Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 180



( )
, :





.. ;


( ) [] : / . . . : , , 2010. 178 .
. , , , ,
, .

ISBN 978-5-9926-03120-5


, 2010
. . , 2010
. . , , 2010

PART 1 ......................................................................................................................6
Unit 1. Welding and cutting......................................................................................6
Unit 2. Gas tungsten arc welding..............................................................................9
Unit 3. Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) equipment.........................................13
Unit 4. Submerged arc welding ..............................................................................15
Unit 5. Safety ...........................................................................................................18
Unit 6. Shielded metal arc welding ........................................................................20
Unit 7. SMA welding equipment............................................................................23
Unit 8. Plasma arc welding .....................................................................................27
Unit 9. Gas metal arc welding ................................................................................29
Unit 10. Ultrasonic welding....................................................................................32
Unit 11. Underwater welding..................................................................................35
Unit 12. ? ...................................................................................37
Unit 13. .......................................................................38
Unit 14. .............................................................................................40
Text 1. Flux-cored arc welding...............................................................................42
Text 2. GTAW weld area ........................................................................................42
Text 3. Safety in GTAW .........................................................................................43
Text 4. Oxy-fuel welding and cutting ....................................................................43
Text 5. Electron beam welding...............................................................................44
Text 6. Laser beam welding....................................................................................45
Text 7. Resistance welding .....................................................................................46
Text 8. Shielding gases............................................................................................47
PART II...................................................................................................................48
Unit 15. Welding defects.........................................................................................48
Unit 16. Avoiding welding defects.........................................................................51
Unit 17. Detection of welding defects....................................................................53
Unit 18. Spot welding..............................................................................................55
Unit 19. Oxy-gas torches (regulators) ....................................................................57
Unit 20. Gas hoses and valves ................................................................................60
Unit 21. Fuels in oxy-fuel welding.........................................................................62
Unit 22. Hazards in oxy-acetylele welding............................................................64
Unit 23. Oxy-acetylene welding (preheating)........................................................66
Unit 24. Torch practice............................................................................................69
Unit 25. Welding ferrous metals.............................................................................73
Unit 26. Welding non-ferrous metals .....................................................................76

Unit 27. Cold welding .............................................................................................78

Unit 28. General requirements for steel fabrication ..............................................81
Unit 29. Repairs, inspection and tolerances...........................................................83
Unit 30. Fundamentals of resistance method.........................................................85
Unit 31. Applications of resistance welding..........................................................88
Unit 32. Troubles and remedies..............................................................................91
Unit 33. Electric arc welding ..................................................................................94
Unit 34. Soldering....................................................................................................97
Unit 35. Brazing.....................................................................................................101
Unit 36. Thermit welding......................................................................................106
Unit 37. Requirements for welding hulls .............................................................109
Unit 38. Types of connections and preparation ...................................................112
Unit 39. Types of welding in making hulls..........................................................114
Unit 40. Workmanship in making hulls ...............................................................116
Unit 41. Modifications, repairs and testing during construction ........................118
Unit 42. Special requirements...............................................................................120
Unit 43. Weld testing.............................................................................................122
Unit 44. Personnel requirements ..........................................................................124
Unit 45. Welding procedure specifications in ship building...............................126
Unit 46. Safety precautions with acetylene cylinders .........................................128
Unit 47. Oxy-acetylene welding equipment ........................................................130
Unit 48. Oxygen and its production .....................................................................133
Unit 49. Arc welding equipment and accessories................................................137
Unit 50. Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) equipment ........................................141
Unit 51. Electrodes and their use ..........................................................................144
Unit 52. Tungsten electrodes ................................................................................147
Unit 53. Electrodes and their use in AC/DC welding .........................................149
Unit 54. ................................................................151
Unit 55. ..............................................................153
Unit 56. .......................................................................................155
Unit 57. ...............................................................158
Unit 58. .....................................................................................161
Unit 59. .........................................................164
Unit 60. ....................................................................................167
Unit 61. ................................................................................169
Unit 62. .......................................................................................171
Unit 63. ...............................................................................173


, .
, , ,
. , 5 .
. ,
, .
. -.
, , ,
, ; .
, .

Welding is the most common way of permanently joining metal parts. In
this process heat is applied to metal pieces, melting and fusing them to form a
permanent bond. Because of its strength, welding is used in shipbuilding, automobile manufacturing and repair, aerospace applications, and thousands of other
manufacturing activities. Welding is used to join beams when constructing
buildings, bridges and other structures, to join pipes in pipelines, power plants,
and refineries.
Welders use many types of welding equipment set up in a variety of positions, such as flat, vertical, horizontal and overhead. They may perform manual
welding, in which the work is entirely controlled by the welder, or semiautomatic welding, in which the welder uses machinery, such as a wire feeder, to
perform welding tasks.
There are about 100 different types of welding. Arc welding is the most
common type. Standard arc welding involves two large alligator clips that carry
a strong electrical current. One clip is attached to any part of the workpiece being welded. The second clip is connected to a thin welding rod. When the rod
touches the workpiece, a powerful electrical circuit is created. The massive heat
produced by the electrical current causes both the workpiece and the steel core
of the rod to melt together, cooling quickly to form a solid bond. During welding, the flux that surrounds the rods core, vaporizes, forming an inert gas, that
serves to protect the weld from atmospheric elements that might weaken it.
Welding speed is important. Variations in speed can change the amount of flux
applied, weakening the weld, or weakening the surrounding metal by increasing
heat exposure.
Two common but advanced types of arc welding are Tungsten Inert Gas
(TIG) and Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding. TIG welding is often used with
stainless steel or aluminum. While TIG uses welding rods, MIG uses a spool of
continuously fed wire, which allows the welder to join longer stretches of metal
without stopping to replace the rod. In TIG welding, the welder holds the welding rod in one hand and an electric torch in the other hand. The torch is used to
simultaneously melt the rod and the workpiece. In MIG welding the welder
holds the wire feeder, which functions like the alligator clip in arc welding. Instead of using gas flux surrounding the rod, TIG and MIG protect the initial
weld from the environment by blowing inert gas onto the weld.
Like arc welding, soldering and brazing use molten metal to join two pieces
of metal. However, the metal added during the process has a melting point lower
than that of the work-piece, so only the added metal is melted, not the workpiece. Soldering uses metals with a melting point below 800 oF (about 426 oC);
brazing uses metals with a higher melting point. Because soldering and brazing

do not melt the work-piece, these processes normally do not create the distortions or weaknesses in the work-piece that can occur with welding. Soldering is
commonly used to join electrical, electronic and other small metal parts. Brazing
produces a stronger joint than soldering does, and it is often used to join metals
other than steel, such as brass. Brazing can also be used to apply coating to parts
to reduce wear and protect against corrosion.
Skilled welding, soldering and brazing workers usually plan work from
drawings or specifications or use their knowledge of fluxes and base metals to
analyze the parts to be joined. These workers can select and set up welding
equipment, execute the planned welds, and examine welds to ensure that they
meet standards or specifications. They are even examining the weld while they
are welding. By observing problems with the weld, they compensate by adjusting the speed, voltage, amperage, or feed of the rod. Highly skilled welders are
often trained to work with a wide variety of materials in addition to steel, such
as titanium, aluminum, or plastics. Some welders have more limited duties,
however. They perform routine jobs that already have been planned and laid out
and do not require extensive knowledge of welding techniques.
Automated welding is used in an increasing number of production processes. In these instances, a machine or robot performs welding tasks while monitored by a welding machine operator. Welding, soldering and brazing machine
setters, operators, and tenders follow specified layouts, work orders or blueprints. Operators must load parts correctly and constantly monitor the machine
to ensure that it produces the desired bond.
The work of arc, plasma and oxy-gas cutters is closely related to that of
welders. However, instead of joining metals, cutters use heat from an electric
arc, a stream of ionized gas (plasma), or burning gases to cut and trim metal objects to specific dimensions. Cutters also dismantle large objects, such as ships,
railroad cars, automobiles, buildings, or aircraft. Some operate and monitor cutting machines similar to those used by welding machine operators. Plasma cutting has been increasing in popularity because, unlike other methods, it can cut a
wide variety of metals, including stainless steel, aluminum, and titanium.
Welding, soldering and brazing workers are often exposed to a number of
hazards, including the intense light created by the arc, poisonous fumes, and
very hot materials. They wear safety shoes, goggles, hoods with protective
lenses and other devices designed to prevent burns and eye injuries and to protect them from falling objects. They normally work in well-ventilated areas to
limit their exposure to fumes. Automated welding, soldering and brazing machine operators are not exposed to as many dangers, however, and a face shield
or goggles usually provide adequate protection for these workers.

melting point /
weld ()

to weld ,
to melt ()
to apply coating
to fuse ()
to reduce wear
to form a solid bond
specifications /
base metal
workpiece () voltage

arc welding
automated welding alligator clips

electrical current
to monitor ,

welding rod ,
machine setter
machine tender ,
Tungsten Inert Gas Welding (TIG)

work order (
Metal Inert Gas Welding (MIG)

arc / plasma / oxy-gas cutter
/ /
heat exposure
cutter ,
electric torch
burning gas
gas flux welding
to trim , ,

soldering ( )
to dismantle , brazing ( )

molten metal , safety shoes

protective lenses
: 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6) ; 7) ; 8) ; 9) ; 10) / ;
11) ; 12) , 13) ; 14) ; 15) ;

16) , ; 17) ; 18) , ; 19) ; 20) , .

II. ( )
: 1) to adjust the amperage; 2) routine job; 3) circuit; 4) heat exposure; 5) to fuse; 6) welding rod; 7) to form a permanent bond; 8) beam; 9) alligator clip; 10) massive heat; 11) TIG; 12) MIG; 13) to meet standards; 14) overhead position; 15) specifications; 16) welding technique; 17) to monitor; 18) soldering; 19) machine setter; 20) electrical current.
III. :
to melt to fuse, constant steady stable, strength force power, standard
normal usual, clip clamp, welding rod electrode, soldering brazing, technique technology, to join to weld to bind, MIG TIG, hazard dander,
fume smoke.


Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW), also known as Tungsten Inert Gas
welding (TIG), is an arc welding process that uses a non-consumable tungsten
electrode to produce the weld. The weld area is protected from atmospheric contamination by a shielding gas (usually an inert gas such as argon), and a filler
metal is normally used, though some welds, known as autogenous welds, do not
require it. A constant-current welding power supply produces energy which is
conducted across the arc through a column of highly ionized gas and metal vapours known as plasma.
GTAW is most commonly used to weld thin sections of stainless steel and
light metals such as aluminum, magnesium, and copper alloys. The process
grants the operator greater control over the weld than competing procedures
such as shielded metal arc welding and gas metal arc welding, allowing for
stronger, higher quality welds. However, GTAW is comparatively more complex and difficult to master, and furthermore, it is significantly slower than most
other welding techniques. A related process, plasma arc welding, uses a slightly
different welding torch to create a more focused welding arc and as a result it is
often automated.
After the discovery of arc in 1800, arc welding developed slowly.
C.L. Coffin had the idea of welding in an inert gas atmosphere in 1890, but even
in the early 1900s welding non-ferrous materials like aluminum and magnesium
remained difficult, because these metals reacted rapidly with the air, resulting in
porous and dross-filled welds. Processes using flux covered electrodes did not
satisfactorily protect the weld area from contamination. To solve the problem,
bottled inert gases were used in the beginning of the 1930s. A few years later, a

direct current gas-shielded welding process emerged in the aircraft industry for
welding magnesium. The process was perfected in 1941 and became known as
heliarc or tungsten inert gas welding, because it utilized a tungsten electrode and
helium as a shielding gas. Initially, the electrode overheated quickly, and in spite
of tungstens high melting temperature, particles of tungsten were transferred to
the weld. To address the problem the polarity of the electrode was changed from
positive to negative, but this made it unsuitable for welding many non-ferrous
materials. Finally, the development of alternating current units made it possible
to stabilize the arc and produce high quality aluminum and magnesium welds.
Development continued during the following decades. Linde Air Products developed water-cooled torches that helped to prevent overheating when
welding with high currents. Additionally, during 1950s, as the process continued
to gain popularity, some users turned to carbon dioxide as an alternative to more
expensive welding atmospheres consisting of argon and helium. However, this
proved unacceptable for welding aluminum and magnesium because it reduced
weld quality, and as a result, it is rarely used with GTAW today.
In 1953, a new process based on GTAW was developed, called plasma arc
welding. It affords greater control and improves weld quality by using a nozzle
to focus the electric arc, but it is largely limited to automated systems, whereas
GTAW remains primarily a manual, hand-held method. Development within the
GTAW process has continued as well, and today a number of variations exist.
For GTA welding of carbon and stainless steels, the selection of a filler material is important to prevent excessive porosity. Oxides on the filler material
and workpieces must be removed before welding to prevent contamination, and
immediately prior to welding, alcohol or acetone should be used to clean the surface. Preheating is generally not necessary for mild steels less than one inch
thick, but low alloy steels may require preheating to slow the cooling process
and prevent the formation of martensite in the heat-affected zone. Tool steels
should also be preheated to prevent cracking in the heat-affected zone. Austenitic stainless steels do not require preheating, but martensitic and ferritic chromium stainless steels do. A DCEN power source is normally used, and thoriated
electrodes, tapered to a sharp point, are recommended. Pure argon is used for
thin workpieces, but helium can be introduced as thickness increases.
TIG welding of copper and some of its alloys is possible, but in order to get
a weld free of oxidation and porosities, shielding gas needs to be provided on
the root side of the weld. Alternatively, a special backing tape, consisting of a
fiberglass weave on heat-resistant aluminum tape can be used, to prevent air
reaching the molten metal.
Welding dissimilar metals often introduces new difficulties to GTA welding, because most materials do not easily fuse to form a strong bond. However,
welds of dissimilar materials have numerous applications in manufacturing, repair work and the prevention of corrosion and oxidation. In some joints, a compatible filler material is chosen to help form the bond, and this filler metal can

be the same as one of the base materials (for example, using a stainless steel
filler metal with stainless steel and carbon steel as base materials), or a different
metal (such as the use of a nickel filler metal for joining steel and cast iron).
Very different materials may be coated with a material compatible with a particular filler material, and then welded. In addition, GTAW can be used in cladding or overlaying dissimilar materials.
When welding dissimilar metals, the joint must have an accurate fit, with
proper gap dimensions and bevel angles. Care should be taken to avoid excessive melting base material. Pulsed current is particularly useful for those applications, as it helps limit the heat input. The filler metal should be added quickly,
and a large weld pool should be avoided to prevent dilution of the base material.
gas tungsten arc welding (GRAW)
heliarc welding

TIG tungsten inert gas welding
alternating current

water-cooled torches non-consumable electrode

welding atmosphere . shielding gas

filler metal
process .
nozzle ,
power supply
increased penetration column .

mild steel ,

low alloy
shielded (metal) arc welding
martensite ,

gas metal arc welding cracking
austenitic ,

a more focused weld .

ferritic ,
non-ferrous metals

DCEN direct current with a negato react

tively charged electrode
DCEP direct current with a posibottled gas
tively charged electrode
direct current

thoriated ,
root side
heat resistant ,
carbon steel
cast iron
cladding ,

to coat
overlaying , .
to have an accurate fit

gap dimensions
bevel angle
pulsed current
weld pool

: 1) ; 2) ; 3)
; 4) ; 5) ; 6) ;
7) ; 8) ; 9) () ; 10) ; 11) , ; 12) ; 13) ;
14) ; 15) ; 16) ; 17) , ; 18) ; 19) ; 20) , .
III. : 1) filler
metal; 2) copper alloys; 3) shielded metal arc welding; 4) atmospheric contamination; 5) heliarc inert gas welding; 6) polarity of the electrode; 7) to produce
high quality welds; 8) water-cooled torch; 9) to reduce weld quality; 10) carbon
steel; 11) to prevent contamination; 12) tool steel; 13) root side of the weld;
14) dissimilar metals; 15) to form a bond; 16) compatible material; 17) weld
pool; 18) dilution;19) base material; 20) to utilize tungsten electrodes.
IV. : contamination pollution, to use to utilize to employ, seam weld, respond react,
application use.



In tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, (also known as GTAW), an arc is
struck between a virtually non-consumable tungsten electrode and the workpiece. The heat of the arc causes the edges of the work to melt and flow together. Filler rod is often required to fill the joint. During the welding operation,
the weld area is shielded from the atmosphere by a blanket of inert argon gas. A
steady stream of argon passes through the torch, which pushes the air away from
the welding area and prevents oxidation of the electrode, weld puddle, and heat
affected zone.
The basic equipment requirements for manual TIG welding are as follows.
The equipment consists of the welding torch plus additional apparatus to
supply electrical power, shielding gas, and a water inlet and outlet. Also, personal protective equipment should be worn to protect the operator from the arc
rays during welding operations.
Different types of TIG welding equipment are available through normal
supply channels. Water-cooled torches and air-cooled torches are both available.
Each type carries different amperage ratings. Consult the appropriate manual
covering the type of the torch used.
Argon is supplied in steel cylinders containing approximately 330 cu ft at a
pressure to 2000 psi (13,790 kPa). A single or two stage regulator may be used
to control the gas flow. A specially designed regulator containing a flowmeter
may be used. The flowmeter provides better adjustment via flow control than the
single or two stage regulator and is calibrated in cubic feet per hour (cfh). The
correct flow of argon to the torch is set by turning the adjusting screw on the
regulator. The rate of flow depends on the kind and thickness of the metal to be
Blanketing of the weld area is provided by a steady flow of argon gas, directed through the welding torch. Since argon is slightly more than 11/3 times
as heavy as air, it pushes the lighter air molecules aside, effectively preventing
oxidation of the welding electrode, the molten weld puddle, and the heat affected zone adjacent to the weld bead.
The tremendous heat of the arc and the high current often used usually necessitate water cooling of the torch and power cable. The cooling water must be
clean; otherwise, restricted or blocked passages may cause excessive overheating and damage to the equipment. It is advisable to use a suitable water strainer
or filter at the water supply source. If a self-contained unit is used, such as the
one used in the field (surge tank) where the cooling water is recirculated through
a pump, antifreeze is required if the unit is to be used outdoors during the winter
months or freezing weather. Some TIG welding torches require less than 55 psi
(379 kPa) water pressure and will require a water regulator of some type. Check
the operating manual for this information.
Nomenclature of a Torch:

1) a cap prevents the escape of gas from the top of the torch and locks the
electrode in place;
2) a collet is made of copper; the electrode fits inside and when the cap is
tightened, it squeezes against the electrode and keeps it in place;
3) a gas orifice nut allows the gas to escape;
4) a gas nozzle directs the flow of shielding gas onto the weld puddle. Two
types of nozzles are used; the one for light duty welding is made of a ceramic
material, and the one for heavy duty welding is a copper water-cooled nozzle;
5) there are three plastic hoses, connected inside the torch handle, carrying
water, gas, and the electrode power cable.
water inlet
surge tank normal supply channels

to recirculate
water-cooled torch

antifreeze (,
amperage rating

flowmeter ,
adjusting screw
gas orifice nut

passage ,
light duty welding

water strainer
nomenclature (
self-contained unit

gas nozzle
: 1) ; 2) ;
3) 1/3 ; 4) ; 5) ;
6) ; 7) ; 8) , ; 9) ; 10) .
II. : 1) a blanket of
inert gas; 2) weld puddle; 3) heat affected zone; 4) a manual, covering the type
of the torch used; 5) to push the air away; 6) additional apparatus; 7) nomenclature; 8) to calibrate; 9) the water is recirculated through the pump; 10) heavy
duty welding.


III. ( )
. 2.
. 3.
, , . 4. 2000 psi. 5. , .
6. ,
. 7. .
8. . 9.
. 10.
, , .


Submerged arc welding (SAW) is a common arc welding process. It requires a continuously fed consumable solid or tubular (metal cored) electrode.
The molten weld and the arc zone are protected from atmospheric contamination
by being submerged under a blanket of granular fusible flux. When molten,
the flux becomes conductive and provides a current path between the electrode
and the work. SAW is normally operated in the automatic or mechanized mode,
however, semi-automatic (hand-held) SAW guns with pressurized or gravity
flux feed delivery are available. Deposition rates approaching 100 lb/h (45 kg/h)
have been reported this compares to 10 lb/h (5kg/h) (max) for shielded metal
arc welding. Currents ranging from 200 to 1500 A are commonly used; currents
of up to 5000 A have been used (multiple arcs). Single or multiple (2 to 5) electrode wire variations of the process exist. DC or AC power can be utilized, and
combinations of DC and AC are common in multiple electrode systems. Constant voltage welding power supplies are most commonly used, however constant current systems in combination with a voltage sensing wire feeder are
Material applications are carbon steels, low alloy steels, stainless steels,
nickel-based alloys, surfacing applications are wear-facing, build-up, and corrosion resistant overlay of steels.
Advantages of SAW: 1) high deposition rates (over 100 lb/h (45 kg/h) have
been reported; 2) high operating factors in mechanized applications; 3) deep

weld penetration; 4) sound welds are readily made (with good process design
and control); 5) high speed welding of thin sheet steels at over 100 in/min
(2,5 m/min) is possible; 6) minimal welding fume or arc light is emitted.
Limitations of SAW: 1) limited to ferrous (steel or stainless steels) and
some nickel based alloys; 2) normally limited to long straight welds or rotated
pipes or vessels; 3) it requires relatively troublesome flux handling systems;
4) flux and slag residue can present a health and safety issue; 5) requires interpass and post-weld slag removal.
Key SAW process variables: 1) wire-feed speed (main factor in welding
current control); 2)arc voltage; 3) travel speed; 4) electrode stick-out (ESO) or
contact tip to work (CTTW); 5) polarity and current type (AC or DC).
Other factors: 1) flux depth / width; 2) flux and electrode classification and
type; 3) electrode wire diameter; 4) multiple electrode configuration.
Submerged arc welding ()
voltage sensing

material application solid electrode

low-alloy steel granular

corrosion-resistant semi-automatic SAW gun

deposition rate feed delivery
pressurized ,
operating factor

deep weld penetration


A (amper)
sound weld , multiple arc welding

limited to
single electrode

multiple electrode residue ,

post weld slag removal
strip electrode
DC / AC / variable

: 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) 16

/ ; 6) ; 7) ; 8) ; 9) ; 10) ; 11) ; 12) ; 13) ;

14) ; 15) ; 16) ; 17)
; 18) (); 19) , ; 20)
II. : 1) carbon
steel; 2) stainless steel; 3) build-up; 4) wearfacing; 5) molten weld; 6) granular
flux; 7) to range; 8) wire-feeder; 9) constant current; 10) consumable electrode;
11) solid electrode; 12) application; 13) ferrous alloys; 14) residue; 15) design;
16) operating factors; 17) polarity; 18) to emit; 19) process control; 20) key variables.
III. : rate
speed velocity, to feel to sense, application use usage, coal carbon,
guard shield protect defend
IV. , .
1. High deposition is one of SAW advantages.
2. This process requires continuously fed electrode.
3. SAW is normally in the automatic or semiautomatic mode.
4. Currents from 200 to 1500A are commonly used.
5. current is current flowing in one direction only.
6. current does not change its quantity.
7. Wearfacing and build-up are referred to surfacing of SAW.
8. One of SAW advantages is that minimal welding fume or arc light is .
9. This process is normally limited long straight welds.
10. The molten weld and the arc zone are from atmospheric contamination.
V. .
. 2.
. 3. . 4.
. 5.
. 6. . 7. . 8.
. 9.

Unit 5. SAFETY
Users of our companys welding equipment have the ultimate responsibility
for ensuring that anyone who works on or near the equipment observes all the
relevant safety precautions. Safety precautions must meet requirements that apply to this type of welding equipment. The following recommendations should
be observed in addition to standard regulations that apply to the work-place.
All work must be carried out by trained personnel, well acquainted with the
operation of the welding equipment, incorrect operation of the equipment may
lead to hazardous situations which can result in injury to the operator and damage to the equipment.
1. Anyone who uses this welding equipment must be familiar with:
its operation;
location of energy stops;
its function;
relevant safety precautions.
2. The operator must ensure that:
no unauthorized person is stationed within the working area of the
equipment when it is started up;
no-one is unprotected when the arc is struck.
3. The workplace must:
be suitable for the purpose;
be free from draughts.
4. Personal safety equipment:
always wear recommended personal safety equipment, such as safety
glasses, flame-proof clothing, safety gloves;
do not wear loose- fitting items, such as scarves, bracelets, rings, etc.,
which could become trapped or cause burns.
5. General precautions:
make sure the return cable is connected securely;
work on high voltage equipment may be carried out only by a qualified
appropriate fire extinguishing equipment must be clearly marked and
close at hand;
lubrication and maintenance must not be carried out on the equipment
during operation.
Arc welding and cutting can be injurious to yourself and others. Take precautions when welding. Ask for your employers safety practices which should
be based on manufacturers hazard data.


Electric shock can kill:

install and earth the welding unit in accordance with applicable standards;
do not touch live electrical parts with bare skin, wet gloves or wet clothing;
insulate yourself from earth and the workpiece;
ensure your working stance is safe.
Fumes and gases can be dangerous to health:
keep your head out of the fumes;
use ventilation, extraction at the arc, or both, to take fumes and gases
away from your breathing zone and the general area.
Arc rays can injure eyes and burn skin:
protect your eyes and body. Use the correct welding screen and filter
lens and wear protective clothing;
protect by-standers with suitable screens or curtains.
Fire hazard:
sparks (spatter) can cause fire. Make sure therefore that there are no inflammable materials nearby.
protect your ears. Use earmuffs or other hearing protection;
warn by-standers of the risk.
Malfunction: call for expert assistance in the event of malfunction.
safety precautions
safety practices

emergency stop hazard data

to earth
unauthorized person
live electrical parts safety glasses (

to insulate
working stance
return cable
filter lens
fire-extinguishing spatter ()

inflammable , lubrication

maintenance earmuff (
manual ,



Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), also known as manual metal arc
welding (MMA) is a manual arc welding process that uses a consumable electrode coated in flux to lay the weld. An electric current, in the form of either alternating current or direct current from a welding power supply, is used to form
an electric arc between the electrode and the metals to be joined. As the weld is
laid, the flux coating of the electrode disintegrates giving off vapors that serve as
a shielding gas and providing a layer of slag, both of which protect the weld area
from atmospheric contamination.
Because of versatility of the process and simplicity of its equipment and
operation, shielded metal arc welding is one of the worlds most popular welding processes. It dominates other welding processes in the maintenance and repair industry. And though flux-covered arc welding is growing in popularity,
SMAW continues to be used extensively in the construction of steel structures
and in industrial fabrication. The process is used primarily to weld iron and
steels, including stainless steel, but aluminum, nickel and copper alloys can also
be welded with this method.
To strike the electric arc the electrode is brought into contact with the
workpiece in a short sweeping motion and then pulled away slightly. This initiates the arc and thus melting of the workpiece and the consumable electrode,
and causes droplets of the electrode to be passed from the electrode to the welding pool. As the electrode melts, the flux disintegrates and its vapors protect the
weld area from oxygen and other atmospheric gases. In addition, the flux provides molten slag which covers the filler metal as it travels from the electrode to
the weld pool. Once part of the weld pool, the slag floats to the surface and protects the weld from contamination as it solidifies. Once hardened, it must be
chipped away to reveal the finished weld. As welding progresses and the electrode melts, the welder must periodically stop welding to remove the remaining
electrode stub and insert a new electrode into the electrode holder. This activity,
combined with chipping away the slag, reduce the amount of time that the
welder could spend laying the weld, making SMAW one of the least efficient
welding processes. In general, the operator factor, or the percentage of operators time spent laying weld, is approximately 25 %.
The actual welding technique utilized depends on the electrode, the composition of the work-piece, and the position of the joint being welded. The choice
of electrode and welding position also determines the welding speed. Flat welds
require the least operator skill, and can be done with electrodes that melt quickly
but solidify slowly. This permits higher welding speeds. Sloped, vertical or upside-down welding requires more operator skill, and often necessitates the use of
an electrode that solidifies quickly to prevent the molten metal from flowing out
of the weld pool. However, this generally means that the electrode melts less
quickly, thus increasing the time required to lay the weld.

The most common quality problems associated with SMAW include weld
spatter, porosity, poor fusion, shallow penetration and cracking. Weld spatter,
while not affecting the integrity of the weld, damages its appearance and increases cleaning costs. It can be caused by excessively high current, a long arc,
or arc blow, a condition associated with direct current characterized by the electric arc being deflected away from the weld pool by magnetic forces. Arc blow
can also cause porosity in the weld, as can joint contamination, high welding
speed, and a long welding arc, especially when low-hydrogen electrodes are
used. Porosity, often not visible without the use of advanced non-destructive
testing methods, is a serious concern because it can potentially weaken the weld.
Another defect affecting the strength of the weld is poor fusion, though it is often easily visible. It is caused by low current, contaminated joint surfaces, or the
use of an improper electrode. Shallow penetration, another detriment to weld
strength, can be addressed by decreasing welding speed, increasing the current
or using a smaller electrode. Any of these weld-strength-related defects can
make the weld prone to cracking, but other factors are involved as well. High
carbon or sulfur content in the base material can lead to cracking, especially if
low-hydrogen electrodes and preheating are not employed. Furthermore, the
workpieces should not be excessively restrained, as this introduces residual
stresses into the weld and can cause cracking as the weld cools.
SMA welding, like other welding methods, can be a dangerous and unhealthy practice if proper precautions are not taken. The process uses an open
electric arc, presenting a risk of burns which is prevented by personal protective
equipment in the form of heavy leather gloves and long sleeve jackets. Additionally, the brightness of the weld area can lead to a condition called arc eye, in
which ultraviolet light causes the inflammation of the cornea and can burn the
retinas of the eyes. Welding helmets with dark face plates are worn to prevent
this exposure, and in recent years, new helmet models have been produced featuring a face plate that self-darkens upon exposure to high amounts of UV light.
To protect by-standers, especially in industrial environments, transparent welding curtains often surround the welding area. These curtains, made of polyvinyl
chloride plastic film, shield nearby workers from exposure to the UV light from
the electric arc, but should not be used to replace the filter glass used in helmets.
In addition, the vaporizing metal and flux materials expose welders to dangerous gases and particulate matter. The smoke produced contains particles of
various types of oxides. The size of the particles in question tends to influence
the toxicity of the fumes, with smaller particles presenting a greater danger. Additionally, gases like carbon dioxide and ozone can form, which can prove dangerous if ventilation is inadequate.


SMAW shielded metal arc welding

weld spatter (

consumable electrode

high current to disintegrate ,

arc blow ,
to give off .
to deflect ,
versatility .

maintenance residual stress

flux-cored electrode
arc eye ,

to strike the arc ,

retina ()
molten slag
filter glass -
to solidify
welding helmet ,
to chip away
particulate matter
industrial fabrication clamp

welding lead
to initiate ,
arc distance / length
filler metal
electrode holder
fluctuations ,

: 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ;
5) ; 6) ; 7) ; 8) ; 9) , ; 10) ;
11) ; 12) ; 13) ;
14) ; 15) ; 16) ; 17) ; 18) ; 19) ; 20) .
II. : 1) coated
in flux; 2) direct current; 3) industrial fabrication; 4) copper alloys; 5) to initiate
the arc; 6) to disintegrate; 7) atmospheric gases; 8) to chip the slag away;
9) electrode stub; 10) electrode holder; 11) efficient process; 12) sloped weld22

ing; 13) upside-down welding; 14) weld spatter; 15) porosity; 16) to deflect
away; 17) non-destructive testing methods; 18) precautions; 19) inflammation of
the cornea; 20) exposure to the ultraviolet light.
III. : coated
covered, efficient effective, solidify harden, last ultimate final, to float
to swim, transparent translucent, influence affect impact.
IV. , .
1. An electric current in the form of either or current is used to form
an electric arc. 2. As the weld is laid, the flux coating of the electrode .
3. Flux vapours serve as a gas. 4. To strike the electric arc, the electrode is
with the workpiece. 5. If electrodes quickly but slowly this permits higher
welding speeds. 6. Droplets of molten metal are called . 7. Porosity, often not
visible, can be detected by methods. 8. Poor fusion is another affecting the
strength of the weld. 9. High carbon or sulfur in the base material can lead to
cracking. 10. Proper should be taken to avoid hazards.


SMAW equipment usually consists of a constant current welding power
supply and an electrode, with an electrode holder, a work clamp, and welding
cables, also known as welding leads. The power supply has constant current
output, ensuring that the current (and thus the heat) remains relatively constant,
even if the arc distance and voltage change. This is important because most applications of SMAW are manual, requiring that an operator hold the torch.
Maintaining a suitably steady arc distance is difficult if a constant voltage power
source is used instead, since it can cause dramatic heat variations and make
welding more difficult. However, because the current is not maintained absolutely constant, skilled welders performing complicated welds can vary the arc
length to cause minor fluctuations in the current.
The preferred polarity of the SMAW system depends primarily upon the
electrode being used and the desired properties of the weld. Direct current with a
negatively charged electrode (DCEN) causes heat to build up on the electrode,
increasing the electrode melting rate and decreasing the depth of the weld. Reversing the polarity so that the electrode is positively charged and the workpiece
negatively charged increases the weld penetration. With alternating current, the
polarity changes over 100 times per second, creating an even heat distribution
and providing a balance between electrode melting rate and penetration.
The choice of electrode for SMAW depends on a number of factors, including the weld material, welding position and desired weld properties. The electrode is coated in a metal mixture called flux, which gives off gases as it decom23

poses to prevent weld contamination, introduces deoxidizers to purify the weld,

causes weld-protecting slag to form, improves the arc stability, and provides alloying elements to improve the weld quality. Electrodes can be divided into
three groups those designed to melt quickly are called fast-fill electrodes, those
designed to solidify quickly are called fast-freeze electrodes and intermediate
electrodes go by the name fill-freeze or fast-follow electrodes. Fast-fill electrodes are designed to melt quickly so that the welding speed can be maximized,
while fast-freeze electrodes supply filler metal that solidifies quickly, making
welding in a variety of positions possible by preventing the weld pool from
shifting significantly before solidifying.
The composition of the electrode core is generally similar and sometimes
identical to that of the base material. But even though a number of feasible options exist, a slight difference in the alloy composition can strongly impact the
properties of the resulting weld. This is especially true of alloy steels such as
HSLA steels. Likewise, electrodes of compositions similar to those of base materials are often used for welding non-ferrous materials such as aluminum and
copper. However, sometimes it is desirable to use electrodes with core materials
significantly different from the base material. For example, stainless steel electrodes are sometimes used to weld two pieces of carbon steel.
Electrode coatings can consist of a number of different compounds, including rutile, calcium fluoride, cellulose, and iron powder. Rutile electrodes, made
of 2545 % TiO2, are characterized by ease of use and good appearance of the
resulting weld. However, they create welds with high hydrogen content, encouraging embrittlement and cracking. Electrodes, containing calcium fluoride
(CaF2), sometimes known as basic low-hydrogen electrodes, are hydroscopic
and must be stored in dry conditions. They produce strong welds, but with a
coarse and convex-shaped joint surface. Electrodes made of cellulose, especially
when combined with rutile, provide deep weld penetration, but because of their
high moisture content, special procedures must be used to prevent excessive risk
of cracking. Finally iron powder is a common coating additive, as it improves
the productivity of the electrode, sometimes as much as doubling the yield.
To identify different electrodes, the American Welding Society established
a system that assigns electrodes with a four- or five-digit number. Covered electrodes made of mild or low-alloy steel carry the prefix E-, followed by their
number. The first two or three digits of the number specify the tensile stress of
the weld metal, in thousand pounds per square inch (psi). The penultimate digit
generally identifies the welding positions permissible with the electrode, typically using the values 1 (normally fast-freeze electrodes, implying all position
welding) and 2 (normally fast-fill electrodes, implying horizontal welding only).
The welding current and type of electrode covering are specified by the last two
digits together. When applicable, a suffix is used to denote the alloying element
being contributed by the electrode. Common electrodes include the E6010, a
fast-freeze, all-position electrode with minimum tensile strength of 60 psi which

is operated using DCEP. Its cousin E6011 is similar except that it is used with
alternating current. E7024 is a fast-fill electrode, used primarily to make flat or
horizontal welds using AC, DCEN, or DCEP. Examples of fill-freeze electrodes
are the E6012, E6013 and E7014, all of which provide a compromise between
fast welding speeds and all-position welding.
Though SMAW is almost exclusively a manual arc welding process, one
notable process variation exists, known as gravity welding or gravity arc welding. It serves as an automated version of the traditional shielded metal arc welding process, employing an electrode holder attached to an inclined bar along the
length of the weld. Once started, the process continues until the electrode is
spent, allowing the operator to manage multiple gravity welding systems. The
electrodes employed (often 6027 or 7024) are coated heavily in flux, and are
typically 0,8 m in length and about 6 mm thick. As in manual SMAW, a constant current welding power supply is used, with either negative polarity direct
current or alternating current.
Due to a rise in the use of semi-automatic welding processes such as fluxcored arc welding, the popularity of gravity welding has fallen as its economic
advantage over such methods is often minimal. Other SMAW-related methods
that are even less frequently used include fire-cracker welding, an automatic
method of making butt and fillet welds, and massive electrode welding, a process for welding large components or structures that can deposit up to 27 kg of
weld metal per hour.
tensile strength cable = welding lead ,

arc distance / length
DCEN = direct current, electrode
DCEP = direct current, electrode
fast-freeze positive

HSLA = high strength low alloy

Pa = pascal ,
filler metal
coating ,

rutile , +
gravity arc welding

calcium fluoride
flux-cored electrode

fire-cracker -
butt weld
fillet weld

: 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ;
6) ; 7) / ; 8) ; 9) ; 10) ; 11) ; 12) ; 13) ; 14) , ; 15) ;
16) ; 17) ; 18) ; 19) ; 20) .
II. : 1) a
steady arc distance; 2) constant voltage; 3) dramatic heat variations; 4) to maintain constant current; 5) fluctuations in the current; 6) weld penetration; 7) melting rate; 8) to purify the weld; 9) fast-fill electrodes; 10) fast-freeze electrodes;
11) fill-freeze electrodes; 12) low hydrogen electrodes; 13) calcium fluoride;
14) feasible options; 15) composition of the electrode core; 16) non-ferrous materials; 17) electrode coating; 18) to encourage cracking; 19) hygroscopic; 20) to
assign electrodes with a number.
III. .
1. The power supply used in SMAW has constant current . 2. Most
SMAW applications are . 3. Maintaining a steady is difficult. 4. The preferred of the SMAW system depends primarily upon the electrode used and
the desired properties of the weld. 5. With the polarity changes over
100 times per second. 6. The of the electrode core is sometimes identical to
that of the base material. 7. Rutile electrodes create welds with high hydrogen
content, embrittlement and cracking. 8. Electrodes containing CaF2 are
and must be stored in dry conditions. 9. The first two or three digits of the number the tensile stress of the weld metal. 10. The welding current and type of
electrode coating are specified by the last two together.
IV. : to decompose to disintegrate, to influence to impact to affect, to purify to clean,
figure digit, manual hand-made.
V. .
1. Electrodes designed to melt quickly so that the welding speed can be
2. Electrodes designed to supply filler metal that solidifies quickly.
3. Electrodes intermediate in the speed of melting and solidifying.

4. Welding process employing consumable electrodes coated in flux which,

while disintegrating, gives off a shielding gas.
5. Current which does not change its amperage or voltage.
6. Positive or negative charge of the electrode.
7. Negative impact that gases making air get upon the weld.
8. Materials easily absorbing moisture from the environment.
9. The process or property of being easily broken or cracked.
10. One of the elements that combine to form numbers in a numeric system.


Plasma arc welding (PAW) is an arc welding process similar to gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). The electric arc is formed between an electrode,
which is usually but not always made of sintered tungsten and the work-piece.
The key difference from GTAW is that in PAW, by positioning the electrode
within the body of the torch, the plasma arc can be separated from the shielding
gas envelope. The plasma is then forced through a fine-bore copper nozzle
which connects the arc and the plasma exits the orifice at high velocities, approaching the speed of sound, and temperature approaching 20 000 C.
Plasma arc welding is an advancement over the GTAW process. It can be
used to join all metals that are weldable with GTAW, i.e. most commercial metals
and alloys. Several basic PAW variations are possible by varying the current,
plasma gas flow rate, and the orifice diameter, including: micro-plasma (< 15 Amperes); melt-in mode (15400 Amperes); key-hole mode (100 Amperes). Plasma
arc welding has a greater energy concentration as compared to GTAW. A deep narrow penetration is achievable, reducing distortion and allowing square-butt joints in
material up to 12 mm thick. Greater arc stability allows a much longer arc length
and much greater tolerance to arc length changes. Its limitation is that PAW requires relatively expensive and complex equipment as compared to GTAW.
At least two separate (and possibly three) gas flows are used in PAW:
plasma gas which flows through the orifice and becomes ionized; shielding gas,
which flows through the outer nozzle and shields the molten weld from the atmosphere; back-purge gas, required for certain materials and applications. These
gases can be the same, or of differing composition.
Key process variables are: current type and polarity; usually DCEN from a
CC source; AC square wave, common on aluminum and magnesium. Current
can vary from 0,5 to 1200 A; current can be constant or pulsed at frequencies up
to 20 kHz. Gas flow rate is a critical variable and must be carefully controlled
based upon the current, orifice diameter and shape, gas mixture, and the base
material and thickness.
Depending upon the design of the torch, e.g. orifice diameter, electrode design, gas type and velocities, and the current levels, several variations of the

plasma process are achievable, including plasma arc welding, plasma arc cutting, plasma arc gouging, plasma arc surfacing and plasma arc spraying.
GTAW gas tungsten arc welding
tolerance . ,

sintered . arc length

outer nozzle gas envelope .

fine bore back-purge gas ,

to constrict
square wave orifice

constant current
commercial metals

gourging ,
plasma gas flow rate

surfacing ,
arc stability ,

arc spraying ,

: 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6) ; 7) ; 8) ; 9) ; 10)
; 11) ( ); 12) , ; 13) ; 14) ; 15) .
II. : 1) sintered tungsten; 2) forced through; 3) fine-bore nozzle; 4) high velocity; 5) advancement; 6) orifice diameter; 7) to vary the current; 8) arc stability; 9) square
butt; 10) outer nozzle; 11) pulsed current; 12) gouging; 13) surfacing; 14) arc
spraying; 15) current levels.


III. .
1. Plasma arc welding is to gas tungsten arc welding. 2. In PAW the
plasma arc is separated from the . 3. The plasma is through a fine-bore
copper nozzle. 4. The plasma exits the orifice at . 5. PAW has a greater as
compared to GTAW. 6. PAW reduces distortion and allows in thick materials. 7. Greater arc stability allows much greater to arc length changes. 8. Paw
requires relatively and equipment. 9. Plasma gas flows through the and
becomes highly ionized. 10. Shielding gas protects the from the atmospheric
IV. .
1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5.
. 6.
. 7. . 8.
, . 9.
, . 10.


Gas metal arc welding (GMAW), sometimes referred to by its subtypes,
metal inert gas (MIG) and metal active gas (MAG) welding, is a semi-automatic
or auto-matic arc welding process in which a continuous and consumable wire
electrode and a shielding gas are fed through a welding gun. A constant voltage,
direct current power source is most commonly used with GMAW, but constant
current systems, as well as alternating current, can be used.
Originally developed for welding aluminum and other non-ferrous metals
in the 1940s, GMAW was soon applied to steels because it allowed for lower
welding time compared to other welding processes. The cost of inert gas limited
its use in steels until several years later, when the use of semi-inert gases such as
carbon dioxide became common. Further developments during 1950s and 1960s
gave the process more versatility and as a result, it became a highly used industrial process. Today, GMAW is commonly used in industries such as the automobile industry, where it is preferred for its versatility and speed. Unlike welding processes that do not employ a shielding gas, such as shielded metal arc
welding, it is rarely used outdoors or in other areas of air volatility. A related

process, flux-cored arc welding, often does not utilize a shielding gas, instead
employing a hollow electrode wire that is filled with flux on the inside.
The method is often used to do arc spot welding, thereby replacing riveting
or resistance spot welding. It is also popular in robot welding, in which robots
handle the work-pieces and the welding gun to quicken the manufacturing process. Generally, it is unsuitable for welding outdoors, because the movement of
the surrounding atmosphere can cause the dissipation of the shielding gas and
thus makes welding more difficult, while also decreasing the quality of the weld,
so the use of GMAW in the construction industry is rather limited. The problem
can be alleviated to some extent by increasing the shielding gas output, but this
can be expensive. The use of a shielding gas makes GMAW an unpopular underwater welding process, and for the same reason it is rarely used in space applications.
To perform gas metal arc welding, the basic necessary equipment is a
welding gun, a wire feed unit, a welding power supply, an electrode wire, and a
shielding gas supply. The typical welding gun has a number of key parts a
control switch, a contact tip, a power cable, a gas nozzle, an electrode conduit
and liner, and a gas hose. The control switch or trigger, when pressed by the
operator, initiates the wire feed, electric power and the shielding gas flow,
causing an electric arc to be struck. The contact tip, normally made of copper
and sometimes chemically treated to reduce spatter, is connected to the welding power supply source through the power cable and transmits the electrical
energy to the electrode while directing it to the weld area. It must be firmly secured and properly sized since it must allow the passage of the electrode while
maintaining an electrical contact. Before arriving at the contact tip, the wire is
protected and guided by the electrode conduit and liner, which help prevent
buckling and maintain an uninterrupted wire feed. The gas nozzle is used to
evenly direct the shielding gas into the welding zone if the flow is inconsistent, it may not provide adequate protection of the weld area. Larger nozzles
provide greater shielding gas flow, which is useful for high current welding
operations, in which the size of the molten weld pool is increased. The gas is
supplied to the nozzle through a gas hose, which is connected to tanks of
shielding gas. Sometimes a water hose is also built into the welding gun, cooling the gun in high heat operations.
The wire unit supplies the electrode to the work, driving it through the conduit and on to the contact tip. Most models provide the wire at constant feed
rate, but more advanced machines can vary the feed rate in response to the arc
length and voltage. Some wire feeders can reach feed rates as high as
30,5 m/min, but feed rates for semi-automatic GMAW typically range from 2 to
10 m/min.
Most applications of gas metal arc welding use a constant voltage power
supply. As a result, any change in arc length, which is directly related to voltage,
results in a large change in heat input and current. A shorter arc length will

cause a much greater heat input, which will make the wire electrode melt more
quickly and thereby restore the original arc length. This helps operators keep the
arc length consistent even when manually welding with hand-held welding guns.
To achieve a similar effect, sometimes a constant current power source is used
in combination with an arc voltage-controlled wire feed unit. In this case, a
change in arc length makes the wire feed rate adjust in order to maintain a relatively constant arc length. In rare circumstances, a constant current power source
and a constant wire feed rate unit might be coupled, especially for the welding
of metals with high thermal conductivity, such as aluminum. This grants the operator additional control over the heat input into the weld, but requires significant skill to perform successively.
gas metal arc welding (GMAW)
robot welding

metal inert gas (MIG) welding wire feed unit

control switch
metal active gas (MAG) welding
contact tip

welding gun
liner , versatility ,

gas hose
spot welding
buckling , riveting welding

to couple
resistance spot welding thermal conductivity

: 1)
; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6)
; 7) ; 8) , ;
9) ; 10) ; 11)
( ); 12) ; 13) ; 14) , ; 15) .

II. : 1) wire
feed unit; 2) welding gun; 3) non-ferrous metals; 4) resistance spot welding;
5) dissipation; 6) conduit; 7) gas hose; 8) air volatility; 9) to alleviate a problem;
10) key parts; 11) to initiate the wire feed; 12) to strike the arc; 13) the conduit
tip; 14) to reduce spatter; 15) to be firmly secured; 16) gas nozzle; 17) tanks of
gas; 18) high heat operation; 19) to drive (the electrode) through the conduit;
20) thermal conductiveness.
III. :
to decrease, control switch, welder, to employ a gas, widely, medium ot atmosphere, to start the wire feed, to initiate an arc, metal droplets, wire-feed unit.
IV. .
1. Aluminum and copper are metals. 2. Gas protecting the weld area is
called a gas. 3. GMAW is given preference for its speed and . 4. The
movement of the surrounding atmosphere can cause of the shielding gas.
5. The problem can be by increasing the shielding gas output. 6. The initiates the wire feed. 7. The contact tip, made of copper, the electrical energy to
the electrode. 8. Before arriving at the contact tip, the wire is protected and
guided by the . 9. The is used to evenly direct the shielding gas into the
welding area.


Ultrasonic welding is an industrial technique whereby high-frequency ultrasonic acoustic vibrations are used to weld objects together, usually plastics,
and especially for joining dissimilar materials. This type of welding is used to
build assemblies that are too small, too complex or too delicate for more common welding techniques. In ultrasonic welding there are no connecting bolts,
nails, soldering materials or adhesives necessary to bind the materials together.
For joining complex injection-molded thermoplastic parts, ultrasonic
equipment can be easily customized to fit the exact specifications of parts being
welded. The parts are sandwiched between a fixed shaped nest (anvil) and a
sonotrode (horn) connected to a transducer which is lowered down, and a
20 kHz low-amplitude acoustic vibration is emitted. Common frequencies used
in ultrasonic welding of thermoplastics are 15 kHz, 30 kHz, and 40 kHz. When
welding plastics, the interface of the two parts is specially designed to concentrate the melting process. One of the materials traditionally has a spiked energy
director which contacts the second plastic part. The ultrasonic energy melts the

point of contact between the parts, creating a joint. This process is a good automated alternative to glue, screws or snap-fit designs. It is typically used with
small parts, e.g. cell phones, consumer electronics, disposable medical tools,
toys etc., but it can be used on parts as large as a small automobile instrument
cluster. Ultrasonics can also be used to weld metals, but they are typically limited to small welds of thin, malleable metals, e.g. aluminum, copper, nickel. Ultrasonics would not be used in welding the chassis of an automobile or in welding pieces of a bicycle together, because of the power levels required.
Ultrasonic welding of thermoplastics causes local melting of the plastic due
to absorption of vibration energy. The vibrations are introduced across the joint
to be welded. Ultrasonic welding of metals is not due to heating, but instead occurs due to high-pressure dispersion of surface oxides and local motion of the
materials. Although there is heating, it is not enough to melt the base materials.
Vibrations are introduced along the joint being welded.
Ultrasonic welding appeared in mid-1960s and is rapidly developing. In its
infancy only hard plastics could be welded because they were acoustically conductive and had a low melting point. Today ultrasonic welding machines have
much more power, enough to weld less rigid, less acoustically conductive materials such as semi-crystalline plastics, as well as higher melting point materials.
The patent for the ultrasonic method for welding rigid thermoplastic parts was
awarded to R. Soloff in 1965.
An inevitable by-product of ultrasonic welding is a blast of ultrasonic
sound. The lower frequencies of 15 kHz and 20 kHz typically emit a squeal that
can be heard by operators. In many cases the noise level will exceed 80 dBa and
therefore hearing protection is recommended when personnel are in close proximity to an ultrasonic welder. Welders using frequencies of 30 kHz and above
do not normally emit a squeal audible to people in close proximity to the welder.
It is widely accepted that most humans can hear ultrasonic noise as children but
lose this ability around the late teens. A device known as The Mosquito which
emits ultrasonic noise and is intended to break up groups of loiterers is being
tested in the UK, mostly outside shops and other places where youths gather.
However not all humans lose this ability so early and some never do. Persons
who can hear ultrasonic sound would not be comfortable working in a factory or
other environment where it is used without using hearing protection.
horn ()
to customize
spiked energy director


adhesive ,

snap-fit design
cell phone
consumer electronics

cluster ,
malleable , ,

power level
dispersion ,
melting point
dB ,

dBa / dBA (

: 1) ; 2) ;
3) ; 4) ( );
5) ; 6) ; 7) ; 8) ;
9) ; 10) ; 11) ; 12) ;
13) ; 14) ; 15) .
II. : 1) dissimilar materials; 2) assembly; 3) connective bolts; 4) adhesives; 5) to sandwich;
6) interface; 7) a spiked energy director; 8) cell phone; 9) malleable materials;
10) dispersion of surface oxides; 11) be acoustically conductive; 12) in its infancy; 13) rigid; 14) to introduce vibrations; 15) semi-crystalline plastics.
III. .
1. Ultrasonics are usually limited to small welds of thin metals. 2. Ultrasonic welding employs acoustic vibrations. 3. Ultrasonic welding equipment
can be easily to fit specifications of the parts being welded. 4. In ultrasonic
welding the parts being welded are between a fixed shaped nest and a
sonotrode. 5. is connected to the sonotrode, emitting high-frequency vibrations. 6. When welding plastics, the of the two parts is specially designed.
7. Ultrasonics is used in manufacturing medical tools. 8. Ultrasonics causes
local melting of the plastic due to of the vibration energy. 9. While welding
thermoplastics, vibrations should be introduced the joint to be welded.
10. Ultrasonic welding of metals occurs due to of surface oxides and local
motion of the materials.
IV. .
1. . 2.
. 3.

4. .
5. , , . 6.
. 7. , .
8. . 9. 80 .
10. , ,
V. .
1. Material capable of softening or fusing when heated and of hardening
again when cooled.
2. Having a frequency above human ears audibility limit of about 20 000 hertz.
3. Manufactured parts fitted together into a complete structure or unit.
4. To build, fit or alter according to individual specifications.
5. Interception of radiant energy or sound waves.
6. The process of uniformly distributing small particles in a fluid or dividing white light into its coloured constituents.
7. (of metals) that can be hammered or pressed out of shape without tendency to return to it or to fracture.
8. Having the property of transmitting heat or electricity by conduct.
9. Nearness in space, time etc.
10. Incidental or secondary product of manufacture.
11. A device that converts variations of one quantity into those of another.
12. A device for reducing or increasing voltage and current.
13. A unit used in comparison of power levels in sound intensity.
14. A unit of frequency equal to one cycle per second.
15. To go through the process of testing qualities of a thing or method.


Underwater welding refers to a number of distinct processes that are performed underwater. The two main categories of this techniques are wet underwater welding and dry underwater welding, both classified as hyperbaric welding. In wet underwater welding, a variation of shielded metal arc welding is
commonly used, employing a waterproof electrode. Other processes that are
used include flux-cored welding and friction welding. In each of these cases, the
welding power supply is connected to the welding equipment through cables and
hoses. The process is generally limited to low carbon equivalent steels, especially at greater depths, because of hydrogen-caused cracking. In dry underwater

welding the weld is performed at the prevailing pressure in a chamber filled with
a gas mixture sealed around the structure being welded. For this process, gas
tungsten arc welding is often used, and the resulting welds are of high integrity.
The applications of underwater welding are diverse it is often used to repair ships, offshore oil platforms and pipelines. Steel is the most common material welded. For deep water welds and other applications where high strength is
necessary, dry underwater welding in most commonly used. Research into using
dry underwater welding at depths of up to 1000 meters is ongoing. In general,
assuring the integrity of underwater welds can be difficult, but it is possible using non-destructive testing applications, especially for wet underwater welds,
because defects are difficult to detect if they are beneath the surface of the weld.
For the structures being welded by wet underwater welding, inspection following welding and assuring the integrity of such welds may be more difficult
than for welds deposited in air. There is a risk that defects may remain undetected.
The risks of underwater welding include the risk of electric shock to the
welder. To prevent this, the welding equipment must be adaptable to a marine
environment, properly insulated and the welding current must be controlled.
Underwater welders must also consider safety issues that normally divers face;
most notably, the risk of decomposition sickness due to the increased pressure of
inhaled breathing gases. Another risk, generally limited to wet underwater welding, is the build-up of hydrogen and oxygen pockets, because these are potentially explosive.
wet underwater welding

dry underwater welding
to assure

non-destructive testing method hyperbaric ,


waterproof ,

decomposition sickness
friction welding

pocket .
: 1) ; 2) , ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6) , ; 7) ; 8) ;

9) ; 10) ; 11)
; 12) ; 13) ; 14) ; 15) .
II. : 1) hyperbaric welding; 2) dry underwater welding; 3) wet underwater welding; 4) a
sealed chamber; 5) gas mixture; 6) prevailing pressure; 7) diverse applications;
8) high strength; 9) adaptable to marine environment; 10) properly insulated;
11) safety issue; 12) breathing gases; 13) to inhale; 14) build-up of hydrogen
pocket; 15) potentially explosive.
III. .
1. . 2. . 3. . 4. , , . 5. .
6. ,
. 7. . 8. . 9.
. 10. .

Unit 12. ?
. . ,
, , .
. . , , , .
. () ( ).


. , , .
() .
, . ,
, ,
. .
, .
, , . , .
. .
a solid
alternating cur process, technology
carbon elec direct current
spot welding
roller welding
( ) to amplify / to attenuate

Unit 13.
, , .
, .
, ; ; ; . .

4 .
1. . , .
, . , . ,
. : , . -
, .
2. . , , .
. , , , . . -
, . ,
: ,
3. . ,
, .

4. . ,
, .
welding station
welding auto magnetic induction
matic machine
clip, fix
, defect, draw generator

uniform weld
to support stability of arc
/ mono-uni-phase
power source

semi-conductor rectifier

Unit 14.
3 : ,
, .
1. .
, .

. :
. , . ;
, ,
. ,
, , ;
, . ,
2. . , , . .
3. . ,
. ,
, .
4. . , , , .
. .
5. - . , . .

6. . , , . .
, . ,
, . ,
, ;
. ;
, . .
. ,
bond / link
electro thermal
slag welding
plasma welding
explosion welding
jet, stream
, to emit
- elec coating
tron beam welding
to feed wire
forge welding
gas flame

high frequency welding


Text 1. Flux-cored arc welding.
Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) is a semi-automatic or automatic arc
welding process. FCAW requires a continuously fed consumable tubular electrode containing a flux and constant voltage or, less commonly, a constant electric current welding power supply. An externally supplied shielding gas is sometimes used, but often the flux itself is relied upon to generate the necessary protection from the atmosphere. The process is widely used in construction because
of its high welding speed and portability.
FCAW was first developed in the early 1950s as an alternative to shielded
metal arc welding (SMAW). The advantage of FCAW versus SMAW is that the
use of stick electrodes, like those used in SMAW, was unnecessary. This helped
FCAW to overcome many of the restrictions associated with SMAW.
There are two types of FCAW. The first type requires no shielding gas.
This is made possible by the flux core in the tubular consumable electrode.
However, this core contains more than just flux; it also contains various ingredients that when exposed to high temperatures of welding generate a shielding gas
for protecting the arc. This type of FCAW is preferable because it is portable
and has excellent penetration into the base metal. Also, the conditions of air
flow do not need to be considered.
The second type of FCAW actually uses a shielding gas that must be supplied by an external device. This type of FCAW was developed primarily for
welding steels. In fact, since it uses both a flux-cored electrode and an external
shielding gas, one might say that it is a combination of gas metal (GMAW) and
flux-cored arc welding. This particular style of FCAW is preferable for welding
thicker metals. The slag created by the flux is also easier to remove. However, it
cannot be used in a windy environment as the loss of the shielding gas from air
flow will produce visible porosity on the surface of the weld.
Text 2. GTAW weld area.
Manual gas tungsten arc welding is often considered the most difficult of
all the welding processes commonly used in industry. Because the welder must
maintain a short arc length, great care and skill are required to prevent contact
between the electrode and the workpiece. Unlike other welding processes,
GTAW normally requires two hands, since most applications require that the
welder manually feed a filler metal into the weld area with one hand, while manipulating the welding torch in the other. However, some welds combining thin
materials can be accomplished without filler metal; most notably edge, corner
and butt joints.
To strike the welding arc, a high frequency generator provides a path for the
welding current through the shielding gas, allowing the arc to be struck when the
separation between the electrode and the workpiece is approximately 1.53 mm.

Bringing the two into contact also serves to strike an arc, but this can cause contamination of the weld and electrode. Once the arc is struck, the welder moves
the torch in a small circle to create a welding pool, the size of which depends on
the size of the electrode and the current. While maintaining a constant separation
between the electrode and the workpiece, the operator then moves the torch back
slightly and tilts it backward about 1015 degrees from the vertical. Filler metal
is added manually to the front end of the weld pool as it is needed.
Welders often develop a technique of rapidly alternating between moving
the torch forward, to advance the weld pool, and adding filler metal. The filler
rod is withdrawn from the weld pool each time the electrode advances, but it is
never removed from the gas shield to prevent oxidation of its surface and contamination of the weld. Filler rods composed of metals with low melting temperature, such as aluminum, require that the operator maintain some distance
from the arc while staying inside the gas shield. If held too close to the arc, the
filler rod can melt before it makes contact with the weld pool. As the weld nears
completion, the arc current is often gradually reduces to prevent the formation of
a crater at the end of the weld.
Text 3. Safety in GTAW.
Like other welding processes, GTAW can be dangerous if proper precautions are not taken. The process produces intense ultraviolet radiation, which can
cause a form of sunburn an, in a few cases, trigger the development of skin cancer. Flying sparks and droplets of molten metal can cause severe burns and start
a fire, if flammable material is nearby.
It essential that the welder wear suitable protective clothing, including heavy
leather gloves, a closed shirt collar to protect the neck and especially the throat, a
protective long sleeve jacket and a suitable helmet to prevent arc eye. Due to the
absence of smoke in GTAW, the electric arc can seem brighter than in shielded
metal arc welding. Transparent welding curtains, made of a polyvinyl chloride
plastic film, are often used to shield nearby personnel from exposure.
Welders are also often exposed to dangerous gases and particulate matter.
Shielding gases can displace oxygen and lead to asphyxiation, and while smoke
is not produced, the brightness of the arc in GTAW can cause surrounding air to
break down and form ozone. Similarly, the brightness and heat can cause poisonous fumes to form from cleaning and degreasing materials. Cleaning operations using these agents should not be performed near the site of welding, and
proper ventilation is necessary to protect the welder.
Text 4. Oxy-fuel welding and cutting.
Oxy-fuel welding of metal is commonly called oxyacetylene welding, since
acetylene is the predominant choice for a fuel, or often simply oxy welding, or
in America gas welding. In gas welding and cutting, the heat needed to melt the
metal, comes from a fuel gas burning with oxygen in a torch.

Oxy-fuel cutting of metal is a similar process, using a different type of gas

torch, called a cutting torch. Here the metal is heated until it glows orange
(about 980 C), and then a lever on the torch is pressed to pass a stream of oxygen through the workpiece, to burn the steel away where the cut is desired. The
iron-oxide product of this combustion process falls to the floor as a dust. Once
the process is started properly, there should be no globs of melted steel under the
Sometimes a metal-cutting blowtorch is colloquially called a gas-axe,
smoke wrench, hot wrench or hot-blue spanner. Many people mistakenly call a
welding torch a blowtorch.
Torches that do not use pure oxygen with the fuel inside the torch, but burn
it with atmosphere air, are not oxy-fuel torches and can be identified by their
single gas tank. Oxy-fuel welding needs two tanks, fuel and oxygen. Most metals cannot be melted with such single tank torches, so they can only be used for
soldering and brazing, not welding.
The apparatus used in gas welding consists basically of an oxygen source
and a fuel gas source, usually cylinders, two pressure regulators and two flexible
hoses one for each cylinder, and a torch. The cylinders are usually carried in a
special wheeled trolley.
glob ,
Text 5. Electron beam welding.
Electron beam welding (EBW) is a fusion welding process, in which a
beam of high velocity electrons is applied to the materials being joined. The
workpieces melts as the kinetic energy of electrons is transformed into heat upon
impact, and the filler metal, if used, also melts to form part of the weld. Pressure
is not applied, and a shielding gas is not used, though the welding is often done
in conditions of vacuum to prevent dispersion of the electron beam.
As the electrons strike the workpiece, their energy is converted into heat,
instantly vaporizing the metal under temperatures near 25 000 C. The heat
penetrates deeply, making it possible to weld much thicker workpieces than it is
possible with most other welding processes. However, because the electron
beam is tightly focused, the total heat input is actually much lower than that of
any arc welding processes. As a result, the effect of welding on the surrounding
material is minimal, and the heat-affected zone is small. Distortion is slight, and
the work-piece cools rapidly, and while normally an advantage, this can lead to
cracking in high-carbon steel. Almost all metals can be welded by the process,

but the most commonly welded are stainless steels, super-alloys and reactive and
refractory metals. The process is also widely used to perform welds of a variety
of dissimilar metals combinations. However, attempting to weld plain carbon
steel in a vacuum causes the metal to emit gases as it melts, so deoxidizers must
be used to prevent weld porosity. The amount of heat input, and thus the penetration, depends on several variables, most notably the number and speed of
electrons impacting the workpiece, the diameter of the electron beam, the travel
speed. Greater beam current causes an increase in heat output and penetration,
while higher travel speed decreases the amount of heat input and reduces penetration. The diameter of the beam can be varied by moving the focal point with
respect to the workpiece focusing the beam below the surface of the workpiece
increases the penetration, while placing the focal point above the surface increases the width of the weld.
Text 6. Laser beam welding.
Laser beam welding (LBW) is a welding technique used to join multiple
pieces of metal through the use of laser. The beam provides a concentrated heat
source, allowing for narrow, deep welds and high welding rates. The process is
frequently used in high volume applications, such as in the automotive industry.
Like electron beam welding, laser beam welding has high density (about
1 MW/cm 2) resulting in small heat affected zones and high heating and cooling
rates. The spot size of the laser can vary between 0.2 mm and 13 mm, though
only smaller sizes are used for welding. The depth of penetration is proportional
to the amount of power supplied, but is also dependent on the location of the focal point: penetration is maximized when the focal point is slightly below the
surface of the workpiece.
LBW is a versatile process, capable of welding carbon steels, HSLA steels,
stainless steel, aluminum, and titanium. Due to high cooling rates, cracking is a
concern when welding high carbon steels. The weld quality is high, similar to
that of electron beam welding. The speed of welding is proportional to the
amount of the power supplied but also depends on the type and thickness of the
A derivative of LBW, laser-hybrid welding, combines the laser of LBW
with the arc welding method such as gas metal arc welding. This combination
allows for greater poisoning flexibility, since GMAW supplies molten metal to
fill the point, and due to the use of a laser, increases the welding speed over
what is normally possible with GMAW. Wels quality tends to be higher as well,
since the potential for undercutting is reduced.
The two types of lasers commonly used in metalworking are solid-state lasers and gas lasers, especially carbon dioxide lasers. The first uses only one of
several solid media, including synthetic ruby and chromium in aluminum dioxide, neodimium in glass and the most common type, crystal composed of yttrium, aluminum and nitrogen, and carbon dioxide as a medium. Regardless of

the type, however, when the medium is exited, it emits photons and forms the
laser beam.
HSLA steel high strength low alloy steel
Text 7. Resistance welding.
Resistance welding refers to a group of welding processes that produce
coalescence of surfaces where heat to form the weld is generated by the resistance of the welding current through the workpieces. Some factors influencing
heat or welding temperature are the proportions of the workpieces, the electrode
material, electrode geometry, electrode pressing force, weld current and weld
time etc. Small pools of molten metal are formed at the point of most electrical
resistance (the connecting surfaces) as a high current (100100 000 A) is passed
through the metal. In general resistance welding methods are efficient and cause
little pollution, but their applications are limited to relatively thin materials and
the equipment cost can be high.
Spot welding is a popular resistance welding method used to join two to
four overlapping metal sheets which are up to 3 mm thick each. In some applications with only two overlapping metal sheets, the sheet thickness may be up to 6
mm. Two copper electrodes are simultaneously used to clamp the metal sheets
together and to pass current through the sheets. When the current is passed
through the electrodes to the sheets, heat is generated in the air gap at the contact
points. At the contact points between electrodes and workpiece the heat dissipates throughout the copper electrodes quickly, since the copper is an excellent
conductor. However at the air gap between metal sheets the heat has nowhere to
go, as the metal is a comparatively poor conductor. Therefore the heat remains
in the one location, which melts the metal at the spot. As the heat dissipates
throughout the workpiece over a second or so, it cools the spot weld, causing the
metal to solidify.
The advantages of the method include efficient energy use, limited workpiece deformation, high production rates, easy automation, and no required filler
materials. When high strength in the shear is needed, spot welding is used in
preference to more costly mechanical fastening, such as riveting. While the
shear strength of each weld is high, the fact that the weld spots do not form a
continuous seam means that the overall strength is often significantly lower than
with other welding methods. This limits the usefulness of the process. It is used
extensively in the automotive industry ordinary cars can have several thousand
spot welds. A specialized process, called shot welding, can be used to spot weld
stainless steels.
shear ,

Text 8. Shielding gases.

Shielding gases are inert or semi-inert gases that are commonly used in
several welding processes, most notably gas metal arc welding and gas tungsten
arc welding. Their purpose is to protect the weld area from atmospheric gases,
such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water vapor. Depending on the
materials being welded, these atmospheric gases can reduce the quality of the
weld or make the welding process more difficult to use. Other arc welding processes use other methods of protecting the weld from the atmosphere as well
shielded metal arc welding, for example, uses an electrode covered in a flux that
produces carbon dioxide when consumed, a semi-inert gas that is an acceptable
shielding gas for welding steel.
Shielding gases fall into two categories inert or semi-inert. Only two of
the noble gases, helium and argon, are cost-effective enough to be used in welding. These inert gases are used in gas tungsten arc welding, and also in gas metal
arc welding for the welding of non-ferrous materials. Semi-inert shielding gases,
or active shield gases, include carbon dioxide, nitrogen and hydrogen. Most of
them in large quantities, would damage the weld, but when used in small, controlled quantities, can improve weld characteristics.
The applications of shielding gases are limited primarily by the cost of the
gas, cost of the equipment and by the location of the welding. Some shielding
gases, like argon, are expensive which limits their use. The equipment used for
the delivery of the gas is also an added cost, and as a result, processes like
shielded metal arc welding which require less expensive equipment, might be
preferred in certain situations. Finally, because atmospheric movements can
cause the dispersion of the shielding gas around the weld, welding processes that
require shielding gases are only done indoors, where the environment is stable
and atmospheric gases can be effectively prevented from entering the weld area.


Common welding defects include lack of fusion, lack of penetration or excess penetration, porosity, inclusions, cracking, undercut, lamellar tearing. Any
of these defects are potentially disastrous as they can give rise to high stress intensities which may result in sudden unexpected failure below the design load.
To achieve a good quality joint it is essential that the fusion zone extends to
the full thickness of the sheets being joined. Thin sheet material can be joined
with a single pass and a clean square edge will be a satisfactory basis for a joint.
How-ever, thicker material will normally need edges cut at a V-angle and may
need several passes to fill the V with weld metal. Where both sides are accessible one or more passes may be made along the reverse side to ensure the joint
extends to the full thickness of the metal. Lack of fusion results from too little
heat input and / or too rapid traverse of the welding torch (gas or electric). Excess penetration or burning through arises from too high a heat input and / or too
slow traverse of the welding torch. It is more of a problem with thin sheet as a
higher level of skill is needed to balance heat input and torch traverse when
welding thin metal.
Porosity occurs when gases are trapped in the solidifying weld metal.
These may arise from damp consumables or metal, or from dirt, particularly oil
or grease, on the metal in the vicinity of the weld. This can be avoided by ensuring all consumables are stored in dry conditions and the workpiece is carefully
cleaned and degreased prior to welding.
Inclusions occur when several runs are made along a V-joint when joining
thick plate using flux cored or flux coated rods and the slag covering a run is not
totally removed after every run before the following run.
Cracking can occur due to thermal shrinkage or due to a combination of
strain accompanying phase change and thermal shrinkage. In case of welded
stiff frames, a combination of poor design and inappropriate procedure may result in high residual stresses and cracking. Where alloy steels or steels with a
carbon content greater than 0.2 % are being welded, self-cooling may be rapid
enough to cause some brittle martensite to form. This will easily develop cracks.
To prevent these problems a process of pre-heating may be needed, and after
welding a slow controlled post-cooling in stages will be required. This can
greatly increase the cost of welded joints, but for high strength steels, such as
those used in petrochemical plants piping, there may well be no alternative.
Solidifying cracking is also called centerline or hot cracking. They are
called hot cracks because they occur immediately after welds are completed and
sometimes while the welds are being made. These defects, which are often
caused by sulfur and phosphorus, are more likely to occur in higher carbon
steels. Solidification cracks are normally distinguishable from other types of

cracks by the following features: 1) they occur only in the weld metal although
the parent metal is almost always the source of the low melting point contaminants associated with the cracking; 2) they normally appear in straight lines
along the centerline of the weld bead, but may occasionally appear as transverse
cracking; 3) solidification cracks in the final crater may have a branching appearance; 4) as the cracks are open they are visible to the naked eye.
On breaking open the weld the crack surface may have a blue appearance,
showing the cracks formed while the metal was still hot. The cracks form at the
solidification boundaries. There may be evidence of segregation associated with
the solidification boundary. The main cause of solidification cracking is that the
weld bead in the final stage of solidification has insufficient strength to withstand the contraction stresses as the weld pool solidifies. Factors which increase
the risk include insufficient weld bead size or inappropriate form, welding under
excessive restraint, material properties, such as a high impurity content or a relatively large shrinkage on solidification.
Joint design can have an influence on the level of residual stresses. Large
gaps between components will increase the strain on the solidifying weld metal,
especially if the depth of penetration is small. Hence weld beads with a small
depth to width ratio, such as is formed when bridging a large wide gap with a
thin bead, will be more susceptible to solidification cracking. In steels, cracking
is associated with impurities, particularly sulphur and phosphorus and is promoted by carbon, whereas manganese can help to reduce the risk. To minimize
the risk of cracking, fillers with low carbon and impurity levels and a relatively
high manganese content are preferred. As general rule, for carbon manganese
steels, the total sulphur and phosphorus content should be no greater than
0.06 %. However when welding a highly restrained joint using high strength
steels, a combined level below 0.03 might be needed.
lack of fusion ()
torch weld ,
lack of penetration

rapid traverse , undercut

lamellar tearing ,
burn through ,

single pass / run

core rod
flux cored rod / edge cutting

heat input
flux coating /
/ transverse , (
stiff frame

residual stress
segregation ,
hot crack ,
parent metal
weld bead
transverse cracking

open weld

solidification cracking
to withstand ,
ratio ,
impurity ,

I. : 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ;
5) ; 6) ; 7) (); 8) ; 9) ; 10) ;
11) ; 12) ; 13) ; 14) ; 15) ; 16) ; 17) ; 18) ; 19) ; 20) .
II. : 1) fusion zone; 2) V-angle; 3) torch traverse; 4) heat input; 5) to trap gases;
6) to degrease; 7) transverse; 8) weld bead; 9) a branching appearance; 10) by
the naked eye; 11) solidification boundaries; 12) segregation; 13) inappropriate
shape; 14) excessive restraint; 15) shrinkage; 16) joint design; 17) ratio;
18) depth to width ratio; 19) depth of penetration; 20) metal composition.
III. .
1. These defects can give rise to intensities. 2. Thin sheet material can be
joined by a pass. 3. Two or more passes may be made when both sides are .
4. Lack of fusion may result from too rapid of the welding torch. 5. Higher
skill is needed to heat input and torch traverse. 6. To avoid porosity the workpiece should be prior to welding. 7. Cracking occurs due to shrinkage. 8. A
combination of poor design and inappropriate procedure may result in high
stresses and cracking. 9. To prevent cracking in stages may be needed. 10. Hot
cracks are often caused by .
IV. .
. 2. , . 3.

. 4. . 5.
. 6. . 7. . 8. . 9. . 10.


Apart from choice of material and filler, the main techniques for avoiding
solidification cracking are:
control the joints fit up to reduce the gaps;
clean off all contaminants before welding;
ensure that the welding sequence will not lead to a buildup of thermally
induced stresses;
choose welding parameters to produce a weld bead with adequate depth
to width ratio to ensure the bead has sufficient resistance to solidification
stresses. Recommended minimum depth to width ratio is 0.5:1;
avoid producing too large a depth to width ratio which will encourage
segregation and expressive transverse strains. As a rule, well beads with a depth
to width ratio exceeding 2:1 will be prone to solidification cracking;
avoid high welding speeds (at high current level) which increase segregation and stress levels across the weld bead;
at the run stop, ensure adequate filling of the crater to avoid an unfavourable concave shape.
Hydrogen induced cracking (HIC), also referred to as hydrogen cracking or
hydrogen assisted cracking, can occur in steels during manufacture, fabrication
or service. When HIC occurs as a result of welding, the cracks are in the heat affected zone (HAZ) or in the weld metal itself. Four factors for HIC to occur are:
hydrogen be present, this may come from moisture in any flux or from
other sources. It is absorbed by the weld pool and diffuses into the HAZ;
a HAZ microstructure susceptible to hydrogen cracking;
tensile stresses act on the weld;
the assembly has cooled to less than 150 C.
In case of undercutting the thickness of one or both sheets is reduced at the
toe of the weld due to incorrect settings procedure. There is already a stress concentration at the toe of the weld and any undercut will reduce the strength of the

Lamellar tearing is mainly a problem with low quality steels. It occurs in a

plate that has a low ductility in the through-thickness direction, which is caused
by non-metallic inclusions, such as sulphides and oxides. These inclusions mean
that the plate cannot tolerate the contraction stresses in the short transverse direction. Lamellar tearing can occur in both fillet and butt welds, but the most
vulnerable joints are T and corner joints, where the fusion boundary is parallel to
the rolling plane. These problems can be overcome by using better quality steel,
buttering the weld area with a ductile material and possibly by redesigning the
bridge a gap , to be prone
ductility ,
filler ,
butt weld

stress concentration
straight edge ,

welding sequence steel plate
rolling plane

rolling process ()
induced stress ,

weld toe fillet weld

through thickness
weld root ,
transverse strain

I. : 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ;
6) , ; 7) ; 8) ; 9) ;
10) ; 11) ; 12) ; 13) ; 14) ; 15) .
II. : 1) welding sequence; 2) segregation; 3) to be prone; 4) transverse strain;
5) hydrogen induced cracking; 6) fabrication; 7) to diffuse; 8) tensile stress;
9) the toe of the; 10) lamellar tearing; 11) transverse direction; 12) butt weld;
13) fillet weld; 14) fusion boundary; 15) ductile material.


III. .
1. . 2.
0.51. 3.
. 4.
. 5. , . 6.
. 7. . 8. . 9. . 10. .


Visual inspection.
Prior to any welding, the material should be visually inspected to see that
they are clean, aligned correctly; that machine setting and filler selection are
checked etc.
At the first stage of inspection of all completed welds, visual inspection
under good lighting should be carried out. A magnifying glass and a straight
edge may be used as a part of this process. Undercutting can be detected with
the naked eye and, provided there is access to the reverse side, excess penetration can often be visually detected.
Liquid penetrant inspection.
Serious cases of surface cracking can be detected by the naked eye but for
most cases some type of aid is needed and the use of dye penetrant methods is
quite efficient when used by a trained operator. This procedure is as follows:
clean the surface of the weld and the weld vicinity;
spray the surface with a liquid dye that has good penetrating properties;
carefully wipe all the dye off the surface;
spray the surface with a white powder;
any cracks will have trapped some dye which will weep out and colour
the white coating and be clearly visible.
X-ray inspection.
Sub-surface cracks and inclusions can be detected by X-ray examination.
This is expensive, but for safety critical points e.g. in submarines and nuclear
power plants 100 % X-ray examination of welded joints will normally be carried out.


Ultrasonic inspection.
Surface and sub-surface defects can also be detected by ultrasonic inspection.
This involves directing a high frequency sound beam through the base material and
weld on a predictable path. When the beam strikes a discontinuity some of it is reflected back. This reflected beam is received, amplified and processed and from the
time delay the location of the flaw is estimated. Porosity, however, in the form of
numerous gas bubbles causes a lot of low amplitude reflections which are difficult
to distinguish from the background noise. Results of any ultrasonic inspection require skilled interpretation.
Magnetic particle inspection.
This process can be used to detect surface and slightly sub-surface cracks in
ferro-magnetic materials. It can not therefore be used with austenitic stainless
steels. The process involves placing a probe on each side of the area to be inspected
and passing a high current between them. This produces a magnetic flux at right
angles to the flow of the current. When these lines of force meet a discontinuity,
such as a longitudinal crack, they are diverted and leak through the surface, creating magnetic poles or points of attraction. A magnetic powder dusted onto the surface will cling to the leakage area more than elsewhere, indicating the location of
any discontinuities. This process may be carried out wet or dry, the wet process is
more sensitive as finer particles may be used which can detect very small defects.
Fluorescent powders can also be used to enhance sensitivity when used in combination with ultraviolet illumination.
Any detected cracks must be ground out and the area re-welded to give the required profile and then the joint must be inspected again.
visual inspection
amplify ,
with the naked eye time delay

liquid penetrant inspection probe ,
, magnetic particle inspection

longitudinal crack
dye penetrant inspection

divert ,
dye , ,

fine ,
sub-surface defect ,
predictable path

ultrasonic inspection background noise

magnifying glass
X-ray inspection

discontinuity ,
straight edge


I. : 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4)
; 5) ; 6) ; 7) ; 8) ; 9) ; 10) ; 11) ;
12) ; 13) ; 14) ; 15) .
II. :
1) undercutting; 2) reverse side; 3) excess penetration; 4) liquid penetrant inspection; 5) surface cracking; 6) the weld vicinity; 7) penetrating properties;
8) sub-surface crack; 9) critical joints; 10) flaw; 11) discontinuity; 12) ferromagnetic material; 13) magnetic flux; 14) longitudinal crack; 15) leakage area.
III. .
1. . 2. .
. 4. , . 5. .
6. . 7. . 8. , . 9.
. 10.


Spot welding is a type of resistance welding used to weld various sheet
metals. Typically the sheets are in the 0.53.0 mm thickness range. The process
uses two shaped copper alloy electrodes to concentrate welding current and
force between the materials to be welded. The result is a small spot that is
quickly heated to the melting point, thus forming a nugget of welded metal after
the current is removed. The amount of heat released in the spot is determined by
the amplitude and duration of the current. The current and duration are chosen to
match the material, the sheet thickness and type of electrodes. Applying the current for too long can result in molten metal being expelled as weld splash, or can
even burn a hole right through the materials being welded.
Spot welding is normally used when welding particular types of metal steel
sheet. Thicker stock is difficult to heat up from a single spot, as the heat can

flow into the surrounding metal too easily. Spot welding can be easily identified
on many sheet metal goods, such as metal pails, (buckets). Aluminum alloys can
be spot-welded too. However, their much higher thermal and electrical conductivity mean that up to three times higher welding currents are needed. This requires larger, more powerful and more expensive welding transformers..
Due to changes in the resistance of the metal as it starts to liquefy, the
welding process can be monitored in real time to ensure a perfect weld every
time, using the most recent advances in monitoring / feedback control equipment. The resistance is measured indirectly, by measuring the voltage and current through the electrodes.
The voltage needed for the welding depends on the resistance of the material to be welded, the sheet thickness and desired size of the nugget. When welding a common combination like 1.0 + 1.0 mm sheet steel, the voltage between
the electrodes is only 1.5 V at the start of the weld but can fall as low as 1.0 V at
the end of the weld this drop in voltage stems from the resistance reduction
caused by the steel melting. The open circuit voltage from the transformer is
much higher than this, typically in the 510 V range, but there is a very large
voltage drop in the electrodes and secondary side of the transformer when the
circuit is closed.
Perhaps the most common application of spot welding is in the automobile
/ car manufacturing industry, where it is used almost universally to weld the
sheet metal to form a car. Spot welders can also be completely automated, and
many of the industrial robots found on the assembly lines are spot welders, the
other major use for robots painting. A further place where spot welding is used
is in the orthodontists clinic, where small scale spot welding equipment is employed when resizing metal molar bands used in dentistry.
resistance welding
thermal conductivity

sheet metal ()
electrical conductivity

shaped electrode transformer

control equipment amplitude

weld splash


: 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6) ; 7) ; 8) ; 9) ,
; 10) -
II. : 1) in the
0.53.0 mm thickness range; 2) a nugget of welded metal; 3) the amount of heat
released; 4) expelled as weld splash; 5) particular types of metal steel sheets;
6) desired size of the nugget; 7) a very large voltage drop; 8) car manufacturing
industry; 9) orthodontists clinic; 10) small scale welding equipment.
III. .
1. . 2.
. 3.
. 4. . 5. , . 6.
, . 7.
. 8.
, ,
, . 9. . 10.


The torch is the part that the welder holds and manipulates to make the
weld. It has a connection and a valve for the fuel gas and a connection and a
valve for the oxygen, a handle for the welder to grasp, a mixing chamber, set at
an angle, where the fuel gas and oxygen mix, with a tip where the flame forms.
There are different types of torches. A cutting torch is used to cut metal. It
is similar to a welding torch. The most common fuel used for cutting torches is
acetylene. Oxygen is mixed with the acetylene in the torch which produces a

high temperature flame. The differences between a cutting torch and a welding
torch are:
1. The mixing chamber with flame nozzle is more heavily built and set at 90.
2. There is a third tube from the torch valves to the mixing chamber. It carries high-pressure oxygen, controlled by a large trigger lever on the torch.
In most torches the two gases merely mix: this is an equal-pressure torch.
But in some torches, called injector torches, inside the torch head the oxygen
comes out of a small nozzle under pressure so it drags the fuel gas along with it.
The regulators are attached one each to the fuel source and to the oxygen
source. The oxygen regulator is attached to the oxygen tank and drops the pressure from about 21000 kPa (200 atmospheres) to a lower pressure for the torch.
This pressure can be adjusted to suit the job at hand by turning a knob on the
regulator and can be set from 0 to about 700 to 1400 kPa. Likewise the fuel
regulator is attached to the fuel source and drops the pressure to a level for the
torch to use. Most regulators have two gauges: one indicates the cylinder pressure when the valve is opened; the other indicates the pressure of the gas coming
out of the regulator when the regulator is opened. This is the delivery pressure of
the gas, which must be set for the current job. The gauges are calibrated to read
correctly at 21 C.
These regulators can be single-stage and double-stage. A single-stage regulator mechanism consists of a nozzle that the gas passes through, a valve seat to
close off the nozzle, a diaphragm and balancing springs. These mechanisms are
all enclosed in a suitable housing. Fuel gas regulators and oxygen regulators are
basically of the same design, but fuel gas regulators, except for hydrogen, are
not made to withstand the high pressure that oxygen regulators are subjected to.
In the oxygen regulator the oxygen enters through the high pressure inlet
connection and passes through a glass wool filter that removes dust and dirt.
Turning the adjusting screw in (clockwise) increases the oxygen flow. The major disadvantage of single-stage regulators is that you must constantly monitor
and reset the regulator if you need a fixed pressure and a flow rate.
The double-stage regulator is similar in principle, the main difference being
that the total pressure drop takes place in two stages instead of one. In the high
pressure stage, the cylinder pressure is reduced to an intermediate pressure that
was predetermined by the manufacturer. In the low-pressure stage, the pressure
is again reduced from the intermediate pressure to the working pressure you
have chosen.
Regulators are precise and complicated pieces of equipment. Carelessness
can do more to ruin a regulator than any other gas-using equipment. One can
easily damage a regulator by simply forgetting to wipe clean the cylinder, regulator or hose connections. When you open a high pressure cylinder, the gas can
rush into the regulator at the speed of sound. If there is any dirt in the connections, it will be blasted into the precision-fitted valve seats, making them leak.
This results in a condition known as creep, which occurs when the regulator is

shut off but not the cylinder, and gas pressure is still being delivered to the lowpressure side.
Oil or other petroleum products of fat or biological origin must never
be used around oxygen regulators because these products may cause a
regulator explosion or a fire.
regulator ,
one-stage torch

fuel gas
double stage regulator connection ,

mixing chamber
nozzle ,

balancing spring tip

cutting torch
trigger lever
inlet connection
equal pressure torch adjusting screw

injector torch hose connection

leak ,
delivery pressure

creep ,
I. : 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ;
5) ; 6) ; 7) ; 8) ;
9) ; 10) ; 11) ; 12) ; 13) ; 14) ;
15) .
II. .
1. The main disadvantage of single-stage regulators is that you must constantly the regulator. 2. Fuel gas regulators are basically of the same .
3. shows the level of pressure in the gas cylinder. 4. The most common
used for cutting torches is acetylene. 5. In the oxygen comes out of a small
nozzle under pressure and drags the fuel gas along with. 6. The mixing chamber
with is set at 90. 7. The double stage regulator is similar to the one stage
one. 8. The total pressure takes place in two stages. 9. Dirt in the connections
may be into the valve seats and damage them. 10. Mechanisms of a regulator
are enclosed in a suitable .

III. .
1. .
2. . 3.
. 4. 90
. 5. , . 6.
. 7. , , . 8. . 9. ,
. 10. .


Flexible hoses that connect from the regulators to the torch and carry the fuel
gas and oxygen must be strong, non-porous, light and flexible enough to make the
torch movement easy. They must be made to withstand internal pressures that can
reach as high as 100 psig. The rubber used to make these hoses is specially treated
to remove sulfur that could cause spontaneous combustion.
Welding hose is available in single-hose and double hose lengths. Size is determined by the inside diameter, and the proper size to use depends on the type of
work for which it is intended. Hose used for light work has a 3/16 or 1/4 inch inside
diameter and one or two plies of fabric. For heavy-duty welding and cutting operations, use a hose with an inside diameter of 5/16 inch and three to five plies of fabric. Single hose is available in standard sizes as well as1/2-inch, 3/4 inch, and
1-inch sizes. These larger sizes are for heavy-duty heating and for use on large cutting machines. The most common type of cutting and welding hose is the twin or
double hose which is the fuel hose and the oxygen hose joined together side by side
either by a special rib or by clamps. Because they are joined, the hoses are less
likely to become tangled and are easier to move from place to place.
The length of the hose is important. The delivery pressure at the torch varies
with the length of the hose. A 20-foot 3/16 inch hose may be adequate for a job, but
if the same hose was 50 feet long, the pressure drop would result in too little gas
flow to the torch. Longer hoses must be wider inside to ensure the correct flow of
gas to the torch.
The hoses for fuel gas and oxygen are typically identical in construction, but
they differ in colour. The oxygen hose cover is black (in the USA it is green), and
the fuel gas cover is red. This colour coding aids to prevent mishaps that could lead
to dangerous accidents. The fuel gas connections have left-hand threads and the
oxygen connectors have right-hand threads so that the two cannot be interchanged,
to help to prevent accidents. The basic hose connection is a nut and gland. The nut
has threads on the inside that match up with the inlet and outlet on the torch and

regulator. The gland slides inside the hose and is held in place by a crumpled ferrule. The nut is loose and can be turned by hand or a wrench to tighten the threaded
nut onto the equipment.
Hoses may be made of different materials and may or may not be suitable for
all fuel gases. In the USA fuel gas hoses graded R and RM are only suitable for
acetylene, as other gases may break down the rubber in the hose. Grade T hoses are
suitable for all fuel gases.
Between the regulator and the hose, and ideally between hose and torch on
both oxygen and fuel lines, a flash-back arrestor and / or a non-return valve should
be installed to prevent flame or oxygen-fuel mixture being pushed back into either
cylinder and damaging the equipment or making a cylinder explode.
The flashback arrestor (not to be confused with a check valve) prevents
shockwaves from downstream coming back up the hoses and entering the cylinder,
as there are quantities of fuel / oxygen mixtures inside parts of the equipment that
may explode if the equipment is incorrectly shut down, acetylene decomposes at
excessive pressures or temperatures. The flashback arrestor will remain switched
off until someone resets it, in case the pressure wave created a leak downstream of
the arrestor.
A check valve lets gas flow in one direction only. Do not confuse it with a
flashback arrestor, as check valves are not designed to block a shock wave. A
check valve is usually a chamber containing a ball that is pressed against one end
by a spring: gas flow one way pushes the ball out of the way, and no flow or flow
the other way lets the spring push the ball into the inlet, blocking it. A pressure
wave could occur while the ball is so far from the inlet that the pressure wave gets
past before the ball reaches its off position.
heavy-duty work , outlet ,

psi pounds per square inch
ferrule ,
ply of fabric
loose nut
delivery pressure flashback arrester
left / right-handed thread /
non-return valve

check valve / nut

shock wave
inlet ,



There is not a single gas called oxy-acetylene. The most commonly used
fuel is acetylene, other gases used are propylene, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG),
propane, natural gas, hydrogen and MAPP gas. Acetylene and gases that liquefy
under cylinder pressure should only be used where it can be relied on that the
gas cylinder containing it will always be vertical with its valve on top.
Acetylene is the fuel first used for oxy-fuel welding and remains the fuel of
choice for repair work and general cutting and welding. Acetylene gas is
shipped in special cylinders designed to keep the gas dissolved. The cylinders
are packed with various porous materials, e.g. asbestos, then filled about half
way with acetone. The acetylene dissolves in acetone. This method is necessary
because above 207 kPa acetylene is unstable and may explode. Acetylene when
burned with oxygen gives a temperature of 3200 to 3500 C which is the highest
temperature of any of the commonly used gaseous fuels. Its main disadvantage
is its comparatively high cost.
Oxy-gasoline (oxy-petrol) torches have been found to perform very well,
especially where bottled gas fuel is not available or difficult to transport to the
worksite. Test showed that an oxy-gasoline torch cut steel plate up to 0.5 inch
thick as well as oxy-acetylene. The gasoline is fed from a pressure tank whose
pressure can be hand-pumped or fed from a gas cylinder.
Hydrogen has a clean flame and is good for use on aluminum. It can be
used at a higher pressure that acetylene and is therefore useful for underwater
welding and cutting. It is a good type of flame to use when heating much material. The flame temperature is high, about 2,000 C at atmospheric pressure. For
some oxy-hydro-gen torches the oxygen and hydrogen are produced by electrolysis of water in an apparatus which is connected directly to the torch.
MAPP gas is a registered product of the Dow Chemical Company. It is
liquefied petroleum gas mixed with some chemicals. It has the storage and shipping characteristics of LPG and has a heat value a little less than acetylene. Because it can be shipped in small containers for sale at retail stores, it is used by
hobbyists, and large industrial companies and shipyards because it is much less
dangerous than acetylene. MAPP gas can be used at much higher pressures than
acetylene and the torch can cut up to 12 inch thick steel. Other welding gases
that develop comparable temperatures need special procedures for safe shipping
and handling. A MAPP gas leak is easy to identify because of its particularly
terrible odor.
Propane does not burn as hot as acetylene and so cannot be used for welding. Propane, however, with the right torch can make a faster and cleaner cut
than acetylene, and is much more useful for heating and bending than acetylene.
It is also cheaper than acetylene and easier to transport.. Like propylene, most
propane tips are of a two-piece design. Propane often gets unfair criticism because it really needs changing your torch (from an equal pressure torch to an in62

jector torch) and not just changing your tip to get the best performance. Most
torches are equal pressure and designed for gases such as which are lighter than
oxygen. Propane is a great deal heavier and runs much better through a lowpressure injector torch.
Propylene is used in production welding and cutting. It cuts faster and
cleaner than propane. When propylene is used, the torch rarely needs tip cleaning.
Oxygen is not a fuel. It is chemically combined with the fuel to produce the
heat for welding. This is called oxidation, but the more general and more commonly used term is combustion. In the case of hydrogen, the product of combustion is simply water. For the other hydrocarbon fuels, water and carbon dioxide
are produced. The heat is released because the molecules of the products of
combustion have a lower energy state than the molecules of the fuel and oxygen.
Oxygen is shortened to oxy-, as in the term oxy-acetylene torch.
Oxygen is usually produced elsewhere by distillation of liquefied air and
shipped to the welding site in high pressure vessels, commonly called tanks or
cylinders at a pressure of about 200 atmospheres.
liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
hobbyist ,

MAPP gas (methylacetylene propcombustion
distillate , to liquefy

oxygasolene torch
I. : 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ;
5) ; 6) ; 7) ; 8) ; 9) ; 10) .
II. .
1. Common fuel gases are used for cutting and welding state. 2. The gas
should be kept vertical with its valve on top. 3. Acetylene is transported in
special cylinders designed to keep the gas . 4. The acetylene into acetone.
5. At a high pressure acetylene may . 6. Acetylene gives the highest of any
commonly used gaseous fuels. 7. The gasoline is from a pressure tank. 8.
is good for underwater welding and cutting. 9. MAPP gas can be used at much
higher than acetylene. 10. Most propane tips are of design.

III. .
1. ,
. 2.
. 3.
. 4. , , . 5.
. 6. . 7. . 8. ,
, . 9. . 10. 3500 .
IV. : burning, nozzle, housing, adjust, tank.


Oxy-acetylene welding can be dangerous: severe and fatal burns, violent
building destroying explosions can result from inattention and carelessness. Before using an oxyacetylene set, ensure that flammable materials such as grease,
oil, paint, sawdust etc are cleared from the area and workpieces. Oil and grease
can spontaneously ignite and burn violently in the presence of pure oxygen. It is
important to wear clean clothing free from oil and grease. Do not roll up sleeves
or trouser legs as the rolled cuffs could catch sparks. Many operators use a welding cap or a baseball cap put on backwards to stop sparks from lodging in hair or
going down the neck of the shirt. Wear shaded goggles with enclosed sides or a
shield with a minimum 4 shaded lens to protect your eyes from glare, flying
sparks and splatter. Sunglasses are not adequate. Wear leather gloves to protect
your hands from burns.
Fluxes, filler rods and base metals heated during welding and brazing release toxic fumes, acetylene gas is highly explosive, so ensure adequate ventilation before welding. Acetylene is often described as having a sweet garlic-like
smell. If you can smell it in the air and do not know where it is coming from,
evacuate the area immediately. Call the fire department outside of the area as a
phone call may start a fire or explosion in vapors. Fuel gases heavier than air,
such as Propane, Propylene, MAPP and Butane can pool in lower areas if allowed to escape. In confined spaces respirator masks designed for welding can
be used. Never weld on containers that have previously had toxic or inflammable substances. Do not weld inside enclosed spaces or in tanks where the only

ventilation comes from above you might suffocate. Some fuel gases have an
anaesthetic-type effect when breathed in.
Before using an oxyacetylene setup, ensure that a fire extinguisher in good
working order is present. Water does not work on oil and grease, but a bucket of
water can be handy for putting out small wood fires. Sand can also be used to
quench fires. It is also generally handy to have at least one pair of heavy pliers
around for moving hot things if necessary. Be sure your workpiece is well organized before starting. Have tools laid out where they can be easily reached and
make sure there is nothing that you can trip up on. A fireproof surface should be
used for welding: steel table tops and firebricks are commonly used. Avoid distractions such as trying to have a conversation or listen to a radio sports commentary as you work.
When using fuel and oxygen tanks they should be fastened securely upright
to a wall or a post or a portable cart. An oxygen tank is especially dangerous for
the reason that the oxygen is at a pressure of 200 atmospheres when full, and if
the tank falls over and its valve strikes something and is knocked off, the tank
will become an extremely deadly flying missile propelled by the compressed
oxygen. For this reason never move an oxygen tank around without its valve cap
screwed in place.
On your oxyacetylene torch system there will be three types of valves: the
tank valve, the regulator valve and the torch valve. There will be one of them for
each gas. The gas in the tanks or cylinders is at high pressure. Oxygen cylinders
are generally filled to something like 2200 psi. The regulator converts the high
pressure gas to a low pressure stream suitable for welding.
Never lay an acetylene tank on its side while being used. It contains acetone in which the acetylene is dissolved. If the tank was laid down while being
transported, it must be set upright, valve on top, and given enough time ( 30
minutes) for the acetone to settle back into the sorbent. If these precautions are
not followed, acetone may be drawn into the gas lines, thus creating a space in
the top of the acetylene tank devoid of sorbent and the gaseous acetone in this
void space may explosively decompose inside the tank causing damage to life
and property.
pliers ,
regulator (valve)
tank / cylinder valve quench ,

sorbent , ,

void space

: 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6) ; 7) ; 8) ; 9) ; 10) .
II. : 1) violent
explosion; 2) to result from carelessness; 3) to result in an explosion; 4) to catch
sparks; 5) adequate ventilation; 6) to quench a fire; 7) a fire extinguisher; 8) to
fasten securely upright; 9) to screw the cap in place; 10) acetone may be drawn
into the gas line.
III. .
1. Violent explosion can result inattention. 2. Grease, oil and paint are
materials. 3. A welding cap may stop sparks from in the hair. 4. Acetylene
gas is highly . 5. Special are designed for welding. 6. Be sure your
workpiece is well . 7. Fuel tanks should be fastened upright. 8. If the valve
is knocked off, the tank becomes a deadly . 9. The gas in cylinders is high
pressure. 10. Gaseous acetone may explosively inside the tank.


The practice of heating the metal around the weld before applying the torch
flame is desirable one for two reasons. First, it makes the whole process more
economical; second, it avoids the danger of breakage through expansion and
contraction of the work as it is heated and as it cools.
When it is desired to join two surfaces by welding them, it is, of course,
necessary to raise the metal from the temperature of the surrounding air to its
melting point, i.e. an increase in temperature up to one thousand three thousand degrees. To obtain this entire increase of temperature with the torch flame
is very wasteful of fuel and of the operators time. The total amount of heat necessary to put into metal is increased by the conductivity of that metal because
the heat applied at the weld is carried to other parts of the piece being handled
until the whole mass is considerably raised in temperature. To secure this increase various methods of preheating are adopted.
As to the second reason for preliminary heating, it is understood that the
metal added to the joint is molten at the time it flows into place. All the metals
used in welding contract as they cool and occupy a much smaller space than
when molten. If additional metal is run between two adjoining surfaces which

are parts of a surrounding body of cool metal, this added metal will cool while
the surfaces themselves are held stationary in the position they originally occupied. The inevitable result is that the added metal will crack under the strain, or,
if the weld is exceptionally strong, the main body of the work will be broken by
the force of contraction. To overcome these difficulties is the second and most
important reason for preheating and also for slow cooling following the completion of the weld.
There are many ways of securing this preheating. The work may be brought
to a red heat in the forge if it is cast iron or steel; it may be heated in special ovens built for the purpose; it may be placed in a bed of charcoal while suitably
supported; it may be heated by gas or gasoline preheating torches, and with very
small work the outer flame of the welding torch automatically provides means to
this end.
The temperature of the parts heated should be gradually raised in all cases,
giving the entire mass of metal a chance to expand equally and to adjust itself to
the strain imposed by the preheating. After the region around the weld has been
brought to a proper temperature the opening to be filled is exposed so that the
torch flame can reach it.
One of the commonest methods and one of the best for handling work of
rather large size is to place the piece to be welded on a bed of fire brick and
build a loose wall around it with other fire brick placed in rows, one on top of
the other, with air spaces left between adjacent bricks in each row. The space between the brick wall and the work is filled with charcoal, which is lighted from
below. The top opening of the temporary oven is then covered with asbestos and
the fire kept until the work has been uniformly raised in temperature to the desired point.
When much work of the same general character and size is to be handled, a
permanent oven may be constructed of the fire brick, leaving a large opening
through the top and also through one side. Charcoal may be used in this form of
oven as with the temporary arrangement, or the heat may be secured from any
form of burner or torch giving a large volume of flame. In any method employing flame to do the heating, the work itself must be protected from the direct
blast of the fire. Baffles of brick or metal should be placed between the mouth of
the torch and the nearest surface of the work so that the flame will be deflected
to either side and around the piece being heated.
The heat should be applied to bring the point of welding to the highest
temperature desired. The heat should gradually shade off from this point to the
other parts of the piece. In the case of cast iron and steel the temperature at the
point to be welded should be great enough to produce a dull red heat. This will
make the whole operation much easier, because there will be no surrounding
cool metal to reduce the temperature of the molten material from the welding
rod below the point at which it will join the work. From this red heat the mass of
metal should grow cooler as the distance from the weld becomes greater, so that

no great strain is placed upon any one part. With work of a very irregular shape
it is always best to heat entire piece so that the strains will be so evenly distributed that they can cause no distortion or breakage under any conditions.
The melting point of the work which is being preheated should be kept in
mind and care exercised not to approach it too closely. Special care is necessary
with aluminum in this respect, because of its low melting temperature and the
sudden weakening and flowing without warning. Workmen have carelessly
overheated aluminum castings and, upon uncovering the piece to make the weld,
have been astonished to find that it had disappeared. Six hundred degrees is
about the safe limit for this metal. It is possible to gauge the exact temperature
of the work with a pyrometer, but when this instrument cannot be procured, it
might be well to secure a number of temperature cones from a chemical or laboratory supply house. These cones are made from material that will soften at a
certain heat and in form they are long and pointed. Placed in position on the part
being heated, the point may be watched, and when it bends over it is sure that
the metal itself has reached a temperature considerably in excess of the temperature at which that particular cone was designed to soften.
preheating , a bed of charcoal ,

breakage . ,
loose ,
to raise the temperature asbestos
temporary arrangement
wasteful ,

blast of fire ,
shade off , adjoining ,

weakening . ,
adjacent ,

under the strain
body of the work ,
procure ,



I. : 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6)
; 7) ; 8) ; 9) ; 10) ; 11) ; 12) ; 13) ; 14) ; 15) .
: 1) to put heat into metal; 2) preliminary heating; 3) the heat applied at
the weld; 4) a loose wall; 5) temporary arrangement; 6) a baffle of brick; 7) to
deflect; 8) the heat should gradually shade off; 9) wasteful procedure; 10) aluminum casting; 11) to gauge the temperature; 12) to be in excess of the temperature; 13) to distribute evenly; 14) to procure some material; 15) to expand.
III. : adjoining, evenly, preliminary heating, to deform, to obtain, to provide the desired
increase, methods are applied.
IV. : , ; contract, original.
V. .
1. Preheating avoids the danger of through expansion. 2. The total
amount of heat necessary to put into metal is increased by the of the metal.
3. All the metals used in welding as they cool. 4. While cooling the added
metal will under the strain. 5. The workpiece may be preheated in special .
6. The temperature of the parts heated should be raised to avoid cracking.
7. The oven for preheating may be temporary or . 8. In the process of preheating the workpiece must be protected from the of fire. 9. The heat
should gradually from the highest temperature desired. 10. The strains
should be evenly to avoid distortion or breakage.
The weld is made by bringing the tip of the welding flame to the edges of
the metals to be joined. The torch should be held in the right hand and moved
slowly along the crack with a rotating motion, traveling in small circles, so that
the welding flame touches first on one side of the crack and then on the other.
On large work the motion may be simply back and forth across the crack, advancing regularly as the metal unites. It is usually best to weld toward the operator rather than from him, although this rule is governed by circumstances. The

head of the torch should be inclined at an angle of about 60 to the surface of the
work. The torch handle should extend in the same line with the break and not
across it except when welding very light plates.
If the metal is 1/16 inch or less in thickness it is only necessary to circle
along the crack, the metal itself furnishing enough material to complete the weld
without additions. Materials thicker than the above requires the addition of more
metal of the same or different kind from the welding rod, this rod being held by
the left hand. The proper size rod for cast iron is one having a diameter equal to
the thickness of metal being welded up, i.e. a one-half inch rod, which is the
largest used. For steel the rod should be one-half the thickness of the metal being joined up, i.e. one-fourth inch rod. As a general rule, better results will be
obtained by the use of smaller rods, the very small sizes being twisted together
to furnish enough material while retaining the melting qualities.
The tip of the rod must at all times be held in contact with the pieces being
welded and the flame must be so directed that the two sides of the crack and the
end of the rod are melted at the same time. The molten metal may be directed as
to where it should go by the tip of the welding flame, which has considerable
force, but care must be taken not to blow melted metal on to cooler surfaces
which it cannot join. If, while welding, a spot appears which does not unite with
the weld, it may be handled by heating all around it to a white heat and then
immediately welding the bad place. Never stop in the middle of a weld, as it is
extremely difficult to continue smoothly when resuming work.
The welding flame must have exactly the right proportions of each gas. If
there is too much oxygen, the metal will be burned or oxidized. The presence of
too much acetylene carbonizes the metal; that is to say, it adds carbon and
makes the work harder. Just the right mixture will neither burn nor carbonize
and is said to be a neutral flame. The neutral flame, if of the correct size for the
work, reduces the metal to a melted condition, not too fluid, and for a width
about the same as the thickness of the metal being welded.
When ready to light the torch, after attaching the right tip or head as directed in accordance with the thickness of metal to be handled, it will be necessary to regulate the pressure of gases to secure the neutral flame. Next, open the
valve from the generator, or on the acetylene tank, and carefully note whether
there is any odor of escaping gas. Any leakage of this gas must be stopped before going on with the work.
The hand wheel controlling the oxygen cylinder valve should now be
turned very slowly to the left as far as it will go, which opens the valve, and, it
should be borne in mind, the pressure that is being released. Turn in the hand
screw on the oxygen regulator until the small pressure gauge shows a reading
according to the requirements of the nozzle being used. This oxygen regulator
adjustment should be made with the cock on the torch open, and after the regulator is thus being adjusted the torch cock may be closed. Then open the acetylene
cock on the torch and screw in on the acetylene regulator hand-screw until gas

commences to come through the torch. Light this flow of acetylene and adjust
the regulator screw to the pressure desired, or, if there is no gauge, so that there
is a good full flame. With the pressure of acetylene controlled by the type of
generator it will only be necessary to open the torch cock.
With the acetylene burning, slowly open the oxygen cock on the torch and
allow this gas to join the flame. The flame will turn intensely bright and then
blue white. There will be an outer flame from four to eight inches long and from
one to three inches thick. Inside of the flame will be two more rather distinctly
defined flames. The inner one at the torch tip is very small, and the intermediate
one is long and pointed. The oxygen should be turned on until the two flames
unite into one blue-white cone from 1/4 to 1/2 inch long and 1/8 to 1/4 in diameter. If this single, clearly defined cone does not appear when the oxygen torch
cock has been fully opened, turn off some of the acetylene until it does appear.
When welding, test the correctness of the flame adjustment occasionally by
turning on more acetylene or by turning off some oxygen until two flames or
cones appear. Then regulate as before to secure the single distinct cone. Too
much oxygen is not usually so harmful as too much acetylene, except with aluminum. An excessive amount of sparks coming from the weld denotes that there
is too much oxygen in the flame. Should the opening in the tip become partly
clogged, it will be difficult to secure a neutral flame and the tip should be
cleaned with a brass or copper wire never with iron or steel tools or wire of
any kind. While the torch is doing its work, the tip may become excessively hot
due to the heat radiated from the molten metal. The tip may be cooled by turning
off the acetylene and dipping in water with a slight flow of oxygen through the
nozzle to prevent water from finding way into the mixing chamber.
edges of metals
resume ,
a rotating motion

carbonize , head of the torch

compressed gas
to extend . , hand screw

crack ,
unite . , regulator

torch handle
inch , 2, 54
pressure gauge
furnish ,
reading ()
welding rod
cock on the torch
welding flame
cone ,
the bad place .

: 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6) ; 7) ; 8) ; 9) ; 10) ; 11) ,
; 12) ; 13) ; 14) ; 15) .
: 1) gas leakage; 2) torch handle; 3) to resume welding; 4) tip of the rod;
5) compressed gas; 6) thread; 7) odor; 8) reading on the gauge; 9) cock on the
torch; 10) the tip becomes clogged.
III. .
1. The welding flame touches first one side of the crack. 2. The torch
should be moved slowly with a . 3. The torch should advance regularly as
the metal 4. The torch handle should in the line with the break. 5. Better
results are generally by the use of smaller rods. 6. The two sides of the crack
and the end of the rod should be at the same time. 7. The melting rod
metal for the weld. 8. To secure the neutral flame the pressure should not required values. 9. Pressure is shown on a device called the 10. The regulator
screw should be to the pressure desired.
IV. : 1/2 ,
1/4 , 1/16 .
V. ,
: cock, begin, continue, rotate, head (of a torch).
VI. .
1. . 2. , . 3. 60
. 4. . 5. , ,
. 6.
. 7. , . 8. . 9.
. 10.


Because of varying melting points, rates of expansion and contraction and
other peculiarities of different metals, it is necessary to give detailed consideration to the most important ones. A metal melting at a low temperature should
have more careful treatment to avoid undesired flow than one which melts at a
temperature which is relatively high. When two dissimilar metals are to be
joined, the one which melts at a higher temperature must be acted upon by the
flame first and when it is in a molten condition the heat contained in it will in
many cases be sufficient to cause fusion of the lower melting metal and allow
them to unite without playing the flame on the lower metal to any great extent.
The heat conductivity bears a very important relation to welding, inasmuch
as a metal with a high rate of conductance requires more protection from cooling
air currents and heat radiation than one not having this quality to such a marked
extent. A metal which conducts heat rapidly will require a larger volume of
flame, a larger nozzle, than otherwise, this being necessary to supply the additional heat taken away from the welding point by this conductance.
The relative rates of expansion of various metals under heat should be understood so that parts made of such metals may have proper preparation to compensate for this expansion and contraction, otherwise breakage is sure to occur.
While welding cast iron, all spoiled metal should be cut away and if the
work is more than 1/8 inch in thickness the sides of the crack should be beveled
to a 45 angle, leaving a number of points touching at the bottom of the bevel so
that the work may be joined in its original relation.
The entire piece should be preheated in a bricked-up oven or with charcoal
placed on the forge, when size does not warrant building a temporary oven. The
entire piece should be slowly heated and the portion immediately surrounding
the weld should be brought to a dull red. Care should be taken that the heat does
not warp the metal through application to one part more than the others. After
welding, the work should be slowly cooled by covering with ashes, slaked lime,
asbestos fibre or some other non-conductor of heat. These precautions are absolutely essential in the case of cast iron.
A neutral flame, from a nozzle proportioned to the thickness of the work,
should be held with the point of blue-white cone about 1/8 inch from the surface
of the iron. A cast iron rod of correct diameter, usually made with an excess of
silicon, is used by keeping its end in contact with molten metal and flowing it
into the puddle formed at the point of fusion. The metal should be added so that
the weld stands about 1/8 inch above the surrounding surface of the work.
Various forms of flux may be used and they are applied by dipping the end
of the welding rod into the powder at intervals. These powders may contain borax or salt, and to prevent a hard brittle weld, graphite or ferro-silicon may be
added. Flux should be added. Flux should be added only after the iron is molten

and as little as possible should be used. No flux should be used just before completion of the work.
The welding flame should be played on the work around the crack and
gradually brought to the work. The bottom of the bevel should be joined first
and it will be noted that the cast iron tends to run towards the flame, but does not
stick together easily. A hard completion of the work welded surface should be
scraped with a file, while still red hot, in order to remove the surface scale.
Malleable iron should be beveled in the same way that cast iron is handled,
and preheating and slow cooling are equally desirable. The flame used is the
same as for cast iron and so is the flux. The welding rod may be of cast iron, although better results are secured with Norway iron wire or a mild steel wire
wrapped with a coil of copper wire. It should be remembered that malleable iron
turns to ordinary cast iron when melted and cooled. Welds in malleable iron are
usually far from satisfactory and a better joint is secured by brazing the edges
together with bronze. The edges to be joined are brought to a heat just a little below the point at which they will flow and the opening is then quickly filled from
a rod of manganese bronze, a brass or bronze flux being used at this work.
Wrought iron should be beveled and heated at the same way as described
for cast iron. The flame should be neutral, of the same size as for steel, and used
with the tip of the blue-white cone just touching the work. The welding rod
should be of mild steel or, if wrought iron is to be welded to steel, a cast iron rod
may be used. A cast iron flux is well suited for this work. It should be noted that
wrought iron turns to ordinary cast iron if kept heated for any length of time.
Steel should be beveled if more than 1/8 inch in thickness. It requires only
a local preheating around the point to be welded. The welding flame should be
absolutely neutral, without excess of either gas. If the metal is 1/16 inch or less
in thickness, the tip of the blue-white cone must be held a short distance from
the surface of the work; in all other cases the tip of this cone touches the metal
being welded. The welding rod may be of mild, low carbon steel. Nickel steel
rods may be used for parts requiring great strength, but vanadium alloys are very
difficult to handle. A very satisfactory rod is made by twisting together two
wires of the required material. The rod must be kept constantly in contact with
the work and should not be added until the edges are thoroughly melted. The
flux may or may not be used. If one is wanted, it may be made from three parts
iron filings, six parts borax and one part sal ammoniac. The steel runs from the
flame, but tends to hold together. Should flaming commence in the molten
metal, it shows an excess of oxygen and that the metal is being burned.
High carbon steels are very difficult to handle. It is claimed that a drop or
two of copper added to the weld will assist the flow, but will also harden the
work. An excess of oxygen reduces the amount of carbon and softens the steel,
while an excess of acetylene increases the proportion of carbon and hardens the

flow ,
to play the flame on to stand above
conductivity = conductance
at intervals
heat conductivity to dip , ,

inasmuch as ,

heat radiation stick together ,

to conduct heat
scrape with a file to compensate ,

to allow for
malleable iron
breakage ,
mils steel / to warrant ,

to warp , manganese bronze

slaked lime
wrought iron ,
non-conductor of heat

iron filings
sal ammoniac
to flow into
: 1) ; 2) ;
3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6) , ; 7) ; 8)
; 9) ; 10) ;
11) ; 12) ; 13) ; 14) ,
; 15) .
II. : 1) nonconductor of heat; 2) to dip the end of the rod; 3) to scrape with a file; 4) to remove the surface scale; 5) malleable iron; 6) neutral flame; 7) the size doesnt
warrant building an oven; 8) relative rates of expansion; 9) wrought iron;
10) one- second inch; 11) sal ammoniac; 12) to play the flame on ; 13) to
such a marked extent; 14) rate of contraction; 15) to bear a relation to .

III. .
1. Metals differ in rates of expansion and . 2. A metal with a low
should have careful treatment to avoid flow. 3. A metal which heat rapidly
requires a large volume of flame. 4. Parts made from metals with widely differing rates of expansion must have special treatment this quality. 5. Sides of
deep cracks should be to 45 angle. 6. The small size of a workpiece does not
building an oven. 7. Unequal application of heat to parts of the workpiece
may the metal. 8. Slaked lime and asbestos are of heat. 9. While welding
cast iron may contain borax or salt. 10. The welding flame should be on
the work around the crack.
IV. : enough, too much, conductivity, degree, dross.


Aluminum is the most difficult of the commonly found metals to weld. This
is caused by its high rate of expansion and contraction and its liability to melt
and fall away from under the flame. The aluminum seems to melt on its inside
first, and without previous warning, a portion of the work will simply vanish
from in front of the operators eyes. The metal tends to run from the flame and
separate at the same time. To keep the metal in shape and free from oxide, it is
worked or puddled while in a plastic condition by an iron rod which has been
flattened at one end. Several of these rods should be at hand and may be kept in
a jar of salt water while not being used. These rods must not become coated with
aluminum and they must not get red hot while in the weld.
The surfaces to be joined, together with the adjacent parts, should be
cleaned thoroughly and then washed with a 25 % solution of nitric acid in hot
water, used on a swab. The parts should then be rinsed in clean water and dried
with sawdust.
Aluminum must invariably be preheated to above 600 degrees, and the
whole piece being handled should be well covered with sheet asbestos to prevent
excessive heat radiation.
The flame is formed with an excess of acetylene so that the second cone extends about an inch, or slightly more, beyond the small blue-white point. The
torch should be held so that the end of this second cone is in contact with the
work, the small cone ordinarily used being kept an inch or an inch and a half from
the surface of the work. Welding rods of special aluminum are used and must be
handled with their end submerged in the molten metal of the weld at all times.
When aluminum is melted it forms alumina, an oxide of the metal. This
alumina surrounds small masses of the metal, and as it does not melt at temperatures below 5000 degrees (while aluminum melts at about 1200 degrees), it pre76

vents a weld from being made. The formation of this oxide is retarded and the
oxide itself is dissolved by a suitable flux, which usually contains phosphorus to
break down the alumina.
Copper. The whole piece should be preheated and kept well covered while
welding. The flame must be much larger than for the same thickness of steel and
neutral in character. A slight excess of acetylene would be preferable to an excess
of oxygen, and in all cases the molten metal should be kept enveloped with the
flame. The welding rod is of copper which contains phosphorus; and a flux, also
containing phosphorus, should be spread for about an inch each side of the joint.
These assist in preventing oxidation, which is sure to occur with heated copper.Copper breaks very easily at a heat slightly under the welding temperature.
It is necessary to preheat brass and bronze, although not to a very high temperature. They must be kept well covered at all times to prevent undue radiation.
The flame should be produced with a nozzle one size larger that that for the same
thickness of steel and the small blue-white cone should be held from 1/4 to
1/2 inch of above the surface of the work. The flame should be neutral in character.
A rod or wire of soft brass containing a large percentage of zinc is suitable
for adding to brass, while copper requires the use of copper or manganese
bronze rods. Special flux or borax may be used to assist the flow. The emission
of white smoke indicates that the zinc contained in these alloys is being burned
away and the heat should immediately be turned away or reduced. The fumes
from brass and bronze are very poisonous and should not be breathed.
sheet asbestos
liability ,
alumina , to puddle (

to dissolve
cone ,
jar ,
undue radiation nitric acid

: 1) ; 2)
; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6) ; 7)
; 8) ; 9) ; 10) .

II. : normally,
shrinkage, to mix, ductile, to cover, in touch with, fume.
III. .
1. , .
2. ,
. 3. . 4. . 5. (, ) . 6. ,
, ,
. 7. ,
. 8. -
. 9. ,
, , , . 10.


Cold welding is a process performed at room temperature that uses mechanical force or pressure to bring two metallic surfaces in intimate contact until
inter-atom-ic forces are developed to complete the weld, while considerable
plastic deformation is taking place. The need for metal distortion and flow to
perform cold welding excludes that brittle materials could be joined by this
process. However, many combinations of ductile dissimilar metals can be joined
by cold welding, even those that could never be joined by fusion welding. There
is no fusion of either metal, so that cold welding is included into the class of
solid state welding processes.
To be successful cold welding must provide for the disruption of surface
oxides if they are present, reducing them to separate tiny particles that do not interfere with the process. Shattering of the oxides during material flow is due to
their brittle nature. Microscopic observations confirm that the interface becomes
a phase boundary and that oxides are not interfering with the soundness of the
Many varieties of the basic cold welding process are known to have been
implemented. Deformation can be made in lap or butt configuration and can involve press forming, drawing and extrusion. Roll welding is a variant that
should be dealt with separately.

Lap cold welding could be explained as a variant of resistance spot welding

where two overlapping sheets are joined at separate spots, except that no current
and no heating is involved, and there is no fusion. Instead considerable deformation is generated in the transversal direction to that of the applied pressure.
Cleaning should be performed just before cold welding, especially with
easily oxidized materials like aluminum, because it is a critical requirement.
Various thicknesses can be joined, from 0.1 to 15 mm, provided sufficient
striking force is available. Cold welding is performed by clamping the sheets to
be joined between two dies and by striking a powerful blow that deforms a definite region of the material. The meeting protrusions that appear in the interface
result welded together by the pressure. Different shapes of dies generate a round
spot or a circular ring or a linear joint, depending on requirements.
Butt cold welding is done on bars of compatible materials by upsetting
jointly both of their ends. The bars are clamped in suitable fixtures to be moved
axially one against the other. The lining force will cause buckling of the bar extension. If an acceptable weld is not achieved with that force in a single strike, it
is possible to perform the weld in steps, moving the clamp position accordingly
between steps. The pressure generated in the drawn materials between the die
and the mandrel (or the solid bar) produces the metallurgical weld, provided the
surfaces are clean as required.
One of the quality problems affecting this and other pressure welding processes is the lack of reliable non-destructive tests for evaluating production. The
suggested procedure consists of performing destructive tests on suitable test
pieces, and that in assuring process control by striking to the parameters developed and recorded.
Cold welding can occur also as an unwanted casual accident when two surfaces come into contact in the absence of a lubricant and stick locally together.
Such an event, capable of substantial destructive damage, can be the source or
the consequence of mechanical failures. Examples of failures due to destructive
cold welding are found in ball or roller bearing running dry, although substantial
heat can be generated by friction.
cold welding
disruption, shattering
interatomic forces

phase boundary plastic deformation

soundness , metal distortion

lap configuration
metal flow

ductile ,

butt configuration ,
press forming
extrusion ()
roll welding
transversal direction /
welding die

clamp position ,

drawn materials
solid bar
non-destructive tests
test piece
ball / roller bearing - /

: 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) , ; 5) ; 6) ; 7)
; 8) ; 9) ;
10) .
II. : 1) to interfere with the power; 2) the interface becomes a phase boundary; 3) critical requirement; 4) in a single strike; 5) provided the surfaces are clean; 6) casual accident; 7) substantial destructive damage; 8) mechanical failures; 9) running dry;
10) the meeting profusions.
III. : deformation, plastic, disruption, on condition; to decrease; border, connection.
IV. .
. 2. , . 3.
. 4.
. 5. . 6. , , , ,


This section specifies general requirements for steel fabrication processes,
including variables, which shall be maintained and controlled by ship builders.
A material identification system which ensures correct installation and
documentation of the material grades shall be established. Shop primer applied
over areas which will subsequently be welded, shall be of approved type as having no detrimental effect on the finished weld. Approved shop primers or thin
coatings of linseed oil may be applied to welds subject to tightness test in
agreement with the manufacturers recommendations. In general, the approved
film thickness on welds shall not exceed 50 microns.
Welding work shall not be carried out in environmental conditions that may
have a detrimental effect such as wind, damp and cold. Welding processes sensitive to draughts shall be adequately protected. The grooves shall be dry by the
time of welding. Preheating temperature, whenever required, shall in any case be
within the limit of essential variables. The welding interpass temperature shall
not drop below the minimum required preheated temperature.
Cut edges are to be accurate and uniform in order to provide a shape compatible with the weld joint design. Deviation of cut edges shall generally be
within the standard specified by the Shipbuilding and Repair Standard. Attention
shall be paid to avoid excessive local hardening and carbon contamination by
thermal cutting. The effect of work hardening and risk of cracked edges shall be
considered if shearing is used for cutting of the material. Correction by welding
as compensation for improper cutting shall be in accordance with procedures for
Forming and straightening of materials shall be performed according to
procedures which outline the succession of the controlled steps. The degree of
cold forming for steels in structural members shall be carried out within the deformation range recommended by the manufacturer. Should, however, such
documentation not be available, the deformation rate for carbon manganese
steels shall be less than 10 %, respectively 20 % for austenitic and ferriticaustenitic steels. If the deformation exceeds 10 %, respectively 20 %, either heat
treatment or strain ageing test shall be carried out in accordance with an agreed
procedure as stipulated in Rules for Classification of Ships. Forming of steels at
high temperatures shall be effectuated with due regard to adverse effects of the
material properties. Forming of steels above 650 C shall be subject to agreement with the Society.
Members to be welded shall be brought into correct alignment and held in
position by clamps, tack welds, or other suitable devices, until welding has been
completed or progressed to a stage where in control of the process. Such arrangements shall be suitably arranged to minimize distortion and build-in
stresses. Fit-up shall be checked for dimensional accuracy before welding. Special attention shall be drawn to assure correct fit-up of areas, of which direct

visual inspection is impossible. Surfaces to be welded shall be free from mill

scale, slag, rust, paint or other contaminating substances. Grooves shall be
within the groove profile particulars given by the welding procedure specifications (WPS). Grooves shall be slag-free. All welding, including tack welding,
seal welding, welding of lifting lugs and repair welding, shall be performed
within the limits of essential variables of the welding procedure specifications
(WPS). Preheating, when required, shall be applied in accordance with agreed
procedures. Special attention shall be paid to temperature control during the
welding process such that the preheat temperature is kept uniformly in affected
part of the welded object. The welded sequence shall be such that the amount of
shrinkage, distortions and residual stresses are minimized. Welds shall be terminated in a manner such that all welds are sound and without end craters. Run-off
plates shall be used, where practicable, and be removed upon completion and
cooling of the weld. Cut welds shall be made smooth and flush with the edges of
the abutting parts.
Tack welding shall be carried out in accordance with approved WPS, specifying the applied minimum welding length. Tack welds used for assembly shall
be removed before leaving the effected area free from defects. Tack welds, if retained as part of the welding process, shall be free from defects and provide
adequate conditions for pass welding.
Storage and handling of welding consumables shall be in accordance with
the manufacturers recommendations, and in accordance with procedures giving
details regarding conditions and temperature in storage rooms, length of exposure and conditions, as applicable. Consumables which have been contaminated
by moisture, rust, oil, grease, dirt or other deleterious materials, shall be discarded unless properly reconditioned. Recycling of fluxes for submerged welding (SAW) shall be performed in a manner that ensures a mixture of new and
used flux with continually homogeneous properties.
shop primer
deformation rate ,

welding variables strain ageing test

detrimental effect , to effectuate ,

tightness test tack weld

fit-up ,
interpass temperature

dimensional accuracy
cut edges
(. )
shearing ()
mill scale
groove ,

built-in stress

to groove

wsp welding procedure specifications

seal welding
lifting lug
end crater

run-off plate ,

flush ,
abutting part ,
pass welding
deleterious ,
to recondition

: 1) ; 2)
; 3) ; 4) , ; 5) , ; 6) ; 7) ; 8) ; 9)
; 10) ;
11) ; 12)
II. : 1) documentation of material grades; 2) minimum required preheated temperature;
3) accurate and uniform; 4) thermal cutting; 5) to outline the succession of steps;
6) to carry out strain ageing test; 7) in accordance with an agreed procedure,
8) to bring into correct alignment; 9) welding of lifting lugs; 10) to terminate a
weld; 11) run-off plate; 12) conditions and temperature in storage rooms; 13) as


Defects in welds may be repaired by grinding, machining and / or welding.
In order to verify complete removal of defects, effected areas shall be examined
with suitable NDT methods.
Repairs by welding shall be carried out in accordance with approved welding procedure specifications (WSP). Mechanical properties shall satisfy the
minimum requirements of the material in question. Defects shall be completely
removed before necessary repairs are carried out. Repairs with arc-air gouging
shall be followed by grinding. Repair welding in the same area may be carried
out twice. Further repairs shall be subject to agreement with the Society. All

weld repairs shall at least be re-inspected with the same NDT methods as originally applied. Members distorted by welding may be straightened by mechanical
means or by a limited amount of located heat. Corrective measures relating to
flame straightening shall be carried out with due regard to possible degradation
of the material properties.
Inspection shall be carried out in accordance with inspection and test plans to
confirm that the work agrees with the established project procedures and plans such
that all project requirements are complied with to the satisfaction of the Society.
Due consideration shall be given to the access and the time required for adequate
inspection during fabrication. High non-conformance rates in execution of the work
or in the product itself shall call for special consideration in agreement with the Society. Such special considerations may include, but not be limited to, increased inspection, re-qualification of personnel or other agreed remedial actions.
Allowable acceptable alignment shall be established on the criticality of the
design. Special requirements relating to special type and service are given in point
5. In general fabrication tolerances shall be in compliance with Shipbuilding and
Repair Quality Standard, part A. Special building tolerances and\or weld finish as a
result of operation in hard environment and / or vessels with increased target design
life, shall be included in the fabrication instructions and procedures.
The Society may require weld production tests to be carried out. The extent
and type of testing shall be agreed with the Society. When production weld tests are
required the test assembly and test requirements shall comply with the relevant requirements of sec. 5. If the achieved test results do not comply with the requirements of sec. 5, the results may be submitted for consideration. The production
weld test may be accepted subject to acceptable results from additional test prescribed by the Society.
machining criticality of the design

NDT non-destructive tests
fabrication tolerances WSP welding procedure specifica
weld finish arc-air gouging

Shipbuilding and Repair Quality
flame straightening Standard

degradation , vessels with the increased target de
sign life , /
non-conformance rates


: 1) / ; 2) ;
3) - ; 4) , ; 5) ; 6) ; 7) ; 8) ; 9) ; 10) ; 11) ; 12)
II. : 1) to verify removal of defects; 2) member distorted by welding; 3) by mechanical means;
4) possible degradation of the material properties; 5) project requirements; 6) due
consideration; 7) remedial action; 8) to call for special consideration; 9) criticality
of the design; 10) fabrication tolerances; 11) increased inspection.


Two distinct forms of electric apparatus are in use, one producing heat by
the resistance of the metal being treated to the passage of electric current, the
other using the heat of the electric arc.
The resistance process is of the greatest use in manufacturing lines where
there is a large quantity of one kind of work to do, many thousand pieces of one
kind, for instance. The arc method may be applied in practically any case where
any other form of weld may be made. The resistance process will be described first.
It is a well known fact that a poor conductor of electricity will offer so
much resistance to the flow of electricity that it will heat. Copper is a good conductor, and a bar of iron, a comparatively poor conductor, when placed between
heavy copper conductors of a welder, becomes heated in attempting to carry the
large volume of current. The degree of heat depends on the amount of current
and the resistance of the conductor. In an electric circuit the ends of two pieces
of metal brought together form the point of greatest resistance in it, and the abutting ends instantly begin to heat. The hotter this metal becomes, the greater the
resistance to the flow of current; consequently, as the edges of the abutting ends
heat, the current is forced into the adjacent cooler parts, until there is a uniform
heat throughout the entire mass. The heat is first developed in the interior of the
metal so that it is welded there as perfectly as at the surface.
The electric welder is built to hold the parts to be joined between two
heavy copper dies or contacts. A current of three to five volts, but of very great
volume (amperage), is allowed to pass across these dies, and in going through

the metal to be welded, heats the edges to a welding temperature. It may be explained that the voltage of an electric current measures the pressure or force with
which it is being sent through circuit and has nothing to do with the quantity or
volume passing. Amperes measure the rate at which the current is passing
through the circuit and consequently give a measure of the quantity which
passes in any given time. Volts correspond to water pressure measured by
pounds to the square inch; amperes represent the flow in gallons per minute. The
low voltage used avoids all danger to the operator, this pressure not being sufficient to be felt even with the hand resting on the copper contacts.
Current is supplied to the welding machine at a higher voltage and lower
amperage than is usually used between the dies, the low voltage and high amperage being produced by a transformer incorporated in the machine itself. By
means of windings of suitable size wire, the outside current may be received at
voltages ranging from 110 to 550 and converted to the low pressure needed.
The source of current for the resistance welder must be alternating, i.e. the
current must first be negative in value and then positive, passing from one extreme to the other at rates varying from 25 to 133 times a second. This form is
known as alternating current, as opposed to direct current, in which there is no
changing of positive and negative.
The current must also be what is known as single phase, i.e. a current
which rises from zero in value to the highest point as a positive current and then
recedes to zero before going to the lowest point of negative value. Two-phase or
three-phase currents would give 2 or 3 positive impulses during this time. As
long as the current is single phase alternating, the voltage and cycles (number of
alternations per second) may be anything convenient. Various voltages and cycles are taken care of by specifying all three points when designing the transformer which is to handle the current.
Direct current is not used because there is no way of reducing the voltage
conveniently without placing resistance wires in the circuit and this uses power
without producing useful work. Direct current may be changed to alternating by
having a direct current motor running an alternating current dynamo, or the
change may be made by a rotary converter, although this last method is not so
satisfactory as the first.
The voltage used in welding being so low to start with, it is absolutely necessary that it be maintained at the correct point. If the source of current supply is
not of ample capacity for the welder being used, it will be very hard to avoid a
fall of voltage when the current is forced to pass through the high resistance of
the weld. The current voltage for various work is calculated accurately, and the
efficiency of the outfit depends to a great extent on the voltage being constant.
In order to hold the voltage constant, the Toledo Electric Welder Company has
devised connections which include a rheostat to insert a variable resistance in
the field windings of the dynamo so that the voltage may be increased by cutting
this resistance out at the proper time. An auxiliary switch is connected to the

welder switch so that both switches act together. When the welder switch is
closed in making a weld, that portion of the rheostat resistance between two
arms determining the voltage is short-circuited. This lowers the resistance and
the field magnets of the dynamo are made stronger so that additional voltage is
provided to care for the resistance in the metal being welded.
In a typical machine on top of the welder there are two jaws for holding the
ends of the pieces to be welded. The lower part of the jaws is rigid, while the top
is brought down on top of the work, acting as a clamp. These jaws carry the
copper dies through which the current enters the work being handled. After the
work is clamped between the jaws, the upper set is forced closer to the lower set
by a long compression layer. The current being turned on with the surfaces of
the work in contact, they immediately heat to the welding point when added
pressure on the lever forces them together and completes the weld.
The transformer is carried in the base of the machine and on the left-hand
side is a regulator for controlling the voltage for various kinds of work. The
clamps are applied by treadles convenient to the foot of the operator. A treadle
instantly releases both jaws upon the completion of the weld. One or both of the
copper dies may be cooled by a stream of water circulating through it from the
city water mains. The regulator and switch give the operator control of the heat,
anything from a dull red to the melting point being easily obtained by movement
of the lever.
manufacturing line setting ()
cycles .
flow of current
rotary converter /
electric circuit

ample capacity
abutting ends ,
outfit ,

gauge .
die / contact ,

electric welder rheostat
to cut resistance out
winding ()

single phase
auxiliary switch
direct current motor

alternating current dynamo to short-circuit

connection .
(ompression) lever (field winding

: 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6)
; 7) ; 8) ; 9)
; 10) ; 11) ;
12) ; 13) ; 14)
; 15) .
II. : 1) electric apparatus; 2) one kind of work to do; 3) copper conductors of the welder;
4) large volume of current; 5) in the interior of the metal; 6) in any other given
time; 7) incorporated in the machine itself; 8) to handle the current; 9) to run alternating current dynamo; 10) to calculate accurately; 11) the efficiency of the
outfit; 12) a rheostat to insert a variable resistance; 13) the lower part of the jaw
is rigid; 14) the transformer is carried in the base; 15) regulator for controlling
the voltage.


Using resistance welding it is not necessary to give the metal to be welded
any special preparation, although when very rusty and covered with scale, the
rust and scale should be removed sufficiently to allow good contact of clean
metal on the copper dies. The cleaner and better the stock, the less current it
takes, and there is less wear on the dies. The dies should be kept firm and tight
in their holders to make a good contact. All bolts and nuts fastening the electrical contacts should be clean and tight at all times. The scale may be removed
from forgings by immersing them in a pickling solution in a wood, stone or
lead-lined tank.
The solution is made of 5 gallons of commercial sulphuric acid in 150 gallons of water. To get the quickest and best results from this method, the solution
should be kept as near the boiling point as possible by having a coil of extra
heavy lead pipe running inside the tank and carrying live steam. A very few
minutes in this bath will remove the scale and the parts should then be washed in
running water. After the washing they should be dipped into a bath of 50 pounds
of unslaked lime in 150 gallons of water to neutralize any trace of acid.
Cast iron cannot be commercially welded, as it is high in carbon and silicon, and passes suddenly from a crystalline to a fluid state when brought to the
welding temperature. With steel and wrought iron the temperature must be kept
below the melting point to avoid injury to the metal.

High carbon steel can be welded, but must be annealed after welding to
overcome the strain set up by the heat being applied at one place. Good results
are hard to obtain when the carbon runs as high as 75 points, and steel of this
class can only be handled by an experienced operator. If the steel is below 25
points in carbon content, good welds will always be the result. To weld high
carbon to low carbon steel, the stock should be clamped in the dies with the low
carbon stock sticking considerably further out from the die than the high carbon
stock. Nickel steel welds readily, the nickel increasing the strength of the weld.
Iron and copper may be welded together by reducing the size of the copper
end where it comes in contact with the iron. When welding copper and brass, the
pressure must be less than when welding iron. The metal is allowed to actually
fuse or melt at the juncture and the pressure must be sufficient to force the burnt
metal out. The current is cut off the instant the metal begins to soften, this being
done by means of an automatic switch which opens when the softening of the
metal allows the ends come together. The pressure is applied to the weld by having the sliding jaw moved by a welder on the end of an arm.
Copper and brass require a larger volume of current at a lower voltage than
for steel and iron. The die faces are set apart three times the diameter of the
stock for brass and four times the diameter for copper.
Light gauges of sheet steel can be welded to heavy gauges or to solid bars
of steel by spot welding. Galvanized iron can be welded, but the zinc coating
will be burned off. Sheet steel can be welded to cast iron, but will pull apart,
tearing out particles of the iron. Sheet copper and sheet brass may be welded,
although this work requires more experience than with iron and steel. Some
grades of sheet aluminum can be spot-welded if the slight roughness left on the
surface under the die is not objectionable.
Butt welding is the process which joins the ends of two pieces of metal.
The ends are in plain sight of the operator at all times and it can easily be seen
when the metal reaches the welding heat and begins to soften It is at this point
that the pressure must be applied with the lever and the ends forced together in
the weld. The parts are placed in the clamping jaws with 1/8 to 1/2 inch of metal
extending beyond the jaw. The ends of the metal touch each other and the current is turned on by means of a switch. To raise the ends to the proper heat requires from 3 seconds for 1/4 inch rods to 35 seconds for a 1/2 inch bar. This
method is applicable to metals having practically the same area of metal to be
brought into contact on each end. When such parts are forced together, a slight
projection will be left in the form of a fin, or an enlarged portion called an upset.
The degree of heat required for any work is found by moving the handle of the
regulator one way or the other while testing several parts. When this setting is
right, the work can continue as long as the same sizes are being handled.
Copper, brass, tool steel and all other metals that are harmed by high temperatures must be heated quickly and pressed together with sufficient force to
get all burned metal out of the weld. In case it is desired to make a weld in the

form of a capital letter T, it is necessary to heat the part corresponding to the top
bar of the T to a bright red, then bring the lower bar to the pre-heated one and
again turn on the current, when a weld can be quickly made.
Spot welding is a method of joining metal sheets together at any desired
point by a welded spot about the size of a rivet. It is done on a spot welder by
fusing the metal at the point desired and at the same instant applying sufficient
pressure to force the particles of molten metal together. The dies are usually
placed one above the other so that the work may rest on the lower one while the
upper one is brought down on top of the upper sheet to be welded. One of the
dies is usually pointed slightly, the opposing one being left flat. The pointed die
leaves a slight indentation on one side of the metal, while the other side is left
smooth. The dies may be reversed so that the outside surface of any work may
be left smooth. The current is allowed to flow through the dies by a switch
which is closed after pressure is applied to the work.
There is a limit to the thickness of sheet metal that can be welded by this
process because of the fact that the copper rods can only carry a certain quantity
of current without becoming unduly heated themselves. Another reason is that it
is difficult to make heavy sections of metal touch at the welding point without
excessive pressure.
Lap welding is the process used when two pieces of metal are caused to
overlap and when brought to a welding heat are forced together by passing
through rollers, or under a press, thus leaving the welded joint practically the
same thickness as the balance of the work. Where it is desirable to make a continuous seam, a special machine is required or an attachment for one of the other
types. In this form of work the stock must be thoroughly cleaned and then
passed between copper rollers which act in the same capacity as the copper dies.
Other applications. Hardening and tempering can be done by clamping the
work in the welding dies and setting the control and time to bring the metal to
the proper colour, then it is cooled in the usual manner. Brazing is done by
clamping the work in the jaws and heating until the flux, then the spelter has
melted and run into the joint. Riveting and heading of rivets can be done by
bringing the dies down on opposite ends of the rivet after it has been inserted in
the hole, and dies being shaped to form the heads properly. Hardened steel may
be softened and annealed so that it can be machined by connecting the dies of
the welder to each side of the point to be softened. The current is then applied
until the work has reached a point at which it will soften when cooled.
wear on the dies
commercial acid , pickling solution ,

lead-lined , live steam

to anneal

galvanized iron

fin . ,
upset (
gauge .

to machine
indentation .
lap welding
overlap ,

roller ,
spelter (.

: 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6) ; 7)
; 8) ; 9) /
; 10) ; 11) ; 12) ; 13) ; 14) .
II. : 1) to
carry live steam; 2) should be washed in running water; 3) to neutralize any
trace of acid; 4) when welding copper and brass; 5) to force the burnt metal out;
6) to move on the end of the arm; 7) is not objectionable; 8) in plain sight of the
operator; 9) having practically the same area of metal to be brought into contact;
10) to get all the burnt metal out of the weld; 11) is slightly pointed; 12) in this
form of work.


Various troubles may occur in the course of resistance welding. The following methods are recommended. To locate grounds in the primary or high
voltage side of the circuit, connect incandescent lamps in series by means of a
long piece of lamp cord. For 110 volts use one lamp, for 220 volts use two
lamps and for 440 volts use four lamps. Attach one end of the lamp cord to one
side of the switch, and close the switch. Take the other end of the cord in the
hand and press it against some part of the welder frame where the metal is clean
and bright. Paint, grease and dirt act as insulators and prevent electrical contact.
If the lamp lights, the circuit is in electrical contact with the frame; in other

words, grounded. If the lamp does not light, connect the wire to a terminal
block, die or slide. If the lamp then lights, the circuit, coils or leads are in electrical contact with the large coil in the transformer or its connections.
If, however, the lamps do not light in either case, the lamp cord should be disconnected from the switch and connected to the other side, and the operations of
connecting to welder frame, dies, terminal blocks etc., as explained above, should
be repeated. If the lamps light in any of these connections, a ground is indicated.
Grounds can usually be found by carefully tracing the primary circuit until a
place is found where the insulation is defective. Re-insulate it and make the above
tests again to make sure everything is clear. If the ground can not be located by observation, the various parts of the primary circuit should be disconnected, and the
transformer, switch, regulator etc. tested separately.
To locate a ground in the regulator or other part, disconnect the lines running
to the welder from the switch. The test lamps used in the previous tests are connected, one end of the lamp cord to the switch, the other to a binding post of the
regulator. Connect the other side of the switch to some part of the regulator housing. This must be a clean connection to a bolt head, the paint should be scraped off.
Close the switch. If the lamps light, the regulator winding or some part of the
switch are grounded to the iron base or to the core of the regulator. If the lamps do
not light, this part of the apparatus is clear. An AC voltmeter can, of course, be
substituted for the lamps, or a DC voltmeter with DC current can be used in making
the tests.
A short circuit in the primary is caused by the insulation of the coils becoming
defective and allowing the bare copper wires to touch each other. This may result in
a burn out of one or more of the transformer coils, if the trouble is in the transformer, or in the continued blowing off the fuses in the line. Feel each coil separately. If a short circuit exists in a coil it will heat excessively. Examine all the
wires; the insulation may have worn through and two of them may cross, or be in
contact with the frame or other part of the welder. A short circuit in the regulator
winding is indicated by failure of the apparatus to regulate properly, and sometimes, though not always, by the heating of the regulator coils. The remedy for a
short-circuit is to re-insulate the defective parts. It is a good plan to prevent the
trouble by examining the wiring occasionally, and see that the insulation is perfect.
To locate grounds and short circuit in the secondary or low voltage side the
following steps are necessary. The trouble of this kind is indicated by the machine
acting sluggish or, perhaps, refusing to operate. To make a test, it will be necessary
to first ascertain the existing current of your particular transformer. This is the current the transformer draws on open circuit, or when supplied with current from the
line with no stock in the welder dies.
Remove the fuses from the wall switch and substitute fuses just large enough
to carry the exciting current. If no suitable fuses are at hand, fine strands of copper
from an ordinary lamp cord may be used. These strands are usually N 30 gauge
wire and will fuse at about 10 amperes. One or more strands should be used, depending on the amount of exciting current, and they are connected across the fuse

clips of fuse wire. Place a piece of wood between the welding dies in the welder as
though you were going to weld them. See that the regulator is on the highest point
and close the welder switch. If the secondary circuit is badly grounded, current will
flow through the ground, and the small fuses or strands of wire will burn out. This
is an indication that both sides of the secondary circuit are grounded or that a short
circuit exists in a primary coil. In either case the welder should not be operated until the trouble is found and removed.
To deal with the trouble, clean the slides, dies and terminal blocks thoroughly
and dry out the fibre insulation if it is damp. See that no scale or metal has worked
under the sliding parts, and that the secondary leads do not touch the frame. If the
ground is very heavy it may be necessary to remove the slides in order to facilitate
the examination and removal of the ground. Insulation, where torn or worn through,
must be carefully replaced or taped. If the transformer coils are grounded to the
iron core of the transformer, it may be necessary to remove the coils and reinsulate
them at the points of contact. A short-circuited coil will heat excessively and eventually burn out. This may mean a new coil if you are unable to repair the old one. In
all cases the transformer windings should be protected from mechanical injury or
dampness. Unless excessively overloaded, transformers will last for years without
giving a moments trouble, if they are not exposed to moisture or are not injured
The most common trouble arises from poor electrical contacts, and they are
the cause of endless trouble and annoyance. See that all connections are clean and
bright. Take out the dies every day or two and see that there is no scale, grease or
dirt between them and the holders. Clean them thoroughly before replacing.
Tighten the bolts running from the transformer leads to the work jaws.

trouble , fibre insulation

clear . ,
incandescent lamp

clean connection , terminal block


to cross

test lamp
binding post ,
exciting current
exciting current
slide ,
strand ,

across ( .)
to tape ,


: 1) ; 2) ;
3) ; 4) ; 5) / ; 6) ;
7) ; 8) (); 9) 30 ; 10) .
II. : 1) close
the switch; 2) insulator; 3) connect the wire to a terminal block; 4) carefully
tracing the primary circuit; 5) this must be a clean connection; 6) a binding post
of the regulator; 7) the remedy for a short circuit; 8) to draw an open circuit;
9) with no stock in the welder dies; 10) without giving a moments trouble.


This method bears no relation to the resistance welding, except that the
source of heat is the same in both cases. Arc welding makes use of the flame
produced by the voltaic arc in practically the same way that oxy-acetylene welding uses the flame from the gases.
If the ends of two pieces of carbon, through which a current of electricity is
flowing while they are in contact, are separated from each other quite slowly, a
brilliant arc of flame which consists mainly of carbon vapor is formed between
them. The carbons are consumed by combination with the oxygen in the air and
through being turned to a gas under the intense heat. The most intense action
takes place at the center of the carbon which carries the positive current and this
is the point of greatest heat. The temperature at this point in the arc is greater
than can be produced by any other means under human control.
An arc may be formed between pieces of metal, called electrodes, in the
same way as between carbon. The metallic arc is called a flaming arc and as the
metal of the electrode burns with the heat, it gives the flame a color characteristic of the material being used. The metallic arc may be drawn out to a much
greater length than one formed between carbon electrodes.
Arc welding is carried out by drawing a piece of carbon which is of negative polarity away from the pieces of metal to be welded while the metal is made
positive in polarity. The negative wire is fastened to the carbon electrode and the
work is laid on a table made of cast or wrought iron to which the positive wire is
made fast. The direction of the flame is then from the metal being welded to the
carbon and the work is thus prevented from being saturated with carbon, which
would prove very detrimental to its strength. A secondary advantage is found in

the fact that the greatest heat is at the metal being welded because of its being
the positive electrode.
The carbon electrode is usually made from one quarter to one and a half
inches in diameter and from six to twelve inches in length. The length of the arc
may be anywhere from one inch to four inches, depending on the size of the
work being handled.
While the parts are carefully insulated to avoid danger of shock, it is necessary for the operator to wear rubber gloves as a further protection, and to wear
some form of hood over the head to shield him against the extreme heat liberated. This hood may be made from metal, although some material that does not
conduct electricity is to be preferred. The work is watched through pieces of
glass formed with one sheet, which is either blue or green, placed over another
which is red. Screens of glass are sometimes used without the head protector.
Some protection for the eyes is absolutely necessary because of the intense
white light.
It is seldom necessary to preheat the work as with the gas processes, because the heat is localized at the point of welding and the action is so rapid that
the expansion is not so great. The necessity of preheating, however, depends entirely on the material, form and size of the work being handled. The same advice
applies to arc welding as to the gas flame method but in a lesser degree. Filling
rods are used in the same way as with any other flame process.
In a great many places the use of the arc cuts the cost of welding to a very
small fraction of what it would be by any other method, so that the importance
of this method may be well understood.
Any two metals which are brought to the melting temperature and applied
to each other will adhere so that they are no more apt to break at the weld than at
any other point outside of the weld. It is the property of all metals to stick together under these conditions. The electric arc is used in this connection merely
as a heating agent. This is its only function in the process.
It has advantages in its ease of application and the cheapness with which
heat can be liberated at any given point by its use. There is nothing in connection with arc welding that the above principles will not answer; that is, that metals at the melting point will weld and that the electric arc will furnish the heat to
bring them to this point. As to the first question, what metals can be welded, all
metals can be welded. The difficulties which are encountered are as follows: In
the case of brass or zinc, the metals will be covered with a coat of zinc oxide before they reach a welding heat. This zinc oxide makes it impossible for two
clean surfaces to come together and some method has to be used for eliminating
this possibility and allowing the two surfaces to join without the possibility of
the oxide intervening. The same is true of aluminum, in which the oxide, alumina, will be formed, and with several other alloys comprising elements of different melting points.

to bear no relation to
to adhere ,

to puddle the weld .
voltaic arc

carbon vapor
gauge .
to be consumed
with the heat
carbon arc
to insulate
carbon electrode screen

head protector to make fast .

to saturate
to conduct electricity
detrimental ,

I. : 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6) ; 7) ; 8)
; 9) ; 10) .
: 1) arbon vapor; 2) metallic arc; 3) flaming arc; 4) wrought iron; 5) detrimental to the strength; 6) head protector; 7) to adhere; 8) to bring to a temperature; 9) heating agent; 10) to liberate heat.
III. : 1) to protect; 2) harmful; 3) to stick together; 4) to gasify; 5) to fill
completely with; 6) to separate from conducting bodies; 7) very bright light;
8) to be concentrated at a point; 9) to stick to; 10) to get rid of, to remove.
IV. .
1. The carbons turn to a gas the intense heat. 2. There are few means
human control to provide such intense heat. 3. The metal of the electrode burns
the heat. 4. During arc welding the work is laid a table made of cast or
wrought iron. 5. The operator should wear some form of good his head.
6. The work should be watched pieces of coloured glass . 7. Some protection the eyes is absolutely necessary. 8. The heat is localized the point of
welding. 9. The necessity of preheating depends some factors. 10. This is true
aluminum and some alloys.


V. .
1. .
2. ,
. 3.
. 4. .
5. . 6. ,
. 7. ,
. 8.
. 9.
. 10. ,


Common solder is an alloy of one-half lead with one-half tin, and is called
half and half. Hard solder is made with two-thirds tin and one-third lead.
These alloys, when heated, are used to join surfaces of the same or dissimilar
metals such as copper, brass, lead, galvanized iron, zinc, tinned plate, etc. These
metals are easily joined, but the action of solder with iron, steel and aluminum is
not so satisfactory and requires greater care and skill.
The solder is caused to make a perfect union with the surfaces treated with
the help of heat from a soldering iron. The soldering iron is made from a piece
of copper, pointed at one end and with the other end attached to an iron rod and
wooden handle. A flux is used to remove impurities from the joint and allow the
solder to secure a firm union with the metal surface. The iron, and in many cases
the work, is heated with a gasoline blow torch, a small gas furnace, an electric
heater or an acetylene and air torch.
The gasoline torch which is most commonly used should be filled twothirds full of gasoline through the hole in the bottom, which is closed by a screw
plug. After working the small hand pump for 10 to 20 strokes, hold the palm of
your hand over the end of the large iron tube on top of the torch and open the
gasoline needle valve about a half turn. Hold the torch so that the liquid runs
down into the cup below the tube and fills it. Shut the gasoline needle valve,
wipe the hands dry, and set fire to the fuel in the cup. Just as the gasoline fire
goes out, open the gasoline needle valve about a half turn and hold a lighted
match at the end of the iron tube to ignite the mixture of vaporized gasoline and
air. Open or close the needle valve to secure a flame about 4 inches long.
There is a rest for supporting the soldering iron with the copper part in the
flame on top of the iron tube from which the flame issues. Place the iron in the
flame and allow it to remain until the copper becomes very hot, not quite red,
but almost so.

A new soldering iron or one that has been misused will have to be tinned
before using. To do this, take the iron from the fire while very hot and rub the
tip on some flux or dip it into soldering acid. Then rub the tip of the iron on a
stick of solder or rub the solder on the iron. If the solder melts off the stick without coating the end of the iron, allow a few drops to fall on a piece of tin plate,
then nil the end of the iron on the tin plate with considerable force. Alternately
rub the iron on the solder and dip into flux until the tip has a coating of bright
solder for about half an inch from the end. If the iron is in very bad shape, it may
be necessary to scrape or file the end before dipping in the flux for the first time.
After the end of the iron is tinned in this way, replace it on the rest of the torch
so that the tinned point is not directly in the flame, turning the flame down to
accomplish this.
Flux. The commonest flux, which is called soldering acid, is made by
placing pieces of zinc in muriatic (hydrochloric) acid contained in a heavy glass
or porcelain dish. There will be bubbles and considerable heat evolved and zinc
should be added until this action ceases and the zinc remains in the liquid, which
is now chloride of zinc. This soldering acid may be used on any metal to be soldered by applying with a brush or swab. For electrical work, this acid should be
made neutral by the addition of one part ammonia and one part water to each
three parts of the acid. This neutralized flux will not corrode metal as will the
ordinary acid.
Powdered resin makes a good flux for lead, tin plate, galvanized iron and
aluminum. Tallow, olive oil, beeswax and vaseline are also used for this purpose. Muriatic acid may be used for zinc or galvanized iron without the addition
of the zinc, as described in making zinc chloride. The addition of two heaping
teaspoonfuls of sal ammoniac to each pint of the chloride of zinc is sometimes
found to improve its action.
Soldering Metal Parts. All surfaces to be joined should be fitted to each
other as accurately as possible and then thoroughly cleaned with a file, emery
cloth, or by dipping in lye. The work may be cleaned by dipping it into nitric
acid which has been diluted with an equal volume of water. The work should be
heated as hot as possible without danger of melting, as this causes the solder to
flow better and secure a much better hold on the surfaces. Hard solder gives better results than half and half, but is more difficult to work. It is very important
that the soldering iron be kept at a high heat during all work, otherwise the solder will only stick to the surfaces and will not join with them.
Sweating is a form of soldering in which the surfaces of the work are first
covered with a thin layer of solder by rubbing them with the hot iron after it has
been dipped in or touched to the soldering stick. These surfaces are then placed
in contact and heated to a point at which the solder melts and unites. Sweating is
much to be preferred to ordinary soldering where the form of the work permits
it. This is the only method which should ever be used when a fitting is to be
placed over the end of a length of tube.

Soldering Holes. Clean the surfaces for some distance around the hole until
they are bright, and apply flux while holding the hot iron near the hole. Touch
the tip of the iron to some solder until the solder is picked up on the iron, and
then place this solder, which was just picked up, around the edge of the hole. It
will leave the soldering iron and stick to the metal. Keep adding solder in this
way until the hole has been closed up by working from the edges and building
toward the center. After the hole is closed, apply more flux to the job and
smooth over with the hot iron until there are no rough spots. Should the solder
refuse to flow smoothly, the iron is not hot enough.
Soldering Seams. Clean back from the seam or split for at least half an inch
all around and then build up the solder in the same way as was done with the
hole. After closing the opening, apply more flux to the work and run the hot iron
lengthwise to smooth the job.
Soldering Wires. Clean all insulation from the ends to be soldered and
scrape the ends bright. Lay the ends parallel to each other and, starting at the
middle of the cleaned portion, wrap the ends around each other, one being
wrapped to the right, the other to the left. Hold the hot iron under the twisted
joint and apply flux to the wire. Then dip the iron in the solder and apply to the
twisted portion until the spaces between the wires are filled with solder. Finish
by smoothing the joint and cleaning away all excess metal by rubbing the hot
iron lengthwise. The joint should now be covered with a layer of rubber tape and
this covered with a layer of ordinary friction tape.
Steel and Iron. Steel surfaces should be cleaned, then covered with clear
muriatic acid. While the acid is on the metal, rub with a stick of zinc and then tin
the surfaces with the hot iron as directed. Cast iron should be cleaned and
dipped in strong lye to remove grease. Wash the lye away with clean water and
cover with muriatic acid as with steel. Then rub with a piece of zinc and tin the
surfaces by using resin as a flux.
It is very difficult to solder aluminum with ordinary solder. A special aluminum solder should be secured, which is easily applied and makes a strong
joint. Zinc or phosphor tin may be used in place of ordinary solder to tin the surfaces or to fill small holes or cracks. The aluminum must be thoroughly heated
before attempting to solder and the flux may be either resin or soldering acid.
The aluminum must be thoroughly cleaned with dilute nitric acid and kept hot
while the solder is applied by forcible rubbing with the hot iron.
tinned plate
half and half
soldering iron
tip ()
to secure a firm union
galvanized iron


gasoline blow torch

screw plug

hand pump
to work a pump
to ignite
needle valve
a rest ,
soldering acid ,

stick of solder
muriatic acid
chloride of zin
ammonia ,
to corrode ,

tallow ,
sal ammoniac
emery cloth ,

to secure a hold on

fitting ,
rough spots ,
to scrape the ends
excess metal
rubber tape
adhesive / friction tape

: 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6) ; 7) ; 8)
; 9) ; 10) ; 11) ;
12) ; 13) ; 14) ; 15) .
II. : 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ;
5) ; 6) ; 7) ; 8) ; 9) ; 10) ; 11) ;
12) ; 13) ; 14) , ; 15) .
III. , .
1. The action of the solder iron, steel and aluminum requires greater
skill. 2. Open the gasoline needle valve a half turn. 3. The solder picks up
the heated tip of the iron. 4. While soldering a hole, work the edges the
centre. 5. This soldering acid may be used any metal to be soldered. 6. This
flux will not corrode the metal. 7. The surfaces to be soldered are heated a
point at which the solder melts and unites. 8. Sweating is preferred ordinary

soldering. 9. After closing the opening, apply more flux the work. 10. Wash
the lye with clean water.
IV. .
1. ,
. 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5. ,
, . 6.
. 7.
, , . 8. . 9. , ,
. 10. , , .

Unit 35. BRAZING

Brazing is a process for joining metal parts, very similar to soldering, except that brass is used to make the joint instead of lead and zinc alloys which
form solder. Brazing must not be attempted on metals whose melting point is
less than that of sheet brass.
Two pieces of brass to be brazed together are heated to a temperature at
which the brass used in the process will melt and flow between the surfaces. The
brass amalgamates with the surfaces and makes a very strong and perfect joint,
which is far more superior to any form of soldering where the work allows this
process to be used, and in many cases is the equal of welding for the particular
field in which it applies.
Brazing Heat and Tools. The metal commonly used for brazing will melt at
the heat between 1350 and 1650 F. To bring the parts to this temperature, various methods are employed, using solid, liquid or gaseous fuels. While brazing
may be accomplished with the fire of the blacksmith forge, this method is seldom satisfactory because of the difficulty of making a sufficiently clean fire
with smithing coal, and it should not be used when anything else is available.
Large jobs of brazing may be handled with a charcoal fire built in the forge, as
this fuel produces a very satisfactory and clean fire. The only objection is in the
difficulty of confining the heat to the desired parts of the work.
The most satisfactory fire is that from a fuel gas torch built for this work.
These torches are simply forms of Bunsen burners, mixing the proper quantity
of air with the gas to bring about a perfect combustion. Hose lines lead to the

mixing tube of the gas torch, one line carrying the gas and the other air under a
moderate pressure. The air line is often dispensed with, allowing the gas to draw
air into the burner on the injector principle. Valves are provided with which the
operator may regulate the amount of both gas and air, and ordinarily the quality
and intensity of the flame.
When gas is not available, recourse may be had to the gasoline torch made
for brazing. This torch is built in the same way as the small portable gasoline
torches for soldering operations, with the exception that two regulating needle
valves are incorporated in place of only one. The torches are carried on a framework, which also supports the work being handled. Fuel is forced to the torch
from a large tank of gasoline into which air pressure is pumped by hand. The
torches are regulated to give the desired flame by means of the needle valves in
much the same way as with any other form of pressure torch using liquid fuel.
Another very satisfactory form of torch for brazing is the acetylene-air
combination. This torch gives the correct degree of heat and may be regulated to
give a clean and easily controlled flame.
Regardless of the source of heat, the fire or flame must be adjusted so that
no soot is deposited on the metal surfaces of the work. This can only be accomplished by supplying the exact amounts of gas and air that will produce a complete burning of the fuel. With the brazing torches in common use two heads are
furnished, being supplied from the same source of fuel, but with separate regulating devices. The torches are adjustably mounted in such a way that the flames
may be directed toward each other, heating two sides of the work at the same
time and allowing the pieces to be completely surrounded with the flame.
The tool required for ordinary brazing operations is a spatula formed by
flattening one end of a quarter-inch steel rod. The spatula is used for placing the
brazing metal on the work and for handling the flux that is required in this work
as in all other similar operations
Spelter is a metal that is melted into the joint. While this name was originally applied to but one particular grade or composition of metal, common use
has extended the meaning until it is generally applied to all grades. Spelter is
variously composed of alloys containing copper, zinc, tin and antimony, the
mixture employed depending on the work to be done. The different grades are of
varying hardness, the harder kinds melting at higher temperatures than the soft
ones and producing a stronger joint when used. The reason for not using hard
spelter in all cases is the increased difficulty of working it and the fact that its
melting point is so near to some of the metals brazed that there is great danger of
melting the work as well as the spelter.
The hardest grade of spelter is made from three-fourths copper with onefourth zinc and is used for working on malleable and cast iron and for steel. This
hard spelter melts at about 1650 and is correspondingly difficult to handle. A
spelter suitable for working with copper is made from equal parts of copper and
zinc, melting at about 1400 F, 500 below the melting point of the copper itself.

A still softer brazing metal is composed of half copper, three-eighths zinc and
one-eighth tin. This grade is used for fastening brass to iron and copper and for
working with large pieces of brass to brass. For brazing thin sheet brass and
light brass castings a metal is used which contains two-thirds tin and one-third
antimony. The low melting point of this composition makes it very easy to work
with and the danger of melting the work is very slight. However, as might be
expected, a comparatively weak joint is secured, which will not stand any great
All of the above brazing metals are used in the powder form so that they
may be applied with the spatula where the joint is exposed on the outside of the
work. In case it is necessary to braze on the inside of a tube or any deep recess,
the spelter may be placed on a flat rod long enough to reach to the farthest point.
By distributing the spelter at the proper points along the rod it may be placed at
the right points by turning the rod over after inserting it into the recess.
Flux. In order to remove the oxides produced under brazing heat and to allow the brazing metal to flow freely into place, a flux of some kind must be
used. The commonest flux is simply a pure calcined borax powder, that is, a borax powder that has been heated until practically all the water has been driven
off. Calcined borax may also be mixed with about 15 per cent of sal ammoniac
to make a satisfactory fluxing powder. It is absolutely necessary to use flux of
some kind and a part of whatever is used should be made into a paste with water
so that it can be applied to the joint to be brazed before heating. The remainder
of the powder should be kept dry for use during the operation and after the heat
has been applied.
Preparing the Work. The surfaces to be brazed are first thoroughly cleaned
with files, emery cloth or sand paper. If the work is greasy, it should be dipped
into a bath of lye or hot soda water so that all trace of oil is removed. The parts
are then placed in the relation to each other that they are to occupy when the
work has been completed. The edges to be joined should make a secure and tight
fit, and should match each other at all points so that the smallest possible space
is left between them. This fit should not be so tight that it is necessary to force
the work into place, neither should it be loose enough to allow any considerable
space between the surfaces.
The work is placed on the surface of the brazing table in such a position
that the flame from the torches will strike the parts to be heated, and with the
joint in such a position that the melted spelter will flow down through it and fill
every possible part of the space between the surfaces under the action of gravity.
That means that the edge of the joint must be uppermost and the crack to be
filled must not lie horizontal, but at the greatest slant possible. Better than any
degree of slant would be to have the line of the joint vertical.
The work is braced up or clamped in the proper position before commencing to braze, and it is best to place fire brick in such positions that it will be impossible for cooling draughts of air to reach the heated metal, should the flame

be removed temporarily during the process. In case there is a large body of iron,
steel or copper to be handled, it is often advisable to place charcoal around the
work, igniting this with the flame of the torch before starting to braze so that the
metal will be maintained at the correct heat without depending entirely on the
When handling brass pieces having thin sections there is danger of melting
the brass and causing it to flow away from under the flame, with the result that
the work is ruined. If, in the judgment of the workman, this may happen with the
particular job in hand, it is well to build up a mould of fire clay back of the thin
parts or preferably back of the whole piece, so that the metal will have the necessary support. This mould may be made by mixing the fire clay into a stiff
paste with water and then packing it against the piece to be supported tightly
enough so that the form will be retained even if the metal softens.
Brazing. When the work is in place, it should be well covered with the
paste of flux and water, then heated until this flux boils up and runs over the surfaces. Spelter is then placed in such a position that it will run into the joint and
the heat is continued or increased until the spelter melts and flows in between
the two surfaces. The flame should surround the work during the heating so that
outside air is excluded as far as it is possible to prevent excessive oxidization.
When handling brass or copper, the flame should not be directed so that its
center strikes the metal squarely, but so that it glances from one side or the
other. Directing the flame straight against the work is often the cause of melting
the pieces before the operation is completed. When brazing two different metals,
the flame should play only on the one that melts at the higher temperature, the
lower melting part receiving its heat from the other. This avoids the danger of
melting one before the other reaches the brazing point.
The heat should be continued only long enough to cause the spelter to flow
into place and no longer. Prolonged heating of any metal can do nothing but
oxidize and weaken it, and this practice should be avoided as much as possible.
If the spelter melts into small globules in place of flowing, it may be caused to
spread and run into the joint by lightly tapping the work. More dry flux may be
added with the spatula if the tapping does not produce the desired result.
Excessive use of flux, especially toward the end of the work, will result in a
very hard surface, which will be extremely difficult to finish properly. This trouble will be present to a certain extent anyway, but it may be lessened by a vigorous scraping with a wire brush just as soon as the work is removed from the fire.
If allowed to cool before cleaning, the final appearance will not be as good as
with the surplus metal and scale removed immediately upon completing the job.
After the work has been cleaned with the brush it may be allowed to cool and
finished to the desired shape, size and surface by filing and polishing.


sheet brass
pressure torch

brazing torch
to amalgamate , spatula

smithing coal
recess ,
to confine
calcined borax
bunsen burner uppermost

to be dispensed with
to have recourse , mould ()
fire clay
: 1) -; 2) ;
3) ; 4) -; 5)
; 6) ; 7) ; 8) ; 9)
; 10) ; 11) ; 12) ; 13) , ; 14) ;
15) .
II. : 1) zinc
alloy; 2) to amalgamate; 3) fuel gas torch; 4) framework; 5) needle valve; 6) a
tank of gasoline; 7) to accomplish; 8) to furnish two heads; 9) spatula; 10) spelter; 11) to be exposed to ; 12) recess; 13) calcined borax; 14) emery cloth;
15) to make a secure and tight fit.
III. .
. 2. . 3. , . 4. , . 5.
, , . 6.
, . 7. , . 8.
, ,
. 9.

1/4 , . 10. spelter

, .
The process of welding which makes use of great heat produced by oxygen
combining with aluminum is known as the Thermit process and was perfected
by Dr. Hans Goldschmidt. The process makes use of a mixture of finely powdered aluminum with an oxide of iron called by the trade name, Thermit. The
reaction is started with a special ignition powder, such as barium superoxide and
aluminum, and the oxygen from the iron oxide combining with the aluminum,
producing a mass of superheated steel at about 5000 degrees Fahrenheit. After
the reaction, which takes from 30 seconds to a minute, the molten metal is
drawn from the crucible on to the surfaces to be joined. Its extreme heat fuses
the metal and a perfect joint is the result. This process is suited for welding iron
or steel parts of comparatively large size.
Preparation. The parts to be joined are thoroughly cleaned on the surfaces
and for several inches back from the joint, after which they are supported in
place. The surfaces between which the metal will flow are separated from 1/4 to
1 inch, depending on the size of the parts, but cutting or drilling a part of the
metal away. After this separation is made for allowing the entrance of new
metal, the effects of contraction of the molten steel are cared for by preheating
adjacent parts or by forcing the ends apart with wedges and jacks. The amount
of this last separation must be determined by the shape and proportions of the
parts in the same way as it would be done for any other class of welding which
heats the parts to a melting point.
Yellow wax, which has been warmed until plastic, is then placed around the
joint to form a collar, the wax completely filling the space between the ends and
being provided with vent holes by imbedding a piece of stout cord, which is
pulled out after the wax cools. A retaining mould made from sheet steel or fire
brick is then placed around the parts. This mould is then filled with a mixture of
one part fire clay, one part ground fire brick and one part fire sand. These materials are well mixed and moistened with enough water so that they will pack. This
mixture is then placed in the mould, filling the space between the walls and the
wax, and is packed hard with a rammer so that the material forms a wall several
inches thick between any point of the mould and the wax. The mixture must be
placed in the mould in small quantities and packed tight as the filling progresses.
Three or more openings are provided through this moulding material by the
insertion of wood or pipe forms. One of these openings will lead from the lowest
point of the wax pattern and is used for the introduction of the preheating flame.

Another opening leads from the top of the mould into this preheating gate, opening into the preheating gate at a point about one inch from the wax pattern.
Openings, called risers, are then provided from each of the high points of the
wax pattern to the top of the mould, these risers ending at the top in a shallow
basin. The molten metal comes up into these risers and cares for contraction of
the casting, as well as avoiding defects in the collar of the weld. After the
moulding material is well packed, these gate patterns are tapped lightly and
withdrawn, except in the case of the metal pipes which are placed at points at
which it would be impossible to withdraw a pattern.
Preheating. The ends to be welded are brought to a bright red heat by introducing the flame from a torch through the preheating gate. The torch must use
either gasoline or kerosene, and not crude oil, as the crude oil deposits too much
carbon on the parts. Preheating of other adjacent parts to care for contraction is
done at this time by an additional torch burner. The heating flame is started gently at first and gradually increased. The wax will melt and may be allowed to run
out of the preheating gate by removing the flame at intervals for a few seconds.
The heat is continued until the mould is thoroughly dried and the parts to be
joined are brought to the red heat required. This leaves a mould just the shape of
the wax pattern. The heating gate should then be plugged with an iron plug or a
piece of fitted fire brick, and backed up with several shovels full of the moulding mixture, well packed.
Thermit Metal. The reaction takes place in a special crucible lined with
magnesia tar, which is baked at a red heat until the tar is driven off and the magnesia left. This lining should last from twelve to fifteen reactions. This magnesia
lining ends at the bottom of the crucible in a ring of magnesia stone and this ring
carries a magnesia thimble through which the molten steel passes on its way to
the mould. It will usually be necessary to renew this thimble after each reaction.
This lower opening is closed before filling the crucible with thermit by means of
a small disc or iron carrying a stem, which is called a tapping pin. This pin is
placed in the thimble with the stem extending down through the opening and
exposing about two inches. The top of this pin is covered with an asbestos
washer, then with another iron disc and finally with a layer of refractory sand.
The crucible is tapped by knocking the stem of the pin upwards with a spade or
piece of flat iron about four feet long.
The charge of thermit is added by placing a few handfuls over the refractory sand and then pouring in the balance required. The amount of thermit required is calculated from the wax used. The wax is weighed before and after filling the entire space that the thermit will occupy. This does not mean only the
wax collar, but the space of the mould with all gates filled with wax. The number of pounds of wax required for this filling multiplied by 25 will give the
number of pounds of thermit to be used. To this quantity of thermit should be
added 1 % of pure manganese, 1 % nickel thermit and 15 % of steel punchings.
It is necessary, when more than 10 pounds of thermit will be used, to mix steel

punchings not exceeding 3/8 inch diameter by 1/8 inch thick with the powder in
order to sufficiently retard the intensity of the reaction.
Half a teaspoonful of ignition powder is placed on top of the thermit charge
and ignited with a storm match or piece of red hot iron. The cover should be
immediately closed on the top of the crucible and the operator should get away
to a safe distance because of the metal that may be thrown out of the crucible.
After allowing about 30 seconds to a minute for the reaction to take place and
the slag to rise to the top of the crucible, the tapping pin is struck from below
and the molten metal allowed to run into the mould. The mould should be allowed to remain in place as long as possible, preferably over night, so as to anneal the steel in the weld, but in no case should it be disturbed for several hours
after pouring. After removing the mould, drill through the metal left in the riser
and gates and knock these sections off. No part of the collar should be removed
unless absolutely necessary.
crude oil -,
trade name

ignition powder
to plug

barium superoxide
magnesia tar
to force the ends apart ,

thimble . ,

tapping pin (
yellow wax
vent holes
asbestos washer
retaining mould
refractory sand

to tap
ground fire brick punchings ,

to pack (), ,
storm match

this ring carries a magnesia thimble
to care for
collar of the weld

to carry a stem
heating gate
to retard
to anneal the steel
moulding mixture


: 1) ; 2) , ; 3) ; 4)
; 5) , ; 6) ; 7) ; 8) ; 9) ;
10) ; 11)
; 12) ; 13) ; 14) ;
15) .
II. : 1) ground fire brick; 2) the mixture is packed hard with a rammer; 3) preheating gate; 4) the collar of the weld; 5) to withdraw a pattern; 6) to bring to a
bright red heat; 7) to be thoroughly dried; 8) to plug with an iron plug; 9) wellpacked mixture; 10) a ring of magnesia stone; 11) the charge of thermit;
12) multiplied by; 13) pure manganese; 14) tea-spoonful of; 15) to anneal the


In making ship hulls weld connections are to be executed according to the
approved plans. A detail not specifically represented in the plans is, if any, to
comply with the applicable requirements. Welding various types of steel is to be
carried out by means of welding procedures approved for the purpose, even
though an explicit indication to this effect may not appear on the approved
The quality standard adopted by the shipyard is to be submitted to the Society and applies to all constructions unless otherwise specified on a case by case
The service temperature is intended to be the ambient temperature, unless
otherwise stated.
Welding consumables and procedures.
Welding consumables and welding procedures adopted are to be approved
by the Society. The approval of the welding procedure is not required in the case
of manual metal arc welding with approved covered electrodes, except in the
case of one side welding on refractory backing (ceramic).
Consumables used for manual or semi-automatic welding (covered electrodes, flux-cored and flux-coated wires) of higher strength hull structural steels
are to be at least of hydrogen-controlled grade H15 (H). Where the carbon
equivalent is not more than 0.41 % and the thickness is below 30 mm, any type
of approved higher strength consumables may be used at the discretion of the

Society. Especially, welding consumables with hydrogen-controlled grade H15

(H) and H10 (HH) shall be used for welding hull steel forgings and castings of
respectively ordinary strength level and higher strength level. Welding consumables approved for welding higher strength steels (Y) may be used in lieu of
those approved for welding normal strength steels having the same or a lower
grade. In case of welded connections between two hull structural steels of different grades, as regards strength or notch toughness, welding consumables appropriate to one or the other steel are to be adopted.
Manual and semi-automatic welding is to be performed by welders certified by the Society as specified in the Guide for the certification of welders and
welding inspectors; the welders are to be employed within the limits of their
respective approval. Personnel manning automatic welding machines and equipment are to be competent and sufficiently trained.
The internal organization of the shipyard is to be such as to ensure compliance with the requirements and to provide for assistance and inspection of welding personnel, as necessary, by means of a suitable number of competent supervisors.
Non-destructive tests are to be carried out by qualified personnel, certified
by the Society, or by recognized bodies in compliance with appropriate standards. The qualifications are to be appropriate to the specific applications.
Technical equipment and facilities.
The welding equipment is to be appropriate to the adopted welding procedures, of adequate output power and such as to provide for stability of the arc in
different welding positions. In particular, the welding equipment for special
welding procedures is to be provided with adequate and duly calibrated measuring instruments, enabling easy and accurate reading, and adequate devices for
easy regulation and regular feed.
Manual electrodes, wires and fluxes are to be stored in suitable locations so
as to ensure their preservation in proper condition. Especially, where consumables with hydrogen-controlled grade are to be used, proper precautions are to
be taken to ensure that manufacturers instructions are followed to obtain (drying) and maintain (storage, maximum time exposed, re-backing) hydrogencontrolled grade.
For various structural details typical of welded construction in shipbuilding
and not dealt with in this Section, the rules of good practice, recognized standards and past experience are to apply as agreed by the Society.
The plates of the shell and strength deck are generally to be arranged with
their length in the fore-aft direction. Possible exceptions to the above will be
considered by the Society on a case-by-case basis; tests as deemed necessary
(for example, transverse impact tests) may be required by the Society. Particular
consideration is to be given to the overall arrangement and structural details of
highly stressed parts of the hull.

Prefabrication sequences are to be arranged so as to facilitate positioning

and assembling as far as possible.
The amount of welding to be performed on board is to be limited to a
minimum and restricted to easily accessible connections.
Welds located too close to one another are to be avoided. The minimum
distance between two adjacent welds is considered on a case by case basis, taking into account the level of stresses acting on the connected elements. In general, the distance between two adjacent butts in the same strake of shell or deck
plating is to be greater than two frame spaces.
ship hull
approved (plan)
strake ,

Society . -
on case-by-case basis
notch ,

ambient temperature
strength deck

on refractory backing aft

transverse impact test
at the discretion of Society

prefabricated sequences ,
in lieu of

appropriate ,

: 1) -; 2)
; 3) ; 4)
; 5) ;
6) ; 7) ; 8) , ;
9) ; 10) -; 11) ; 12) ; 13)
; 14) ; 15) .
II. : 1) explicit indication; 2) to this effect; 3) unless otherwise specified;
4) ambient temperature; 5) covered electrodes; 6) flux-coated electrodes; 7) certified welder; 8) to man a welding machine; 9) in compliance with; 10) measuring instruments; 11) regular feed; 12) grade; 13) the rules of good practice;
14) recognized standards; 15) to facilitate positioning and assembly.


The type of connection and the edge preparation are to be appropriate to the
welding procedure adopted, the structural elements to be connected and the
stresses to which they are subjected.
In general, butt connections of plating are to be full penetration, welded on
both sides except where special procedures or specific techniques are adopted.
Connections different from the above may be accepted by the Society on a caseby-case basis; in such cases, the relevant detail and workmanship specifications
are to be approved. In case of welding plates with a difference in gross thickness
equal to or greater than 3.00 or 4.00 mm, if the thinner plate has a gross thickness equal to or less than 10 mm, a taper having a length of not less than 4 times
the difference in gross thickness is to be adopted for connections of plating perpendicular to the direction of main stresses. For connections of plating parallel
to the direction of main stresses, the taper length may be reduced to 3 times the
difference in gross thickness. When the difference in thickness is less than the
above values, it may be accommodated in the weld transition between plates.
The acceptable root gap is to be in accordance with the adopted welding procedure and relevant bevel preparation.
Butt welding on permanent backing, i.e. butt welding assembly of two
plates backed by the flange or the face plate of a stiffener, may be accepted
where back welding is not feasible or in specific cases deemed acceptable by the
Society. The type of bevel and the gap between the members to be assembled
are to be such as to ensure a proper penetration of the weld on its backing and an
adequate connection to the stiffener as required.
When lengths of longitudinals of the shell plating within 0,6 L amidships,
or elements in general, subject to high stresses, are to be connected together by
butt joints, these are to be full penetration. Other solutions may be adopted if
deemed acceptable by the Society on a case-by-case basis.
The work is to be done in accordance with an approved procedure; in particular, this requirement applies to work done on board or in conditions of difficult access to the welded connection.
In general, ordinary fillet welding (without bevel) may be adopted for T
connections of the various simple and composite structural elements, where they
are subjected to low stresses (in general not exceeding 30 N/mm2) and adequate
precautions are taken to prevent the possibility of local laminations of the
element against which the T web is welded. Where this is not the case, partial or
full T penetration welding is to be adopted. This applies particularly to members
over than 12 mm thick constituting the whole or part of the engine seatings.
Fillet welding may be of the following types:
continuous fillet welding, where the weld is constituted by a continuous
fillet on each side of the abutting plate;

intermittent fillet welding, which may be subdivided into chain welding,

scallop welding, staggered welding.
Continuous fillet welding is to be adopted for watertight connections, for
connections of brackets, lugs and scallops, at the ends of connections for a
length of at least 75 mm, where intermittent welding is not allowed. Continuous
fillet welding may also be adopted in lieu of intermittent welding wherever
deemed suitable, and it is recommended where the spacing is low.
In case of automatic or semi-automatic deep penetration weld, the throat
thickness may be reduced. It may be required by the Society to be increased, depending on the results of structural analyses. The leg length of fillet weld T connections is to be not less than 1.4 times the required throat thickness.
The throat thickness of the welds between the cut-outs in primary supporting member webs for the passage of ordinary stiffeners is to be not less than the
value obtained, in mm, from the special formula. The throat thickness of fillet
welds connecting ordinary stiffeners and collar plates, if any, to the web of primary supporting members is to be not less than 0,35 tW, where tW is the web
gross thickness, in mm.
When fillet welding is carried out with automatic welding procedures, the
throat thickness may be reduced up to 15 %, depending on the properties of the
electrodes and consumables. However, this reduction may not be greater than
1,5 mm. The same reduction applies also for semi-automatic procedures where
the welding is carried out in the downhand position.
engine seating

to approve , abutting plate ,

gross thickness
scallop weld , taper

weld transition 145
staggered weld
chain welding
root gap bracket ,

lug ,
flange ,
throat thickness
stiffener /
web ,
leg of (fillet) (
T-connection / -downhand / downward position

lamination ,

: 1) ; 2)
; 3) ; 4)
; 5) ; 6)
3 ; 7) ; 8) ; 9) ;
10) ; 11) ; 12)
; 13) ; 14)
; 15) .
II. :
1) edge preparation; 2) butt connections; 3) workmanship specifications;
4) gross thickness; 5) to accommodate ; 6) root gap; 7) butt welding assembly;
8) in conditions of difficult access; 9) ordinary fillet welding; 10) local laminations; 11) continuous fillet welding; 12) intermittent fillet welding; 13) chain
welding; 14) scallop weld; 15) staggered weld.


Partial or full T penetration welding is to be adopted for connections subjected to high stresses for which fillet welding is considered unacceptable by the
Society. Back gouging is generally required for full penetration welds.
Precautions are to be taken in order to avoid lamellar tears, which may be
associated with:
cold cracking when performing T connections between plates of considerable thickness or high restraint;
large fillet welding and full penetration welding on higher strength
Lap-joint welding may be adopted for:
peripheral connection of doublers;
internal structural elements subjected to very low stresses.
Elsewhere, lap-joint welding may be allowed by the Society on a case by
case basis, if deemed necessary under specific conditions. Continuous welding is
generally to be adopted. The surfaces of lap-joints are to be in sufficiently close
contact. The dimensions of the lap-joint are to be specified.
Slot welding may be adopted in very specific cases. In general, slot welding of doublers on the outer shell is not permitted within 0,6 L amidships. Slot
welding is, in general, permitted only where stresses act in a predominant direction. Slot welds are, as far as possible, to be aligned in this direction. Slot welds
are to be of appropriate shape (in general oval) and dimensions, depending on
the plate thickness, and may not be completely filled by the weld. The distance

between two consecutive slot welds is to be not greater than a value which is defined on a case by case basis taking into account: 1) the transverse spacing between adjacent slot weld lines; 2) the stresses acting in the connected plates;
3) the structural arrangement below the connected plates.
Corner joint welding, as adopted in some cases at the corners of tanks, performed with ordinary fillet welds, is permitted provided the welds are continuous and of the required size for the whole length on both sides of the joint.
The intermediate flat, through which the bilge keel is connected to the shell
is to be welded as a shell doubler by continuous fillet welds. The butt welds of
the doubler and bilge keel are to be full penetration and shifted from the shell
The butt welds of the bilge plating and those of the doublers are to be flush
in way of crossing, respectively, with the doubler and with the bilge keel. Butt
welds of the intermediate flat are to be made to avoid direct connection with the
shell plating, in order that they do not alter the shell plating, by using, for example, a copper or a ceramic backing.
In case of a strut connected by lap joint to the ordinary stiffener, the throat
thickness of the weld is to be obtained, in mm, from a special formula. Fabricated propeller posts are to be welded with full penetration welding to the propeller shaft bossing.
bilge ()
lamellar tears
shell doubler , restraint ,

doubler ,
to be flush , lap joint

fillet weld
strut ,
slot weld
intermediate flat

corner joint
bossing ,
: 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5)
; 6) ; 7)
; 8) ; 9) ; 10) ; 11) ; 12) ; 13) ; 14) -; 15) .

II. : 1) back
gourging; 2) high restraint; 3) higher strength steels; 4) slot welding; 5) consecutive slot welds; 6) transverse spacing; 7) structural elements below the connected parts; 8) to deem necessary; 9) throat thickness of the weld; 10) adjacent
welds; 11) corner joint; 12) fillet welds; 13) intermediate flat; 14) shell doubler;
15) propeller shaft bossing.
III. .
1. , . 2.
, . 3.
. 4. , , . 5.
, . 6.
, , . 7. / . 8. . 9.


Various welding procedures and consumables are to be used within the limits of their approval and in accordance with the conditions of use specified in the
respective approval documents.
Adequate protection from the weather is to be provided to parts being
welded; in any event, such parts are to be dry. In welding procedures using bare,
cored or coated wires with gas shielding, the welding is to be carried out in
weather protected conditions, so as to ensure that the gas outflow from the nozzle is not disturbed by winds and draughts.
The edge preparation is to be of the required geometry and correctly performed. In particular, if edge preparation is carried out by flame, it is to be free
from cracks or other detrimental notches. The surfaces to be welded are to be
free from rust, moisture and other substances, such as mill scale, slag caused by
oxygen cutting, grease or paint, which may produce defects in the welds. Effective means of cleaning are to be adopted particularly in connections with special
welding procedures; flame or mechanical cleaning may be required. The presence of a shop primer may be accepted. Setting appliances and systems to be
used for positioning are to ensure adequate tightening adjustment and an appropriate gap of the parts to be welded, while allowing maximum freedom for

shrinkage to prevent cracks or other defects due to excessive restraint. The gap
between the edges is to comply with the required tolerances or, when not specified, it is to be in accordance with normal good practice. The misalignment between plates with the same gross thickness is to be less than 0.15 t, without exceeding 3 mm. The misalignment m in cruciform connections, measured on the
median lines is to be less than half the gross thickness of the thinner abutting
When welding aluminum alloy parts, particular care is to be taken so as to
reduce as far as possible restraint from welding shrinkage, by adopting assembling and tack welding procedures suitable for this purpose, to keep possible deformations within the allowable limits. Suitable preheating, to be maintained
during welding, and slow cooling may be required.
Welding sequences and direction of welding are to be determined so as to
minimize deformations and prevent defects in the welded connection. All main
connections are generally to be completed before the ship is afloat. After each
run, the slag is to be removed by means of a chipping hammer and a metal
brush; the same precaution is to be taken when an interrupted weld is resumed or
two welds are to be connected.
It is recommended and in some cases it may be required that special structures subject to high stresses, having complex shapes and involving welding of
elements of considerable thickness (such as rudder spades and stern frames), are
prefabricated in parts of adequate size and stress-relieved in the furnace, before
final assembly, at a temperature within the range 550620 C, as appropriate for
the type of steel. In case of T-crossing of structural elements (one element continuous, the other physically interrupted at the crossing) when it is essential to
achieve structural continuity through the continuous element (continuity obtained by means of the welded connections at the crossing), particular care is to
be devoted to obtaining the correspondence of the interrupted elements on both
sides of the continuous element. Suitable systems for checking such correspondence are to be adopted.
gas shielding
tack welding
notch ,
chipping hammer
shop primer

setting appliance
metal brush
rudder spades
misalignment , stern frames

median line
cruciform connection prefabricated

: 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5)
; 6) ; 7)
; 8) ; 9) ; 10) ; 11) ; 12) ;
13) ; 14) ;
15) .
II. : 1) cored
electrodes; 2) coated electrodes; 3) detrimental notches; 4) mill scale; 5) setting
appliances; 6) required tolerances; 7) misalignment; 8) allowable limits; 9) freedom for shrinkage; 10) interrupted weld; 11) oxygen cutting; 12) as appropriate
for the type of steel; 13) at the crossing; 14) interrupted elements; 15) continuity.


Deviations in the joint preparation and other specified requirements, in excess of the permitted tolerances and found during construction, are to be repaired.
Welding by building up of gaps exceeding the required values and repairs
of weld deformations may be accepted by the Society upon special examination.
Defects and imperfections on the materials and welded connections found during construction are to be evaluated for possible acceptance on the basis of the
applicable requirements of the Society. Where the limits of acceptance are exceeded, the defective material and welds are to be discarded or repaired. If it is
deemed appropriate by the Surveyor. When any serious or systematic defect is
detected either in the welded connections or in the base material, the manufacturer is required to promptly inform the Surveyor and submit the repair proposal.
The Surveyor may require destructive or non-destructive examinations to be carried out for initial identification of the defects found and, in the event that repairs are undertaken, for verification of their satisfactory completion. In case of
repairs involving the replacement of material already welded on the hull, the
procedures to be adopted are to be agreed with the Society.
Materials, workmanship, structures and welded connections are to be subjected, at the beginning of the work, during construction and after completion, to
inspections by the Shipyard suitable to check compliance with the applicable requirements, approved plans and standards. The manufacturer is to make available to the Surveyor a list of the manual welders and welding operators and their

respective qualifications. The manufacturers internal organization is responsible

for ensuring that welders and operators are not employed under improper conditions or beyond the limits of their respective qualifications and that welding procedures are adopted within the approved limits and under the appropriate operating conditions.
The manufacturer is responsible for ensuring that the operating conditions,
welding procedures and work schedule are in accordance with the applicable requirements, approved plans and recognized good welding practice. After completion of the welding operation and workshop inspection, the structure is to be presented to the Surveyor for visual examination at a suitable stage of fabrication.
As far as possible, the results on non-destructive examinations are to be
submitted. Non-destructive examinations are to be carried out with appropriate
methods and techniques suitable for the individual applications. Radiographic
examinations are to be carried out on the welded connections of the hull. The
Surveyor is to be informed when these examinations are performed. Radiographic examinations may be replaced by ultrasonic examinations.
When the visual or non-destructive examinations reveal the presence of unacceptable indications, the relevant connection is to be repaired to sound metal
for an extent and according to a procedure agreed with the Surveyor. The repaired zone is then to be submitted to nondestructive examination, using a
method deemed suitable by the Surveyor to verify that the repair is satisfactory.
Ultrasonic and magnetic particle examinations may also be required to verify the
quality of the base material.
A radiographic inspection is to be carried out on the welded butts of shell
plating, strength deck plating as well as of members contributing to the longitudinal strength. This inspection may also be required for the joints of members
subject to heavy stresses. The number of radiographs may be increased where
requested by the Surveyor, mainly where visual inspection or radiographic
soundings have revealed major defects.
As far as automatic welding of the panels butt welds during the premanufacturing stage is concerned, the shipyard is to carry out random nondestructive testing of the welds (radiographic or ultrasonic inspection) in order
to ascertain the regularity and the constancy of the welding inspection. In the
mid-ship area, radiographies are to be taken at the joining of panels. Each radiography device is situated in a butt joint at a cross-shaped welding. This requirement remains applicable where panel butts are shifted or where some
strakes are built independently from the panels. It is recommended to take most
of these radiographies at the intersections of butt and panel seams.
Where radiography is rejected and where it is decided to carry out a repair,
the shipyard is to determine the length of the defective part, then a set of inspection radiographies of the repaired joint and of adjacent parts is to be taken.
Where the repair has been decided by the inspection office of the shipyard, the

film showing the initial defect is to be submitted to the Surveyor together with
the film taken after repair of the joint.
imperfections .
random testing

to discard mid-ship area

systematic defect strake ,

pre-manufacturing = prefabrication
inspection office
: 1) , ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6) ; 7) ; 8) ; 9) ;
10) ; 11) ; 12)
; 13) ;
14) / ; 15) .
II. : 1) in excess of the permitted tolerances; 2) upon special examination; 3) defects and imperfections; 4) applicable requirements; 5) to discard; 6) appropriate; 7) the replacement of the material; 8) beyond the limits of their respective qualifications;
9) work schedule; 10) visual examination; 11) unacceptable indications;
12) magnetic particle examination; 13) radiograph; 14) inspection office;
15) cross-shaped welding.
Special structural details are those characterized by complex geometry,
possibly associated with high or alternate stresses. For special structural details,
specific requirements are to be fulfilled during their design, construction, selection of materials, welding and survey.
Special structural details are listed together with the specific requirements
which are to be fulfilled. Other structural details may be considered by the Society as special details, when deemed necessary.

Design requirements specify the local geometry, dimensions and scantlings

of the structural elements which constitute the detail, any local strengthening,
cases where a fatigue check is to be carried out. Then the design requirements
specify locations (hot spots) where the stresses are to be calculated and the fatigue check performed, the direction in which the normal stresses are to be calculated, stress concentration factors to be used for calculating the hot spot stress
Constructional requirements specify the allowable misalignment and tolerances, depending on the detail arrangement and any local strengthening.
Material requirements specify the material quality to be used for specific
elements which constitute the detail, depending on their manufacturing procedure, the type of stresses they are subjected to, and the importance of the detail
with respect to the ship operation and overall safety. In addition, these requirements specify where material inspections are to be carried out.
Welding requirements specify where partial or full T penetration welding
or any particular welding type or sequence is to be adopted. In addition, these
requirements specify when welding procedures are to be approved. Since weld
shape and undercuts are influencing factors on fatigue behaviour, fillet welds are
to be elongated in the direction of the highest stresses and care is to be taken to
avoid undercuts, in particular at the hot spots.
Survey requirements specify where non-destructive examinations of welds
are to be carried out and, where this is the case, which type is to be adopted.
to specify
survey , fatigue check
special structural details
misalignment ,

geometry , strengthening ,

: 1) ; 2)
; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6) ; 7) ;
8) ; 9) ; 10) , .
II. : 1) alternate stresses; 2) design; 3) construction; 4) scantlings; 5) to specify requirements; 6) hot spots; 7) hot spots stress range; 8) manufacturing process; 9) undercut; 10) survey requirements.


The following requirements determine the testing conditions for gravity
tanks, including independent tanks of 5 m3 or more in capacity, watertight or
weather-tight structures. The purpose of these tests is to check the tightness and
/ or the strength of structural elements. Tests are to be carried out in the presence
of the Surveyor at a stage sufficiently close to completion so that any subsequent
work would not impair the strength and tightness of the structure.
IR InI particular, tests are to be carried out after air vents and sounding
pipes are fitted. The Society may accept that structural testing of a sister ship is
limited to a single tank for each type of structural arrangement. However, if the
Surveyor detects anomalies, he may require the number of tests to be increased
or the same number of tests to be provided as for the first ship in a series.
Shop primer is a thin coating applied after surface preparation and prior to
fabrication as a protection against corrosion during fabrication. Protective coating is a final coating protecting the structure from corrosion. Structural testing is
a hydrostatic test carried out to demonstrate the tightness of the tanks and the
structural adequacy of the design. Where practical limitations prevail, and hydrostatic testing is not feasible (for example, when it is difficult, in practice, to
apply the required head at the top of the tank), hydro-pneumatic testing may be
carried out instead. Hydro-pneumatic testing is a combination of hydrostatic and
air testing, consisting in filling the tank to the top with water and applying an
additional air pressure. Leak testing is an air or other medium test carried out to
demonstrate the tightness of the structure. Hose testing is carried out to demonstrate the tightness of structural items not subjected to hydrostatic or leak testing
and of other components which contribute to the watertight or weather-tight integrity of the hull.
A sister ship is a ship having the same main dimensions, general arrangement, capacity plan and structural design as those of the first ship in a series.
Structural testing may be carried out before or after launching, after application
of the shop primer or of the protective coating, provided that one of the following two conditions is satisfied: 1) all the welds are completed and carefully inspected visually to the satisfaction of the Surveyor prior to the application of the
protective coating and 2) leak testing is carried out prior to the application of the
protective coating. In the absence of leak testing, protective coating is to be applied after the structural testing of all erection welds, both manual and automatic, i all manual fillet weld connections on tank boundaries and manual penetration welds.
When hydro-pneumatic testing is performed, the conditions are to simulate,
as far as practicable, the actual loading of the tank. The value of the additional
air pressure is at the discretion of the Society, but it is to be at least as defined
for leak testing. The same safety precautions as for leak testing are to be

An efficient indicating liquid, such as a soapy water solution, is to be applied

to the welds. Where leak testing is carried out, an air pressure of 0,15.105 Pa is to
be applied during t the test. Prior to inspection it is recommended that the air e
pressure in the tank should be raised to 0,2.105 Pa and kept at this level for approximately 1 hour to reach a stabilized state, with a minimum number of personnel in the vicinity of the tank, and then lowered to the test pressure.
The test may be conducted after the pressure has reached a stabilized state at
0,2.105 Pa, without lowering the pressure provided the Society is satisfied of the
safety of the personnel involved in the test. A U-tube filled with water up to a height
corresponding to the test pressure is to be fitted to avoid overpressure of the compartment tested and to verify the test pressure. 14.2.2 / RINA B-I, 23.1.2 / BV 3.042.
The U-tube is to have a cross-section larger than that of the pipe supplying
air. In addition, the test pressure is also to be verified by means of one master
pressure gauge. Alternative means which are considered to be equivalently reliable may be accepted at the discretion of the Surveyor.
Leak testing is to be carried out, prior to the application of a protective
coating, on all fillet weld connections on tank boundaries, and penetration and
erection welds on tank boundaries excepting welds made by automatic processes. Selected locations of automatic erection welds and pre-erection manual or
automatic welds may be required to be similarly tested to the satisfaction of the
Surveyor, taking account of the quality control procedures operating in the shipyard. When hose testing is required to verify the tightness of the structures, the
minimum pressure in the hose, at least equal to 2,0.105 Pa, is to be applied at a
maximum distance of 1,5 m. The nozzle diameter is to be not less than 12 mm.
Other testing methods may be accepted, at the discretion of the Society, based
upon equivalency considerations.
water-tight , sister ship

gravity tank
weather tight ,
erection weld

at the discretion of
capacity , leak testing

air vent , master pressure gauge

sounding pipe
hose testing


: 1) , ; 2) ;
3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6) ; 7) ; 8) , ; 9) ; 10)
; 11) ; 12) ; 13) ; 14) ; 15) .
II. : 1) sister
ship; 2) to detect anomalies; 3) prior to fabrication; 4) the structural adequacy of
the design; 5) hydrostatic testing; 6) hydropneumatic testing; 7) air testing;
8) hose testing; 9) capacity plan; 10) to the satisfaction of the Surveyor; 11) tank
boundaries; 12) indicating liquid; 13) test pressure; 14) cross-section; 15) quality
control procedures.


Welding of important structures such as hulls and hull equipment, superstructure, taking part in the overall strength, stern frames, rudders, etc. shall be carried
out only by certified welders, with approved welding procedures and welding consumables and at builders and subcontractors recognized by the Society.
Builders and subcontractors will have to prove their abilities for the welding operations in question. It is assumed that the builders and subcontractors
make use of the necessary equipment for carrying out inspection of the welding
operations in a satisfactory manner. Important welding operations shall be carried out under daily supervision of an inspector, who has the experience and
qualifications enabling him to judge the work. Builders and subcontractors shall
keep a card index or register of certified workers. The register shall give information on their training and date and results of qualification tests. Information
about the base metal, type of welding consumables, joint design and welding positions shall be stated in the event of re-qualification tests. The surveyor shall be
allowed to examine the register at any time.
The following terms are used in connection with fabrication of ship structures:
pWPS preliminary welding procedure specification. A tentative welding procedure specification, which is assumed adequate by the builder as basis
for approval by the Society;
WPS welding procedure specification: a specification of material, detailed methods, practices and parameters employed in the welding of a particular
joint, and which have to be approved by the Society;

WPQR- welding procedure qualification record: the record of actual parameters employed during welding of the qualification test piece, and results of
non-destructive and mechanical testing;
WPQT welding procedure qualification test: a test carried out to demonstrate that the weld performed according to pWPS meets the specified requirements;
WPT weld production test: a test carried out to demonstrate that actual
production welding meets the specified requirements;
NDT non-destructive testing: visual inspection, radiographic testing,
magnetic particle testing, penetrant testing and other non-destructive methods
for revealing defects and irregularities;
Manual welding welding where the electrode holder, welding hand
gun torch or blowpipe are manipulated by hand;
Partly mechanized welding manual welding where the wire feed is
Fully mechanized welding welding where all main operations (excluding the handling of the workpiece) are mechanized;
Fully automatic processes welding where all operations are mechanized. Welding operators using fully mechanized or fully automatic processes
shall be required to have records of proficiency, which provide evidence that the
operators have received adequate regular training in setting, programming and
operating the equipment. Welding and testing of weld assemblies shall be carried out in the presence of the Societys representative. Upon successful completion, and on the clients request, the Society will certify that the welder has
passed the approval testing.
hull equipment

WPQR stern frames

WPQT certified

at builders

NDT card index

actual production .



: 1) ; 2)
; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6) ; 7) ; 8) ; 9) , ; 10) .
II. : 1) subcontractor; 2) under daily supervision; 3) qualification test; 4) joint design;
5) tentative; 6) test piece; 7) penetrant testing; 8) blowpipe; 9) records of proficiency; 10) adequate regular training.


This section specifies requirements for welding procedure specifications
and welding procedure qualification tests for C-Mn and low alloy steels, aluminum, austenitic stainless steel and ferritic-austenitic (duplex) stainless steels. CMn and low alloy steels are in this context referred to as steels. Welding may
be performed with the following processes:
manual metal arc welding ( metal arc welding with covered electrode);
self-shielded tubular cored arc welding;
submerged arc welding with one wire electrode (SAW);
submerged arc welding with strip electrode;
metal active gas welding (MAG);
tubular-cored metal arc welding with active gas shield;
tubular-cored metal arc welding with inert gas shield;
tungsten inert gas arc welding (TIG);
plasma arc welding.
A welding procedure specification shall contain as a minimum the following information relevant for welding operations:
material: standard, grade and modification;
nominal thickness or diameter range (dimensions);
welding process;
joint or groove designs with tolerances;
welding position(s) and direction of progression;
welding consumables, trade name, electrode or wire diameter, shielding
gas, flux and recognized classification;
welding sequence: number and order of passes or layers;

electrical parameters: voltage range, current range, polarity;

travel speed and heat input ranges;
preheat temperatures;
post weld heat treatment parameters;
details of cleaning processes employed and restrictions, if any.
The welding procedure specification is compiled on the basis of other approved welding procedures. For the following types of services the approval of
welding procedure specifications is necessary:
butt welds used in cargo tanks, process pressure vessels, and\or piping
systems for liquefied gases;
all welds in aluminum;
butt welds and essential fillet welds used in cargo tanks;
hull structure, process pressure vessels and / or piping systems in ferritic-austenitic stainless steels;
butt welds in plate thickness above 50 mm;
butt welds in material grade E and F single-side butt welds with and
without backing in the vertical down position, welded connections between castings / forgings and rolled material, such as stern frames, rudder, welding of
highly stressed butt welds and cruciform joints located at large hatch openings;
when welding consumables are not the type approved.
When a welding procedure qualification test is required, the tests must be
performed in the environment applicable to the actual production and meet the
specified minimum requirements.


tubular-cored arc welding

nominal thickness

strip electrode groove ,

vertical down position

heat input

process pressure vessel
rolled material

: 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4)
; 5) ;

6) ; 7) ; 8) ;
9) ; 10) ,
II. : 1) strip
electrode; 2) are referred to; 3) inert gas shielding; 4) nominal thickness;
5) groove design; 6) heat input; 7) types of services; 8) cargo tank; 9) process
pressure vessel; 10) vertical down position.


In oxy-fuel welding operations many safety precautions must be observed.
There must be a clear space between the gas cylinder and the work so that cylinder valves could be reached easily and quickly. If acetylene cylinders have been
stored or transported horizontally, (on their sides), stand cylinders vertically (upright) for 45 minutes prior to their use.
A. Always refer to acetylene by its full name and not by the word gas alone.
Acetylene is very different from city or furnace gas. Acetylene is a compound of
carbon and hydrogen, produced by the reaction of water and calcium carbide.
B. Acetylene cylinders must be handled with care to avoid damage to the
valves or to the safety fuse plug. The cylinders must be stored upright in a well
ventilated, well protected, dry location at least 20 ft from highly combustible
materials, such as oil, paint, or excelsior. Valve protection caps must always be
in place, hand-tight, except when cylinders are in use. Do not store the cylinders
near radiators, furnaces, or in any place with above normal temperatures. In
tropical climates, care must be taken not to store acetylene in areas where the
temperature is in excess of 137 F (58 C). Heat will increase the pressure,
which may cause the safety fuse plug in the cylinder to blow out. Storage areas
should be located away from elevators, gangways, or other places where there is
a danger of cylinders being knocked over or damaged by falling objects.
C. Before attaching the pressure regulators, open each acetylene cylinder
valve for an instant to blow dirt out of the nozzles. Wipe off the connection seat
with a clean cloth. Do not stand in front of valves when opening them.
D. Outlet valves which have become clogged with ice should be thawed
with warm water. Do not use scalding water or an open flame.
E. Be sure the regulator tension screw is released before opening the cylinder valve. Always open the valve slowly to avoid strain on the regulator gauge
which records the cylinder pressure. Do not open the valve more than one and
one-half turns. Usually, one-half turn is sufficient. Always use the special Twrench pro-vided for the acetylene cylinder valve. Leave this wrench on the

stem of the valve till the cylinder is in use so the acetylene can be quickly turned
off in an emergency.
F. Acetylene is a highly combustible fuel gas and great care should be taken to
keep sparks, flames, and heat away from the cylinders. Never open an acetylene
cylinder valve near other welding or cutting work.
G. Never test for an acetylene leak with an open flame. Test all joints with
soapy water. Should a leak occur around the valve stem of the cylinder, close the
valve and tighten the packing nut. Cylinders leaking around the safety fuse plug
should be taken outdoors, away from all fires and sparks, and the valve opened
slightly to permit the contents to escape.
H. If an acetylene cylinder should catch fire, it can usually be extinguished
with a wet blanket. A burlap bag wet with calcium chloride solution is effective for
such an emergency. If these fail, spray a stream of water on the cylinder to keep it
I. Never interchange acetylene regulators, hose, or other apparatus with similar equipment intended for oxygen.
J. Always turn the acetylene cylinder so the valve outlet will point away from
the oxygen cylinder.
K. When returning empty cylinders, see that the valves are closed to prevent
escape of residual acetylene or acetone solvent. Screw on protecting caps.
L. Handle all compressed gas with extreme care. Keep cylinder caps on when
not in use.
M. Make sure that all compressed gas cylinders are secured to the wall or
other structural supports. Keep acetylene cylinders in the vertical condition.
O. Store compressed gas cylinders in a safe place with good ventilation.
Acetylene cylinders and oxygen cylinders should be kept apart.
N. Never use acetylene at a pressure in excess of 15 psi (103.4 kPa). Higher
pressure can cause an explosion.
O. Acetylene is nontoxic; however, it is an asphyxiant and can cause asphyxation in big enough concentrations.
furnace gas
regulator gauge
calcium carbide
safety fuse plug stem of the valve

acetylene leak
packing nut
gangway ,

connection seat
burlap bag

asphyxiant outlet valve

regulator tension screw


I. : 1) furnace gas; 2) safety fuse plug; 3) excelsior; 4) storage areas; 5) connection seat; 6) tension screw; 7) regulator gauge; 8) combustible gas; 9) pucking nut; 10) to extinguish flame.
II. : 1)
; 2) ; 3) ;
4) ; 5) ; 6) -;
7) ; 8) -; 9)
; 10) .
III. .
1. , . 2. .
, 3200 . 4.
, . 5.
, , . 6. ,
, ,
. 7. , . 8. , , . 9.
. 10. , , , .


The equipment used for oxyacetylene welding consists of a source of oxygen and a source of acetylene from a portable or stationary outfit, along with a
cutting attachment or a separate cutting torch. Other equipment requirements include suitable goggles for eye protection, gloves to protect the hands, a method
to light the torch, and wrenches to operate the various connections on the cylinders, regulators, and torches.
Stationary welding equipment is installed where welding operations are
conducted in a fixed location. Oxygen and acetylene are generally provided in
the welding area. Oxygen is obtained from a number of cylinders manifolded

and equipped with a master regulator. The regulator and manifold control the
pressure and the flow together. The oxygen is supplied to the welding stations
through a pipe line equipped with station outlets.
Acetylene is obtained either from acetylene cylinders or an acetylene generator It is supplied to the welding stations through a pipe line equipped with
station outlets.
The portable oxyacetylene welding outfit consists of an oxygen cylinder
and an acetylene cylinder with attached valves, regulators, gauges, and hoses.
This equipment may be temporarily secured on the floor or mounted on an all
welded steel truck. The trucks are equipped with a platform to support two large
size cylinders. The cylinders are secured by chains attached to the truck frame.
A metal toolbox, welded to the frame, provides storage space for torch tips,
gloves, fluxes, goggles, and necessary wrenches.
Acetylene is a fuel gas composed of carbon and hydrogen. It is generated
by the action of calcium carbide, a gray stone-like substance, and water in a
generating unit. Acetylene is colorless, but it has a distinctive odor that can be
easily detected. Mixtures of acetylene and air, containing from 2 to 80 % acetylene by volume, will explode when ignited. However, with suitable welding
equipment and proper precautions, acetylene can be safely burned with oxygen
for heating, welding, and cutting purposes.
Acetylene, when burned with oxygen, produces an oxyacetylene flame with
inner cone tip temperatures of approximately 6300 F (3482 C) for an oxidizing
flame; 5850 F (3232 C) for a neutral flame; and 5700 F (3149 C) for a carburizing flame.
A commonly used commercial generator uses 300 lb of calcium carbide
and 300 gal. of water. This amount of material will generate 4.5 cu ft of acetylene per pound; the output for this load is approximately 300 cu ft per hour for
4.5 hours.
Since considerable heat is given off during the reaction, precautions must
be taken to prevent excessive pressures in the generator which might cause fires
or explosions.
In the operation of the generator, the calcium carbide is added to the water
through a hopper mechanism at a rate which will maintain a working pressure of
the equipment. A sludge, consisting of hydrated or slaked lime, settles in the
bottom approximately 15 psi (103.4 kPa). A pressure regulator is a built-in part
of this generator and is removed by means of a sludge outlet.
Although acetylene is stable under low pressure, if compressed to 15 psi
(103.4 kPa), it becomes unstable. Heat or shock can cause acetylene under pressure to explode. Avoid exposing filled cylinders to heat, furnaces, radiators,
open fires, or sparks (from a torch). Avoid striking the cylinder against other objects and creating sparks. To avoid shock when transporting cylinders, do not
drag, roll, or slide them on their sides. Acetylene can be compressed into cylinders when dissolved in acetone at pressures up to 250 psi (1724 kPa).

For welding purposes, acetylene is contained in three common cylinders

with capacities of 60, 100, and 300 cu ft. Acetylene must not be drawn off in
volumes greater than 1/7 of the cylinders rated capacity.
Acetylene cylinders are equipped with safety plugs which have a small hole
through the center. This hole is filled with a metal alloy which melts at approximately 212 F (100 C), or releases at 500 psi (3448 kPa). When a cylinder
is overheated, the plug will melt and permit the acetylene to escape before dangerous pressures can be developed. The plug hole is too small to permit a flame
to burn back into the cylinder if escaping acetylene is ignited.
Brass acetylene cylinder valves have squared stainless steel valve stems.
These stems can be fitted with a cylinder wrench and opened or closed when the
cylinder is in use. The outlet of the valve is threaded for connection to an acetylene pressure regulator by means of a union nut. The regulator inlet connection
gland fits against the face of the threaded cylinder connection, and the union nut
draws the two surfaces together. Whenever the threads on the valve connections
are damaged to a degree that will prevent proper assembly to the regulator, the
cylinder should be marked and set aside for return to the manufacturer.
Acetylene which may accumulate in a storage room or in a confined
space is a fire arid explosion hazard. All acetylene cylinders should be
checked, using a soap solution, for leakage at the valves and safety fuse
stationary outfit
carburizing flame

portable outfit inner flame tip

oxidizing flame
cutting attachment

sludge ( manifold , )

valve stem
to manifold pressure regulator

union nut
master regulator
connection gland outlet

welding station
work station
threaded ,
cylinder truck


: 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6) ; 7) , ; 8) ; 9)
; 10) .
II. :
1) oxyacetylene welding; 2) to secure the equipment; 3) fixed location; 4) master
regulator; 5) toolbox; 6) generating unit; 7) proper precautions; 8) inner cone tip;
9) to prevent excessive pressure; 10) a built-in part of the generator.
III. .
1. , , . 2.
. 3.
. 4. . 5.
. 6. 254 psi. 7.
, 100. 8. ,
. 9.
, . 10. , .


Oxygen is a colorless, tasteless, odorless gas that is slightly heavier than
air. It is nonflammable but will support combustion with other elements. In its
free state, oxygen is one of the most common elements. The atmosphere is made
up of approximately 21 parts of oxygen and 78 parts of nitrogen, the remainder
being rare gases. Rusting of ferrous metals, discoloration of copper, and the corrosion of aluminum are all due to the action of atmospheric oxygen, known as
Oxygen is obtained commercially either by the liquid air process or by the
electrolytic process. In the liquid air process, air is compressed and cooled to a

point where the gases become liquid. As the temperature of the liquid air rises,
nitrogen in a gaseous form is given off first, since its boiling point is lower than
that of liquid oxygen. These gases, having been separated, are then further purified and compressed into cylinders for use. The liquid air process is by far the
most widely used to produce oxygen. In the electrolytic process, water is broken
down into hydrogen and oxygen by the passage of an electric current. The oxygen collects at the positive terminal and the hydrogen at the negative terminal.
Each gas is collected and compressed into cylinders for use.
Always refer to oxygen as oxygen, never as air. Combustibles should be
kept away from oxygen, including the cylinder, valves, regulators, and other
hose apparatus. Oxygen cylinders and apparatus should not be handled with oily
hands or oily gloves. Pure oxygen will support and accelerate combustion of almost any material, and is especially dangerous in the presence of oil and grease.
Oil and grease in the presence of oxygen may spontaneously ignite and burn
violently or explode. Oxygen should never be used in any air tools or for any of
the purposes for which compressed air is normally used.
A typical oxygen cylinder is made of steel and has a capacity of 220 cu ft at
a pressure of 2000 psi (13,790 kPa) and a temperature of 70 F (21 C). Attached equipment provided by the oxygen supplier consists of an outlet valve, a
removable metal cap for the protection of the valve, and a low melting point
safety fuse plug and disk. The cylinder is fabricated from a single plate of high
grade steel so that it will have no seams and is heat treated to achieve maximum
strength. Because of their high pressure, oxygen cylinders undergo extensive
testing prior to their release for work, and must be periodically tested thereafter.
The gases compressed in oxygen and acetylene cylinders are held at pressures too high for oxyacetylene welding. Regulators reduce pressure and control
the flow of gases from the cylinders. The pressure in an oxygen cylinder can be
as high as 2200 psi (15,169 kPa), which must be reduced to a working pressure
of 1 to 25 psi (6.90 to 172.38 kPa). The pressure of acetylene in an acetylene
cylinder can be as high as 250 psi (1724 kPa) and must be reduced to a working
pressure from 1 to 12 psi (6.90 to 82.74 kPa). A gas pressure regulator will
automatically deliver a constant volume of gas to the torch at the adjusted working pressure.
The regulators for oxygen, acetylene, and liquid petroleum fuel gases are of
different construction. They must be used only for the gas for which they were
designed. Most regulators in use are either the single stage or the two stage type.
Check valves must be installed between the torch hoses and the regulator to prevent flashback through the regulator. The single stage oxygen regulator reduces
the cylinder pressure of a gas to a working pressure in one step. The single stage
oxygen regulator mechanism has a nozzle through which the high pressure gas
passes, a valve seat to close off the nozzle, and balancing springs. Some types
have a relief valve and an inlet filter to exclude dust and dirt. Pressure gauges

are provided to show the pressure in the cylinder or pipe line and the working
In operation, the working pressure falls as the cylinder pressure falls, which
occurs gradually as gas is withdrawn. For this reason, the working pressure must
be adjusted at intervals during welding operations when using a single stage
oxygen regulator.
The oxygen regulator controls and reduces the oxygen pressure from any
standard commercial oxygen cylinder containing pressures up to 3000 psi. The
high pressure gauge, which is on the inlet side of the regulator, is graduated
from 0 to 3000 psi. The low or working pressure gauge, which is on the outlet
side of the regulator, is graduated from 0 to 500 psi.
A single stage oxygen regulator consists of a flexible diaphragm, which
controls a needle valve between the high pressure zone and the working zone, a
compression spring, and an adjusting screw, which compensates for the pressure
of the gas against the diaphragm. The needle valve is on the side of the diaphragm exposed to high gas pressure while the compression spring and adjusting screw are on the opposite side in a zone vented to the atmosphere.
The oxygen enters the regulator through the high pressure inlet connection
and passes through a glass wool filter, which removes dust and dirt. The seat,
which closes off the nozzle, is not raised until the adjusting screw is turned in.
Pressure is applied to the adjusting spring by turning the adjusting screw, which
bears down on the rubber diaphragm. The diaphragm presses downward on the
stirrup and overcomes the pressure on the compensating spring. When the stirrup is forced downward, the passage through the nozzle is open. Oxygen is then
allowed to flow into the low pressure chamber of the regulator. The oxygen then
passes through the regulator outlet and the hose to the torch. A certain set pressure must be maintained in the low pressure chamber of the regulator so that
oxygen will continue to be forced through the orifices of the torch, even if the
torch needle valve is open. This pressure is indicated on the working pressure
gauge of the regulator, and depends on the position of the regulator adjusting
screw. Pressure is increased by turning the adjusting screw to the right and decreased by turning this screw to the left.
Regulators used at stations to which gases are piped from an oxygen manifold, acetylene manifold, or acetylene generator have only one low pressure
gauge because the pipe line pressures are usually set at 15 psi (103.4 kPa) for
acetylene and approximately 200 psi (1379 kPa) for oxygen. The two stage oxygen regulator is similar in operation to the one stage regulator, but reduces pressure in two steps. On the high pressure side, the pressure is reduced from cylinder pressure to intermediate pressure. On the low pressure side the pressure is
reduced from intermediate pressure to work pressure. Because of the two stage
pressure control, the working pressure is held constant, and pressure adjustment
during welding operations is not required.

nonflammable single/two-stage regulator /

discoloration ,
( )
liquid air process to close off ,

electrolytic process = electrolysis


balancing / compensating spring

(air tools )

relief valve /
removable metal cap

compression spring
plate of steel

to heat-treat , vented

glass wool filter extensive testing /

to bear down
stirrup ,
set pressure
: 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6) ; 7) ; 8) ; 9) ; 10)
II. :
1) to support combustion; 2) positive terminal; 3) to compress gas; 4) hose apparatus; 5) grease; 6) relief valve; 7) to adjust working pressure at intervals;
8) high pressure gauge; 9) to graduate the pressure gauge; 10) to compensate for
the pressure.
III. .
1. . 2.
. 3.
. 4. , ,

. 5. , ,
. 6.
. 7. .
8. , . 9.
, . 10. ,


In electric welding processes, an arc is produced between an electrode and
the work piece (base metal). The arc is formed by passing a current between the
electrode and the workpiece across the gap. The current melts the base metal and
the electrode (if the electrode is a consumable type), creating a molten pool. On
solidifying, the weld is formed. An alternate method employs a nonconsumable
electrode, such as a tungsten rod. In this case, the weld is formed by melting and
solidifying the base metal at the joint. In some instances, additional metal is required and is added to the molten pool from a filler rod.
Electrical equipment required for arc welding depends on the source from
which the electric power is obtained. If the power is obtained from public utility
lines, one or more of the following devices are required: transformers (of which
there are several types), rectifiers, motor generators, and control equipment. If
public utility power is not available, portable generators driven by gasoline or
diesel engines are used.
The direct current welding machine has a heavy duty direct current generator. The generators are made in six standardized ratings for general purposes:
1) the machines rated 150 and 200 amperes, 30 volts, are used for light
shielded metal-arc welding and for gas metal-arc welding. They are also used
for general purpose job shop work;
2) the machines rated 200, 300, and 400 amperes, 40 volts, used for general
welding purposes by machine or manual application;
3) machines rated 600 amperes, 40 volts, are used for submerged arc welding and for carbon-arc welding.
The electric motors most commonly used to drive the welding generators
are 220/440 volts, 3 phase, 60 cycle. The gasoline and diesel engines should
have a rated horsepower in excess of the rated output of the generator. This will
allow for the rated overload capacity of the generator and for the power required
to operate the accessories of the engine. The simple equation HP = 1.25P/746

can be used; HP is the engine horsepower and P is the generator rating in watts.
For example, a 20 horsepower engine would be used to drive a welding generator with a rated 12 kilowatt output.
In most direct current welding machines, the generator is of the variable
voltage type, and is arranged so that the voltage is automatically adjusted to the
demands of the arc. However, the voltage may be set manually with a rheostat.
The welding current amperage is also manually adjustable, and is set by means
of a selector switch or series of plug receptacles. In either case, the desired amperage is obtained by tapping into the generator field coils. When both voltage
and amperage of the welding machine are adjustable, the machine is known as
dual control type. Welding machines are also manufactured in which current
controls are maintained by movement of the brush assembly.
A maintenance schedule should be set up to keep the welding machine in
good operating condition. The machine should be thoroughly inspected every 3
months and blown free of dust with clean, dry, compressed air. At least once
each year, the contacts of the motor starter switches and the rheostat should be
cleaned and replaced if necessary. Brushes should be inspected frequently to see
if they are making proper contact on the commutator, and that they move freely
in the brush holders. Clean the commutator with sandpaper if it is burned or
roughened. Check the bearings twice a year. Remove all the old grease and replace it with new grease.
Direct current rectifier type welding machines have been designed with
copper oxide, silicon, or selenium dry plates. These machines usually consist of
a transformer to reduce the power line voltage to the required 220/440 volts, 3
phase, 60 cycle input current; a reactor for adjustment of the current; and a rectifier to change the alternating current to direct current. Sometimes another reactor is used to reduce ripple in the output current.
Most of the alternating current arc welding machines in use are of the single operator, static transformer type. For manual operation in industrial applications, machines having 200, 300, and 400 ampere ratings are in general use. Machines with 150 ampere ratings are sometimes used in light industrial, garage
and job shop welding.
The transformers are generally equipped with arc stabilizing capacitors.
Current control is provided in several ways. One such method is by means of an
adjustable reactor in the output circuit of the transformer. In other types, internal
reactions of the transformer are adjustable. A hand-wheel, usually installed on
the front or the top of the machine, makes continuous adjustment of the output
current, without steps, possible.
The screws and bearings on machines with screw type adjustments should
be lubricated every 3 months. The same lubrication schedule applies to chain
Contacts, switches, relays, and plug and jack connections should be inspected every 3 months and cleaned or replaced as required. The primary input

current at no load should be measured and checked once a year to ensure the
power factor connecting capacitors are working, and that input current is as
specified on the nameplate or in the manufacturers instruction book.
public utility line
to tap into
, field coils

to be driven by , dual control type

heavy duty
current control /

welding machine brush assembly

to blow free
motor starter switch standardized rating

commutator , 60 cycle

to check bearings rated output

direct current rectifier type welding

rated horsepower machine

overload capacity
dry plate

input current , accessories ,

reactor ,
rheostat ,

arc stabilizing capacitor

screw type adjustment selector switch

chain drive
plug receptacle primary input current ,

: 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5)
220 ; 6) ; 7) ; 8) ; 9)

; 10) ; 11) ; 12) ; 13) /

; 14) ; 15) .
II. : 1) to employ non-consumable electrodes; 2) filler rod; 3) public utility line; 4) general
purpose shop work; 5) shielded metal arc welding; 6) submerged arc welding;
7) rated overload capacity; 8) direct current welding machine; 9) demands of the
arc; 10) dual control type; 11) alternating current arc welding machine; 12) stabilizing capacitor; 13) internal reactions; jack connection; 14) screws and bearings.
III. .
1. . 2.
, . 3.
. 4. :
. 5. . 6.
. 7. ,
, . 8.
, . 9. ,
. 10.
, . 11.
, , , , . 12. , , ,



GMAW is most commonly referred to as MIG welding, and the following text will use MIG or MIG welding when referring to GMAW. MIG
welding is a process in which a consumable, bare wire electrode is fed into a
weld at a controlled rate of speed, while a blanket of inert argon gas shields the
weld zone from atmospheric contamination. In addition to the three basic types
of metal transfer which characterize the GMAW process, there are several variations of significance.
(1) Pulsed spray welding. Pulsed spray welding is a variation of the MIG
welding process that is capable of allposition welding at higher energy levels
than short circuiting arc welding. The power source provides two current levels;
a steady background level, which is too low to produce spray transfer; and a
pulsed peak current, which is superimposed upon the background current at a
regulated interval. The pulse peak is well above the transition current, and usually one drop is transferred during each pulse. The combination of the two levels
of current produces a steady arc with axial spray transfer at effective welding
currents below those required for conventional spray arc welding. Because the
heat input is lower, this variation in operation is capable of welding thinner sections than are practical with the conventional spray transfer.
(2) Arc spot welding. Gas metal arc spot welding is a method of joining
similar to resistance spot welding and riveting. A variation of continuous gas
metal arc welding, the process fuses two pieces of sheet metal together by penetrating entirely through one piece into the other. No joint preparation is required
other than cleaning of the overlap areas. The welding gun remains stationary
while a spot weld is being made. Mild steel, stainless steel, and aluminum are
commonly joined by this method.
(3) Electrogas welding. The electrogas (EG) variation of the MIG welding
process is a fully automatic, high deposition rate method for the welding of butt,
corner, and T-joints in the vertical position. The electrogas variation essentially
combines the mechanical features of electroslag welding (ESW) with the MIG
welding process. Water-cooled copper shoes span the gap between the pieces
being welded to form a cavity for the molten metal. A carriage is mounted on a
vertical column; this combination provides both vertical and horizontal movement. Welding head, controls, and electrode spools are mounted on the carriage.
Both the carriage and the copper shoes move vertically upwards as welding progresses. The welding head may also be oscillated to provide uniform distribution
of heat and filler metal. This method is capable of welding metal sections of
from 1/2 in. (13 mm) to more than 2 in. in thickness in a single pass.
Different types of MIG welding equipment are available through normal
supply channels. Manuals for each type must be consulted prior to welding operations.

The MIG welding unit is designed for manual welding with small diameter
wire electrodes, using a Spool-on-gun torch. The unit consists of a torch, a voltage
control box, and a welding contractor. The torch handle contains a device that pulls
the welding wire electrode from a 4 in. (102 mm) diameter spool containing 1 lb
(0.5 kg) of wire electrode mounted in the rear of the torch.
Three basic sizes of wire electrode may be used: 3/32 in. (2.38 mm), 3/64 in.
(1.19 mm), and 1/16 in. (1.59 mm). Many types of metal may be welded provided
the welding wire electrode is of the same composition as the base metal.
The unit is designed for use with an ac-dc conventional, constant-current
welding power supply. Gasoline engine-driven arc welding machines issued to field
units may be used as both a power source and a welding source.
Nomenclature of a torch
1. A contact tube is made of copper and has a hole in the center of the tube
that is from 0.01 to 0.02 in. (0.25 to 0.51 mm) larger than the size of the wire electrode being used. The contact tube and the inlet and outlet guide bushings must be
changed when the size of the wire electrode is changed . The contact tube transfers
power from the electrode cable to the welding wire electrode. An insulated lock
screw is provided which secures the contact tube in the torch.
2. The nozzle is made of copper to dissipate heat and is chrome-plated to reflect the heat. The holder is made of stainless steel and is connected to an insulating
material which prevents an arc from being drawn between the nozzle and the
ground in case the gun comes in contact with the work.
3. Inlet and outlet guide bushings. They must be changed to suit the wire electrode size. Pressure roll assembly is a smooth roller, under spring tension, which
pushes the wire electrode against the feed roll and allows the wire to be pulled from
the spool. A thumbscrew applies tension as required.
4. Motor. When the inch button is depressed, the current for running the motor
comes from the 110 V ac-dc source, and the rotor pulls the wire electrode from the
spool before starting the welding operation. When the trigger is depressed, the actual welding operation starts and the motor pulls the electrode from the spool at the
required rate of feed. The current for this rotor is supplied by the welding generator.
5. Spool enclosure assembly is made of plastic. It prevents arc spatter from
jamming the wire electrode on the spool. A small window allows the operator to
visually check the amount of wire electrode remaining on the spool. If for any reason the wire electrode stops feeding, a burn-back will result. With the trigger depressed, the welding contactor is closed, thereby allowing the welding current to
flow through the contact tube. As long as the wire electrode advances through the
tube, an arc will be drawn at the end of the wire electrode. Should the wire electrode stop feeding while the trigger is still being depressed, the arc will then form at
the end of the contact tube, causing it to melt off. This is called burn-back.
6. Welding contactor. The positive cable from the dc welding generator is
connected to a cable coming out of the welding contactor, and the ground cable is
connected to the workpiece. The electrode cable and the welding contactor cable
are connected between the welding contactor and voltage control box.

7. Argon gas hose is connected from the voltage control box to the argon gas
regulator on the argon cylinder.
8. The electrode cable enters through the welding current relay and connects
into the argon supply line. Both then go out of the voltage control box and into the
torch in one line.
9. Voltage pickup cable (this cable must be attached to the ground cable at the
workpiece. It supplies the current to the motor during welding when the trigger is
10. Torch switch and grounding cables. The torch switch cable is connected
into the voltage control box, and the torch grounding cable is connected to the case
of the voltage control box.
pulsed spray welding
oscillate ,

spool-on-the-gun torch
background level current

a voltage control box pulsed peak current

welding contactor pulse
transition current ,
field unit

guide bushing
conventional spray arc welding
insulated lock screw

axial spray transfer

pressure roll assembly effective welding current

feed roll
contact tube
joint preparation , thumbscrew -,

welding gun
inch button
electrogas welding

high deposition rate method ,
spool enclosure assembly

arc spatter
electroslag welding burn-back

copper shoes
voltage pick up cable carriage ,


: 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ;
5) ; 6) ; 7) ; 8) , ; 9) ;
10) , ; 11) ;
12) ; 13) ; 14)
; 15)
II. : 1) a blanket of inert gas; 2) metal transfer; 3) pulsed spray welding; 4) to superimpose;
5) effective current; 6) resistance welding; 7) butt joint; 8) a voltage control box;
9) ac-dc conventional, constant current welding power supply; 10) field unit;
11) under spring tension; 12) when the inch button is depressed; 13) spool enclosure assembly; 14) the welding contactor cable; 15) the welding current relay.


When molten metal is exposed to air, it absorbs oxygen and nitrogen, and
becomes brittle or is otherwise adversely affected. A slag cover is needed to protect molten or solidifying weld metal from the atmosphere. This cover can be
obtained from the electrode coating, which protects the metal from damage, stabilizes the arc, and improves the weld in many ways.
The metal-arc electrodes may be grouped and classified as bare electrodes,
light coated electrodes, and shielding arc or heavy coated electrodes. The type
used depends on the specific properties required in the weld deposited. These
include corrosion resistance, ductility, high tensile strength, the type of base
metal to be welded; the position of the weld (i.e., flat, horizontal, vertical, or
overhead); and the type of current and polarity required.
Bare electrodes are made of wire compositions required for specific applications. These electrodes have no coatings other than those required in wire
drawing. These wire drawing coatings have some slight stabilizing effect on the
arc but are otherwise of no consequence. Bare electrodes are used for welding
manganese steel and other purposes where a coated electrode is not required or
is undesirable.
Light coated electrodes have a definite composition. A light coating has
been applied on the surface by washing, dipping, brushing, spraying, tumbling,
or wiping to improve the stability and characteristics of the arc stream. The coating generally serves the following functions:
a) it dissolves or reduces impurities such as oxides, sulfur, and phosphorus;

b) it changes the surface tension of the molten metal so that the globules of
metal leaving the end of the electrode are smaller and more frequent, making the
flow of molten metal more uniform;
c) it increases the arc stability by introducing materials readily ionized (i.e.,
changed into small particles with an electric charge) into the arc stream.
Some of the light coatings may produce a slag, but it is quite thin and does
not act in the same manner as the shielded arc electrode type slag.
Shielded arc or heavy coated electrodes have a definite composition on
which a coating has been applied by dipping or extrusion. The electrodes are
manufactured in three general types: those with cellulose coatings; those with
mineral coatings; and those with coatings of combinations of mineral and cellulose. The cellulose coatings are composed of soluble cotton or other forms of
cellulose with small amounts of potassium, sodium, or titanium, and in some
cases added minerals. The mineral coatings consist of sodium silicate, metallic
oxides, clay, and other inorganic substances or combinations thereof. Cellulose
coated electrodes protect the molten metal with a gaseous zone around the arc as
well as slag deposit over the weld zone. The mineral coated electrode forms a
slag deposit only. The shielded arc or heavy coated electrodes are used for welding steels, cast iron, and hard surfacing.
Functions of Shielded Arc or Heavy Coated Electrodes.
(1) These electrodes produce a reducing gas shield around the arc which
prevents atmospheric oxygen or nitrogen from contaminating the weld metal.
The oxygen would readily combine with the molten metal, removing alloying
elements and causing porosity. The nitrogen would cause brittleness, low ductility, and in some cases, low strength and poor resistance to corrosion.
(2) The electrodes reduce impurities such as oxides, sulfur, and phosphorus
so that these impurities will not impair the weld deposit.
(3) They provide substances to the arc which increase its stability and
eliminate wide fluctuations in the voltage so that the arc can be maintained
without excessive spattering.
(4) By reducing the attractive force between the molten metal and the end
of the electrode, or by reducing the surface tension of the molten metal, the vaporized and melted coating causes the molten metal at the end of the electrode to
break up into fine, small particles.
(5) The coatings contain silicates which will form a slag over the molten
weld and base metal. Since the slag solidifies at a relatively slow rate, it holds
the heat and allows the underlying metal to cool and slowly solidify. This slow
solidification of the metal eliminates the entrapment of gases within the weld
and permits solid impurities to float to the surface. Slow cooling also has an annealing effect on the weld deposit.
(6) The physical characteristics of the weld deposit are modified by incorporating alloying materials in the electrode coating. The fluxing action of the

slag will also produce weld metal of better quality and permit welding at higher
(7) The coating insulates the sides of the electrode so that the arc is concentrated into a confined area. This facilitates welding in a deep U or V groove.
(8) The coating acts as a shield, concentrates and directs the arc, reduces
heat losses and increases the temperature at the end of the electrode.
Electrodes must be kept dry. Moisture destroys the desirable characteristics
of the coating, may cause excessive spattering and lead to the formation of
cracks in the welded area. Electrodes exposed to damp air for more than two or
three hours should be dried by heating in a suitable oven for two hours at 500 F
(260 C). After they have dried, they should be stored in a moisture proof container. Bending the electrode can cause the coating to break loose from the core
wire. Electrodes should not be used if the core wire is exposed.
shielded arc electrode
wire drawing

bare electrode ,
tumbling ,

light-coated electrode
globule ,


dipping , reducing gas shield

entrapment ()
: 1) ; 2) ; 3) (); 4) ; 5) ; 6) ; 7) ; 8) , ; 9) ; 10) ; 11) ; 12) / ; 13) , ; 14) ; 15) .
II. : 1) to affect adversely; 2) metal arc electrode; 3) high tensile stress; 4) wire drawing
coating; 5) materials readily ionized; 6) soluble cotton cellulose; 7) sodium;
8) reducing gas shield; 9) resistance to corrosion; 10) to impair the weld deposit;
11) annealing effect; 12) weld deposit; 13) oven; 14) moisture-proof container;
15) if the core wire is exposed.


Nonconsumable electrodes for gas tungsten-arc (TIG) welding are of three
types: pure tungsten, tungsten containing 1 or 2 percent thorium, and tungsten containing 0.3 to 0.5 percent zirconium.
Tungsten electrodes can be identified by painted end marks as follows:
a) green pure tungsten;
b) yellow 1 percent thorium;
c) red 2 percent thorium;
d) brown 0.3 to 0.5 percent zirconium.
Pure tungsten (99.5 percent tungsten) electrodes are generally used on less
critical welding operations than the tungstens which are alloyed. This type of electrode has a relatively low current-carrying capacity and a low resistance to contamination.
Thoriated tungsten electrodes (1 or 2 percent thorium) are superior to pure
tungsten electrodes because of their higher electron output, better arc-starting and
arc stability, high current-carrying capacity, longer life, and greater resistance to
Tungsten electrodes, containing 0.3 to 0.5 percent zirconium, generally fall
between pure tungsten electrodes and thoriated tungsten electrodes in terms of performance. There is, however, some indication of better performance in certain
types of welding using ac power.
Finer arc control can be obtained if the tungsten alloyed electrode is ground to a
point. When electrodes are not ground, they must be operated at maximum current
density to obtain reasonable arc stability. Tungsten electrode points are difficult to
maintain if standard direct current equipment is used as a power source and touchstarting of the arc is standard practice. Maintenance of electrode shape and the reduction of tungsten inclusions in the weld can best be accomplished by superimposing a
high-frequency current on the regular welding current. Tungsten electrodes alloyed
with thorium and zirconium retain their shape longer when touch-starting is used.
The electrode extension beyond the gas cup is determined by the type of the
joint being welded. For example, an extension beyond the gas cup of 1/8 in. (3.2
mm) might be used for butt joints in light gauge material, while an extension of approximately 1/4 to 1/2 in. (6.4 to 12.7 mm) might be necessary on some fillet
welds. The tungsten electrode of torch should be inclined slightly and the filler
metal added carefully to avoid contact with the tungsten. This will prevent contamination of the electrode. If contamination does occur, the electrode must be removed, reground, and replaced in the torch.
In direct current welding, the welding current circuit may be hooked up as either straight polarity (dcsp) or reverse polarity (dcrp). The polarity recommended
for use with a specific type of electrode is established by the manufacturer.
For dcsp, the welding machine connections are electrode negative and workpiece positive (the electron flow is from electrode to workpiece). For dcrp, the
welding machine connections are electrode-positive and workpiece-negative; the
electron flow is from workpiece to electrode.

For both current polarities, the greatest part of the heating effect occurs at the
positive side of the arc. Thus, for any given welding current, dcrp requires a larger
diameter electrode than does dcsp. For example, a l/16-in. (1.6-mm) diameter pure
tungsten electrode can handle 125 amperes of welding current under straight polarity conditions. If the polarity were reversed, however, this amount of current would
melt off the electrode and contaminate the weld metal. Hence, a 1/4-in. (6.4-mm)
diameter pure tungsten electrode is required to handle 125 amperes dcrp satisfactorily and safely. However, when heavy coated electrodes are used, the composition
of the coating and the gases it produces may alter the heat conditions. This will
produce greater heat on the negative side of the arc. One type of coating may provide the most desirable heat balance with straight polarity, while another type of
coating on the same electrode may provide a more desirable heat balance with reverse polarity.
The different heating effects influence not only the welding action, but also
the shape of the weld obtained. DCSP welding will produce a wide, relatively shallow weld. DCRP welding, because of the larger electrode diameter and lower currents generally employed, gives a narrow, deep weld.
One other effect of dcrp welding is the so-called plate cleaning effect. This
surface cleaning action is caused either by the electrons leaving the plate or by the
impact of the gas ions striking the plate, which tends to break up the surface oxides
and dirt usually present.
In general, straight polarity is used with all mild steel, bare, or light coated
electrodes. Reverse polarity is used in the welding of non-ferrous metals such as
aluminum, bronze, monel, and nickel. Reverse polarity is also used with some
types of electrodes for making vertical and overhead welds.
The proper polarity for a given electrode can be recognized by the sharp,
cracking sound of the arc. The wrong polarity will cause the arc to emit a hissing
sound, and the welding bead will be difficult to control.
current-carrying capacity electrode extension

electron output dcsp direct current straight polarity

gas cup

less critical operations dcrp direct current reverse polarity


gauge . ()
current density
( , .)
touch starting
to hook up
light gauge material monel - (
superimpose , plate cleaning effect


: 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) () ; 5) ; 6) ; 7) ; 8) ; 9) ;
10) ; 11) ;
12) ; 13) ;
14) .
II. : 1) resistance to contamination; 2) in terms of performance; 3) touch starting; 4) electrode points are difficult to maintain; 5) the welding machine connections are
electrode negative; 6) thoriated tungsten electrodes; 7) to grind to a point; 8) at
maximum current density; 9) to superimpose a high frequency current on the
regular welding current; 10) electrode extension; 11) plate cleaning effect; 12) to
emit a hissing sound.
Alternating current welding, theoretically, is a combination of dcsp and dcrp
welding: half of each complete alternating current (ac) cycle is dcsp, the other half
is dcrp.
Moisture, oxides, scale, etc., on the surface of the plate tend, partially or completely, to prevent the flow of current in the reverse polarity direction. This is
called rectification. To prevent rectification from occurring, it is common practice
to introduce into the welding current an additional high-voltage, high-frequency,
low-power current. This high-frequency current jumps the gap between the electrode and the workpiece and pierces the oxide film, thereby forming a path for the
welding current to follow. Superimposing this high-voltage, high-frequency current
on the welding current gives a number of advantages: the arc may be started without touching the electrode to the workpiece; better arc stability is obtained; a longer
arc is possible which is particularly useful in surfacing operations; welding electrodes have longer life; the use of wider current range for a specific diameter electrode is possible.
Direct Current Arc Welding Electrodes.
The manufacturers recommendations should be followed when a specific
type of electrode is being used. In general, direct current shielded arc electrodes are
designed either for reverse polarity (electrode positive) or for straight polarity
(electrode negative), or both. Many, but not all, of the direct current electrodes can
be used with alternating current. Direct current is preferred for many types of cov149

ered, nonferrous, bare and alloy steel electrodes. Recommendations from the manufacturer also include the type of base metal for which given electrodes are suited,
corrections for poor fit-ups, and other specific conditions.
In most cases, straight polarity electrodes will provide less penetration than
reverse polarity electrodes, and for this reason they will permit greater welding
speed. Good penetration can be obtained from either proper welding conditions or
arc manipulation.
Coated electrodes which can be used with either direct or alternating current
are available. Alternating current is more desirable while welding in restricted areas
or when using the high currents required for thick sections because it reduces arc
blow. Arc blow causes blowholes, slag inclusions, and lack of fusion in the weld.
Alternating current is used in atomic hydrogen welding and in those carbon
arc processes that require the use of two carbon electrodes. It permits a uniform rate
of welding and electrode consumption. In carbon-arc processes where one carbon
electrode is used, direct current straight polarity is recommended, because the electrode will be consumed at a lower rate.
If certain elements or oxides are present in electrode coatings, the arc stability
will be affected. In bare electrodes, the composition and uniformity of the wire is
an important factor in the control of arc stability. Thin or heavy coatings on the
electrodes will completely remove the effects of defective wire.
Aluminum or aluminum oxide (even when present in 0.01 percent), silicon,
silicon dioxide, and iron sulphate cause the arc to be unstable. Iron oxide, manganese oxide, calcium oxide, and iron sulphate tend to stabilize the arc.
When phosphorus or sulfur is present in the electrode in excess of 0.04 percent, they will impair the weld metal because they are transferred from the electrode to the molten metal with very little loss. Phosphorus causes grain growth,
brittleness and cold shortness (i.e., brittle when below red heat) in the weld.
These defects increase in magnitude as the carbon content of the steel increases.
Sulfur acts as a slag, breaks up the soundness of the weld metal, and causes
hot shortness (i.e., brittle when above red heat). Sulfur is particularly harmful to
bare, low-carbon steel electrodes with a low manganese content. Manganese promotes formation of sound welds.
scale ,
lack of fusion
grain growth
poor fit-up (surfacing , )

arc manipulation
cold shortness
high current
to jump the gap
blowhole ,
arbon arc welding

atomic hydrogen welding

: 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ;
5) ; 6) ; 7)
; 8) ; 9) ;
10) ; 11)
; 12) ; 13) ; 14) .
II. : 1) to
jump the gap between the electrodes; 2) to form a path for the welding current;
3) surfacing operations; 4) welding electrodes have longer life; 5) the use of
wider current range; 6) direct current shielded arc electrodes; 7) corrections for
poor fit-ups; 8) straight polarity electrodes; 9) to permit greater welding speed;
10) in carbon arc processes; 11) the arc stability will be affected; 12) to impair
the weld metal; 13) these defects increase in magnitude; 14) bare low carbon
steel electrodes.

Unit 54.
, . , , , .

- , , .
, .
, , , , .
, .

, , .
. , .
, . ,
, .
, , . , .
, . ,
, .
, .
- ,
. , ,

, . ,
, , . .
affected zone / area
corner joint
butt joint
a binding part
lap joint
end face, butt

to be positioned
, to align
at an angle
fillet weld

number of layers
continuous weld
tack weld
in relation to

metal consumption
to cause


I. : 1) a part of an assembly; 2) a heat affected zone; 3) adjacent;
4) heat effect of welding; 5) crystallized metal; 6) weld joint; 7) metal properties; 8) immediate to ; 9) concentration of tensions; 10) number of layers;
11) to partially overlap; 12) sharp transition; 13) to cover a joint; 14) continuous
weld; 15) multi-bead weld.
II. : 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ;
5) ; 6) ; 7) ; 8) ; 9) ; 10) ; 11) ; 12) ; 13) ; 14) ; 14) ;
15) .
Unit 55.
, , ,
, ,
, .
. ,
, ,

, .
05 .
, .
, , , . - ,
1,61,7 .

. , , .. , . , .
, .
( ) . , 50100 400500 .

, . , ,
, .
. , . . .
heat affected
grind off
file off

filler / added metal

() brand
the quantity of the filler
welding output
- double
groove preparation
postweld distortion

root facing
burning through
() to align
from drawings
prewelding fit-up
rigid fixture
principal weld
weld root
to dress the weld

I. : 1) in the heat affected area; 2) to take off by a grinder; 3) the angle of grooving; 4) the opening; 5) the quantity of welding output; 6) to compress tightly; 7) the least post welding distortion; 8) to root face the edges;
9) half rigid fixture; 10) principal weld.
II. : 1)
; 2) ; 3) ;
4) ; 5) ; 6) ; 7)
; 8) ; 9) ; 10) .

Unit 56.
, ,
. , -,
- .. ; .
, .
: 1) (0,25 ); 2) ; 3) ,

, , ; 4) , , , ; 5) ; 6) .
, 810
3040 .
, , ,
, ()
. , , ,
, , ..
, ,
, , , .

- , ,
, ( ), -
, . ,
. . , ,
, . .
, .
, . .

gas welding
overheat, superheat
oxy-acetylene welding
the rise of grain
fusion welding
mild heating
efficient, rational
instru bevel
mental steel
single bevel
double bevel
square bevel
building up
raised edge
flame angle

, deforheat effect of the flame
mation, distortion
balanced /
techninormal flame
cally feasible
metal work,
/ soft /
metal assembly
harsh flame
(big) machine
filler stick
I. : 1) various fuels can be used; 2) limited application; 3) metal
heating; 4) versatility; 5) technically feasible; 6) inadvisable, inexpedient;
7) uneconomical; 8) construction metal works; 9) machine frame; 10) rise of
coarse grain; 11) fillet weld; 12) flame power; 13) square joint; 14) to adjust the
torch; 15) to get balanced flame.
II. : 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ;
5) ; 6) ; 7) ; 8) ; 9) ; 10) ; 11)
; 12) ; 13) ;
14) ; 15) .


Unit 57.

, . , , . 412 .
, . .
, , .
, .
, 56 .
, , ,
. , , . , .
. .
, ,

. .

. ,
. , .

, ..

, . .
100 /. 120300 /2.
, , .
, , ,
. , .
, . 38 /2.

. , . , .
, ,
, .

spot welding
high electro-conductivity
running water
welded spot
lens plastic, ductile
shaped, lentil-shaped
plasticity, ductility

electrode tip area
working / service life
sealing ring
forging, post-welding

metal inside expulsion
outside expulsion
, inclusion, pore, air
shrink hole

current leakage / leak
to by-pass
effective pressure
welded assembly
chemical cleaning
welding fit-up
absorb pressure
slight surface melting
heat treatment to relieve

I. : 1) cooled by running water; 2) make a lens / lentil-shaped button; 3) at a considerable upsetting pressure; 4) secure appropriate strength of the
welded spot; 5) electrodes with a small tip area; 6) the button lacks fusion; 7) a
sealing ring of ductile metal; 8) too big button; 9) to recede the shell of heated
hard metal; 10) alternation of welding and post welding upsetting cycles; 11)
current leak; 12) to secure tight contact; 13) effective upsetting pressure; 14) it
results in spots of various strength; 15) pressure ranges from 3 to 8.
II. : 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6) ; 7) ; 8) ; 9) ; 10) ; 11) ; 12) ; 13) ; 14) ; 15) .


Unit 58.
. ,
, , .
, .
, ,
. , ,
, ,
, . :
, , .
, , , , , .
, ,
, . .
. - , . , , ,
. .
. ,
, .

. , , .
( ) -
, - .

. .
, , .
, . .

. . , , ,
, .
, .
, ,
( 100300 ).
. . , .
, ,
, . .
. : , , , ,
. . , .

, .
( ) .
. . ,
. ,
, , , , .
from standard
amgle of bevel
welding assembly
edge con ( ) fit-up
inap weld root
propriate welding procedure
en roll
trance / exit slip
calculated di multi-layer
mensions / size
weld / multi-bead deposit
unfilled crater

weld area /
abrupt stress concentration
hot / solidifica irregular
tion cracksweld
- to be

trapped in smth
voltage fluctuations in the mains
air hole
feeding roll
of metal
weld line
work /
welding line
electrode angle
faulty fusion, lack
of fusion

I. : 1) departure from standards; 2) accepted tolerances; 3) location
and cause; 4) violation of technology; 5) calculated size; 6) external defects;
7) NDT; 8) irregular weld; 9) voltage fluctuations; 10) to detect defects; 11) to
make fillet welds; 12) edge contamination; 13) penetration of molten metal from
the weld pool; 14) abrupt stress concentration; 15) to cause destruction of the
II. : 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6)
; 7) ; 8) ; 9) ; 10)
; 11) ; 12) ; 13) , ; 14)
; 15) .

Unit 59.

. , , , ,
, ,
, , .
. ; .

, , . , ,
, ,
. 164

, , ,

. , , ,
, , , .
( ), . ,
. .
, . , ;
, .
, .
, ,
, , ,
. ,
, . , , .
, , . 0,5 , 0,20,3 .


to wind the
automation and mechanization
labour consuming
trans guarmission, transfer device
antee uniform product
drive roller
metal working
mechanism / device
semi-automatic ma electric motor
straighten welding
ing device / liner
to start / to initiate /
current lead
to fire the arc
( ) wire
according to
their consumption
joule heat

current density
to provide stable arcing
arc extinction
an automatic (arc
welding) head

no load / idling of the power source
arc gap
to feed the
I. : 1) welding set-up; 2) to provide stable arcing; 3) metal working;
4) current leading contacts; 5) wire in bundles or coils; 6) liner; 7) wire heating;
8) the rate of wire feed; 9) at a normal arc length; 10) a chance arc length increase.
II. : 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5)
; 6) ; 7) ; 8) ; 9) ; 10) ; 11) ; 12) ; 13) ; 14) ; 15)


Unit 60.
, .
, : 1)
; 2) . - , .
, .. .
, . , , , .
. . ..

- . , .
, , , .
, : , .
, , . ,

, , .
, .
, .
( ) ,
, , ,
. ,
, .
, , . , , , ..
automatic welding
steady voltage
constant oper current density
ating conditions / mode
external charac operating conditions
teristic / factor
accidental char) quiet characteristics / curves
rising external characteristics
suspended head
of adjustment / control
tractor head
feed speed / rate
travel carriage
arc power
straight weld
curved weld

arc travel
automatic control / adjustment
inherent regumechanism
lation / self-adjustment


I. : 1) automatic regulator; 2) irrespective of; 3) constant speed of
wire feed; 4) in proportion of; 5) steady / constant arc voltage; 6) inherent regulation; 7) is most notably effected; 8) external characteristic; 9) accidental decrease; 10) low current density; 11) automated welding conditions; 12) quiet
curves of the current source; 13) to sustain the arc; 14) to travel along the welding line; 15) suspended automatic welding head.
II. : 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6)
; 7) ; 8) , ; 9) ; 10) ; 11) ;
12) ; 13) ; 14)
; 15) .

Unit 61.

. , ,
. .
, ,


, ;



. ( ),
. (SiO2 .), .
: ,
. , , , .

, , , .
boric acid
() separation,
soda, sodium carbonate
dense weld
arc atmosphere

molten / liquid flux
to cause harmful / detrimental effect
to anneal / cal added metal
cinate /temper the flux

observe the
spread / flow over the surface
condition of
acid flux
basic flux
acid oxide
manufacturers certificate
I. : 1) to treat the metal of the weld pool; 2) not inclined / liable to
cracking; 3) to spread over the surface; 4) to be easily stripped off the metal surface; 5) basic oxides; 6) acid fluxes; 7) pure borax; 8) high carbon manganese
flux; 9) specifications; 10) manufacturers certificate.

II. : 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5)
; 6) ; 7) ;
8) ; 9) ; 10) .

Unit 62.
, , .
, .
. , , , .
, , .
, .
, . 40 .
1,52 .
, . ,
1,52 , . , , .
, . , , .
, , ,
. 14,5 .
, , .

, , . ( 1 ).
, . .
, ,

. 99,5 %.
. 0,5 % . ( 5 %) .

. , 5 % , ,
, .
inert gas
to dissolve
surface finish, weld smoothness
non-combustible, non heat release /
ignition, inflam heliummation
shielded arc
marked, pronounced
(dangerously) ex
metal treatment processes
when pure, in the
pure state
pool flow
(nitrates) - , HNO3
(nitrides) , , . , , , , ,
, .
(nitrites) , HNO2.
I. : 1) undergo no reaction; 2) to be equal to argon; 3) to excel argon; 4) to sustain combustion; 5) hazardous; 6) to be supplied in cylinders;

7) helium shielded arc; 8) weld surface finish / smoothness; 9) contact with;

10) its consumption goes up by 1.52 times.
II. : 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6) ; 7) ; 8)
; 9) ; 10) .

Unit 63.

, . :
, , ,
, , ,
. , ,
. ,
. - .
0,2 30 .
: , , , . .
0,5 , ,
. , .
( 0,5 ), , .
, () , .


, , . , .
, , .

. , .
. ,
. -
70160 /.
, ,
0,50,7 . , .
, .
, ,
. , , , .
gas welder
gas welding
heat output
ble welding flame
inhector /
precise / aclow pressure torch
curate regulation / balance
red copper

pressure / pressure / high pressure
oxyacetylene torch
( ) sucking
in, dragging in
by gravity, by itself, of
its own accord
forced, induced
receiving /
suction nipple
regulator, adjusting screw

mixing orifice
mixing chamber
gas flow rate
homogeneous, uniform
ignition, inflammation
ready (for use)

I. : 1) to be accurately regulated; 2) precisely and accurately made;
3) a higher heat output; 4) an injector to drag the fuel gas in; 5) pressure torch;
6) the gas should be forced into the torch; 7) mixer; 8) mixing chamber; 9) the
gas flow cross section; 10) mixing orifice; 11) flow rate; 12) a homogeneous
mixture; 13) rate of combustion; 14) a neutral flame; 15) to be used industrially.
II. : 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6) ;
7) ; 8) ; 9) ; 10)
; 11) ; 12) ; 13) ; 14) ; 15) .


1. - / . . . . . : , 1967.
2. , . . / . . , . . .
. : , 2002.
3. Althouse, D. Modern Welding / D. Althouse, C. H. Turnquist,
W. A. Bowditch. London : The Goodheart-Willcox Co., 1990.
4. Cary, H. B. Modern Welding Technology / H. B. Cary, C. H. Scott.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey : Pearson Education, 2005.
5. Manly, H. P. Oxy-Acetylene Welding and Cutting / H. P. Manly. 2005.
6. Rules for classification of ships // High Speed, Light Craft and Naval
Service Craft : manual. Oslo : Der Norske Veritas, 2005.
7. Welding Handbook / Ed. by R. L. OBrien. Miami : American Welding Society, 1991. Vol. 2.
8. Weman, C. Welding Processes : handbook / C. Weman. New York :
CRC Press LLC, 2003.
9. : http://www.philpem.me.uk/elec/welder, .
. . .
10. : http://websvarka.ru, . . . .



( )


2095. 200 . ( 100 .).

.-. . 11,1. . . . 10,3.

414056, . , . , 20
. (8512) 48-53-47 ( ), 48-53-45 (),
48-53-44, ./ (8512) 48-53-46
E-mail: asupress@yandex.ru