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Министерство науки и высшего образования РФ

ФГАОУ ВО «Северо–восточный федеральный университет им.М.К.Аммосова»


Институт зарубежной филологии и регионоведения
Кафедра «Иностранные языки по гуманитарным специальностям»

Е.М.Попова, Н.В.Слепцова, Е.Н.Федорова

СБОРНИК КОНТРОЛИРУЮЩИХ
МАТЕРИАЛОВ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ
для студентов педагогических специальностей
заочной формы обучения

Якутск 2019
УДК 378: 811.111
ББК 81.2Англ.я 73
С 23

Утверждено учебно-методическим советом


СВФУ им.М.К.Аммосова

Рецензенты:
М.Б.Сидорова, к.филол.н, доцент кафедры «Английская филология»
Института зарубежной филологии и регионоведения Северо-восточного
федерального университета им.М.К.Аммосова;
О.Н.Иванова, к.п.н., доцент кафедры социально-гуманитарных дисциплин
экономического факультета Якутской государственной
сельскохозяйственной академии

Сборник контролирующих материалов по английскому языку для


студентов педагогических специальностей заочной формы обучения /
Е.М.Попова, Н.В.Слепцова, Е.Н.Федорова. - Якутск: Альфа-принт, 2019. –
101с.
Настоящее пособие предназначено для студентов заочной формы
обучения педагогических специальностей. Целью пособия является
закрепление знаний и навыков в рамках курса английского языка в объеме
требований, предъявляемых к студентам неязыковых вузов.
Данное пособие имеет как теоретическое, так и практическое
предназначение, поскольку в нем изложен грамматический материал в
наиболее доступной для понимания форме, а также задания контрольных
работ по вариантам.
УДК 378: 811.111
ББК 81.2Англ.я 73
Оглавление

Методические рекомендации .............................................................................. 4

ТЕМА 1 ................................................................................................................. 6
Контрольная работа №1 ..................................................................................... 14

ТЕМА 2 ............................................................................................................... 24
Контрольная работа №2 ..................................................................................... 27

ТЕМА 3 ............................................................................................................... 37
Контрольная работа №3 ..................................................................................... 41

ТЕМА 4 ............................................................................................................... 50
Контрольная работа №4 ..................................................................................... 53

ТЕМА 5 ............................................................................................................... 63
Контрольная работа №5 ..................................................................................... 66

Материалы для подготовки к экзамену............................................................. 76

Библиографический список ............................................................................... 99

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Методические рекомендации

Основной целью обучения студентов английскому языку в ВУЗе


является практическое владение языком, что предполагает при заочном
обучении формирование умения самостоятельно читать литературу по
специальности с целью извлечения информации из иноязычных источников,
развитие навыков устной речи/говорение и аудирование/в рамках
определенной программой тематики. Для контроля понимания прочитанного,
в качестве способа передачи полученной при чтении информации, а также
как средство обучения используется перевод.
Особенностью заочного обучения является то, что объем
самостоятельной работы по выработке речевых навыков и умений
значительно превышает объем практических аудиторных занятий, поэтому
для того, чтобы добиться успеха, необходимы систематические
самостоятельные занятие.
Самостоятельная работа студента по изучению иностранного языка
включает в себя заучивание лексических единиц, овладение правилами
словообразования и грамматики, чтение текстов вслух в соответствии с
правилами чтения, построение вопросов и ответов к текстам, перевод на
русский язык /устный и письменный/.
Цель и задачи пособия
Настоящее пособие предназначено для студентов заочной формы
обучения педагогических специальностей. Целью пособия является
закрепление знаний и навыков в рамках курса английского языка в объеме
требований, предъявляемых к студентам неязыковых вузов.
Данное пособие имеет как теоретическое, так и практическое
предназначение, поскольку в нем изложен грамматический материал в
наиболее доступной для понимания форме, а также задания контрольных
работ по вариантам.
Пособие включает 5 тематических контрольных работ, каждая из
которых содержит теоретический грамматический материал, 5 вариантов
контрольных заданий по грамматике и тексты, сгруппированные по темам, с
заданиями на понимание. Дополнительный блок содержит тесты и тексты
для самостоятельной подготовки к экзамену.

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Требования, предъявляемые к выполнению контрольной работы
Прежде чем приступить к выполнению контрольной работы, следует
изучить и закрепить грамматический материал семестра. Задания должны
быть выполнены строго в той последовательности, в которой они
предложены, условия их необходимо переписывать. Контрольная работа
должна быть выполнена в отдельной тетради, на обложке которой следует
указать номер контрольного задания, номер варианта, группу и Ф.И.О.
студента. Номер варианта выбирается в соответствии с последними цифрами
студенческого шифра: студенты, шифр которых оканчивается на 1 или 2,
выполняют вариант № 1; на 3 или 4 - № 2; на 5 или 6 - №3; на 7 или 8 - № 4;
на 9 или 0 - № 5.

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ТЕМА 1

АРТИКЛИ
Артикль - является одним из определителей имени существительного и
ставится перед существительным или перед словами английского языка,
являющимися определениями к нему. Он не имеет
самостоятельного/отдельного значения и не переводится на русский язык.

Форма Употребляется: Пример


с исчисляемыми He has got a camera.
существительными в I am eating an apple.
Неопределенный единственном числе в
артикль значении «один», «любой»
a/an Форма an употребляется an apple, an umbrella, an
перед словом, которое hour
начинается с гласного
звука.
с исчисляемыми Сan you repeat the
существительными в question, please?
Определенный единственном числе в Where are the books I
артикль the значении «конкретный», ordered?
«конкретные»;
с неисчисляемыми The news was a complete
существительными в shock.
значении «конкретный».
с исчисляемыми Prices have gone up
существительными во recently.
Нулевой артикль множественном числе
с неисчисляемыми Fresh fruit is really good
существительными for you.

Особые случаи употребления:


местонахождение the: моря, океаны – the Black Sea, реки – the Nile,

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территории – the Antarctic, некоторые страны – the USA,
the UK, общественные места – the cinema, the Earth, the
world, the sky, the moon, the sun, the environment
нулевой артикль: города – London, страны – Italy,
континенты – Europe, улицы – Baker Street, планеты –
Mars
род деятельности a / an: have a job, work as a …
the: on the radio, the media, play the piano
нулевой артикль: go to work, on TV, go shopping, play
tennis, listen to music, go to work, go to school, be at work
время the: in the morning/afternoon/evening, on the 20th March, in
the 1960s
нулевой артикль: дни недели – Monday, месяцы – April,
годы – 2001, at night
люди the: the King, the Prime Minister, the army, the navy, the
police, the French
нулевой артикль: become king, she is Spanish, speak
English

ИМЯ СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНОЕ
Множественное число существительных образуется путем прибавления
окончания:
-s -es
flower – flowers - если существительное оканчивается на :
week – weeks -s / -ss / -ch / -sh / -x / -o
place – places bus – buses, class – classes, box – boxes, potato –
day - days potatoes;
-y
baby – babies, family – families;
-f / -fe
shelf – shelves, knife – knives.

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Особые случаи образования множественного числа существительных:
Cуществительные, которые образуют man – men, woman – women, child –
множественное число не по children, foot – feet, tooth – teeth,
правилам: mouse – mice, goose – geese, ox – oxen,
person – people
Cуществительные, которые имеют scissors, glasses, trousers, jeans, shorts,
только форму множественного числа: tights, pyjamas

Существительные, которые имеют sheep – sheep, fish – fish


как в единственном числе, так и во
множественном числе одну форму:

Существительные, обозначающие advice, fruit, bread, money, furniture,


вещества и отвлеченные понятия, hair, homework, information, news,
называются неисчисляемыми. Они paper, rice, sugar, work
употребляются только в
единственном числе и согласуются с
глаголом в единственном числе.

Притяжательный падеж выражает принадлежность чего-либо кому-либо,


отношение одного лица другому.
I stayed at my sister’s house.
Ann’s cat is black.
-’s (если существительное стоит в ед. -s’ (если существительное стоит во
числе) мн. числе)
My friend’s house (his or her house) My friends’ house (their house)

Внимание: Притяжательный падеж существительных, не имеющих во


множественном числе окончания -s, образуется путем прибавления -‘s, как и
в единственном числе.
the children’s room

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МЕСТОИМЕНИЯ
Личные местоимения
Лицо Именительный падеж Объектный падеж
(Nominative case) (Objective case)
кого? кому?
Единственное число
1-е I–я me – меня, мне
2-е you – ты you – тебя, тебе
3-е he – он him – его, ему
she – она her – её, ей
it – он, она, оно it – его, её; ему, ей
Множественное число
1-е we – мы us – нас, нам
2-е you – вы you – вас, вам
3-е they - они them – их, им

Притяжательные местоимения
Простая форма Абсолютная Перевод
форма
my mine мой, моя, моё, мои
your yours твой, твоя, твоё, твои
his his его
her hers её
its its его, её
our ours наш, наша, наше,
наши
your yours ваш, ваша, ваше,
ваши
their theirs их
Внимание: Простая форма притяжательных местоимений употребляется
перед существительными и исключает артикль. Their house is very big.
Абсолютная форма притяжательных местоимений употребляется
самостоятельно без последующего существительного. This is not your book,
it’s mine.
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Возвратные местоимения
Лицо Единственное Множественное
число число
1-е myself ourselves
2-е yourself yourselves
3-е himself
herself themselves
itself

НЕОПРЕДЕЛЕННЫЕ И ОТРИЦАТЕЛЬНЫЕ МЕСТОИМЕНИЯ


some, any, no , none
Some (+) Any (– , ?)
I’m going to buy some clothes. I’m not going to buy any clothes.
Are you going to buy any clothes?
Somebody (someone) / something Anybody (anyone) / anything
She said something. She didn’t say anything.
Did she say anything?
I saw somebody. I didn’t see anybody.
Did you see anybody?
no + существительное
She has got no money.
none (без существительного)
“Were there any problems?” “None.”

many, much, a lot, lots of


a lot, lots of (+) – много, many (-,?) – много much (-, ?) – много
множество
(со всеми типами (c исчисляемыми (c неисчисляемыми
существительных) существительными) существительными)
We bought a lot of food. Are there many books in Did you buy much food?
There are lots of books in the library? We haven’t got much
the library. We don’t know many luggage.
people.

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(a) little, (a) few
a little – есть, но немного a few – есть, но немного
(c неисчисляемыми (c исчисляемыми существительными)
существительными) I speak a few words of Spanish. (Я
I speak a little Spanish. (Я говорю говорю несколько слов по-испански.)
немного по-испански.)
little – мало few – мало
(c исчисляемыми существительными) (c исчисляемыми существительными)
They have little money. (У меня мало There were few people in the park. (В
денег.) парке было мало людей.)

ИНФИНИТИВ И ГЕРУНДИЙ
Инфинитив - это неличная глагольная форма, которая только называет
действие и выполняет функции как глагола, так и существительного.
Инфинитив отвечает на вопрос что делать?, что сделать? Формальным
признаком инфинитива является частица to, которая стоит перед ним, хотя в
некоторых случаях она опускается. Отрицательная форма инфинитива
образуется при помощи частицы not, которая ставится перед ним.
То see means to believe. Увидеть – значит поверить.
Герундий – это неличная форма глагола, выражающая название
действия и обладающая как свойствами глагола, так и существительного. В
русском языке нет соответствующей формы. Его функции в предложении во
многом сходны с инфинитивом, однако он имеет больше свойств
существительного. Герундий образуется путем прибавления окончания -ing к
инфинитиву без частицы to.
Seeing is believing. Увидеть - значит поверить.

Употребление Инфинитива и Герундия после глаголов


Infinitive Gerund
1.После глаголов: -I hope to see you later.
offer, decide, hope, - Sarah agrees to meet you
agree, refuse, plan, aim, after school.
forget, ask, want, - I wish to leave early.
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choose, help, seem,
wait, wish.
2. После глаголов: -I dislike getting up early.
Stop, finish, miss, risk, -Pat enjoys using a
delay, give up, go on, computer.
keep/ keep on, deny, -Suddenly everybody
admit, consider, dislike, stopped talking.
enjoy, fancy.
3. После глаголов: -I like to have a short walk - I like listening to the
Remember, regret, go after my evening meal. radio.
on, begin, start, - I hate to tell you this, but - I hate doing the washing
continue, hate, like, we’ve missed the last train! – up!
love, prefer, start.

КОНСТРУКЦИЯ there is / there are


Данная конструкция употребляется для того, чтобы выразить наличие
или отсутствие предмета или лица в том или ином месте. Предложения с
такой конструкцией переводятся на русский язык с обстоятельства места.
единственное число множественное число
There is… There are…
Is there…? Are there…?
There is not (isn’t)… There are not (aren’t)…

There is a big tree in the garden. There are some big trees in the garden.
Is there a hotel near here? Yes, there is. Are there any letters for me today? Yes,
/ No, there isn’t. there are. / No, there aren’t.
There isn’t any snow. There aren’t many people here.

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ПОРЯДОК СЛОВ В ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИИ
Предложение в английском языке имеет фиксированный порядок слов.
Повествовательные предложения
подлежаще сказуемо дополнения обстоятельств
е е косвенно прямое предложно о
е е
She reads a every day
newspape
r
I phoned him yesterday
She left her in the
umbrella restaurant
Jane bought a present for her
friend

Отрицательные предложения
В отрицательном предложении сказуемое стоит в отрицательной форме,
и сохраняется порядок слов повествовательного предложения. Перед
смысловым глаголом вводится вспомогательный глагол.
Helen does not study French.
Если сказуемое выражено смысловым глаголом to be, частица not ставится
после него.
He is not at home.
Вопросительные предложения
Вопросительные предложения характеризуются обязательно своим
твердым порядком слов (обратным), т.е. перед подлежащим обычно ставятся
глаголы to be или to have (смысловые), вспомогательные или модальные
глаголы.
Is he a student?
Will they come tomorrow?

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Контрольная работа №1

I Вариант.
1. Впишите артикли a/an или the.
1. We had ……….really good science lesson at school today.
2. We enjoyed our holiday. …….. hotel was very nice.
3. I found ………. unusual insect on the wall outside our house.
2. Поставьте существительные, данные в скобках во множественное
число.
1. Do you know that Jack’s father has four wonderful …………. (puppy)?
2. The Spice Girls was an all-girl band, so there weren’t any ……… (man).
3. It’s a bit strange that Tom wears two ………. (watch) – one on each arm.
3. Заполните пропуски местоимениями.
1. Hi Mary! Are ……….. still coming shopping with us tomorrow?
2. I don’t know those girls. Do you know ………..?
3. Do you like ……….. job?
4. Подставьте в предложения there is / there isn’t / is there / there are / there
aren’t / are there.
1. Kenham isn’t an old town. ………………. any old buildings.
2. …………………... seven days in a week.
3. ………………….. any problems?
5. Раскройте скобки, поставив глаголы в форму инфинитива или
герундия.
1. When I’m tired, I enjoy … TV. (watch)
2. It was a nice day, so we decided … for a walk. (go)
3. Please stop … me questions! (ask)

6. Прочтите и переведите текст.


Learning languages
The problem of learning languages is very important today. Foreign
languages are socially demanded especially at the present time when the progress
in science and technology has led to an explosion of knowledge and has
contributed to an overflow of information. Foreign languages are needed as the
main and most efficient means of information exchange of the people of our planet.

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Learning foreign languages opens up opportunities and careers that did not
even exit some years ago. It can help us to find a job in such fields as science and
technology, foreign trade and banking, international transportation and
communication, teaching librarian science and others.
There are many different reasons why people study foreign languages,
English in particular. Today English is the language of the world. Over 350 million
people speak it as a mother tongue. The native speakers of English live in Great
Britain, the United States of America, Australia and New Zealand. English is one
of the official languages in the Irish Republic, Canada, the South African Republic.
As a second language it is used in the former British and US colonies.
It is the major international language for communication in such areas as
science, technology, business and mass entertainment. English is one of the official
languages of the United Nations Organization and other political organizations. It
is the language of the literature, education, modern music, international tourism.
Russia is integrating into the world community and the problem of learning
English for the purpose of communication is especially urgent today. Learning a
foreign language is not as easy thing. It is a long and slow process that takes a lot
of time and patience. But to know English is absolutely necessary for every
educated person, for every good specialist.
It is well known that reading books in the original, listening to the BBC
news, communicating with the English speaking people will help a lot. When
learning a foreign language you learn the culture and history of the native speakers.
One must work hard to learn any foreign language.
Ответьте на вопросы.
1. Why do we need to know foreign languages?
2. Where is English an official language?
3. How can one master a foreign language?

II Вариант.
1. Впишите артикли a/an или the.
1. Can I ask …….. question?
2. It’s your birthday next week. Are you going to have ……… party?
3. Where’s Bill? He’s in …….. bathroom.

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2. Поставьте существительные, данные в скобках во множественное
число.
1. The ……….. (leaf) are falling from the tree.
2. There are over 100 ………. (shop) in the new shopping centre.
3. George is cleaning his ………. (tooth).
3. Заполните пропуски местоимениями.
1. I never go to parties. I don’t like ………… .
2. My mum studied history at university. …… says …was a really interesting
course.
3. I saw Ann and David with ……….. children.
4. Подставьте в предложения there is / there isn’t / is there / there are / there
aren’t / are there.
1. Excuse me, ……………..a bank near here?
2. ……………….a hospital round the corner.
3. ………………….. any chairs.
5. Раскройте скобки, поставив глаголы в форму инфинитива или
герундия.
1. She doesn’t allow … in the house. (smoke)
2. Sue offered … me a job. (find)
3. The minister went on … for two hours. (talk)

6. Прочтите и переведите текст.


Libraries
The word ‘library’ comes from the Latin word ‘liber’, meaning ‘book’. This
is a place where information in print (book, manuscripts, periodicals and musical
scores) and in other forms is collected. Libraries can be found in many places.
There are libraries in small towns and large cities and there are libraries at schools,
universities, colleges. People go to the library to read, look, listen, search, inquire,
relax, discuss, learn and think.
The largest and the best known libraries in the world are: the British
National library in London, the Library of Congress in Washington and The
Russian State Library. The British Library is the largest state library in Britain and
is one of the finest libraries in the world. It is a rapidly growing modern research
library with all its current publications.

16
Other library which is known throughout the world is the Library of
Congress. It was established as a reference library in 1600 and gradually would
come a world famous institution that now occupies three huge buildings. A great
number of items in collections of books, newspapers, periodicals, manuscripts,
films, maps and works of drama, music, art and important and exciting documents
from American history are kept in library’s archives.
The Lenin Library is the central library in Russia and is one of the world’s
largest. The old library building was built in 1786 on a hill opposite the Kremlin by
Vasily Bashenov and was a typical example of a Moscow town residence of that
time. Its new buildings were built in 1940. When the library was founded in 1961,
it contained over 1,000 000 volumes, and was then located in the old Pashkov part
of the complex. Now it has 23 reading rooms of 2500 seating capacities and a book
fund of 27 millions. There is a wide choice of books: fiction, non-fiction, serious
books, detective stories, science fiction, biographic, history and encyclopedias
which are extremely useful in work, because it gives information about every
branch of knowledge.
The titles and authors of all the books in the library can be found in a card
catalogue or a computer listing. Each card in catalogue gives very helpful
information about the book; the title send the author, the time and place of
publication and the even something about it contents. The library is used daily by
around 10 000 people. The library today is a centre for all kinds of
communications: printed, pictured, recorded and even electronically stored.
Ответьте на вопросы.
1. Where does the word ‘library’ come from?
2. What are the most famous libraries in the world?
3. What are the modern facilities that library provides?

III Вариант.
1. Впишите артикли a/an или the.
1. Sally is ……. interesting person.
2. It’s …….. nice morning. Let’s go for …….. walk.
3. Shall I switch on ……… radio?

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2. Поставьте существительные, данные в скобках во множественное
число.
1. The dentist says I have to have two ………. (tooth) taken out!
2. How many ……….. (person) were there at the show?
3. We’ve walked miles! My ……….. (foot) are hurting!
3. Заполните пропуски местоимениями.
1. I don’t know that man. Do you know …..?
2. Where’s the newspaper? You’re sitting on … .
3. She’ going to wash ……. hair.
4. Подставьте в предложения there is / there isn’t / is there / there are / there
aren’t / are there.
1. ……five people in my family.
2. How many students ……in the class?
3. …… a film in the cinema.
5. Раскройте скобки, подставляя глаголы в форму инфинитива или
герундия.
1. I hate … the washing-up! (do)
2. You seem … the answer! (know)
3. Paula has given up … . (smoke)

6. Прочтите и переведите текст.


Reading in My Life
Reading plays a very important role in the life of people. It educates a
person, enriches his intellect. Besides, books bring pleasure and delight. It’s a
wonderful way of spending spare time. Sometimes we read the same book again
and again. Thanks to books we learn to express our thoughts and feelings more
exactly. The book is faithful and understanding friend. There are books which have
been our favorites since childhood. People are fond of reading different kinds of
books. Some people enjoy reading detective stories, adventure stories, novels,
biographies, other prefer classics. Fairy tales are enjoyed and read by children,
books about adventures and journeys are enjoyed by those who are fond of
traveling. Legends and myths are read by those who are fond of history.
Through out the centuries books had an enormous influence on the minds
and hearts of people. Books bind together ages, personalities. Thanks to books we
can talk to people who lived in different countries and ages. Through reading
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books we hear their voices, thoughts and feelings. The book is the surest way to
bring nations together. It helps people achieve understanding, trust, cooperation
and friendship. Books awaken the young reader’s imagination. They develop
literary taste, arouse interest and curiosity, the reader’s laugher as well as his tears.
They teach the readers to be truthful, friendly, honest decisive, conscientious, frank,
firm, fair and serious.
Libraries play an important part in the cultural development of people. There
are a lot of books in our country, in our flats. But it is difficult to buy all the books
which we want to read. That is why we get books in public libraries. Books
shouldn’t be read only by pleasure. Reading books helps us in our education. In
some libraries we can find books in many foreign languages. The reader is allowed
to borrow books for a certain number of days. The catalogues help the reader to
find the books and not damage them in any way.
Every school in our country has a library. A school library is a collection of
textbooks and books for reading. Our pupils and teachers go for reading, to look
some magazines or newspapers or to prepare for a report.
Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What kind of books do people like to read?
2. What do books teach?
3. Why is it important to read books?

IV Вариант.
1. Впишите артикли a/an или the.
1. We waited for hours? Вut we finally saw ………. Queen!
2. Why don’t we listen to ……… radio.
3. Have you got ………euro I could borrow?
2. Поставьте существительные, данные в скобках во множественное
число.
1. Most of my ………….. (friend) are student.
2. There are three ………. (person) at the bus stop.
3. Dorothy has got two ………. (child).
3. Заполните пропуски местоимениями.
1. We’re going to the cinema. Do you want to come with ……..?

19
2. This jacket isn’t very nice. I don’t like ……. .
3. Do you live with …… parents?
4. Подставьте в предложения there is / there isn’t / is there / there are / there
aren’t / are there.
1. ………… twenty-six letters in the English alphabet.
2. How many days …………. in March?
3. ……………… a swimming pool in this town?
5. Раскройте скобки, подставляя глаголы в форму инфинитива или
герундия.
1. She’s very interesting person. I always enjoy … to her. (talk)
2. I’m not in a hurry. I don’t mind … . (wait)
3. He is still looking for a job but he hopes … something soon. (find)

6. Прочтите и переведите текст.


What Makes a Person Educated?
Of course we get education at school. The activities of the school day afford
different chances for pupil’s self-perfection. They provide many opportunities for
deeper study and developing our talents. But school lays only the base, the
foundation of our education. Here we get only necessary knowledge and after
graduating the school we can continue studying in the universities, institutes or
somewhere else.
Not only school makes us educated persons. Reading books and press is also
very important. It enriches our outlook, broadens the boundaries of our intellect,
and offers the opportunities to read the latest news and political discussions.
TV also gives us wonderful and effective possibilities for education. Due to
mass media we become better informed by watching documentaries, science
programs and discussions. It is the principal role of after-school activities to
deepen our knowledge in different subjects.
Besides regular schools there are a lot of clubs, where children get education
and good habits. There are different groups, where children can succeed in the field
they are particularly interested in. Art clubs, Drama and history clubs and groups,
studying foreign languages, are among them. Educational excursions can be also
useful in developing the pupil’s intellect. Nature hikes help to explore the world
around us.

20
First of all we have to be attentive at the lessons. Attention always helps to
acquire profound knowledge and to understand the material better. To make
progress in all subjects we should be hard-working and persistent persons. Strong-
willed and industrious people can stand up all difficulties and hardships and they
have a purpose in life.
So if we want to be well educated, we ought to have all these qualities in
ourselves, only in these conditions we can succeed in our studies. I think that all
people should be educated, because it is very useful and important. Educated
persons are always ready to find a good job, they usually have a bright career.
Besides, it is also much better to talk to educated, cultured and extraordinary
person. I consider knowledge to be the really great power and that is why we must
always increase it.
Ответьте на вопросы.
1. Where do people get basic education?
2. What are other ways to enrich one’s outlook?
3. Why do people want to be educated?

V Вариант.
1. Впишите артикли a/an или the.
1. Mum has gone to ……… bank? But she’ll be back soon.
2. Where have you been? I’ve been waiting for over …… hour.
3. You look very tired. You need ……. holiday.
2. Исправьте ошибки в предложениях.
1. I’m going to buy some flower.
2. I need a new pair of jean.
3. It’s a lovely park with a lot of beautiful tree.
3. Заполните пропуски местоимениями.
1. Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin, but ………. did it by mistake.
2. I don’t know Jack’s wife. Do you know ………..?
3. I like tennis. It’s ……… favourite sport.
4. Подставьте в предложения there is / there isn’t / is there / there are / there
aren’t / are there.
1. ………………… nine planets in the solar system.

21
2. …………………... a bus from the city center to the railway station?
3. No, ………………….. a swimming pool in this town.
5. Раскройте скобки, подставляя глаголы в форму инфинитива или
герундия.
1. We must do something. We can’t go on … like this! (live)
2. It was late, so we decided … a taxi home. (take)
3. We were hungry, so I suggested … dinner early. (have)

6. Прочтите и переведите текст.


English as a world language
The English language is now the first language of about 400 million people,
the native language of 12 nations and the official or semiofficial language of 33
more nations. That means one in every seven people in the world speaks English.
The English language has become the “new Latin” of the century, the world’s top
tongue. One billion people speak English. That’s 20% of the world population. For
the other 600 million it’s either a second language or a foreign language. There are
more than 500,000 words in the Oxford English Dictionary. Compare that with the
vocabulary of German (about 200,000) and French (about 100,000). At present no
other language on the Earth is better suited to play the role of a world language.
There are many reasons for its popularity. First, English is easier to learn
than most other languages. Second, it borrows words and phrases from the very
countries into which it expands. Eighty percent of all English vocabulary comes
from other languages. For example, such words as pork, mutton, beef, etc. were
borrowed from French; book, renew, water etc. were borrowed from German;
library, renovate, aquatic, etc. were borrowed from Latin; bibliography, hydraulic,
telephone, television, etc. were borrowed from Greek. Many words have entered
English as a result of trade and colonial expansion: alcohol and algebra come from
Arabic; divan and khaki from Persian; chocolate and tomato from native American
languages; tea and tycoon from Chinese.
English is so widespread nowadays because it has become the standard
language for all kinds of international communication: 80% of all information in
the world’s computers is in English; nearly 50% of all the companies in Europe
communicate with one another in English; 75% of all international letters and
telexes are in English. English is also the international language of businesspeople,

22
pilots, diplomats and politicians, sportsmen and scientists, doctors and students,
musicians and singers.
So English is a global language nowadays. Problems of the 21st century,
such as the problems of war and peace, ecology, demographics, democracy and
many others can not be solved if people do not speak the same language.
Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What percentage of words in English comes from other countries?
2. What borrowed words in English do you know?
3. Why is English the global language today?

23
ТЕМА 2
ВРЕМЕНА ГРУППЫ SIMPLE
Present Simple
Утвердительная форма Отрицательная форма Вопросительная форма
I/you/we/they play… I/you/we/they do not Do I/you/we/they play…?
(don’t) play…
He/she/it plays… Does he/she/it play…?
He/she/it does not
(doesn’t) play…
Present Simple употребляется для описания:
 повторяющихся действий Linda goes to the gym every Thursday.
в настоящем
 типичных ситуаций It rains a lot in autumn.
 чувств, мыслей, состояний I like big cities.
 общеизвестных фактов The earth goes round the sun.

Past Simple
Утвердительная форма Отрицательная форма Вопросительная форма
I/you/he/she/it/we/they I/you/he/she/it/we/they Did
played/went… did not (didn’t) play/ go… I/you/he/she/it/we/they
play/go…?
Past Simple употребляется для описания:
 законченных действий I saw an interesting film yesterday.
 повторяющихся действий в I went to the cinema four times last
прошлом month.
 общеизвестных фактов в The Olympic games in Beijing took
прошлом place in 2008.
 последовательных действий в We danced a lot and talked to a lot of
прошлом people.

Future Simple
Утвердительная форма Отрицательная форма Вопросительная форма
I/you/he/she/it/we/they I/you/he/she/it/we/they Will

24
will (‘ll) go… will not (won’t) go… I/you/he/she/it/we/they
go…?

Future Simple употребляется для описания:


 действий или событий в Next week she’ll be in Tokio.
будущем
 предположений I think Tom will pass the exam.
 просьб и предложений Will you help me to find my keys?
 спонтанных решений I’ll phone you tomorrow, OK?

СТРАДАТЕЛЬНЫЙ ЗАЛОГ
Страдательный залог выражает действие, которое испытывает лицо
(или предмет), являющееся подлежащим, со стороны другого лица (или
предмета). Образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to be в
соответствующем времени, лице и числе и III формы смыслового глагола.
Passive Voice Present Past Future
Simple am/are/is given was/were given will be given
Continuous am/are/is being was/were being -
given given
Perfect has/have been had been given will have been
given given
1. Для образования вопросительной формы вспомогательный глагол to be
ставится перед подлежащим, а остальная часть временной формы - после
подлежащего:
Are these exercises done?
2. Для образования отрицательной формы после вспомогательного глагола to
be ставится отрицательная частица not:
These exercises are not done.
3. Если в страдательной конструкции указывается исполнитель действия,
выраженный одушевленным существительным или местоимением, ему
предшествует предлог by:
The book was written by O.Wilde.

25
4. Если в конструкции указывается объект или материал, при помощи
которого совершено действие, употребляется предлог with:
The finger was cut with a knife.

ПРЕДЛОГИ
Предлогами называются служебные слова, выражающие отношение
существительного, местоимения, числительного, герундия к другим словам
в предложении.
Предлоги: Примеры:
места in - в Не lives in Moscow.
on - на My book is on the table.
behind - за Our house is behind the forest.
over - над A lamp is over the bookshelf.
under – под A box is under the table.
in front of – перед There is a garden in front of our
by - около, рядом school.
at - у, около, на, в Student N. is sitting by the window.
There is a chair at the door.
направления to - к, в, на We shall go to the theatre.
into (in + to) - в May I come into your room?
from - из, от, с, у I am going from my friend's.
out of – из Не went out of the room.
through – через We shall better go through the forest.
времени at – в (время, Our lessons begin at nine.
праздничные дни) What are you doing at Christmas?
in – в, через (месяц, Winter begins in December.
год, времена года, I first went to Russia in 2005.
время дня – утро, My train leaves in the afternoon.
вечер, день) Не will go there on Sunday.
on – в ( дни недели,
даты)

26
Контрольная работа №2
I Вариант.
1. Раскройте скобки, поставив глаголы в Present Simple.
1. They …………….(live) in a very big house.
2. He……………..(not/sleep) eight hours a night.
3. …….. you…………(like) chocolate?
2. Перепишите предложения в Past Simple.
1. Nick goes to work by car.
2. You learn English at school.
3. Our friends don’t come to see us every Friday.
3. Вставьте предлоги at, on или in.
1. I’ll see you … Friday.
2. Pauline got married … 2009.
3. What are you doing … the weekend?
4. Раскройте скобки, используя страдательный залог.

1. Water … most of the Earth’s surface. (cover)


2. The park gates … at 6.30 p.m. every evening. (lock)
3. While I was on holiday, my camera … from my hotel. (steal)
5. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на использование Passive
Voice, и определите их время.
1. Three men have been arrested by the police.
2. Nick was operated on at the hospital.
3. Hundreds of houses were built by the Government last year.
6. Прочтите и переведите текст.
English culture and traditions
English people carefully keep up their traditions. Many of them are
connected with the capital of Great Britain - London. Thus every night the
traditional ceremony of the keys takes place at the famous London Tower. At 9.53
p.m. the Chief Warder, carrying the Bloody Tower, where the present guard is
waiting for them “Halt! Who goes there?” - The guards ask. Keys marches from
one Tower to another, locking the gates. The escort follows him. Then they march
to the Chief Warder answers: “Queen Elisabeth’s keys”. “Advance Queen
Elisabeth’s keys. All’s well.” - they are answered. At 10 sharp the Chief Warder
proceeds to the Queen’s house to return the keys from the Tower. It is a tradition
27
with English people to celebrate holidays. Christmas, Easter, Halloween, Guy
Fawkes Night, St. Valentine’s Day, etc.
Christmas is more important for Englishmen than any other holiday. People
travel from all parts of the country to be with their families on the 25-th of
December. English people decorate Christmas trees with flashing lights, wrapping
paper, glass balls, bake puddings and traditional Christmas Turkey. They decorate
their houses with holly and mistletoe. Children wait for the presents from Santa
Claus, a mythical man, who lives in the North Pole and makes toys for children.
On Christmas he visits the homes of good children and lives them presents in their
socks. Children put their socks at the foot of the bed or a fireplace.
Another colorful holiday is Halloween. It is celebrated for hundreds of
years. On this day children dress in funny ghostly costumes and knock at the
neighbor’s doors. After shouting “Trick or treat” they get gifts of candy or money.
But more than 2000 years ago it wasn’t a merry holiday. It was the time when the
Lord of Dead gathered the souls of dead and presented them to Druid Heaven on
October 31. So people thought that all the evil forces appeared in the darkness on
that day. To frighten them people made fires. So nowadays Englishmen take
turnips, potatoes, pumpkins, cut holes in them and place candles inside.
These are the most exiting holidays in England. As we can see they make
the life of people richer and happier, make them feel proud of their country, its
history and culture.
Ответьте на вопросы
1. What ceremony can one see at London Tower?
2. What is the most important holiday for Englishmen?
3. What do children shout to get candies or money at Halloween?

II Вариант.
1. Раскройте скобки, поставив глаголы в Present Simple.
1. Margaret …..…….(speak) three languages.
2. I ……………..(not/read) in bed.
3. …….. they…………(finish) to work at 5 o’clock?
2. Перепишите предложения в Past Simple.
1. I usually buy two newspapers.
28
2. He doesn’t eat meat.
3. Do they go on holiday to Britain?
3. Вставьте предлоги in, at или on.
1. Write your name … the top of the page.
2. Our flat is … the second floor of the building.
3. When I go to the cinema, I prefer to sit … the front row.
4. Раскройте скобки, используя страдательный залог.
1. The company is not independent. It … by a much larger company. (own)
2. The letter was posted a week ago and it … yesterday.
3. The match … on Wednesday evening.
5. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на использование
Passive Voice, и определите их время.
1. Cheese is made from milk.
2. The roof of the building was damaged in a storm a few days ago.
3. I haven’t received the letter. It might have been sent to the wrong address.

6. Прочтите и переведите текст.


American traditions
Probably the most widely celebrated holidays in the United States of
America are Thanksgiving, Independence Day and Christmas.
Thanksgiving is a happy holiday on the fourth Thursday of each November.
Americans of all religions celebrate this holiday with big dinners and family
reunions. It is a time to remember all the good things in life and to be thankful.
Turkey is a traditional Thanksgiving Day Food. This holiday was founded by the
Pilgrims. They were a group of English settlers who came to Massachusetts in
1620. The Pilgrims came to America because they wanted religious freedom. Their
first winter was difficult, and many of the Pilgrims died. But the following year,
the corn harvest was good. And there was celebration for three days. That was the
first Thanksgiving. Every Thanksgiving Macy’s department store organizes a
parade in New York City. In the parade there are balloons of popular cartoon
characters, famous television stars, and bands from all over the United States. Each
year, more than 55 million people watch this parade on television. Many other
large American cities also have Thanksgiving Day parades. Watching college
football games on television is also a typical Thanksgiving Day activity.

29
Independence Day is marked on the 4th of July as the birthday of the United
States as a free and independent nation. Generally, picnics, parades and firework
displays are held all over the country on this day.
Christmas is the most important religious holiday for Christians. Gift-giving
is very common at Christmas. American children look forward to Christmas
morning, when they find gifts brought by Santa Claus.
Other important holidays are Easter, Labour Day and Memorial Day. Labour
Day is observed on the 1st Monday of September to honour the working people. It
has been a federal holiday since 1894, but it was observed in some places before
that date as a result of campaigns launched by an organisation of workers called
the “Knights of Labour”. In many cities the day is marked by parades of working
people representing the labour unions.
Memorial Day, on the 4th Monday of May, is a day when the dead of all
wars are remembered.
Ответьте на вопросы.
1. Who were the Pilgrims?
2. When was the first Thanksgiving Day celebrated?
3. How is Labour Day marked in the USA?

III Вариант.
1. Раскройте скобки, поставив глаголы в Present Simple.
1. Her parents …………….(live) in Scotland.
2. Julia…………………(not/enjoy) parties.
3. …….....we………….(go) by bus?
2. Перепишите предложения в Past Simple.
1. She takes a taxi from the airport to her hotel.
2. You don’t work on Monday.
3. What time does the bank open?
3. Вставьте предлоги in, at или on.
1. My train arrives at 11.30. Can you meet me … the station?
2. I love swimming … the sea.
3. The bus was very full. There were too many people … it.

4. Поставьте глаголы в соответствующую видовременную форму.

30
1. The bridge … in 2002. (build)
2. One of the students … a window in the classroom. (break)
3. The new road … next year. (finish)

5. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на использование Passive


Voice.
1. The meal was served by a waiter in a red coat.
2. The letter will be delivered tomorrow.
3. Our train has been canceled.
6.Прочтите и переведите текст.
Australian traditions
Australia doesn’t have many traditions. Attempts to get Halloween off the
ground have stalled due to one too many homeowners telling little kids to get off
their property or they will see a scary sight. Australia’s equivalent of America’s
Thanksgiving Day is Australia Day on January 26, the landing of the First Fleet of
Convicts in Botany Bay.
Many Australians put such sentiments into action by using Australia day to
visit friends, attend a rock concert, or have a barbeque. Because there are no firm
prescriptions about how they should think or feel, most Australians simply take the
initiative to make the day into what they want it to be. Consequently, whereas
many national days around the world involve citizens reflecting on the
achievements of their ancestors that they have not personally lived up to,
Australia’s national day involves citizens acting in a vastly superior way to the
people that the date acknowledges.
Although most Australians have a good time on January 26, a few concerned
citizens wish their national day was more similar to the national day of foreign
countries, where there are firm behavioral prescriptions and clear symbolic
meanings. As a result, these people want the date of Australia Day to be changed to
something as inspiring as Thanksgiving Day.
Australia is a country which is largely made up of desert and sandy beaches.
Christmas in Australia happens in the summer. However, we tried our best to deny
the reality of a summer Christmas. In the class-room, children learned songs like
Frosty the Snowman and Jingle Bells. Up until recently, the only Christmas cards
published portrayed white winter Christmases. All this was a bit ridiculous in a
country where 80 per cent of the land has never witnessed a snowflake, even in
31
winter. However, the last ten years have witnessed some big changes in the
Australian lifestyle. Many Australians now believe that the country should break
its connections with Britain and the British Queen. Now Australians see
themselves as inhabitants of the Asia Pacific region. So now Christmas has got an
Australian identity. It’s rare to find a flake of snow on Christmas cards these days.
Now the publishers print Christmas cards with native Australian animals and
landscape scenes of the Australian bush.
On Christmas day you’ll find a large percentage of kids on the beach playing
with their new surfboards, building sand-castles rather than snowmen. Because of
the weather, the atmosphere of Christmas is different. Instead of being a serious
time where most families are indoors, Australians are usually outdoors in shorts
and T-shirts. There are loads of summer festivals with people celebrating
Christmas in carnival style. Although to many Europeans this may seem strange, to
many Australians it’s now the only Christmas worth dreaming of.
Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.
1. Why do some people want the date of Australia Day to be changed to
something as inspiring as Thanksgiving Day?
2. What big changes have happened in the Australian lifestyle during the last
ten years?
3. What are the differences in celebrating Christmas in Australia?

IV Вариант.
1. Раскройте скобки, поставив глаголы в Present Simple.
1. I…………….(get) up before 7 o’clock.
2. It…………..(not/cost) a lot of money.
3. …….. she…………(work) hard?
2. Перепишите предложения в Past Simple.
1. The concert begins at 4 p.m.
2. Children enjoy playing in the yard.
3. I don’t have any time to do that.
3. Вставьте предлоги in, at или on.
1. You can buy stamps … the post office.
2. I live … the country, not in the city.
32
3. Our house is … this side of the street.
4. Поставьте глаголы в соответствующую видовременную форму.
1. This purse … in the classroom yesterday. (leave)
2. The results of the competitions … tomorrow. (announce)
3. Our company … more than 1,000 cars every week. (sell)
5. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на использование Passive
Voice.
1. The computer is being used at the moment.
2. The situation is serious. Something must be done before it’s too late.
3. A new tomb has been discovered by archaeologists in Egypt.
6. Прочтите и переведите текст.
Russian traditions
Russia is indeed a unique country, which, along with highly developed
modern culture carefully preserves the national traditions deeply rooted not only in
the Orthodox religion but also in paganism. The Russians still celebrate pagan
holidays, many people believe in numerous omens and legends. Christianity gave
Russians such great holidays as Easter and Christmas, and Paganism – Maslenitsa
and Ivan Kupala. Old traditions are passed on from generation to generation.
Easter is the day of the resurrection of Christ. The holiday came to Russia
from Byzantium together with Russia’s christening in the end of the 10th century.
Since then, this Christian holiday has been widely celebrated all over Russia. The
day before Easter all churches hold night services and organize religious
processions around churches. By that time, kulich, the traditional holiday baking
symbolizing the body of Christ, had been already baked and Easter eggs painted.
The morning starts from visiting neighbors and giving away Easter eggs. Christian
Easter feast lasts seven days and is called the Holy Week or Sedmitsa.
Christmas is the holiday of the birth of Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the
world, whose advent gave people hope for mercy, kindness, truth and eternal life.
The Orthodox Church observes Christmas according to the Julian Calendar, on
January 7, while Western churches celebrate it on December 25, in accordance
with the Gregorian Calendar.
Since ancient times all peoples of the world have celebrated the end of June,
the peak of the summer. Russia’s version of such a holiday is Ivan Kupala. On the
night of 23 June, everyone celebrated this mystical but at the same time jolly

33
holiday full of ritual acts, rules and prohibitions, songs, chants and all kinds of
fortune-telling, legends, and beliefs.
Perhaps the most cheerful holiday in Russia is Maslenitsa. This holiday is
considered to come from pre-Christian times, when the Slavs were still pagans. In
the old days Maslenitsa was for remembrance of the dead. So the burning of the
figure of Maslenitsa means her funeral, and blini (pancakes) – coliphia. But with
time the Russians longing for fun and entertainment turned the sad holiday into
jolly Maslenitsa with blini - round, yellow and hot as the sun, sledding and horse
sleigh riding, fistfights and mother-in-law chatting. The rituals of Maslenitsa are
very unusual and interesting because they combine the end of the winter holiday
rituals and the opening of new spring festivals and ceremonies, which were to
promote a rich harvest. Maslenitsa is celebrated during the week preceding the
Lent.
Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What is the origin of Easter?
2. How do Russians celebrate the peak of the summer?
3. What were the former traditions of Maslenitsa?

V Вариант.
1. Раскройте скобки, поставив глаголы в Present Simple.
1. Helen …………….(go) to the gym twice a week.
2. They……………..(not/know) this project very well.
3. …….. you …………(have) any sweaters in a larger size?
2. Перепишите предложения в Past Simple.
1. I want to be a teacher.
2. He makes too many mistakes.
3. Who cooks dinner in your family?
3. Вставьте предлоги in, at или on.
1. My garden is … the back of the house.
2. Sue is ill and is … hospital.
3. There is a cinema … the left.

4. Поставьте глаголы в соответствующую видовременную форму.


1. The new sports center … next week. (open)

34
2. TV programmes … at the last minute. (often change)
3. A writer … this book in the 18th century. (write)

5. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на использование Passive


Voice.
1. A lot of money is spent in London by tourists.
2. The part of Hamlet will be played by Nick Cage.
3. The painting has just been bought by a Japanese millionaire.
6. Прочтите и переведите текст.
Yakut traditions
Yhyakh is a traditional festival of the Sakha people. The ancestors of the
Sakha celebrated Yhyakh on June 21st and 22nd - the summer solstice. Since 1991,
June 21st has been an official holiday in the Sakha Republic.
According to the old cattle-breeders' calendar, a new year began in June. It
coincided with nature waking up and was a holiday in celebration of renewal. The
ancient Sakha wanted to protect themselves, their close relatives and their cattle
from evil forces, and asked for a blessing from the gods of aiyy for their families
and the whole tribe for the following year. According to one of the legends of the
Sakha, the first man who brought people together for yhyakh was a man named
Ellei.
The Sakha people worshipped the Sun, which is why the colour white, the
colour of the sun, is so important in Sakha rituals. Traditionally, the festival is
opened by the “white shaman”, an elder dressed in white clothes. He is
accompanied by eight girls wearing white dresses, and nine boys.
The Yhyakh ritual consists of three parts. The first is the most important
one. It involves holding kumis (fermented mare’s milk) and praising the supreme
white creator, identifying him with the Sun. There is a special place for the ritual in
the middle of the Yhyakh field, which is decorated with birches and ropes
interlaced with black and white horse hair, pieces of birch bark and scraps
(salama). The white shaman sprinkles kumis for the gods and spirits and asks them
to send plenty of green grass to the pastures, to ensure the cattle and horses breed
well and to take care of those present.
The second part of the Yhyakh takes place in the open air in the presence of
numerous people sitting round a tusulge (a place where a feast takes place). Special
wooden vessels (chorons) are used for drinking the kumis and drinkers are
35
supposed to leave some kumis in the bottom of the choron, because it symbolises
plentiful supplies and also the prosperity of the host. According to the tradition,
you should not 'drink' all the riches of the host.
The third part of the Yhyakh consists of games, sports competitions, horse
racing and singing contests, the narration of folk tales and the national circle dance,
ohyokhai. The national form of wrestling, khapsagay, is very popular and attracts a
large audience. Another national sport is mas - wrestling (stick pulling), in which
two participants each try to pull the wooden stick over to their own side. Jumping
contests are another specific attraction. But the most fascinating event is the
ohyokhai song competition. People sing and dance in a circle, which denotes the
year's cycle. The singers start one after another and people repeat in chorus while
dancing.
Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.
1. Who was the first man brought people together for Yhyakh?
2. Who traditionally opens the festival?
3. What does the third part of the Yhyakh consist of?

36
ТЕМА 3

ВРЕМЕНА ГРУППЫ CONTINUOUS


Present Continuous
Утвердительная форма Отрицательная форма Вопросительная форма
I am playing… I am not playing… Am I playing…?
He/she/it is playing… He/she/it is not (isn’t) Is he/she/it playing…?
You/we/they are playing… Are you/we/they playing?
playing… You/we/they are not
(aren’t) playing…

Present Continuous употребляется для описания:


 действий, происходящих в Linda is watching DVD now.
момент речи
 действий, происходящих в We are staying in the hotel until the end
течение ограниченного периода of the month.
времени
 отрицательных эмоций Bill is always taking my bike. It’s so
(раздражения, возмущения и т. annoying!
п.), чувств, мыслей, состояний

Past Continuous
Утвердительная форма Отрицательная форма Вопросительная форма
I/he/she/it was playing I/he/she/it was not (wasn’t) Was I/he/she/it playing?
You/we/they were playing Were you/we/they
playing You/we/they were not playing?
(weren’t) playing

Past Continuous употребляется для описания:


 действий, которые At seven o’clock yesterday I was
происходили в определенный watching a film.
момент в прошлом
 одновременно происходящих I was reading a book while you were
действий в прошлом doing the washing-up.
37
 фона событий в рассказах The birds were singing, the sun was
shining …
Past Simple и Past Continuous часто используются вместе, когда нужно
показать, что одно действие происходит во время другого действия.
The phone rang while I was watching a DVD.

Future Continuous
Утвердительная форма Отрицательная форма Вопросительная форма
I/he/she/it/you/we/they I/he/she/it/you/we/they Will
will be playing will not (won’t) be I/he/she/it/you/we/they be
playing playing?

Future Continuous употребляется для описания:


 действий, которые будут This time next week, I’ll be taking my
происходить в определенный literature exam.
момент в будущем
 Привычки или повторяющиеся In the future, we’ll all be flying around
действия в будущем using jet-packs.

ИМЯ ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНОЕ
В английском языке, как и в русском, прилагательные (качественные)
образуют две степени сравнения: сравнительную и превосходную.
Положительной степенью прилагательных называется их основная форма, не
выражающая степени сравнения.
Положительная Сравнительная Превосходная степень
степень степень
односложные, двусложные прилагательные,
оканчивающиеся на -y, -ow, -er
-er -est
old older the oldest
big bigger the biggest
happy happier the happiest
narrow narrower the narrowest
38
clever cleverer the cleverest
многосложные
more + adj the most + adj
popular more popular the most popular
beautiful more beautiful the most beautiful
исключения
good better the best
bad worse the worst
little less the least
far farther/further the farthest/the furthest
many, much more the most
Cравнительная степень часто употребляется с союзом than.
My working day is longer than it used to be.

ПРИЧАСТИЕ
The Participle - неличная форма глагола, обладающая признаками
глагола, прилагательного и наречия. В русском языке английскому
причастию соответствует как причастие, так и деепричастие.
1. Причастие I (Participle I или Present Participle) - причастие
настоящего времени. Имеет две формы:
а) Present Participle Simple. Соответствует русскому причастию
настоящего времени и деепричастию несовершенного вида: reading –
читающий, читая, resting – отдыхающий, отдыхая;
б) Present Participle Perfect. Соответствует русскому деепричастию
совершенного вида: having written – написав, having read – прочитав.
2. Причастие II (Participle II или Past Participle) - причастие
прошедшего времени. Причастие от переходных глаголов соответствует
русскому страдательному причастию прошедшего времени: opened –
открытый, dressed –одетый, made –сделанный.

39
Причастие Действительный Страдательный залог
залог
Indefinite asking being asked
Participle Do you see the child Being tired he went home at once.
(Participle I) waving the flag?

Past Participle - asked


(Participle II) He is a man loved and admired by
everybody.

Perfect having asked having been asked


Participle Having finished the Having been written long ago, the
letter, he went to the manuscript was impossible to read.
post office.

МОДАЛЬНЫЕ ГЛАГОЛЫ
Модальные глаголы – особая группа глаголов, которые не обозначают
действие, а выражают отношение к нему. Модальные глаголы не
изменяются по лицам и числам, употребляются в сочетании с инфинитивом
без частицы to.

Модальный Форма Эквивален Пример


глагол Past ты
Can - способность could (be) able to I can swim.
совершать действие We could do what we wanted.
Jane was able to rescue him.
Must - had to have to -I must leave now.
необходимость, -We have to wear a uniform at
долженствование my school.
May - might - -It may be true.
предположения, -I might see you next week.

40
возможность,
разрешение
Should - совет, - ought to -You should apologise.
мнение - Jack ought not to go bed late.

Внимание: В вопросах модальный глагол ставится перед


подлежащим.
Can you understand what he’s saying?

Контрольная работа №3
I Вариант.
1. Раскройте скобки, поставив прилагательные в сравнительную или
превосходную степени.
1. Wait! Your bicycle is ……………….. (fast) than mine!
2. I think this is the ………………. (bad) job I’ve ever had.
3. I walk ………………(slowly) than Nick.
2. Поставьте глаголы в Present Continuous или Past Continuous.
1. When you rang me yesterday, I ………………. (have) a bath.
2. What ………….. you …………… (do) now?
3. Tomorrow they …………….. (sit) in the train on their way to Berlin.

3. Раскройте скобки, используя причастие.


1. The boy … in the garden is my sister’s son. (play)
2. You can get the book … in the library. (recommend)
3. A person … good news is always welcome. (bring)

4. Вставьте в пропуски модальные глаголы.


1. My grandfather was a very clever man. He … speak five languages.
2. You … eat fruit every day.
3. He … have dropped his wallet at the bus stop.

5. Прочтите и переведите текст.


Higher Education in the UK

41
There are more than 60 universities in the U.K. The leading universities are
Cambridge, Oxford and London. English universities differ from each other in
traditions, general organization, internal government, etc. British universities are
comparatively small, the approximate number is about 7-8 thousand students. Most
universities have under 3000 students, some even less than 1500 ones. London and
Oxford universities are international, because people from many parts of the world
come to study at one of their colleges. A number of well-known scientists and
writers, among them Newton, Darvin, Byron were educated in Cambridge.
A university consists of a number of departments: art, law, music, economy,
education, medicine, engineering, etc.
After three years of study a student may proceed to a Bachelor’s degree, and
later to the degrees of Master and Doctor. Besides universities there are 300
technical colleges, providing part-time and full-time education.
The organization system of Oxford and Cambridge differs from that of all
other universities and colleges. The teachers are usually called Dons. Part of the
teaching is by means of lectures organized by the university. Teaching is also
carried out by tutorial system. This is the system of individual tutoring organized
by the colleges. Each student goes to his tutor’s room once a week to read and
discuss an essay which the student has prepared.
Some students get scholarship but the number of these students is
comparatively small. There are many societies and clubs at Cambridge and Oxford.
The most celebrating at Cambridge is the Debating Society where students discuss
political and other questions with famous politicians and writers. Sporting
activities are also numerous. The work and games, the traditions and customs, the
jokes and debates - all are parts of students’ life there.
It should be mentioned that not many children from the working-class
families are able to receive the higher education as the fees are very high. Besides
that special fees are taken for books, for laboratory works, exams and so on.
Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What are the main universities in Great Britain?
2. How does the tutorial system work?
3. When does a student receive a Bachelor’s degree/the degrees of Master and
Doctor?

42
II Вариант.
1. Раскройте скобки, поставив прилагательные в сравнительную или
превосходную степени.
1. Your brother is ....................... (tall) than you, isn’t he?
2. Helen is the …………………. (kind) woman I know.
3. I ran ……………………. (fast) among all competitors
2. Раскройте скобки, используя причастие.
1. He left the office at 3 o’clock … he would be back at 5. (say)
2. She … leaning against the wall. (stand)
3. … in that town all his life, he knew it very well. (live)

3. Поставьте глаголы в Present Continuous или Past Continuous.


1. Right now, Margaret ……………… (have) a shower.
2. “Let’s meet at the station at 5 o’clock.” “OK. I ……(wait) for you.”
3. When I arrived, Tom …………….(lie) on the sofa.
4. Вставьте в пропуски модальные глаголы.
1. You’ve been travelling all day. You … be very tired.
2. Careful! You Вставьте предлоги … fall off.
3. I … come and see you tomorrow if you like.

5. Прочитайте и переведите текст.


Non-traditional studies in the United States of America
Americans place a high value on education. That’s why Kennedy said, “Our
progress as a nation can be no swifter than our progress in education”. Non-
traditional means of education have been developing in the USA.
Distance higher education
Distance education is considered to be a vehicle for delivering education to
persons whose location, circumstances or work make remote links necessary or
convenient. It is not considered to be a separate type of education. Rather, distance
education is considered to be a modality of instruction that differs from traditional
campus-based instruction but is no less legitimate. There is rapid growth in
educational programmes at all levels delivered via radio, television, satellite
downlink stations, videos, computer terminals and other means.
Many programmes are offered for credit and lead to Certificates, Diplomas
and Degrees; others are designed for leisure studies, personal enrichment or

43
specific work-related education and training. Distance education programmes are
accredited by recognized associations and the good programmes benefit from
significant recent advances in designing, implementing and monitoring these
learning environments and their support tools.
Lifelong higher education
Frequently called continuing education. Institutions operate specific
continuing education programmes, some very extensive and parallel to regular
institutional degree offerings, whilst others are short or specialized programmes.
Continuing education may be structured to lead to Certificates, Diplomas or
Degrees, or unstructured and used to provide general and leisure study
opportunities.
Some continuing education is offered through distance learning methods
while other programmes are offered at an institution or provided at a branch site.
When offered in order to provide further education and training for professionals
who already hold basic qualifications, it is usually called continuing professional
education. Credit for work completed in such programmes may be recognized and
accepted by regular higher education authorities through policies developed by
institutions, and it is also recognized and accepted by state licensing authorities and
professional associations.
Ответьте на вопросы.
1. Who is distance education aimed for?
2. What do distant learning programmes offer?
3. What is lifelong education?

III Вариант.
1. Раскройте скобки, поставив прилагательные в сравнительную или
превосходную степени.
1. I think you look ………………. (pretty) when you wear your hair up.
2. Listen! I promise you, this is the ………………(funny) joke ever!
3. She writes ………………..(quickly) than me.
2. Поставьте глаголы в Present Continuous или Past Continuous.
1. When you rang me yesterday, I ………………. (have) a bath.
2. What ………….. you …………… (do) now?

44
3. Tomorrow they …………….. (sit) in the train on their way to Berlin.
3. Раскройте скобки, используя причастие.
1. … everything, he went home on the 10.30 train. (arrange)
2. While … yesterday, he fell and hurt himself. (skate)
3. The answer … from her greatly surprised us. (receive)
4. Вставьте в пропуски модальные глаголы
1. We haven’t got much time. We … hurry.
2. When the lights are red, you … stop.
3. George has travelled a lot. He … speak 4 languages.

5. Прочтите и переведите текст.


Education in Australia
Education in Australia is primarily the responsibility of states and territories.
Each state or territory government provides the funding and regulates the public
and private schools with its governing area. Generally, education in Australia
follows the three-tier model which includes primary education (primary schools),
followed by secondary education (secondary schools/high schools) and tertiary
education (universities and colleges). Education is compulsory up to an age
specified by legislation; this age varies from state to state but is generally 15-17,
that is prior to completing secondary education. Post-compulsory education is
regulated within the Australian Qualifications Framework, a unified system of
national qualifications in schools, vocational education and training and the higher
education sector (university).
Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. It is preceded
by pre-school or nursery education. The major goals of primary education are
achieving basic literacy and numeracy amongst all pupils, as well as establishing
foundations in science, geography, history, math, and other social sciences.
Secondary education is generally the final stage of compulsory education.
Depending on the system, schools for this period or a part of it may be called
secondary schools, high schools, gymnasia, lyceums, middle schools, colleges,
vocational schools and preparatory schools, and the exact meaning of any of these
varies between the systems. School is compulsory in Australia between the ages of
five/six-fifteen/sixteen or seventeen, depending on the state. Government schools
educate about two-thirds of Australian students, with the other third in independent
schools, a proportion which is rising in many parts of Australia. Government
45
schools are free although most schools charge what are known as “voluntary”
contributions, while independent schools, both religious and secular, charge fees.
Tertiary education is also referred to as third stage, third level, and post-
secondary education. Higher education is taken to include undergraduate and
postgraduate education, while vocational education and training beyond secondary
education is known as further education. Colleges, universities, institutes of
technology and polytechnics are the main institutions that provide tertiary
education (sometimes known collectively as tertiary institutions). Tertiary
education generally culminates in the receipt of the certificates, diplomas, or
academic degrees.
Ответьте на вопросы.
1. Who provides the funding in schools in Australia?
2. What are the stages of education?
3. What institutions provide tertiary education?

IV Вариант.
1. Раскройте скобки, поставив прилагательные в сравнительную или
превосходную степени.
1. These shoes are ………………….(expensive) than those ones.
2. You cook the ………………….(tasty) cake in the world!
3. What’s the ………………(good) job you’ve ever had?
2. Поставьте глаголы в Present Continuous или Past Continuous.
1. Don’t phone Sonya from 5 to 6, she ………….. (have) English.
2. What …………. you …………. between one and two yesterday?
3. They …………… (live) in a rented house these days.
3. Раскройте скобки, используя причастие.
1. … the telegram , he rang the manager up. (receive)
2. … well for the interview, he could answer all the questions. (prepare)
3. … of the arrival of the ship, they sent a car to the port. (inform)
4. Вставьте в пропуски модальные глаголы
1. We … remember to take our passports.
2. … you open the window?
3. I haven’t decided yet where to spend my holidays. I … go to Ireland.

46
5 . Прочтите и переведите текст.

Education in Russia
Citizens of Russia have the right to education which is guaranteed by the
Constitution. The public educational system in our country incorporates pre-school,
general school, specialized secondary and higher education.
Pre-school consists of kindergartens and creches. Children there learn
reading, writing and arithmetic. But pre-school education isn't compulsory -
children can get it at home.
Compulsory education is for children from 6(7) to 17 years of age.
The main link in the system of education is the general school which
prepares the younger generation for life and work in modern production. There are
various types of schools: general secondary schools, schools specializing in a
certain subject, high schools, lyceums and so on. Tuition in most of them is free of
charge, but some new types of schools are fee-paying. The term of study in a
general secondary school is 11 years and consists of primary, middle and upper
stages. At the middle stage of a secondary school children learn the basic laws of
nature and society at the lessons of history, algebra, literature, physics and many
others.
After 9th form pupils have to sit for examinations. Also they have a choice
between entering the 10th grade of a general secondary school and enrolling in a
specialized secondary or vocational school.
People who finish the general secondary school, receive a secondary
education certificate, giving them the right to enter any higher educational
establishment.
Among higher educational institutions there are universities, institutes,
academies and schools of higher education, where the course of studies is normally
five years. Institutions are headed by rectors; the faculties are headed by the deans.
Higher educational institutions train students in one or several specializations.
Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What are the stages of education in Russia?
2. At what age does compulsory education begin?
3. When do school graduates receive a Certificate of Secondary Education?

47
V Вариант.
1. Раскройте скобки, поставив прилагательные в сравнительную или
превосходную степени.
1. I didn’t win the lottery. I’ll be …………………(lucky) next time.
2. What’s the …………………. (hard) thing about English grammar for you?
3. Mary sings ……………….(well) now.

2. Поставьте глаголы в Present Continuous или Past Continuous.


1. Listen! Somebody ……………… (sing) a lovely song.
2. Why are you in a hurry? If you arrive at 7 o’clock, they ….. (still/cook) the
meal.
3. When I got up, the sun ……(shine) and birds …….. (sing).
3. Раскройте скобки, используя причастие.
1. She showed the travelers the room … for them. (reserve)
2. There are many wonderful books … the life of people in the North.
(describe)
3. … the treasure, they began quarrelling about how to divide it. (find)
4. Переведите предложения, подставляя в пропуски модальные глаголы
1. You look tired. You … go to bed.
2. Sarah … swim really well.
3. I … finish my homework before 8.00.
5. Прочтите и переведите текст.

Secondary Education in the Republic Sakha


At present, the secondary education system in the Republic Sakha (Yakutia)
consists of about 700 schools of different types with a total of 200, 000 students
enrolled. Each school provides diversified education. Among the types of schools
are high schools, lyceums and colleges, schools for children with special needs and
boarding schools.
The three principles which guide state education policy are: access, quality
and efficiency. These were defined by the Concept of Modernization of Russian
Education for the period up to 2010.
Schools are free to choose variations in their curricula so as to provide
education according to the interests, capabilities and opportunities of the students.
Thus, a network of multi-cultural schools ensures the implementation of the

48
principle ‘from the local community to the world, there are values common to all
mankind’; their curricula can include courses in indigenous languages, ethnic
psychology, ethnicity and culture.
In 1997, a network of presidential schools was established in order to
encourage teaching initiatives. These are schools with an excellent teaching staff,
and in which the curricula focus on by new content and advanced teaching
technologies.
More than 70% of the comprehensive schools are located in rural areas. Due
to the remoteness of schools, the use of new information technologies in distance
education are becoming increasingly attractive options. At present, all schools are
well equipped with computers and software. There are also twenty-four schools
that form a network of agrarian schools, which educate future farmers.
State education and training for children among the indigenous minority
peoples of the north varies in organization, material base and methodology. For
example, nomadic schools copy traditional cultural practices, so education is
placed in the context of life in the open air. The individual curricula take into
account the unique aspects of the life patterns and traditional economies of the
particular people. These schools provide a new model for schooling; one which
matches the traditional nomadic way of life.
These new ways of providing education are contributing to the growth of
different styles of high quality education.
Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What principles were defined as a guidance of education policy?
2. In what purposes were presidential schools established?
3. How does nomadic school vary?

49
ТЕМА 4
ВРЕМЕНА ГРУППЫ PERFECT SIMPLE
Present Perfect Simple
Утвердительная форма Отрицательная форма Вопросительная форма
I/you/we/they have (‘ve) I/you/we/they have not Have I/you/we/they
learnt… (haven’t) learnt… learnt…?
He/she/it has (‘s) He/she/it has not (hasn’t) Has he/she/it learnt…?
learnt… learnt …

Present Perfect Simple употребляется для описания:


 результата действия They’ve all done their homework.
 действий, которые в момент I’ve already read that book.
речи воспринимаются как
совершившиеся
 действий или состояний, Mr Thomson has been the head teacher
которые начались в прошлом и for seven years.
продолжаются в настоящий
момент

Past Perfect Simple


Утвердительная форма Отрицательная форма Вопросительная форма
I/you/he/she/it/we/they I/you/he/she/it/we/they Had
had (‘d) written… had not (hadn’t) I/you/he/she/it/we/they
written… written…?

Past Perfect Simple употребляется для описания:


 действий или состояний, I’d already bought the computer game
которые закончились до when I saw it was cheaper in another
определенного момента или shop.
другого действия в прошлом
 результата действия, которое We didn’t feel like playing Scrabble
закончилось к определенному because we had just finished a long
моменту в прошлом game of Monopoly.

50
Future Perfect Simple
Утвердительная форма Отрицательная форма Вопросительная форма
I/you/he/she/it/we/they I/you/he/she/it/we/they Will
will have gone… will not (won’t) have I/you/he/she/it/we/they
gone… have gone…?

Future Perfect Simple употребляется для описания:


 действий, которые будут I’ll have finished my chemistry
закончены до определенного homework by the time you come home.
момента в будущем
УСЛОВНЫЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ
Условное предложение обычно вводится союзом if и выполняет
функцию придаточного предложения в составе сложноподчиненного
предложения.
Тип: Структура:
Zero Conditional If + Present Simple, Present Simple
Условное предложение нулевого типа If people eat too much, they often get
употребляется для описания fat.
общеизвестных фактов, законов
природы.
First Conditional If + Present Simple, will +
инфинитив без частицы to
Условное предложение первого типа If you take these pills, you will start to
употребляется для описания feel better very soon.
реального и вероятного условия в
настоящем и будущем.
Second Conditional If + Past Simple, would + инфинитив
без частицы to
Условное предложение второго типа If my legs were longer, I would be a
употребляется для описания much faster runner.
нереального или маловероятного
условия в настоящем или будущем.
Third Conditional If + Past Perfect, would + have + III
форма глагола
51
Условное предложение третьего типа If I hadn’t listened to you, I would have
употребляется для описания come late.
нереального условия в прошлом.

WISH
Глагол wish используется для ввода дополнительного придаточного
предложения, действие которого представляется нереальным. В таком
предложении могут употребляться модальные глаголы, а также обычные
глаголы в разных временных формах.
Wish употребляется Структура: Пример:
для выражения:
Сожаления, Wish + Past Simple Carl wishes he had a
относящегося к telescope.
настоящему
Сожаления, Wish + Past Perfect I wish they hadn’t cut
относящегося к down so many trees.
прошлому
Пожелания, просьбы Wish + would + I wish you wouldn’t
инфинитив без частицы smoke in here.
to
Сожаления о Wish + could + I wish I could travel
неспособности инфинитив без частицы through time!
совершить действие в to
настоящем или будущем
Внимание:
1. Структура wish + would + инфинитив без частицы to не используется в
случае, если автор высказывания говорит о себе.
I wish I lived on Mars.
2. Если совершение действия представляется возможным, используется
глагол hope.
I hope it doesn’t snow tomorrow.

52
Контрольная работа №4
I Вариант.
1.Составьте предложения, используя Present Perfect.
1. I / buy/ a new car.
2. My father / start / a new job.
3. I / give up / smoking.
2. Раскройте скобки, используя Present Perfect или Past Simple.
1. “Was Tom at the party when you arrived?” “No, he … home.”(go)
2. I felt very tired when I got home, so I … straight to bed. (go)
3. Sorry I’m late. The car … down on my way here. (break)
3. Поставьте глаголы в Future Perfect.
1. Phone me after 8 o’clock. We … dinner by then. (finish)
2. Next year they … married for 25 years.(be)
3. By next week I … over 1000 Euros for charity. (collect)

4. Дополните следующие предложения.


1. If you had been at home … .
2. If I were not so busy … .
3. She wouldn’t have done it if … .
5. Раскройте скобки, поставив глаголы в соответствующую форму.
1. Oh, I wish I (not to send) him that letter. I'd give anything to take it back.
2. I wish I (to be) as sure as you.
3. But he wished that there (to be) some way in which he could help the young
lawyer.
6. Прочтите и переведите текст.
The English language
English belongs to the Teutonic or Germanic branch of the Indo-European
family of languages. Three periods in its history are generally recognized: Old
English, extending from the time of the Invasion of Britain by the Angles, Saxons,
and Jutes, until the century after the Norman Conquest in 1066; Middle English,
from about 1150 until about 1450; and Modern English, from 1450 to the present.
The Modern English period is often subdivided into Early Modern English (1450-
1700) and Late Modern English.
Old English can be characterized as a language of full inflections, Modern
English as one of the leveled inflections and Middle English rather resembles
53
modern German in the way in which the nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, and
articles are declined or conjugated. During the Middle English period those
different inflectional endings became very much alike; they were generally
reduced to a single unstressed vowel pronounced nearly like the final sound of
Cuba, and usually spelt “e”. Among the sweeping changes, which took place in the
language during the 15th century was the loss in pronunciation of the final
unstressed “e”, leaving the structure of the language virtually as it is today.
During the Middle and Modern English periods the English vocabulary has
increased enormously as a result of borrowing from foreign languages. Even
during the Old English period, the reintroduction of Christianity from Rome (in
597) led to the acquisition of a considerable number of words from Latin; and the
Scandinavians, settling down after repeated incursions into English territory, also
contributed many words. However, the first really great influx of foreign loan-
words into the English vocabulary came from the French first as a result of the
Norman Conquest, which submerged English for a century as a literary language,
and secondly, as a consequence of the close political and cultural ties between
England and France during the 13th and 14th centuries. The revival of Learning,
during the Renaissance, gave a renewed impetus to borrowing from the Latin.
Finally, England’s growing position as a world power and the rapid development
of America resulted in the introduction into English of words from languages in
every part of the globe. The result in a total vocabulary that is at once
heterogeneous and extremely large.
Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What periods are generally recognized in the English language history?
2. How can each period be characterized?
3. Why has the English vocabulary increased during the Middle and Modern
English periods?

II Вариант.
1. Составьте предложения, используя Present Perfect.
1. My dog / eat / my sandwich!
2. Kate and Bill / find / a new flat.
3. We / miss / the last train.

54
2. Раскройте скобки, используя Present Perfect или Past Simple.
1. I don’t know where Amy is. … you … her? (see)
2. Your car looks very clean. … you … it? (wash)
3. George … very ill last week. (be)
3. Поставьте глаголы в Future Perfect.
1. We … the work in an hour. (finish)
2. At 9.15 he … work. (start)
3. By the end of the trip, Jane … more than 3,000 miles. (travel)

4. Дополните следующие предложения.


1. You wouldn’t have fallen ill if … .
2. If he had sent a telegram … .
3. The watch wouldn’t have stopped if …. .
5.Раскройте скобки, поставив глаголы в соответствующую форму.
1. And here I wish I (can) tell you half of the things Alice used to say.
2. I rather wished Poirot (to be) there.
3. I wish I (to know) it was your friend.
6. Прочтите и переведите текст.
The languages spoken in the UK
English is the official language of Great Britain, but a few other languages,
dialects and accents are spoken by the citizens of Britain too.
English developed from Anglo-Saxon and is a Germanic language. However,
all the invading peoples, particularly the Norman French, influenced the English
language and you can find many words in English which are French in origin. For
example: restaurant, bourgeoisie, buffet and many others.
They have mostly preserved their original spelling but are pronounced in a
peculiar way.
Besides, the English language borrowed some Latin words from the Romans,
who came to the British Isles from Italy in A.D. 43. Here are a few examples:
sanatorium, millennium, i.e. (id est) = that is.
The Celts who came to the British Isles from continental Europe, spoke
Celtic which survives today in the form of Welsh, Scottish Gaelic and Irish Gaelic.
Less than a quarter of all Welsh people – 600,000 out of 2,800,000 – speak
Welsh. Welsh is a very difficult language to learn. It has very musical intonation,

55
and difficult sounds such as ch and ll. Many Welshspeakers use English words and
add a Welsh ending io. For example: switchio (for “switch”), climbio (for “climb”).
Scottish Gaelic and Irish Gaelic are still spoken, although they have suffered
more than Welsh from the spread of English. All the three languages are now
officially encouraged and taught in schools.
When Scottish people speak English they still use some Scottish words.
“Wee”, meaning small, is often heard in such expressions as “wee laddie” – a
small boy, “a bonnie lass” is a pretty girl.
Years ago in Northern Ireland all people spoke Gaelic, and this language is
still spoken in some parts of it. Evidence of Gaelic is found in place names, for
example: bally = town, slieve = mountain, lough = lake.
Nowadays all Welsh, Scottish and Irish people speak English, even if they
speak their own language as well, but all the countries have their own special
accents and dialects, and their people are easily recognizable as soon as they speak.
Occasionally people from the four countries in the UK have difficulty in
understanding one another because of these different accents. A southern English
accent is generally accepted to be the most easily understood, and is the accent
usually taught to foreigners.
Ответьте на следующие вопросы по тексту.
1. What languages are spoken in the UK?
2. Are the words borrowed from other languages often pronounced in a
peculiar way?
3. How can Welsh, Scottish and Irish people be recognized as soon as they
speak?

III Вариант.
1. Составьте предложения, используя время Present Perfect.
1. Carlos / buy / a dog.
2. Harry / do / the housework.
3. Maria and Helen / start / at a new school.
2. Раскройте скобки, используя Present Perfect или Past Simple.
1. I can’t play anymore. I … my foot. (just hurt)
2. Jane is a famous writer, and … over fifty books. (write)

56
3. Sorry, he isn’t here. He … at 8.00. (leave)
3. Поставьте глаголы в Future Perfect.
1. “Will you be free at 11.30?” “Yes, the meeting … by that time.” (finish)
2. Sally won’t be at home. She … to work. (go)
3. If he continues to spend his money, he … it before the end of his holiday.
(spend)

4. Дополните следующие предложения.


1. You will get excellent marks if … .
2. If I had known everything … .
3. If it were not so cold … .
5. Раскройте скобки, поставив глаголы в соответствующую форму.
1. I wish I (to know) what to do now.
2. I wish that poor Strickland (to be) still alive.
3. I wish I never (to hear) of it.
6. Прочтите и переведите текст.
American English
American English is a set of dialects of the English language used mostly in
the United States. English is the most common language in the United States.
Though the U.S. federal government has no official language, English is
considered the de facto, "in practice but not necessarily ordained by law", language
of the United States because of its widespread use. English has been given official
status by 30 of the 50 state governments.
The use of English in the United States was inherited from British
colonization. The first wave of English-speaking settlers arrived in North America
in the 17th century. During that time, there were also speakers in North America of
Spanish, French, Dutch, German, Norwegian, Swedish, Scots, Welsh, Irish,
Scottish Gaelic, Finnish, Russian (Alaska) and numerous Native American
languages.
Compared to English as spoken in England, North American English is more
homogeneous. Some distinctive accents can be found on the East Coast (for
example, in Eastern New England and New York City), partly because these areas
were in contact with England and imitated prestigious varieties of British English
at a time when those varieties were undergoing changes.

57
The English of the United States; and that of Great Britain differ chiefly in
vocabulary and pronunciation, though not to the extent of being mutually
unintelligible. In inflection and syntax, the two great branches of English are
virtually identical .
Some differences in pronunciation may be accounted for by the retention in
American English of 16th and 17th century features of British pronunciation, in
which, for example, the vowel of “path” was identical with that of “hat”, and in
which there was secondary stress upon the third syllable of “secretary” and
“dictionary”. Other differences are traceable to the early separation and divergent
developments of specific features of the two “languages”.
Differences in vocabulary are due in part to American word borrowing from
those languages with which the English-speaking colonists came into contact in
their conquest and development of the American continent: American Indian,
French, Spanish, Dutch, and German.
American spelling is usually simpler. For example, British English words
ending in –re and –our, end –er and –or in American English (theatre/theater,
colour/color). The American spelling usually tries to correspond more closely to
pronunciation.
Ответьте на следующие вопросы по тексту.
1. When did the first wave of English-speaking settlers arrive in North
America?
2. What respects are British English and American English different in?
3. How can American spelling be characterized?

IV Вариант.
1. Составьте предложения, используя время Present Perfect.
1. Charles and Sarah / go / to Brazil.
2. Suzanne / have / a baby.
3. I / lose / my umbrella.
2. Раскройте скобки, используя Present Perfect или Past Simple.
1. “Where’s your key?” “I don’t know. I… it.” (lose)
2. I did German at school but I … most of it.(remember)
3. The police … 3 people but later they let them go. (arrest)

58
3. Поставьте глаголы в Future Perfect.
1. By the time we get to Helen’s house, she … . (leave)
2. The next time you see me I … my hair cut. (have)
3. By 9.30 football match … . (finish)

4. Дополните следующие предложения.


1. He will study much better if … .
2. She wouldn’t have said so if … .
3. If we knew him better … .
5. Раскройте скобки, поставив глаголы в соответствующую форму.
1. I wish I (have) a million Euros! I’d buy lots of great things.
2. I wish we (live) in a bigger house. This one is too small.
3. Becca wishes she (be) old enough to drive a car.
6. Прочтите и переведите текст.
Other Englishes
US or American English is not the only special variety of English. Each area
of the English-speaking world has developed its own special characteristics. This is
usually the matter of vocabulary and pronunciation.
There are Australian English, Canadian English, Indian English. The
vocabulary of all the variants is characterized by a high percentage of borrowings
from the language of the people who inhabited the land before the English
colonizers came. Many of them denote some specific realia of the new country:
local animals, plants or weather conditions, new social relations, new trades and
conditions of labour. The local words for new not ions penetrate into the English
language and later on may become international, if they are of sufficient interest
and importance for people speaking other languages. The term “international
words” is used to denote words borrowed from one language into several others
simultaneously or at short intervals one after another.
Canadian English is influenced both by British and American English but it
also has some specific features of its own. Specifically Canadian words are called
Canadianisms. They are not very frequent outside Canada, except shack 'a hut' and
to fathom out 'to explain'.
Australian English is particularly interesting for its rich store of highly
colloquial words and expressions. Australian colloquialisms often involve
shortening a word, e.g. smoko, from smoking, means a tea or coffee break. Because
59
of the current popularity of Australian TV programmes and films, some of such
words are now being used by British people too. Such words as boomerang, dingo,
kangaroo are all adopted into the English language through its Australian variant.
They denote the new phenomena found by English immigrants on the new
continent. A high percentage of words borrowed from the native inhabitants of
Australia will be noticed in the sonorous Australian place names.
Indian English, on the other hand, is characterized by sounding more formal
than British English. It has retained in everyday usage words that are found more
in the classics of nineteenth century literature than in contemporary English.
International words coming through the English of India are for instance:
bungalow, jute, khaki, mango, nabob, pyjamas, sahib, sari.
Ответьте на следующие вопросы по тексту.
1. In what parts of world is English different from British English?
2. What respects are Englishes different in?
3. What is the main feature of the vocabulary of all English variants?

V Вариант.
1. Составьте предложения, используя время Present Perfect.
1. Someone / steal / Mr. Grant’s bike.
2. We / work/ here for 3 years.
3. I / see / your friends.
2. Раскройте скобки, используя Present Perfect или Past Simple.
1. I can’t find my wallet. I think I … it. (lose)
2. It … cold last week. (be)
3. It … this week. (not rain)
3. Поставьте глаголы в Past Perfect.
1. After Michael … a deep breath, he dived into the water. (take)
2. Juliet was sure she … the tall man before. (see)
3. We took a taxi because we … the bus. (miss)

4. Дополните следующие предложения.


1. If I were you … .
2. He would have bought the car if … .
3. Bobby would be upset if … .
60
5. Раскройте скобки, поставив глаголы в соответствующую форму.
1. I wish my computer (not/be) broken. I can’t check my e-mail.
2. Tracy has got curly hair but she often wishes she (have) straight hair.
3. I wish I (can) speak German, but I never learnt it at school.

6. Прочтите и переведите текст.


Slang
Slang has several distinguishing characteristics. It is often coined by groups
of people discontented with the traditional words and expressions. For this reason
it often has a particular race and vivid quality which the ordinary expressions lack.
Slang is a mark of group identity. It is noticeable that much coinage of new words
at the moment is going on among teenagers, who feel it necessary to mark out their
separateness from the adult world. They use special expressions as they wear
special clothes, or distinctive hairstyles. Slang develops when people encounter a
new set of circumstances for which they do not feel the current vocabulary is
adequate. Thus during periods of disturbance or war there is often a great increase
in the number of slang coinages. Many such words occur in the English language
from the slang of the soldiers during the First World War and the air force during
the Second.
Another feature of slang is its transitoriness. Slang words tend to be
fashionable and when the fashion has gone the words disappear. This does not
always happen, however. Many words that were coined as slang in the first place
have remained and become a necessary part of the language. Thus words like bus,
flimsy, mob, dodge, fun and snob began life as slang, but because they expressed a
meaning which no other word quite expressed, they survived. Slang can be
regarded as a kind of proving ground for words where they go through tests of their
suitability for permanent employment.
An interesting group of words is those, which have remained slang for many
years, sometimes centuries, and have never quite been admitted to the
respectability of Standard English. These tend to be words connected with subjects
which people consider not quite respectable: crime, drink, drugs for example.
Like other forms of language, slang has its appropriate and inappropriate
occasions. It would be quite inappropriate in a court of law for the judge to use
slang to the witness. On the other hand, the language of law court would be quite
inappropriate in, for example, a party.
61
For someone whose native language is not English, slang is a thing to
understand and appreciate, rather than to use oneself, because it is so closely
identified with the nation of its origin.
Ответьте на следующие вопросы по тексту.
1. What distinguishing characteristics does slang have?
2. For what reason do teenagers coin new words?
3. What kind of words have remained slang for many years and have never
been admitted to the respectability of Standard English.

62
ТЕМА 5
ВРЕМЕНА ГРУППЫ PERFECT CONTINUOUS
Present Perfect Continuous
Утвердительная форма Отрицательная форма Вопросительная форма
I/you/we/they have been I/you/we/they have not Have I/you/we/they
studying… been studying… been studying…?
He/she/it has been He/she/it has not been Has he/she/it been
studying… studying … studying…?
Present Perfect Continuous употребляется для описания:
 действий, которые начались в I’m out of breath because I’ve been
прошлом и продолжаются в running to get here in time.
настоящее время либо
завершились к моменту речи

Past Perfect Continuous


Утвердительная форма Отрицательная форма Вопросительная форма
I/you/he/she/it/we/they I/you/he/she/it/we/they Had
had been writing… had not been writing… I/you/he/she/it/we/they
been writing…?
Past Perfect Continuous употребляется для описания:
 действий, которые начались до When you saw us, we had been running
определенного момента в for six miles – and we still had a mile to
прошлом и продолжаются в go!
этот момент, либо завершились
к этому моменту

Future Perfect Continuous


Утвердительная форма Отрицательная форма Вопросительная форма
I/you/he/she/it/we/they I/you/he/she/it/we/they Will
will have been flying… will not (won’t) have I/you/he/she/it/we/they
been flying… have been flying…?
Future Perfect Continuous употребляется для описания:
 действий, которые начались At seven o’clock, I’ll have been doing
или будут начаты и не my chemistry homework for three hours!
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закончены до определенного
момента в будущем

СОГЛАСОВАНИЕ ВРЕМЕН
В английском сложноподчиненном предложении с придаточным
дополнительным соблюдаются правила согласования времен в главном и
придаточном предложениях. Эти правила сводятся к следующему:
1. Если глагол-сказуемое главного предложения стоит в настоящем или
будущем времени, то глагол-сказуемое придаточного дополнительного
предложения может стоять в любой временной форме, требуемой смыслом.
I think you are right.
Do you know why was he absent yesterday?
2. Если глагол-сказуемое главного предложения стоит в прошедшем времени,
то и глагол дополнительного придаточного предложения должен стоять в
одном из прошедших времен:
Действие Видовременная форма Пример
Для обозначения, Past Simple или Past He told me he was
одновременного Continuous preparing for his exam.
действия
Для обозначения Past Perfect или Past I didn’t know he had gone
предшествующего Perfect Continuous away.
действия
Для выражения Future in the past He told me that he would
будущего времени meet us at the station
Внимание: при указании определенного времени (in1990, yesterday)
предшествующее время выражается при помощи Past Simple.
I thought you were born in 1990.

КОСВЕННАЯ РЕЧЬ
Косвенная речь используется для передачи чужого высказывания.
Правила преобразования прямой речи в косвенную (только в том случае если
вводная фраза содержит глагол в Past Simple):
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Прямая речь Косвенная речь
Present Simple Past Simple
“I want to build a new house”, said Jill. Jill said that he wanted to build a new
house.
Present Continuous Past Continuous
“We are making a dress”, they said They said that they were making a
dress.
Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous
“I have been drawing all day”, said Debbie said that she had been drawing
Debbie. all day.
Past Simple Past Perfect
“Jim made a card for me yesterday”, Amy said Jim had made a card for her
Amy said. the day before.
Will Would
“I will make you a scarf”, my grandma My grandma said that she would make
said. me a scarf.
Am/is/are going to Was/were going to
‘They are going to make a new one”, Joe said they were going to make a new
said Joe. one.
Can, may, must/have to Could, might, had to
Внимание:
1. Глаголы в Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous остаются без изменений.
2. Модальные глаголы would, should, could, might также остаются без
изменений.

Правила преобразования вопросов, приказов, просьб из прямой речи в


косвенную:
Прямая речь Косвенная речь
Общие вопросы
“Have you been to the gallery?” he He asked her if she had been to the
asked her. gallery.
“Do you want a sweater?” my mum My mum asked if I wanted a sweater.
asked.
Специальные вопросы
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“When will they finish the house?” I I asked when they would finish the
asked house.
“Why did you say that?” my sister My sister asked me why I had said that.
asked me.
Приказы
“Put your clothes in the drawer”, Mum Mum told me to put my clothes in the
said. drawer.
“Don’t wear the red one,” Alice said. Alice told me not to wear the red one.
Просьбы
“Will you make me one?” I asked I asked Terry to make me one.
Terry. Olga asked me not to move her
“Please don’t move my pictures,” said pictures.
Olga.

Контрольная работа №5
I Вариант
1. Раскройте скобки, используя Present Perfect Continuous или Present
Perfect.
1. “Where have you been?” “ … you … tennis?” (play)
2. Look! Somebody … that window. (break)
3. You look tired. … you … hard? (work)

2. Поставьте глаголы в нужную временную форму, соблюдая правила


согласования времен.
1. They promised that they (bring) us all the necessary books.
2. He did it better than I (expect) he would.
3. He said that the buses (be) there soon.
3. Преобразуйте предложения в косвенную речь.
1. Jack told his father, “I have lost my notebook.”
2. Henry said to me, “I didn’t throw stones at your dog.”
3. Bob said to Tom, “Henry doesn’t sit next to me in class.”

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4. Преобразуйте вопросительные и повелительные предложения в
косвенную речь.
1. The hotel manager asked the visitors, “Did you sleep well?”
2. I asked my friend, “How do you feel after your holiday?”
3. Mary’s mother said to her, “Don’t go out without your coat.”
5. Переведите предложения, соблюдая правила согласования времен.
1. Я знал, что она не прочитала письмо.
2. Она считала, что ананасы растут на деревьях.
3. Он сказал нам, что расплатился с долгами больше месяца назад.
6. Прочтите и переведите текст.
Ireland
Before the beginning of the First World War Britain had agreed to give
Ireland self-government. There was a group of Irishmen who were not satisfied
with the idea of self-government. They formed a republican party and demanded a
full independence from Britain. In the 1918 elections to the British Parliament the
republicans won in almost every area of Ireland except Ulster. Instead of joining
the British Parliament, they met together in Dublin and started their own new
parliament. They announced that Irelands was now a republic. Many Irishmen
joined the republic’s army and began a guerilla fighting against the British. As a
result, the British government decided to make peace. In 1921 it agreed to the
independence of southern Ireland. but it also insisted that Ulster, or Northern
Ireland as it became known, should remain united with Britain.
The Anglo-Irish treaty, which was concluded in 1921, did not bring peace to
Ireland. A civil war started between the Irish themselves, because the republicans
insisted that all Ireland, including Northern Ireland, should be an independent
republic. A group of republicans formed a new party, Fianna Fail, which won the
elections of 1932, and in 1937 the new Prime Minister, Eamon de Valera, declared
southern Ireland a republic. The British Crown was no longer sovereign in Ireland.
Today Ireland and Britain find themselves in a very strange position:
officially they are entirely separate states, but by agreement their citizens are not
considered foreigners in one another’s country. In the republic of Ireland the
majority of population believe that one day all Ireland should be united, but
without the use of force. There are some people, however, who are ready to use
violent means to achieve a united Ireland.

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Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What status had Britain agreed to give Ireland?
2. When did the republicans start their own parliament in Dublin? What did
they announce?
3. When did Britain agree to the independence of southern Ireland?

II Вариант.
1. Поставьте глаголы в нужную временную форму, соблюдая правила
согласования времен.
1. We asked the delegates whether they ever (see) such a demonstration.
2. It was decided that we (start) our work at four o’clock.
3. The astronomer told us that the Moon (be) 240,000 miles from the Earth.
2. Преобразуйте предложения в косвенную речь.
1. Jack’s father said to him, “You haven’t cleaned your shoes.”
2. Mary said, “I don’t want to wear my old dress.”
3. My mother said to me, “I feel very tired, and I have a headache.”
3. Преобразуйте вопросительные и повелительные предложения в
косвенную речь.
1. Jack said to the policeman, “Tell me the time, please.”
2. Ann asked Mary, “What do you usually have for breakfast?”
3. . The old man said to the little girl, “Don’t run across the street.”
4. Переведите предложения, соблюдая правила согласования времен.
1. Она сказала, что пишет это сочинение уже три месяца.
2. Она не знала, успешно ли закончилась операция.
3. Том позвонил в полицию и сказал, что все его вещи украдены.
5. Раскройте скобки, используя Present Perfect Continuous или Present
Perfect.
1. We were good friends. We … each other for a long time. (know)
2. We were extremely tired at the end of the journey. We … for more than
24 hours. (travel)
3. They … for half an hour when it started to rain. (play)

6. Прочтите и переведите текст


The Yosemite Valley
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Native Americans
As long as 8,000 years ago, Native Americans lived in the Yosemite Valley
in the Sierra Nevada mountain range, farming and trading with other tribes on the
other side of the mountains surrounding the valley. They had an understanding of
the seasons and were able to use this knowledge to manage the valley’s ecosystem.
They cleared land for farming by setting fire to the undergrowth, allowing the
seasonal rain to prevent the fires from getting out of control. In this way they
created a landscape of grassland, mixed with isolated oak woodland. They farmed
the grassland and the woodland provided refuge for wildlife which they hunted.
The native people of the valley developed a culture rich in song and tradition. They
shared ideas and beliefs with tribes beyond the valley because they had traded
together over the centuries.
European settlers
The valley was first seen by European explorers in 1833, but it was nearly
twenty years later when the first travelers actually entered the valley. Gold had
been discovered in the Sierra Nevada in 1849. The opportunity to get rich brought
thousands of miners from all over America and beyond to the Sierra Nevada. At
first they were welcomed by the locals, who were happy to trade with the new
settlers. In only a few months, however, settlers had taken over almost every valley
of Sierra Nevada and the native people felt threatened in their own lands.
Inevitably, conflict broke out. Settlers claimed they were attacked by Indians (as
the Europeans called them). A trading post was attacked in the winter of 1849-50
and three white men were killed. Native Americans claimed they were attacked by
the settlers. Conflict and disease reduced the Native American population by two
thirds in a few short years. Whatever the rights and wrongs, the State of California
sent its soldiers into the mountains. They entered the Yosemite Valley in 1851 and
defeated the Native Americans, who were moved to a reservation away from the
gold mining area. America kept a military presence in the valley until 1906.
Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What knowledge did Native Americans use to farm the land?
2. Why were native people threatened in their land?
3. What reduced native population?

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III Вариант.
1. Поставьте глаголы в нужную временную форму, соблюдая правила
согласования времен.
1. The boy didn’t know that water (boil) at 100 degrees.
2. I was told that the secretary just (go out) and (come back) in half an hour.
3. When I called at his house, they (tell) me that he (leave) an hour before.
2. Преобразуйте предложения в косвенную речь.
1. “We have a lift but very often it doesn’t work,” they said.
2. “We have moved into our new flat. We don’t like it nearly so much as our
last one,” said my aunt.
3. “Nothing grows in my garden.” she said.
3. Преобразуйте вопросительные и повелительные предложения в
косвенную речь.
1. Mary’s mother asked her, “Where have you put your shoes?”
2. He asked his secretary, “Has the postman been yet?”
3. The bus-conductor said to the passengers, “Don’t get off the bus while it is
going.”
4. Переведите предложения, соблюдая правила согласования времен.
1. Капитан приказал всем подняться на борт.
2. Они не знали, будут ли опубликованы результаты их исследований.
3. Я думал, что он работает, и не вошел в комнату.
5. Раскройте скобки, используя Present Perfect Continuous или Present
Perfect.
1. Peter … basketball for a month. (not play)
2. “Sorry, I’m late.” “That’s all right. I … long” (wait)
3. They … tennis since 2 o’clock. (play)

6. Прочтите и переведите текст


John McDouall Stuart
I would like to look at one of the characters who represent that spirit of
determination that we Australians are supposed to have. Take a man like John
McDouall Stuart. As a result of his work the Northern Territory was opened up.
The route he took became the one for the overland telegraph Line. It’s hard to
imagine today, but it was Stuart’s exploration work that led to Australia finally

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being connected to the rest of the world, when the telegraph was laid along the
route he found in 1872.
Stuart came to Australia in 1839. He was a surveyor and spent the 1840s and
50s making the first maps of South Australia. At that time, no one had explored the
middle of the country. People believed the middle of Australia held an inland sea,
called Windjuilpin. This is what Stuart set out to find.
There were three of them: Stuart, George Forster and an aboriginal guide.
They had food for four weeks, but they walked for more than two months. Stuart
knew how fast he could walk, and the compass told him which direction they were
going in. Every time they took a turn he drew the turn on his map and the end of
every day, he drew a further line to show where they had been. He did this for
1,500 miles and his map is almost as accurate as the ones we use today. They
didn’t find the inland sea though – there isn’t one!
By the 1860s, Stuart was exploring again. He was the first man to reach the
centre of Australia and after that he led a series of expeditions that crossed the
whole country. He finally reached the northern coast in 1862.
However, these journeys did not do Stuart’s health any good at all. He had
walked through some of the most difficult terrain in Australia, if not the world. He
had endured the heat of the desert; the wet of the swamplands, with all the flies and
mosquitoes; he had been thirsty and half starved; and he had walked all the way.
His health suffered badly and he never really recovered from all the hardship he
had put himself through. He died just four years after crossing the continent.
Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What was the result of Stuart’s exploration work?
2. What did Stuart find in the middle of Australia?
3. How did the expeditions influenced on Stuart’s health?

IV Вариант.
1. Поставьте глаголы в нужную временную форму, соблюдая
правила согласования времен.
1. He said that he (can) not do it without my help.
2. I told you that I (leave) town on the following day.
3. We were afraid that she not (be able) to finish her work in time.

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2. Преобразуйте предложения в косвенную речь.
1. He said, “My wife has just been made a judge.”
2. The teacher said, “I am listening to you.”
3. John said, “I have never been to New York.”
3. Преобразуйте вопросительные и повелительные предложения в
косвенную речь.
1. The teacher said to the student, “Clean the blackboard, please.”
2. Mr. Smith asked him “How much do you spend on food every week?”
3. The teacher asked me, “Do you spell ‘swimming’ with one ’m’ or a
double ’m’?
4. Переведите предложения, соблюдая правила согласования времен.
1. Он просил, чтобы она не беспокоилась.
2. Я не знаю, когда он приедет в Москву.
3. Они поинтересовались, бывал ли я когда-нибудь заграницей.
5. Раскройте скобки, используя Past Perfect Continuous или Past Perfect.
1. I was sad when I sold my car. I … it for a long time. (have)
2. Ken gave up smoking 2 years ago. He … for 30 years. (smoke)
3. We weren’t hungry. We … lunch. (just have)

6. Прочтите и переведите текст

Russian expansion in the 19th century


The territory of the Russian Empire reached its greatest extent in the 1880s,
despite the sale of Alaska to the USA in 1867. It included Poland and Finland in
the west and Sakhalin in the east. It stretched from the Arctic Ocean in the north to
the black Sea in the south.
During the 19th century, Russia was searching for a warm-water port that would
give its navy access to the sea all year round. Slowly, but steadily the Empire was
advancing south to India and east to the Pacific Ocean. In 1850 a Russian
settlement was established on the estuary of the Amur river, and the northern half
of the island of Sakhalin was occupied in 1855 and the southern half became
Russian twenty years later. Three years later, the entire Amur region and the coast
southwards from there were annexed from the Chinese. This singles act increased
the territory of the Russian Empire by 600,000 square kilometers. The city of

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Vladivostok was founded in 1860 and developed as Russia’s main port on the
Pacific. In central Asia the empire extended almost to the frontiers of Afghanistan.
Later that decade, cities such as Tashkent, Bukhara and Samarkand, became
Russian administrative centres after they were captured during military expeditions.
Russian settlers soon followed and the empire continued to expand. By the end of
19th century The Russian Empire had conquered the greater part of central Asia in
a series of wars in which fewer than 1000 Russian soldiers lost their lives.
This large territory needed a system of communications in order to hold it
together. Telegraph lines between east and west were unreliable, and news traveled
slowly. Communications improved with the building of the Trans-Siberian
Railway. Plans for the railway were drawn up in 1891 by Czar Alexander III. The
project was rushed to completion with the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War and
the 10,000 kilometer line was finished in 1905. This linked Vladivostok in the east
with Moscow and St Petersburg in the west. Towns and cities grew along the
railway and were now connected by improved telegraph and telephone lines, as
well as by the railway itself.
Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What was the whole territory of the Russian Empire at the end of the
19th century?
2. What increased the Russian territory by 600,000 square kilometers?
3. How did railway influenced on communications?

V Вариант.
1. Поставьте глаголы в нужную временную форму, соблюдая правила
согласования времен.
1. He said we (may) keep the book as long as we (like)
2. I have not told them that I (get) them those books in the nearest future.
3. They said that they (be) there before.
2. Преобразуйте предложения в косвенную речь.
1. The student said, “I haven’t read many English books.”
2. “My friend is studying medicine at the university,” Masha said.
3. My grandma said, “I don’t feel tired.”

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3. Преобразуйте вопросительные и повелительные предложения в
косвенную речь.
1. The teacher said to the pupils, “Learn the poem by heart.”
2. “Don’t make a sound,” he said in a whisper.
3. “What is your new house like?” I asked them.
4. Переведите предложения, соблюдая правила согласования времен.
1. Он сказал им, что они не должны говорить об этом сейчас.
2. Наш гид рассказал нам, что замок был возведен в 14-м веке.
3. Я надеюсь, что новый мост будет построен в следующем году.
5. Раскройте скобки, используя Present Perfect Continuous или Present
Perfect.
1. I … here for three months. (live)
2. They … French since March. (learn)
3. My brother is an actor. He … in several films. (appear)

6. Прочтите и переведите текст


Geography of the Republic Sakha (Yakutia)
The Sakha Republic (Yakutia), a sovereign state within the Russian
Federation, is situated in the north-eastern part of Russia and occupies an area one
fifth of the size of the whole country. As well as the mainland, it includes several
islands in the Arctic Ocean, such as New Siberian Islands and the Bolshoy
Begichev Islands. The republic is bordered by two seas to the north – the Laptev
Sea and the East-Siberian Sea. These are the shallowest and the coldest seas of the
Arctic Ocean.
The area of Yakutia is many times greater than the largest European states: it
is six times the size of France and thirteen times the size of England. The distance
between the extreme north and the extreme south is about 2,000 kilometres, while
the distance between the extremes in the west and in the east is 2,500 km.
More than 40% of Yakutia’s territory lies within the Arctic Circle, and
nearly all its territory is in the permafrost. The capital city, Yakutsk, is 8,468 km
from Moscow.
In the west, the republic borders the Krasnoyarsky region; in the south-west,
it has a common border with Irkutsky; in the south it borders Amursky; in the
south-east it has a common border with Khabarovsky and in the east it borders the
Magansky regions.
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The climate of the republic is mainly determined by its geographical
situation. It is situated in the middle of the continent, which is why the warm
Atlantic air streams do not affect the climate by making it milder, as they do in
other areas. On the contrary, the territory of the republic is completely open to the
Arctic Sea. The cold air streams from the Arctic affect the area all the year round,
making Yakutia one of the coldest regions in the world.
The republic consists of thirty-five territorial administrations: thirty-three
rural districts and two urban districts. All in all, there are five cities, eight towns,
sixty-five townships and about 600 villages.
Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What seas is the republic washed by?
2. Name the regions that Yakutia borders with.
3. What influences the climate of the republic?

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Материалы для подготовки к экзамену

ТЕСТ № 1
1. What is______longest river in______world?
a) a, a c) the, a
b) the, the d) a, the
2. Do you know the______who lives next door?
a) men c) mans
b) man d) mens
3. My______cars are in the garage.
a) son's-in-law's c) sons-in-law's
b) sons'-in-laws d) sons'-in-law
4. While peeling potatoes my small brother cut______with a sharp knife.
a) oneself c) his
b) him d) himself
5. My friends tell me that professors are people who think a lot, but say ____ .
a) little c) a few
b) few d) some
6. The exam was quite easy —______we expected.
a) more easy that c) easier than
b) more easy than d) easier as
7. My father likes______for long walks in the early morning.
a) go c) to go
b) going d) of going
8. When we went to the forest, we _____ smell burning.
a) could c) must
b) can d) might
9. There _____ several groups of people in Britain that try to protect the
environment.
a) is c) was
b) are d) were
10. I______what you are talking about.
a) am not understanding c) didn't understand
b) not understand d) don't understand

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11. Water______at 100 degrees.
a) boils с) will boil
b) is boiling d) will have been boiling
12. We were extremely tired at the end of the journey. We ______for more than 24
hours.
a) had travelled c) had been travelling
b) were travelling d) travel
13. How long______you______? Since I was 17.
a) have been driving c) did drive
b) have driven d) do drive
14. All tickets______before we got in the theatre.
a) were sold c) are sold
b) have sold d) had been sold
15. If I______that you were busy, I______interrupted you.
a) knew, wouldn't have c) know, wouldn't have
b) had known, wouldn't have d) has known, wouldn't have
16. I fell sick. I______so much.
a) wish I had eaten c) wish I would eat
b) wish I had not eaten d) wish I eat
17. Mary told me that she______to leave for London the next week.
a) is going c) were going
b) has gone d) was going
18. Ellie exclaimed that she______that car since her farther gave it to her and that
there had been no complaints.
a) had driven c) drove
b) had been driving d) was driving
19.Не asked me if Tom______yet.
a) hadn't left c) leaves
b) left d) hasn't left
20. ______ all the exercises he had to do.
a) He carefully wrote
b) He wrote carefully
c) Carefully he wrote

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ТЕСТ № 2
1. People always have______hopes for______better life in______future.
a) -, a, the c) the, the, the
b) the,-,the d)-, -,the
2. I need______before I make a decision.
a) more informations c) further information
b) a few more information d) many information
3. Don't bother, I won't listen to your______will do me no good.
a) advice, it c) advices, they
b) advise, it d) advises, they
4. I'm going to the wedding on Saturday.______is getting married.
a) a friend of me c) mine friend
b) a friend of mine d) a friend of my
5. He has earned so_____money that he has decided to help the poor.
a) much c) little
b) many d) few
6. He's a fast runner. I can't run as______as he.
a) fast c) faster
b) fastly d) fastest
7. Tomorrow I've got to be at work at 7 a.m., but I'm not used______so early.
a) to get up c) for getting up
b) to getting up d) get up
8. When we are in the library, we______not make any noise.
a) could c) must
b) can d) might
9. Money_____the root of all evil in our life.
a) are c) have been
b) were d) is
10. I have lost my key again. I______things. I lose things too often.
a) always lose c) have always lost
b) am always losing d) was always losing
11. At last Kate came. I______for two hours.
a) am waiting c) had been waiting
b) have been waiting d) was waiting

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12. The boy is going to be a scientist when he______up.
a) grow c) will grow
b) grows d) will have grown
13. How long______you______Kate?
a) did know c) have known
b) have been knowing d) do known
14. The dinner______by five o'clock tomorrow.
a) will be served c) will have been served
b) is served d) will serve
15. If you______provoked the dog, it______attacked you.
a) hadn't, wouldn't have c) hadn't, wouldn't
b) didn't, wouldn't d) didn't, won't
16. I wish she______to the theatre with us last Friday.
a) would come c) came
b) could have come d) will come
17. Mary said that Paris______beautiful in spring.
a) is c) was
b) has been d) were
18. He wondered what Dick______at that moment.
a) did c) is doing
b) does d) was doing
19. He asked me how long I______English.
a) learn c) has been learning
b) am learning d) had been learning
20. Last year we went______.
a) to Vienna by train at Easter
b) at Easter to Vienna by train
c) by train at Easter to Vienna

ТЕСТ№ 3
1 .______river Volga flows into______Caspian Sea.
a) the, - c) -, the
b) the, the d) -, -

79
2. For 30 years now I have been studying my______. I don't know very much
about them.
a) fellow-mens c) fellows-man
b) fellow-men d) fellows-men
3. Old Mr. O'Hara told a story of the______movement in Ireland.
a) woman's c) women
b) women's d) woman
4. It is not his fault. You cannot blame______.
a) his c) him
b) himself d) he
5. I don't go swimming very_____nowadays.
a) many c) few
b) much d) a little
6. The film was really boring. It was______I've ever seen.
a) most boring film c) the film more boring
b) the more boring film d) the most boring film
7. The teacher allowed us ______reference material while writing the report.
a) to use c) use
b) using d) used
8. It was a great party last night. You______have come.
a) could c) must
b) should d) might
9. There_____a lot of people waiting in the station yesterday evening.
a) is c) was
b) are d) were
10. While Tom______a book, Marhta______TV.
a) was reading, watched c) was reading, was watching
b) read, watched d) read, was watching
11. I______to the news on television at nine o'clock last night.
a) was listening c) have been listening
b) listened d) had been listening
12. —______you______the post office when you're out? Probably. Why? I need to
mail the letter. Could you do it for me?
a) are passing c) will be passing

80
b) are going to pass d) will pass
13. Members of British Parliament_____salaries since 1911.
a) paid c) are paid
b) have been paid d) were paid
14. Most children______strongly______their parents.
a) are, influencing on c) has, influence with
b) are, influenced by d) have, influenced by
15. You______achieve anything unless you______hard.
a) wouldn't, tried c) wouldn't, try
b) won't, try d) won't, tried
16. I wish I______everything to you yesterday.
a) could explain c) explained
b) could have explained d) have explained
17. Jane told everybody that she______a meeting______.
a) was having, tomorrow c) was having, the next day
b) will have, the next day d) had, tomorrow
18. The manager explained that the exhibition______last week.
a) finished c) is finished
b) finishes d) had finished
19. He asked me which street I______in.
a) am living c) '11 live
b) live d) lived
20. They have lived______.
a) for a long time peacefully in the same house
b) for a long time in the same house peacefully
c) peacefully in the same house for a long time

ТЕСТ№ 4
1. ______North is______cooler than______South.
a) -,the, - c)the, -, -
b) the, the, the d) the, -, the
2. Before the game each______name is written on a card. The______select a card
and keep the name secret.

81
a) child, child c) children's, childs
b) child's, children d) child's, children's
3. Have you got______luggage? Let me help you.
a) any c) some
b) - d) a
4. There are______biscuits left in the tin.
a) a few c) little
b) much d) a little
5. The government is going to provide_____houses for homeless people.
a) most c) few
b) much d) more
6. John's grades are______his sister's.
a) the higher than c) higher than
b) the highest as d) more high than
7. I want my brother______the work as soon as possible.
a) finishing c) finishes
b) to finish d) finish
8. Michael______drive without headlights, it is forbidden.
a) mustn't c) shouldn't
b) have to d) need to
9. Thanks for your letter. Your news_____very interesting.
a) was c) will be
b) were d) have been
10. Long ago they______most houses out of wood.
a) built c) were building
b) have built d) had built 7. At 10 o'clock in the morning on
Wednesday
11. Tom______a delegation in the office.
a) will receive c) will be receiving
b) is receiving d) would receive
12. My mother passed her driving test yesterday. She______to drive for two years.
a) learn c) has been learning
b) was learning d) had been learning
13. .______he______about the opera before?

82
a) had spoken c) has spoken
b) was speaking d) did speak
14. Many new houses______in our street by next year.
a) will build c) are building
b) have built d) '11 have been built
15. If he______looking where he was going, he______walked into the wall.
a) has been, wouldn't have c) had been, wouldn't had
b) were, wouldn't have d) had been, wouldn't have
16. I wish you______talking now.
a) to stop c) will stop
b) stopped d) would stop
17. He said that his car _____ a few days ago.
a) was stolen c) had been stolen
b) has been stolen d) is stolen
18. He told her not to eat it, explaining that there_____a risk of food poisoning.
a) is c) will be
b) was d) has been
19. He asked me how many lessons I______last week.
a) had c) had had
b) was having d) have
20. I______after that.
a) only saw him once
b) saw him only once
c) saw him once only

ТЕСТ № 5
1. At______weekends I sometimes turn______television on in______morning.
a) the, the, the c) the, —, the
b) -, the, the d) the, the,
2. The doctor's car is outside______house. Someone must have fallen ill there.
a) the Browns c) Browns'
b) the Browns' d) The Browns' family
3. ______ came to visit him while he was in hospital.

83
a) nobody c) any one
b) none d) some
4. If there are______calls for me, can you ask to leave a message?
a) some c) any
b) none d) no
5. I suppose people are spending now_____money than they used to.
a) much c) fewer
b) many d) more
6. Honesty is______policy.
a) the best c) more better
b) better d) the better
7. A passer-by asked me how______to the railway station.
a) can get c) getting
b) get d) to get
8. This baby______walk in a few weeks.
a) will be able to c) can
b) will can d) need
9. My sister______interested in medicine ever since she was a child.
a) is c) has been
b) was d) will be
10. We______it for half an hour when the teacher entered.
a) have discussed c) discussed
b) were discussing d) had been discussing
11. This time next week I ______on the beach in Spain.
a) lie c) will be lying
b) will lie d) will have been lying
12. You______always______money!
a) —, borrow c) will borrow
b) has been borrowing d) are borrowing
13. —_____he already______the doctor by that time?
a) has seen c) was seeing
b) did see d) had seen
14. The novel "The Mother" by Gorky______into many languages.
a) has been translated b) has translated

84
с) had been translated d) hasn't translated
15. If Jane _____the money tomorrow, she______to the restaurant with us.
a) had, would go c) has, will go
b) will have, will go d) has, goes
16. I wish they______arguing because they make me nervous.
a) will stop c) would stop
b) would have stopped d) stop
17. Miss Marple replied that she______surprised at seeing the doctor depart.
a) is not c) has not been
b) won't be d) would not be
18. He promised he______there in half an hour.
a) is c) will be
b) would be d) was
19. He asked me if I______English difficult to learn.
a) find c) has found
b) have found d) found
20. ______at everyone who got off the plane.
a) Suspiciously he looked
b) He suspiciously looked
c) He looked suspiciously

85
Tolkien
J.R.R. Tolkien, an English novelist and scholar, won fame due to his original
epic trilogy “The Lord of the Rings”. This outstanding work, that by the mid-1960s
became a sociocultural phenomenon, consists of "The Fellowship of the Ring",
"The Two Towers", and "The Return of the King".
J.R.R. Tolkien was born in 1892, Bloemfontein, South Africa. After 3 years
in South Africa, he returned to England with his Mother Mabel; unfortunately his
father died 1 year later, leaving him with little memory of his father. His early
childhood was, by all accounts, a happy one; he was brought up in the
Warwickshire countryside (many regard this idealised upbringing as the basis for
the Shire in Lord of the Rings). In 1904, when John was just 12, his mother Mabel
died from diabetes leaving a profound mark on him and his brother. After his
mother’s passing, he was brought up by the family’s Catholic priest, Father Xavier
Morgan. From an early age, J.R.R. Tolkien was an excellent scholar, with an
unusually specialized interest in languages. He enjoyed studying languages
especially Greek, Anglo Saxon, and later at Oxford, Finnish.
J.R.R. Tolkien participated in World War I. He survived, mainly due to the
persistent reoccurrence of trench fever, which saw him invalided back to
England. He rarely talked about his experiences directly, but the large-scale
horrors of war, will undoubtedly have influenced his writings in some way.
Perhaps the imagery for the wastelands of Mordor may have had birth in the
muddy horrors of the Western Front.
He was educated at Oxford and was a professor of Anglo-Saxon and of
English language and literature (1945-59) at the University of Oxford.
Tolkien began writing his trilogy as an undergraduate. While working on it,
he created "The Hobbit", of 1937, which was an introduction to it. Both "The
Hobbit" and "The Lord of the Rings" are set in a mythical past; the latter work
chronicles the struggle between various good and evil kingdoms for possession of
a magical ring that can shift the balance of power.
The trilogy is remarkable for its fantasy types - elves, dwarves, hobbits -
and its sustained imaginative storytelling. It is regarded as a rare, successful
modern version of the heroic epic. A prequel of "The Lord of the Rings", "The
Silmarillion", was published in 1977. "Unfinished Tales" was published in 1980.
An animated film version of the first two books of the trilogy appeared in 1978.

86
The film version of "The Lord of the Rings" came out in the year 2002. Its success
was tremendous.
Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What was Tolkien interested in from an early age?
2. How did the experience of war influenced on his works?
3. What makes the trilogy remarkable?

Ernest Hemingway
Ernest Hemingway was born in Oak Park, a small town in the state of
Illinois. Ernest was the second of six children to be raised in the quiet suburban
town. His father was a physician, and both parents were devout Christians. In this
context, Hemingway's childhood pursuits fostered the interests which would
blossom into literary achievements.
After finishing school Hemingway worked as a reporter in Kansas City.
When World War I broke out he joined the volunteer ambulance unit in France.
During one of the attacks he was wounded and came home a hero. Upon returning
briefly to the United States after the First World War, Hemingway worked for the
Toronto Star and lived for a short time in Chicago. There, he met Sherwood
Anderson and married Hadley Richardson in 1921. On Anderson's advice, the
couple moved to Paris, where he served as foreign correspondent for the Star. As
Hemingway covered events on all of Europe, the young reporter interviewed
important leaders such as Lloyd George, Clemenceau, and Mussolini.
The Hemingways lived in Paris from 1921-1926. This time of stylistic
development for Hemingway reached its zenith in 1923 with the publication of
Three Stories and Ten Poems by Robert McAlmon in Paris and the birth of his son
John.
Hemingway's first novel "The Sun Also Rises" ("Fiesta") was published in
1926 in Paris. It deals with the expatriated Americans broken by the war.
"A Farewell to Arms" describes the experience of an American ambulance
lieutenant at the Italian front in World War I. In 1937 Hemingway went to Spain.
In his articles Hemingway denounced the fascist regime of France. "The Fifth
Column" is a play about the Civil War in Spain. In 1940 Hemingway completed
the novel "For Whom the Bell Tolls". It's a story of a young American teacher of

87
Spanish who joins the Spanish partisans.
During World War II Hemingway was a war correspondent in the East.
In 1952 Hemingway finished his tale "The Old Man and the Sea". This story of an
old Cuban fisherman is a hymn to human courage and endurance. "A Moveable
Feast", a record of Hemingway's stay in Paris in the 1920-s, was published
posthumously.
In 1954 Hemingway was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature.
Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What was his first novel and when was it published?
2. What experiences are described in "A Farewell to Arms"?
3. What Hemingway's work was published posthumously?

Colin Thiele
Colin Thiele was one of Australia's most prolific and popular writers for
children. He was born in 1920 in Eudunda, South Australia. His paternal
grandfather migrated from Germany to South Australia in 1855. He was the fourth
of five children of Carl Wilhelm and Amalie Anne, nee Wittwer and was baptised
on 19 December 1920. In 1945, Thiele married Rhonda Gill and they had two
daughters.
He went to school at Julia Creek and Eudunda Primary Schools and spent
his secondary schooling in Kapunda. He then completed a degree at the University
of Adelaide in 1941, followed by a course at Adelaide Teachers College in 1942.
After attending Teachers College and the University of Adelaide, Thiele started his
career as a teacher and author. He spent much of his life as a teacher at Primary,
Secondary and Tertiary levels. He taught at several High Schools, including Unley,
Port Lincoln, where he taught English from 1946-1955 and Brighton. During
World War II he served with the RAAF in northern Australia and Papua New
Guinea from 1942 until 1945, and then completed a Diploma of Education on his
return.
Thiele taught English at Port Lincoln on the Eyre Peninsula from 1946 to
1955. Radio plays, verse, children's features were written during his years
teaching at Port Lincoln and the Eyre Peninsula. He later taught for a year at
Brighton High School, Adelaide.
88
He joined the staff at Wattle Park Teachers 'College (later known as Wattle
Park Teachers' Centre) as a lecturer in English from 1957 to 1963. He was
awarded a Fulbright scholarship in 1958 to study teacher education. He became
Vice Principal in 1964, Principal from 1965 to 72, and then Principal of Murray
Park College of Advanced Education in 1973. In 1974 he became Director of
Wattle Park Teachers Centre until his retirement in 1980.
Colin Thiele moved to Queensland in 2000 for his health, but continued his
writing. He died on the 4th of September 2006 after a short stay in hospital. He
was 85 years old.
He has won many awards for his work.
He played an active role in organizations such as the Australian Section of
International Board on Books for Young People (IBBY), Commonwealth Literary
Fund, Australian Society of Authors and Writer's Week.
Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What is Colin Thiele famous for?
2. Where did he work before his retirement?
3. What organizations did he actively participate in?

Fyodor Dostoevsky
Fyodor Dostoevsky (1821-1881) was a Russian novelist, journalist, short-
story writer whose psychological penetration into the human soul had a profound
influence on the 20th century novel.
Dostoevsky was born in Moscow, as the second son of a former army doctor. He
was educated at home and at a private school. Shortly after the death of his mother
in 1837 he was sent to St. Petersburg, where he entered the Army Engineering
College. Dostoevsky graduated as a military engineer, but resigned in 1844 to
devote himself to writing. His first novel, Poor Folk appeared in 1846. It was
followed by The Double, which depicted a man who was haunted by a look-alike
who eventually usurps his position.
In 1846 he joined a group of utopian socialists. He was arrested in 1849 and
sentenced to death. The sentence was commuted to imprisonment in Siberia.
Dostoevsky spent four years in hard labor and four years as a soldier in
Semipalatinsk. Dostoevsky returned to St. Petersburg in 1854 as a writer with a

89
religious mission and published three works that derive in different ways from his
Siberia experiences: The House of the Dead, (1860) a fictional account of prison
life, The Insulted and Injured, which reflects the author's refutation of naive
Utopianism in the face of evil, and Winter Notes on Summer Impressions, his
account of a trip to Western Europe. He resigned from the army two years later.
Between the years 1861 and 1863 he served as editor of the monthly periodical
Time, which was later suppressed because of an article on the Polish uprising.
In 1864-65 his wife and brother died and he was burdened with debts, and
his situation was made even worse by gambling. From the turmoil of the 1860s
emerged Notes from the Underground, psychological study of an outsider, which
marked a watershed in Dostoevsky's artistic development. The novel starts with the
confessions of a mentally ill narrator and continues with the promise of spiritual
rebirth. It was followed by Crime and Punishment, (1866) an account of an
individual's fall and redemption, The Idiot, (1868) depicting a Christ-like figure,
Prince Myshkin, and The Possessed, (1871) an exploration of philosophical
nihilism. By the time of The Brothers Karamazov, which appeared in 1879-80,
Dostoevsky was recognized in his own country as one of its great writers.
Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What education did Dostoevsky get?
2. What was his first novel?
3. Why was he commuted to imprisonment in Siberia?

Dalan
Yakovlev Vasily Semyonovich – Dalan was born in Kytanakhsky nasleg of
Churapchinsky ulus. He graduated from the historical faculty of the Yakut
Pedagogical Institute in 1955. He worked as a teacher, a director of studies and
director of the middle school, a head of the cabinet of nonclass work in the Yakut
republican institute of advanced teachers. From 1977 he is the head of the
department of prose of the magazine “Cholbon” (“Khotugu Sulus”).
In 1983 he became a member and vice-chairman of the Board of Yakut
Writers.
He joined the literature at a mature age. He made his debut in the magazine
“Khotugu Sulus” in 1976. His first large work is the narrative “Wonderful Spring”
90
devoted to the life of a rural school, which was published in 1978 and at once
attracted attention of readers and critics. The author addressed to the problem of
the formation of character of a young man, choice of life way and moral position.
In the center of the narrative “A gray taiga noises” (1979) were depicted some
moral problems, connected with interrelation – ships of generations, town and rural
modes of life, perception and protection of nature.
Then he published some books for children: the anthology “Northern
Legends” (1979) and the narrative “Teppei grows up” (1984). Laid in them the
people’s wisdom and also high artistic level are permitted to decide educational,
cognitive and aesthetic tasks.
Turning his attention to the novel genre marked a new stage in the creative
work of Dalan. In his historical novel “Orphan child” (1983) on the base of the
people’s traditions, legends and stories was created earlier history of the people of
Yakutia. Terrible and tragically episodes of the past epoch have a direct attitude to
our contenporaneity. The novel was penetrated by philosophical idea, bearing
timeless character: good gives rise to good, evil deals to evil. His rich and image –
bearing language corresponds to deep problems and various characterology of his
work.
Dalan is a connoisseur and collector of oral people’s art. The line, begun by
“Northern Legends”, developed on a further scale in the book “Sacred cup” (1988).
Besides legends and stories in this book were included essays, storied and also
travel notes about the writer’s abroad impressions “By Yakut eyes” (1984).
Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:
1. What problem does the author address in “Wonderful Spring”?
2. What tasks are permitted to decide in his books for children?
3. What philosophical idea is penetrated in his historical novel “Orphan
child”?

Lost in the Post


by A. Philips
Ainsley, a post-office sorter, turned the envelope over and over in his hands.
The letter was addressed to his wife and had an Australian stamp. Ainsley knew
that the sender was Dicky Soames, his wife's cousin. It was the second letter
91
Ainsley received after Dicky's departure. The first letter had come six months
before, he did not read it and threw it into the fire. No man ever had less reason for
jealousy than Ainsley. His wife was frank as the day, a splendid housekeeper, a
very good mother to their two children. He knew that Dicky Soames had been fond
of Adela and the fact that Dicky Soames had years back gone away to join his and
Adela's uncle made no difference to him. He was afraid that some day Dicky
would return and take Adela from him.
Ainsley did not take the letter when he was at work as his fellow-workers
could see him do it. So when the working hours were over he went out of the post-
office together with his fellow workers, then he returned to take the letter
addressed to his wife. As the door of the post-office was locked, he had to get in
through a window. When he was getting out of the window the postmaster saw him.
He got angry and dismissed Ainsley. So another man was hired and Ainsley
became unemployed. Their life became hard; they had to borrow money from their
friends.
Several months had passed. One afternoon when Ainsley came home he saw
the familiar face of Dicky Soames. "So he had turned up," Ainsley thought to
himself.
Dicky Soames said he was delighted to see Ainsley. "I have missed all of
you so much," he added with a friendly smile.
Ainsley looked at his wife. "Uncle Tom has died," she explained "and Dicky
has come into his money".
"Congratulation," said Ainsley, "you are lucky."
Adela turned to Dicky. "Tell Arthur the rest," she said quietly. "Well, you
see," said Dicky, "Uncle Tom had something over sixty thousand and he wished
Adela to have half. But he got angry with you because Adela never answered the
two letters I wrote to her for him. Then he changed his will and left her money to
hospitals. I asked him not to do it, but he wouldn't listen to me!" Ainsley turned
pale. "So those two letters were worth reading after all," he thought to himself. For
some time everybody kept silence. Then Dicky Soames broke the silence, "It's
strange about those two letters. I've often wondered why you didn't answer them?"
Adela got up, came up to her husband and said, taking him by the hand. "The
letters were evidently lost." At that moment Ainsley realized that she knew
everything.

92
Ответьте на следующие вопросы по тексту.
1. Why didn’t Ainsley want his wife to get letters from Dicky Soames?
2. Why did the postmaster dismiss Ainsley?
3. Who received uncle Tom’s money?

A Foul Play
by R. Ruark
In 1943 Lieutenant Alexander Barr was ordered into the Armed Guard
aboard the merchant ship, like many other civilian officers with no real mechanical
skills – teachers, writers, lawyers.
His men were the rag-tag of merchant service and knew very little of it.
Lieutenant Alec Barr had his crew well in hand except one particularly unpleasant
character, a youngster called Zabinski. Every ship has its problem child, and
Zabinski was Alec's cross. If anybody was drunk and in trouble ashore, it was
Zabinski. If anybody was smoking on watch, or asleep on watch, it always was
Zabinski. Discipline on board was hard to keep and Zabinski made it worse.
Alec called the boy to his cabin. "I've tried to reason with you," he said. "I've
punished you with everything from confinement to ship to extra duty. I've come to
the conclusion that the only thing you may understand is force. I've got some
boxing gloves. Navy Regulations say they should be used for recreation.
We are going to have some.
"That's all right", Zabinski said smiling.
Alec announced the exhibition of boxing skill. A lot of people gathered on
deck to watch the match.
It didn't take Lieutenant Barr long to discover that he was in the ring with a
semi-professional. They were fighting two-minute rounds. But from the first five
seconds of the first round Alec knew that Zabinski could knock him out with a
single punch if he wanted to. But Zabinski didn't want to, he was toying with his
commander, and the snickers' grew into laughter.
In the third round Alec held up a glove. "Time out!", he said. "I'm going to
my cabin, I'll soon be back". He turned and ran up to his cabin. In the cabin there
was a safe. Alec's duty was to pay wages to his personnel. Alec Barr opened the

93
safe and took out a paper-wrapped roll of ten-cent coins. He put this roll of silver
coins into his glove and returned on deck.
"Let's go!" he said and touched gloves with Zabinski. It had pleased
Zabinski before to allow the officer to knock him from time to time because it gave
him a chance for a short and painful punch. But now the silver-weighted glove
crashed into the boy's chin and Zabinski was out. He was lying on the floor
motionless.
Alec Barr looked briefly at the boy. "Somebody throw some water on him,"
he said coldly to the seamen. And he went up to his room to clean his cuts and put
the roll of coins back to the safe. After that Lieutenant Alexander Barr had no more
personnel trouble aboard ship.
Ответьте на вопросы.
1. Why did Alec think that Zabinski was his cross?
2. What kind of punishment did Lieutenant Barr think up?
3. How did Alec Barr win the exhibition of boxing skill?

A Good Start
Bill liked painting more than anything in life. He started painting when he
was 15 and at 22 he had his first one-man show when he was discovered by the
critics and his pictures were all sold out. With the money he could afford to marry
Leila, rent a studio and stop being a student. To complete his education he went to
Italy but after 5 months all the money was spent and he had to return.
Bill never had another show like the first one, though he became a better
painter. The critics did not think him modern enough and said he was too academic.
From time to time he managed to sell some of his paintings but eventually things
had got very tight and he was obliged to look for a job.
The day before he went for an interview with his uncle Bill was especially
gloomy. In the morning he went up to one of his unfinished pictures in the studio
but he felt he couldn't paint. He threw down his brush and a bright red spot
appeared on the board already covered with black and yellow paint from his
previous work. The board had been used to protect the floor and was at that
moment a mixture of bright colours.

94
When Bill left, Leila got down to cleaning the studio. She took up the board
and put it against the wall to clean the floor. At that moment Garrad, Bill's dealer,
came in. Bill had asked him to come, look at his work and arrange a show.
Suddenly the board against the wall attracted his attention.
"Leila, my dear," he exclaimed. "I felt that there must be something like this.
Tell me, why is he keeping it away from us?"
Leila was too shocked to answer. But Garrad went on: "I think it's wonderful.
I never doubted Bill would catch up with the modern trends. Now Leila, are there
more pictures for a full show? I must go now but I'll be ringing him up. I'm going
to change the whole plan and show his new work in the autumn. Tell him not to
waste time. As to this one if he wants to sell it, I'll buy it myself."
Leila stayed in the studio till Bill came back. She was too excited to tell him
the story clearly and Bill could not understand anything at first. When he realised
what had happened he shook with laughter. "You didn't explain the whole thing
about the board to him, did you?" he managed to say at last.
"No, I didn't. I couldn't really, I believe I should have, but it would have
made him look too silly. I just said I didn't think you'd sell it".
What was Bill to do?
Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What could Bill afford with the money he got?
2. Why was he obliged to look for a job?
3. What picture attracted Garrad’s attention in Bill’s studio?

The Ant and the Grasshopper


by W.S. Maugham
When I was a small boy I was made to learn by heart some fables of La
Fontaine and the moral of each was carefully explained to me. Among them was
"The Ant and the Grasshopper". In spite of the moral of this fable my sympathies
were with the grasshopper.
I couldn't help thinking of this fable when the other day I saw George
Ramsay lunching in a restaurant. I never saw an expression of such deep gloom.
He was staring into space. I was sorry for him. I suspected at once that his

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unfortunate brother had been causing trouble again. I went up to him. "How are
you?" I asked. "Is it Tom again?" He sighed. "Yes, it's Tom again."
I suppose every family has a black sheep. In this family it had been Tom. He
had begun life decently enough: he went into business, married and had two
children. But one day he announced that he didn't like work and that he wasn't
suited for marriage. He wanted to enjoy himself. He left his wife and his office. He
spent two happy years in the various capitals of Europe. His relations were
shocked and wondered what would happen when his money was spent. They soon
found out: he borrowed. He was so charming that nobody could refuse him. Very
often he turned to George. Once or twice he gave Tom considerable sums so that
he could make a fresh start.
For twenty years Tom gambled, danced, ate in the most expensive
restaurants and dressed beautifully. Though he was forty-six he looked not more
than thirty-five. Tom Ramsay knew everyone and everyone knew him.
Poor George, only a year older than his brother, looked sixty. He was honest
and industrious. He had a good wife and four daughters to whom he was the best of
fathers. His plan was to retire at fifty-five to a little house in the country. His life
was blameless. He was glad that he was growing old because Tom was growing
old, too. He used to say: "It was all well when Tom was young and good-looking.
In four years he'll be fifty. He won't find life so easy then. I shall have thirty
thousand pounds by the time I'm fifty. We shall see what is really best to work or
to be idle."
Poor George! I sympathized with him. I wondered now what else Tom had
done. George could hardly speak. "A few weeks ago," he said, "Tom became
engaged to a woman old enough to be his mother. And now she has died and left
him everything she had: half a million pounds, a yacht, a house in London and a
house in the country. It is not fair, I tell you, it isn't fair!"
I couldn't help it. I burst into laughter as I looked at George's face. I nearly
fell on the floor. George never forgave me. But Tom often asks me to dinners in
his charming house and if he sometimes borrows money from me, it is simply from
force of habit.
Ответьте на следующие вопросы по тексту.
1. Why was Tom a black ship in his family?
2. What kind of person was George Ramsay?

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3. What was the reason of George’s frustration
4.
The Bramble Bush
As Fran Walker was sitting between rounds behind her duty desk, she often
recollected her childhood.
Her father, Mr. Walker had owned a small lumber business in Sagamore,
one of Indiana's numerous smaller towns. The first Mrs. Walker had died, when
Fran was still a baby, so she did not remember her real mother at all. She
remembered her stepmother, though – small, tight-lipped, thin-faced, extremely
possessive of her new husband and the new house which had suddenly become her
own. Fran had adored her father, tried desperately to please him. She had made
endless attempts to win over her new mother. But her stepmother had remained
constantly jealous, resentful, without the slightest understanding of the small girl's
motives and emotions.
Fran felt herself losing out, slipping away into an inferior position. She
began to exaggerate – often lie about friends, feelings, grades at school, anything
possible to keep herself high in her father's esteem, and at the same time gain some
small bit of admiration from her mother. The exaggerations, though, had constantly
turned back on her, until eventually a disgusted Mrs. Walker had insisted she be
sent away to a nearby summer camp. "They award a badge of honour there," she
had said, "and if you win it – not a single untruth all summer – then we'll know
you've stopped lying and we'll do something very special for you."
"We'll give you a pony," her father had promised.
Fran wanted the pony. After two months of nearpainful honesty, she finally
won the badge of honour, and brought it home clutched tight in her fist, hidden in
her pocket while she waited, waited, all the way from the station, all during the tea
in the living-room for the exact proper moment to make her announcement of
glorious victory.
"Well?" her mother had said finally. "Well, Fran?"
"Well – ", Fran began, with the excitement building higher and higher as she
drew in her breath and thought of exactly how to say it.
"You can't hide it any longer, Fran." Her mother had sighed in hopeless
resignation. "We know you didn't win it, so there's simply no point in lying about it
now."

97
Fran had closed her mouth. She'd stared at her mother, then stood and gone
out to the yard and looked across the green meadow where the pony was going to
graze. She had taken the green badge from her pocket, fingered it tenderly, then
buried it beneath a rock in the garden. She had gone back into the house and said,
"No, I didn't win it," and her mother had said, "Well, at least you didn't lie this
time," and her father had held her while she'd cried and known finally that there
was no further use in trying. Her father had bought her an Irish setter as a
consolation prize.
Ответьте на следующие вопросы по тексту.
1. What childhood recollections did Fran have?
2. Why did Fran begin to exaggerate?
3. How did Fran’s parents punish her for lying?

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Библиографический список
1. БурцевА.А., БурцеваМ.А. Yakut literature in portraits and personalities. –
Якутск, 2004.
2. Шевелева С.А. Английский для гуманитариев: учебное пособие для вузов.-
М.:ЮНИТИ-ДАНА, 2012.
3. BorisivaA., Fedorova K., Sitnikova N. This is Sakha. Macmillan, 2008.
4. Mann M., Taylore-Knowles S. Grammar and Vocabulary. Pre-intermediate to
intermediate. – Macmillan, 2008.
5. Mann M., Taylore-Knowles S. Grammar and Vocabulary. Intermediate. –
Macmillan, 2006.
6. Murphy R. Essential Grammar in use. Aself-study reference and practice book
for elementary students of English. – Cambridge University Press, 2015
7. Murphy R. Essential Grammar in use. Aself-study reference and practice book
for preintermediate students of English. – Cambridge University Press, 2012.
8. Oschepkova V., McNicholas K. Macmillan Guide to Country Studies. Student’s
Book 1. Macmillan, 2006
9. Oschepkova V., McNicholas K. Macmillan Guide to Country Studies. Student’s
Book 2. Macmillan, 2007

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Учебное издание

Попова Евгения Михайловна,


Слепцова Наталья Васильевна,
Федорова Елена Николаевна

Сборник контролирующих материалов по английскому языку


для студентов педагогических специальностей
заочной формы обучения

Учебное пособие

Печатается в авторской редакции

Издательство

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