor Ruskej mat ki na shadzki ot r i manej 3. okt obr a
2008.r . u Ruski m Ker est ur e r ozpi sal konkur s za vi r obok
gr af i { nogo znaka 10. [ vet ovogo kon}r esa Rusnacoh/ Rusi noh/
Lemkoh i konkur s za vi davanwkn<` ki poezi <ml adi h na r uski m i
ser bski m yzi ku u Edi ci <X l i yna Nady. Konkur si obyveni u
t i ` nqovi h novi noh Ruske sl ovo od 10. okt obr a 2008. r .
Na konkur su Ruskej mat ki za vi r obok }r af i ~nogo znaka
10. [ vet ovogo kon}r esa Rusnacoh/ Rusi noh/ Lemkoh, ht or i bul
ot vor eni do 10. novembr a 2008. r . u naj l wp{ e }r af i ~ne r i { enw
211

dal i Vany Dul a i I van Ki { zoz Dx r dqova, pod { i f r u Ru~n<k.
Avt or om naj l wp{ ogo r i { eny }r af i ~nogo znaka 10. [ vet ovogo
kon}r esa RRL, ht or i u Ruski m Ker est ur e budze ot r i mani od 4. do
7. x ni y 2009. r . vi pl acena nagr ada u vi nosu od 15 t i sy~i di nar i .
Na konkur su Ruskej mat ki za vi davanwkn<` ki poezi <na r uski m i
ser bski m yzi ku za ml adi h poet oh nwst ar { i h od 30 r oki , ht or i
bul ot vor eni do 10. decembr a 2008. r ., naj l wp{ i dvoyzi ~ni zbor n<k
poezi <dal a Asy Papu}a zoz Ruskogo Ker est ur a, pod { i f r u Dzi vka
u cmot i . Sel ekt or konkur sa i r ecenzent kn<` ki ml adi h r uski h
poet oh bul pr of . Vl adi mi r Beser mi n<zoz Ruskogo Ker est ur a.
Kn<` ka poezi <za ml adi h r uski h poet oh budze obyvena u Edi ci <
X l i yna Nady, u vi danx Ruskej mat ki Ruski Ker est ur vwdno zoz
Zadu` bi nu Bor i Lat i novi ~a zoz Kul i , a budze dr ukovana u 500
pr i kl adn<koh.
Odl uki o vi bor e naj l wp{ i h r obot oh na obi dvoh konkur soh
Ruskej mat ki pr i nwsol Upr avni odbor Ruskej mat ki na zawdn<ckej
shadzki zoz F or umom ml adi h Ruskej mat ki , ht or a u Ruski m
Ker est ur e ot r i mana 17. decembr a 2008. r .
Redakci y Gl a{ n<ka Ruskej mat ki Ruski Ker est ur u 2008. r .
pr i r i ht al a i vi dal a dva ~i sl a Rusnaka.
Dx r a PAPUGA
Can1 noxapna1cxoro omec1na nuenn
Knpnnna n Meqonn
http://karpatorusyns.org
212
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
AABPEATL PYCLKOH HPEMI.
HYKAPHATCLKA PYCL
xoct ce rax crano, xe y neanny renepimnocrn xx concrctxt uo-
nonix, n y opym n y nynmym cmtcn roro nonxrx, x poxt a poxt ne
ynepan, a cm-ram n axrnnno nomaran npoam npemonuarn n sminnrn
icropim Hyxapnarctxo Pycn n c xopinntx xnrenmn. Cxxa mox n ne
nem mox nosinix npnnena n romy, xe nect ry rpa]nnn na rpannnm
sannxy pycnnctxt n pyctxt xstxt, ne mamua napt xynrypa nenenn-
xoro ynnxarnoro coomecrna n nenrp Enpont. 3a poxt nonimo icropi
ns 3axapnarx macono ytmnn Xnt, Maxpe, Pyct, Hmn. Hyxap-
narctxi Pycnnt nmicro npnsnanx, cnoot n xynrypno anronomi oc-
rann pocxas nounnnrn cx cniomtmn Vxpannnxmn. Bmnrxi ore cno-
ro! Bmicro xepnoro, rpainino mnoroxstunoro npocropy crponr cx n
mopt rnora na cny rnapt. Cexperap nontx oxomyn n paxomyn ny-
ano menymr nauancrny o snopnocrn c pxyn - mononir, cpt mononir
Henaxno, xe Hyxapnarctxa Pyct ne cymecrnyc mpinuno, ona npo-
tnar y cepnxx mnortx rtcxu nmn, m nano n n nipryannym npo-
crop ncecnirno crn. Ket nmcrno xypnr cx sa rpynxt sannxamutx
rynenmn anat ystxyn, ra axo mycnr cx nocraparn n o coxpanenx sar-
poxeno xynrypt. Hpo mene nacran uac axx cx pospaxonarn ns on-
rom. Hanpnmip, sopranisonanmn Pyctxy npemim.
Kpacnoro anrycra poxy 2005 cnnn sa crynom y cen Fyxonneno ny
nononnnon axyntxo tnarenmn Hyxapnarctxo Pycn a ocynnn: rpomi
na cryn! A rpomi yx ryxt! Hnnen roro xocen npnnarntx oco. Cmyrno
nem, xe axorpn nme roroni anarn rpomi, ao xouyr ycrarn n anon-
imnocrn nepe nnacrxmn. Bxoa, mro macmo cece sotrx nonouac-
no Vxpannt. Ao mam nam, xe y neanexy yyunocrn menenami
yxe yyr ornopeno ropi na cnom nynopy cemy npocxry.
Vx y enemp na Cxroro Hnxonax n Vxro-
po tna npyuena nepna Pyctxa Hpemix. Hnan
He1ponnin (http://www.premija-ru. eu/
petrovtsiy.htm ) nanpear a rnopnrent nonouac-
noro pycnnctxoro xstxa se cntsamn na ouix nonin:
... Man nm uaxxt pyx. Tora narpaa - xx ntr
cnixoro nosyxa, xx xyc cononnnt...xorpy rax
nmnm. Cnir mn cx sact nxasyc npexpacntm!
a yx unran ns noxnonenicm cnomCHIBAHKY
3A COAOHHHY:
213

Cen mi nimop nmnrt yxennny,
A pyrt - montpx napenoro c nonpom...
Hem x ma inme nmnm cononnny
C nnynton, anart c uncnoxom.
Mi nxntxo crpamno xpymnni xinenyc -
Hnunni, cmaxnni, napnni, nycrxni...
Ao mene nnrxo rtm nn nuanyc -
Hem cononnna nmnrtcx mnni!
Mox xona pocuexnecx sa pty:
C pixt, nn c mopx - nro in, rn opa!
A x coi ypixy xnia cxty,
A r romy - cononnnunnt apa!..
Hn m oma, a nn niy na rocrnny,
Hn snaxomnmcx morom, roxanom -
Ho! xx x nmnm icrn cononnny
C nnynton, anart c uncnoxom!
Fnc xnia moxy nint nnt npotrn,
Fnc cononnnt nn yy ninnnx!
Tomy m nn mix nnxoro opasnrn
Hacxynntm cnonom: Henana cnnnx!.
Konn cnnnm neper Pisnom sapixyrt,
Tam cononnnt n nepcr, anart-y myx!
Hoconm, na anrnny sanimy -
Ha ynrtcx.B mnop xnaeme nem yx.
xoc macrx snmnto ronnt
Brxrn apa nc ronmoro xinnx:
Xonrnntxa xoxnnx na namin cononnni,
H pynt nnacr yxenoro mnxcnx.
A cononnnunna raxa, om ont cx cnirnrt:
Knrt xou-ra cmax,a xou-ra npocro im!
Taxo cmaunort nnc na cniri -
Hpo nro naxencrno cnonom nn nnonim!
Mi nxntxo nmnrt xpymnni, xonxa - pty,
ontxa - roxan c conorxtm monoxom.
A x nc ninrnni ypixy cxty
H - im c nnynton, anart c uncnoxom!
214
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Hpo cononnny cninanxt cninany,
Hpo cononnny x xaxy xacxt.
Ha nctomy cniri nnmoro nn snany,
Bo mano t raxi mnxxxi cmaxt!
Tax tno nuopa. Tax cx nncrano ntni.
Tax ye n n ycti annimi nni.
Fo oxirt na cnnnn c cononnna,
nnu nn nnxy cnnnctxoro n cnnni!
Ao nnme Herponni ne nem necen pycnnctxi nepmt. Perynapno
nyxoxymr y ecnoony pycnnctxo naror n snyuar ero nn na mro ne
noxoxi mnanctxi +portuni a nonirtuni xonomtxt:
Hisno m cnoun nnunpxna,
Bannna nx namxa,
Ko ysnana m, om mnnomy
ana nmopamxa...
***
Ha cnanti yannuxt
Vxasynyrt rysnuxt.
Ao nn na ncxxy
Manyrt xnont xxy.
Hpnnx raxa xyniranctxa epornuna rema inrepeconana n yunrenx Hym-
xnna Fapxona n yxpannctxoro riranra Kornxpenctxoro n..., n..., n Anem
anma ro yx nnmaxa xana:
HPI3IEHT HA HIBCTABKL
...Ot sicrn nnnnxoc,
Tpea ro sponnrn.
Ko innnnctme Coms,
Bunnnmcx innrn.
- nxpannctxt npisienr -
Hcm nayxy snany,
H Bxpannctxy nmnepnm
Annxx noinxny:
Vxpanny - yxpannnxm,
Kptm nnme - xptmuanam,
Hyrxapnarx - pycnnam,
Iannu - rannuanam...
215

Arraxy epsocrt yx myca rnepo noxapar! 3a yuacrt poxy 2008 y
poori n nonny nynopy ocyxyn onnox Cnponectxtx Pycnnctxtx
xonrpecyn Cnyxa esnexn Vxpannn onena Hnana Herponnix na ntc-
nex npocro y 3any Cnant ycnno s Conxennnntm, Fpoctxtm, Fpoicm,
uennnxem, Pomxon. Homy n nnmnm pycnnctxtm narpioram inxpnminy-
mrt samax na repnropim ... ro semni, na xxy ponnn cx ix npanpain,
ponui, nonn camn, cx irn ra onyxn. Ty y cen Ocy ponn cx 22 max
1945 p. Hnan Rpicnnu Herponni. Byxonn mxony ry n Hnnnn. Ftn
mixonomom, nenayuentm poornnxom, anxcom y Kpacnoon, mo]epom,
roxapem. Cnyxnn y concrctxo apmi y pes. Bycryonan ]pannysct-
xy ]inonorim na Vxropoctxym yninepsirer. Ponn yunrenem y ponym
cen, a norym nonnnapem. Ao ne nem CFV-KIF ponrt nnctxa na
Hyxapnarctxy Pyci cnom uecronany poory. Heytno cx cynoc no-
crynonanx y n ocxopenx Herponniem y nepmax Hpesienra n ep-
xanntx cimnonyn Vxpannt... cece x pat, xe cy mann ocra posymy
n epxananctxoro myxecrna noxoponnrn roro no. Ao na nocnnt
Hont Pyx y macnanntx rpannixx concrctxtx uacyn npocnannn nm
cx Hancnonox nncarnnmn Vxpannt c Hauannnxym Bnanmnpom nop-
inctxnm cxrouno nponycrnn so cnox mopnxyn nennxoro cenaparnc-
ry Pycnna Herponnix! To c emoxpanix, na nx rpym sac!
pyrn Hanpear 2005 Bnanunp Canna1innu
Besnp ( http://www.premija-ru.eu/bedzir.htm ) po-
nn cx poxy 1957 n Vxropo. Ty nycryonan ns
nysnauenem maremarnuny mxony n ]isnunt ]a-
xynrer. Ftn neisynnt - n so mxont, n s ynineps-
irera ro nyxasonann. 3axnarnn cx rearpom n poxy
1981 nymon sa xynict. oyuonan cx no BIH-
Ky... V poxy 1985 y pyctxix xypnanax sauann cx
noxnnxrn a]opismt Bnaca Homaracna B a-
xontx n routx rearpax Tnepn, Fapnayna, Vnx-
nonctxa, Hepmnrpi tnn nocranent ncct 3nm-
nx, snmnx xasxa, Xnonuncxo-nennncxo, Hc-
ropix npo xypxy, mo nnmana cnpnnuy, noc unxmn - napa. Fesnp -
nanpear xonxypcyn Bcx Bonra, Tnept, 1993, 3onore nepo Poci, Moc-
xna, 1998, Koponanix cnona, Kicn, 2005. ro noni Pyct ns ximep an-
m anart nonnx, epx xancy mnpme,ino so mnortma nxcamn,
Kostx-nocrpa, uanrasix npo cmnuox es xann]on otnamr pyct-
xt cnir nepenoma rtcxuonrn n nenosnaroro orenept pyctxoro xst-
xa... A rax y cryna nennxoro Canrtxona-Bepnna:
Bon1. Hop1pe1 ns rynny1ctxyn nonic1n Byr nn qpap.
...Can Cantu Vonracn, nnxe Fonr, cnn nona noon n nomtnan
]nxmxt, ]ypr nonpannxmun cynyui cx ony oxynxp. Cxonnenrponano
216
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
nanonnxn xaxy ynt-ynt-ynt nnxan, xx ]nxmxa saxntnxyc cx, nax
nynopoxnxn ns ne noy, nasa nnnmamun rory nnory,mro manxac nos-
yxom. x nmcrno onaano o nynaenx cxna, nyn nnxx pas ne xan-
uan. Axypar camy rory meramop]osy, xonn nicox, uro cxpnnnr ny nora-
mn, pas oepne cx na npospaunoc cxno. Anem xx oro, xe npospaunoc,
re?..
Ha npasntunym npemixnnym neuypy Bnanmnp Fesnp, xorpn nnnen
nparnn cx so crann, ynonin: xxym! Tenept, aue, roen yy nano-
onmmun Ka]xy nmnrn cx o moepnoro pomana "Kornapnx"... na nem
m, saxnxry, nananme - n napas sa nepo, nnxe, sa xomnmrep...
Hpecrannxrn menixca anmonnua Kpn-
nnna ( http://www.premija-ru.eu/krivin.htm ), nn-
an, n ne mymy - ero n ry y nac snamr, n n Poci,
n n Vxpann, n n Ispaeny. ycran nm nyn npemim
sa ro, xe y poxy 1955 no 1998 xnn n Vxropo n
ry raxoooc nyunnnn... a mn sa ero ect ns ny-
crtnen Heren, sa cenrimenrt n cnomnnxt o Hy-
xapnarctxy Pycn y nonianxx, xyprtx ianorax,
crncxanxx n nepmax:
HEOBLBAHLH OCTPOB. Inant ns no-
nicrn Hycrtnx cxasana
...Hononiam rn, nycrtne, sa manentxt na-
pom na manentxy pin, o xorpo naxptmnnn manentxtx neotnantx
ocrponyn. Pixa x canymun yrxana, ot cx, napy Foxe, ne nronnnn,
xort ram n nntrxa noa. Haonxont senent napom, nn ro socrynan ns
rop, nn nnen cnnnan cx ropi, ao rax nomanmuxt, xe nnno cx, rnt
croxn ]ypr na micr. A tn ram cen manentxt ocrponnx, axypar npo-
cro oma, mro cx xnnue Pa]ana...-Kpacnoc nmnx, -nonina nycrtnx.-
t raxoc nmnna. Hycrtnx Pa]ana. Kpacno, mro? - Hpomy rx, ne
cxau mn o ect...
CTHCKAHR nennxmx n o uanntxmx.
C1ncxann anxm
Bopona saxpaxana na nmnrox noponxut rarop. Ctp nynan, a nnmxa
ro cnnpnna. e m renept naem? Hann cx sa ctpom not. Bro
ynme nanynm pocrnapxm, ro ynme nponycrnm.
C1ncxann pouana "Anna Kapennna"
- Anne, nos!..
am1o uycnu npnnec1n ns npnnn1nmx ninuyn nana Kpnnnna:
...oporoc ronapnmcrno, npnxren, xpaxne n cnoymnnxt! He c nx mexn
namn, no nt ore cnoro cctre n men. H ne nem n men, ann n n momm
tnanm, n maynmy xtxn, sa maynmtm cronom, yxnaentm ns
nmennxxtma crpanamn n nnrem. He yy nac sniarn, xo mro ye nnrn,
217

o nc yyr nnrn nmnrxo n saromonarn cx nmnrxtm. Ha raxy aneunny
roro ne nomxonr namtm xonyxam. A x npanom rast ronomy rocr sa
nac, monx npnxrenmn n coparnnxyn nnoro moro onroro xnrx.
H npnsnam cx, xe x sa roro nnoc xnrx nmon, ne amun coi s roro
cnpany, n Pyctxy npemi. Bn n rort, xonn Anexcanpa Ierantuix ne
tno na cnir, x yxe nmon n npemi imenn Ierantuix. Hepemon nm no-
nnnx npemi Crannnctxo, nepenyronan xono Hennnctxo, nepecxounn
uepes npemim Hennnctxoro Komcomona ns naen axonn, na camym cxtn
nixy, npomxtnrarn mnmo Hoenono, mnmo, mnmo, npocro n Pyctxo
npemi, xorpa yxe maxunna sanexy. xxym cyti. A ona cx nnxunr,
o xonn xxymr, ra n napixanx nepe neptmn. xxym Hnany Ceprecnn-
uy Typrencny, xorpt nonin, xe xet ne pycunna, nnan t o esna,
nnxun mro cx c na nyrnmsnnn. He isynnt nm, nn nomorna t my
pycunna npn nn roro, mro c cx na nyrnmsnnn nect. Pyctxa npemix
t my nomorna. H x t cx c spmx na ero xocen. xxym emy. xxym
Hymxnny, Hepmonrony, Toncrom, xorpi ann nam cect npexpacnt xstx.
nnram norapnx sa Hymxnna, Hepmonrona, uexona, Toncrox n, npan-
ax, sa Anexcanpa Ierantuix, saxnaarenx yanna uexano Pyctxo
npemi, xorpt ne canyc uacy n rpomn na nyepxxy pyctxoro xstxa n
pyctxo nireparypt. Xinio, Cama Ierantui! Cama Hymxnn nennxo t
Bac oopnn.
Hannnacme, nopxacme cx, nynnnacme ra nmacme cx o saxycox.
Hapas nonim marononnoc npo anmoro nanpea-
ra Bacnnn Ma1ony: Hoer... A ane nax oam:
pycnnctxt, nipnt, neramimnt, cnonrannt. Bro
ce o narpat, ro nyn xasan: crpamesno posra-
onant... Taxa uecrt... nnme yy unrarn crn-
xt... Cecx npemix conpornn mene - nennuesnt
ananc... Ao x Pycnn, x yy ponrn... n nipym, xe
roro sacnyxy!
Bacnnt Hannonnu Canunnent ( http://
www.premija-ru.eu/matola.htm ) ponncx n cen Hna-
nonn Myxauonctxoro oxpyra 10-ro mapnx 1960. Py-
cnn. Vunn cx n Vxropoctxym rexnnxymi enexrponno anaparypt. Po-
nn inxenepom na Mexannuny uapnn, neyutm ]axmanom Mexnna-
ponoro Topronoro oma Vxropo, npoipexropom TOB Anronoyr,
macrpom BAT Bnponnue yinentne ninpncmcrno. V poxy 2005
apricra 3axapnarctxoro Haponoro Xopy. Anrop sopnnxa Hnpmi i ne
nycnini cropinxn. Vuacrnnx ]ecrinanyn rymopy Cnonony 2004 n
Bnmneni ycmimxn 2006. Ftn neuarant n onacrntx nepionxax.
Xenart. Ftnar n Vxropo. Mac noc rn, ctna n nxy, mro cryy-
mr na xicnctxtx ntcmtx mxonax.
218
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
ycran nm npemim sa nipnocrt pycnnctxomy xstxy n pycnnctxy yr-
nmsnnni, sa xnnry Pycnnctxa nxonxa, sa nepm Pycnnctxa saraxa
nx irouox:
Bro raxoc na cronni Ianx ?
Vraa, pare my, yxpannm
Bro raxoc y xpeenny annyr ?
Vraa, saxnxrt rt nimnm.
Bro raxoc manapt i nenpnx ?
Vraa rt, niuent maxpe.
Bro raxoc mannntxn norapunx ?
Vraa rt, manxanm Inane
e n Myxaueni Kpacna ronxa ?
Ha yraart cnonax i uex
A nonxx na meni ornirirt
Ko raxn c Banenca Hex ?
e cx ina pymyne rpannnx ?
Bro is Hyra reue y Fnuxin
Hpesienr is xxo epxant
Ha Ionepni ny xopua cin ?
Ko nraan, ror somnon mn cx anirt !
Ko ne snac - pycnna sin!
Hamnm anmtm nanpearom cran pycnnctxt ncropnx n ymincrnos-
narent, nayuntx n nncarnnt Hnan Hon ( http://www.premija-ru.eu/
pop.htm ). Vn ocran nm npemim sa xepny nynnnicrnuny opasony
ranepim tnarenmn nipryanno Hyxapnarctxo Pycn, sa nesnomnt
oent yx, xorpt my osnonnn saymarn n crnopnrn icropnuny n non-
irnuny omy 3nnixnoneim Hyxapna1ctxon Pycn. Tax-ro cran
npo yxpannctxt pexnm neesneuntm repopncron a notna n ersi-
ny n uexax y nponinniannym Xey. Heue ane cno omn nepeaure sa
]irni! - cno ntymni xnnrn.
Han Hon - nam nepnt prisrefusee, y npemi cx yxasan: xai-
nernt nayunnx n ne norpeym trn ncxre pexnamonant... Mt,
nmaxxe, nysnann, xe raxa onna camoro cee ns peannocren cx ne sna-
xyc, ann ne yniryc ero nononn na manonmy pycnnctxy icropi n
nireparyp Hyxapnarctxo Pycn. Hnan Hnanonnu sansxrt n ymnn-
nnnt nonirnunt opent, nyspocnt ocrptm, xxo ptrna pyctxtm
xstxom, y uym nonerxt nepecniunr cx xaxt, xet nem npounrar
ncrnopeni nnm xypri nauepxt noprperyn: ...icninnnnonant n npano-
nipnt onenr-mapxcicra y mnnyry xonanx xomynicrnunoro pexima pas-
napas oepne cx na npononoro yxpannctxoro nanionanicry... He xorin
tx, mro t nyn pano ncran na ry necnpanny nory n mroct nanncan npo
nx... ne a Fyr!
219

Hnan Cn1apt ( http://www.premija-ru.eu/
sitar.htm ) ocran nm npemim sa coxornnnoc, no n
cminoc noxymenx cx nepecanrn noesim Ceprex
Ccennna na pony semnm Hyxapnarctxo Pycn.
ect-xonnct Hnana emereponnua nymrnn:
Bro nem ]ypr ynycm sa cnoc pycnncrno?
Anyx, nn noraan t-ct coi, xe-ct roen no-
ronmaunrn Ccennna no pycnnctxt? Cece sacxr-
no o xnnoro, n nyn nmnn cx o nepma Tt xnna
nt eme, mox crapymxa? n noronmaunn Hn xn-
ni`ctre, mo nmi mamxo? x n pyctxt noer,
Hnan Cnrapt npyuar nepm cenxnn Ann Bacn-
nenn cnom marepn, mro uexar ctna nepnyrn cx omm...
Hnctuo ua1epn
Hn xnni'ctre, mo nmi mamxo?
Hxnto xx? Knanxnycx omy!
Ha na namon xnxxon xaxt pano
Kypxrtcx s xnontx pon tmt.
Hnmyrt mn, ox nam n noun ne cnnrtcx,
Hynn con nam annrt ymy snon.
Bam cx cnnrt, ox s mene sni n'xnnni
B xopumi nixrt n nanop s cnpnx xpon.
Bro sa cnt? 3a mro nam cx noxyra?
Hem xon o nnx nac Iocnot cnac.
He raxn x nxe crpamnn nnanira
Ftm ymep ne niinmn ncix nac.
ocrancx nmnxuon irnnon,
I nanxrema ymxy man cny,
Hpo roro xx nn xasann: Cnny,
Hpn ii nepracx rer ymy.
cx nepny, mo nmi mamxo,
x n xpn posxnirne crapt ca.
Hem yxe nx ne sranxre pano,
x xonnct, xx mnoro nir nasa.
Fo roro mro nmepno - ne synrn,
Bro'm sayman - mano cx nano.
Mnoro i i ropx nepextrn
Meni es nac cx n cniri oneno.
220
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
I yxe ne nuirt nx cx monnrn,
Fo crapomy nepranx ne c?
i rax nac yy ncix nmnrn
oxn niuna rtma nx ne non'c.
I nopnirt ymox rxxxnx rtx pyrx
nac npomy, mamxo, snon i snon.
He xoirt rax uacro na posnyrx.
Bt cx cxopme crpirnrn so mnon.
***
He anyny, ne peny, ne xnnuy,
Bix mnne, xx s xnont inn tm.
Crapocrt sorne ' semnn mo nneui,
Hnra nxe ne yy monotm.
Bxe ne rax mn nerxo c na cnpnm.
Ocint ro xnnyna xonoxom,
H n xpa epesonoro cnrnm
He xoprnrt nx irrn ocxxom.
yx nanponant, rt mn nxe ne mnnt,
He posxpnnam rt nononint ycr.
e cx inn monoocrt i cnna,
Fnncx oue i nonint optx uycrn.
I nce menme n mene saaranox,
Hn x xnn? Hn ro nnm tnn cnt?
Tax rinm n xpn ect nona pano
Ha pyxonomy npoir xonn.
Hncrx mit ynacrn mycnrt s xnena,
Kro cx ponn - ror ouexart cmeprn,
Fyt nanxrema rt narocnonenno,
Bro npnmno onnicrn i ymeprn.
Han Cnrapt onrt poxn ntxnaa maremarnxy. Inrepecno ao, mro
oro yuennnx Kpncrnna Pycnn xasana, mro xxpas na oro nexnixx nona
noposymina, mro ccmt pycnnxa!
Iy 2008 yn npo Pyctxy npemim xynout. Hanpearom crana snama
noerxa n cna s ininiarnnntx npecrannrenex pyctxo inrennrenni xpax
Mina Maptmena. Ona ocrana m npemim sa uncrocepeuni cenrimen-
ranni xynoui noesi, nanncani na nstynnym pyctxym xstxy, sa xnnrn
Onexnnna n 3nisa na ypnnmnm.
221

Mina Mapmmena (Amuina Hannonna Bopoi-
na - http://www.premija-ru.eu/marysheva.htm ) ponna
cx y Xmentnnntxy n ponn oxropyn. Cnoc xnrx sa-
sana ns Vxropoctxtm yninepsirerom, e n nect po-
trt onenrxon xa]ept pyctxo nireparypt. Poxy
1987 y MV nmnem Homonocona y npo]ecopa F. Fyr-
pona samnrnna icepranim s nponem rnnnpymnto
pyctxy pamarypri. uacro nnrn tno a na cnen
rearpy. Hnme nepme, penensyc moepny nireparypy n
rearpanni cneniponxt. Mac nxy a noc onyxyn...
Cnonxa ne cxaxe n npocror...
Hs ncn
Cenrimenranni nepme,
Heiponnuni mopnxn,
-Koro nt myxere cnacrn
V uac iponi nemnnocepno?
Hpocroc cnono... x noa,
x nea xpa sa xpacm nicy...
H ryntxo xanxa nem cnna,
On m ycrarn n nocxpecnyrn!
Cxana na crexxon niconon!
Fyt rnxo. He ropxnn. x nnstxo!
Tinx iponi rnoc
Ha xmapxom ymi neecno!
Ha Cxroro Hnxonax n Vxropo y enemp 2008 ocrana m npemim
raxn Tauapa Kepua (http://www.premija-ru.eu/kerchat.htm). A ro sa no-
npeni ]irni, neceni cninanxt n ]anracrnuni xasxt, xorpi nanncani cmau-
no pycnnctxo ncio, sa xnnrn Foantxt ns nonpem n Ftno nn ne
tno..., mro nona ne nem npnymana n nam posxasana ao n namane-
nana.
Aqopnsum
Knt epxana ne e o napoa, napo e o pyro epxant.
enyrar coi pa.
anyrt - epn, ne anyrt - nymacrn.
Exsicryny - snaunr xiny.
un xn m, roro n npany pix.
Ko tn oro, ror cran oro-ro.
Heuarany onapt CBA, Kanat, Ancrpani n Vxpannt.
222
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Ha1pio1nuna
Vnm coi, ynm xnacno nonn,
Taxo ne manyrt ann n Amepnn!
O nt cnn ropt, Kapnarctxt my xpam,
Taxo xpacort nec ann n pam!
Hocnna cninanxa
Ftna x nouxa - nepma yannnx!
A rennpt mn xaxyrt, xe-m crapa nxnnnx!
Firana-m n xnonnmm nn n xamy, nn n none,
nnctxa nent ptnam, o nx ncxrt xone.
O nmnna-m xnonnm, a rennptxa mn ma!
Honmnyny Mnrpa, nem ro, Hnanxy, rpnma!
Tamapa Kepua - nncarnntxa nonna ranocr. C snarn nem, mro pon-
na cx ona n pomanrnntxym cen Iopona, ry na Hyxapnarcxo Pycn
nayunna cx nncarn, manenarn n cmixrn cx. H npoonxyc pyxynarn cno
pycnnctxi xnnrn. oxin npynann mn nem cnosnarn, mro cnym narpay
ona npoxomenronana rax-ro: Hn c nepexoxua?! Heanno nam cnen-
iannt cniontr Dr.Kapraly Mihaly nepean anmy in]opmanim:
Beca na uec1onanm Tauapm Kepui 18 enempa 2008 p.
Fyy xyprt, ne nosepanyun na nmtrxy ropxecrnenocrt momenra.
Iy ctomy nx nee cama rnopuocrt nect uecronany ocot.
Inrenirenrnocrt n yminctxa cxonnocrt nyxapnarctxy poauxt Ta-
mapn Kepui, xorpa napanenno s monoxom marepn onanonana cinctxtm,
ro ccrt, pontm pycnnctxtm xstxom, xonana cx mexn xnnramn nosna-
roro n Hyxapnarm ecrera Hnana Kepui, ponoro nyrnx, ]opmonana cx
n exsicryc n naane y rnopuym ranemi s parom, Iropem Kepuen. Vunna
cx naponocrny ronepanrnocrn n mypocrn na mnoroxstuntx axonn
nynnnxx Vxropoa.
Hnra ne nncana nene Tamapa, ao nce y nemnornuncnentx n ne-
mnorocrpannuntx rnopox mtcnt ominonana na ]on minimyma ]opmt,
nopynnx raanxt, nanpnmip. In n sanonian Anron Hannonnu uexon,
oam. Kit na ro mox nonx, oan t-m Tamapi Kepui manncmy nire-
parypny npemim nem sa cen riryn xnnrt miniarmp Foantxt s no-
npem (1997). Ko mano snac sa cm pycnnctxy caxpanny crpany, noxo-
nnrt mom mtcnt.
Hnra Tamapa Kepua ne onixana meom nanncanoc cnono, ne xocno-
nana rocrpy ]ayny na norpey mnpoxy nynnxt, ne maronana sa xort
xxy nny nonmnrn cx unrarenenn. Bce tna uecrna s coon, a snaunrt,
nnra ne omanenana n cnonx nounrarenmn. Bncoxa mopannocrt n rxx-
xa npana na xaxtm cnonom. Ce yminctxoc xpeo Tamapt Kepui! Ma
223

ynme rort, xet nnme npo mamenmtx: nosepa xnnry xasox Ftno
nn ne tno. Kasxt n raanxt s inycrpanixmt (Vxropo, 2003; rnop-
uocrt na croponax nonnnxt Hyxapnarctxt Pycnn).
Hnra ne nisna mexn nmt, cxopi naonax, ynnxana ryuno nynnunoc-
rn. Iono trn, xe ro xta npo nam uac, ao raxa nxex c Tamapa
Kepua. Tax coi ymam, xe n nect mexn namn ne ont rax xom]oprno
cee uyncrnyc ny nsrnxamn ryntxtx nmt...
Hcm cxpomnocrt m mox nepeaunrn. x xaxyrt n Vxropo, rento
t tno it... Hem na t n naane, na paocrt opocrntx n re
xpax, rnopnna rn orenept nama nemnx repoxa neuepa Tamapa
Kepua. Hopayme cx sa ne, sa cm, xxy nennxy, raxy n cxpomny rpyxe-
nnnm na nonm moepny pycnnctxy xynrypt.
Pyctxa npemix n ane ye npononrn poscniynanx noponocren
xnrx nanpearyn.
Hami repo onne npeaps necnaxi. Cnnnr x, y rnannym, na n nenn-
nma, ao monna sxst ns Hyxapnarctxon Pycen. Hmn cnnnr x, mymy
cx npnsnarn, mro nam nanpear, na xant... rpomn ycrane xycuox men-
me rn Hoenyn. Ao macme nepcnexrnny! Hosepare mauame, mro
nonoc c na namym cary - http://www.premija-ru.eu
Anexcanp IEIAALHIH
P.S. Ho! Ma.o ue saove u+! Porv 2008 vo.u.u +u uuu couv cne-
ia.uv Aumupvcirv uaepaov Iami v co.ouuui. vcmae u+ sua-
+i pvcoqoo - Miuucmp Kv.mvpi Vrpauui nau Birmop Boervu. C
uanpocmo uuuaru eu opvei pvciri sir r.ura: cooa:a +oea.
Hr v crv+ npunao, riou oie, coeu :ac... eaoi uuu +v no+vre
Pvicra npe+i?
224
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Rxon IOAOBAHKHH
KAPHATCKAR PYCL
(HCTOPHKO-3THOIPAmHHECKHH OHEPK)*
I. Iannunna
Hs +noxn xnaccnuecxo pennocrn mt ne nmeem nnxaxnx nonoxnrent-
ntx nsnecrn o nacenennn Kapnarcxoro noroptx n npnnexamnx crpan. 3r-
nonornx tna y pennnx rpexon n pnmnxn n tnom npenepexennn; cxasa-
nnx nx nncarene o uyxnx crpanax n nacenxmmnx nx napoax nectma cnn-
unnt, sanyrant n nerount. Oren ncropnn Iepoor nnmer, uro p. necrp
ntrexaer ns ontmoro osepa, xoropoe naxonrcx na rpannne Cxn]nn n sem-
nn nenpnon
1
. On xe nomemaer re-ro na npnroxax ropnoro necrpa napo,
nastnaemt rannsonamn, n uem nnte cmente yuente xorxr naxonrt nporo-
rnn Iannua n rannuan (?). Or pyrnx nncarene pennocrn mt snaem, uro no
npemx Anexcanpa Maxeoncxoro re-ro y ncrounnxon necrpa xnnn ac-
rapnt n nenxnnt, napot xentrcxoro nnn repmancxoro nnemen, sannmax
nepnte - nocrounym, nropte - sananym uacrt noxarocrn Kapnarcxoro no-
roptx. Ha mre Kapnar y ncroxon Tnct onrann ararnpct. Bo npemx nmnepa-
ropa Anrycra acrapnt nnnynnct n sanante Kapnart, nenxnnt orcrynnnn
x cenepy, a na mre or acrapnon capmarcxoe nnemx xstron sanxno pannnnt
mexy ynaem n Tnco. Cnepx roro, nspenne xnn n Kapnarcxnx ropax
napo xapnnont nnn xapnt, or xoroptx yro t n nponcxonr nasnanne
Kapnar. Onaxo xe no omemnm o nac anntm nentsx onpeennrt, xro
tnn nmenno +rn rannsont, nenpt nnn nenpnt, acrapnt, nenxnnt, xap-
nnont, xstrn, ecct, ant n pyrne npenonaraemte onrarenn Kapnarc-
xoro noroptx n npnnexamnx crpan.
He menee cnnunnt n sanyrant orptnounte noxasannx pennemnx cpe-
nenexontx xponorpa]on o napoax nocrouno Enpont, n ocoennocrn npn-
xapnarcxnx crpan. Tpyno onpeennrt, nacxontxo no npemx rax nastnaemo-
ro nennxoro nepecenennx napoon tnn sarponyrt Kapnarcxne ropt me-
crnnem roron, rennon, rynnon, anapon n pyrnx napoon, n cxontxo cne-
on onn ocrannnn n nacenennn npnnexamnx sement. Hocne nepennxennx
repmancxnx nnemen na sana n mr n ncropnn xnnxmrcx cnanxne, cnauana
no nmenem neneon n anron, a nosxe - no nmenem cnanxn. Ha cenepno
cropone Kapnar yxe c nxroro cronernx ynomnnaercx o napoe, nastnaemom
xopnaramn, n o semne nx Feno nnn Bennxo Xopnarnn, n xoropo Koncran-
rnn Farpxnopont nonaraer onacrt, nastnaemym rysemnamn Foxn. On-
* Btepxxn ns +ro crartn tnn unrant anropom n saceannn rpertero apxe-
onornuecxoro cesa n Knene 12 anrycra 1874 r.
225

peenxx sacenenne Bocrouno Enpont, Hecrop aer nam nonoxnrentnte


cneennx o nacenennn npnxapnarcxoro xpax cnanxnamn; on naxonr n +rnx
semnxx rex xe xopnaron. Taxnm opasom, xorx n nentsx c ocronepnocrtm
oxasart, x xaxomy nmenno nnemenn npnnanexann n pennocrn nepnte
onrarenn npnxapnarcxnx sement, no nocenennx cnanxn n nnx cront pen-
nn, uro nx moxno cunrart nepnotrntmn xnrenxmn xpax. Bcx ronorpa]n-
uecxax nomenxnarypa Kapnarcxoro noroptx n nnsnexamnx crpan nnonne
cnanxncxax (pyccxax). Bce sacenennte mecra, pexn n ropt, pyutn n xonmt,
xnmun n ecrecrnennte ypounma, nonx n nyra, - cnonom, nce tmnr n sny-
unr uncrtm cnanxncrnom. Hspexa moxno narn nasnanne, yxastnammee
na npemennoe npeonaanne uyxtx nnemen.
Bnpouem, ner nnxaxoro comnennx, uro c pennemnx npemen pasnte nne-
mena n nepennxennn cnoem c nocroxa na sana ocranannnnannct y cenep-
noro nonoxtx Kapnar, a pasnrte n mexoycontx panxx ocrarxn napo-
on cnacannct n naxonnn yont npnmr n xapnarcxnx ymentxx. Conxnte
ncrounnxn, cront nsonntno tmmne na cenepnom cxnone +rnx rop n nt-
nemne Iannunne n es rpya ocrannxnmne cont, nepoxrno, eme c annnx
npemen npnnnexann x cee xnrene, xoropte, nocennnmnct sect, opo-
xnnn +rnm apom npnpot, onnaxono neoxonmtm nx nxoro xouennnxa
n nx onee opasonannoro semneentna n ropronna. Fes ncxxoro comne-
nnx, n +ro crpane npetnann n pennee npemx n uycxne, n xentrcxne, n
repmancxne nnemena, n nce onn ocrannnn cnet cnoero npexnero tra. o
cnx nop nosntmamrcx no nce noxapnarcxo crpane mnorouncnennte xyp-
rant n nactnn, cxptnax nnyrpn cex eme ne nccneonannte namxrnnxn
crapnnt
2
. Ho no ncxxom cnyuae +ro tno n cront oranennoe npemx, uro n
+rnnuecxom ornomennn nnxaxnx cneon ne ocranoct nn n xnsnn, nn n try,
nn n rnne, nn n xocrmme, nn n xstxe, nn axe n npeannxx ntnemnero
nacenennx.
Co npemenn opasonannx cnanxncxnx rocyapcrn - Bennxomopancxoro,
Hontcxoro n Pyccxoro - xapnarcxoe noropte yxe nocroxnno sanxro tno
cnanxncxnm napoonacenennem, xoropomy ne nomeman no nnaennn semne
nn nepexo yrpon nnn matxp nosne Knena (884 r.), nn nocneonanmee sa-
rem sanoenanne nmn Bennxomopancxoro xnxxecrna (899 - 907 rr.). C +ro
nopt n Kapnarcxnx ropax conpnxacannct nonnrnuecxne rpannnt rpex ro-
cyapcrn - Hontmn, Vrpnn n Pycn, no napo cnanxncxn sannman cnon
npexnne nocenennx. On onxen tn ycrynnrt xouennnxam matxpam ront-
xo npnrnccxne n npnynacxne crenn
3
. Bnpouem, ecrt oxasarentcrna, uro
nepnonauantnte rpannnt +rnx rocyapcrn tnn ne na camom xpere Kap-
nar, a y mxno noomnt Kapnarcxoro noroptx. Anonnm, norapn xoponx
Fent, nnmer, uro xopont Cre]an saxnmunn oronop c nnaerenem nontcxnm
na cuer rpannn, nponox nnnnm or ropoa Ocrpoxonma (cnan. Ostrihom,
nar. Strigonium, nem. Gran) n rpa (Erlau) x p. Tnce, nocne no p. Tenne x
ropoy Cnany (Sobvar) nosne Hpxxena, n sect onn nonoxnnn rpannnt
mexy Matxpmnno, Hontme n Pyctm
4
.
226
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Hrax, moxno nonoxnrentno cxasart, uro ncx noxapnarcxax crpana n xap-
narcxoe noropte sacenent tnn c oncropnuecxnx npemen nnemenamn cna-
nxncxnmn. Orcma, nepoxrno, ntmnn (610 - 641 rr.) cept n xopnart, a
moxer trt, n uexn n sacennnn ntne sannmaemte nmn semnn; sect nona-
ran eme Hecrop xopnaron, a n cocecrne c nnmn - pyrne cnanxncxne nne-
mena: yxan, yneon, pennxn, rnnepnen, yrnnue. C camoro ocnonannx
Pyccxoro rocyapcrna nnaenn nce +ro semne pyccxne xnxstx Pmpnxona
oma; onn sanenn sect pyccxoe ynpannenne n pyccxn rpaxancxn tr.
Vxe n XI cronernn nnacrt Pocrncnannue yrnepnnact na Kapnarcxom no-
ropte o roro, uro onn ns nnx, Bacnntxo Tpeonntcxn, mor nocnrtcx c
mtcntm sanoenart Hontmy n meuran o antnnx noxoax n nonax c yna-
cxnmn onrapamn n o noeax na nononnamn: Pexy, - ronopnn Bacnntxo,
- pary cnoemy Bonoapenn n anny: ara mn pyxnny cnom mono-
mmm, a cama nnra n necennracx; n nomtcnnx na semnm Hxtcxym nacryn-
nm na snmy n na nero n nosmy semnm Hxtcxym, n mtmm Pyctcxym semnm;
n no cem xoren ecmt nepexrn Fonrapt ynacxte n nocanrn x y coe; n no
cem xoren npocnrncx y Cnxrononxa n y Bononmepa nrn na Hononnn-a nmo
nanesy coe cnany, a nmo ronony cnom cnoxm sa Pyctcxym semnm... Ho
sa moe nsnecenne nnsnoxn mx For n cmnpn
5
. Hecuacrnoe ocnennenne Ba-
cnntxa nocnpenxrcrnonano emy ncnonnnrt +rn ntcoxomepnte nnant ora-
rtpcxo ymn, no cnona, cront ncxpenno ncnoneannte Bacnntxom, xnno-
nncno npecrannxmr, n xaxom nnerymem cocroxnnn naxonnact n ro npemx
Hoxapnarcxax Pyct n xax cnntno tno rocyapcrno Bacnntxa, xora on
cunran nosmoxntm es nomomn pyrnx xnxse conepmnrt cront naxnte
ena.
B ro npemx, xora n ntnemne cpene Poccnn xnnn eme nnopont,
cpen xoroptx rontxo uro nonopxnact pyccxax xnsnt,- n Hepemtmne,
pocnanne, Tepeonne, Iannue, Fentse, Fyxene, 3nennropoe n pyrnx
ropoax
6
anno yxe xnnena pyccxax xnsnt, nponnerana pyccxax rpaxan-
crnennocrt n pasnnnanact pyccxax xyntrypa.
3ect, no cxasannxm neronnce, npocnannnnct nmena snamennrtx n nc-
ropnn Bonoapx, Bnanmnpxa n Bacnntxa; sect tno rnannoe nonpnme
exrentnocrn Pomana, annnna, Htna. 3ect, n Iannucxom samxe, eicoro
cuoe. Bpoc.ae Oc+o+ic. ua ceoe+ s.amoroeauuo+ cmo.e, noonepuu ceo-
u+u re.esui+u no.ra+u eopi Veopcrue (o cnx nop nnnemmnecx ns pas-
nannn Iannucxo xpenocrn); orcma on sameop. epama vuam, cvoi p-
ou. oo vua u cmpe.. c omu s.ama cmo.a ca.maui sa se+.+u
7
. 3ect
Poman Mcrncnannu npnnnman rpeuecxoro nmneparopa n c ropom ocanxo
yxastnan nancxnm nocnam na cno meu npn epe, xoroptm on noexan
cnonx nparon. Orcma, naxonen, ntnntno nont no necrpy na rtcxue na-
txx pyccxoe nonncrno, cront xpapo cpaxanmeecx nmecre c cnonm mntm
xnxsem annnnom Pomanonnuem n necuacrno nrne npn Kanxe
8
. Orcma
xe ntcrynnn xnxst annnn c cnonmn necrxmnmn nonxamn na nomomt
yropcxomy xoponm Fene IV, ntesxax na cnoe xpacnno noman no ooi-
227

:am pvccro+v n sonoro cpye, xoropo ynnnxnnct nemnt, n cam xopont


npnxonn n nocropr or roro, uro annnn xnnncx no ncem necxe otuaen
pyccxnx ornon cnonx
9
, - cnonom, sect tna nnonne pacnnermax xnsnt
morymecrnennoro Pyccxoro rocyapcrna. H o cnx nop ocrannct rannucxo-
pyccxne ropoa n mecreuxn (xorx, nnpouem, n nsmenennom nne), n ont-
max uacrt mecrnocre n pex, ynomnnaemtx n neronncxx, coxpannna, no
npeannm nepnoro cnoe naponocrn nma, crapopyccxne nasnannx
10
.
3a ncxnmuennem namecrnnx Fartx, nepe necmerntmn nonunmamn xoro-
poro napo onpomertm exan ns pasopenntx crpan, recnxct n ropt n sa
Fecxn
11
, a raxxe ncxnmunn pasopnrentnte noxot Horax n Teneyrn n
Vrpnm n Hontmy
12
, o nononnnt XIV cronernx ne sameuaem nnxaxoro nepe-
nnxennx nnemen nnn ontmoro nepecenennx napoon n npnxapnarcxnx
xpaxx, xpome nesnaunrentntx nocenenn noennonnenntx nnn oponont-
ntx xononn.
Hamecrnne rarap na Iannnxym Pyct n pasopenne nmn nce npnxapnarc-
xo crpant nanecnn, onaxo, rnyoxym pany naponomy try pyccxomy, n
+rn pasopennx tnn rem rynrentnee, uro nonropxnnct nepnonuecxn nourn
o nonemnx npemen. B napontx necnxx ocrannct nocnomnnannx o +rnx
nanaennxx rarap n rypox.
Hocne cmeprn Iannnxoro xnxsx Rpnx II Htnonnua n nocne npexpamennx
xnxxecxoro poa no npxmo nnnnn rannnxn npecron sanxn masonenxn
xnxst Fonecnan Tpoenonnu, ctn Mapnn, crapme cecrpt Rpnx. Kpe-
mennt n nocnnrannt cnoem mareptm n npanocnannn n rontxo n 1329 r.
conpamennt n xaronnuecrno, Fonecnan xpyro opamancx c Pyctm n co-
nepman nacnnne na nx npanocnanno nepo; no +ro npnunne on n tn
orpannen, no cxasannxm nonxxon, n ymep or xa. Bcne sa rem xopont
nontcxn Kasnmnp no npenorom pocrna c xnxsem pyccxnm n no npany
cnntnemero sannaen semne. Taxnm opasom, n nepno nononnne XIV
nexa xonunnact camocroxrentnocrt Iannnxo-Pyccxoro xnxxecrna, a nmecre
c rem n nonnrnuecxax ncropnx camocroxrentno Iannnxo Pycn. Ena Kasn-
mnp ycnen sanxrt Iannunny, xax pasropenact xecroxax opta mexy
Hontme n Hnrno, xnxstx xoropo na ocnonannn pocrna c pyccxnmn xnx-
stxmn omorannct uepnonno Pycn, Honectx, Bontnn n Hoontx (Hmapr-
nmnrpn Ienmnnonnu, yyun xenar na rannnxo xnxxne, ouepn Rpnx
II, tn nnxamnm nacnennxom). Hnronnt n coennennn c rarapamn ony-
cromann ntnemnmm Bocrounym Iannnnm no pp. Cxn n necrp. Hocne cmep-
rn Kasnmnpa (1370 r.) no npemx nnaennx xnxsx Bnancnana Onontcxoro
(no 1379 r.) Hmonnxa Vropcxoro n ero ouepn Mapnn (no 1386 r.) npoon-
xanact ra xe opta sa pyccxne semnn mexy Hontme n nnroncxnmn xnx-
stxmn, xoropte, npnnanexa x npanocnannomy neponcnoneannm n nnrax
naxnonnocrt x pyccxo naponocrn, ncera naxonnn couyncrnne n no-
epxxy n Iannnxo Pycn. Hocne xennrtt Bnancnana rana n coenne-
nnx Hontmn n Hnrnt ynxnact na npemx nona, no ncxope partx ranont,
ocoenno Cnnpnrano, noepxnnax xenanne Hnrnt n Pycn orpemnrtcx
228
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
or Hontmn, nauan nonym nony c xopono. Cnnpnrany nomorann rarapt
n Pyct n Iannunne, Bontnn n Hoonnn. Mexy rem (1432 r.) nonxxn ycnenn
npenparnrt tnmee Iannnxo-Pyccxoe xnxxecrno n nontcxym nponnnnnm,
nasnan ee noenocrnom Pyccxnm nnn uepnonnom Pyctm (Russia Rubra).
Kora xe rypxn nsxnn xpenocrn Knnnm n Fenropo, a xptmcxne rarapt
(1475 r.) orannct n nx noxponnrentcrno, rora nanaennx rypox n rarap
crann nonropxrtcx nce uame, ryx necuacrnym crpany, xoropax tna one-
ena o xpanero oenennx
13
.
Pyct repnena, nnpouem, ne rontxo or nanaenn rarap, rypox n pyrnx
nenpnxrene, no n n pasnysanno Hontme copanmeecx nocnonnroe pyme-
nte (ononuenne) nepexo pocanoct na cnoxontx xnrene n rpanno crpa-
ny ne xyxe nenpnxrenx, xax +ro cosnamr camn nontcxne ncropnxn
14
. Ftna-
no, noxya coepercx nontcxoe nocxo, rarapt anno ymnn c nnennnxamn n
otue. Ho npnunne +roro nepaennx o semnxx pyccxnx, npnnnctnaemoro
xoponm, nocne nanaenn rarapcxnx, esnaxasanno onycromanmnx Hoo-
nnm n Iannunny n 1448, 1450, 1457, 1469 n 1474 roax, +ra nontcxax ne-
ypxnna naoena ncem o roro, uro npecrannrenn pyccxoro nopxncrna,
necmorpx na oemannte mnxxercxne cnoot, yrpoxann nspart cee py-
roro rocyapx
15
.
C camoro nauana nontcxne xoponn oemann conmart npana Pycn, no
onn nnxora ne cepxnnann cnoero cnona. Kasnmnp Bennxn oeman ne
crecnxrt npanocnannoro neponcnoneannx, no yxe n 1370 roy n rpamore
cnoe x narpnapxy Haperpacxomy yrpoxan xpecrnrt Pyct n narnncrno
16
.
Bcnecrnne nocranonnennx cema n Kopunne n 1456 r. Kasnmnp rennon
nsan ocote npnnnnernn nx noenocrn Pyccxoro n Hoontcxoro, a n
1462 r. n nx Fentscxoro, no +rnmn npnnnnernxmn mornn nontsonartcx rontxo
xaronnxn (ro ecrt npnmentnt nonxxn a conpamennte pyccxne), rax xax
eme Bnancnan rano ncxnmunn ns mnxxercxnx npnnnnern npanocnan-
nym Pyct. Ho +ro npnunne snarnte n oxonte ocronncrna noeno, xam-
renxnon, crapocr, noron (ypromncrpon) pasanaemt tnn ncxnmunrentno
xaronnxam, n onn xe nmenn ronoc n nepx na cemax n n xoponencxom cena-
re. Pyccxne xnxstx, oxpe, nopxne ncera n nese tnn ocxopnxemt. Pyc-
cxoe yxonencrno (popones ruthenicales) onxno tno nnarnrt napanne c
pyrnmn xnrenxmn (ne mnxxro) nanorn (fertones), n ro c ymn, a ne c
semnn, xax pyrne noarnte cocnonnx, mexy rem xax pnmcxo-xaronnuec-
xoe yxonencrno ocnooxeno tno or rocyapcrnenntx nanoron, sa nc-
xnmuennem notmnoro (co cnonx noanntx)
17
.
Conpamennte n xaronnuecrno oxpe Kepeennun, Xooponcxne, Moxen-
unun, Heponcxne, Knmct n p. crponnn na pyccxo semne xocrent n xnxm-
ropt nx xaronnxon n naenxnn nx orartmn ]onamn, a cnon nepxnn n
monacrtpn ocrannxnn nnmere n pasopennm. Cnepx roro, nontcxne nomemn-
xn onarann pyccxoe yxonencrno rxxxnmn nanoramn, npncnannann cee
mpncnxnnm na nnmn, nacnntno sanpann nx nopnma (ycatt) n npo-
ronxnn nx. Vxe n 1497 roy Hepemtmntcxn enncxon Hoannnxn noan
229

xanoy xoponm Antpexry, uro nepemtmntcxne crapocrt npn cyentx


pasnparentcrnax c xaronnxamn ne npnnnmamr cnnerentcrna pyccxnx n
cunramr nx neecrnnrentntmn, n uro crapocrt npnnyxamr pyccxnx npas-
nonart narnncxne npasnnxn
18
.
Co npemenn sanoenannx Iannnxo Pycn nonxxamn nauancx nonnrnuecxn
n pennrnosnt rner, xoropt npoonxancx nourn 500 ner. Hyxno samernrt,
uro n Iannunne nauanoct yrnerenne pyccxoro +nemenra pantme, uem n cmex-
ntx onacrxx, ocranmnxcx nnroncxnm xnxstxm, n nontcxoe nro ncero cnnt-
nee annno rannuan. Kopont, nmenonanmn cex rocnoapem (ro ecrt rocy-
apem) n nacnecrnenntm nnaerenem Pycn (dominus et haeres Russiae),
pacnopxxancx es crecnennx n Iannunne, rora xax n nnroncxnx semnxx on
onxen tn conmart ycnonnennte saxont. Vxe n XV cronernn nontcxne
xoponn nopyunnn ynpannenne uepnonnom Pyctm nsnecrntm ]amnnnxm
Opononxon, Fyuanxnx, Xoeuon, xoropte ynpannxnn camonnacrno rax
nastnaemtm noenocrnom Pyccxnm. Hs poa Opononxon tnn noenoa-
mn Herp, a c 1450 r. ctn ero Anpe, n nonpemenno c nnmn noe pyrnx ns
roro xe poa sannmann ntcmne crenenn narnncxo nepapxnn: Hoann Opo-
nonx tn apxnenncxonom Htnoncxnm n Hnxona - enncxonom Hepemtmnt-
cxnm. ecnornuecxoe npannenne Opononxon oneno pyccxnx o xpano-
crn, n copannoe no Htnone semcrno ymonxno xoponx Kasnmnpa rennona
art nm pyroro nauantnnxa xpax. 3emxne cornacnnnct na ocoym xonrpn-
ynnm no ]eprone (1/4 rpnnnt) n no nony c nana
19
n na ynnary xoponencxo-
ro onra Opononxy, urot rontxo ocnoonrt ponym crpany or nenann-
crnoro npannrenx. Hocne roro rannucxn crapocra Cranncnan Xoeu oran
Iannucxym enapxnm mnpcxomy uenonexy Pomany ns Ocranonnu, xoropt
ne rontxo ynpannxn Kpnnoccxnm monacrtpem n npnnanexamnmn emy nme-
nnxmn, no npncnonn cee cyenym nnacrt na npanocnanntm yxonen-
crnom, conpan c cnxmennnxon noarn, peman paunte cnopt n axe pac-
ropran cynpyxecrna, camonnacrno nosnonxx pasneenntm ncrynart n no-
nt pax
20
.
Taxnm opasom, npannrentcrno nmeno rpomanoe nnnxnne na omecrnen-
nym xnsnt Iannnxo Pycn. Hontcxne xoponn, xanyx nmennxmn cnonx npn-
nnxenntx nme (nonxxon, xaronnxon), anann nm n cyenym nnacrt na
mecrntmn xnrenxmn, n nourn neorpannuennym nnacrt ne rontxo na xpec-
rtxnamn, no n na cnoontmn nnaentnamn pyccxnmn npanocnanntmn
21
,
orxya, es ncxxoro comnennx, nponcrexan rnannt ncrounnx nonnrnuecxo-
ro n pennrnosnoro rnera. Homemnx cynn, npncyxan n xasnnn xpecrtxnn-
na n yrononntx enax es ncxxo anennxnnn
22
. Hpnannm x +romy, uro n
ropoax n mecreuxax pyccxne npanocnannte, cunraemte y nonxxon nno-
nepnamn, ncxnmuent tnn ns ncex npan, cnoo n ntror npana Mareypr-
cxoro, xoropoe cront mepo pasananoct ne rontxo ropoam n mecreuxam,
no axe nexoroptm cenam, c ycrpanennem pennnx pyccxnx npan n otua-
en
23
. Tenept nonxrno, uro Mareyprcxoe npano, anaemoe npnmentnam,
noannno cocnonne pyccxnx rpaxan.
230
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Hoxa, nnpouem, mnxxra pyccxax xoncrnrynne n Entne 1432 roa ne
tna ypannena n npanax c xoponnom mnxxro, n o npnsnannx Bncnnnxoro
craryra oxsarentntm nx uepnonno Pycn (na semcxom cese n Epacnoc-
rane n 1477 r.) nomemnxn pyccxo semnn onxnt tnn no pyccxomy npany
ortnart semcxne nonnnnocrn n oxsannocrn n ornomennn x xoponm n nna-
rnrt nanorn. Hocne xe ypannennx npan n npnnnnern ncx rxxecrt nana na
xpecrtxn. C rex nop nce npana rocyapx na xpecrtxnamn nepemnn na nome-
mnxa (mnxxrnua); on nonyunn npano nanarart nonte nanorn semntmn nno-
amn n axe entramn. C ro nopt saneena noymnax noart c xpecrtxn
(glowne, poglowne), npn coxpanennn n npexnnx nanoron, n xpecrtxne ox-
sant tnn ynnaunnart npasnnunoe, cepemnny, xynnnt, xxna, anart xypt,
xna, xannynt, cctnt pxn n onca, ecxrnny, paorart c cepnom, xoco n
npouee.
Bcnecrnne sament pyccxoro npana npanom nontcxnm norepnenn cno-
onte cocnonnx pyccxne: oope, oopmuuru, oiru, xoropte nspenne no-
nnacrnt tnn onomy xnxsm n eme npn Kasnmnpe Bennxom npnuncnxnnct
x cnoontm cocnonnxm (napanne c mnxxro). Kaxoe nouernoe snauenne
nmenn oxpe n penne Pycn, nsnecrno: nonxxn, nnmnn nx npexnnx npe-
nmymecrn, pasennnn oxp na rpn cocnonnx - oxpe nauupuie, nvmuie u
c.vrru (servitores) - n noopnann ncem npana n ntrort. txxn tnn rpa-
mornte nmn, xoropte, nepoxrno, ncnonnxnn onxnocrt nncape nnn no-
momnnxon npn pasntx neomcrnax. Onn nonnctnannct cnnerenxmn na
rpamorax napanne c nomemnxamn, oxpamn, cnxmennnxamn n oprnnxamn;
nexoropte ns nnx nonyuann naent, nmennx n ortnann noennym nonnn-
nocrt. Cocnonne oprnnxon concem tno noanneno, nx yrotx npncnonnn
cee nomemnxn. Hpexnne nnaentnt sement n cnoontx ycae (no-
pnm) - oxpe, oprnnxn, txxn - npenpament n nopontx nme nnn saxa-
anent n xpenocrntx xpecrtxn; axe cnxmennnxn - cnyxnrenn nepxnn,
cnxmne na apcxo semne, npnnyxaemt tnn ncnonnxrt xpecrtxncxne
nonnnnocrn. Cnepx roro, no mnornx mecrax pyccxne npanocnannte onx-
nt tnn anart xaronnuecxnm xcensam ecxrnnt nnn cctnt pxn n onca
(meszne) n nnarnrt nm noarn, npasnnunoe n np.
24
Hnora semnn c noce-
nnnmnmncx na nnx xpecrtxnamn oranaemt tnn n noxnsnennoe nnaenne
enpexm c npeocrannennem nm nonno cnoot pacnopxxartcx yrotxmn
xpecrtxn
25
.
Xnnte nocnomnnannx o narnx cnoontx npemenax penne Pycn co-
xpannnnct n napono no+snn:
oope ov.o uauu+ oamira+ sa oaeuix .em rumu,
oru ue sua.u uauu oamiru nauuuui pooumu.
Haponte necnn, ocoenno opxonte (xonxxn, meponxn, rantxn, na-
xantx), uacro nonecrnymr o noenntx noxoax, o ntmno spye, paronen-
ntx ypancrnax, necmerntx orarcrnax n nce pocxomno npnxornnnocrn
ntcmero xnxxecxoro n oxpcxoro cocnonn.
231

Ho no rxxxnm nontcxnm nnaennem cocnonne oxp ntnenoct n Iannn-


xo Pycn; ona uacrt, cnacax cnon npnnnnernn, onxna tna cnnrtcx c
nontcxom mnxxro, pyrax xe cyentmn xpmuxamn, amnnncrparnnntmn
ynonxamn nnn npocro nacnnnem npenpamena n xpenocrntx xpecrtxn. Ona-
xo x ne nce nontnte nmn mornn ntepxart +ry nonnmmym necnpanenn-
nocrt n cnoxono noartcx nopaomennm. Hnmennte cnonx nmenn npe-
xnne nnaentnt cnoontx sement, yrneraemte xpanem nnmero, one-
ennte o oruaxnnx n ronnmte xaronnxamn, pocann cno pono xpa,
coennxnnct c ycypmanamn n, mcrx roptm noxnrnrenxm cnoero nmyme-
crna, nnonnn rarap n ponym crpany, n re xe nmennx, xoroptx onn nnment
nyxancrnom nonxxon
26
. Bo nce npemx nnaennx Bnancnana n Kasnmnpa ren-
nonon (1434-1492 rr.) ocoenno uacro cnyuannct +rn pasopnrentnte onyc-
romennx, xoropte npoonxannct n n XVI, n XVII nexax. n 3amocxn
nacunran na cnoe namxrn rpnnart ontmnx nanaenn rarap, ne ynomnnax
o mentmnx. B +ro oruaxnnoe npemx n antnnx nanenponcxnx crenxx con-
pamrcx necuacrnte esomonnnxn n nmecre c pasnopontmn ntxonamn
opasymr pyxnnt, xoropte n 1469 roy n nepnt pas no nmenem xasaxon
nanaamr na Iannnxym semnm
27
.
Hontcxne xoponn, xaronnuecxoe yxonencrno n nontcxax amnnncrpannx
ncxuecxn crapannct noannrt pyccxn +nemenr n npnoperenntx nmn ona-
crxx. Onn coecrnonann nocenennm nemnen n enpeen no ropoam n masy-
pon no cenam c napymennem npan xopenntx xnrene; nnonnn uyxne ot-
uan, uyxo xstx n uyxo saxon n Pyccxo semne. Hemnt n enpen ntrecnn-
nn pyccxnx ropoxan n npemecrtx n cena. Hsntnax n nepanno opte c
nontcxnm n mareyprcxnm npanamn, memane c rpyom coxpanxnn cnom
nepy, cnon npant n naponocrt. Onn centcxn napo ceper cnom napo-
nocrt, cno xstx n cnon pennne rpannnn. Hocenennx masypon na Pycn ne
nocneonann n raxom xonnuecrne, urot mornn noannrt n sarnymnrt pyc-
cxn napo. Tontxo Fentscxoe xnxxecrno, orannoe (1388 r.) xoponem ra-
nom n npnanoe cecrpe cnoe Anexcanpe n ocrananmeecx n coennennn c
xnxxecrnom Masonenxnm no 1462 r., noneprnoct pemnrentnomy nnnxnnm
xaronnuecxoro ynpannennx n ncxnmunrentno nontcxo naponocrn
28
. Ta-
xnm opasom, xorx nocenennx nnocrpannen n Iannnxo Pycn nauannct eme
co nropo nononnnt XIV cronernx n nocroxnno npoonxannct, onaxo xe
macct napoa ocrannct raxnmn xe: xopenno pyccxn napo nese npeo-
naan n oxnn o namnx ne, ocranaxct nepntm otuaxm penne Pycn
29
.
Tontxo na cenepo-sanantx oxpannax noopnana tna nenocrnocrt pyc-
cxoro nacenennx. Co npemen Kasnmnpa Bennxoro pexa Bncnoxa (ne Bncnox,
nnaammn n Cxn) n Bncna tnn c sanaa rpannnamn Pycn
30
; ntne xe Pe-
moncxn yes, cunranmncx o camoro naennx Hontmn n noenocrne Pyc-
cxom, nect ononxuennt n oxaronnuennt, norepxn cnom nepnonauantnym
naponocrt.
Camtm nyumnm oxasarentcrnom, uro o sanxrnx Hepemtmntcxoro n
Iannnxoro xnxxecrn Kasnmnpom Bennxnm ne tno na Pycn nn npnxoon,
232
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
nn xocrenon xaronnuecxnx, pasne n necxontxnx nocenennxx na rpannne na
eperax Bncnoxn n Bncnt, moxer cnyxnrt cnncox xaronnuecxnx npnxoc-
xnx xocrenon, xoropte nana Knnmenr V na Bencxom coope 1326 n 1328
roon onoxnn ecxrnno n nanorom cn. Herpa
31
. B +rom cnncxe nacunrt-
naercx na nce reppnropnn ntnemnnx Pemoncxoro n centcxoro yeson
rontxo 18 xaronnuecxnx npnxoon, xoropte pacnonoxent na npanom epe-
ry Bncnoxn n Hspxnnncxom exanare n mecreuxe cne, Honom n Crapom
3mnropoe n n cenax 3pxnnne, Fesexe, Knere n Bene, sarem n Hecnom
nnn ynnxom exanare (in decanatu de sylvis vel Dambitia) n Cynmone
(Saudiszow), uyene n opexone, naxonen, n camom yrny mexy Bncno n
Cxnom 9 xocrenon, npnunrammnxcx x Canomnpcxomy apxnnaxonary, a
nmenno na npanom epery Bncnt n cenax Mexornne, Benenece (Magna Villa),
uepemne, Iopnuax, Bpxne n na nenom epere p. Cxna n 3anemanax, Xapenn-
uax, Pacnannuax n Fennne.
Hant nocroxnno noctnann cnonx mnccnonepon monaxon nx opamennx
Pycn n xaronnuecrno, no es ncxxoro ycnexa. Ecnn t nm yanoct re-
nnyt ocnonart xaronnuecxym omnny, ro nant ne npemnnynn t ncrpeo-
nart c nnx cront crporo nstcxnnaemt nmn enapn cnxroro Herpa. A rax
xax +roro ne cnyunnoct, ro, cneonarentno, nce ocrantnoe napoonacene-
nne, es ncxxoro comnennx, tno pyccxoe, nmenmee cnonx npanocnanntx
cnxmennnxon, c xoroptx nana ne nmen npana rpeonart nn ecxrnnt, nn
nanoron
32
.
Hontcxne ncropnxn ncxuecxn crapamrcx oxasart, uro pnmcxo-xaronn-
uecxne npnxot n pyccxnx ropoax n cenax yupexent saonro o sanna-
ennx Iannnnn Kasnmnpom, no +rn pasrnarontcrnonannx ocnontnamrcx na
oxymenrax xnno nonoxntx. Tax, nanpnmep, onn nnmyr, uro na yono
ocxe crapnnnoro Hepemtmntcxoro xocrena cn. Herpa tna nannct, uro
ontmo anrapt ramomnn ocnxmen tn Kpaxoncxnm cy]paranom Hoan-
nom n ent Bosnecennx 16 max 1212 roa. Ho +ra sanncxa, ouennno, no-
entna, noromy, no-nepntx, uro n +ro npemx ne tno cy]paranon n Kpaxon-
cxo enncxonnn; no-nroptx, n 1212 r. tna nacxa 25 mapra, cneonarentno,
n Bosnecenne tno pantme 16 max; n-rpertnx, cn. Iennra, xoropo mexy
pyrnmn cnxrtmn tn nosnnrnyr anrapt n 1212 r., naxonnact eme n xn-
ntx n ne morna trt npnuncnena x nnxy cnxrtx, rax xax ona ymepna rontxo
n 1243 roy. Te xe nontcxne ncropnxn, cctnaxct na pennne rpamort,
ronopxr, uro npnxot n uepmne n Ioronene yupexent n 1312 r., n Tapnon-
ne - n 1313 r., n 3aexone - n 1318 r. xaxnmn-ro mantrncxnmn ptnapxmn
upnxauem, Fpannmem n Haxomem (xax ronopnrcx n oxymenrax); mexy
rem nsnecrno, uro open ptnape cn. Hoanna Hepycannmcxoro rontxo c
1530 roa cran nastnartcx Mantrncxnm, xora on or nmneparopa Kapna V
nonyunn n ap ocrpon Mantry. Bor xax ocropoxno nyxno opamartcx c
nontcxnmn ncropnuecxnmn ncrounnxamn n noneprart nx crporo xpnrnxe!
C 1772 roa, ro ecrt co npemenn sanxrnx Iannunnt ancrpnnamn, pacxn-
nyrt nemenxne xononncrt ocotmn epennxmn no Iannnxo semne, no onn
233

xnnyr oconxxom n ne nmemr nnxaxoro nnnxnnx na xnsnt, otuan n npea-


nnx pyccxoro napoa.
Ionopx o nocenennxx nontcxnx n Iannnxo Pycn, nmontrno tno t
ysnart npemx, xora nmenno, re n n xaxom xonnuecrne nocenxnnct nontcxne
nnn masypcxne xononncrt. Her comnennx, uro eme no npemx camocroxrentnoc-
rn Pycn pyccxne xnxstx nocennnn nontcxnx nnennnxon na cnoe semne.
Hpnnnmax n coopaxenne, uro n ro npemx eme ne ynorpenxnoct nasnanne
Ho.iua, no.r n npou., moxem c nepnocrtm saxnmunrt, uro mecrnocrn,
nastnaemte Hxmxn, Hxxonnun, Hxcxoe nnn Hxnxoe, npnnanexar x pen-
nemnm xononnxm nontcxnm n Iannunne, anno concem opycenmnm. o-
xasarentcrnom pennocrn +rnx nocenenn moxer cnyxnrt eme ro ocrox-
rentcrno, uro +rn cena nmemr nectma orpannuennoe nontcxoe n xaronnuec-
xoe nacenenne, n uro, nanpornn roro, no mnornx ns nnx pyccxoe nacenenne
mnorouncnenno; +rn cena nmemr pyccxne npnxocxne nnn ]nnnantnte nep-
xnn, no nn n onom ns nocenenn ne naxonm xocrena, uro ne morno t
cnyunrtcx, ecnn t nocenennx opasonannct no npemx nontcxoro nnatue-
crna. Bostmem, nanpnmep, nexoropte ns +rnx cen n conocrannm nacenenne
oonx naponocre:
Pyccxnx Honxxon
Hxmxn Iopnte (Fepexancxoro yesa) npnxocxax 650 . 12 .
Hxmxn ontnte (ram xe) ]nnnantnax 398 9
Hxmxn (Htnoncxoro yesa) 345 8
Hxmxn Koponencxne (3onouacxoro yesa) npnxo. 688 151
Hxmxon (ram xe) 974 19
Hxxonnun Hoopoxnte (Crptcxoro yesa) 853 29
Hxxonnun 3apeunte (ram xe) 739 14
Hxxonnt (Cranncnancxoro yesa) 1144 31
Hxnxoe (ram xe) 1417 11
Hxcxoe (ram xe) 745 128
Hxnxoe Bennxoe (3onouencxoro yesa) 830 149
Hxmxn (nosne Cyono Bnmnn) 921 1
Hxmxn onrne (Hepemtmntcxoro yesa) 1658 624
Hxmxn Iocrnnnte (ram xe) 1046 nonce ner
Hxmxn 3anxsannte (Camopcxoro yesa) 695
Hxmxn Mypanannte (ram xe) 681 180
Hxnxo (ram xe), npnnncnax nepxont 734 40
Bontxa Masonenxax (Xonxoncxoro yesa) npnxo. 1622 99
33
.
Iannnxne nonxxn yrnepxamr, uro onn raxne xe pennne onrarenn crpa-
nt, xax n pyccxne, uro Iannunna tna concem oesnmnena, uro nontcxne
xoponn n nant sacennnn ee nontcxnm napoom, nosenann pyccxne nycro-
mn, otnn no.icru+ n.veo+ nxne nonx n orann nx xyntrype
34
, n uro
yro nontcxne xpecrtxne n mnxxrnun rtcxuamn cennnnct n mnnmtx pyc-
cxnx nycrtnxx; nexoropte ns pyccxnx nncarene, nepx nonxxam na cnono,
234
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
nropxr +rnm orptnxam, nponosrnamax xyntrypnym mnccnm Hontmn
35
. nx
oxasarentcrna roro, uro nce +rn pasrnarontcrnonannx ne nmemr ncropn-
uecxoro ocnonannx, n uro nontcxne xononnn ne tnn cront mnorouncnen-
nt, paccmorpnm oxymenrt n nsnneuem ns nnx annte
36
.
Hontcxne nocenennx na Pyccxo semne nauannct cocrnenno c sanxrnx
Iannunnt xoponem Kasnmnpom, nastnaemtm Bennxnm; o roro npemenn ne
tno na Pycn nn nonxxon, nn xcenson, nn xocrenon, nn xnxmropon
37
. Tax
xax nocrpoenne xocrena n yupexenne npnxoa oycnonnnnanoct xonnue-
crnom nocennnmnxcx xaronnxon, ro n ncxxn cnyua yupexennx xaronn-
uecxoro npnxoa moxer nam noxasart ecnn ne npemx nono xononnsannn, ro
no xpane mepe ycnnenne nontcxoro nacenenne na Pycn.
Kasnmnp, sanxn ropo Htnon, ne namen n nem nn onoro xaronnuecxoro
xocrena, n xoropom mor t axe npnnecrn naroapenne Fory sa nsxrne
ropoa
38
. Bo npemx nnaennx Kasnmnpa (c 1341 no 1370 r.) xaronnxn ne
enann nourn nnxaxnx ycnexon n pacnpocrpanennn cnoe nept n Pyccxo
semne. Hant yro t ntctnann xaxnx-ro enncxonon n Hepemtmnt n Bna-
nmnp n monaxon mnccnonepon
39
nx opamennx napoa n xaronnuecrno, no
rpyt nx tnn nanpacnt. Kpome rpex nnn uertpex xocrenon no Htnone, n
npoonxenne rpnnarn ner nonxxn ne ycnenn nocrponrt n Iannunne nn o-
noro xaronnuecxoro xocrena. Kasnmnp yrpoxan Haperpacxomy narpnapxy,
uro on xpecrnr Pyct n narnncxym nepy
40
, no ne epsnyn roro cenart, ne
uyncrnyx cex npountm no nnaennn nacnntno npncnoenno semne.
Onaxo xe mnornm pantme n ycnemnee xaronnuecrno nonopnnoct na
sanae Hepemtmntcxoro xnxxecrna. nx oecneuennx nnaenn, saxnauen-
ntx or Pycn, Kasnmnp nocrponn samxn n Ocexe, Kpocne, Canoxe n pyrnx
mecrax; on nocenxn nemenxnx xononncron n n sanano Iannunne, yupex-
an npnxot n 3aropte (1343 r.), n Iaprnene (1360 r.), n Ocexe n Camope
(1363-1370 rr.). K ro xe +noxe npnnanexnr yupexenne npnxoa n Pemo-
ne Haxocnanom Pemoncxnm n 1354 r. Bo mnornx mecrax Hepemtmntcxo
enapxnn npnnnctnaercx romy xe xoponm nocrpoenne xocrenon n yupexe-
nne npnxoon, xorx +rn cxasannx ne nmemr ocronepntx oxasarentcrn.
Cmenee nocrynan Hmonnx, xopont Hontcxn n Vropcxn. On yupenn
xaronnuecxym apxnenncxonnm n Iannue n enncxoncxym xa]epy n Hepe-
mtmne, nocne uero Bnancnan Onontcxn oxono 1372 r. ocnonan xocren n
m. Iopoxe n n 1375 r. yupenn xaronnuecxn npnxo n pocnanne no
Cxnom, a xnxst Masonenxn Cemonnr nocrponn xocrent n 1388 r. n m. Hm-
auene n n 1394 r. - n r. Fentse.
Bcero pemnrentnee npncrynnn x pacnpocrpanennm xaronnnnsma nepe-
xpemennt ns npanocnannx xopont rano. B nepno ero nnaennx c 1386
no 1433 r., n npoonxenne 48 ner, xaronnxn nocrponnn n ono Htnoncxo
enapxnn 24 xocrena n yupennn crontxo xe xaronnuecxnx npnxoon, a nmenno:
n 1391 r. - n m. Bnpne, n 1397 r. - n m. Innnxnax, n 1399 r. - n m. Kynnxone,
n 1401 r. - n r. Fyuaue n m. Maptxmnone, n 1410 r. - n m. Foposonnuax, n
1418 r. - n m. Mantunuax, n 1423 r. - n m. Koponne, Hortnnue n r. Tepeon-
235

ne, n 1427 r. - n rr. Iannue n Crpte, n 1431 r. - n m. ptuene n n 1433 r. - n


m. Fyme.
B +ro npemx noxnnnnct xocrent oare no nexoroptm cenam, ocoenno
nosne Htnona: n 1397 r. - n c. Coxontnnxax, n 1399 r. - n c. Kporomnne, n
1400 r.- n c. Btxnxnax, n 1414 r. - n c. Honarnne, n 1420 r. - n c. unxnxone,
n 1421 r. - n cc. Kyxontnnxax n Hernnxonnax, n 1426 r. - n c. Xenexone, n
1429 r. - n c. Ocrpone, n 1430 r. - n c. Komeene.
Eme pennocrnee oxasancx rano n yupexennn xaronnuecxnx npnxoon
n sanano Iannunne. On nocrponn n Hepemtmntcxo enapxnn onee
30 xocrenon n yupenn npn nnx npnxot, a nmenno: n 1386 r. - n c. cenxe
n m. Kpomenxe, n 1388 r. - n nemenxo xononnn Iauene, n 1391 r. - n Hepe-
mtmne, n 1392 r. - n r. poronue, n 1393 r. - n m. Cyono Bnmne, n
m. Kpocne n n c. Pyononnuax, n 1398 r. - n m. Kpnnue, n 1399 r. - n m.
Hopoxnnxe n c. Kocennue, n 1400 r. - n m. cnncxax n c. Poxnrnnne,
n 1404 r.- n m. Mocrncxax, n 1406 r. - n cc. Fnnxnem n Ponnom, n 1407 r. -
n m. yenxe, n 1408 r. - n m. Iycaxone, n 1409 r. - n cc. Iymnncxe n
Hpntmonxe, n 1410 r. - n m. Mopnronoe, n 1412 r. - n r. Hepemtmne n n
c. Hmarone, n 1413 r. - n m. Fepesone (Brsozow) n n c. Hpncernnne,
n 1415 r. - n c. uyxone, n 1416 r. - n c. Xypannne, n 1419 r. - n c. Btmarn-
uax, n 1425 r. - n c. Hmrua, n 1430 r. - n cc. Honnax n 3apeute, n 1432 r. - n
m. Patmne. Cnepx roro nocrpoeno ranom mnoro xocrenon na p. Bncno-
xo n Pemoncxom, Tapnoncxom n centcxom yesax.
Vupenrenxmn npnxoon n crponrenxmn xocrenon tnn, xpome xoponx,
apxnenncxona n nauantnnxon xpax, nexoropte ns conparnnmnxcx n xaronn-
uecrno pyccxnx oxp: Xooponcxne, Knmct, Kepen-Fyuanxne, Moronun-
un n p. Bnpouem, mnorne xocrent n npnxot yupexannct no nnmne
pennocrn xaronnuecxnx nanon es ocoenno naonocrn, rax xax xaronn-
uecxoe nacenenne n nnx ne morno trt mnorouncnenno, ecnn n npoonxe-
nne uertpex nexon ono nospocno ne ntme 300 ym, n axe c npnnncntmn
+rn pennne npnxot nmemr ne onee 600-700 ym; nanpnmep, n Mantun-
uax cunraercx ntne 65 ym, a c 7-m npnnncntmn cenamn 672 ., n m. Kynn-
xone 161 ., a c 20-m npnnncntmn cenamn ncero 846 . xaronnxon; n
m. Foposonnuax 388 . n c 13-m npnnncntmn 604 ., n c. Btxnxnax 259
., n c. Xenexone 282 ., n Kyxontnnxax 80 ym. B m. Kpnnue ro xe Hepe-
mtmntcxo enapxnn, re yupexen xaronnuecxn npnxo n 1398 r., cunra-
ercx ncero rontxo 250 ym xaronnxon, n m. Iycaxone, re npnxo nosnnx n
1408 r., rontxo 117 ., n m. Hnraxonnuax, re xocren cymecrnyer c 1431 r., -
389 ., n m. Kpyxnnnuax, re npnxo yupexen n 1439 r., rontxo 394 .
xaronnxon. Ho mnornm npnnncntm cenam cunramr n ntne xaronnxon ne
onee 5, 10 nnn 20 ym, ro ecrt, nomemnxn, nx npncnyra, npnxasunxn n
npou., a nontcxoro napoa nonce ner.
Ho neonronpemenntm nnatuecrnom Bnancnana Bapnencxoro (1434-
1444 rr.) npoonxanact nposennrcxax exrentnocrt, n yupexeno eme 5
xaronnuecxnx npnxoon: n 1436 r. - n m. snonne, n 1439 r. - n m. Mnxantue
236
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
n n c. annone, n 1441 r. - n c. Fenxe, n 1443 r. - n m. Konaunnnax. B
Hepemtmntcxo enapxnn yupexeno n +ro npemx crontxo xe npnxoon: n
1434 r. - n m. Pnxunuax, n 1439 r. - n m. Kpyxnnnuax, n 1440 r. - n
c. rtmnpe, n 1441 r. - n m. 3apmnne n n 1442 r. - n c. Mtmnxrnuax.
B napcrnonanne Kasnmnpa rennona (1447 - 1499 rr.) no npemx uacrtx
nanaenn rarap n rypox pacxnnyra nonax cert xocrenon n npnxoon no me-
creuxam n cenam Iannnxo Pycn: n 1449 r. - n c. Poarnuax, n 1452 r. - n
m. Ionoropax, n 1453 r. - n c. 3nmnanoe, n 1454 r. - n c. Crapom cene, n
1458 r. - n c. Xyxon, n 1459 r. - n c. 3onornnxax, n 1460 r. - n m. Xoopone,
n 1463 r. - n Horanax n Hoxamene, n 1469 r. - n m. onnne, m. Konyme n
n c. Cemenonxe, n 1470 r. - n m. Vrnone, n 1471 r. - n m. Kamenxe Crpymn-
nono, n 1473 r. - n m. rontnnne, n 1475 r. - n m. Inosne, n 1481 r. - n
m. Onecxe, n 1484 r. - n m. Cnnpe, n 1485 r. - n m. ynaene, m. Tonmaue n n
c. Hpyccax, n 1488 r. - n m. Xypanne. Hroro n npoonxenne 45 ner 22
npnxoa. B ro xe npemx nosnnxno n Hepemtmntcxo enapxnn 29 npnxoc-
xnx xocrenon, a nmenno: n 1447 r. - n c. Honxne, n 1448 r. - n c. Iontnone, n
1451 r. - n m. Hnxanxonnnax n c. Heemanax, n 1453 r. - n c. Knnmxonxe, n
1454 r. - n m. nopone, n 1460 r. - n cc. Iapre n Koponnxe Hontcxom, n
1462 r. - n m. Honoranne n n cc. Hanonnax n Becene, n 1463 r.- n m. Honome-
cre, n 1464 r. - n m. 3tnone n c. Hnonnue, n 1469 r. - n c. Hxmxax, n 1470 r.
- n m. cennne, n 1471 r. - n cc. Ipomne n Faxopne, n 1473 r. - n m. Komapne,
n 1476 r. - n c. Pannnuax, n 1477 r. - n c. Mnntunuax, n 1478 r. - n c. Fnpue,
n 1480 r. - n c. Hnnxyme n c. cenone, n 1484 r. - n c. Bomrnuax, n 1487 r.
- n c. nne, n 1488 r. - n c. Mnsnnne, n 1490 r. - n c. Vxonnuax n Boponnn-
xe.
B XVI cronernn no npemx pennrnosntx npenn n pacnpocrpanennx n
Hontme nporecranrnsma n nontnoymcrna ocrtno n nonxxax npexnee pne-
nne x crpoennm xocrenon, rax uro npn ne-Antpexre (1492-1501 rr.) n
Htnoncxo enapxnn ne npntno nn onoro xaronnuecxoro xocrena, n Hepe-
mtmntcxo xe nx nocrpoeno nxrt: n 1493 r. - n cc. Croxnnnx n Hmene, n
1494 r. - n c. Crpemonnuax, n 1495 r. - n c. Topronnme n n 1501 r.- n m.
Crapom mecre Camope. Hpn Anexcanpe rennone (1502 -1506 rr.) n Htnon-
cxo enapxnn ocnonan rontxo onn npnxo - n 1505 r. n m. Hapone, a n
Hepemtmntcxo rpn: n 1502 r. - n m. Crapo Conn,n 1503 r. - n m. Hncxe, a
n 1506 r. - n m. Kopunne. Bcero ynnnrentnee ro, uro n copoxanernee nap-
crnonanne Cnrnsmyna I (1507-1548 rr.) n Htnoncxo enapxnn yupexeno
rontxo 10 npnxocxnx xocrenon: n 1509 r. - n m. opornope, n 1517 r. - n
m. Coxane, n 1520 r. - n c. Coxonone, n 1521 r. - n c. Manexone, n 1522 r. -
n c. Fanopone, n 1525 r. - n m. Onemnnax, n 1528 r. - n m. Bapxxe, n 1530 r.-
n m. Hemnpone, n 1533 r. - n m. Porarnne, n 1545 r. - n c. Xonrannax,
n 1546 r.- n m. Foepxe, n 1547 r. - n m. 3anosnax. Mexy rem n Hepe-
mtmntcxo enapxnn yupexent cneymmne 22 npnxoa: n 1508 r. - n m.
Fanue, n 1510 r. - n m. omapaxe n n c. Iouene, n 1511 r. - n c. Hyxnnax
(Luzyny), n 1512 r. - n c. Oconnne, n 1514 r. - n c. Fpyxnane, n 1520 r. - n
237

c. Cnxrxnax (Swizciany) n n c. uepmne, n 1525 r. - n c. Fnaxene, n 1529 r. -


n m. Fyxoncxe n cc. Ipnonnnne n Bnpnne, n 1530 r. - n c. uyntmrnne, n
1531 r. - mm. Xnpone n opomnne n n c. Opnxone, n 1536 r. - n cc. Porax
n Hopaxe, n 1537 r. - n m. 3mnropoe Honom, n 1546 r. - n m. Tnpane
Bonomcxo n n 1547 r. - n c. Hemane.
Iopaso mentme xnnnoct xaronnuecxnx xocrenon npn Cnrnsmyne Anry-
cre, xoropt nnaen c 1549 no 1572 ro, a nmenno n nepno 25 ner, n Htnon-
cxo enapxnn - rontxo na: n 1549 r. - n m. Mocrax a n 1554 r. n r. Fyxcxe,
a n Hepemtmntcxo enapxnn cneymmne nocemt: n 1549 r. - n cc. Hospene
n Manxne (nosne Pemona)
41
, n 1550 r. - n m. Pyxe n c. Meennuax, n
1555 r. - n c. Fpocxe, n 1559 r. - n c. unmne, n 1565 r. - n m. Pnmanone n n
1571 r. - n r. pocnanne.
Bo npemx Ienpnxa Banya n Cre]ana Faropnx n npoonxenne rpnnanarn
ner (c 1573 no 1586 r.) npntno n Htnoncxo enapxnn rontxo 3 npnxoa: n
1573 r. - n m. unpneene, n 1579 r. - n m. Vcrte n n 1584 r. - n c. Coxononxe,
a n Hepemtmntcxo - nxrt: n 1580 r. - n c. Inenunne, n 1583 r. - n
m. Pynnxe, n 1586 r. - n c. ynxnax n n 1587 r. - n m. nopnnxe Hontcxom
n n c. Bone Pa]anoncxo.
C noxnnennem nesynron n Hontme oxnn npexnn nontcxn ]anarnsm,
ncnecrnne uero xocrent n npnxot cnona nauann cnntno ymnoxartcx, mexy
rem xax c nauana XVI nexa no 1587 r. nosnnxno no nce Htnoncxo enapxnn
rontxo 16 xocrenon, no npemx 40-nernero rocnocrnonannx Cnrnsmyna III,
c 1587 no 1632 rr. yupexeno 48 nontx xocrenon n npnxoon: n 1587 r. - n
m. Tepraxone, n 1592 r. - n c. Vrpnnone, n 1595 r. - n m. Marepone, n 1598 r.
- n c. Paxonne, n 1599 r. - n m. Hanopne, n 1600 r. - n Htnone (Mapnn
Marannnt) n n m. Esynone, n 1602 r. - n mm. Xornmnpe n Faptme, n
1605 r. - n m. 3aonorone, n 1607 r. - n c. Maprnnone n mm. Fonexone n
Hnxonaene (Crptcxoro yesa), n 1608 r. - n m. Horone, n 1609 r. - n
m. Ipnmanone, n 1610 r. - n mm. Iycxrnne, Bonnnone n c. Taante, n
1611 r. - n m. none (na Hoonte), n 1612 r. - n mm. Pane n 3tauene, n
1613 r. - n m. Fenom Kamene, n 1614 r. - n m. none (nosne Htnona) n n
c. Hontcxo Pacne, n 1615 r. - n m. Hoxamene (Fepexancxoro yesa), n
1616 r. - n c. Bonxone, n 1618 r. - n Htnone (cn. Anronnx, cn. Hasapx) n n c.
Hontcoxom, n 1620 r. - n r. Xonxne, n 1623 r. - n r. Tapnonone, n 1624 r. -
n m. Croxnone n Fonmonne, n 1626 r. - n m. Cranncnanunxe, n 1627 r. - n
r. 3onouene, 3opone n m. Hanapnn, n 1628 r. - n m. Tonopone, n 1630 r. - n
Htnone (Mnnoceptx), n rr. Tncmennne n Fysanone, n 1631 r.- n m. Cacone
n n c. Koxannne, n 1632 r. - n m. Cxanare.
B Hepemtmntcxo enapxnn n nepno nnaennx Cnrnsmyna III nosnnxno
raxxe 24 npnxoa n xocrena, a nmenno: n 1588 r. - n m. Coxonone, n 1593 r.
- n cc. Hsexax n Hynax, n 1504 r. - n c. Fecxe, n 1595 r. - n c. Onnnnax,
n 1596 r. - n c. Caxnne, n 1598 r. - n c. Ennuax, n 1599 r. - n c. Tynnrono-
ntx n n c. Iopne, n 1600 r. - n c. Ocrpone, n 1601 r. - n m. Ptornuax n n c.
Henaonxe, n 1603 r. - n c. Exone, n 1604 r. - n m. Kpaxonne n n c. Ipxone
238
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
(Grebow), n 1605 r. - n c. Camoxnxcxax n n c. Htmnnne, n 1606 r. - n
m. Inorone, n 1607 r. - n c. Metxe, n 1608 r. - n c. Cyceonnuax, n 1610 r.
- n r. Hepemtmne (nesynrcxax xonnernx), n 1611 r. - n c. Bone 3apenxo, n
1612 r. - n m. Kanuyre, n 1622 r. - n m. Xonnne, n 1625 r. - n m. Paomtcne,
n 1629 r. - n r. Cenxne, n 1630 r. - npnxot n m. Kpacnunne, n m. Crpnxone
n n Hepemtmne (monacrtpt xapmennron), n 1632 r. - n c. Texnnne (Hexnn-
ne).
yx opamennx n xaronnnnsm onnaen nce mnxxro, nocnnranno n
nesynrcxnx mxonax. Pennocrt n crpoennn xocrenon n pacnpocrpanennn xa-
ronnnnsma, ycnnennax co npemenn xnrpocnnerenno Fpecrcxo ynnn, npo-
onxanact uacrtm n n nocneymmne napcrnonannx npeemnnxon Cnrnsmyn-
ontx n XVII n XVIII nexax.
B nepno napcrnonannx Bnancnana IV c 1633 no 1648 r., ro ecrt n npo-
onxenne 15 ner, nocrpoeno n Htnoncxo enapxnn 16 xocrenon: n 1633 r. -
n m. Homopxnax, n 1634 r. - n Htnone (xapmennron) n n r. Cnxrnne, n 1636 r.
- n m. Osepne, n 1637 r. - n c. Hexnene, n 1638 r. - n c. Xynnne, n 1639 r. -
n c. Hnasone, n 1641 r. n r. Fpoax, n 1642 r. - n m. Hepemtmnxnax, n
1643 r. - n c. Tepnopye, n 1644 r. - n Htnone (xocren octx xapmennranox),
n 1647 r. - n r. Fepexanax n m. Posone; a n Hepemtmntcxo enapxnn rpn
xocrena: n 1636 r. - n cc. Komopne n Cnnntue n n 1646 r. - n m. Vnxnone.
Hocne cmeprn Bnancnana IV ncrynnn na npecron par ero n Kasnmnp,
xoropt n Pnme n snannn xapnnana nocnn na roa nesynrcxym cyrany.
3ror nacroxmn nesynr nonnsancx t na nonpnme ]anarnsma ne xyxe cno-
nx npemecrnennnxon, no c 1648 roa Foran Xmentnnnxn oxnann pen-
nocrt nontcxnx nentmox n xcenson n pacnpocrpanennn xaronnuecrna o
roro, uro n npoonxenne cemn ner (c 1649 no 1655 r.) xaronnxn ne epsnynn
nocrponrt nn onoro xocrena na Pycn, n rontxo nocne npncoennennx Xment-
nnnxoro x Poccnn onn yupennn n Htnoncxo enapxnn 8 cneymmnx npn-
xoon: n 1655 r. - n c. 3ype, n 1658 r. - n Htnone (cn. Maprnna), n 1661 r.
- n m. uepnennne n n c. Byponnuax, n 1662 r. - n r. Cranncnane, n 1663 r. -
n m. Fopmone, n 1666 r.- n m. Conornnne, n 1668 r. - n c. Xypone, a n
Hepemtmntcxo enapxnn 9 npnxoon: n 1655 r. - n cc. Fopxe, Fonuane,
Henoxe, Kotnxnxe n Pone, n 1659 r. - n c. nxonne, n 1660 r.- n m. He-
tntne, n 1664 r. - n c. Vcrtpexax Iopntx, n 1665 r. - n c. Fnnoponax, n
cnepx roro n 1667 r. - n m. Hannane mnnopnrt nocrponnn monacrtpt Kant-
napnm.
o camoro xonna XVII nexa ne onomnnnnct xaronnxn, rax uro c 1669 no
1673 r. no npemx xoponx Mnxanna Kopnyra (necmorpx na ero pennocrt xax
nposennra) yupennoct rontxo rpn npnxoa, a nmenno: n 1669 r. - n mm.
Ortnte, Hncne n Kosone.
Horpom Xmentnnnxoro n npoonxanmnecx xasanxne nont cnomann
nontcxn ]anarnsm, n npexnxx pennocrt ne npoxnnxnact n onronernee
npannenne cront ptxnoro xaronnxa, xaxnm tn n Coeccxn. C 1674 no
1696 ro nonxxn yupennn n Htnoncxo enapxnn rontxo rpn npnxoa, a
239

nmenno: n 1691 r. - n m. Foropouanax, n 1694 r. - n Htnone (cn. Hnxonax) n


n 1695 r. - n m. Xpncrnnonone, a n Hepemtmntcxo enapxnn na npnxoa:
n 1676 r. - n c. Mopanne n n 1680 r. - n c. Banxnnax, n cnepx roro nocrpoeno
na monacrtpx n Hepemtmne: n 1678 r.- onn]parpnen n n 1687 r. - mancn-
onapnen.
Ecnn paccmorpnm ncropnuecxne oxymenrt XVIII cronernx o camoro
naennx Hontmn, ro ynnnm, uro npn ycnnnnmemcx ]anarnsme, necmorpx
na nce npornnoecrnymmne cotrnx, nononnsmy n xaronnuecrny yanoct
cenart onontno ontmne ycnexn n pyccxnx semnxx. Hocne opamennx
nocnennx nyx enapxn npanocnanntx n ynnm, Hepemtmntcxym n 1691 r.
n Htnoncxym n 1700 r., nonxxn nauann eme ycnemnee opamart pyccxnx
ynnaron n xaronnuecrno, npncnannax conpamenntx x nontcxo napono-
crn. B npoonxenne cemn ner (c 1758 no 1765 r.) conpament pasntmn
npoenxamn oxono 1 200 nnn pyccxnx n narnncrno, xax noxastnaer nepe-
uent, ntnncannt mnom ns mnrpononnutero Htnoncxoro apxnna n naneua-
rannt n nsannxx Knencxo apxeorpa]nuecxo xomnccnn n 1871 roy
42
.
Taxnm opasom, ynennunnanoct n ynennunnaercx o cnx nop uncno xaronn-
xon n mnnmo nontcxoro nacenennx n Iannunne.
B npannenne Anrycra II (c 1697 no 1733 r.) n npoonxenne 33 ner npnt-
no n Htnoncxo enapxnn 19 npnxoon n xocrenon, a n Hepemtmntcxo enap-
xnn n ro xe npemx rontxo cemt npnxoon, a nmenno: n 1703 r. - n c. Bonome,
n 1712 r. - n c. Tapnanne, n 1714 r. - n c. Maane Cenxncxom, n 1719 r. - n
c. Metne, n 1724 r. - n Kamnnax, n 1726 r. - n c. Crapo Becn n n 1730 r.-
n m. Typxe (n +rom npnxoe ntne cunraercx 302 ., a c npnnncntmn cenamn
908 ym xaronnxon, rora xax enpeen sect xnner o 5 000 ym).
B npannenne Anrycra III, c 1733 no 1763 r., n Htnoncxo enapxnn ocno-
nano 12 npnxoon xaronnuecxnx, a nmenno: n 1738 r. - n m. Bnnnnxax, n
1740 r. - n m. Fypmrnne, Kocone n Hnxnene, n 1743 r. - n m. Iopoenxe, n
1747 r.- n c. Bnmnenunxe n n m. Fyxauennax, n 1748 r. - n c. uepnonoropoe,
n 1753 r. - n c. Kyrxope (monacrtpt xanynnnon), n 1755 r. - n c. Iopnnne
(monacrtpt ]pannncxanon), n 1756 r. - n c. Hyxanne, n 1757 r. - n m. Oep-
rnne, n 1758 r. - n c. Oneene, n 1760 r.- n m. nonone n n 1761 r. - n
r. 3anemnxax, a n Hepemtmntcxo enapxnn n ro xe npemx npntno mecrt
xaronnuecxnx npnxoon: n 1743 r. - n c. Honocentnax, n 1749 r. - n c. Vrep-
nax, n 1751 r. - n c. Typn, n 1754 r. - n c. Bxsonnnne, n 1758 r. - n
c. Maane n n 1763 r. - n c. Mnxanxone.
Haxonen, npn nocnenem nontcxom xopone Cranncnane Anrycre (c 1764
no 1772 r.) n npoonxenne 8 ner npntno n Htnoncxo enapxnn rontxo
2 npnxoa: n 1767 r. - n m. Crpycone n n 1769 r. - n c. uepnenene Masonen-
xom, a n Hepemtmntcxo enapxnn onn - n 1765 r. - n m. yxne. Hs +roro
nepeunx nnnm, uro, no-nepntx, nontcxoe napoonacenenne cocpeoroun-
nanoct no ontme uacrn n ropoax n mecreuxax, n cenax xe tno n ne-
ontmom xonnuecrne, rax uro nnmt n nemnornx epennxx oxasanact nao-
nocrt yupexennx npnxoon nnn coopyxennx xocrenon; no-nroptx, ncero
240
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
onee nocrpoeno xocrenon n XV nexe npn Bnancnane rane n n XVII -
npn Cnrnsmyne III; menee ycnexon cenann xaronnxn n XVI n XVIII nexax:
no mnornx ropoax nocrpoent xocrent ouent nosno, n nontcxoe nacene-
nne n nnx nemnorouncnenno; n-rpertnx, no mnornx camtx pennnx npnxo-
ax nopasnrentno manoe xonnuecrno xaronnxon nnn nonxxon; n-uerneprtx,
nepnte nocenennx nontcxne (nnpouem, n nemenxne) noxnnnnct xpyrom Htno-
na, a raxxe n Fentscxom noenocrne. C XVII cronernx nosnnxamr nontcxne
xononnn n Tapnonontcxom yese n na Hoonte; nepoxrno, nocne xasanxnx
non oesnmena crpana no npnunne ntcenennx napoa na Vxpanny; n-nx-
rtx, no mnornx mecreuxax Bocrouno Iannunnt xocrent nocrpoent yxe n
XVIII n XIX cronernxx; n nexoroptx xe n o cnx nop xocrenon ner. Boo-
me, napoonacenenne pyccxoe snaunrentno npenocxonr uncnom xaronn-
uecxoe.
Hocne npncoennennx Iannunnt x Ancrpncxo nmnepnn onxrt oxnna
npexnxx pennocrt x pacnpocrpanennm n yrnepxennm xaronnuecrna; nonoe
npannrentcrno, npn nce cnoe xaxymecx repnnmocrn, anano no ncem
npenmymecrno xaronnxam, ncnornmxa crecnxx ynnaron (pyccxnx). Hast-
nax pyccxn nm n yxonencrno cnonmn nepnemnmn noanntmn n npn-
snanax sa nnmn na cnonax pannte npana, ono nosnonxno cnoono nepexo-
nrt cnonm nepntm pyccxnm ynnaram n xaronnuecrno n npenpamartcx n
nenaronaexntx nonxxon. Mnoxecrno pyccxnx npnxoon ynnuroxeno, a
nepxnn n epennn npnnncant x cocennm npnxoam. Vnnarcxne monacrtpn
ynpasnent, n mexy nnmn nocnenn n enncrnennt monacrtpt n Cxnre
Cranncnancxoro yesa, ocrananmncx cpen cnnomnoro ynnarcxoro nace-
nennx no 1785 ro npanocnanntm.
C 1772 roa npexparnnnct nocenennx nontcxoro nma, no ancrpnnt
npnsnann nemnen, xoropte cennnnct nentmn xononnxmn no ncem yesam
Iannunnt. Hemenxax xononnsannx cocrnenno nauanact c 1780-x roon n
npoonxanact eme n nacroxmem cronernn. Hpnxonnn nemnt-xaronnxn ns
Ancrpnn n uexnn; nporecranrt, menonnrt n repenryrept ns Faena, Hac-
cay, Bnpremeprnn n np. n cennnnct na orneenntx nm semnxx, ontme
uacrtm xasenntx. B xononnn ycrpannanact nemenxax mxona, xocren nnn
monentnx. Hemnt (mnat) cennnnct no ontme uacrn nnnsn ropoon,
cononapen n npn moccentx oporax, na ocotx ntrorax n npenmyme-
crnax na unnme n ycrpannann cee, xax cnoonte semneentnt, nopxou-
nte xosxcrna.
Fapon uepnnr n cnoe 3rnorpa]nn Ancrpncxo nmnepnn onncan co
ncemn noponocrxmn nemenxne xononnn
43
. Ha +rnorpa]nuecxo xapre onn
oosnauent ocoo xpacxo. B nacroxmee npemx cunraercx n Iannunne o-
nee cra xononn nemnen, xoropte coxpanxmr cno xstx, xocrmm n ncm
ocranonxy cnoero nnemennoro tra.
Co npemen ancrpncxoro nnatuecrna yupexent n Htnoncxo enapxnn
cneymmne xaronnuecxne npnxot: n 1775 r. - n m. Panxone, n 1776 r. - n
m. Hycrtne, n 1777 r. - n c. Mapxone, n 1780 r. - n m. Mnxynnnnax, n
241

1786 r. - n xon. Fpyxenrane, n 1787 r. - n c. Ianauone, n 1788 r. - n


c. Bnrxone, n 1790 r. - 3nxrnne, n 1791 r. - n c. Mnnxrnne, n 1792 r. - n
c. Opomnne n n xon. Becenepre n uentaxe, n 1798 r. - n c. Kauanonxe.
Hroro n npoonxenne 11 ner yupexeno 13 npnxoon, mexy nnmn - rpn n
nemenxnx xononnxx.
B nacroxmem cronernn ne npoxnnxnact ocoennax pennocrt x pacnpocr-
panennm xaronnuecrna n yupexent nnmt na npnxoa: n 1792 r. - n xon.
Fenarope nnn Becepre n n 1814 r. - n c. Henxnax. C 1814 no 1842 ro, n
npoonxenne 28 ner, ne noxnnnoct nn onoro npnxoa n nocrouno Iannun-
ne, a sarem n reuenne uertpex ner yupexeno onxrt rpn npnxoa: n 1842 r. -
n c. Maxnnnne, n 1843 r. - n xon. uennnnenrane n n 1846 r.- n c. Benexe (n
xoropom rontxo 130 . xaronnxon).
Tontxo c copoxontx roon, c ro nopt, xora penonmnnonnte nnxennx
cnntnee onnaenn ymamn nonxxon n arnraropt nauann ecrnonart na xaro-
nnuecxoe yxonencrno nx yxpennennx nononnsma, ]anarnxn-xcenst npn-
nxnnct onxrt npnnnexart x cee ynnaron n ymnoxart nmn cnon npnxot nx
pacnpocrpanennx nonxuecrna n ocnanennx nenanncrno nm pyccxo na-
ponocrn. Bcero cnntnee saxnnna cex +ra pennocrt no npemx ynpannennx
Iannunno nocnnrannnxom nesynron rpa]om Ionyxoncxnm. Kcenst noc-
nontsonannct +rnm ocroxrentcrnom, n co npemenn ero nepnoro nasnauennx
namecrnnxom npyr yupexent cneymmne npnxot: n 1851 r. - n c. Iany-
mnnnax (n xoropom o cnx nop ner xocrena), n c. Mornntnnne, c. Pocoxo-
narne n Xopocrxone, n 1852 r. - n c. Fynnone n n c. Hosone (130 ym), n
1853 r.- n c. paranonxe n n xon. Mapnarnnt]e, n 1854 r. - n c. Xomxxonxe
(132 ymn) n n m. Osepxnax. K uncny nx npntno eme na: n 1861 r. - n
c. Horopnax n n 1862 r. - n c. Xannnax (re ncero rontxo 128 . xaronn-
xon). B Hepemtmntcxo enapxnn ancrpncxoe npannrentcrno yupenno cne-
ymmne pnmcxo-xaronnuecxne npnxot: n 1772 r. - n c. Bonxonte, n
1782 r. - n nem. xononnn uantxenepre (nx 289 ym), n 1786 r.- n c. Xno-
nnuax, n 1789 r. - n c. Croepne, n 1795 r. - n c. Tpeomn, n 1797 r. - n
m. Posnaone, n 1818 r. - n c. Cranax n nem. xon. Knpnne (Rauchersdorf), n
1840 r. - n c. Enonxe, n 1848 r. - n c. Meennuax nnn xon. Konigsau, n
1865 r. - n c. Paoxonnax n, naxonen, n 1869 r. - n c. Hoyxe ycrpoena
+xcnosnrypa nx 125 ym, c 12-m npnnncntmn cenamn 520 ym xaronnxon.
B nexoroptx ns +rnx nacxopo yupexenntx npnxoon naxonrcx camoe
nnuroxnoe xonnuecrno xaronnxon; necmorpx na ro, xcenst coennnnn no
10 n o 17 npnnncntx cen n onn xaronnuecxn npnxo, mexy rem xax
cena pyccxne, cunrammne 1 000 n 1 500 ym, ne moryr onrtcx camocro-
xrentnoro cnoero npnxocxoro cnxmennnxa. B nexoroptx ns nonoyupex-
enntx xaronnuecxnx npnxoon nexomy tno nocrponrt xocrena - n raxom
cnyuae tno npnxasano xcensy cnyxnrt n pyccxo nepxnn! He tno ]on-
a na coepxanne xcensa - rp. Ionyxoncxn c apxnenncxonom pacnopxn-
nnct rax, uro ntctnaemt tnn nnxapnte xcenst ns pyrnx oranenntx
yeson, axe ns pyro enapxnn, n coepxnmt na cuer cnonx npexnnx
242
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
nacroxrene n naexe, uro +rn nonte nontcxne anocront npncnoxr cee
noontme xaronnxon ns pyccxnx npnxoxan n nayr cnocot npnopecrn
]ont ns mecrntx cpecrn. Omnia ad majorem Dei gloriam! Onaxo xe
ntcnannte xcenst namnn cnntnt ornop n pyccxom yxonencrne; pyc-
cxne cnxmennnxn, xax opte nacrtpn, ne ann ynonnrt cnonx nacomtx.
Hrax, mnorne ns raxnx npnxoon (nastnaemtx +xcnosnrypamn) oxasannct
conepmenno nnmnnmn n noromy necocroxrentntmn. Kpome xocrenon, no-
nxxn nacrponnn, raxxe es ncxxo nyxt, nosne pyccxnx nepxne n cenax
uncro pyccxnx xpomeunte uaconnn (kapliczki), nastnaemte n Iannunne
camononamn na pyccxne ymn, urot rontxo nounnnrt xcensy ne caxe-
nn semnn n pyccxom cene n nmert nosmoxnocrt n uyxom npnxoe nnnxrt na
pyccxn napo. Herxo nonxrt, xax npn raxnx ocroxrentcrnax rpyno onpe-
ennrt rpannnt mexy nontcxom n pyccxom naponocrtm n Iannunne, ro
ecrt c rounocrtm noxasart, xro ns ntnemnnx rannuan no poy n nnemenn
pyccxn, a xro - nonxx. Ho +ro npnunne neponcnoneanne otxnonenno
npnnnmaercx sa npnsnax nannonantnocrn, n nce xaronnxn npnuncnxmrcx x
nonxxam, a ynnart - x pyccxnm
44
.
B saxnmuenne npecrannxem omne nonoxennx n ntnot ns nacroxme
crartn:
1. Cxasannx neronncnen o pennemnx xnrenxx Kapnarcxoro noroptx
nectma cnnunnt n neocrarount; no nocenennx cnanxn cront pennn, uro
cnanxne moryr cunrartcx nepnotrntmn onrarenxmn semnn.
2. Pyccxne xnxstx nnepnte yrnepnnn cnom nnacrt n Kapnarcxom noro-
pte. Hpn nnx pasnnnact pyccxax naponocrt, n nmx Pycn saxpennnoct na-
ncera.
3. Ho npeceuennn poa xnxse pyccxnx nonxxn sannaenn xpaem n opa-
rnnn ero n nontcxym nponnnnnm - uepnonnym Pyct.
4. uacrte nanaennx rarap n naest pyrnx nenpnxrene pasopnnn crpa-
ny. Honxxn noopnann npana cnoontx cocnonn n saxpenocrnnn xpecrt-
xn. Honnrnuecxn n pennrnosnt rner tn npnunno oruyxennx ntcmnx
cnoen omecrna or cnoe nannonantnocrn, no napo ocrancx nepen npea-
nnxm cnonx ornon.
5. Hocenennx nnocrpannen tnn nemnorouncnennt. Onn sannmann no
ontme uacrn ropoa n mecreuxn. Kpome cenepo-sanantx oxpann, conep-
menno ononxuenntx, ocrantnte onacrn ocrannct no npenmymecrny sace-
nenntmn pyccxnm napoom.
6. Hxmcxne xononnn, saneennte no npemx nnaennx pyccxnx xnxse,
concem opycenn. Hontcxax xononnsannx mna nocrenenno no mepe ycnnn-
nammerocx xaronnnnsma. Karonnxn ncero onee ycnexon cenann npn xo-
ponxx rane n Cnrnsmyne.
7. Hocne pasena Hontmn ancrpnnt sanenn nemenxne xononnn, no onn
ne nmemr nnnxnnx na mecrnym naponocrt.
8. Pacnpocrpanenne nononnsma n xaronnnnsma npoonxaercx n o cnx
nop, no n nonemee npemx pyccxax naponocrt cnntno saxnnna cnom xnny-
243

uecrt, n rannuane, xorx c ontmnmn ycnnnxmn, no ntepxnnamr opty


npornn nroprammerocx nononnsma n xaronnnnsma.
II. Yropcxan Pyct n Byxonnna.
Ocot xapaxrep nmeer Vropcxax, nnn 3axapnarcxax Pyct. C pennnx
yxe npemen cyta ee tna recno cnxsana c matxpamn nnn yrpamn. Kax
cxasano ntme, matxpt, npnmemn n Hanonnm, namnn ne rontxo nacenen-
nym cnanxnamn crpany, no n ropoa, nontne cymecrnymmne, xaxont yrop-
cxo-pyccxne: Vxropo (Vnrnap), Myxauen (Munkacs); ecrt nsnecrne axe
o mecrnom xnxse Haopne. Festmxnnt norapn Fent nnmer, uro ntnem-
nxx Vropcxax Pyct no p. Tncy n Tenny n no ropo Cnant (Soovar) cocro-
xna nne rpannn Vropcxoro xoponencrna n npnnanexana Pyccxomy rocy-
apcrny Bnanmnpa Bennxoro. C +roro npemenn, xaxercx, n yrnepnncx pyc-
cxn +nemenr n crpane, n c ro nopt ocranoct sa napoom nasnanne - pyc-
cxn, Pyct. Onaxo xe no npnunne, nepoxrno, nnyrpennnx mexyycon
pyccxne xnxstx onxnt tnn cxopo orxasartcx or nnaennx +ro onacrtm,
c xoropo coomenne nx tno sarpyneno ropamn, n yxe c XI cronernx
Kapnarcxne ropt nastnamrcx Veopcru+u
45
.
Mexy rem, o pyccxnx, xoropte, xax mecrnte xnrenn Vrpnn, xnnn n
npanocnannn, ynomnnaer xoponena Fena IV n cnoem nocnannn x nane Hnno-
xenrnm no 1252 room
46
.
B 1285 r. xopont Bnancnan Kyman, no conery Bnsanrncxoro nmneparo-
pa Anponnxa, npnsnan nonoxon (pymtn) na nomomt npornn rarap, xoropte
co cnonx xouennm na p. Hpyrom n Monano nepemnn eicorue ropt n
uepes semnn 3penx (Cemnrpanm) na p. Mapom; c nomomtm pymtn Bna-
ncnany yanoct nopasnrt rarap na p. Tnce. B narpay sa +ry nomomt xo-
pont Bnancnan an nonoxam semnm mexy Mopomem n Tncom, nastnae-
mym Kpnxn, n, naronpnxrcrnyx n yme rpeuecxomy neponcnoneannm
47
,
nosnonnn nm cnoono xnrt n cnoe nepe. Kora Ocrpnromcxn apxnennc-
xon Bnanmnp (Haomep)
48
no nonenennm nant Hnxonax IV nonxn xpecro-
nt noxo na npanocnanntx n Mapamopome, Bnancnan pasornan nocxo
xpecronocnen. Hocne +roro n 1332 n 1334 rr. xopont Kapn Poepr naxt
ntcrynan c cnonmn nocxamn npornn coennenntx pymtn n pyccxnx n
Mapamopome, a nana axe paspemnn n nocrnoe npemx ecrt mxco nonnam,
cpaxanmnmcx c cxnsmarnxamn n nenpncrynntx ropntx ymentxx
49
.
B 1352 r., a no pyrnm cxasannxm n 1359 r., nponsomno n +rnx crpanax
ocronpnmeuarentnoe cotrne, nectma naxnoe no cnonm nocnecrnnxm.
Onn ns nauantnnxon mapamopomcxnx pymtn n pyccxnx, noenoa Foran
parom, uenonex myxecrnennt n pasymnt, oxorxct c pyxnnom cnoem,
no cneam rypa npopancx uepes eicorue eopi n nononnnt n na cenepo-
nocrounom cxnone nx namen npexpacnym mecrnocrt nx nocenennx. Onn
nepemnn c cnonmn cemecrnamn n nocennnnct nepnonauantno n c. Bononne
npn p. uopmose (Kpacno) n Fyxonnne. parom nocrponn nepxont n mona-
crtpt, n xoropom o cnx nop noxonrcx npax ocnonarenx Monancxoro roc-
noapcrna. Bor nauano rocyapcrna, xoropoe nnocnecrnnn nsnecrno no
244
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
nasnannem Bonomnnt, Monannn nnn Myntran. axe ntnemnne pymtnc-
xne ncropnxn, neymne cnom ncropnm co npemen nmneparopa Tpaxna, co-
snamr, uro ncropnx pymtn (n Fyxonnne n Monannn), nocne rtcxuenernero
npomexyrxa, cnona naunnaercx rontxo c 1352 roa, ro ecrt c nepecenennx
ns Mapamopoma n Fyxonnny noenot paroma
50
, xoropt ncxope pacnpo-
crpannn cnom nnacrt na ncm Fyxonnny n Monannm, rax xax pennne pyc-
cxne onacrn nocne sanoenannx Iannua xoponem Kasnmnpom tnn npeoc-
rannent cnoe cyte na otuy rarapcxo opt. Ho cxasannxm monanc-
xnx neronncnen Mnpona Kocrnna n Vpnxa Bopnnxa, parom namen n crpa-
ne pyccxnx, cenennx xoroptx n ero npannenne ymnoxannct xnrenxmn, nos-
npamammnmncx n ocrannennte nmn npe rarapamn crpant. Pyccxne sanxnn
no npenmymecrny nonocrn uepnonnnxym, Xornncxym n nononam ccxym n
Couancxym, naxonen, nenoe Honecrponcxoe noepexte n ntnemne Fec-
capann no Copoxy n Oxpe
51
. Vxe n XIV cronernn xpa necrponcxoro
noepextx nocnn nasnanne Pocconnaxnn
52
.
Hanpornn roro, eme pantme nponcxonnn nepecenennx pyccxnx c +ro
cropont Kapnar n Vrpnm. Anonnm norapn xoponx Fent nnmer, yro t
matxpt na nyrn cnoem n Hanonnm conponoxaemt tnn pyccxnmn, xoro-
ptx onn nocennnn n Mapamopomcxo n Vxancxo onacrxx. Ecnn mt n ne
npnmem +ro cxasanne sa ncropnuecxn ]axr, ro nce xe onxnt npnsnart,
uro yxe nspenne tno npeanne o nepecenent yrpo-poccon c cenepa. Bnpo-
uem, ns yropcxnx ncrounnxon nsnecrno, uro npn xoponxx ns apnacxoro
nnemenn Anpex I, Konomana, Fent IV, Bnancnana Kymana pyccxne nepe-
cenxnnct n Vropmnny, n uro ropoa Bennxn Pyccxn Iopo (Nagy
Oroszvar), Bennxopocct (Nagy Oroszi), Manopocct (Kis Oroszi) nponsno-
xr cnoe nasnanne or nepecennnmnxcx rya pyccxnx
53
.
Bcero sameuarentnee tno nonopenne xnxsx Kopnxronnua n cenepo-no-
crouno Vrpnn. B nononnne XIV cronernx xnxst ueop Kopnxronnu (ctn
xnxsx Koncranrnna Kopnara, nnaenmero Hoontem), ne xoren noxopnrtcx
cnoemy xe, nennxomy xnxsm Ontrepy, nepemen x Vropcxomy xoponm
Hmonnxy (nnaenmemy rora n Iannnxom Pyctm) n nonyunn or nero n
yen Myxauencxym n Maxonnnxym onacrn na mxnom cxnone Kapnar. C
nnm npnmno mnoro pyccxoro napoa ns Hoonnn n nocennnoct n Myxauen-
cxo onacrn
54
. Honnrnuecxn rner n pennrnosnte ronennx n Hontme uacro
npnnyxann pyccxnx ntcenxrtcx ontmnmn maccamn n ncxart yexnma sa
Kapnaramn. B XVII cronernn npanocnannte rannuane, yxnonxxct or mnx-
xercxoro rnera, nepecennnnct n xonnuecrne necro.irux oecmroe mic: n
Vrpnm n nocennnnct oxono rpa (3pnay) n Contnona (Szolnok), a nonxx
Cuacrnt Iepypr opomnntcxn, neroyx na necnpanennnocrt cnonx
semnxxon, ecnoxonrcx sa nenocrt mnxxercxoro nmymecrna, ronopx: uero
xe moxno naexrtcx or onxenntx; pasne roro, uro onn sa paso (upes-
mepnte nanorn) ornnarxr nam pasoem, sa ocxopnenne cnoe nept ormcrxr
nam noxnmennem namero nmymecrna?
55
.
B omen sa ro, uro pyccxn napo ns Hoonnn n Iannunnt ntcenxncx n
sannman ynpasnennte nonoxamn mecra, onnoxne pymtncxne ntxont,
245

cnyxa xoponxm nontcxnm, nonyuann or nnx n narpay npnnnnernn na nme-


nne n cnoonoe nontsonanne semne no nmenem nonomcxnx xnxxecrn
nnn nonomcxnx cen, nocenenntx na rax nastnaemom nonomcxom npane (jure
Valachico)
56
. Hepnym npnnnnernm na nonomcxoe npano an xopont yropc-
xn n nontcxn Hmonnx n 1374 roy
57
. B 1378 roy Bnancnan xnxst Onont-
cxn n pyccxn xanonan nmenne Opnnone nexoemy Bnanmnpy Bonomnny
(Ladimiro Valacho). Kopont rano noxanonan n 1393 roy Mnxanny Bono-
mnny c parnem ceno Iomen n 3tauencxom yese. Cemonnr, xnxst maso-
nenxn, xanonan parten xona n Mnmxy Bonomnnon xnxxecrnom n Hm-
nun, Fentscxoro yesa, re o cnx nop xnnyr opycenmne xnxstx Hmnu-
cxne cnoontmn semnennaentnamn. Tor xe xnxst Cemonnr n
1424 roy an npnnnnernm na nonomcxoe npano nonoxam cena Pyt
58
, nc-
xnmuax nx ns pyccxoro npana. B 1440 roy xnxst Cnnpnrano noxanonan
Maxcnma nnn Bnaa paracnnonnua cenom Kocono (ntnue Crapt Kocon n
nosne nero m. Kocon), c monacrtpem (ntnue ynpasnenntm) na p. Ptnnne
n Cnxrnncxo nonocrn Konomtcxoro yesa, npnannxx emy ne nonxnt,
nastnaemte Fepesono (npncenox c. Kpnnoponnn), na p. uepemome n Xate
(ntnue ontmoe rynyntcxoe ceno n ropax, cunrammee n nyx npnxoax
4 800 ym). B 1456 roy xopont Kasnmnp rennon an npnnnnernm ntxo-
nam Mnxanny Horo]ery Monancxomy c partxmn antom n ymo (mnr-
pnem) nocennrtcx n Kamenne, Konomte nnn poronue n noxynart nmenne;
no onn, nonyunn nocne amnncrnm, nosnparnnnct onxrt n cnoe oreuecrno
59
.
Honxxn ncxuecxn noxponnrentcrnonann nonomcxnm ntxonam, crapaxct
cnncxart cee naprnm n xpae, xoropax cnocrnonana t nm n nocxrarent-
crne na Monannm n Fyxonnny. Taxnm opasom, ncx uepnonnax Pyct nepe-
nonnnnact xnxstxmn, nastnaemtmn nonomcxnmn, xoropte, yyun xopomo
snaxomt c pyccxnm xstxom, conepmenno opycenn co cnonm noromcrnom
n nponsnenn pyccxym opoouvm mnxxry, sacenxmmym o cnx nop mnorne
cena Kapnarcxoro noroptx
60
.
Monancxne rocnoapn n pymtncxn napo, xnnx n mnpe c ennonep-
ntmn pyccxnmn, samnmann nmecre cnom nesanncnmocrt or noxymenn
nonxxon n matxp n ncxpenno nomorann pyr pyry. Vxe n 1491 roy, xora
nexro Myxa, no npeannm xasax, xoroporo Kpomep nastnaer myxnxom
(rusticanus homo), napan ns nonoxon n Hoxyrcxo Pycn (Russis Pokutensibus)
ecxrnrtcxunoe nocxo, nauan noenart c nonxxamn, ro nonxxn noospena-
nn, uro +ro enanoct ecnn ne no naymennm, ro nepno c cornacnx monanc-
xoro noenot Cre]ana
61
. Pymtnt ne pas noexann nonxxon, a n nyumym
+noxy ncropnn Monannn noenoa Cre]an sannaen Hoxyrtem n Iannuem (n
1502 roy). Oxnax cnoero cnacennx, pyccxax naponocrt oxpenna nx
nono optt c nonxxamn, xora ocrantnte onacrn concem tnn noun-
nent nnacrn nontcxo. Ho +ro npnunne na Hoxyrte n Iannnxom noropte
yepxanact nentnee pyccxax naponocrt, sect coxpannnnct ncero unme
pennne npeannx, orrya nsonntnee reuer no+rnuecxax crpyx cnoenounen-
noro naponoro rnopuecrna.
246
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Hrax, pyccxax naponocrt, recnnmax c sanaa n mra nonxxamn n matx-
pamn, namna enncrnenno na mro-nocroxe nepntx comsnnxon n pymtnax.
nx nyumero yxcnennx nsanmntx ornomenn paccmorpnm rnannte momen-
rt Monannn n cronxnonennx pymtn c Hontme. Pymtnt, nastnaemte y
cnanxn nnaxamn nnn nonoxamn, nspenne tnn mxntmn cocexmn Pycn no
nce nnnnn or ncrounnxon p. Tnct nont Hpyra x ycrtm necrpa. Hocennn-
mnct na ontmom npocrpancrne mexy nnxnnm ynaem, Fanxanom n Kap-
naramn, onn xnnn cpen cnanxn n rontxo c sanano cropont npnxacannct
x matxpcxomy nnemenn. Ho +ro npnunne onn noneprnnct pemnrentnomy
nnnxnnm cnanxn, xstx nx coepxnr n cee nxrym onm cnanxncxnx +ne-
menron, n nce nasnannx n ocronncrna n rpaxancxom nx ynpannennn -
cnanxncxne: nennxn an, nopnnx, xnmuapt, crontnnx, nocrentnnx, one-
pt, xynant, namecrnnnt n p., ncrpeuaemte n rpamorax monancxnx roc-
noape, - nce cnanxncxne cnona. Mnorne ropoa n cena yepxann o cnx
nop pyccxne nasnannx, a ropoa Fenropo (Axxepman), uepnonnt, Poma-
non, Hemeut, Cyuana, Ceper, Fanx n p. nspenne cunrannct pyccxnmn ro-
poamn
62
. Htnemnee mecreuxo Ftpna yxe n nononnne XII nexa cnyxnno
yexnmem nx rannnxoro xnxsx Hnana Pocrncnannua, nposnannoro Fep-
nannxom. C nononnnt XIV cronernx (xax cxasano ntme) pymtnt, sanxn
nepnotrno pyccxym semnm n yrnepnnmnct mexy pyccxnmn xnrenxmn
Fyxonnnt, cnauana npnnnmann otuan n nonnrnuecxoe ycrpocrno cnonx
corpaxan, no c reuennem npemenn, pacnpocrpannnmnct na nnxnem nec-
rpe n Hpyre, onn ocnonann camocroxrentnoe xnxxecrno Monancxoe nnn
Mynrxncxoe (Hapa Monanne, Mynrenecx). Foranont nacnennxn roc-
nocrnonann npoonxnrentnoe npemx, nastnax cex noenoamn nnn rocno-
apxmn: Fyxonnna onro ocrananact rnannom onacrtm, a Cyuana tna cro-
nnne rocnoapcrna n mecronpetnannem mnrpononnra. Taxnm xe opa-
som, rontxo onnm cronernem pantme, nosnnxno Banaxcxoe (Bonomcxoe)
noenocrno (Hapa Pomtnecx), ocnonarenem xoroporo tn ntxoen ns Ce-
mnrpann Payn Herpy (uepnt). B oonx xnxxecrnax yepxnnanoct npan-
nenne n nce rpaxancxoe ycrpocrno no cnanxncxomy otuam. Cnanxnc-
xn xstx, sanmcrnonannt pymtnamn or cocennx cnanxn, co npemenn
xpemennx nx coxpanxncx n nepxonnom orocnyxennn o nononnnt XVII
nexa, n rpaxancxnx xe enax tnn n ynorpenennn pyccxoe napeune n
Monannn n onrapcxoe - n Banaxnn.
Hocne naennx Iannnxo-Pyccxoro xnxxecrna monancxne nnaerenn n
ntnemne Fyxonnne npnmnn n cronxnonenne c Hontme. Honxxn, yxpe-
nnnmnct n Iannunne, oparnnn cxopo cnon xnmnte nsopt na cocecrnen-
nym pymtncxym onacrt, nauann nmemnnartcx no nnyrpennne ena n poo-
nte cnopt monancxnx noeno n cnonmn yxnmpennxmn onenn o roro,
uro Monancxoe xnxxecrno necxontxo pas npnnyxeno tno npnsnart na
coom noxponnrentcrno ycnnnnmecx Hontmn, rax xax nonomcxne noeno-
t npnsnanann nepxonnym nnacrt matxp.
247

Hecmorpx na +ro, pymtncxnm rocnoapxm ne onaxt yananoct c ry-


penxo nomomtm noexart nontcxne n matxpcxne nonxn, nropranmnecx
n npeent nx onacre. Boenoa nonomcxn Foxnap nopasnn yropcxoro
xoponx Kapna-Poepra, nocne uero matxpt naonro ocrannnn pymtn n
noxoe. Ho ropaso cnntnee n nacrounnee tn nanop nonxxon na Mona-
nnm, xoropym onn nenpemenno xorenn noxopnrt cnoemy nnatuecrny. O-
naxo xe nourn nce noxot nonxxon tnn neyaunt n cronnn nontcxo Peun
Hocnonnro mnoro ener n xponn. Vxe n 1360 roy Kasnmnp Bennxn,
nmemanmnct n nacnecrnennt cnop mexy nymx ctnamn Cre]ana, no-
cnan cnoe nocxo na nomomt crapmemy ctny Cre]ana. Mnamn par Herp
an nm cnntnt ornop, n nontcxne nocxa tnn ncrpenent o nocnenero
uenonexa
63
. Hocne +roro no nropo nononnne XV cronernx noenoa Cre]an,
myxecrnenno samnmaxct npornn cynrana Maromera, xoropt nanpacno ocax-
an ero n Xornne n Cyuane, npnnyxen tn ncxart nomomn n noxponnrent-
crna y nonxxon, naexct narn onopy y xpncrnan. Ho Cre]an xecroxo omncx
n cnoem npenonoxennn. Hontcxn xopont nsyman ynorpenrt +ry cny-
uanocrt nx ocymecrnnennx annero xenannx nounnnrt Monannm
nontcxo xopone. B 1388 roy rano nsxn nsamt y noenot Anexcanpa
3 000 pyne ]pxxcxoro cepepa n oran emy no sanor ropoa Cnxrnna,
Konomtm n nce Hoxyrte, xoropoe nexoropoe npemx ocrananoct no nnacrn
noenot
64
.
B 1497 roy xopont n Antpexr ornpannncx snaunrentntmn cnnamn n
Fyxonnny n no npenorom ncnomorarentnoro nocxa, npnneennoro yro
t na samnry Cre]ana npornn rypox, namepenancx nocanrt na rocnoapc-
xom npecrone nonxxa Cnrnsmyna, para xnxsx Inoroncxoro. Ho ena
nontcxne nocxa ncrynnnn n Fyxonnny n nauann ocaxart Cyuany, xax o-
napyxnnoct nontcxoe xonapcrno, n monanane, cxnarnnmnct sa opyxne,
nanecnn mnnmtm pystxm pemnrentnoe nopaxenne. Kopont n Antpexr
cnaccx rontxo nocnemntm ercrnom, a ero mnxxernoe nocxo nonecno n
yxonnncxnx necax cront necntxannoe nopaxenne, uro n nontcxom napoe
ocranact nocnonnna: sa xpynx Antpaxra nornnena mnxxra. Ho +rnm ne
xonunnoct naxasanne neponomntx. Mcrnrentnt Cre]an sanxn Hoxyrte n,
nroprmnct c 100 000 nocxom n semnn, npnnanexamne xopone, xer n
nnennn cena n ropoa o camo Bncnoxn. Htnon cnaccx rontxo npounocrtm
cnonx cren; Hepemtmnt, Panmno, Hepenopcx n Hannyrt noxptnnct nen-
nom n pasnannnamn. C roro npemenn monanane cxopee pyxnnnct c nenep-
ntmn rypxamn, uem c nyxano Hontme. Crontxo ncntrann onn ncxxoro
poa ecrnn or cnoenonnx roptx nentmox nontcxnx, ne oystnaemtx
nnxaxnmn saxonamn cnaoro npannrentcrna. Camn nontcxne ncropnxn yr-
nepxamr, uro rerman Xonxencxn n saxnmuennom c rypxamn n 1617 roy
oronope nx roro rontxo orxasancx or ncxxnx npnrxsann co cropont xo-
pont na Monannm, urot pas nancera nperpanrt nontcxnm nentmoxam
opory x nropxennm n Monannm n xo nmemarentcrny n naponte cnopt n
raxnm opasom npeoxpannrt cnoe oreuecrno or ncenosmoxntx cmyr n na-
248
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
npacnoro xpononponnrnx. Hpn +rom ne nyume noxasann cex n camn nontcxne
xoponn: nmecro roro, uro ynnmart cnoenontntx marnaron, nontcxne nen-
nenocnt sarenann nnrpnrn, caxann nponsnontno na rocnoapcrno cnonx
npnnepxennen, nnora n xasnnnn cmeprnm monancxnx rocnoape, ne nmex
na ro nnxaxoro npana, xpome npana cnntnemero.
Tax, n 1501 roy xopont n Antpexr ocxnepnnn nocnenn ro cnoero
nnaennx rem, uro npnxasan cnxrt ronony noenoe Hnte, xoropt ncxan n
Hontme samnrt npornn Cre]ana
65
. Tax, n 1564 roy norexna nenonnnnax
xpont monancxoro noenot Cre]ana Tommn n nyx ero oxp no meuom
nanaua na ropocxo nnoman n Htnone no nonenennm Cnrnsmyna Anryc-
ra. Hpanocnannax Pyct cmnpenno cxoponnna meprnoe reno necnpanennno
xasnennoro rocnoapx npn nepxnn cn. Ony]pecxoro monacrtpx n Htnone
na neunoe ynoxoenne.
To xe camoe cenan xopont Cre]an Faropn n 1578 roy. Hnan Hoxona
(par monancxoro noenot Hnonn) tn n cnoe npemx cnanntm rermanom
xasanxnm. Ho cmeprn para on tn npnsnan na rocnoapcrno, no npornnnax
naprnx c nomomtm xoponx nocrannna rocnoapem Herpa, nenannnmoro
monananamn. Hnan Hoxona, onepxx nyxantm coneram xnxsx nyma 3a-
paxcxoro, nonancx nsmennnuecxn n xoponencxne pyxn. Kopont npnxasan
ero cxonart n cocnart n nennxonontcxn ropo Pany, n on tn t axe
xasnen cmeprtm, ecnn t copannax na cem mnxxra ne xoaracrnonana sa
cront sacnyxennoro nx pecnynnxn xasanxoro orartpx. Hecmorpx na ro,
xopont Cre]an n yroy rypxam npnxasan nocne npnnesrn ero no Htnon n na
ptnxe, xax yrononnomy npecrynnnxy, orpynrt emy ronony. A urot snar-
nte nmn onxrt ne npocnnn nomat +roro cnannoro noenrenx ycypman,
xopont n +ro npemx ornpannncx na oxory. Btneennt na mecro xasnn Hnan
Hoxona cxasan cneymmne cnona: Inany mom n pyxn mon, rax mnoro-
xparno ocnxmennte xponnm nenepntx, npnnomy ntne n xeprny nmenn xpn-
crnancxomy
66
. Htnoncxoe parcrno - pyccxne npanocnannte rpaxane npn-
nxnn oesrnannennoe reno crpaantna n noxoponnnn ero c uecrtm npn cno-
e nepxnn. 3rn xasnn napouno conepmannct n cronnne Iannnxo Pycn nx
npncrpamennx napoa n xax ntpaxenne npeonaannx Hontmn na Pyctm n
npanocnannem.
Koponxm n nanam nontcxnm xasanoct, uro onn yxe conepmenno noxopn-
nn Monannm, n uro xpome pyccxnx npntnn eme nonte pat - Fyxonnnc-
xax Pyct n pymtnt. Ho For cmnpnn ntcoxomepne nxxon n an nm nouyn-
crnonart cnom xapammym ecnnny. Cre]an Horonxn, nnaenmn cornxmn
pyccxnx nonocre, copan mnorouncnennte nonunma oxornnxon n camo-
nontno nanan na Monannm. Hpocnrt xoponx o consnonennn na noxo xasa-
noct emy nnmnnm; on axe ne nocnyman xoponencxoro nanomnnannx or-
crynnrt or +roro npenpnxrnx. Monanane c cnonmn comsnnxamn rypxamn,
ysnan n uem eno, ocrynnnn co ncex cropon nroprnynmerocx nenpnxrenx n
npnnynnn nce nocxo x caue. Hnenennoro Horonxoro, nnnonnnxa +roro
nanaennx, nocnann n Cramyn, re on saxnmuen n rmptmy. Typenxne noc-
249

xa oparnnnct na Hoonnm n cnoono npeanann nce meuy n ornm, rax xax


Horonxn n cnoem ntcoxomepnn sapan c coom ns Kamenna n pyrnx ro-
poon nect rapnnson. Oopennt cront cuacrnnntmn ycnexamn opyxnx
cynran nocnan Cxnnep-Famy c nontm nocxom x rpannnam Hontmn. Be-
nnxn rerman Xonxencxn ntmen na ncrpeuy x ropoy Fyce npn ycrte
Mopaxnt n necrp, no ne nmen ornarn n oxort ncrynnrt n nepannt o n
saxnmunn, axe es consnonennx pecnynnxn, c rypxamn oronop, no es
nontst nx oreuecrna. On orxasancx (xax cxasano ntme) or ncex npan na
Monannm n Banaxnm, ycrynnn rypxam Xornncxym xpenocrt n cornacnncx
na ynnuroxenne xoponntx nocenenn na necrpom. Bnpouem, +ror orxas
Hontmn or npan na Monannm ne tn ncxpenen; Xonxencxn xenan ycno-
xonrt +rom yneprxo rypox, uro onn nexoropoe npemx ne rpenoxnnn Hontmy,
rax xax on yman o noxoe na Mocxny, re ero xopont xoren cecrt na npe-
cron pyccxnx nape n rpeonan ero nomomn.
C +roro npemenn rypxn crann nonntmn nnaerenxmn Monano-Bonomc-
xnx xnxxecrn, anann nm no nponsnony rocnoape n cmenxnn cee npo-
rnnntx. Ho nonxxn cxopo satnn, uro nm nentsx nmemnnartcx n monanc-
xne ena, nauann onxrt cnon nnrpnrn n nanenn na cex nonym necuacrnym
nony. Cennamn n nanpamn noxptrt Xonxencxn, xorx neopoxorno,
nanpannncx no nropo pas x rpannnam Monancxo semnn n no nonenennm
xoponx nepenpannncx upes necrp. Onaxo xe, xax t yrptsaemt conec-
rtm, npennx cnom rnent, on nanncan x xoponm cnoe nocnenee npo-
mantnoe nnctmo. Hpeuyncrnne rermana ctnoct. 7 oxrxpx 1620 roa npo-
nsomna namxrnax nrna c rypxamn no ueuopom; nocxo nontcxoe tno
pasnro n npax, n rontxo ocrarxn ero ocrannct n nnen; crenn, na xoroptx
nponcxonno cpaxenne, noxptnnct mnorouncnenntmn rpynamn, rontxo onn
oosnte uypt (cnyrn) cnacnnct ercrnom n npnnecnn yxacnym nx xoponx
n nanon necrt. Cranncnan Konennontcxn, xnxst Kopenxn n Horonxn na-
xonnnct mexy nnenntmn; Xonxencxn nan n cpaxennn, n Kanremnp no-
cnan ero orceuennym ronony cynrany n Haperpa. Hocne +ro noet rara-
pt naxntnynn na Hoontcxym n Bontncxym semnn, n nceomn ncnyr tn
o roro nennx, uro, no cxasannxm nontcxnx ncropnxon, mnorne snamennrte
nonxxn, yxox or onacnocrn cmeprn nnn or nnena rarapcxoro, exann n
Iancx, n Hemenxym semnm, axe n Bnennm. C rex nop pecnynnxa
Hontcxax npnnyxena tna nnarnrt ycypmanam exeronym ant, n rontxo
myxecrnennomy Coecxomy yanoct Xypanencxnm oronopom ocnoonrt
Hontmy or nocrtnoro xapaua.
Hocne +rnx rxxxnx ncntrann Hontma nce-raxn ne nepecranana opa-
mart cnon xante nsopt na Fyxonnny n Monancxne semnn. Tenept cam
noenrent rypox no Beno noxymancx noxopnrt monanan nontcxo xo-
pone, no ero noxo 1685 roa, xax n npexnne, ne nmen ycnexa, n cam nonxo-
noen ena cnaccx or nnena. Tax nenarononyuno xonunncx n nropo ero
noxo n cneymmem roy, xorx nonxxn n rnyoxo nroprnynnct n Monanc-
xym onacrt. He ycrpamnnmnct +rnmn necuacrntmn noxoamn, Coecxn
250
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
ornpannncx n 1688 roy n rpern n n 1691 roy n uerneprt pas, no ncera
esycnemno. Monannx ne noxopnnact Hontme, rmeren tn rpy n nanpac-
no crpynnact nxnxax xpont no crenxm nonomcxnm. Ho+romy Koepxnnxn
cnpanennno nasnan Bonomnny mornno nonxxon (Valachia est tumulus
Polonorum). H n camom ene, rtcxun n rtcxun nonnon n mnoro nonxono-
nen nontcxnx namnn cee n Monannn rpo. Fyxonnncxne neca! - nocxnn-
naer Cnennxn, - ecnn t nosmoxno ntannrt coxn epen namnx, ro eme
ntne nporexna ns nac xpont nonxxon, nsnenntx nenepntmn (?) nonoxa-
mn
67
. Cam 3anycxn yrnepxaer, uro nona, neennax Hoannom III Coec-
xnm nx sanoenannx Monancxo semnn, cronna rpex necmerntx apmn, uro
n ne nornno mnoro cnanntx pennnx poon nontcxnx, ncrpaueno onee
cra mnnnnonon snortx n, naxonen, pan Monannn ycrynneno tno rpn
noenocrna Poccnn. Onaxo xe, cama Hontma ne pantme Anrycra II no
npemx Kapnonnnxoro oronopa 1699 r. ynycrnna ns nny Monannm, uem n
npexparnnnct nancera cnopt Hontmn c Typnne ns-sa Monannn n Bana-
xnn.
Bor xparxoe oospenne ncropnn Fyxonnnt, ee ornomenn x Monannn n
ornomenn Hontmn x pymtnam. Tenept cneyer cxasart necxontxo cnon o
ornomennxx pyccxnx rannuan x pymtnam n o nsanmntx cnxsxx mexy nnmn.
Vxe ntme tno cxasano, uro pymtncxne npnmentnt, nocennnmnecx na
Pyccxo semne, nontsonannct opasom npannennx no cnanxnopyccxnm ot-
uaxm, n uro onn nmecre c pyccxnmn ynorpenxnn n orocnyxennn nepxon-
nocnanxncxn xstx, a n rpaxancxnx enax xstx pyccxn. B +rom rpax-
ancxom comse oe naponocrn xnnn mnpno n pyxno; mt ne snaem nn o
xaxnx cronxnonennxx nnn nenpnxsnenntx ornomennxx pyccxnx x pymt-
nam. Ecnn n tno npemennoe nepacnonoxenne pyr x pyry, ro ono nponc-
xonno no nnne nonxxon, sarenanmnx noxopnrt cee pymtn, uro ns Fyxo-
nnnt n Monannn cenart nontcxoe noenocrno, n xoropom onn mornn t
rocnocrnonart rax xe, xax n uepnonno Pycn. Hpana, uro npn mnoro-
xparntx noxoax nonxxon n Monannm npncoennxnact x xoponntm non-
xam n rannnxax mnxxra (no ontme uacrn yxe ononxuennax) n rnna nme-
cre c nontcxom mnxxrom, no saro n pxax monancxnx nonxon cpaxanoct
mnoro ctnon Iannnxo yrneraemo nontcxnmn nentmoxamn Pycn. Hpn ra-
xo ocranonxe uacro cnyuanoct, uro monanane, mcrx sa cenannte nm
nonxxamn ont, enann naern na cocenmm Pyct, xrnn n rpannn nopt
n nmennx nanon. 3ameuarentno, uro n napontx necnxx nn cnona ne ynomn-
naercx o +rnx pasopnrentntx nonax nonoxon; nanpornn roro, napo co-
xpannn namxrt nonoxon npocnannennem n nennuannem nx sa crpoenne nepx-
ne, sa ro, uro Bo.ocu eproe +vpvmm, c mpe+a eepxa+u, ro ecrt no
npanocnannomy opxy, n nnsanrncxom crnne
68
. Pyct croxna ncera n py-
xecxnx ornomennxx x ennonepnomy pymtncxomy napoy n ero noenoam,
nmex ropronte n pyrne cnomennx c nnmn. Fontmax uacrt Fyxonnnt n
snaunrentnax uacrt monancxoro noenocrna nacenent tnn cnnomno pyc-
cxnm napoom; xstx pyccxn tn enontm, npannrentcrnenntm n npn-
251

nopntm xstxom Monannn. 3narnemne pyccxne nentmoxn - xnxstx Bnm-


nenenxne, Kopenxne - xennnnct na ouepxx monancxnx rocnoape, n camn
mocxoncxne xnxstx ncrynann c nnmn n paunte comst. uro xacaercx nep-
xonntx en, ro rannnxo-pyccxoe yxonencrno tno n ecnpeptnno cnxsn
c monancxo nepapxne. Kora ncnecrnne nponcxon nontcxnx rannnxax
npanocnannax xa]epa n npoonxenne cra nxrnecxrn ner ocrananact na-
xanrnom, pyccxoe yxonencrno ornpannxnoct na nocnxmenne x Cyuancxo-
my mnrpononnry, oxasarentcrnom uemy cnyxnr xoponencxax nornepn-
rentnax rpamora na Htnoncxym enncxonnm nocnenemy namecrnnxy Maxa-
pnm Tyuancxomy n 1539 roy. Pyccxax nepxont nmena nyx cnanntx xnen-
cxnx mnrpononnron nponcxoxennx pymtncxoro: Ipnropne, nasnannoro Ham-
nnaxom (ro ecrt cemnnnaxom nnn nonynnaxom), n Herpa Mornny, cront mno-
ro cenanmero nx npanocnanno nepxnn n npocnemennx pyccxoro napoa.
Mnorne ns monancxnx rocnoape oxasannct ycepntmn noxponnrenxmn
npanocnannx n Iannunne; ne ona nepxont nocrpoena n yxpamena na cuer nx
nocon n apon. B ocoennocrn Htnoncxax cranponnrnantnax nepxont Vc-
nennx npecn. Foroponnt nosnnrnyra no xoaracrny n na nxnnennn roc-
noape, nouemy ona n o cnx nop cntner y napoa Bonomcxom. Hmenno
xe no xoaracrny monancxnx rocnoape Herpa n Hepemnn Mornnt n
1590 roy xopont Cnrnsmyn III paspemnn na mecre cropenme nepxnn no
Htnone nocrponrt nonym; n nx cxopemero nocrpoennx ee ynomxnyrte
rocnoapn xeprnonann nemanym onm cnoero nmymecrna. Hocne roro ne-
nnxnmn naroerenxmn +ro nepxnn n cranponnrnantnoro parcrna tnn
monancxne nnaerenn: Apon, Cnmeon, par Hepemnn Mornnt (1607 r.),
xoropt nmen cnon nomecrtx n Iannnxo semne; Payn, Mnronx (1623 r.).
Monce (1624), Mnpon Fepnancxn, Bacnnn (1641) n Koncranrnn yxa
(1694 r.)
69
. Hmena +rnx naroerene sanncant n nomxrnnxax parcrn n nep-
xne, xoropte onn naenxnn nepxonnom yrnaptm n xnnramn. Hpn pyccxnx
nepxnax mnorne pymtncxne rocnoapn, rermant, noro]ert n npou. namnn
ynoxoenne nx cnonx penntx ocranxon. 3ror parcxn coms mexy en-
nonepntmn pymtnamn n pyccxnmn npoonxancx nenpeptnno o xonna XVII
cronernx. Tontxo ynnx c Pnmom, na npnnxrne xoropo rannuane oxonuarent-
no cornacnnnct, paspymnna ennomtcnne nyx parcxnx napoon. C rex
nop monanane, npnepxnnaxct pennero npanocnannx, npepnann nce cnx-
sn c conparnnmnmncx n nancrno annnmnnmn pystxmn n comsnnxamn.
B raxnx ornomennxx croxna Iannnxax Pyct x cocennm monananam, n ro
npemx xax rypenxoe rocnocrno cranonnnoct c xaxtm nem rxxenee nx
pymtn. Ocoenno xe crpaana crpana or nocroxnno cmenxemtx n nasnaua-
emtx cynranamn pasntx npemenmnxon, npoox n ]anapnoron, xoropte
tnn, n cymnocrn, ne onee xax npemenntmn apenaropamn rocnoapcxoro
ocronncrna. Fyxonnna, +ra pennemax onacrt Monannn, nmena ry xe
yuacrt, uro n pyrne nponnnnnn pymtncxne. Tontxo co npemen Herpa Benn-
xoro n pyccxo-rypenxnx non XVIII n. no npemenam mepnana naexa na
ocnooxenne Monannn n Fyxonnnt or rypenxoro nra. C 1769 roa no
252
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
1775 r. Fyxonnna tna sanxra n nocnenn pas pyccxnmn nocxamn n opa-
mena Hannntm n pyccxym nponnnnnm
70
. Bcnecrnne Kyuyx-Kanapxnc-
xoro rpaxrara Fyxonnna tna onxrt nosnpamena Typnnn, a sarem no ocoo-
my oronopy ooopoeo.iuo ycrynnena Ancrpnn
71
, xoropax na ocnonannn xon-
nennnn c Poccne n Typnne 2 nmnx 1777 roa npncoennnna ee x cnonm
nacnecrnenntm nnaennxm.
Bo npemx npncoennennx Fyxonnnt x Ancrpnn onrann n ne ncxnmun-
rentno na napoa: x mro-nocroxy pymtnt, a na cenepo-sanae pyccxne, n
nce onn tnn npanocnannte. Karonnxon nonce ne tno, rax xax ne tno nx
n Iannunne o sannaennx semne nonxxamn. Coopaxaxct c ntnemnnm
cocroxnnem, mt ne moxem cee npecrannrt, uro rax tno na ene, no,
paccmorpen Cxemarnsm pnmcxo-xaronnuecxnx npnxoon n Fyxonnne, yex-
aemcx, uro no 1778 ro no ncem xpae ne tno nn onoro xaronnuecxoro
(axe ynnarcxoro) xocrena, nn onoro npnxoa, nn onoro xcensa, nn o-
no nporecranrcxo xnpxn n, xaxercx, nn ono enpecxo cnnarorn. B
semne, n xoropo xnn mnrpononnr Cyuancxn n Paonenxn enncxon, tnn
nese rontxo npanocnannte nepxnn n monacrtpn. Hepnte xaronnuecxne
xocrent n npnxot sanenn ancrpnnt c 1778 roa. Htnue cunraercx n Fy-
xonnne xaronnxon oxono 50 000 ym. Ormernm rot yupexennx xaronn-
uecxnx npnxoon n nocrpoennx xocrenon, xoropte no ontme uacrn co-
opyxannct na cuer xasnt. Hpn +rom osnaunm n ntnemnee uncno ym xaro-
nnxon nmecre c uncnom xnnymnx na reppnropnn xaxoro xaronnuecxoro
npnxoa npanocnanntx ym.
B 1778 r. yupexen pnmcxo-xaronnuecxn npnxo n m. Caarype; ntne
cunraercx n nem 416 ym, c 12 npnnncntmn epennxmn - 1 559 ym xaronn-
xon, na reppnropnn, n xoropo xnner 14 590 npanocnanntx. B 1784 r. nos-
nnx npnxo n m. Bamxonnax (Waschkoutz) - 646 . c 22 npnnncntmn epen-
nxmn - 1 761 . xar., npanocnanntx xe 33 653 . B 1785 r. xnnnnct npnxot
n m. Iypa-Xymopa (Gura-Humora), re ntnue cunraercx 4 340 ., c 17 npn-
nncntmn epennxmn 4 038 xaron., a npanocnanntx 8 132 .; n cc. Hmren-
mernu (Istensegics) n uoron-Hmren (Fogody Isten), matxpcxax xononnx,
re 2 332 ., c 11 npnn. c. 2 753 . xar., a npanocn. 4 817 .; - n m. Knmno-
nynr (onronone) 596 ., c 11 npnn. ep. 1 113 xar., npanocnanntx -
11 813 .; n c. Kaunxe - 707 ., c 8 npnn. ep. 1 713, n nemenxax xononnx
Hont Cononen (Neu-Solonets); npanocn. 9 052 ., - n c. Hmnsenrant ne-
men. xonon. 378 ., c 2 npnn. c. 840 . xaron., npanocn. xe 2 979 .
B 1786 r. ocnonant npnxot n r. uepnonnax - 5 341 . c 19 npnn. ep. 8 323
., npanocnanntx xe 29 938 ym; n m. Foxnt - 844 ., c 9 npnn. ep. 1 611
xaron., a npanocn. 12 583 .; n m. Cepere - 1 527 ., c 37 npnn. ep. 2 760
xar., 25 355 npanocnan.; n r. Cyuane - 2 050 ., c 26 npnn. 2 549 xar.,
npanocn. xe 21 183 . B 1792 roy xnnncx xaronnuecxn npnxo n r. Paon-
nax (Radautz) - 2 721 ., c 7 npnn. 3 025 xar., npanocnanntx xe 7 965 .
B 1794 roy - n c. Xanx]anna (Hadikfalva) 1 855 ., c npnn. Typnemre
(ma. xon.) 2 930 . xar. n rontxo 12 . npanocnanntx. B 1812 r. - n m.
253

Konmant 495 ., c 25 npnnncn. 1 618 ., npanocn. xe 33 788 .; n m. Btm-


nnna (Wischnitz) 230 ., c 23 npnn. 1 009 xar., 30 460 npanocn. ym; n
c. Apacna 655 ., c 15 npnnncn. 1 998 ., npanocn. xe 21 553 . n c. 3acran-
xa 305 ., c 29 npnn. 1 412 . xar., npanocn. xe 37 042 . B 1818 r. - n
c. xoent 800 ., c 8 npnn. 1437 . xar., npanocn. 7 000 . B 1842 r. - n
c. Kapntcepr (nem. xon.) 760 . c 12 npnn. 1 134 ., npanocnann. xe
13 303 . B 1843 r. - n c. Anpam]anna (Andrasfalva), ma. xon., 1430 .,
c 4 npnnncn. 2 120 . xar., npanocn. xe 3 000 .; n c. umpcrenrant, nem.
xon., 613 ., c 5 npnn. 786 xar., a npanocn. 6 703 . B 1856 r. n c. Contxa -
519 ., c 7 npnn. 1 397 . xar., npanocn. xe 7 534 .; n c. Hoxe]]anna
(lozseffalva), ma. xon., 543 . xar., c 14 npnnncn. c. 1 174 . xar., na reppn-
ropnn xe xnnyr 9 289 npanocn. ym.
Taxnm opasom Ancrpnx, npnnxn Fyxonnny n ornomennn naponocrn no-
nypymtncxo n nonypyccxo, a no neponcnoneannm uncro npanocnanno,
cnococrnonana nocenennm n ne nnocrpannen, ocoenno enpeen, nanena
nemenxnx, matxpcxnx n pyrnx xononncron n pacnpocrpannna xaronnnnsm,
yupenn n semne 23 pnmcxo-xaronnuecxnx n 10 ynnarcxnx npnxoon. Kax
tcrpo mna xononnsannx n +ro npexpacno onacrn, nnno ns roro, uro
xora no pennsnn n 1790 r. n Fyxonnne tno ncero rontxo 80 000 .,
n 1835 r. cunranoct yxe 230 000 ., a n 1851 r. 380 826 .; ntnue xe
cunraercx onee 500 000 ym.
Ho npn ncem rom pymtncxoe n pyccxoe nacenenne naxonrcx sect n
npeonaammem ontmnncrne, n pyccxax naponocrt no xponom npano-
cnannx coxpannnact nentnee, uem n cocennx Iannunne n Vrpnn.
B saxnmuenne npenoxnm pesyntrart namnx nccneonann:
1) Cenepoyropcxax Pyct nponcxonr or nepnotrntx mecrntx cnanxn,
na xoroptx, nepoxrno, eme Bnanmnp Bennxn pacnpocrpannn cnom nnacrt.
2) Bo nropo nononnne XIII cronernx xopont Bnancnan Kyman nocennn
pymtn mexy p. Mapomem n Tnco (n Mapamopome). Pymtnt n coenne-
nnn c ramomnnmn pyccxnmn ornnannct or xaronnxon, nanaanmnx na nnx.
3) B nononnne XIV cronernx noenoa Foran parom ntcennncx ns Ma-
pamopoma, sanxn Fyxonnny n ocnonan Monancxoe rocnoapcrno (noeno-
crno).
4) Pantme roro xnxst ueop Kopnaronnu, nonyunn or xoponx Kapna-Po-
epra n yen Myxauencxym onacrt, nocennncx n Myxauene.
5) Hanpornn roro, mnorne ntxont ns Monannn nocenxnnct n Iannunne
na ocotx npanax, nastnaemtx nonomcxnmn.
6) B Monancxom noenocrne onro yepxnnancx nepxonnocnanxncxn
xstx n orocnyxennn, a pyccxn xstx - n rpaxancxnx enax n npannennn.
7) Pyct cocroxna ncera n pyxecxnx ornomennxx c pymtnamn; onn nc-
xpenne nomorann pyr pyry, noxa ynnx c Pnmom, saneennax n Iannunne,
ne paspymnna ennomtcnne n, npnnxn Fyxonnny n cnoe nnaenne, cnoco-
crnonana nocenennm nnoponen n pacnpocrpanennm xaronnnnsma, onaxo
xe pyccxoe n pymtncxoe napoonacenenne npeonaaer n Fyxonnne n o
cnx nop.
254
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
HPHMEHAHHR
1. Herodot. Parisiis, 1858. L. IV. Cap. 51. C. 198.
2. O nccneonannn namxrnnxon pyccxo crapnnt, coxpannnmnxcx n Iannun-
ne n Fyxonnne. Tpyt nepnoro apxeonornuecxoro cesa n Mocxne. 1869. T. I.
C. 219.
3. B cxasannxx yropcxnx neronncnen Anonnma norapnx Fent n Cnmona Kest,
ocnonanntx na mecrntx npeannxx, naxoxrcx namexn na opory, xya nnepnte
npopanact ronna sanoenarene-matxp n Vrpnm. Anonnm ronopnr, uro xnxst
Iannnxn an yrpam 2 000 nyunnxon n 3 000 myxnxon, xoropte noxastnann nm
opory uepes Ionomcxn nec o nepexoa na pexy Xynr (duo milia sagittarum et
tria milli rustricorum anteire praecepit, qui eis per silvam Hovos viam praepararent.
Anonym. Gesta Hun garorum). 3ro onncanne moxno cxopee ornecrn x name-
crnnm Fartx, xoropomy namecrnnx xnxsx annnna nmnrpn an cnyrnnxon n
noxoe na Vrpnm. Xnacrnnnt matxp npnnncan ry xe uecrt Apnay n ero py-
xnne. Ho nmenem silva Hovos moxno nopasymenart mecrnocrt Iomen, orxya
nponcxonr mnorouncnennax rannnxo-pyccxax mnxxra - Iomoncxne. Hasnannx
Hovos (Ionom) ner n Iannunne; ono, ouennno, snyunr no-matxpcxn, no ncem
nsnecrnt n Crptcxom yese Iomoncxn nec n Iomoncxax yrecncrax ropa na p.
Cneue, na xoropo o cnx nop cronr Iomoncxn Hpeopaxencxn monacrtpt.
He menee sameuarentno ntpaxenne Cnmona Kest (Sim. de Keza Gesta Hunnorum
et Hungarorum: Arpadum gente sua Ruthenorun alpes prior perforavit). Apna c
cnonm napoom nepnt npomen ymentx Pyccxnx nononnn (rop). Cneonarentno,
n XIII cronernn yrpt nastnann Kapnart Pyccxnmn ropamn (Alpes Ruthenorum),
a pyccxne nncarenn naoopor - ropamn Vropcxnmn.
4. Stephanas ad avunculum suum Mieszkonem (onxno trt: Boleslaum), ducem
Poloniae, transmisit rogans ipsum, ut in terminis Poloniae et Hungariae conveniret,
- ante Strigoniam venit in terminis Poloniae et Hungariae tentoria fixit, deinde
Magriensem civitatem (Agria, Erlau) nam termini Polonorum ad litus Dalubii ad
civitatem Strigoniensem terminabantur. Deinde Magriensem (rum. in Agriensem)
civitatem ibant in fluvium, qui Tissia nominatur, cadentes juxta fluvium, qui Cepla
(Topla) nuncupatur usque ad castrum Salis (Soovar), ibique inter Hungaros, Ruthenos
et Polonos fines dabant. (Anonymus Belae regis notarius). Cneonarentno, conpe-
mennnx xoponx Cre]ana (997-1035) Bnanmnp Bennxn sanxn y nxxon ne rontxo
uepnencxne ropoa (xax nnmer Hecrop), no ncm saxapnarcxym crpany no m. Co-
nonym (Slana, Soovar, Salzburg, castrum Salis), pexy Tenny (npnrox Onant) n
Tncy. Taxnm opasom, na ocnonannn cxasannx Anonnma, ntnemnxx Vropcxax
Pyct moxer cunrartcx ocroxnnem Bnanmnpa Cnxroro.
5. Heronnct no Hanpenrtencx. cnncxy. CH., 1872. C. 256.
6. Hsnecrno, uro ropoa cenepo-nocrouno Pycn Bnanmnp, Hepemtmnt, Ia-
nnu, pocnannt, 3nennropo n p. nasnant n namxrt namnx mxntx (rannnxnx)
ropoon, xax otxnonenno n xononnxx nocenennamn amrcx nmena nepnona-
uantnoro nx oreuecrna.
7. Cnono o nonxy Hropene.
8. O nccneonannn namxrnnxon pyccxo crapnnt, coxpannnmnxcx n Iannun-
ne n Fyxonnne. C. 7.
255

9. annno npne x nemy (xoponm), ncnonun ncx non cnoe... ema o xonn n
nnunnax n n xoxpex xoxantx, n nme no xpnnex, n e nonxon ero cnernocrt nennxa,
or opyxtx nncramma. Cam xe (annnn) exa none xoponx, no otuam pyccxy:
e o xont no nnm nnnennm nooen, n ceno snara xxena, n crpent, n canx
snarom yxpamena. Honnoe copanne pyccxnx neronnce. II. C. 187.
10. O nccne. nam. pyccx. crapnnt. C. 8.
11. Hnar. ner.. C. 178.
12. Tam xe. C. 211 n 214.
13. Cassus fuit et ridiculosus onerosusque terrarum Russiae ad meditulia Polo-
niae ingressus. Pluribis enim hebdomadis in locis variis Podoliae stativa habentes
proprios turbabant et devorabant. .veou. Kn. XIII. C. 531, 532.
14. Tatari praeda apud Taurica deposita, mense Julio iterum immani excursione
casdem regiones divexerant. Quibus incommodis et conditiis hominum res motus,
nobilitati onmi polona arma sumere et apud Sandomiriam celeriter sibi praesto jussa
ipse Cracovia relicta eodem sese contulit. Dum aegre moliuntur conveniunt nostri,
hostes praeda onmsti ad sua so recepere. Quo cognito nostri quoque dellapsi sunt,
cum non multo minore, quam hostes, damno et incommodo Sandomiriensem tractum
affecissent, praeter quod abigendis tamen et trucidandis hominibus abstinuere.
Kpo+ep. Kn. XIII. C. 439.
15. Regio Podoliac et Russiae, justa forsitan efferrens rabie, ut niteretur sibi de
alio principe provideri, videntes se non solum ope sed omni spe destitutos. ny-
rom, no 1475 room, xn. XIII, crp. 532. He snaem, na xaxom ocnonannn r. Kynnm
nnmer, uro n npoonxenne 39 ner cymecrnonan mnpnt coms rarap c Hontme, n
uro n XV cronernn nm noenart tno ne sa uro. Becrnnx Enpont. 1874. Mapr.
C. 19.
16. Acta et diplomata graeca medii aevi, sacra et profana, edid. Jos. Mutter et Fr.
Miklosich. Vindobonae, 1860. T. I. C. 577 - 578.
17. Statuta novae civitatis Korczynensis, no 1456 r. oee.. Codex diplomaticus.
T. VIII.
18. H. Lapaueeu:. Rys wewnetrznych stosunkow Galicyi wschodniej w drugiej
polowie XV wieku. Lwow, 1869. C. 108, 116.
19. Ho +romy nonoy copant c Pycn 20 000 ronon nonon n snaunrentnax
cymma ener, n nce orano Opononxam. Cm. .veouno 1465 r. XIII. C. 346.
20. Vxe n 1447 r. noenoa Herp Opononx paspemnn cynpyxecrno mexy Hpo-
racnem Xoopocrancxnm ns Foprnnx c ueoorne Pyccxo, oueptm Centxn Ho-
narnua ns Ocranonnut, ero saxonnom xeno (Feclka Ruthena, uxor legitima Protasi
Rutheni, filia nobilis Syenkonis Lopatucz de Ostalowice), n an emy npano xennrt-
cx na pyro, e xe ntrn samyx sa pyroro. 3ro pemenne, xoneuno, enanoct
npornn ncex saxonon nepxonntx n rpaxancxnx. Acta castrensia leopol. T. III.
C. 1119. Lapaueeu:. Rys wewnetrznych stosunkow Galicyi. C.25.
21. B npnnnnernn rant partxm Iopacxnm c 1388 r. +ra nnacrt nasnana
directa et absoluta jurisdictio super vasallos districtus ejusdem, ro ecrt Bepe-
mnncxoro yesa, Hmnnncxo ryepnnn. Ba.uucru n Hunuucru Starozytna
Polska. Warsz., 1844. T. II. C. 810.
22. Xanonannax rpamora Kasnmnpa Bennxoro c 1364 r. Ionyxoncxomy na ceno
mnrponnun, n xoropo ronopnrcx: Kmethones vero ipsius coram nullo, nisi co-
ram suo domino et haerede, cui damns causas criminales audiendi, judicandi et pro
256
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
ipsius criminibus culpabiles ot demneritos sententiandi, condemnandi, puniendi.
Dodatok do Gasety Lwowskiej. 1852. N 30.
23. B npnnnnernn rant c 1433, anno epenne Tnrnnnun na Mareyprcxoe
npano, ronopnrcx: Ut autem dicta villa Tytowicze eo citius hominum abundantia
collocari possit, ipsam de jure polonico et ruthenico et quovis alio in jus Tbeu-
tonicum, quod Magdeburgense dicitur, transferimus perpetuo duraturum... Eximi-
mus insuper absolvimus et perpetuo liberamus omnes cmethones et quosvis dictae
villae catholicos tantum, schismattcis et Ruthenis omnino exclusis et exceptis, qui
eorum jure Theutonico uti debent et gaudere. Cm. A. Cmaouuroeo. O kniaztwach
we wsiach Wotoskich z poglazdem na wojtowstwa we wsiach na Magdeburskiem
prawie osadzonuch, we Lwowie. 1853. C. 4.
24. Vupenr. rpamora xaronnu. npnxoa n c. Fenxa c1454 r. Mensuale et clericale
juxta consuetudinem aliarum villarum in terra Russiae, in jus teutonicum locatarum,
ab incolis praedictae villae universis, vexus utriusque solvi. Taxax xe rpamora na
npnxo n c. Pymne c 1473 r.: Ita omnes Rutheni in eadem villa nostra (Rumno), qui
nobis singulis annis debent langwyczne alias praznyczne... tenebuntur dare annuatim
trumcum saliginis et truncum avenae, uti alii kmethones nostri in villa pracfata nostra.
To xe rpamora na npnxo n Hnrnnnone c 1476 roa: Item onmes, qui carent agris,
tam Poloni, quara Rutheni ad quodlibet quartale duos grossiculos.... item omnes
christiani, quotquot sunt in Savanczuki ad eandem ecclesiam in Lithwinow
adscribimus, qui christiani sibi plebano et suis posteris tenbuntur decimare.
25. Ipamora rant, annax enpem Bonuxy na nocenenne epennn Bepexa
npn p. Bnpxe c 1424 r.: Confidentes de industria et circumspectione Wolczkonis
Judaei, theleonatoris Leopoliensis (damus) villam Werbiz (quam)... usque ad tempora
vitae suae tenebit... Hominibus confluentibus talem libertatem concedimus de prae
senti, qualem ipsis dictus Wolczko deputabit.
26. Augebant autem hujusmodi malum baronum Poloniac ambitio, quia a rege
donationibus oppidorum et villarum in terra Russiae ct Podoliae impetratis, antiquos
incolas et haeredes de illis excludebant, qui inopia et egestate pressi et quadam
desperatione compulsi ad Tataros fugiebant, illosque postmodum ad vastandum
terras Russiae et possessiones, de quibus ejecti fuerant, indiebanduc. .veou.
Kn. XII. C. 773.
27. .veou. Kn. XIII. C. 449. Ho 1469 room nnmer: FrequensTartarorum
exercitus ex fugitives praefonibus et exulibus, quos sua Lingna Kosacos appellabant
collectus. Cneonarentno, ne n 1516 roy noxnnnnct nnepnte xosaxn, xax yrnep-
xamr nontcxne neronncnt enn, Fentcxn, Inarnnn n sa nnmn nonemne
nncarenn, a mnornm pantme. 3ro noannenne cnoonoro pyccxoro napoonace-
nennx n nopaomenne napoa nontcxne nynnnncrt n ncropnxn nastnamr nn-
xennem nontcxo xyntrypt na nocrox n xononnsanne pyccxnx nycrtnt. Hpo-
cnannrenn tnme Hontcxo pecnynnxn ymemr npnxptnart ncrnny axe oco-
enntmn, nmn npnymanntmn ]pasamn, paccxastnax o +rnx nacenennxx co-
ncem rnyxo: Xosxcrno nepemno ns menxonomecrnoro n nennxonomecrnoe; cnc-
rema unnmenoro oxoa c nmenn samennnact nanmnno, n nancxne nmennx
crann npnnocnrt necntxannte oxot; n xoporxoe npemx nontcxne nant ynon-
nn, yrponnn, yecxrepnnn cnon orarcrna n r.n. Lauoxa: Dwa lata dziejow
naszych. (Cn. Kv.uu: Hontcxax xononnsannx. Becrnnx Enpont 1874 roa, mecxn
257

mapr). 3ro rax. nx nonxxon crapax Hontma npecrannxercx n sonore n apxare,


no nx nac, pyccxnx, ona omtra xponantm norom n cnesamn pyccxoro napoa!
28. Hpecneonannx pyccxoro napoa co cropont nonxxon oxonnn o roro,
uro axe pyccxne nepxnn oranaemt tnn enpexm n apeny, o uem cnnerent-
crnyer xanonnx Htnoncxoro narnncxoro xannryna H. Hose]onnu n cnoem counne-
nnn Annales urbis Leopoliensis, tomus extravagans A 252, ronopx: Audivi ab
antiquioribus nostris, rerum scientiam habenbus, quod in tantum in partibus illis
insolens dominatio Polonorum processarat, ut recutitae Judaeorum genti (opesan-
nomy xnoncxomy napoy) super ecclesias jus tribuerat. Non enim pesbyter.., vulgo
pop, sacramenta baptismi, martimonii, aliaque in ecclesia administrare parochianis
suis licitum habebat, nisi prius a clavibus Judaeo (quos semper ad manus arendatoris
deferre et deponere cogebatur), constitutam a domino pensionem persolveret. Haec
cum tanto abusu et praejudicio fidei chrisitianae erant, judicet posteritas fidelium.
O +rom nnmer raxxe conpemennt nncarent Camynn Iponcxn n counnennn
Historia belli Cosaco-Polonici, conscripta 1676, ns. n Hemre n 1789 r., c. 15.
29. Trotz der langen Dauer und energischen Handhabung polnishes Herrschaft
uber Halicz und Wladimir bildet der San im Wescntlichen noch gegenwartig die Ost-
Granze des polnischen Stammes Das ostliche Galizien ist noch gegenwartig, die
wie vor fast einem fahrtausende, vorwiegend in den Handen der Klein-Russen
(Ruthenen) welche in sieden Kreisen des Lemberger Verwaltungsgebiets mehr als
vier Funft theile, in funf anderen merh als die Halfte der einheinuschen Bevolkerung
der osterr. Monarchie von Dr. Ficker. Gotha, 1860. C. 37.
30. . 3vopuru. Granice miedzy ruskim i polskim narodem w Galicyi. Lwow,
1849.
31. Cm. Liber rationis decimae sexannalis per Clementem p. V in concilio Viennesi
impositae ct in Polonia collectae anno 1326 et sequen/ Theiner, Monumenta history.
Polon. T. I. C. 244.
32. Ha xpanem sanae Pemoncxoro yesa nosne Kontymona naxoxrcx epen-
nn, nsonnuammne cnonmn nasnannxmn, uro n +ro crpane xnnn xora-ro pyc-
cxne, nanpnmep, Pycnnon Crapt, Pycnnoncxa Bonx n npou. Bnpouem, eme n
XVII nexe pyccxne nocenennx n sanano Iannunne tnn cront mnorouncnennt,
uro xaronnuecxn enncxon Cranncnan Capnoncxn n oxnae cnoem nane Anex-
canpy VII, nncannom n 1660 roy, cooman, uro n pyccxo Hepemtmntcxo
enapxnn cunranoct rora 3 400 npnxoon n 3 mnnnnona ym.
33. Cm. Schematismus cleri Arhidioeces graeco-cath. Leopolien. pro ano 1874.
Catalogus cleri archidioec. Leopolitanae rit. lat. pro anno 1864. Leopoli. - Cxnsma-
rnsm ncero xnnpa opxa rpeuecxo-pyccxo enapxnn Hepemtmntcxo na ro 1874.
B Hepemtmne. Schematismus cleri diocoesani rit. latini Premisliensis pro anno 1874.
Jasto 1874. - Cnpamnnaercx, xaxnm uyom morno crartcx, uro +rn nxmxn-nocenen-
nt rax nerxo npnnxnn pyccxym nepy n accnmnnnponannct c Pyctm, a ne exann
n nontcxym orunsny? Crano trt, nm npnnontnee xnnoct na nnoonocno Pyc-
cxo semne, uem na necxax Hontmn, n npannenne pyccxnx xnxse, pyccxnx oxp
n pyccxo nepxnn cnocnee tno, uem n Hontme, re xpecrtxne onxnt tnn
ortnart rxxxne nonnnnocrn xoponm n nanam, nnarnrt pasnte nanorn, nnocnrt
ecxrnny xcensam n cnepx roro - nnapn nane.
34. Lauoxa. Zdobycze polskiego pluga.
258
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35. Kv.uu n Becrnnxe Enpont 1874 r. mecxn mapr.
36. Dodatek do Gazety Lwowskiej 1852-1862 r. - Lapaueeu:. Rys wewnetznych
stosunkow Galicyi wschodniej. Lwow, 1869 r. - Catalogus deri archidioeceseos
Leopolitanae rit. lat. Leopoli ,1864.
37. Cxasannx nontcxnx nncarene o yupexennn n Iannue xnxmropa mnno-
pnron n 1238 r. (!) xoponem Fonecnanom Crtnnntm nnn xnxmropa omnnnxannen
n Htnone 1270 r. xnxsem Htnom annnonnuem ne nmemr ncropnuecxoro ocnona-
nnx n npnnanexar x nontcxnm renennnosntm ntmtcnam (3opx Iannnxax 1851
r. N 57). Vnepennx rex xe nncarene, uro nam Hepemtmnt ocnonan n VIII crone-
rnn nontcxnm xnxsem Hpxemtcnanom, ocmexn yxe 3nrent, conocrannn raxym
xe acnm, uro Iernnren ocnonan xaxnm-ro netnantm xnxsem Iorynrom. I.X.
Juee.i. Gesch. der Ukraine - wie auch der Korigreiche Halitsh und Wladimir. Halle,
1796. C. 421.
38. In reperibili ad ecclesiam parochialem B. Mariac V. ad Nives Leopoli documento,
ex antiquis actis magistratus Leopoliensis desumpto, dicitur notitia: Casimrus. M.
anno 1340 Leopolim expugnaturus venit, quem per spontaneam incolarum deditionem
recepit et partem Russfae usque ad Halicz subegit. Reportata victoria quum Leopoli
nullum templum invenisset, ubi sacrificium gratiarum acttonis Deoofferet, in medio
veteris illius Leopolis ecclesiam sub titulo B: Mariae V: Ligneam erigi fecit. Vitae
apiscoporum Premislien. Vienna, 1844. C. XXX.
39. Theineri. Monumenta I. C. 543 n 586.
40. rano no ncex ropoax, n xoroptx on, no sanoenannn +ro crpant (uep-
nencxo Pycn) cnoem cynpyrom, namen pyccxoe enncxoncrno, crapancx ocnonart
n narnncxoe enncxoncrno, xax ro n Iannue, Hynxe, Xonme, Hepemtmne n Bnan-
mnpe, nensnpax na ro, nayrcx nn eme ram nnn ner nocneonarenn narnncxoro
opxa. Cnonom, urot sarmnrt npanocnannym nepy, on crannn anrapt npornn
anrapx. . 3vopuru. Iannnxax Pyct n XVI cronernn. C. 35. urennx n Omecrne
ncropnn n pennocre Poccncxnx. 1862 r. Kn. III.
41. Ho mecrnomy npeannm, n Manxne nspenne cymecrnonana pyccxax npn-
xocxax nepxont, no oxono 1644 r. pemoncxn crapocra Hnxona Cntren-Hnuensa
oparnn ee n xaronnuecxn xocren: cm. Schemat. venderi diocesani rit. at.
Premislensis. Jasto, 1874. C. 119.
42. Cm. nopont nepeuent nacnntcrnenntx mep, npnnxrtx xaronnuecxnm
yxonencrnom nx opamennx ynnaron n narnncrno n Apxnne Rro-3anano Poc-
cnn, ns. npem. xomnccne nx pasopa pennnx axron. Knen, 1871.u I. T. IV. C. 521.
Die Kirchen und Staats-Satzungen dezuglich des gr. c. ritus der Ruthenen in Galizieu,
von Michael v. Malmowski. Lemberg, 1861. C. 311.
43. Ethnographie von Osterreich von K. Freich. v. Czonrig. Wien, 1855.
44. Im Oesterreichischen Kaiserthume hangt das Religionsbekentniss haufig mit
der Nationalitat zusammen Kroaten und Serben, Polen und Ruthenen Iassen sich
haufig nur nach den Religionsbekentnissen scheiden. Besonders ist diess an den
Granzen der beiderseitigen Gebiete der Fall. A. Fisker. Bevolkerung der
Oesterrichhischen Monarchie. Gotha, 1860. C. 44.
45. Hecrop nnmer: Hpnmeme or nocroxa (yrpn) ycrpemnmacx uepes ropt
nennxnx (ro ecrt Kapnart), a nepenncunxn Tponnxoro, Pannnnoncxoro n Axa-
emnuecxoro cnncxon npnannnn: xxe nposnamacx ropt Vropcxnx. Cm. neron.
no Hanpenr. cnncxy. CH., 1872. C. 24. Ho 1015 room Hecrop yxe nastnaer
259

Kapnart Vropcxnmn ropamn: Cnxrononx xe ct oxaxnnt n snt yn Cnxroc-


nana, nocnan xo rope Vropcre, exanmy emy n Vrpt. Tam xe. C. 136. B Cno-
ne o nonxy Hropx ronopnrcx o xnxse pocnace Ocmomtcne, uro on nonep ropt
Vropcxnx cnonmn xenesntmn nonxamn.
46. Supplicamus itaque sanctitatis vestrae clementiam, dignemini reducere in
memoriam, qualiter nos laboraverimus in plantatione et ampliatione fidei catholicae,
sicut manifestum est ex solicitudine nostra... in conversione Ruthenorum ad
obedientiam sedis apostolicae. Peterfy Concil. part. I. crp. 73. Ba.voucru. Hcrop.
nepx. C. 203.
47. B Bocxpecencxo neronncn nnmercx, uro xopont Bnancnan tn nnemxn-
nnxom (parent ctn) Cepcxoro apxnenncxona Cant n xpemen tn or nero n
pxame nepy Xpncrony n cepnn rano, a xstxom n xpantncxnm yxpamentem
xme narnnnn. Honn. cop. pyccx. neron. VII. C. 256.
48. Bnanmnp, nnn Hoomnp nponcxonn or nnemenn pyccxnx xnxse n poom
tn ns Iannunnt. Cm. L+uom. Archiepiscopi Strigonienses compendio dati, c.
144. Ba.voucru. Hepxonnax Hcropnx II, c. 200, 217. - Hamxrt no nem ocranact n
nasnannn Haomnpona (Ladomer), mecreuxa 3emnencxoro xynancrna no Kapna-
ramn, orxya po cno neyr yropcxo-pyccxne nopxne Haomnpcxne.
49. Hpa. Annales regum Hungariae 1764, no roamn 1332, 1334 n 1338. - Hcro-
pnx Iannnxo-Bononmnpcxo Pycn. Htnon, 1863. C. 140.
50. iouuci 4omuuo.Istoria generalie a Daciei. Edit. George Sion. T. I. Partea 2.
Epoca II. Cap. 17.
51. Cm. Arhiv istor. a Rominiei. Annul I N 21. Pag. 157. uornno III. Pag. 5. Fyxo-
nnncxax 3opx 1870. Honnoe Cop. neron. VII.
52. B. Ipnroponnua 3anncxa Anrnxnapa. Oecca, 1874. C. 28.
53. Ecnn no roxecrnennocrn ronorpa]nuecxnx nasnann moxno saxnmuart o
nepecenennn napoa c ono crpant n pyrym, ro raxne xnnennx npxmo yxastna-
mr na nepexoxenne pyccxoro napoa c +ro cropont Kapnar na Vropcxym nnn
xe ns Vrpnn n Iannunny. Ho +ro cropone Kapnar ecrt epennn: Pxnet, Hepe-
xpecna, Bepex, ueprex, Hntnnnt, Inyoxa, Hxxonnt, Paxonen, Hamxonnt, Ipy-
mona, Ipaonnt, cent, uenenn, Mantunun, m. Conornnna n sa Kapnaramn naxo-
nm raxxe nasnannx cen: Pxnet, Hepexpecna, Bepex, ueprex (Csertezs), Hntnn-
nt (matxp. Iglinez), Inyoxa, Hxxonnt (Lehocz), Paxonen (Rakocz), Hamxonnt
(Lask), Ipymon (matxp. Kortvelyes), Ipaonnt (Hrabocz), cent (Korosmezzo),
uenenn (Csepely), Mantunun (Malcza), M. Conornnna (Szlatina), ryr n ram naxo-
nm cc. Fpycrypa, Hxrona n np.
54. Tvpoeu. Historia Hungariae. C.154. L+uom. Episcopi Agrienses. T. I.
C. 269. - A. Cup+a. Notitia Comitatus Zemplinensis. C. 251. O +rom cotrnn
cnnerentcrnyer sanncxa crapannoro nouepxa, nncannax na nocxyrxe ymarn n
naennax neanno n apxnne Myxauencxoro monacrtpx, cneymmero coepxa-
nnx: Knxst ueop Kopnaronnu, noenoa Honropocxn nepnte, nocne noenoa
na Hoonnn n ryepnarop, ocranntme oreuecrno cnoe Hoonnm npo crptx cnoe-
ro Onrepa, npnme o Vrpo-Poccnn n nero 1339 x napm Vropcxomy Kaponm I,
nxe npnx ero paocrno n ae emy ncm nnacrnm Myxauoncxy c cnemn oxpecnt-
mn no cronnnn Fepercxo cenamn, rpaamn or Vra axe o Iycra y Mapamopo-
mn. To or roa 1339 nonoxn ntne cymaro ropoa Myxauoncxoro n nemxe npe-
tnax uacy nexoero, nste nonnrn na ropy (xxe napeue ropa uepnen) n re
260
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nanae nant smn nenn (paxonr), snxn ycrt, xorx nornornrn, n npnsna cnxrnrenx
Hnxonax n nomomt, xonnem opyxen, saxone ero, xxo nsannxer opas ns xamene
nsceuen n crapo nepxnn, sananme ero rynrentcrna n nornomenne smnnnaro na
xamenn ecrt, n uecrt n namxrt cnxrnrenx Xpncrona Hnxonax nonoxn xpam ce, n
ynee non nnoxon n nero 1360 tx 8-ro mapra, Foxnnm exe o ncex npomtmnenn-
em. Or npemenn sanne onrenn nennomo, xon tnann nauannnnt, sane ronennx
nennx tnaxy rarapcxnx, rypenxnx, mecra raxonte nnouecxa pasopxxy, noccrannx
epernxon na nepxont cnxrym n nmn Foxnx, ontx nanxxy, xamenem nonma, n
ornt, noy noronnma, n ronnxoe sanycrenne mecro cne npnne, uro nn nncanne
xano operecx, no npeanne nmcxoe nce nayuame o nera 1458, or xoroporo
xpononornx cnx naunnaercx. (Coomeno r. Auamo.ue+ Kpa.uru+ n rasere Cno-
no, ns. no Htnone1874 N 69).
55. Becrnnx sanan. n mro-san. Poccnn. Knen, 1862. T. I. C. 16. oxymenrt,
oxcnxmmne ncropnm 3anano-Pyccxoro xpax. CH., 1865. C. 228.
56. Cm. O wsiach tak zwanych Woloskich na polnocnym stoku Karpat, przez hr.
Alex. Stadnickiego, we Lwowie 1848. Ero xe O kniaztwach we wsiach Woloskich z
pogladem na wojtowstwa we wsiach na Magdeburschiem prawie osadzonych, we
Lwowe, 1853.
57. Merpnxa xoponnax. Kn. LXXI.
58. Cm. Merp. Kop.. Kn. XXXV, in Beiz feria 1. post Asensionem Domini. Damus
dictis Valachis plenum jus Valachorum, proit ceteri Valachi in terris nostris eodem
jure gaudent, absolventes ipsos Valachos ibidem ab omnibus juribus ruthenicalibus.
59. Inventarium privilegiorum ex Archio regni in arce Cracoviensi. Lutetia
Parisiorum, 1862.
60. nyrom nponsnonr rept nexoroptx ]amnnn npxmo ns nepnotrntx
mecr nx xnrentcrna, ns Kapnar: Sas, Dragovie, alias Sasoviegenus Valachicum, ex
montibus et silvis provinciarum Russiae, qui Potoniny nuncupantur, - ducens
originem. Cm. Clenodia regni Poloniae. Krakov, 1851. C. 67. Bnpouem, moxno npe-
nonarart, uro +rn nastnaemte nonomnnt nnn nonoxn (Valachi) ne tnn nacrox-
mnmn pymtnamn, a pyccxnmn, xnnymnmn no nonomcxnm nnatuecrnom n
Monancxom rocnoapcrne, rem onee, uro nn n onom cenennn, ocnonannom na
nonomcxom npane, ne crpoeno nepxnn n ne nocranneno pymtncxoro cnxmennn-
xa, n nnre ne ynomnnaercx o nepemene naponocrn. B yropcxnx oxymenrax
uacro npnnnmamrcx nasnanne Valachi vel Rutheni npxmo sa cnnonnmt.
61. Si non concitante, conveniente quidem certe Stephano, palatino Moldaviae.
Kpo+ep no 1491 r. XXIX. C. 642.
62. A ce nmena rpaom ncem pyccxnm, antntm n nnxnnm: na ce crpane
ynax, na ycrt necrpa na mopem, Fenropo, uepn Acxt Topr (unr. uopnanc-
xn, uepnonenxn Topr) na Hpyr pene, Pomanon Topr na Monone, Hemeut (Hxmn)
n ropax. Kopoumnon xament (Piatro), Couana, Ceper, Fanx (Fax), Heumn (unr. He-
umn, ntne Heuenexnn), Konomtx, Iopoox na uepemome, na necrpe Xorent.
Honn. cop. pyccx. ner. VII. C. 240.
63. Tax no xpane mepe nnmer nyrom, xn. IX, crp. 1122, n sa nnm pyrne
nontcxne ncropnxn. Cm. Be.icru. Kronika Polska w Krakowie, 1597. C. 235.
64. Axrt sanan. Poccnn I. C. 22, 23. - Be.icru. Kronika Polska w Krak. 1597.
C. 310.
261

65. 3ro cosnamr camn nontcxne nncarenn: Ostatni rok panowania Jana Olbrachta
splaimiony zostal scieciem Eliasza, syna Piotra, wojcwody Multanskiego, szukajacego
w Polsce przytulku przed Stefanem. Cm. Tablice synchronistyczne do historyi Polskiej.
Poznan, 1841. C. 28, 37.
66. . 3vopuroeo Kronika miasta Lwowa. 1844. C. 202.
67. Opis Starozytni Polski, przez T. Swiechicgo. Warszawa, 1828. II. C. 374.
68. Haponte necnn Iannnxo n Vropcxo Pycn. II. C. 12.
69. Cm. . 3vopuroeo. Heronnct cranponnrnantnoro parcrna n Xypn. Mnn.
Hap. Hpocn., 1849 n 1850 rr.
70. B +ro npemx nmneparpnna Exarepnna II nocrponna n Iopeue, nosne uepno-
nen, nennxonennym xamennym nepxont n monacrtpt. Onaxo xe nmneparop
Hocn] II ncxope ynpasnnn monacrtpt, n ocranact rontxo npnxocxax nepxont.
71. B nepno crarte oronopa c 7-ro max 1775 roa ronopnrcx: Pour donner
une preuve non equivoque d'amitie, d'affection et de bon voisinage la Sublime Porte
donne et abandonne et cede a la cour imperiale les terres contenues d'une part entre
le Niester, le confin de Pokoutie, de Hongrie et de Transilvanie.
Hcmo:uur: Io.oearu B.4. Kapnarcxax Pyct (Hcropnxo-+rnorpa]nuecxn
ouepx) // Xypnan Mnnncrepcrna naponoro npocnemennx. uacrt CLXXIX. 1875.
Hmnt. C. 349-396.
Iononanxnn Rxon meoponnu - onn ns ntammnxcx exrene rannnxo-pyc-
cxoro nospoxennx (1814-1888), ctn ynnarcxoro cnxmennnxa, oxonunn xypc n
Htnoncxom ynnn. no orocnoncxomy ]axyntrery. Eme n ynnn. on nomen n xpyxox
Bamxennua n Barnnennua, nocrannnmnx nentm nospoxenne pyccxo napono-
crn n Iannnnn. B nsanno +rnm xpyxxom Pycanxe necrpono naxonrcx
nepnt no+rnuecxn ontr I. na nenxa. B 1843 r. I. tn pyxononoxen n can
cnxmennnxa. Kora n 1848 r. n Htnoncxom ynnnepcnrere yupexena tna xa]epa
pyccxoro xstxa n nnreparypt, ee sanxn I. B reuenne 20 ner I. cocroxn npo]ecco-
pom Htnoncxoro ynnnepcnrera; tn nsnpaem exanom n pexropom. Ha nexnnxx
n n neuarn I. orcrannan nnrepect rannnxo-pyccxo naponocrn or npaxentx
nononsnonenn nonxxon n nemnen. B 60-x roax namecrnnx Iannnnn rpa] Iony-
xoncxn yannn I. ns 2 ntnoncxnx rnmnasn, re on nmen ypoxn, sanpernn cocran-
nennte nm yuennxn n naxonen ntrecnnn ero ns ynnn. B 1867 r. I. nepecennncx n
Poccnm n sanxn mecro npecearenx xomnccnn nx pasopa n nsannx pennnx
axron n Bnntne. Hocne I. ocranoct mnoro rpyon pasnoopasnoro coepxannx -
crnxornopennx, ennerpncrnuecxne nponsneennx c coepxannem ns napono
xnsnn (mexy npounm, no ncenonnmom nxa Fanarypa), crartn ncropnuec-
xne, apxeonornuecxne, nnnorpa]nuecxne, +rnorpa]nuecxne, ]nnonornuecxne.
Hanonee nsnecrnt: Posnpana o xstxe mxnopyccxom (1849), Ipammarnxa
pyccxoro xstxa (1849), Xpecromarnx nepxonnocnanxncxax n pennepyccxax
(1854), Ouepx mn]onornn (1860), O nnreparypno-ymcrnennom nnxennn py-
cnnon (1865), Kapnarcxax Pyct (1875), ononnenne x ouepxy cnanxno-pyc-
cxo nnnorpa]nn Vnontcxoro, Bocnomnnannx o Barnnennue (n Knenc-
xo crapnne, 1883 r., VII), O copnnxe necen Xerort Haynn (n Knencxo
crapnne 1885 n Pyccx. necrn. 1886).
H. Cv+oe.
Hvo.urvemc e corpaueuuu.
Bporeavs 4.A., Eqpou H.A. 3nnnxnonenuecxn cnonapt.Tom IX. CH., 1893.
C. 67 - 68.
262
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Bmnom o uonorpaqnn C.I. Cynnxa
Ocxonxn Cnn1on Pycn
Om peauuuu: mt nynnxyem opnrnnan nayuno paort Hncrnryra nonn-
rnuecxnx n +rnonannonantntx nccneonann Hannonantno Axaemnn nayx
Vxpannt no nasnannem Btnot o xnnre C. I. Cynxxa "Ocxonxn Cnxro Pycn.
Ouepxn +rnnuecxo ncropnn pycnaxon Monannn. Hayu. pe. H.M. Bopnnxon"
(Knmnnen: Hsarentcxn om Tartxna, (2004). -240 c. c conpononrentntm
nnctmom npexropa nncrnryra H.u. Kypaca.
Panee mt nncann o +rom onyce n namem ornomennn x nemy (cm. Cv.r
Cepee Coaxa naer... (ncropnx ono nponoxannn) // Mexynapont ncro-
pnuecxn xypnan Pycnn [Knmnnen].- 2006.- N 1(3).- C. 143 - 173).
Tenept y nac noxnnnact nosmoxnocrt nonnocrtm onynnxonart opnrnnan
annoro rpya, noxastnammero yponent xomnerenrnocrn nnn, ero nororo-
nnnmnx.
263

264
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265

266
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
267
Hpannna nynnxannn n aypnane Pycnn
Pexonnernx xypnana Pycnn npnnnmaer rontxo crartn, npncnannte ]a-
nom, npnxpennenntm x +nexrponnomy nnctmy. Crartx onxna trt o]opmnena
crporo n coornercrnnn c nsnoxenntmn nnxe rpeonannxmn n rmarentno ntun-
rana. B nnctme neoxonmo coomnrt cneennx o cee: ]amnnnm, nmx n orue-
crno nonnocrtm, yuente crenent n snanne, mecro paort n onxnocrt, +nexr-
ponnt apec, nouront apec c nnexcom.
Crartn ne onxnt npentmart 1 a.n. (32 000 snaxon c npoenamn) c oxsarent-
no annoranne na anrnncxom xstxe, coomennx 0,5 a.n., penensnn 0,2 a.n.
unent pexonnernn snaxomxrcx c marepnanom n npnnnmamr pemenne o ny-
nnxannn. Orstnt unenon pexonnernn n penensenron anropy ne coomamrcx.
mopua1 1exc1a
Asan orcryn 1,27 cm
Mexycrpount nnrepnan 1,5
Bpn]r Times New Roman, pasmep 14
Fes nepenocon!
Fyxna e crannrcx rontxo n rex cnyuaxx, xora samena na e ncxaxaer cmtcn
cnona, no ncex ocrantntx cnyuaxx rontxo e.
Coxpamennn
Hpn nepnom ynomnnannn nnna oxsarentno yxastnamrcx H.O., H.O. orenx-
mrcx npoenom or ]amnnnn.
Iot npn yxasannn onpeenennoro nepnoa yxastnamrcx rontxo n nn]pax, a
ne n uncnnrentntx: 20-e rot, a ne nanarte rot
Konxpernax ara aercx c coxpamennem r. nnn rr.: 1920 r., 19201922 rr.
He nex nnn nexa, a n. nnn nn. (pnmcxnmn nn]pamn): IX n.
Hncart rontxo nonnocrtm: rax xax, rax nastnaemte.
Hs coxpamenn onycxamrcx: r.., r.n., p., r.e., cm.
% crannrcx snauxom, a ne cnonom, ecnn cnxsan c nn]po, n orenxercx or
nn]pt nnrepnanom: 3 %.
Hn]pt: mnnnnont or rtcxu n rtcxun or coren orenxmrcx npoenom:
4 700 000, 1 560.
000 moryr trt samenent coornercrnymmnmn coxpamenntmn cnonamn n
apennarypamn: rtc., mnn, mnp.
Hasnannx enexntx snaxon amrcx no npnnxrtm coxpamennxm: onn., ]p.,
py., ]. cr., mapxa.
Kantuxn rontxo , ecnn saxantuennoe cnono naunnaer nnrary nnn npnmt-
xaer x xonny nnrart, ynorpenxmrcx xantuxn n xantuxax: "pas", na, rpn, "ue-
rtpe".
Cnncox nnreparypt nomemaercx nocne rexcra, nymepannx coornercrnyer no-
pxxy ynomnnannx. B cnncox nomemamrcx rontxo nasnannx paor, na xoropte
ecrt cctnxn n rexcre. Cctnxn n rexcre nomemamrcx n xnaparntx cxoxax: [1. C.
12], npn nonropno cctnxe coxpanxercx nopxxont nomep n cnncxe nnrepary-
pt.
uamnnnn H.O. anropon xypcnnom
Cnocxn ne anromarnuecxne, nponymeponannte apacxnmn nn]pamn.
Hn]pa cnocxn n xonne npenoxennx crannrcx nepe rouxo.
Hnnmcrpannn npeocrannxmrcx n ]opmarax tif nnn jpg (paspemennem ne me-
nee 200 dpi).
268
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
CBEEHHR OB ABTOPAX
Ierantunn Anexcanp Bnx1oponnu - noneunrent Mexynaponoro ]ona Hesa-
nncnmax nnreparypnax Pyccxax Hpemnx. premija-ru@volny.cz
annnen Kpnn Bacnntennu xannar ncropnuecxnx nayx, onenr xa]ept ncro-
pnn Vxpannt Vxropocxoro nannonantnoro ynnnepcnrera. jurijdanilec@rambler.ru
annnen Ha1annn Rpocnanonna nayunt corpynnx 3axapnarcxoro +rnorpa]n-
uecxoro myse napono apxnrexrypt n tra. nataliadanilec@rambler.ru
annnmx un1pnn un1pnennu oxrop ncropnuecxnx nayx, npo]eccop, saney-
mmn xa]epo ncropnn Vxpannt Vxropocxoro nannonantnoro ynnnepcnrera.
profddd@rambler.ru
nx Maxcnu Hnanonnu cryenr xa]ept ncropnn Poccnn c pennemnx npemen
o XX n. ncropnuecxoro ]axyntrera Canxr-Herepyprcxoro rocyapcrnennoro ynnnep-
cnrera. max-mors@mail.ru
Hsam-Ionxan Ta1tnna Anexcanponna - xannar ncropnuecxnx nayx, onenr
xa]ept ncropnn pennero mnpa n cpennx nexon Oeccxoro nannonantnoro ynnnepcn-
rera nm. H.H. Meunnxona. taiz@mail.ru
Knuepa Bnx1op Bacnntennu xannar ncropnuecxnx nayx, npenoanarent xa]e-
pt ncropnn Vxpannt Vxropocxoro nannonantnoro ynnnepcnrera. vkichera@ukr.net
Konan Bacnnnn Bacnnteu concxarent xa]ept ncropnn pennero mnpa n cpennx
nexan Vxropoctxoro nanionantnoro ynnnepcnrera, saneymmn orenom +xcnosnnnn
3axapnarcxoro mysex napono apxnrexrypt n tra. kocanv@rambler.ru
Mamxnn Anexcanp Hnxonaennu - xannar ncropnuecxnx nayx, crapmn nayunt
corpynnx Hncrnryra ncropnn Vxpannt HAHV. amash.nik@rambler.ru
Mnmannn Bacnnnn Bacnntennu xannar ncropnuecxnx nayx, onenr xa]ept
ncropnn Vxpannt Vxropocxoro nannonantnoro ynnnepcnrera. vvmichanin@rambler.ru
Monnu Anexcanp Hnanonnu xannar orocnonnx MA, cexperapt orocnonc-
xo-nnryprnuecxoro orena Myxaueno-Vxropocxo enapxnn. d-monuch@yandex.ru
Hanyra mpa - npecearent Pycxe Marxn (Cepnx, Boenonna). matka@eunet.yu
Hamaena Hnna Mnxannonna - oxrop ncropnuecxnx nayx, sacnyxennt paornnx
xyntrypt Pu, neymn nnnorexapt Iocyapcrnenno nynnuno ncropnuecxo n-
nnorexn Poccnn. info@shpl.ru
Cnonc1on Cepren Mnxannonnu - unen Knya pyse Kapnarcxo Pycn (r. Mocxna).
sergiusz@pochtamt.ru
Cynnx Cepren Ieoprnennu - xannar ncropnuecxnx nayx, rnannt peaxrop mex-
ynaponoro ncropnuecxoro xypnana Pycnn. sergei_suleak@rambler.ru
mxnnen Hropt Hnxonaennu - xannar ncropnuecxnx nayx, onenr xa]ept nono
n noneme ncropnn Oeccxoro nannonantnoro ynnnepcnrera nm. H.H. Meunnxona.
shkl1956@ukr.net
269
SUMMARY*
Deacon Aleksandr Monich. The work of the Maramarosh Saint Josef
(Stoika).The work of the Maramarosh Orthodox Bishop Saint Josef Stoika (1690-
1711) is analyzed in the article. Having researched many sources, the author comes
to the conclusion that Bishop Stoika was a hierarch not only for Transcarpathian
Rusins but also for the Romanians of Transylvania. Much attention is given to the
pastoral work of the bishop in the struggle with the Roman Unia. The Romanian
Orthodox Church canonized Stoika in 2003 for his service to the Romanian people.
Iurii Danilets. Archbishop Ionafan (Kopolovich): life and creative path. The life
of the well-known hierarch of the Russian Orthodox Church, Archbishop Ionafan
Kopolovich is examined in the article. Attention is given to his aspiration for education
and learning in Serbia. During the Hungarian occupation he maintained the canonical
position of the recognition of the jurisdiction of the Serbian Orthodox Church, for
which he was subject to persecution by the authorities. He was one of the initiators
of the journey to Moscow in 1944 with the petition to include the Mukachevo-
Priashev Diocese in the Moscow Patriarchate. As hierarch, Kopolovich did much
good for the Church. Despite being occupied he actively pursued theology and the
history of the church. He was awarded many church honors.
Iurii Danilets. In memory of Ivan Kalinich. The author of the article researches
for the first time, the little-known in the broader circles of society, the
Transcarpathian poet and artist Ivan Kalinich. He was born in 1924, went through
the war and worked in the education system. As an artist he participated in dozens
of international and inter-republican shows. Toward the end of his life he began to
write in the Rusin language. He published three anthologies of poetry, in which,
through satire, he showed the difficult life of the Rusin people. In I. Kalinichs
collection there are many works which await publication.
Dimitrii Daniliuk. The scholarly legacy of Venelin in light of new research.
The latest research dedicated to the scholarly legacy of the well-known Slavic
historian Venelin is analyzed in the article. The author affirms that not only Ukrainian
but also Russian historians have a great interest in Venelin's work. The author calls
upon others to safeguard and remember the unique works of Venelin.
Maksim Zhikh. About the prehistory of the Land of Volyn. The early history of
Volyn, one of the oldest centers of Slavic ethno-political genesis, is examined in the
article. Here, from the middle of the 6th century, there existed several Slavic political
unions, which in various periods of time, occupied the leading position of the
region. From the Volynian region there were also migrations of Slavs to neighboring
regions, which arose at various times in its history because of internal (rise in
* annotations of the material published in the rubrics "History of the Rusins"
and "Famous Rusins".
270
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
population, economic development, etc.) and external (Avarian invasion) reasons.
In the second half of the first millennium, Lendzian, Buzhian and many other Slavic
tribes lived alongside the Dulebian and Volynian. Inadequate sources do not allow
the opportunity to research their history and inter-relationships.
Aleksandr Mashkin. The relationship of the ruling circles of Austro-Hungary
to the Moscophiles of Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia during the years of
the First World War. The politics of the Austro-Hungarian authorities with regard
to the Rusins, the majority of which at that time were Russophile, are examined in the
article. The author presents many facts of the cruel treatment by the Austro-
Hungarian administration of its subjects, the Rusins, which is impossible to explain
even from the point of view, that during wartime such measures are necessary.
Vasilii Mishchanin. Governmental archival documents of the Transcarpathian
oblast regarding the agrarian policies in Transcarpathia in 1944-1950. The
historical sources of agrarian policies in Transcarpathia during the years 1944 to
1950 are analyzed in the article. The author categorizes the sources not only in the
traditional manner unpublished or published but by periods of agrarian politics. In
the article are also ear-marked the documents which examine the functionality and
realization which were accepted political decisions in the agrarian sector.
Vasilii Mishchanin. Transcarpathian youth in the schools of FZO: learning or
labor migration? The problems of the implementation of collectivization in the
Transcarpathian oblast at the end of the 1940s and the directing of youth to study
in other areas of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic are examined in the article.
Facts of the forced resettlement of adolescent boys and girls apart from their parents
are presented. By this the authorities attempted to resolve two problems: resettle
the region and deal with those in disagreement to collectivization.
Viktor Kichera. The institutional organization of the Basilian Order in
Transcarpathia during the period of rule of the Bishop of Mukachevo Andrei
Bachinskii (1773-1809). The period of time from the end of the XVIII to the
beginning of the XIX centuries in the history of the Basilians in Transcarpathia was
a time of the enlightened activity of Father Superior Ioannikii Bazilovich and Bishop
Andrei Bachinskii. The formation of the Basilian Order was accomplished in a short
historical period of time. This fact allowed for the livening of activity of the Basilians
in Hungary. The author provides an analysis of the socio-economic situation of the
monasteries in Transcarpathia and indicates the numerical growth of monks.
Viktor Kichera. The missionary activity of the reformed Basilian monks in
Transcarpathia in the 20s and 30s of the XX century. The theme of the given
investigation is the missionary activity of the Czechoslovakian branch of OSBM
in the historical Transcarpathian region. After a long period of Magyarization,
favourable conditions had been created for implementing the reforms. One of the
most important aspects of the reforms was the improvement of the missionary activity
of the Order. The return of the Transcarpathian monks to their core, which belonged
271
to them naturally, and its dissemination among the native population, was highly
important.
Vasilii Kotsan. Types of enclosures, their development and structural features
in Transcarpathia at the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th centuries. The
structural features of enclosures in Transcarpathia at the end of the 19th to the
beginning of the 20th centuries are analyzed in the article. Detailed descriptions of
gateways and gates of village farmsteads are given. The development process of
the enclosures, from the simplest to the most complex (the elaborate gates of the
Romanians in Transcarpathia) is described. Considered separately is the question
of the enclosures in the pastures and mountain meadows of the Transcarpathian
oblast: various types of enclosures for sheep and milking sheds.
Nina Pashaeva. Carpatho-Russian Intelligentsia in Russia in the first half of
the 19th century: Orlai, Balugianskii, Lodii, Kukolnik, Venelin. The work of
five famous scholars, native sons of Sub-Carpathian Rus, are analyzed. Having
migrated to Russia for various reasons, they made a significant contribution to the
development of education in that country.
Sergei Suleak. Rusins: lessons of a tragic history. The three periods of the
rebirth of the Rusins are examined in the article: the second half of the 19th century
to 1914; the 1920s to 1939; the end of the 20th to the beginning of the 21st century
with specific attention to the activities of the outstanding representatives of
Carpathian Rus: D. Zubritskii, Iakov Golovatskii, I. Rakovskii, A. Dukhnovich,
M. Kachkovskii, I. Naumovich and others. The first Rusin Rebirth began owing to
their work. Facts regarding the repression of Rusins during WWI are presented.
Emphasized in the article is the fact that Rusins, on more than one occasion, created
or attempted to create their own state. One of the problems complicating the
contemporary ethno-cultural Rusin Renaissance is the absence of a state which
could support an ethno-cultural alliance in such direction.
Sergei Suleak. Talergof and Terezin: the forgotten genocide. The article is
dedicated to the most tragic pages of the history of Carpathian Rus: the massive
genocide of Rusins during WWI. The first concentration camps in Europe were
established in Austro-Hungary in 1914 for the internment of Rusins. The most
infamous of them was Talergof. No less than 20000 Rusins passed through this
camp. Execution of the law-abiding peaceful population was not uncommon. In 1914
-15 the Austro-Hungarian authorities arrested whole communities and conducted
reprisals without trial. In the Carpathian region there wasnt a village or family which
had not suffered from the Austro-Hungarian authorities. For the Rusins, Talergof
became a hallowed place of martyrdom for the idea of a common unified Rus.
MEYHAPOHLH HCTOPHHECKHH YPHAA

2008, 3-4 (13-14)


Knmnnen
Pecnynnxancxax omecrnennax acconnannx ,
2009. - 272 crp.
Pecnynnxancxax omecrnennax acconnannx
MD 2001, Pecnynnxa Monona, r. Knmnnen,
yn. M. Kor+nnnuany, 24/1.
Ten.: (373 22) 27-02-84, 27-44-30, ]axc: 27-15-15.
E-mail: info@rusyn.md
Can1 Pycnnm Monannn: http://www.rusyn.md
Honncano x neuarn 25.02.2009. uopmar 60x84
1
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Fymara o]cer N 1.
Heuart o]cernax.
Iapnnrypa Times New Roman.
Tnpax 700 +xs.
3axas 29.
Orneuarano n rnnorpa]nn AO Pexnama:
r. Knmnnen, yn. Anexcanp uen Fyn, 111.
B 2009 roy ueaynaponmn
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