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Министерство сельского хозяйства

Российской Федерации
Федеральное государственное образовательное бюджетное
учреждение высшего образования
«Нижегородская государственная сельскохозяйственная академия»

В.П. Полозова

ENGLISH FOR POSTGRADUATES

(АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
ДЛЯ АСПИРАНТОВ)
Учебное пособие по английскому языку
для аспирантов

Нижний Новгород
2019
УДК 910(-87)380.8
ББК 81.2 Англ. яз.

Рецензент:
А.В. Радкевич - кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры «История
и иностранные языки» ФГБОУ ВО «Нижегородская ГСХА».

English for Postgraduates: Учебное пособие по английскому языку для


аспирантов / В.П. Полозова –ФГБОУ ВО «Нижегородская ГСХА», Нижний
Новгород, 2019 – 106 с.

Данное учебное пособие содержит материалы, необходимые при


подготовке аспирантов для сдачи кандидатского минимума в неязыковых вузах.
Оно призвано помочь аспирантам подготовиться к участию в международных
конференциях, усовершенствовать навыки чтения и перевода оригинальной
научной литературы, подготовить устное или письменно высказывание по теме
диссертационной работы, изложить содержание прочитанного текста в форме
резюме и аннотации. Тексты аутентичные, их уровень сложности варьируется.
Целью пособия также является приобретение специалистами коммуникативной
компетенции, необходимой для квалифицированной информационной и
творческой деятельности в различных сферах и ситуациях делового партнерства,
совместной производственной и научной работы.

Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета ФГБОУ ВО


«Нижегородская ГСХА».

© Нижегородская государственная
сельскохозяйственная академия, 2019
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ПРОГРАММНЫЕ ТРЕБОВАНИЯ К КАНДИДАТСКОМУ
ЭКЗАМЕНУ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ

Согласно ФГОС процесс изучения дисциплины «Иностранный язык»


направлен на формирование следующих компетенций:
- готовность участвовать в работе российских и международных
исследовательских коллективов по решению научных и научно-
образовательных задач (УК-3),
- готовности использовать современные методы и технологии научной
коммуникации на государственном и иностранном языках (УК-4).
В результате освоения дисциплины аспирант (соискатель) должен:
знать:
- термины, связанные с тематикой изученных разделов и соответствующими
ситуациями профессионально-деловой коммуникации;
- межкультурные особенности ведения научной деятельности;
- правила коммуникативного поведения в ситуациях межкультурного научного
общения;
- требования к оформлению научных трудов, принятые в международной
практике; знание основных библиографических источников и поисковых систем;
- грамматический материал, включенный в план аудиторных занятий и
самостоятельной работы;
- основные словообразовательные элементы,
- особенности представления результатов научной деятельности в устной и
письменной форме при работе в российских и международных
исследовательских коллективах;
уметь:
- точно лексически и грамматически переводить научные тексты;
-переводить текст по профильной специальности с листа;
-осуществлять устную коммуникацию в монологической и диалогической форме
научной направленности (доклад, сообщение, презентация, дебаты, круглый
стол);
- писать научные статьи, тезисы, доклады, рефераты;
- читать оригинальную литературу на иностранном языке и оформлять
извлеченную из иностранных источников информацию в виде перевода,
реферата, аннотации;
- оперировать изученными терминологическими единицами,
- следовать нормам, принятым в научном общении, при работе в российских и
международных исследовательских коллективах с целью решения научных и
научно-образовательных задач;
- осуществлять личностный выбор в процессе работы в российских и
международных исследовательских коллективах, оценивать последствия
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принятого решения и нести за него ответственность перед собой, коллегами и
обществом;
владеть:
-иностранным языком как средством научно-профессионального общения;
- иностранным языком на уровне чтения и перевода научных текстов;
- навыками и умениями реферирования и аннотирования научных текстов;
- навыками составления деловых писем;
- навыками анализа основных мировоззренческих проблем, в т.ч.
междисциплинарного характера, возникающих при работе по решению научных
и научно-образовательных задач в российских или международных
исследовательских коллективах;
- технологиями планирования деятельности в рамках работы в российских и
международных коллективах по решению научных и научно-образовательных
задач;
- различными типами коммуникаций при осуществлении работы в российских
и международных коллективах по решению научных и научно-образовательных
задач.
Требования по видам речевой коммуникации
Говорение:
К концу обучения аспирант (соискатель) должен владеть подготовленной,
а также неподготовленной монологической речью в виде резюме, сообщения,
доклада; диалогической речью в ситуациях научно-профессионального и
бытового общения в пределах изученного языкового материала.
Аудирование:
Аспирант (соискатель) должен уметь воспринимать на слух оригинальную
монологическую и диалогическую речь по специальности, опираясь на
изученный языковой материал, фоновые страноведческие и профессиональные
знания, навыки языковой и контекстуальной догадки.
Чтение:
Аспирант (соискатель) должен уметь читать оригинальную научную
литературу по специальности, опираясь на изученный языковой материал,
фоновые страноведческие и профессиональные знания и навыки языковой и
контекстуальной догадки.
Виды чтения:
1. Чтение, направленное на понимание основного содержания текста.
2. Чтение, имеющее целью максимально точное и адекватное понимание
текста с установкой на выделение смысловых блоков, структурно-
семантического ядра, группировку информации, ее обобщение и анализ в целях
проводимого аспирантом (соискателем) научного исследования.
3. Беглое чтение с целью определения круга рассматриваемых в тексте
вопросов и основных положений автора (тексты по специальности).

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4. Чтение, направленное на быстрое нахождение определенной
информации (научная литература по специальности, в том числе справочного
характера).

Письмо:
Аспирант (соискатель) должен владеть навыками письменной речи в
пределах изученного языкового материала.
Виды письма:
1. План (конспект прочитанного).
2. Изложение содержания прочитанного в форме резюме.
3. Сообщение, доклад по темам проводимого исследования.

Структура кандидатского экзамена

Кандидатский экзамен по иностранному языку проводится в два этапа.


На первом этапе аспирант выполняет:
1) устный перевод на русский язык, резюмирование и краткое изложение
основного содержания оригинальных/ аутентичных научных текстов по
специальности на английском языке, прочитанных и проанализированных
аспирантом в ходе подготовки к экзамену. Общий объем текстов - 600 000 - 700
000 печатных знаков.
2) письменный перевод на русский язык оригинального/ аутентичного
научного текста по специальности на русский язык. Объем текста 15000
печатных знаков.
Качество выполнения заданий оценивается по зачетной системе и является
условием допуска ко второму этапу экзамена.

Второй этап экзамена включает в себя три задания:


- изучающее чтение незнакомого оригинального/ аутентичного текста по
специальности. Объем текста 2500-3000 печатных знаков. Время выполнения
45-60 минут. Форма проверки: письменное резюме на английском языке с
последующей устной презентацией;
- беглое (просмотровое) чтение оригинального текста по специальности.
Объем текста 1500-2000 печатных знаков. Время выполнения 2-3 минуты.
Форма проверки: передача извлеченной информации на английском языке
(устно);
- беседа с экзаменаторами на английском языке по вопросам, связанным со
специальностью и содержанием научного исследования аспиранта, его теме,
актуальности, целям и задачам, объекту и предмету, рабочей гипотезе, новизне,
теоретической, практической значимости и апробации (или презентация
реферата (научной работы).

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Part I

О СЕБЕ И СВОЕЙ УЧЕБЕ В АСПИРАНТУРЕ

ABOUT MYSELF AND MY STUDY

I want to tell you a few words about myself and


my research work. When a pupil, I felt a call for exact
sciences, that's why I decided to obtain higher
education in this field of knowledge. I entered the N.
Novgorod State Agricultural Academy, the Department
of Veterinary Sciences. Upon graduation, I was eager
to continue doing research in the chosen field, that's
why I decided to enter post-graduate course. For me
there's nothing like working under the direct supervision of experienced
specialists who can help me to produce work of a high standard.
Of course, doing science is not easy. Everything depends on your own
motivation and abilities. That's why I work and study really hard and try to make
the best of my abilities in order to meet the obligatory requirements of my
training. I'm really lucky to have an opportunity to work under the guidance of
efficient professors of our faculty.
My scientific advisor helps me with my thesis. He is the author of some
books, monographs, articles published in Russia and abroad. He helped me to
choose the topic of my research, to work out the scheme of research analysis, to
carry out experiments. He corrects some points of my thesis and I follow his
advice. On the one hand, it's not an easy matter to collect and process data, but
on the other hand it's very interesting.
I have been working on my thesis for more than a year. I have already finished
the first chapter and now I am writing the second one. I hope I am going to submit my
paper for defense in two years. I know that it will be really difficult to prove the
thesis, but I'll do my best, because I'm really interested in obtaining a candidate's
degree. My scientific advisor encourages me, and I hope that I'll succeed in
performing the experiments and defending my thesis.
I'm a diligent, industrious and persistent student. I do work hard and I
know for sure that for me these years won't be spent in vain, because it is the
time for self-improvement and self-education.

Words and Phrases


diligent (industrious, persistent) прилежный (трудолюбивый,
настойчивый)
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major in специализироваться в
meet one's requirements отвечать ч-л требованиям
research supervisor (a scientific advisor) научный руководитель
make an experiment (to do research) проводить эксперимент
(исследование)
collect and process data собирать и обрабатывать
данные
present the thesis (the dissertation) представить диссертацию
defend the thesis защищать диссертацию

MY RESEARCH WORK

I would like to say a few words about my


investigation. The subject of my investigation is
microbiology.
Research of this problem began with the idea
of my scientific adviser. And I appreciate the
opportunity to work with such a scientist.
During my studies I’ve had an opportunity to
get knowledge from remarkable teachers like
professors …., candidates and doctors of science …. They have achievements in
their fields of scientific research, publish scientific works, take courses of
lectures, carry out seminars, tutorial and laboratory works.
I especially appreciate my scientific adviser professor …, who supervises
my work. My scientific adviser is professor …. His/her biography includes …
years of work at the plant as an engineer and … years as a lecturer at the
Academy. He/she has published about … scientific works and articles, has about
… inventions and patents. Professor… is an incredibly energetic person and is
always busy delivering lectures for students, communicating with great number
of industrial engineers and scientists from another institutes. I suppose that my
scientific advisor is the person, who completely fulfilled himself/herself as a
scientist and a personality as a whole.
I've been already working on my investigation for more than a year.
During all this time I've been writing articles. I think it is very important for
young researchers to print the results of their scientific works periodically.
Besides I take part in conferences. Conference is an important event in
researcher's life. Especially it is inspiring for young researchers. Sometimes it is
said that a scientific conference is the best school for those who want to advance
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science. Conferences are intended to let scientists to share their achievements
and opportunity for everyone to exchange opinions and discuss scientific and
organization problems of common interests. I think, that making personal
contacts with people is sometimes much more important than reading papers.
The goal of conference is to encourage researchers to solve problems of modern
science and to stimulate international ties.
The success of the completion of the thesis greatly depends on the chosen
research methods, because they help to achieve the necessary purpose. One of
the empiric methods of research is experiment. Experiment must meet a number
of special requirements: activity, systematic character, clear purposes presence, a
good plan.

Questions
1. What are the fields of investigation at your department?
2. What is your scientific research about?
3. What contribution are you going to make to the problem in question?
4. What do you like and dislike about doing a research?
5. How long have you been working on your research?
6. Have you already published articles in any journals?
7. Who is your scientific adviser?
8. What are your adviser’s current research interests?
9. Have you taken part in scientific conferences?
10. What research methods do you use when working on your thesis?

BE READY TO ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

1. What is your name? Where are you from? When and where were you born?
Where do you live now?

2. What higher educational establishment have you graduated from? What


faculty? When did you graduate from the academy (university)? What subjects did you
study at the academy? What were your favourite subjects at the academy? Did you
participate in any scientific societies when you were a student?

3. Where do you study now? What is your speciality? What narrow field of
science (economics, agriculture, veterinary medicine) do you deal with? When did you
get interested in this field of study? What is the programme of your study? Do you

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attend the lectures and seminars in English and philosophy regularly? Are you a part-
time or full-time post-graduate student? Are you a first or second year postgraduate?

4. When did you enter post-graduate-courses? What exams did you take? Did
you pass your exams successfully? What marks did you get at the entrance exams?
Why did you decide to enter the post-graduate course? How long will your course last?

5. Who is your scientific leader? Tell a few words about your scientific adviser.
What field of science does he deal with? Does your scientific leader help you in your
scientific research? Does he often criticize (correct) some points of your thesis? Do
you follow his advice?

6. What is the title of your scientific paper? What does your thesis deal with?
What is it concerned with? (What is the topic of your investigations?) (What problems
are you going to touch on in your scientific paper? Name all of them. What is the
practical use (value) of your thesis? What are the main objectives of your scientific
paper? What is the theoretical value of your thesis?

7. Where do you get materials (information, data) for your thesis? Is Internet
helpful to you too? What scientific journals do you read? What kind of information do
you get? Do you read any scientific literature in English? Have you read any scientific
literature of your scientific supervisor? What are they about? Can they help you in
your scientific research?

8. Do you carry out the experimental part of your work? Where? What
experiments do you carry out? What do you need for your experiments? Who sponsors
your research?

9. Have you written any scientific articles? What are they about? Have you
published them? Where? Are you going to publish them? Have you taken part in
scientific conferences?

10. How long have you been working on your thesis? How many chapters have
you already written? What is it about? When are you going to present (submit) your
thesis for defence? (When are you going to defend your thesis?)
Is there the Higher Qualification Commission in your speciality at our Academy? Who
is the Head of it?

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11. Do you work? Where do you work? What is your occupation? How long
have you been working there? Is your work connected with your thesis?

12. What are you going to do after taking the degree of Candidate of Science?
Are you going to continue your scientific career for the Doctoral degree?

Part II
РЕФЕРИРОВАНИЕ И АННОТИРОВАНИЕ ТЕКСТА

СУЩНОСТЬ РЕФЕРИРОВАНИЯ И АННОТИРОВАНИЯ


Важнейшим источником научной информации и средством передачи ее в
пространстве и времени служит научный документ. По форме книги, журналы,
статьи и т.д. относятся к письменным научным документам. Они могут быть
первичными и вторичными. К первичным документам относятся монографии,
сборники, материалы научных конгрессов, конференций, симпозиумов,
учебники, руководства, журналы, статьи, газеты и другие издания.
Реферат и аннотация относятся к вторичным документальным
источникам научной информации. Это те документы, которые сообщают
сведения о первичных документах.
Владение техникой реферирования – показатель сформированности
умений зрелого чтения. Достаточно быстрая переработка информации оригинала
свидетельствует об уровне владения изучаемым языком. Сущность
аннотирования и реферирования заключается в максимальном сокращении
объема источника информации при сохранении его основного содержания.

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Осуществляя компрессию первоисточников, аннотация и реферат делают это
принципиально различными способами.
Реферат – это текст, построенный на основе смысловой компрессии
первоисточника с целью передачи его главного содержания. Материал в
реферате излагается с позиций автора исходного текста и не содержит никаких
элементов интерпретации или оценки.
Аннотация лишь перечисляет вопросы, которые освещены в
первоисточнике, не раскрывая самого содержания этих вопросов. Аннотация
отвечает на вопрос: «О чем говорится в первичном тексте?». Реферат же не
только перечисляет все эти вопросы, но и сообщает существенное содержание
каждого из них.
Основное отличие аннотации от реферата состоит в том, что аннотация
дает, представление только о главной теме и перечне вопросов, затрагиваемых в
тексте первоисточника, а по реферату можно составить мнение о содержании, о
самой сути излагаемого в оригинале. Таким образом, если реферат — это сжатое
изложение основной информации первоисточника на основе ее смысловой
переработки, то аннотация — это наикратчайшее изложение содержания
первичного документа, дающее общее представление о теме.

Аннотация
Рассматривается проблема отбора учебного материала, адекватного
практическим интересам учащихся старших классов средней школы при
изучении физики. Описывается простой опыт, демонстрирующий независимость
тормозного пути тел от их массы при условии одинаковой начальной скорости
движения на одинаковой поверхности при одном и том же коэффициенте трения.
Abstract
The choice of facts that can teach some physics and are at the same time important to
high school students is discussed. A simple classroom demonstration showing the lack
of dependence of stopping distances on mass provided the initial velocity and the
coefficients of friction are the same for bodies in motion on the same surface is made.

РЕФЕРИРОВАНИЕ И АННОТИРОВАНИЕ
НАУЧНЫХ ТЕКСТОВ
Реферат (summary) (от лат. «refero», что означает «сообщаю»)
представляет собой краткое изложение содержания источника с раскрытием его
основного содержания по всем затронутым вопросам. Он должен дать читателю

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объективное представление о характере освещаемой работы, изложить наиболее
существенные моменты ее содержания.
В ходе реферирования всегда выполняются две задачи: 1) выделение
основного и главного; 2) краткое формулирование этого главного.
Существует несколько обязательных характеристик хорошего реферата:
 Оно должно точно и адекватно передавать содержание текста оригинала.
 Оно должно быть кратким и содержать только важную информацию.
 Следует избегать повторений, подробных описаний и примеров.
 Прочитав реферат, человек, незнакомый с оригиналом, должен понять
основную мысль первоначального текста.
 Не допускается полное цитирование текста оригинала.
 Допускается изменять порядок предложений, мыслей, структуру текста
оригинала с целью сделать реферат более понятным и логичным.
 Объем должен составлять не более 1/3 или 1/4 оригинала.

Пошаговый план написания реферата


1) Во-первых, необходимо ознакомиться с заголовками и
подзаголовками текста, обратить внимание на выделенные курсивом или
жирными шрифтом слова, цитаты. Необходимо иметь очень четкое
представление об их значении.
2) Далее бегло просмотреть текст, чтобы получить общее представление о
том, что в нем говорится, о языке автора, цели написания статьи.
3) Следующим шагом является вдумчивое прочтение всей статьи, обращая
внимание на непонятные слова и фразы. Необходимо выделить основную
мысль текста. Желательно найти в тексте и выделить предложение,
отражающее его основную идею. Особое внимание также следует обратить и на
первое предложение: часто оно имеет ключевое значение. Кроме того,
выделить в тексте часто повторяющиеся ключевые слова.
4) Необходимо также выделить основную мысль каждого абзаца. Очень
эффективно в каждом абзаце выбрать по одному предложению, более полно
отражающую его основную мысль.
5) Наиболее простая стратегия - сначала написать реферат, состоящий из
одного предложения, ко всему тексту. Затем пишется реферат к каждому абзацу.
Здесь также нужно соблюдать краткость. Содержание абзаца должно
суммироваться в одно предложение.
6) Кроме основной мысли всего текста в первом предложении необходимо
указать автора и название статьи (книги). Затем изложить краткое содержание

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каждого абзаца. Здесь важно отметить, что можно изменить порядок абзацев.
Следующее предложение должно логически вытекать из предыдущего.
7) Не стоит забывать, что реферат должен дать человеку, незнакомому с
данной книгой или статьей, общее представление о ее теме. Ваша цель -
заинтересовать, поэтому язык реферата должен быть ясным, четким.
8) Перечитать готовый вариант, исправить грамматические,
орфографические и стилистические ошибки.

План-схема реферата
1. Вступление. Полное название реферируемого текста со всеми
выходными данными (автор, издано где, когда, кем, из какого источника).
Формулировка основной темы текста.
2. Основная часть. Описание основного содержания, проблематики,
принципов и методов исследования, специфических характеристик.
3. Заключение. Выводы, которые делаются в статье или выводы автора
реферата о практической ценности информации, полученной в процессе
реферирования.

Аннотация (abstract) (от лат. annotatio – замечание, примечание) –


представляет собой предельно сжатую описательную характеристику
первоисточника. В ней в обобщенном виде раскрывается тематика публикации
без полного раскрытия ее содержания. Аннотация дает ответ на вопрос, о чем
говорится в первичном источнике информации.
При составлении аннотации не следует пересказывать содержание
документов (выводы, рекомендации, фактический материал). Аннотация в силу
своей предельной краткости не допускает цитирования, в ней не используются
смысловые куски оригинала как таковые, основное содержание первоисточника
передается здесь «своими словами».

Требования, предъявляемые к аннотациям


1. Аннотация может состоять из одного предложения, если оно будет
отражать основную мысль. Аннотация должна составлять 1/10 от оригинала.
2. Язык аннотации должен быть лаконичным, простым и ясным, без
длинных и сложных периодов. Так как аннотация требует большей степени
обобщения, в ней рассказчик должен использовать свои слова.
3. Аннотация должна содержать вступление, в котором упоминается
заголовок, имя автора, источник, откуда взят текст, и тему.

13
Аннотация может иметь следующую структуру:
1. библиографическое описание (автор, название, место и год издания);
2. общие сведения (сжатая характеристика) материала.

РЕЧЕВЫЕ КЛИШЕ ДЛЯ ОФОРМЛЕНИЯ РЕФЕРАТА


И АННОТАЦИИ

Каждая часть реферата оформляется стандартизированными словосо-


четаниями (речевыми клише).

В первую очередь необходимо сообщить о теме текста:

The subject (matter) of this paper is темой исследования является


The object of the study is целью исследования явилось
The paper puts forward the idea… в статье выдвигается идея
Data on … are discussed обсуждаются данные по…
A comparison of … with… is made проводится сравнение …
The methods used for… are описываются методы,
discussed используемые для…
The study is an attempt to … настоящее исследование является
попыткой
Of particular interest is… особый интерес представляет…
The paper discusses…. в статье обсуждается
considers… рассматривается
examines… исследуется
analyses… анализируется
reports on … сообщается
touches upon… затрагивается

Для указания на цель работы могут использоваться следующие


выражения:
This paper aims at… целью данной работы является…
The chief /general aim is… основной целью является…
The aim of this paper is to find some целью данной работы является
optimal ways of… поиск оптимальных способов…
Writing this paper there were two / данная работа нацелена на
three goals in mind… решение двух / трех задач

14
Описать структуру текста можно следующим образом:
The structure of this paper is as структура статьи представлена
follows следующим образом…
The first part reviews / describes / первая часть (глава) рассматривает
clarifies / outlines … / описывает/ подчеркивает…
Part 2 enlarges upon / shows that / вторая часть (глава) подробно
argues that … останавливается на / рассматривает
/ утверждает…
The final part proposes / summarizes заключительная часть (глава)
/ spells out in detail предлагает / приводит выводы /
конкретизирует…

Заключение должно содержать выводы, отвечающие тем целям и


задачам, которые были сформулированы во введении:
The obtained results can be directly полученные результаты могут
applied to the process of … быть непосредственно применены
в процессе…
In conclusion, … is considered в заключении,
…рассматривается…
The paper is addressed to… статья адресована…
It becomes clear that … становится очевидным, что…
It is questionable whether … довольно сомнительно, что…
It remains unclear.. остается неясным…
The author’s position is quite позиция автора кажется
reasonable убедительной

1. As the title implies the article describes…


Согласно названию, в статье описывается…
2. It is specially noted…
Особенно отмечается…
3. The text gives valuable information on…
Текст дает ценную информацию…
4. The article is of great help to …
Эта статья окажет большую помощь…
5. The article is of interest to…
Эта статья представляет интерес для…
6. The article gives a detailed analysis of …
Статья дает детальный анализ…
15
7. It draws our attention to…
Она (статья, работа) привлекает наше внимание к…
8. The difference between the terms…and…should be stressed
Следует подчеркнуть различие между терминами …и…
9. An option permits…
Выбор позволяет…

При сообщении о предмете исследования может понадобиться целый


ряд глаголов:
study имеет наиболее широкое употребление и означает изучать,
исследовать
investigate подчеркивает тщательность и всесторонность исследования,
помимо значений изучать, исследовать, глагол включает
понятие расследование
examine помимо изучать, исследовать, означает рассматривать,
внимательно осматривать, проверять
analyse исследовать, изучать (включая момент анализа)
consider изучать, рассматривать (принимая во внимание разные
параметры)

1. A new problem is studied.


Изучается новая проблема.
2. A cause of the explosion has been investigated.
Была исследована причина взрыва.
3. Old manuscripts were examined.
Изучались древние рукописи.
4. Stages of programming are considered.
Рассматриваются стадии программирования.

Глаголы с общим значением описания:


Describe описывать, давать описание
Discuss обсуждать, описывать (иногда с элементом полемики),
излагать
Outline кратко описывать, описывать (в общих чертах),
очерчивать
Consider рассматривать, обсуждать (принимая во внимание разные
параметры)

1. The design and operating conditions of the device are discussed.


16
Обсуждаются конструкция и рабочие характеристики прибора.
2. The advantages of the method are outlined.
Описаны преимущества этого метода. (О преимуществах говорится кратко,
они только очерчены).
3. The use of a single microprocessor chip as the processor has been considered.
Рассмотрен вопрос об использовании одного микропроцессорного
кристалла.
Глаголы с общим значением получения:
Obtain получать, имеет наиболее широкое значение (способ
получения безразличен)
Determine определять, получать, находить (любым способом). Иногда
этот глагол означает определять (путем вычисления),
вычислять
Establish устанавливать (точно) определять, (убедительно) показать

1. Preliminary data have been obtained.


Получены предварительные данные.
2. The structure of this device was determined.
Была определена структура этого устройства.
3. Logical relations in the computer have been established.
Установлены логические связи в этом компьютере.

Глаголы, указывающие на способ получения:


Derive (equations, curves, получать (уравнения, кривые, выражения,
expressions, formulae, формулы, соотношения)
relations)
Produce (create) получать (производить, создавать)
Calculate вычислять, подсчитывать, находить,
определять величину (при помощи
арифметических действий)
Compute подсчитывать, производить численный
расчет (часто с помощью вычислительной
техники)
Estimate оценивать, получать оценку (в числах),
определять, находить количественную
величину
Evaluate оценивать (величину, количество, степень,
значение, роль) определять, выяснять,
находить (причину явлений или событий)
17
1. The sequence of operations has been computed.
Определена (получена) последовательность операций.
2. The pulse intensity has been estimated.
Определена интенсивность импульса.
3. The system performance was evaluated.
Определена работа системы.
Сочетания глаголов с существительными
make (undertake, perform) a study исследовать, изучать,
анализировать
carry out an investigation проводить исследование
perform analysis of (on) проводить анализ
make calculation, estimation, подсчитывать, рассчитывать,
evaluation of (on) давать оценку, находить,
определять
make measurements of (on) измерять, делать измерения
give description of описывать, давать описание,
рассматривать

Если при сообщении нужно что-либо логически выделить, то можно


пользоваться следующими глагольными сочетаниями:
emphasize / give emphasis to /place emphasis подчеркивать
particular / special / specific особый
great большой
primer первостепенный
especially / particularly / specially / особенно (исключительно)
specifically
with particular emphasis on / with special причем особое внимание
attention to уделяется /обращается на

Заключительные предложения вводятся следующими сочетаниями:


conclude приходить к заключению (к выводу)
make (draw, reach) a conclusion делать заключение (вывод)
относительно
come to a conclusion that приходить к выводу, что

18
from the results it is concluded that на основании полученных результатов
приходим к выводу
it may be noted that можно отметить, что
it may be stated that можно утверждать, что
thus, therefore, consequently, as a таким образом, следовательно, в
result результате
Сообщая о теме или предмете исследования, следует пользоваться в
первую очередь формами настоящего времени Present Indefinite, а в тех
случаях, когда необходимо подчеркнуть законченный характер действия,
— Present Perfect.
Форма прошедшего времени Past Indefinite используется при
описании проделанной работы (эксперимента, исследования, вычисления),
если работа послужила основой для каких-либо заключений.
1. Исследуется случай тонких кристаллов. - The case of the thin crystals is
analyzed.
2. Изучена ультраструктура различных стадий. - The fine structure of the
various morphological stages has been studied.
3. Была рассчитана (рассчитана) деформация решетки, и формула
использована для вычисления параметров. - The deformation of the lattice
was estimated and formula was used to calculate the parameters.

Не следует использовать личные местоимения, чтобы избежать


неясности.
В реферате в основном употребляются простые распространенные
предложения. Преобладают неопределенно-личные, безличные
страдательные конструкции.
Все приводимые в реферате цифровые данные должны быть
пересчитаны в метрические меры, за исключением особых случаев. Иногда в
скобках могут быть приведены обозначения, данные в оригинале.
Если в реферате приводятся малоизвестные фамилии и названия на
русском языке, целесообразно в скобках давать фамилии и названия на
языке оригинала.
Если в подлиннике реферируемой статьи даются обозначения, не
принятые в отечественной научной и технической литературе,
необходимо заменить их принятыми.
19
В тексте реферата должна быть использована научная
терминология, принятая в литературе РФ по данной отрасли науки и
техники.

Образец реферата

A BREATH OF FRESH AIR


Most of us take our breathing for granted, but we aren’t all lucky enough to live
in a place with clean air.
In Peking, pollution has gotten so bad that breathing the air has become dangerous.
There are days when the smog is thick enough to block out the sun. On these days,
schools close and construction stops. People walk around the city wearing masks to
avoid breathing in the dangerous smog, which contains harmful particles from coal
power plants.
Some people in Peking have started purchasing bottled air from Canada to avoid
breathing their own dirty air. They pay about $28 for a single bottle of fresh mountain
air. One bottle produces about 80 inhalations of air.
A recent study of air quality in China showed that over 80 percent of Chinese
people are exposed to unsafe air. In fact, air pollution is responsible for 4,000
deaths each day in China. According to researchers, breathing Peking’s air is like
smoking a cigarette and a half per hour, all day long.
While it might seem odd to bottle air, it’s not the first time this has been done.
Inventor of the lightbulb, Thomas Edison, had an interest in the chemical make-up of a
breath. When he was on his deathbed, several open test tubes were left nearby to
collect the air of his final breaths. The bottles were later sealed by his son. One was
given to Edison’s friend, and fellow inventor, Henry Ford, the founder of Ford Motor
Company. Ford kept this bottle of Edison’s dying breath as a memento of his old
friend.
For human beings, breathing is a symbol of life. We often use phrases about
breathing to help us describe how we’re feeling about something. ‘A breath of fresh
air’ is a phrase used to describe things that feel new and appealing.

Summary
The title of the article is “A breath of fresh air”.
The main idea of this article is pollution of our environment.
The author tells the reader about situation in Beijing where breathing air is
dangerous. Some people have to purchase bottled air from Canada. In fact, air
20
pollution is responsible for 4,000 deaths each day in China. This fact is terrible but it’s
true.
In conclusion the author says that for human beings, breathing is a symbol of
life. ‘A breath of fresh air’ is a phrase used to describe things that feel new
and appealing.
In my opinion (I found the article) this article is urgent (true to life,
important, up-to-date). The problem of ecology is really important nowadays and all
people of our planet may face the same problem – polluted air, soil, water… Pollution
can make life impossible for human-beings and animals.

The cat of death

The cat’s real name is Oscar but now it has been nicknamed ‘the cat of death’
because of its strange ability to predict when a person is going to die. Oscar is said to
have extraordinary powers and it is said that when Oscar curls up beside a resident at
the nursing home it usually means only one thing – the resident is about to die. When
this sad thing happens, then doctors rush and call the patient’s family to come and bid
their final farewell to the patient. The nursing home would then instantly call for a
priest to give the last rites.

According to reports from the nursing home, Oscar has never got a prediction
wrong, which I find extremely scary. It is reported that Oscar’s bizarre gifts begin to
manifest themselves usually within 24 hours before a patient passes away. The cat of
death would then begin acting very weird. According to doctors and workers at the
nursing home, the cat would then leave its favorite spot and make its way to the
patient’s room (the patient who is about to die). And here, it would gently climb the
patient’s bed and curl up next to the person, for it knows the person is about to pass
away.

According to scientists, they don’t believe that Oscar has any supernatural
power with which it uses in predicting people’s death. Scientists say that the only
logical explanation for Oscar’s ability is that the cat is probably able to perceive the
smell of ketones from the dying patient. Ketones are certain types of biochemicals that
dying cells release. People who are about dying release ketones. Scientists say it is
likely that when Oscar smells the ketones from dying patients, then he would go and
curl up to the patients. Another very common explanation for Oscar’s strange ability to
predict impending death is that Oscar notices the lack of movement in patients who are
about dying and curl up and sleep beside them.

Summary
21
The title of the article is “The cat of Death”.
It was published in the newspaper “Moscow News”.
This article is about the cat that can predict when a person is going to die.

The author starts by telling the reader about the cat having extraordinary
powers, Oscar by name. According to the doctors and workers at the clinic, the cat
would make its way to the patient’s room (the patient who is about to die), climb the
patient’s bed and curl up next to the person, for it knows the person is about to pass
away.

Then the author draws our attention to the fact that scientists don’t believe that
Oscar has any supernatural power.

In conclusion the author says that there may be several explanations for
Oscar’s extraordinary ability – specific smell from the dying patient or the lack of
movement in patients who are about dying.

I found this article interesting from the scientific point of view because nature
of animals is not completely studied yet and there are many strange facts in their
behavio

ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ РЕФЕРИРОВАНИЯ

BRITS’ BEST FRIENDS

The research, from consumer analysts Mintel, reveals that pet spending has
grown by 20 per cent over the last five years and that almost a fifth of working pet
owners feel guilty about leaving their animal alone. The survey, conducted among
1,000 owners across Britain, clearly shows that three quarters of owners treat their pets
as one of the family and 7 per cent say they do not get enough time with their dog or
cat.
But animal behaviourist David Appleby, who runs the Pet Behaviour Centre in
Defford, Central England, said the gifts might not be doing the job. “An animal isn’t
interested in the material worth of a gift, it’s down to how engaging they find it. You
can’t buy an animal’s love, it’s a social bond that builds up over time.”
Psychotherapists have expressed fears that the passion for pets driving the
spending boom is misplaced and unhealthy.
Vets have warned that the pampering is creating an obesity epidemic in
domestic pets. Rodney Zasman, owner of the Zasman Vet Centre in London, said:
“We have seen an increase in pets coming in with weight problems, but dental hygiene
22
has improved as people buy pet toothbrushes and special chews that help keep teeth
clean. Spending on things like fashionable collars and coats – which you would never
have seen 10 years ago – is a good thing, because it strengthens the bond between
owner and pet”

CAN ANIMALS THINK?

Since antiquity, philosophers have argued that higher mental abilities – in short,
thinking and language – are the great divide separating humans from other species …
Darvinism raised a series of tantalizing questions for future generations: If other
vertebrates are similar to humans in blood and bone, should they not share other
characteristics, including intelligence? Even to raise these questions challenges
humanity’s belief that it occupies an exalted place in the universe. Moreover, scientists
have historic reasons to be skeptical of claims concerning animal intelligence. At the
turn of the century, a wonder horse named Clevel Hans wowed Europeans with his
apparent ability to solve math’s problems, expressing the answers by tapping a hoof.
Dutch psychologist Oskar Pfungst ultimately showed that Hans was merely responding
to inadvertent cues from his human handlers, who, for instance, would visibly relax
when the horse had tapped the proper number of times. When blindfolded, Hans
ceased to be so clever.
Not surprisingly, then, accounts of the first language experiments with apes in
1970s produced one of the most fractious debates in the history of the behavioral
sciences. Washoe the chimp and Koko the gorilla became famous for their linguistic
feats using sing language, but scientists argued bitterly over the significance. Did the
“speech” of these animals reflect a genuine ability to think symbolically and
communicate thought, or was it largely the result of role conditioning or of cuing? – a
la Hans – by trainers?
But the skepticism also served as a challenge. A number of scientists launched
innovative probes of animal intelligence, while those who remained in language work
designed careful experiments to meet the objections of critics. Their aim is to
determine, as precisely as possible, what animals know and how well they
communicate it.
(Moscow News, 2015)

THE BOY WHO WAS TAUGHT TO TALK BY DOLPHINS

For young Nikki Brice, the daily swimming sessions with the dolphins in a pool
in Florida, USA, were simply part of a fun holiday with his family. But the real
purpose was to see if swimming with dolphins could motivate him to talk.
When Nikki was born, he was starved of oxygen. All his life he had never
spoken a word, even though he had the physical ability to speak. All the techniques
23
which were tried in Britain had failed, so eventually, in desperation, Tabitha, his
mother, took him to the dolphin pool in Florida to try to get him to talk.
Nikki was given a combination of conventional speech therapy and daily forty-
minute swimming sessions in a pool with a team of eight dolphins. After just three
days of the seventeen-day treatment at the Dolphin Human Therapy Centre im Miami,
Nikki spoke his first word. Since that first word Nikki has gone from strength to
strength, and has spoken other words.
Doctors at the Miami centre say they are very pleased that Nikki has spoken so
soon after starting his treatment. A speech therapist in London said that this kind of
treatment would not repair any brain damage but if a child was suffering from lack of
confidence, swimming with dolphins might help.
Before Nikki’s breakthrough, Mrs. Brice said that they had only heard about, but
not seen, children getting better. “I had never expected Nikki to make such good
progress so quickly but now we are seeing it before our eyes. I’m hoping that his next
words will be ‘Hello, Mum’! There is something magical that happens between
children and dolphins, something I don’t think we will ever fully understand”.
(From “Moscow News”, 2016)

ARE HUMAN BEINGS REALLY THE MOST ADVANCED CREATURES ON


THE PLANET?

We think we are the most advanced creatures on the planet. But if we look a
little deeper, we will realize that all our inventions, which make life easier, are really
just copies of things already found in nature. Here are a few examples of the incredible
things animals can do.
We may have invented heat-seaking cameras which find disaster victims, but
snakes can ‘see’ heat. Rattlesnakes have sensors which can detect small changes in
temperature. They ‘see’ us by the heat that surrounds us, so they can find their prey in
the dark. Even our footprints leave some warmth, which can be detected long after we
have passed. This means snakes know where we are and where we have been.
We discovered electricity and ways of looking for it. However, creatures which
live in the sea have electrosensors which can detect electricity. A swimmer who is
injured gives off electricity – his heartbeat and his nerves flashing on and off in panic.
A shark wouldn’t ‘see’ him through its eyes, which are very small, but it would feel
the swimmer’s fear.
We spend millions trying to predict the weather, using complicated science and
equipment. Ladybirds know, in advance, exactly what kind of winter we will have.
Each autumn, they choose a place to spend the winter. If it is going to be cold, they
find a site where there is plenty of warmth – for example, under leaves. If the winter is
going to be mild, they go somewhere where there is more air. Nobody knows how they
do it.
(“Moscow News”, 2015)
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RUSSIA WELCOMES UNCHANGED FUR RULES

By Jeanne Whalen
Russian officials welcomed the European Union’s decision to ignore objections
from animal rights activists and continue importing furs of animals caught by leg-hold
traps. Officials said the traps, which the EU has said it would like banned worldwide
as inhumane, are essential to the economic survival of the native populations of
Russia’s northern regions. Leg-hold traps typically break an animal’s leg and cause the
animal to die in five minutes, a period considered inhumanely long by many animal
rights groups. Russia has pledged to eliminate leg-hold traps within the next five years
with financial assistance from the EU. But this financial assistance is not likely to
arrive because the EU has not budgeted for the expense, said David Bowles, European
officer of England’s Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, or
RSPCA.
Europe has been Russia’s biggest fur customer, snapping up roughly $ 50
million in pelts last year, according to Russia’s State Environmental Committee. Sable
is by far Russia’s largest fur export, with a lynx a distant second. About 70 percent of
animals caught in the wild are killed by a gun, while 30 percent are caught in the leg
traps. Outlawing trapping would immediately seriously harm the economic welfare of
Russia’s hunters.
One animal activist in Moscow scoffed the idea that Russia’s indigenous,
northern people could not survive without leg-trap hunting. “What has been done to
the northern people in other ways is much more of a threat to their life than eliminating
trapping,” said Tatyana Pavlova, director of the Centre for the Ethical Treatment of
Animals. She said widespread alcoholism and housing “not fit for living” are more of a
threat to the native populations (based on The Moscow Times)

ANIMALS WIN RIGHTS

Moscow State Agricultural Academy announced that it will stop experimenting


on animals for educational purposes. Students will instead use videos and computer
software provided by InterNICHE – the International Network for Humane Education
– to develop their understanding of the human body. “Computer programs and videos
of professionally carried out experiments on different animal species will help us avoid
problems with students who refuse to experiment on animals for ethical reasons”,
TASS reported Tatiana Blokhin, a representative of the academy, as saying.
Nick Jukes, the co-coordinator of the network, said that he sees “increasing
momentum for the replacement of harmful animal experiments” in Russia. He also
said that “alternative, humane education can provide a more economical approach”,
since mannequins and videos can be reused, whereas new animals are required for
each vivisection experiment.

25
Jukes said, that experiments on live animals “desensitize students and show
them that animals are disposable.” He also claimed that “caring is a clinical skill which
it is impossible to learn through animal experimentation.” He added that teachers
generally found students more interested in classes when alternative technology was
used instead of live animal experimentation. (based on The Moscow Times)

MUSCOVITES ADOPT ZOO ANIMALS

Raccoons, penguins and kangaroos are the most popular animals among those of
the city residents who “adopt” animals in the Moscow Zoo, spokesperson Raisa
Koroleva told RIA Novosti.
She said that the “Adopt an animal” program was introduced more than ten
years ago. People can help their favourite animals by signing a special agreement with
the zoo and making donations over a chosen period of time, usually from three months
to one year.
According to Koroleva, companies prefer more “substantial” animals, like bears.
All the brown bears at the zoo have been adopted already.
“The polar bear is being supported by the company which has a polar bear on its
trademark. A company which produces bags has chosen a kangaroo. The largest
rodent, the capybara, has been taken into care as well. An ecological movement has
sponsored the white tiger”, the spokeswoman continued.
“Before, the adoption agreements were mostly signed by companies,” Koroleva
said. “But lately, the proportions of private persons is rising. In 2007, we had 70
caretakers of whom 35 were companies and 35 were private individuals, while in the
previous year we had 56 caretakers of whom 39 were organizations.”
She said that parents like to adopt an animal for their children. The giver pays
for it and the recipient of the gift is mentioned on the information plaque on the
animal’s cage.
The plaques, which the caretakers rarely refuse, can be installed only if the
donation amounts to at least 10,000 roubles per year, Koroleva added.
“The largest payments are about 500,000 rubles on average. This was the sum
donated, for example, by one lady who is taking care of the white tiger. And one
company has transferred about 2,000 rubles per year for a magpie,” she said.
(Moscow News, 2018)

PET HOTELS

How good are you at leaving your pets with strangers when you go off on
holiday? Although some people are lucky enough to have relatives or friends they can
ask to look after their pets, some have more difficulty in finding people they trust to
provide their pets with the care and affection they need. This is why more and more
26
people are resorting to pet hotels, which have sprouted up in Moscow over the past
few years.
Gankhor is one of the pet hotels in Moscow with the longest experience. Prices
depend on the menu chosen by the owners, as well as the size of the animal.
Upon arrival, animals are examined by the vet and provided with their own
individual cards on which owners stipulate what special treatment is required, how
many walks per day, feeding habits, etc. Throughout their stay, the animals are
monitored daily by the staff vet, having their eyes, ears cleaned and even their claws
trimmed.
Cats are housed in one or two-roomed suites with a carpeted house for their
claws and climbing frames. Owners are advised to leave their cats with blankets and
toys from home as familiar smells in new surroundings are very important to them.
Dogs are lodged in two adjoining rooms with a little sofa, as well as a covered terrace
so they can go out for fresh air. Walking areas are isolated and each dog can be walked
without a lead and is provided with toys, balls and tires to play with.
Special attention is given to the animals’ food, which is selected by the owners
in advance. The “favorite” menu consists of ordinary canned food or biscuits (such as
Pedigree for dogs and Whiskas for cats). The “home” menu offers the animals a more
varied selection of meat such as beef or chicken, and dogs can also get pasta and rice.
Costs varies according to the menu and, with dogs, to size.

IT’S A DOG’S LIFE

Russia does not have an established culture of keeping animals as pets, which
results in animals thrown out on the streets.
Protestors against the culling of stray dogs held a rally on Novopushkinskay
Square Thursday. Slogans such as “Animals and Humans in need of a Humane
Solution!” set the tone. Participants called for humane alternatives to culling, which
they claimed was not always done painlessly.
The protest, which had received official permission to be held, was organized by
VITA, the Center of Animal Rights’ Protection, with the assistance of the Council of
the Animal Rights Movement in Russia.
“The stray dog situation in Moskow at the moment is critical,” VITA announced
in a press release. “Animal protection organizations have recorded a growing number
of complaints from Moscovites that animals who are picked up [by dog catchers]
disappear.” VITA announced.
“Muscovites are worried by various TV reports that stray animals are extremely
dangerous, that they have attacked people on many occasions, that they spread disease
and that there are huge numbers of dogs roaming the streets,” the release said.
The number of stray dogs is overwhelming,” the Moscow resident told The
Moscow News. “I really do think that these people should be more worried about the
welfare of people than dogs.”
27
Rather than culling the animals, animal activists advocate a program of
sterilization and breeding restrictions. “The sterilization of stray animals at animal
shelters is only as effective as additional measures taken also, while the real goal is to
put breeding under strict government control,” VITA said.

TIME MACHINE – REALITY OR FICTION ?

We’ve all seen movies and TV shows where the characters have traveled
through time, or used a time machine. These are usually science fiction movies, but
some scientists say time travel is possible in theory. There are also some people who
claim to have actually done it.
In 1935, a British Royal Air Force pilot named Victor Goddard was attempting
to land his plane in Andover, England. During his attempted landing, a storm broke
out, and he almost crashed. He managed to take control of the plane and flew back
over a different landing strip, which was abandoned. Except it wasn’t abandoned
anymore – it was full of people and planes. The planes were a color and model he had
never seen before. The people were also wearing different uniforms than they should
have been. He eventually landed at his original destination and didn’t tell anyone of his
strange experience. Then in 1939, the Royal Air Force introduced planes of the same
model and color he had seen that day. They also started wearing uniforms just like he
saw on that landing strip, which was now in operation again. Goddard believes he
traveled ahead in time to 1939, and then back to 1935 on that day his plane almost
crashed.

Then there is Professor Ronald Mallet, a scientist at the University of Connecticut,


who is actually working on a time machine as we speak. In 2002, he presented a
breakthrough theory about how time travel could be possible using lasers and mirrors.
He presented his theory at Howard University, where it was accepted as the real
deal by his peers.

Do you think we’ll ever be able to travel through time? And if we could, what kind of
effect might that have on the future, past, and present?

LIFE WITHOUT TECHNOLOGY

Invisible rays are all around us, and most of us never even notice. In today’s
technology-saturated world, it’s hard to imagine living life without a wireless
connection. But in one American town, wireless is actually illegal. Green Bank, West
Virginia is a small town located in the United States’ National Radio Quiet Zone. The
Quiet Zone is a 13,000 square mile area that protects two telescopes from any radio or

28
wireless signal interference. That means no Wi-Fi, no cell phones, no Bluetooth, no
microwave ovens, no TV, and even no radio is allowed in this area.

While many of us would shudder at the thought of pulling the plug on our cell
phones, laptops, and televisions, the wireless ban has attracted people who suffer from
electromagnetic hypersensitivity. Many of these people have decided to live in the
town to get relief from their condition, which causes severe headaches, nausea, pain
and heart problems.

Living in Green Bank is no easy feat. Coming to the town is a culture shock, and
adjusting to a world with little technology beyond electric lights and heating is hard for
many. But for people suffering from electromagnetic sensitivity, it is one of the only
places where they can find relief. Today, the town has become a gathering place for a
few dozen electrosensitives from around the United States.

While most of us couldn’t imagine life in Green Bank, for the electrosensitives
who live there, it’s hard to imagine life outside of it. How long could you survive
without all of the conveniences of modern technology? CLICK TO READ COMMEN

CLEVER BIRDS

Birds aren’t usually the first animal that people think about when they think
about smart animals. In English, calling someone birdbrained means that they are
stupid. And saying something is ‘for the birds’ means that it’s trivial or worthless.
However, these expressions couldn’t be more wrong. Some birds, particularly crows,
can be amazingly smart. In fact, their problem-solving abilities are as good as those of
a seven-year old child. In one experiment, a crow worked out how to solve a complex
three-step problem using tools. The crow was given a short stick hanging on a string, a
long stick out of reach in a box, and a piece of food also out of reach in an even deeper
box. The crow removed the stick from the string, then used that short stick to reach the
longer stick, and then used the longer stick to reach the food in the deeper box. Crows
not only use tools, they are also the only non-primate animals to make tools. In another
experiment crows were given a straight piece of wire and food that was out of reach in
a tube. Unable to remove the food with the wire, one crow was recorded bending the
wire to make a hook.

TREES
Trees do not usually grow continuously throughout the year but mostly have
spurts of active expansion followed by periods of rest. This pattern of growth is related
to climatic conditions: growth normally ceases when the conditions are either too cold
or too dry. When growing conditions improve, such as the arrival of warmer weather
29
and the longer days associated with spring in temperate regions, growth starts again.
The whole year’s growth may take place in just a few weeks.
Primary growth is the elongation of the sterns and roots. Secondary growth
consists of a progressive thickening and strengthening of the tissues as the outer layer
of the epidermis is converted into bark and the cambium layer creates new phloem and
xylem cells. The bark is inelastic. Eventually the growth of a tree slows down and
stops and it gets no taller. Trees play a significant role in reducing erosion and
moderating the climate. They remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store
large quantities of carbon in their tissues. Trees provide a habitat for animals and
plants. Trees provide shade and shelter, timber for construction, fuel for cooking and
heating, and fruit for food as well as having many other uses.

THE RUSSIAN MARKET OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLES


In recent months, the structure of import of the Russian food market is
undergoing major changes. This situation gives Russian producers a chance to increase
their market share. The Russian market of fruit and vegetable processing products is
very diverse. It includes canned fruits and vegetables, frozen products, baby food,
juices and concentrates. One of the largest categories in terms of both consumption
and domestic production and imports are canned vegetables and frozen vegetables.
In recent years, baby food segment is among the fastest growing food markets,
both in the world and in Russia. Speaking about Russia, this is due to an increase in
fertility, as well as the increasing concern of parents about the quality and variety of
child nutrition.
Issues of providing fruits and vegetables to the people are of a great importance
in Russia, as they suffer from lack of many vitamins, minerals and other biologically
active compounds. At present food processing and agro-industries face scientific and
technical challenges to increase production of functional foods for improving food
patterns and maintain the health of the Russian population.
RE-CYCLING
The first bicycles were made of wood. Cycle manufacturers then switched to
steel tubes. These days, for high-end bikes where weight is at a premium, they use
aluminium alloys or even carbon fibre. But Izhar Gafni, an amateur cyclist who owns a
number of such fancy bikes, wonders whether the original inventors had a point. He
proposes to go back to using wood—or, rather, a derivative of wood, namely
cardboard.
The bike’s frame, wheels, handlebars and saddle are all made of cardboard in
this way, and then fitted together. The tyres—again harking back to the early days of
30
cycling—are composed of solid rubber, which is recycled from old car tyres. That
makes the ride a little harder than if the tyres were pneumatic, but means they cannot
be punctured. The chain, based on the timing belt of a car, is also made from car-tyre
rubber. The pedals are plastic recycled from bottles and the brakes are recycled too.
The finished product weighs 9kg, a bit less than an ordinary bike, and can carry a rider
weighing 220kg.

THE SLEEPING PROPHET


One of the world’s most famous 20th century psychics, Edgar Cayce was born
the son of a farmer in 1877. At the age of seven, Cayce was almost knocked out when
hit by a baseball. In a semi-conscious state he told his parents to prepare a strange
concoction. He then asked them to rub it into a space between his head and neck. His
parents humored their son but his strange medicine worked. In the morning he had
made a complete recovery.
Cayce was a poor student. As a young boy, he claimed to have a vision of a
woman with wings who told him that, “If you can sleep a little, we can help you.”
Falling asleep with a schoolbook as a pillow, he claimed to wake up having learned
everything inside the book.
At the age of 21, Edgar learned to place himself into a sleep-like trance where he
claimed his mind was free to wander anywhere in space or time. He called this realm
the universal consciousness, where he could access knowledge to heal people. People
persuaded Edgar to use his gift to help people. He would enter a trance and then
respond with specific solutions to his patient’s health problems. His clients included
President Woodrow Wilson, Marilyn Monroe and Thomas Edison. He was also known
as the ‘sleeping prophet’.
In his sleep-like state, the man who had only a 9th grade education could speak
in 24 different languages. Cayce did have his critics. Some called him a fraud.
Nevertheless, Cayce believed that we have the ability to connect with the power of the
universal consciousness for gaining health and knowledge.
SAVED BY THE POWER OF MUSIC
In 1998, Spielberg was pregnant with twin girls when she suffered
complications. Sadly, one of the twins passed away, but Valerie survived. Valerie was
born weighing only 12 ounces and was the size of a can of soda.
It was touch-and-go. Spielberg played CDs for her daughter. Amazingly, Valerie
improved. Her oxygen saturation levels increased, her blood pressure stabilized, and
her heart’s rhythm became more steady. Valerie’s health continued to improve after
months of music and medical attention.
31
People have been using music and rhythm to heal since ancient times. It is
finally starting to catch on in modern society.
Music isn’t only beneficial for babies. Studies show that music is able to ease
pain, enhance blood vessel function, reduce stress and depression, and boost the
immune system in adults, too. Music also helps elderly people with Alzheimer’s
disease and dementia to recall memories and emotions. It can even help them make
new memories.
Spielberg is still a professional musician. And these days she also teaches and
speaks to audiences about the power of music. Her daughter, Valerie, is now a healthy
and happy young woman. And she has become a musician herself, playing both the
piano and percussion.
SCIENTISTS SAY WE LIVE IN A VIDEO GAME
Neo is a character in the movie, The Matrix. Even though the movie is fictional,
many scientists are beginning to think that we may be living inside an illusion of sorts.
Some have even gone as far as saying that we are living inside of a video game.
Elon Musk, who is one of the most influential people in the world of technology,
says that technology is advancing so fast, that soon we will be able to create games or
simulations that are indistinguishable from reality. That means we could create entire
artificial worlds.
Musk believes that we are living in one of these artificial worlds now. He thinks
our ancestors created very advanced video games, which simulated reality so well, that
the characters (us) actually believe we are alive.
But not everyone in science is sold on the idea that we are living inside of a
simulation. One argument is that if virtual worlds and simulations get good enough to
be indistinguishable from reality, they cease to be simulations. They are real.
So, you could say that even if this is a simulation that we are all living in, it has
become so real to each of us, that it no longer qualifies as a simulation. Whether or not
Musk and the other proponents of the simulation theory are on the right track might be
unknowable.
CLAIMS AND ADJUSTMENTS
In ideal business conditions everything should be done carefully-details of offers
and orders checked, manufacture of the goods carried out properly, packing and
marking verified.
However, in spite of every possible care and attention that is given to contracts
letters of complaint happen to arrive rather frequently because of various
infringements.
32
There are various reasons for complaints. The following kinds of claims are
often made by Buyers:
1) claims arising from the delivery of wrong goods, damaged goods or
substandard goods;
2) claims owing to goods missing from delivery (i.e. short-shipment or short-
delivery);
3) claims connected with delays of one kind or another. (In this case the Buyers
can claim agreed and liquidated damages for delay in delivery);
4) claims that concern errors in carrying out an order. These may be caused by
mis-typing of figures, mis-reading of numbers, misdirections of goods,
wrong packing and so on. Sellers most frequently make claims on Buyers
because of default of payment.
As a rule a customer will not complain unless he has a good reason. If the
customer’s complaint is well-grounded, the settlement is comparatively easy: the error
will be admitted and the responsible party will meet the claim fully or partly. In other
words, the dissatisfied party will get full or partial compensation for the losses which
they suffered. Thus the matter is settled amicably.
Much more difficult is the case where the customer’s complaint is not justified.
It would be wrong policy to reject the claim off-hand. The responsible party must
carefully explain why the claim is declined and try to persuade the dissatisfied party to
withdraw the claim.
REALITY TV
In Europe it was a hit. Moreover, it proved immensely successful with viewers
all over the globe.
The programme monitors ordinary people in controlled and manipulated
conditions. Some critics say the programme satisfies human curiosity. It is popular
with TV primary demographic group – people aged 15 to 24. The programme could be
called a game or a show. It focuses on 11 or so young people sharing a spacious TV
studio full of cameras in every corner you can possibly imagine.
The setting was designed as a modern comfortable apartment. The cameras
allowed no word, no act, not even a move to go unrecorded. Viewers and special jury
voted periodically to either support or banish the contestants – sending them away
from the show. The show usually lasts approximately 70 days and the voting goes on
till only two contestants are left to win a very attractive prize.
Of course the name of the show and the prizes differ from country to country but
the overall idea and the general design is the same. For example, in Russia the
programme was called “Through the Looking Glass”, in France – “The Loft Story” .

33
The arrival of “reality TV” in Europe attracted a widespread attention and
enjoyed high ratings. In Paris they moved the programme to 7.30 – the prime time.
But “Reality TV” brought about controversial reaction. The show gave rise to
numerous protests in France. Some protesters claimed that it was an insult to the
dignity of the participants and the intelligence of the viewers. They criticized the
questionable taste of the popular programme, calling it trash and demanding to take it
off the air. But all their efforts were in vain. They were powerless to do much about it.

MARKETING
A market is a situation in which goods can be bought, sold or exchanched. The
essential requirements are buyers, sellers, goods and money. The overall purpose of
the marketing function of an organization is to link the flow of goods and services
from the producer to the wishes of the consumer.
Marketing has long been considered one of the basic functions of business
organization. More recently, it has been admitted that it is the central function.
Marketing is a process of developing, pricing, distributing, advertising,
promotion, product improvement, etc.
Consumers’ tasks constantly change and so marketing must be a dynamic area
aimed at moving the organization forward. Truly successful marketing knows and
understands the consumer so well that the products and services which are offered to
the customer satisfy his needs perfectly. The product almost sells itself. Of course this
will happen if the product or service is better than those of competitors.
Though marketing might involve considerable expenses which could be
reflected in the selling price, the process provides management with a certain
guarantee.
Management will know, on the basis of the marketing information and advice,
that it can go ahead with the development of a product which will eventually provide
the firm with returns.
Companies are always looking for marketing opportunities trying to find their
own segment on the market. When a target market is chosen a company has to decide
what goods or services to offer. After that decision is taken the company has to think
about the marketing mix – a set of essential elements of a marketing programme. The
best known classification of these elements is 4 P’s: Product, Price, Promotion and
Place.

34
SPACE TRASH
Humans are natural travelers. In the last 50,000 years we have traveled across the
earth and now live almost everywhere except for Antarctica. If environmental
problems on earth continue to increase, one day we may need to find a new home in
space.
Long distance space travel has become more of a possibility now that we
can grow vegetables in space. While food is only one of many technological problems
of space travel, there is a bigger problem that could stop space travel completely.
Humans have not only polluted the ground, air and water of the earth, but now we
have quickly spread our trash into space!

We increasingly use space satellites for television, communication, weather


reports and navigation. In the last 50 years, there have been 5,000 space launches of
satellites. Almost 4,000 of these satellites are now broken. These satellites sometimes
break apart and hit each other, causing even more pieces of space junk. There are now
22,000 pieces of junk circling the earth. And these are just the large pieces. There are
hundreds of thousands of smaller pieces of trash. This space junk is creating a growing
problem for our plans of space travel.

There are many ideas on how to clean up space junk. The Japanese are planning
to launch a 700-meter magnetic net into space to catch space junk and bring it back to
Earth. The Swiss are planning a robotic arm that will be a space janitor, grabbing
pieces of trash. These plans will cost a lot of money.

Who should pay to clean up space junk? Some people say that the US, Russia,
and China have put the most junk into space and should pay for more of the cleanup
costs. Other people think that the only practical plan would be to tax future satellite
launches, and use this tax money to pay for cleanup. This is an immediate problem. At
least five to ten large pieces of space junk must be removed every year if we want to
continue using and exploring space.

Образец аннотации

Current Status and Future of Intelligent Industrial Robots


Summary
This paper reviews the current status of industrial robots and discusses their
future from the viewpoint of the basic key function which will be required for future
intelligent applications. Ten basic key functions are introduced as examples which
satisfy the following four conditions: 1) low price, 2) high performance, 3) high
reliability, and 4) simplicity. All of these functions are necessary if robots are to
perform tasks more effectively in actual applications. The effectiveness of the
35
functions are explained using ten industrial robots or robotic machines which have
been developed by Hitachi. The operational processes of the robots are classified into
five categories: 1) knowledge utilization and enhancement; 2) understanding
surroundings; 3) motion planning; 4) actuator control, and 5) decision making.
The basic functions of current industrial robots seem to be mainly centered in
categories 2), 3), and 4). In order for robots to obtain higher intelligence, it is
necessary to add more effective functions in categories 1) and 5) in addition to those in
categories 2), 3), and 4).
Abstract
This paper reviews the current status of industrial robots and discusses their
future prospects from the viewpoint of the basic key functions in the understanding
surroundings and motion planning categories.

ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ АННОТИРОВАНИЯ.

Hay production
Hay production and harvest, colloquially known as "making hay", "haymaking",
or "doing hay", involves a multiple step process: cutting, drying or "curing",
processing, and storing. Hayfields do not have to be reseeded each year in the way that
grain crops are, but regular fertilizing is usually desirable, and overseeding a field
every few years helps increase yield.
Methods and the terminology to describe the steps of making hay have varied
greatly throughout history, and many regional variations still exist today. However,
whether done by hand or by modern mechanized equipment, tall grass and legumes at
the proper stage of maturity must be cut, then allowed to dry (preferably by the sun),
then raked into long, narrow piles known as windrows. Next, the cured hay is gathered
up in some form (usually by some type of baling process) and placed for storage into a
haystack or into a barn or shed to protect it from moisture and rot.
During the growing season, which is spring and early summer in temperate
climates, grass grows at a fast pace. It is at its greatest nutritive value when all leaves
are fully developed and seed or flower heads are just a bit short of full maturity. When
growth is at a maximum in the pasture, if judged correctly, the pasture is cut. Hay cut
too early will not cure as easily due to high moisture content, plus it will produce a
lower yield per acre than longer, more mature grass. But hay cut too late is coarser,
lower in resale value and has lost some of its nutrients. There is usually about a two-
week "window" of time in which hay is at its ideal stage for harvesting.
Hay must be fully dried when baled and kept dry in storage. If hay is baled
while too moist or becomes wet while in storage, there is a significant risk of
spontaneous combustion. Hay stored outside must be stacked in such a way that
moisture contact is minimal. Some stacks are arranged in such a manner that the hay
36
itself "sheds" water when it falls. Other methods of stacking use the first layers or
bales of hay as a cover to protect the rest. To completely keep out moisture, outside
haystacks can also be covered by tarps, and many round bales are partially wrapped in
plastic as part of the baling process. Hay is also stored under a roof when resources
permit. It is frequently placed inside sheds, or stacked inside of a barn. On the other
hand, care must also be taken that hay is never exposed to any possible source of heat
or flame, as dry hay and the dust it produces are highly flammable.
Potato
Potatoes are generally grown from seed potatoes - these are tubers specifically
grown to be disease free and provide consistent and healthy plants. To be disease free,
the areas where seed potatoes are grown are selected with care. In the USA this
restricts production of seed potatoes to only 15 states out of the 50 states that grow
potatoes. These locations are selected for their cold hard winters that kill pests and
long sunshine hours in the summer for optimum growth. In the UK, most seed potatoes
originate in Scotland in areas where westerly winds prevent aphid attack and thus
prevent spread of potato virus pathogens. Potato growth has been divided into five
phases. During the first phase, sprouts emerge from the seed potatoes and root growth
begins. During the second, photosynthesis begins as the plant develops leaves and
branches. In the third phase stolons develop from lower leaf axils on the stem and
grow downwards into the ground and on these stolons new tubers develop as swellings
of the stolon. This phase is often (but not always) associated with flowering. Tuber
formation halts when soil temperatures reach 80 °F (26.7 °C); hence potatoes are
considered a cool-season crop. Tuber bulking occurs during the fourth phase, when the
plant begins investing the majority of its resources in its newly formed tubers. At this
stage, several factors are critical to yield: optimal soil moisture and temperature, soil
nutrient availability and balance, and resistance to pest attacks. The final phase is
maturation: The plant canopy dies back, the tuber skins harden, and their sugars
convert to starches.
New tubers may arise at the soil surface. Since exposure to light leads to
greening of the skins and the development of solanine, growers are interested in
covering such tubers. Commercial growers usually address this problem by piling
additional soil around the base of the plant as it grows ("hilling", or in British English
"earthing up"). An alternative method used by home gardeners and smaller-scale
growers involves covering the growing area with organic mulches such as straw or
with plastic sheets.
Three successive plowings, with associated harrowing and rolling, are desirable
before planting. Eliminating all root-weeds is desirable in potato cultivation. In
general, the potatoes themselves are grown from the eyes of another potato and not
from seed.

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Potatoes are sensitive to heavy frosts, which damage them in the ground. Even
cold weather makes potatoes more susceptible to bruising and possibly later rotting,
which can quickly ruin a large stored crop.

Potato Storage
Storage facilities need to be carefully designed to keep the potatoes alive and
slow the natural process of decomposition, which involves the breakdown of starch. It
is crucial that the storage area is dark, well ventilated and for long-term storage
maintained at temperatures near 4 °C (39 °F). For short-term storage before cooking,
temperatures of about 7 °C (45 °F) to 10 °C (50 °F) are preferred.
On the other hand, temperatures below 4 °C (39 °F) convert potatoes' starch into
sugar, which alters their taste and cooking qualities and leads to higher acrylamide
levels in the cooked product, especially in deep-fried dishes — the discovery of
acrylamides in starchy foods in 2002 has led to many international health concerns as
they are believed to be possible carcinogens and their occurrence in cooked foods are
currently under study as possible influences in potential health problems.
Under optimum conditions possible in commercial warehouses, potatoes can be
stored for up to ten to twelve months. When stored in homes, the shelf life is usually
only a few weeks. If potatoes develop green areas or start to sprout, these areas should
be trimmed before using. Trimming or peeling green areas are inadequate to remove
copresent toxins, and such potatoes are no longer suitable as animal food.
Commercial storage of potatoes involves several phases: drying of surface
moisture; a wound healing phase at 85% to 95% relative humidity and temperatures
below 25 °C (77 °F); a staged cooling phase; a holding phase; and a reconditioning
phase, during which the tubers are slowly warmed. Mechanical ventilation is used at
various points during the process to prevent condensation and accumulation of carbon
dioxide.
When stored in the home, mature potatoes are optimally kept at room
temperature, where they last 1 to 2 weeks in a paper bag, in a dry, cool, dark, well
ventilated location. If mature potatoes are refrigerated, dark spots can occur and
conversion of starch into sugar can give rise to an unpleasant sweet flavour when
cooked. Only new potatoes can be refrigerated, and should be kept so, where they have
a shelf life of 1 week. If kept in too warm a temperature, both mature and new potatoes
will sprout and shrivel. Exposure to light causes them to turn green. Also, potatoes
absorb odours produced by pears.

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Vegetable Farming

Vegetable farming is growing vegetables for human consumption.


Traditionally it was done in the soil in small rows or blocks, often primarily for
consumption on the farm, with the excess sold in nearby towns. Later, farms on the
edge of large communities could specialize in vegetable production, with the short
distance allowing the farmer to get his produce to market while still fresh. Planting in
long rows allows machinery to cultivate the fields, increasing efficiency and output;
however, the diversity of vegetable crops requires a number of techniques to be used to
optimize the growth of each type of plant. Some farms, therefore, specialize in one
vegetable; others grow a large variety. Due to the needs to market vegetables while
fresh, vegetable gardening has high labor demands. Some farms avoid this by running
u-pick operations where the customers pick their own produce. The development of
ripening technologies and refrigeration has reduced the problems with getting produce
to market in good condition.
Over the past 100 years a new technique has emerged—raised bed gardening,
which has increased yields from small plots of soil without the need for commercial,
energy-intensive fertilizers. Modern hydroponic farming produces very high yields in
greenhouses without using any soil.
Several economic models exist for vegetable farms: farms may grow large
quantities of a few vegetables and sell them in bulk to major markets or middlemen,
which requires large growing operations; farms may produce for local customers,
which requires a larger distribution effort; farms may produce a variety of vegetables
for sale through on-farm stalls, local farmer's markets, u-pick operations. This is quite
different from commodity farm products like wheat and maize which do not have the
ripeness problems and are sold off in bulk to the local granary. Large cities often have
a central produce market which handles vegetables in a commodity-like manner, and
manages distribution to most supermarkets and restaurants.
In America, vegetable farms are in some regions known as truck farms; "truck"
is a noun for which its more common meaning overshadows its historically separate
use as a term for "vegetables grown for market". Such farms are sometimes called
muck farms, after the dark black soil in which vegetables grow well.
Oats

Oats have numerous uses in food; most commonly, they are rolled or crushed
into oatmeal, or ground into fine oat flour. Oatmeal is chiefly eaten as porridge, but
may also be used in a variety of baked goods, such as oatcakes, oatmeal cookies, and
oat bread. Oats are also an ingredient in many cold cereals, in particular muesli and
granola. Oats may also be consumed raw, and cookies with raw oats are becoming
popular.
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Oats are also occasionally used in several different drinks. In Britain, they are
used for brewing beer. Oatmeal stout is one variety brewed using a percentage of oats
for the wort. The more rarely used oat malt is produced by the Thomas Fawcett &
Sons Maltings, and was used in the Maclay Oat Malt Stout before Maclays Brewery
ceased independent brewing operations. A cold, sweet drink made of ground oats and
milk is a popular refreshment throughout Latin America. Oatmeal caudle, made of ale
and oatmeal with spices, was a traditional British drink and a favourite of Oliver
Cromwell.
Historical attitudes towards oats have varied. Oat bread was first manufactured
in Britain, where the first oat bread factory was established in 1899. In Scotland, they
were, and still are, held in high esteem, as a mainstay of the national diet.
In Scotland, a dish called sowans was made by soaking the husks from oats for a
week, so that the fine, floury part of the meal remained as sediment to be strained off,
boiled and eaten. Oats are also widely used there as a thickener in soups, as barley or
rice might be used in other countries.
Oats are also commonly used as feed for horses—as crimped or rolled oats or as
part of a blended food pellet. The oat hull must be crushed ("rolled" or "crimped") for
the horse to digest the grain. Cattle are also fed oats, either whole, or ground into a
coarse flour using a roller mill, burr mill, or hammer mill.
Oat straw is prized by cattle and horse producers as bedding, due to its soft,
relatively dust-free, and absorbent nature. The straw can also be used for making corn
dollies. Tied in a muslin bag, oat straw was used to soften bath water.
Oat extract can also be used to soothe skin conditions. It is the principal
ingredient for the Aveeno line of products.
Oats are generally considered "healthful", or a health food, being touted
commercially as nutritious. The discovery of the healthy cholesterol-lowering
properties has led to wider appreciation of oats as human food.
Plant Breeding
Plant breeding is the art and science of changing the traits of plants in order to
produce desired characteristics. Plant breeding can be accomplished through many
different techniques ranging from simply selecting plants with desirable characteristics
for propagation, to more complex molecular techniques.
Plant breeding has been practiced for thousands of years, since near the
beginning of human civilization. It is practiced worldwide by individuals such
as gardeners and farmers, or by professional plant breeders employed by organizations
such as government institutions, universities or research centers.
International development agencies believe that breeding new crops is important
for ensuring food security by developing new varieties that are higher-yielding,
40
resistant to pests and diseases, drought-resistant or regionally adapted to different
environments and growing conditions.
One major technique of plant breeding is selection, the process of selectively
propagating plants with desirable characteristics and eliminating those with less
desirable characteristics.
Another technique is the deliberate interbreeding (crossing) of closely or
distantly related individuals to produce new crop varieties or lines with desirable
properties. Plants are crossbred to introduce traits/genes from one variety or line into a
new genetic background. For example, a mildew-resistant pea may be crossed with a
high-yielding but susceptible pea, the goal of the cross being to introduce mildew
resistance without losing the high-yield characteristics.
Traits that breeders have tried to incorporate into crop plants include:
 Improved quality, such as increased nutrition, improved flavor, or greater beauty
 Increased yield of the crop
 Increased tolerance of environmental pressures (salinity, extreme temperature,
drought)
 Resistance to viruses, fungi and bacteria
 Increased tolerance to insect pests
 Increased tolerance of herbicides
 Longer storage period for the harvested crop
Modern plant breeding may use techniques of molecular biology to select,
or in the case of genetic modification, to insert, desirable traits into plants. Application
of biotechnology or molecular biology is also known as molecular breeding.

Pollination
The female sex organ of a flower is the pistil, which has an outer sticky end
called the stigma and an enlarged base called the ovary. The male sex organs of a
flower are called stamens. Each stamen is composed of a slender stalk or filament at
the top of which there is a bag- like anther, which produces pollen grains. Pollination
is the transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the ovules of the ovary.
Self pollination takes place when the pollen from one flower pollinates the same
flower or other flowers of the same plant.. Self pollination is a form of pollination
which can occur when a flower has both the male and the female gametes, that is the
stamens and the carpel or pistil.
The mechanism of self pollination is seen on some legumes like peanuts,
soybeans. Most plants that self pollinate have small, inconspicuous flowers. These
flowers spill pollen directly onto the stigma even before the bud blooms. Plants that
follow self pollination process often have the same lengths of the stamens and carpels.
Cross pollination is also known as allogamy. Cross pollination occurs when
pollen grains are transferred to a flower from a different plant. The plants that undergo
cross pollination often have taller stamens than their carpels. The process of cross
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pollination requires the help of abiotic or biotic agents like wind, water, insects, birds,
bats, snails and other animals as pollinators.
Bees are one of the most well known and important types of pollinator, both in
agriculture and natural ecosystems.
Honeybees (or honey bees) travel from flower to flower, collecting nectar (later
converted to honey), and pollen grains. The bee collects the pollen by rubbing against
the anthers. The pollen collects on the bee's body and legs. As the bee flies from
flower to flower, some of the pollen grains are transferred onto the stigma of other
flowers.
The importance of these native pollinators in the reproduction of flowering
plants (including those used in agriculture) is just beginning to be understood.
Unfortunately, there has been a major decline in native pollinators due to habitat loss
and pesticide use. Habitat loss due to intensive agriculture, deforestation, and urban
development reduces available food resources for native bee species.
It is clear that the conservation of bees and other pollinators is an urgent issue.
Our activities are destroying the diversity of all wildlife, and having an affect on our
own food supply. Clearly a balance between the biodiversity of natural environments
and a system of sustainable agriculture is needed.

Farm Machinery

Farm machinery is the machinery that is used on farms to assist with farming
work. Previously, hand-held implements and animal-drawn machinery were used. In
modern times, mechanized farming is the norm. Electric or fuel-powered machinery
carry out most of the tasks that were once carried out by men and animals.
Using machinery is less time-consuming and more cost-effective than working
by hand or using tools like scythes or animal drawn plows. Advances in farm
machinery have revolutionized the farming industry. Whether it is a family farm, an
organic farming enterprise or a commercial farming endeavor, a wide range of farm
machinery is used. Commercial farming uses more sophisticated farming equipment
than the other two.

Farming and farm machinery have continued to evolve. The threshing machine has
given way to the combine, usually a self-propelled unit that either picks up windrowed
grain or cuts and threshes it in one step. The grain binder has been replaced by the
swather which cuts the grain and lays it on the ground in windrows, allowing it to dry
before being harvested by a combine. Plows are not used nearly as extensively as
before, due in large part to the popularity of minimum tillage to reduce soil erosion
and conserve moisture. The disk harrow today is more often used after harvesting to
cut up the grain stubble left in the field. Although seed drills are still used, the air

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seeder is becoming more popular with farmers. Today's farm machinery allows
farmers to cultivate many more acres of land than the machines of yesterday.

Farm machinery are mechanical devices, including tractors and implements,


used in farming to save labour. Farm machines include a great variety of devices with
a wide range of complexity: from simple hand-held implements used since prehistoric
times to the complex harvesters of modern mechanized agriculture.

Potato Planter

This potato planter, which comes into being on base of the long cooperation
between the factory and customers, is the ideal machine that meets the requirements of
modern agriculture. It can be used for different areas, climates and soils. The potato
planting machine is a multifunctional planter. It can ditch and fertilize, finish the
complete process of sowing and planting. The potato planter can meet the
requirements of different areas, the natural environments, geographical features, the
climate, soils and agriculture demands. This machine has the features of compact
structure, good mobility, strong adaptability, simple maintenance.

Modern farming is not only mechanized, it is also computerized. Farmers


routinely use satellite imagery, GPS guidance and electric sensors in their farming
work. Advanced farming machinery reduces waste and ensures more profitable use of
seeds, fertilizers, irrigation and fuel. It has improved the production and transport of
farm produce. The most common and well-known farm machinery is a tractor.
Tractors are used to pull a variety of farm machines and equipment. Farm machinery
used for soil cultivation includes a plow, a power tiller, a spike, drag and disk harrows,
a chisel plow, a cultivator, a spading machine and a rock picker. These machines clear
the land of stones and weeds, and loosen the soil for planting. The actual planting is
done using mechanized planters, transplanters, seed drills, broadcast seeders and
mulch layers. Planters plant seeds in precise rows at precise intervals. Drills plant
seeds much closer together than planters.
Irrigation is made easier by specialized irrigation machinery. Quick and
mechanized irrigation facilities have made it possible to cultivate high yields of crops
in dry areas. Water can also be supplied over a wide range of land and in specific
required quantities.

Harvesting farm machinery includes the famous combine harvester and thresher.
The combine, as it is usually called, saves farmers a lot of time and effort. It cuts,
threshes and separates grain as it works its way through crop fields. Other harvesting
farm machines are the cane, corn and bean harvesters and the cotton pickers.

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Simple and Complex Machines

A machine is any device that uses energy to perform some activity. In common
usage, the meaning is that of a device having parts that perform or assist in performing
any type of work.
Historically, a device required moving parts to be classified as a machine;
however, the advent of electronics technology has led to the development of devices
without moving parts that are considered machines—the computer being the most
obvious example.
Machines are ubiquitous in a wide variety of industrial, commercial, residential
and transportation applications. Those employing hydraulics are especially useful in
manufacturing and construction.

A simple machine is a mechanical device that changes the direction or


magnitude of a force. In general, they can be defined as the simplest mechanisms that
use mechanical advantage (also called leverage) to multiply force. A simple machine
uses a single applied force to do work against a single load force. Ignoring friction
losses, the work done on the load is equal to the work done by the applied force. They
can be used to increase the amount of the output force, at the cost of a proportional
decrease in the distance moved by the load. The ratio of the output to the input force is
called the mechanical advantage.

Complex machines are two or more simple machines working together. A


wheelbarrow is an example of a complex machine that uses a lever and a wheel and
axle. Machines of all types make work easier by changing the size or direction of an
applied force. The amount of effort saved when using simple or complex machines is
called mechanical advantage or MA.
Complex machines are designated, as a rule, by the operations they perform; the
complicated devices used for sawing, planting, and turning, for example, are known as
sowing machines, planting machines, and turning machines respectively and as
machine tools collectively.
Machines used to transform other forms of energy (as heat) into mechanical
energy are known as engines, i.e. the steam engine or the internal-combustion engine.
The electric motor transforms electrical energy into mechanical energy. Its operation is
the reverse of that of the electric generator, which transforms the energy of falling
water or steam into electrical energy.

Engines

Engines are machines that convert heat or other forms of energy into
mechanical energy. For example, in an internal combustion engine the expansion of

44
gases caused by the heat from an exothermic chemical reaction results in a force being
applied to a movable component, such as a piston or turbine blade.
An engine whose purpose is to produce kinetic energy output from a fuel source
is called a prime mover; alternatively, a motor is a device which produces kinetic
energy from a preprocessed "fuel" (such as electricity, a flow of hydraulic fluid or
compressed air). A motor car has a starter motor and motors to drive pumps (fuel,
power steering, etc.) – but the power plant that propels the car is called an engine. The
term "motor" was originally used to distinguish the new internal combustion engine -
powered vehicles from earlier vehicles powered by a steam engine.

A steam engine is a machine for converting heat energy into mechanical energy
using steam as a medium, or working fluid. When water is converted into steam it
expands, its volume increasing about 1,600 times. The force produced by the
conversion is the basis of all steam engines. Steam engines operate by having
superheated steam force a piston to reciprocate, or move back and forth, in a cylinder.
The piston is attached by a connecting rod to a crankshaft that converts the back-and-
forth motion of the piston to rotary motion for driving machinery. A flywheel attached
to the crankshaft makes the rotary motion smooth and steady. The typical steam engine
has an inlet valve at each end of the cylinder. Steam is admitted through one inlet
valve, forcing the piston to move to the other end of the cylinder. This steam then exits
through an exhaust valve. Steam from the other inlet valve then pushes the piston back
to its original position, and the cycle starts again.

An internal combustion engine (or ICE) is an engine in which the combustion


of a fuel occurs in a combustion chamber inside and integral to the engine. In an
internal combustion engine it is always the expansion of the high temperature and
pressure gases that are produced which apply force to the movable component of the
engine, such as the pistons or turbine blades.
The internal combustion engine contrasts with the external combustion engine,
such as a steam engine in which the energy is delivered within a working fluid heated
in a boiler by fossil fuel, wood-burning, nuclear, solar etc.

Diesel Engines vs. Gasoline Engines

Diesel's story actually begins with the invention of the gasoline engine.
Nikolaus August Otto had invented and patented the gasoline engine by 1876. This
invention used the four-stroke combustion principle, also known as the "Otto Cycle,"
and it's the basic premise for most car engines today. In its early stage, the gasoline
engine wasn't very efficient, and other major methods of transportation such as the
steam engine fared poorly as well. Only about 10 percent of the fuel used in these
types of engines actually moved a vehicle. The rest of the fuel simply produced useless
heat.
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In 1878, Rudolf Diesel was attending the Polytechnic High School of Germany
(the equivalent of an engineering college) when he learned about the low efficiency of
gasoline and steam engines. This disturbing information inspired him to create an
engine with a higher efficiency, and he devoted much of his time to developing a
"Combustion Power Engine." By 1892 Diesel had obtained a patent for what we now
call the diesel engine.

In theory, diesel engines and gasoline engines are quite similar. They are both
internal combustion engines designed to convert the chemical energy available in fuel
into mechanical energy. This mechanical energy moves pistons up and down inside
cylinders. The pistons are connected to a crankshaft, and the up-and-down motion of
the pistons, known as linear motion, creates the rotary motion needed to turn the
wheels of a car forward.

Both diesel engines and gasoline engines convert fuel into energy through a
series of small explosions or combustions. The major difference between diesel and
gasoline is the way these explosions happen. In a gasoline engine, fuel is mixed with
air, compressed by pistons and ignited by sparks from spark plugs.

In a diesel engine, however, the air is compressed first, and then the fuel is
injected. Because air heats up when it's compressed, the fuel ignites.

Basic Engine Parts

The core of the engine is the cylinder, with the piston moving up and down
inside the cylinder. Most cars have more than one cylinder (four, six and eight
cylinders are common). In a multi-cylinder engine, the cylinders usually are arranged
in one of three ways: inline, V or flat (also known as horizontally opposed or boxer).
Different configurations have different advantages and disadvantages in terms of
smoothness, manufacturing cost and shape characteristics. These advantages and
disadvantages make them more suitable for certain vehicles.
Let's look at some key engine parts in more detail.
Spark plug The spark plug supplies the spark that ignites the air/fuel mixture so
that combustion can occur. The spark must happen at just the right moment for things
to work properly.
Valves The intake and exhaust valves open at the proper time to let in air and
fuel and to let out exhaust. Note that both valves are closed during compression and
combustion so that the combustion chamber is sealed.
Piston A piston is a cylindrical piece of metal that moves up and down inside
the cylinder.

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Piston rings Piston rings provide a sliding seal between the outer edge of the
piston and the inner edge of the cylinder. The rings serve two purposes:
 They prevent the fuel/air mixture and exhaust in the combustion chamber from
leaking into the sump during compression and combustion.
 They keep oil in the sump from leaking into the combustion area, where it would be
burned and lost.
Most cars that "burn oil" and have to have a quart added every 1,000 miles are
burning it because the engine is old and the rings no longer seal things properly.
Connecting rod The connecting rod connects the piston to the crankshaft. It can
rotate at both ends so that its angle can change as the piston moves and the crankshaft
rotates.
Crankshaft The crankshaft turns the piston's up and down motion into circular
motion just like a crank on a jack-in-the-box does.
Sump The sump surrounds the crankshaft. It contains some amount of oil,
which collects in the bottom of the sump (the oil pan).

Engine Operation

The diesel engine uses a four-stroke combustion cycle just like a gasoline
engine. The four strokes are:
Intake stroke -- The intake valve opens up, letting in air and moving the piston
down.
Compression stroke -- The piston moves back up and compresses the air.
Combustion stroke -- As the piston reaches the top, fuel is injected at just the
right moment and ignited, forcing the piston back down.
Exhaust stroke -- The piston moves back to the top, pushing out the exhaust
created from the combustion out of the exhaust valve.

The Four-Stroke Cycle In most engines a single cycle of operation (intake,


compression, power, and exhaust) takes place over four strokes of a piston, made in
two engine revolutions. When an engine has more than one cylinder the cycles are
evenly staggered for smooth operation, but each cylinder will go through a full cycle in
any two engine revolutions. When the piston is at the top of the cylinder at the
beginning of the intake stroke, the intake valve opens and the descending piston draws
in the air-fuel mixture.

At the bottom of the stroke the intake valve closes and the piston starts upward
on the compression stroke, during which it squeezes the air-fuel mixture into a small
space at the top of the cylinder. The ratio of the volume of the cylinder when the piston
is at the bottom to the volume when the piston is at the top is called the compression
ratio. The higher the compression ratio, the more powerful the engine and the higher

47
its efficiency. However, in order to accommodate air pollution control devices,
manufacturers have had to lower compression ratios.

Just before the piston reaches the top again, the spark plug fires, igniting the air-
fuel mixture (alternatively, the heat of compression ignites the mixture). The mixture
on burning becomes a hot, expanding gas forcing the piston down on its power stroke.
Burning should be smooth and controlled. Faster, uncontrolled burning sometimes
occurs when hot spots in the cylinder preignite the mixture; these explosions are called
engine knock and cause loss of power. As the piston reaches the bottom, the exhaust
valve opens, allowing the piston to force the combustion products—mainly carbon
dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and unburned hydrocarbons—out of the
cylinder during the upward exhaust stroke.

Farming Practices

At the most basic level some kinds of animals are kept in enclosures of some
sort, are fed by some means (given access to natural or human-provided sources of
food), are usually bred (preferred breeding time, methods, and suchlike all depend on
local conditions and tradition) and are either slaughtered for meat and animal by-
products, or are milked or shorn for animal fibre.
Livestock may be kept in confinement in very small areas (cages or pens), as
with poultry, rabbits or veal cattle, in sheds or barns, in fenced pastures or on large
open ranges where they are only occasionally collected in "round-ups" or "musters".
Herding dogs such as sheep dogs and cattle dogs may be used for mustering as are
cowboys, musterers and jackaroos on horseback or in helicopters. Since the advent of
barbed wire (in the 1870s) and electric fencing technology, fencing pastures has
become much more feasible and pasture management has simplified. In some cases
very large numbers of animals may be kept in indoor or outdoor feeding operations (on
feedlots), where the animals' feed is processed, stored, then fed to the animals. Because
of their size, the quantity of waste involved, fly and odour problems, potential for
groundwater contamination, animal welfare and other factors these feedlots are highly
regulated and are controversial in some areas.
Livestock may be branded, marked, or tagged to denote ownership or for
inventory, breeding, health management, product identification and tracing, or other
purposes.
Modern farming techniques mainly focus on the automation of the various tasks
involved and human intervention to increase yield and improve animal health.
Successive improvements of traditional techniques have mostly focused on these same
goals. Economics, quality and consumer safety all play a role in how animals are
raised. Drug use and feed supplements (or even feed type) may be regulated, or
prohibited, to ensure that yield is not increased at the expense of consumer health,
safety or animal welfare. Practices vary around the world, for example growth

48
hormone use is permitted in the United States but not in the European Union or in
countries selling meat in the EU such as Australia and New Zealand.

Disease

Livestock constitute a major source of epidemic diseases in humans; these


diseases have had a significant impact on history. When an agricultural society, that
raises livestock, comes in contact with a non-agricultural society their diseases often
spread to the latter (who lack any resistance), which can have devastating
consequences. Other diseases can be transmitted from animals. Mad cow disease is
transmitted between cattle which are fed food containing cattle brains and spines. It is
postulated that the disease vector causing mad cow disease can also be transmitted to
humans who eat infected cattle, causing the fatal disease known as variant Creutzfeldt-
Jakob disease (vCJD). Though this connection has not been conclusivley proven, over
95% of identified cases of vCJD are in Britain, which suffered a mad cow disease
epidemic in the mid to late 1980s. Mad cow disease has led to a ban on using cattle by-
products in cattle feed.
Other diseases that may be transmitted from livestock to humans include bird flu
and some may originate from the bacteria E. coli O157:H7. Also, anthrax was called
the woolsorter's disease because the skin form of the disease could be contracted from
handling raw wool. Anthrax may be contracted from cattle, sheep, goats, camels and
antelopes as well as directly from infected soil.
The use of antibiotics in animals that end up in the human food chain is
controversial. The issue of antibiotic resistance has limited the practices of
preventative dosing such as antibiotic-laced feed.
Livestock are also subject to other diseases. Veterinary certificates are often
required before transporting, selling or showing animals. Disease-free areas are often
rigorously enforced. Foot and mouth disease (FMD) led to a massive government
sheep and cattle kill in the north of England in 2001. Six million animals were killed to
stop an outbreak with 2000 confirmed cases. Bison which wander out of Yellowstone
National Park are routinely shot to prevent the possible spread of brucellosis to
Montana cattle.

Animal Husbandry

Animal husbandry is the agricultural practice of breeding and raising livestock.


As such, it is a vital skill for farmers, and in many ways as much art as it is science.
The science of animal husbandry, called animal science, is taught in many universities
and colleges around the world. Students of animal science may pursue degrees in
veterinary medicine or zootecnics following graduation, or go on to pursue master's
degrees or doctorates in disciplines such as nutrition, genetics and breeding, or
reproductive physiology. Graduates of these programs may be found working in the
49
veterinary and human pharmaceutical industries, the livestock and pet supply and feed
industries, or in academia. It is one of the oldest world professions. Historically,
certain sub-professions within the field of Animal Husbandry are specifically named
according to the animals which are cared for.
A swineherd is a person who cares for hogs and pigs (older English term:
swine). A shepherd is a person who cares for sheep. A goatherd cares for goats. A
cowherd cares for cattle. In previous years, it was common to have herds which were
made up of sheep and goats. In this case, the person tending them was called a
shepherd. In more modern times, cowboys (or in Spanish: gauchos) rode horses and
participated in cattle drives to watch over cows and bulls raised primarily for food.
Today, herd managers often oversee thousands of animals and many staff.
Farms and ranches may employ breeders, herd health specialists, feeders, and milkers
to help care for the animals. Techniques such as artificial insemination and embryo
transfer are frequently used not only as methods to guarantee that females are bred but
to help improve herd genetics. This in turn improves the ability of the animals to
convert feed to meat, milk, or fiber more efficiently and improves the quality of the
final product.
Milk

Milk is known to be highly nutritious, versatile food that has been used by
humans since the beginning of recorded time. People enjoy drinking milk in its natural
form and also use it to make a wide range of food products (cream, butter, yoghurt,
cheese, ice cream).
Humans drink the milk produced from a variety of domesticated mammals
including cows, goats, sheep, camels, reindeer, buffaloes, llama. But cow milk is the
main type of milk used for commercial production and consumption throughout the
world. Cow milk has been found to contain about 3.5 to 5 per cent fat, which is
dispersed throughout the milk in globules. Scientists consider sweet taste of milk to be
due to lactose, a kind of sugar found only in milk. The most important protein in milk
is casein, accounting for 80 per cent of milk protein. Other proteins present in milk
include albumin and globulin.
Milk contains many minerals, the most abundant of which are calcium and
phosphorus. It also has been proved to be an excellent source of vitamins A and B. The
milk to be sold commercially should be fortified with vitamin D.
Many factors influence the composition of milk, including breed, genetic
constitution of the cow, age of the cow, stage of lactation, interval between milkings
and certain disease conditions. In general, the type of feed only slightly affects the
composition of milk.
In most countries, almost half of the milk consumed is sold as fresh pasteurized
whole, low-fat or skim milk. The rest part of the milk is processed into more stable
dairy products of worldwide commerce, such as cream, butter, cheese, dried milks, ice
cream, condensed milk.

50
Milk in its natural form, directly from a cow, is called raw milk. It is an
extremely versatile product from which a countless number of commercial products
are derived.
Dairy farming dealing with production and use of milk and milk products is one
of the important branches of agriculture in many countries. Dairy husbandry includes
the management of dairy cows, the cultivation of crops for feed, the production of milk
and cream, and the manufacture of butter, cheese, ice cream. Individual high milk-
producing cows can produce up to 10,000 litres of milk annually. The best cows can be
selected and poor producers can be replaced by better cattle.

Ecological Strategy
Agroecologists study a variety of agroecosystems, and the field of agroecology
is not associated with any one particular method of farming, whether it be organic,
conventional, intensive or extensive. Furthermore, it is not defined by certain
management practices, such as the use of natural enemies in place of insecticides, or
polyculture in place of monoculture.
Additionally, agroecologists do not unanimously oppose technology or inputs in
agriculture but instead assess how, when, and if technology can be used in conjunction
with natural, social and human assets. Agroecology proposes a context- or site-specific
manner of studying agroecosystems, and as such, it recognizes that there is no
universal formula or recipe for the success and maximum well-being of an
agroecosystem.
Instead, agroecologists may study questions related to the four system properties
of agroecosystems: productivity, stability, sustainability and equitability. As opposed
to disciplines that are concerned with only one or some of these properties,
agroecologists see all four properties as interconnected and integral to the success of
an agroecosystem. Recognizing that these properties are found on varying spatial
scales, agroecologists do not limit themselves to the study of agroecosystems at any
one scale: farm, community, or global.
Agroecologists study these four properties through an interdisciplinary lens,
using natural sciences to understand elements of agroecosystems such as soil
properties and plant-insect interactions, as well as using social sciences to understand
the effects of farming practices on rural communities, economic constraints to
developing new production methods, or cultural factors determining farming practices.
Agroecologists do not always agree about what agroecology is or should be in
the long-term. Different definitions of the term agroecology can be distinguished
largely by the specificity with which one defines the term “ecology,” as well as the
term’s potential political connotations. Definitions of agroecology, therefore, may be
first grouped according to the specific contexts within which they situate agriculture.
51
Agroecology is defined by the OECD as “the study of the relation of agricultural crops
and environment.” This definition refers to the "-ecology" part of "agroecology"
narrowly as the natural environment. Following this definition, an agroecologist would
study agriculture's various relationships with soil health, water quality, air quality,
meso- and micro-fauna, surrounding flora, environmental toxins, and other
envirnomental contexts.
What is Ecology?

What is ecology and how does it affect you? Simply speaking, ecology is the
term for the scientific studies that are done on the earth and everything that affects it.
This includes wildlife, humanity, nature and in some cases environmental issues.
These studies are done from a variety of different viewpoints and by using many
different techniques. Ecology covers a broad area of studies and research that
provides information on how organisms interact and affect each other and the chemical
and physical environment of each.
When you ask different people the question “what is ecology”, you could get
many different answers. This is because ecology is such a broad area to cover. You
may be told that it is the study of humanity and its impact on the earth or that it is the
evolution of the human race. Evolution is the result of environmental changes over
time and it has an impact on every living creature.
Ecology is the study of the global patterns that occur within the boundaries
of the biosphere and that is the answer that you will get from many scientists when
you ask, what is ecology? Still yet another scientist would answer the question “what
is ecology” by saying it is the study of wildlife and organism and their effects on the
environment. All of these answers are correct because ecology is a huge subject that
can’t be narrowed down to just a few topics.
Having an understanding of ecology is critical to the survival of the human
species. With populations increasing and natural resources running thin, the more
we learn the better we will be able to make the changes needed to preserve the natural
resources for the generations of the future.
Studying ecology requires many experiments that are conducted in
laboratories and out in the field. These experiments help scientists to learn about the
environment, natural resources and more. The importance of ecology has grown
enormously just over the last few years and will surely continue to grow in the
future.
So what is ecology? You might say it is the answer to many problems that now
face the environment due to all the changes that have taken place over the centuries.
Ecology analyzes each element of the ecosystem and everything it consists of. It
teaches how all living things, no matter how large or small, affect everything else in
the world.

52
To find the answers needed to the many problems humanity now faces and to
ensure the future of generations to come, the study of ecology is imperative. There
is so much to be learned from the environment and every creature that inhabits the
earth.
Ecology Problems

Ecology problems are being studied by scientists from around the world. The
world itself is facing a number of very risky changes that could potentially destroy
life on the planet. While many scientists believe that changes can still be made to stop
the deconstruction and to repair the problems, many others believe some areas are
lost. For example, in the global ecology, many species have gone extinct long before
they were discovered and marveled at. At the same time, many medications and
unique plants have been lost because their habitats have been destroyed, and with
them the healing powers that so many people need have disappeared.
There are ecology problems on a grand scale. In ecology, the study is of
animals and plants and the interactions they have with each other and the environment
around them. By studying this information, scientists can better understand the roles
that each organism and microorganism has on the next. In addition, they can see
what problems exist, especially those caused by humans. Anytime humans come
into contact with an ecosystem, they leave changes and they disrupt the ecosystem
in many ways. In some situations, this is very deep damage. In others it is minor.
Yet, ecology problems happen in most situations.
Two of the largest ecology problems have to do with the global ecology or the
way that the ecosystems on the planet interact with each other. These problems are
ozone depletion and global warming, two very different problems equally
troubling.
Global warming is an ecology problem that is caused by the buildup of gasses
(which hold in heat) in the atmosphere. Global warming is often called a greenhouse
effect. In a greenhouse, heat is allowed to come into the greenhouse, to grow the
plants, but it is unable to escape again. This is similar to what is happening on a global
scale with global warming.
The other large ecology problems centre on ozone depletion. This is different
from global warming because here you have the actual destruction of the ozone layer.
Many chemicals cause this because they interact with the °zone. They in effect leave a
hole that lets in UV rays.
These ecology problems are very serious and both are a threat to life on Earth.
The more people study and get to know what is happening, the better decisions they
can make for the future. For many people, these seem like problems for someone else
to deal with, but in effect, they have a direct effect on you, and every person can help.

53
Part III
TRANSLATING ACADEMIC DEGREES
ПЕРЕВОД НАУЧНЫХ СТЕПЕНЕЙ

При переводе научных


текстов сложности возникают в
связи с необходимостью
адекватно передать научные
должности и ученые степени, так
как научная и образовательная
системы в различных странах не всегда позволяют найти правильное
решение.
Использование слова diploma по аналогии с русским словом диплом
(документ об окончании вуза) некорректно и может привести к неточному
пониманию собеседником вашей мысли, так как в англоязычных странах
завершение курса с получением diploma обычно менее почетно, чем
получение degree. Говоря о высшем образовании, следует употреблять
degree. Например, обладатель диплома инженера-физика может сказать:
I have a master’s degree in physics.
Одним из важнейших показателей научной квалификации является
степень degree. В англоязычных странах успешное окончание трех-,
четырехлетнего курса обучения в высшем учебном заведении, как правило,
приводит к получению степени бакалавра Bachelor’s degree
Bachelor of Science, сокр. B.Sc./B.S. (естественные науки)
Bachelor of Arts, сокр. A.B./B.A. (гуманитарные науки)
Bachelor of Fine Arts, сокр. B.F.A. (искусство)
Bachelor of Business Administration, сокр. B.B.A. (управление)
Степень бакалавра часто называется первой степенью first degree.
Студенты, продолжающие обучение после получения первой степени
(graduate/postgraduate students), могут претендовать на степень магистра
master’s degree:
Master of Science, сокр. M.S.
Master of Arts, сокр. M.A.
Master of Fine Arts, сокр. M.F.A.
Для получения этой степени студент должен в течение года или двух
посещать лекционные занятия и участвовать в исследовательской работе,
после чего сдать еще ряд экзаменов и, как правило, представить
диссертацию thesis.
54
Следующая степень в англоязычных странах – это Doctor of
Philosophy, сокр. Ph.D. Она присуждается как в области естественных, так
и гуманитарных наук. Слово Philosophy не должно смущать
русскоговорящего, поскольку изначально оно имело более общее значение
в английском языке «наука вообще», которое в данном случае и
сохранилось до настоящего времени. Обладателем этой степени может
быть, например, математик:
I left England to go to the USA to be a student of advanced mathematics. In the
USA I earned the degree of Master of Science and also Doctor of Philosophy.
Часто эту степень называют doctoral degree / doctor’s degree /
doctorate:
I studied at a college in California for my bachelor’s degree and my master’s
degree. Then I got my doctoral degree at the University.
Претендент на эту степень проводит оригинальное научное
исследование, как правило, в рамках специальной учебной программы
Ph.D. program/studies, сдает экзамены и представляет диссертационную
работу doctoral thesis/dissertation. Как правило, к работе над докторской
диссертацией исследователь приступает после получения степени
магистра:
I am twenty-six years old and have just completed my master’s degree in science.
And I’m going to begin my Ph. D. program next September in the USA.
Степени магистра и доктора нередко называют advanced / graduate /
higher degree:
After graduation from the University I received a higher degree in mathematics
at Florida University.
На вопрос о том, какой российской ученой степени (кандидата или
доктора наук) соответствует степень Ph.D., нелегко дать однозначный
ответ. Ситуация осложняется взаимным непризнанием дипломов и ученых
степеней (никакого межгосударственного соглашения об их признании не
существует).
В наибольшем приближении Ph.D. соответствует кандидатской
диссертации, степени кандидата наук, поскольку в большинстве случаев
обе степени дают право на профильное преподавание в высших учебных
заведениях. Грубой ошибкой, приводящей к многочисленным курьезам и
недопониманиям, является перевод Ph.D. как докторская диссертация,
степень доктора наук. Абсолютно недопустимым является «дословный»
перевод-расшифровка Ph.D. как доктор философии (в результате при

55
переводе степени Ph.D. in mathematics получаются несообразности типа
доктор философии по математике).
При переводе степени Ph.D. на русский язык не следует привязывать
ее к конкретной российской степени. Наиболее верным решением является
использование описательных эквивалентов «подготовил диссертацию»,
«защитил диссертацию», «ученая степень» (без уточнения, докторская она
или кандидатская), а если требуется подчеркнуть, что это именно степень
Ph.D., то и, собственно, этой аббревиатуры в латинской графике вполне
достаточно.
При переводе на английский язык используйте степень Ph.D. как для
кандидатской, так и для докторской диссертации. Понятие «ученая степень
кандидата» наук может быть выражено, например, словом doctorate:
I got my doctorate in economics two years ago.
Для получения степени доктора наук в России необходимо написание
диссертации, а также монографии. При использовании сочетаний типа
Doctor of Science / Doctor of the Sciences / Doctor of History / Doctor of
Technical science (s) для передачи степени доктора наук следует также
давать разъяснения. В частности, можно подчеркнуть, что степень доктора
наук является высшей ученой степенью в нашей стране, а многие из ее
обладателей имеют звание профессора:
The Russian Doctor of Science degree is the highest research degree in this
country. Many scientists having that degree are professors.
При заполнении специализированных анкет (на гранты, стажировки,
при поступлении в американские университеты) часто просят
транслитерировать имеющийся диплом или степень - Diploma, Kandidat
Nauk, Doktor Nauk - поскольку специализированные агентства, работающие
с иностранными учеными, имеют представление о российской
образовательной системе. Однако не следует злоупотреблять этим
способом, так как в большинстве случаев неподготовленный иноязычный
реципиент просто не поймет, о чем идет речь, и получит неверную или
отрицательную информацию.
Сочетания типа candidate’s degree / candidate of sciences или
candidate of chemistry / candidate of chemical science(s) и т.п. могут быть
не поняты, так как это дословный перевод с русского. Их употребление
приемлемо только с указанием пояснений.
Необходимо учитывать, что слово candidate часто используется в
сочетаниях Ph.D. doctoral candidate, где оно указывает, что данный
исследователь работает над соответствующей диссертацией, но степени

56
доктора философии еще не получил. Сочетание doctoral candidate может
быть удачным эквивалентом русскому понятию «соискатель».
Now I am a doctoral candidate in mathematics. – Сейчас я являюсь
соискателем степени кандидата математических наук.
Соответственно для обозначения понятия «аспирант» наряду со
словосочетаниями graduate / postgraduate student, можно использовать и
сочетание doctoral student особенно, если учесть, что оно точнее передает
позицию аспиранта как исследователя, работающего над диссертацией,
соответствующей докторской диссертации в англоязычных странах. Дело в
том, что сочетания graduate student (амер.) и postgraduate student (брит.)
употребляются для обозначения студентов, которые могут работать по
программам, ведущим к получению степени как доктора философии, так и
магистра.
Наряду со степенью доктора философии, в англоязычных странах
есть ряд почетных докторских степеней honorary / higher / senior
doctorates, Honor Doctor, Honor degree, присуждаемых за долголетнюю и
плодотворную научную деятельность. Среди них степени: Doctor of
Science, сокр. D.Sc. (естественные науки); Doctor of Letters, сокр. Lett.D.
(гуманитарные науки); Doctor of Laws, сокр. L.L.D. (юриспруденция). Они
не требуют проведения специальных исследований или написания
диссертации и присуждаются по совокупности заслуг известным деятелям
науки.
Ученый может обладать несколькими или даже многими почетными
докторскими степенями. Сочетание senior doctorate может передавать
русское понятие степени доктора наук.
В заключении хотелось бы порекомендовать при написании на
английском языке какой-либо ученой степени:
– использовать эквиваленты;
– указывать в скобках российский вариант или пояснение.

Доктор физ.–мат. наук Doctor of Physics and Mathematics –


Dr. Sci. (Phys.–Math.)
Кандидат экон. наук Candidate of Economics – Cand. Sci.
(Econ.)
Академик member of the Academy of Sciences
(англ. слово "academician" для

57
носителей языка эквивалентно
русс. словам "ученый,
исследователь"
Профессор- Professor – Prof.
Доцент Associate Professor – Assoc. Prof.
Председатель- Chair (of …)
Директор Director (of …) – Dir.
Заместитель директора Deputy Director – Dep. Dir.
Член РАН Member, Russian Academy of
Sciences
Член-корреспондент РАН Corresponding Member, Russian
Academy of Sciences
Главный редактор Editor-in-Chief
Заместитель глав. редактора Deputy Editor-in-Chief
Ответственный секретарь Assistant Editor – Asst. Ed.
Заведующий лаборатории Head of (the) Laboratory (of ...)
Заведующий отделом Head of (the) Department (of ...)
Старший научный сотрудник Senior Researcher
Ведущий научный сотрудник Leading Researcher

58
Part IY
PRESENTATION
What makes a good presentation?

Without exception, all good presenters have one thing in common - enthusiasm,
both for their subject and for the business of presenting it. Enthusiasm is infectious.
Audiences can't help but be affected by it. And the best public speakers always make
what they say sound as if it really matters. They know that if it matters to them, it will
matter to their audience.
Many things contribute to the success of a presentation - new and unusual
content, a clear structure, a good sense of timing, imaginative use of visual aids, ability
to make people laugh and think. But above and beyond all of these is enthusiasm.
What kind of language and what kind of techniques will best show your enthusiasm
for your subject?

Introductions and welcome.


Good morning, ladies and gentleman. My name's John Jones. I'm head of sales at
Acme Services.

I would like to thank you for inviting me here today to talk about...

I would like to thank you all for attending this presentation. I plan to be brief.
I shall only take about fifteen minutes of your time. If you have any questions, I'd be
very happy to answer them at the end.
Feel free to interrupt me if you have any questions during my presentation. (Not
recommended unless your English level is good.)

Explaining the purpose of your presentation.


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I'd like to give you a brief presentation about...
The subject of my talk is...
I'm going to talk about...
My topic today is...
My talk is concerned with...
The purpose of my talk is to...

Giving an overview of the presentation.

I'm going to divide this talk into four parts.


There are a number of points I'd like to make.
Basically, I have three things to say.
This talk is designed to be a springboard for discussion on the topic of...
I'd like to begin by…
Let's begin by...
First of all, I'll discuss...
and then I'll go on to talk about
Then... / Next,... Secondly,... / Thirdly,... Finally,... / Lastly,...

Finishing a section.
That's all I have to say about...
So, in this section, we've looked at...
Well, I think I've said enough about.

Starting a new section.


Moving on now to
Turning now to...
Let's turn now to
So that brings me now to the topic of...
The next area I'd like to focus on next is
Now, we'll move on to...
I'd now like to discuss...
Let's now look at...

Analysing a point in your presentation.


Where does that lead us?
Let's consider this in more detail...
I'd like to elaborate on what I said earlier about
What does this mean for...?
Translated into real terms, this means that...
Why is this important?
60
The significance of this is...
On the one hand,...
...on the other hand,...

Giving examples.
For example,...
A good example of this is...
As an illustration, I'd like to mention...
To give you an example,...
To illustrate this point,...

Referring to photos, graphs or tables.


If you'd like to look at this graph, you'll see...
Take a look at this table. Here, we can see quite clearly that...
This chart illustrates...
Let me show you a pie-chart that will make everything much clearer.

Paraphrasing and clarifying.


Simply put,...
In other words,...
So what I'm saying is..
To put it more simply…
To put it another way,...

Summarising the content of your presentation.


To sum up,...
To summarise,...
In short,...
Right then, let's sum up, shall we?
Let's summarise briefly what we've looked at...
If I can just sum up the main points,...
Finally, let me remind you of some of the issues we've covered.
So, to remind you of what I've covered in this talk,...
Unfortunately, I seem to have run out of time, so I'll conclude very briefly by saying
that...
I'd now like to recap on the points I've mentioned.

Closing the presentation.


To conclude…
In conclusion,...
Well, that covers all I wanted to say today.
Before I finish let me say just one last thing.
That brings me to the end of my presentation.
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It just remains for me to say, thank you very much for coming and I hope you have
found this presentation useful.

Invitation to ask questions.


Does anyone have any questions or comments?
Please feel free to ask questions.
If you would like me to elaborate on any point I've made today, please ask. Would
you like to ask any questions?
Any questions?
Checking comprehension.
Does that answer your question?
Is that clear?
May we go on then to the next question?
I hope I've made that clear.

So what you're saying is,...


...is that right?
It seems I don't have time to answer any more of your questions now. But please feel
free to come and talk to me later on today.

The Top 10 effective presentation techniques.


1. Use visual aids
Using pictures in your presentations instead of words can double the chances of
meeting your objectives.
2. Keep it short and sweet
There is an old proverb that said – “No one ever complained of a presentation
being too short.” Nothing kills a presentation more than going on too long.
3. Use the rule of three
A simple technique is that people tend to only remember three things. Work out
what the three messages that you want your audience to take away and structure your
presentation around them. Use a maximum of three points on a slide.
4. Rehearse
Practice makes for perfect performance. Many experts say that rehearsal is the
biggest single thing that you can do to improve your performance. Perform your
presentation out loud at least four times. One of these should be in front of a real scary
audience. Family, friends or colleagues. Even the dog is better than nothing.
5. Tell stories
62
All presentations are a type of theatre. Tell stories and anecdotes to help
illustrate points. It all helps to make your presentation more effective and memorable.
6. Lose the bullet points – don’t put your speaker notes up on the screen
Bullet points are the kiss of death for most presentations. Most people use bullet
points as a form of speaker notes. To make your presentation more effective put your
speaker notes in your notes and not up on the screen.
7. Video yourself
Set up a video camera and video yourself presenting. You will see all sorts of
mistakes that you are making, from how you are standing, if you are jangling keys, to
how well your presentation is structured.
8. Know what slide is coming next
You should always know when presenting which slide is coming up next. It
sounds very powerful when you say “On the next slide you will see…”, rather than a
period of confusion when the next slide appears.
9. Have a back-up plan
Murphy’s law normally applies during a presentation. Technology not working,
power cuts, projector blowing a bulb, spilling coffee on your front, not enough power
leads, no loudspeakers, presentation displays strangely on the laptop – all of these are
things that have happened in presentations that I have given.
Have a back-up plan. Take with you the following items – a printed out set of
slides – (you can hold these up to the audience if you need to), a CD or data stick of
your presentation, a laptop with your slides on it. Just in case it goes wrong.
Guess what? When you have back-ups – you seldom need to use them.
10. Check out the presentation room
Arrive early and check out the presentation room. If you can make sure that you
see your slides loaded onto the PC and working on the screen. Work out where you
will need to stand.
Your presentation should have the following structure:
1. An Introduction
This is the most important part of your presentation because the audience will
make judgements about you. They will decide in the first few minutes what you are
like. They will also decide whether you deserve their attention. Therefore, it is very
important that you plan carefully what you want to say in the introduction.

63
Try to do these things in your introduction
Get the audience’s attention.
Introduce yourself.
Explain why you are there.
Explain what you hope to achieve.
Build a good relationship with the audience.
2. The Body
You should use this part of the presentation to explain key information. Explain
your points clearly one at a time so your audience can follow what you are saying.
Remembeto keep your points simple and short. Try not to give too much information,
otherwise the audience will not remember your message.
3. The Conclusion
It is important to create a lasting impression in your conclusion. Use the last
couple of minutes to repeat important points and key information. Leave some time for
discussion, questions and answers at the end of the presentation. Don’t forget to thank
your audience for attending and listening.
The Visual Aids
These are things (resources) you could use to present your message. It is
important to use visual aids because they can: help the audience focus on what you are
saying, make the presentation more interesting, help to explain the points you make
more clearly, provide variety.
Preparing your visual aids
When preparing your visual aids make sure you do these things:
1. Check that the size of the print is large enough for the audience to see.
2. Don’t type all your text in capital letters as this makes it more difficult to read.
3. Don’t use long sentences – use bullet points and numbers to organize your key
рoints.
4. Use a type of text that is easy to read (e.g. Arial)
5. Add pictures, illustrations, diagrams to make it more interesting and use colour.

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Examples of Presentations:

Example 1

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Example 2

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Part Y
APPLYING FOR A JOB

HOW TO WRITE A PERFECT CV

Applying for a job you need to fill in


and compile some papers: a Curriculum Vitae
(CV) or Resume (American English), Cover
and Thank-You letters, an Application Form.
There are no fixed international formats about
these papers, but the basic information given
there is the same. Information, which
includes your suitability to the job, should be
highlighted.
It is a standard practice to begin the CV with personal data. Essentials such
as your name, address, social insurance number, home phone number and
business phone number (recommended only if your present employer is aware of
your job search). Facts, such as your date of birth, marital status, and number of
dependents, may also be included.
An option, which may be included in your CV, is a brief explanation of
your career objective or goals. This is usually included following personal data.
If you have only one version of your CV, it may be best to include this section in
74
a cover letter so that you can tailor in to the specific position for which you are
applying.
The structure of the next portion of your CV will depend a great deal on
the extent of your work history. If you are a recent graduate with limited
business experience, begin with your education first. Highlight achievements and
honours, and note extracurricular activities. Expand on any courses you took
which are relevant to the position you desire, or specialized training you may
have participated in.
If you posses a strong background in the work, you should begin with your
work experience first. Information provided here will include a job title, name of
employer, address, date of employment, and a brief summary of duties.
Emphasize responsibilities and highlight personal achievements, advancement
and recognition. Your list of positions should be in reverse chronological order,
so begin with your current employer.
Next, your CV could include a brief section designed to give employers an
insight into your leisure and non-work activities. You might include.
Finally you could list references. It has become acceptable practice to write
“References: Available upon request” since addresses, titles, phone numbers are
subject to change.
Thus, a CV must contain a summary of essential facts about your
background: 1. Personal details. 2. Career objective. 3.Work experience. 4.
Education. 5. References.

Contact Information The first section of your CV should include


First Last Name information on how the employer can
Street Address contact you
City, State, Zip
Phone
Email Address
Objective What do you want to do? If you include this
section it should be a sentence or two about
your employment goals
Skills Include skills related to the position / career
field that you are applying for i.e. computer
skills, language skills
Education In the education section of your CV, list the
College, Degree colleges you attended, the degrees you
Awards, Honors attained, and any special awards and honours
you earned
75
Work Experience This section of your CV includes your work
Dates Worked history. List the companies you worked for,
Company #1 dates of employment, the positions you held
City, State and a bulleted list of responsibilities and
Job Title achievements
Responsibilities

Company #2
Dates Worked
City, State
Job Title
Responsibilities
References Available upon request

Here is a sample of a Curriculum Vitae


CURRICULUM VITAE
- Personal details
Name Robert Brown
Address 4 Ash Grove Road, Anytown, OT2 7IR
Tel: 0666 364 582
Email: robert@mktg.ssu.co.uk
Nationality British
Date of birth 12/10/83
Marital status Married

- Personal profile
Engineering professional with 10 years’ experience creating innovative, cost-
efficient designs. Solid expertise in applied research, new content
development, simulation, and validation. I am reliable, well organized, and
used to working on my own initiative. I am comfortable working on my own
or as part of a team.
- Key skills
Autodesk Inventor 2008 Essentials
MS office Package Good problem solver
Confident communicator Self–motivated
Fluent in English Clean driving licence
- Work experience
76
 Senior Mechanical Engineer, Lam Research (Mar 2010 - present)
 Manufacturing/design engineer, Moore Technologies (Nov 2007 - Mar
2010)
 Quality manager / Manufacturing engineer, Smart Machines (May 2006
- Nov 2007)
- Education
 M.Sc. with specialization in production engineering (Mechanical
Engineering) , CALIFORNIA POLYTECHNIC STATE UNIVERSITY
(2005 - 2006)
 Bachelor of Science in Mechanical engineering , CALIFORNIA
POLYTECHNIC STATE UNIVERSITY (2001-2005)
- Interests
Scuba diving, reading, landscape painting
- References
Available on request

Exercises
1. Match the following English words and phrases with their Russian
equivalents.
1) to apply for a) личные данные
2) suitability b) биографические данные
3) employment с) подавать заявление
4) personal data d) семейное положение
5) merital status e) пригодность
6) career objective f) рекомендация, поручитель
7) cover letter g) принятие на работу
8) background h) обратный порядок
9) job opening i) продвижение
10) advancement j) работодатель
11) reverse order k) желаемая должность
12) reference l) сопроводительное письмо

2. Answer the questions.


1. What is a Curriculum Vitae?
2. What is a standard practice to begin a Curriculum Vitae with?
3. What essentials and facts make up (составляют) your personal data?
4. What option may be included in your CV after your personal data?
5. What will be the next portion of your Curriculum Vitae if you are a
recentgraduate with limited business experience?
77
6. In what order should you give your list of positions if you posses a
strongbackground in the work?
7. What should be the final point (пункт) of your Curriculum Vitae?

3. Underline the most suitable words to complete the sentences.


Example: We are looking for a well – travelled/innovative/fluent professional
with a good knowledge of the languages and customs of the Far Еast.

1. In order to ensure improved customer relations, the successful applicant


should demonstrate excellent managerial/organizational/communication
skills.
2. Having worked for a variety of companies, he is now a highly
dynamic/attentive/experienced engineer.
3. A good manager is able to motivate/run/research team members by
providing clear goals and achievable objectives.
4. The job involves managing several projects simultaneously, so good
leadership/IT/organizational skills are an advantage.
5. My job involves developing/researching/co – ordinating international
meetings and conferences, so I am in contact with people from all over the
world.
6. His lack of clear managerial/organizational/communication skills meant
that the workers below him decided on their own directions and priorities.
7. A group of volunteers in Dakar ran/researched/motivated a project to
research/manage/develop the causes of poverty in Senegal.
8. She notices even the smallest mistakes because she has good
organizational skills/ a good eye for detail/proven managerial skills.

4. Paul is talking about his CV. Fill in the gaps.

leave become study


start work receive

From 2003 until 2005, I _______________ at Comet Electronics as a


technician. I __________ Comet in 2005 and __________ a full-time student at
Thames Valley University in September 2005. From 2005 to 2006, I
__________ audio electronics at Thames Valley. In 2006, I __________ my
Diploma in Audio Technology. Then in September 2006, I __________work as
an audio maintenance technician at Omega Studios.

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CV EXAMPLE 1
Ron Dudum
44 Morningside Road
Edinburgh, Scotland EH10 4BF
Cell: 07956 654 32
E-Mail: example-email@example.com
Summary
New graduate in Engineering Technology with a thorough understanding of
practical engineering concepts. Impressive blend of technical expertise and
people skills. Committed to providing quality and consistent technical
support. Team-orientated and self-directed professional with personal
integrity and exceptional ethics. Seeking entry-level Engineering Technician
position.

Skills and Abilities


Excellent critical thinking, interpersonal skills, and technical acumen.
Test devices to ensure compliance with specifications.
Work with multidisciplinary team to achieve results.
Optimise equipment, components, and devices.
Design and build devices and components.
Technical Skills
AutoCAD, SharePoint, Microsoft Excel, Project and Visio
Pro/E Wildfire, Adobe Illustrator
MySQL proficiency
UNIX and Linux-based tools

Experience
February 2011 to Current
TenDo Manufacturing Edinburgh, Scotland
Assembler
April 2008 to January 2011
Jackson’s Garage Edinburgh, Scotland
Mechanic
September 2005 to March 2008
Executive Fitness London, England
Personal Trainer

Education
2008-2011 University of Edinburgh, Scotland. – BSc Mechanical Engineering

79
CV EXAMPLE 2
Harry Smith
Address line 1
Address line 2
T: 0121 638 0026
E: info@dayjob.com
PERSONAL SUMMARY
A very experienced Mechanical Engineer with over 7 years invaluable
experience of successfully overseeing and completing projects from
conception to completion. Having a proven ability to improve efficiency by
finding solutions to complex customer problems all to tight work schedules.
Currently looking for a suitable mechanical engineering position with a
progressive manufacturing company, willing to relocate if necessary.

KEY COMPETENCIES AND SKILLS


Quality assurance Testing Staff training
Project management Strategic planning
AutoCad Process validation

CAREER HISTORY
MECHANICAL ENGINEER – Techtools inc.
February 2008 - present
MAINTENANCE ENGINEER – Megatech ltd.
March 2005 – February 2008
Engineer - Blakemore 2004 - 2005
Trainee - Howards worksshop 2003 – 2004
ACADEMIC QUALIFICATIONS
Exeter University Engineering Degree2000 - 2003
Southampton College A levels1999-2000

REFERENCES
Available on request.
Driving license: yes
DOB: 1982
Languages: English, French

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CV EXAMPLE 3
Carl C. Munoz
4187 Stoney Lonesome Road
Bloomsburg, PA 17815
Phone: 570-416-5584
Email: ccmunoz@freemail.com
Career Objective:
To gain an electronics engineering position with a manufacturing company
where my engineering and computer skills can be utilized in creating
schematics for both new and existing electronic products.

Summary of Skills:

 Skilled in testing and modifying electronic equipment


 Extensive experience in researching and designing electronic products
 Strong ability to identify and solve complex issues
 Knowledge of electrical safety standards
 Familiar with the IPC criteria and standards
 Expert in testing and installing equipment
 Remarkable communication, interpersonal and organizational skills

Work Experience:
Electronics Engineer
Diamond Electronics Ltd., Bloomsburg, PA
October 2014 - Present
Electronic Engineer
Lehman Hardware, Bloomsburg, PA
February 2013 - September 2014

Education:

 Bachelor's Degree in Electrical Engineering


ABC University, Bloomsburg, PA 2012

Reference:
On request.

81
CV EXAMPLE 4
Eric M. Radke
5016 W. Washington Blvd.,
Apt. 106 ,
Los Angeles, CA 90016
radke@math.ucla.edu
(330) 212-8295
Research Interests
My research area is applied mathematics and the study of partial differential
equations, my particular interest concerns the analysis of problems motivated
by applications in Physics and Biology. In particular, I am interested in the
study of models of cellular aggregation induced by chemotaxis. In recent times
I became interested in the study of aggregation of biological organisms
induced by nondiffusive cell to cell interactions.
I am also interested in the study of kinetic equations with particle fluxes
between the different regions of the phase space characterizing the system.
Academic Career and Awards
1990 PhD in Mathematics, Universidad Complutense, Madrid

1991–1992 Postdoctoral stay, IMA, University of Minnesota

Associate Professor at the Applied Mathematics Department,


1992–1997
Universidad Complutense, Madrid

Full Professor at the Applied Mathematics Department,


1997–2008
Universidad Complutense, Madrid

Research Professor at Instituto de Ciencias Matematicas,


2008–2011
CSIC, Madrid

2011– Full Professor (W3), Bonn


Special Award
2005 A. v. Humboldt-J. C. Mutis Research Award (Alexander von Humbouldt
Foundation)
Selected invited Lectures
1999 Keynote speaker in the Equadiff Congress, Berlin
2006 PDE session of the International Congress of Mathematicians (Madrid)
82
LETTER OF APPLICATION /COVER LETTER

Many companies use a standard


application form for their employees’ personal
information. Unfortunately, no two application
forms are alike, and an applicant may find
unexpected difficulties while he/she is filling
these forms in. Most personnel departments
believe that a letter of application and the CV
which usually accompanies this letter give a
better impression of a candidate than a form.
The cover letter (also called the letter of application) is as important as
your Curriculum Vitae. Experts say that «a Curriculum Vitae without a cover
letter is like an unannounced salesperson showing up at your door».
The cover letter often provides the first direct contact between a candidate
and an employer. Your primary objective is to convince the employer that your
skills are valuable to the company. If this letter is not well written and presented,
it makes a poor impression.
There is no official format, but most letters of application are normally
brief (1 page long) and contain 3 paragraphs.
Use the first paragraph to confirm your wish to apply. Say where you
learned about the job and why you are interested in the position.
In the second paragraph show what you can contribute to the job. Highlight
your most relevant experience, qualification, skills, and personal qualities.
In the paragraph 3 indicate your willingness to attend an interview. Give
your contact address and numbers.
Remember: your cover letter serves a separate function from CV or
resume. There is no need to repeat the details of your CV. The CV is about you,
your experience and your skills. The cover letter is about what you can do for the
employer.
Here is an example of a cover letter

83
1090 Madison Avenue
Sheboygan
WI 53081
Charles Fox
European Sales Office
ACME Atlantic Ltd.
45 Pentonsville Road
London EC2 4AC

Dear Mr. Fox,


Work in Bermuda

I noted with interest your advertisement in today’s Daily


Planet.
You will see from the enclosed CV that I have three years
experience in engineering. I am working as an engineer for the
customer technical support group (Fuels) of Stillmeyer Chemical
Corporation in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Stillmeyer is a major marketer of
industrial chemicals, polymer additives, pharmaceutical
components, and fuel and lubricant additives. These products are
sold in North America and the Asia-Pacific region. I specialize in
fuels and demonstrate the suitability of the company's products to
customers, by providing technical data and supporting the national
and international sales function.
Although I have an excellent relationship with my present
employers, I feel that my prospects with them are limited and that
there could be more score for my talents with a larger, more
dynamic company.
If you consider that my qualifications and experience are
suitable, I should be available for interview at any time,

Yours sincerely,

Arthur Dent

84
Exercises

1. Match the following English words and phrases with their Russian
equivalents:
1) employee a) подтверждать
2) to fill in b) обеспечивать
3) to provide с) впечатление
4) primary objective d) готовность
5) brief e) предполагать
6) to confirm f) подходящий, относящийся к делу
7) relevant g) заполнять
8) willingness h) служащий
9) to present i) основная цель
10) impression j) краткий

HOW TO APPLY FOR A JOB

The first step towards nabbing the job you want is knowing how to navigate the
application process. With a little research, some finely tuned writing, and proactive
communication, you can be well on your way to getting that call for an interview.

85
Useful Phrases and Expressions

- I recently heard from…that there is vacancy…


Я недавно услышал от…о вакансии.
- I am used to working on my own.
Я привык работать самостоятельно.
- I appreciate the opportunity to work on my own initiative and to take on a
certain amount of responsibility.
Я высоко ценю возможность работать с должной мерой
ответственности, проявляя собственную инициативу.
- I have always been interested in working with …this is one of the main
reasons why I am applying for this job.
Меня всегда интересовала работа с…, и эта одна из главных причин
того, почему я хочу устроиться на эту работу.
- I have a lot of experience of selling, particularly in field of computers.
У меня большой опыт в…
- During training for my present job I took courses in marketing.
Во время обучения для получения должности, которую я занимаю в
настоящий момент, я закончил курсы маркетинга.
- Since my present position offers little prospect for advancement, I would
prefer to be employed in an expanding organization such as yours.
Так как моя настоящая должность не дает мне больших возможностей
для продвижения, я хотел бы работать в такой перспективной
организации, как ваша.
- I am at present earning… per month.
В настоящее время я получаю…в месяц.
- Thank you for offering me the post/position of…
Благодарю вас за то, что вы предложили мне должность…
- I have pleasure in accepting this position.
С удовольствием принимаю эту должность.
- I am available to start from...
Я могу начать работу с…
- I would be very grateful if you would consider my application.
Буду очень признателен, если вы рассмотрите мое заявление.
- Please don’t hesitate to contact me at the above address if you need any
further information.
Пожалуйста, обязательно свяжитесь со мной по указанному адресу,
если будет необходима дальнейшая информация.
- I am looking forward to commencing work on September 1.
С нетерпением жду начала работы 1 сентября.
86
What to include in a job application form:
The form should give the employer an insight into you as a person and
encourage them to want to meet you to find out more.

All applicants will be asked to fill out the same form, so use the following typical
sections to present evidence of how you've developed relevant skills and gained
valuable experience through your academic, work and personal life:

 Educational background - you'll usually be expected to provide information on


institutions attended, courses taken and qualifications gained.
 Work experience - you may be asked to describe or list the main duties of your
current job, or any positions that you've held in the past.
 Competency-based questions - this is where you get to show how you meet the
person specification for the role, by promoting yourself as the best candidate for
the job.
 Personal statement - if a supporting statement is required, this should be well-
structured - possibly using headings to set out how you meet the job criteria.
Most applications require a minimum of two referees; usually an employer and an
academic tutor.

Never lie on your CV or job application. Not only will you demonstrate your
dishonesty to a potential employer, but there can be serious consequences too. For
example, altering your degree grade from a 2:2 to a 2:1 is classed as degree fraud and
can result in a prison sentence.

Style tips
Your application can make a strong impression if you:

 use power verbs, such as 'transformed', 'delivered', 'achieved' and 'inspired';


 choose descriptive words like 'effective', 'consistent', 'determined' and
'adaptable';
 focus on the questions asked rather than waffling or being too vague;
 select appropriate examples of your achievements from past experience;
 demonstrate genuine enthusiasm for the role.
Once you've completed the form, check through the final version to ensure that there
are no spelling or grammar errors. You may want to ask someone else, such as a
university careers adviser, to read it too.

The key to a successful job application is to be succinct, positive and clear, while
satisfying each of the points listed in the person specification. To find out how to
achieve this, see what skills do employers want?

87
Disclosing personal information
You're not obliged to divulge personal details regarding your age, ethnicity,
gender, religion or sexual orientation, and so shouldn't be asked to do so here. Only
include information that you feel would help with your application and support your
suitability for the role.

You may be asked to complete an equal opportunities form. This information is


treated confidentially and will not be used as part of the selection process. The form is
normally separate from the application, and used solely for monitoring the employer's
commitment to equality and diversity.

Online job applications


While some electronic application forms have to be completed in one sitting,
many systems now allow you to register your details and save your progress as you go
along. However, be aware that employers may be able to view partially completed
forms.

Here are a few useful tips for completing online job applications:
 If you decide to cut and paste your answers, be careful not to include names of
other organisations that you've applied to previously, as this will result in instant
rejection.
 You should always read the supporting documentation very carefully, answering
all questions (including sub-questions, if there are any) and sticking to the word
count.
 Print off a draft copy of your application form before submitting it, as this gives
you the opportunity to proofread it for mistakes while ensuring that every section
has been filled in correctly. You may also want to keep a copy for your own
records.
 Allow plenty of time to complete it, remembering to submit the form and all
supporting documents (including references) by the deadline.

Job application forms


A job application form is your chance to show employers that you're perfectly
suited to the role and deserve to be shortlisted for an interview

What to include in a job application form


The form should give the employer an insight into you as a person and
encourage them to want to meet you to find out more.

All applicants will be asked to fill out the same form, so use the following
typical sections to present evidence of how you've developed relevant skills and gained
valuable experience through your academic, work and personal life:
88
 Educational background - you'll usually be expected to provide information on
institutions attended, courses taken and qualifications gained.
 Work experience - you may be asked to describe or list the main duties of your
current job, or any positions that you've held in the past.
 Competency-based questions - this is where you get to show how you meet the
person specification for the role, by promoting yourself as the best candidate for
the job.
 Personal statement - if a supporting statement is required, this should be well-
structured - possibly using headings to set out how you meet the job criteria.

Most applications require a minimum of two referees; usually an employer and an


academic tutor.

Never lie on your CV or job application. Not only will you demonstrate your
dishonesty to a potential employer, but there can be serious consequences too. For
example, altering your degree grade from a 2:2 to a 2:1 is classed as degree fraud and
can result in a prison sentence.

Style tips
Your application can make a strong impression if you:

 use power verbs, such as 'transformed', 'delivered', 'achieved' and 'inspired';


 choose descriptive words like 'effective', 'consistent', 'determined' and
'adaptable';
 focus on the questions asked rather than waffling or being too vague;
 select appropriate examples of your achievements from past experience;
 demonstrate genuine enthusiasm for the role.

Once you've completed the form, check through the final version to ensure that
there are no spelling or grammar errors. You may want to ask someone else, such as a
university careers adviser, to read it too.
The key to a successful job application is to be succinct, positive and clear,
while satisfying each of the points listed in the person specification. To find out how to
achieve this, see what skills do employers want?

Disclosing personal information


You're not obliged to divulge personal details regarding your age, ethnicity,
gender, religion or sexual orientation, and so shouldn't be asked to do so here. Only
include information that you feel would help with your application and support your
suitability for the role.
You may be asked to complete an equal opportunities form. This information is
treated confidentially and will not be used as part of the selection process. The form is
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normally separate from the application, and used solely for monitoring the employer's
commitment to equality and diversity.

Example questions and answers


The trickier application questions are not as daunting when you know how to
answer them. Take a look at our examples and give yourself a great chance of getting
an interview

Some sections of an application form contain questions that require


straightforward, factual answers. These include those that enquire about your personal
details, interests and work experience.
However, you'll find that there are also competency-based questions; these
require you to provide examples of situations where you made certain decisions.

Employers will be looking at how you explain the reasoning behind them, as this
brings your key skills and personality traits to the fore.

Here are ten job questions that you're likely to face, along with typical
responses.
Question 1: Why do you want to work here?
How to answer: The employer is trying to figure out your motivations and
whether you've given serious consideration to your application. You need to show that
you've done your research and understand exactly what the job entails. Explain how it
fits your long-term career plans.

For example:
Your company clearly stood out when I was researching the leading electronics
companies in the country. I am aware of your dedication to the development of
innovative consumer products and I believe that this role would be the perfect fit
considering my strong design background.
Question 2: Why do you think you are suitable for this role?

How to answer: You need to describe how your skills, knowledge and
experience match the job outline, while also explaining your motivation and goals.

For example:
I have always wanted to work as an exhibition designer for a museum that
embraces cultural changes and provides a sensory experience for its visitors. My
degree helped to develop key artistic and organisational skills, while the experience
that I gained from working at my local museum has been the ideal preparation for a
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career in this field. I would relish the opportunity to be part of the team that works on
the concepts for your upcoming exhibits and collections.
Question 3: Briefly outline your relevant skills and experience
How to answer: Even if you haven't had any direct experience, you can still
highlight any transferable skills that relate to the role. Turn your answer into a positive
by making it clear that you want the job in order to gain experience in the area.

For example:
Although I haven't had the chance to gain work experience at an advertising
agency yet, I have already created high level concepts that have been used by leading
brands such as Marks & Spencer. At university, I was the copywriter for a number of
students' union marketing campaigns and have generated interest in my work through
my website, which I designed myself.
Question 4: Give an example of when you have worked under pressure

How to answer: You need to prove that you've handled deadlines successfully in
the past. Describe how you overcame obstacles that you had no control over.

For example:

During my work placement last year I faced various conflicting demands on my


time due to the fact that my role was inter-departmental. One particular week, the
pressures did threaten to get overwhelming as a number of key staff members were off
sick. However, this allowed me to show that I could rise to the challenge. I left the
company with praise from my peers as I always gave my best no matter what.
Question 5: What is your greatest achievement?
How to answer: Choose something outside of your academic life that's uniquely
significant to you. This is an assessment of your attitude and motivations, to find out if
your values are compatible with those of the organisation.

For example:

When my mother was diagnosed with a serious illness last year, it was obviously
a traumatic and stressful time for the whole family. Even though I hadn't done any
sport since school, I decided to sign up for a run and raise money to increase
awareness of the disease. I trained hard for a number of months and kept to a strict
eating regime. I managed to raise nearly £3,000 for the charity and finished the race in
a time I could never have dreamed was possible.
Question 6: Give an example of how you made a positive contribution to a team and
what the outcome was
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How to answer: The employer is checking that you've experience of working in
a cohesive team environment. Describe a scenario where you had to draw on strengths
and qualities in order to accomplish a group task. Explain your particular role, how
weaknesses were overcome and what you learned.

For example:

During my time in the university film society, we decided to run a series of


workshops for the local community. My role involved planning the daily activities,
ensuring that the intensive course covered everything we wanted to include. While
some tasks did overrun, the event was a resounding success with attendees remarking
on how well it had been organised.
Question 7: Describe an occasion when you've had to communicate complex
information
How to answer: This is a test of your ability to analyse complicated information
effectively, and communicate it in a way that the audience can understand. Set the
scene and describe your thinking process in a step-by-step way.

For example:
For my scientific research project, I had to present the ideas behind my thinking
to the rest of the class. While presentations were common at university, this was a
particularly complex proposal. I had to filter the relevant information and summarise
my work, delivering this at a level the other students could appreciate and understand.
Question 8: Tell us about the biggest change that you've faced and explain how you
handled it

How to answer: The employer will be looking to find out about your attitude to
change, as well as your ability to problem-solve and overcome obstacles, so you need
to provide a significant example that demonstrates your adaptability in this area.

For example:
In my summer job working in a busy aftersales department I inevitably had to
deal with some tough customers. This was my first real job, and I had to learn to
successfully negotiate and interact with many people throughout the working day. On
many occasions, I was the only staff member manning the desk so I had to cope with
the pressure that this role demanded. I now feel that I am better equipped to handle
whatever challenges come my way.
Question 9: What are your greatest strengths and weaknesses?

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How to answer: Describing your strengths may come more naturally, but when
it comes to your weaknesses, it is important to be honest and reveal things you are
genuinely looking to improve on. Your answers need to be well-considered and
tailored towards the role you are applying for. Show them that you are actively looking
to learn and grow.

For example:

I'm a driven person who works hard to attain my goals. The ability to overcome
obstacles and follow things through to completion has always been a strong point of
mine, which is why I've managed to thrive in such a competitive degree subject.
However, I am aware that as a perfectionist my delegation skills could be improved. I
would welcome training in conflict management as well as any other opportunities to
develop in this area.
Question 10: Tell me about a time when you failed to complete a project on time

How to answer: Your response should adequately justify the reasons for missing
the deadline. While there are various ways to approach this, you'll need to give a good
explanation and demonstrate that you've learned from this setback. The employer is
looking to determine whether you'll manage your time effectively in the future.
For example:

In my first year, I failed to hand a history assignment in on time as I had


underestimated how long it would take to complete the project. I got carried away with
the gathering of information and left the write-up to the last minute. I lost marks on my
final grade, but fortunately still managed to pass the year. This has never happened
since, as I've made a point of allocating sufficient time to each task. I certainly learned
a valuable lesson from the experience.
Please provide further information in support of your application

Placed at the end - if there isn't a personal statement - this is one of the most
important sections of the application form, as it gives you the chance to show the
employer why you are the best candidate for the job. You'll need to relate your skills
directly to the role that you're applying for.

What skills do employers want?


With so many graduates applying for each role, you must demonstrate that
you've developed the key skills that employers are looking for

While the knowledge and skills required will vary according to the job, it's
imperative to convey how you've already gained the core attributes that would make
you a worthwhile addition to an organisation.
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Good communication
How clearly you convey your ideas, plus your ability to listen to others, are of
keen interest to employers. As well as building rapport, they'll also be looking at how
well you persuade and negotiate with people too.

Use your CV to outline specific written and verbal examples of when you've put
these skills into practice. Show how you tailored your message to the target audience.

Effective leadership and management


Even if you're not intending to work in a management position, you'll still need
to demonstrate to employers that you've the potential to motivate and direct others in
order to achieve common objectives.

For your CV, detail situations where you've had the opportunity to plan and
coordinate tasks. The ability to solve problems and conflicts is always highly valued
by recruiters.

Planning and research skills


To accomplish certain work tasks, you may need to come up with a suitable
strategy and plan of action. This could involve seeking out relevant information from
various sources. How you analyse, interpret and report these findings is what's
important here.
Highlight the relevant skills that you've developed through your degree course.

Teamwork and interpersonal skills


Most graduates will have had the chance to work in teams during their time at
university. Employers will be looking at your individual contribution towards
achieving common goals.

Self-management
The specific activities of your job will always be viewed in the context of the
business's goals and what it is trying to achieve. By successfully directing your work
towards these objectives - prioritising your duties, working well under pressure and
managing your time effectively - you can demonstrate that you're flexible, resilient and
can be trusted.

Give examples of times when you've had to balance your university work in
order to meet multiple deadlines.

Relevant work experience


This is becoming increasingly important in today's competitive work
environment. However, students are having to be incredibly resourceful in gaining the
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type of experience that employers are after. In some sectors, such as media and the
arts, it's necessary to network and make speculative job applications. Paid work is
often restricted to large organisations.
For advice on how to make the most of the opportunities available to students
and graduates see work experience and internships.

If you've limited or no relevant experience in the field that you're looking to


work in, you might want to consider a CV that allows you to concentrate on the skills
that you've acquired.

To find out how to write a skills-based CV take a look at our example CVs.

How to write a successful job application

Job applications forms, whether online or on paper, are the first vital step to
getting a job interview. This step-by-step guide explains how to give employers the
information they need to put you on the shortlist.

Although some graduate recruiters prefer CVs, the majority ask applicants to
complete a job application form, either online or on paper. These forms generally
include standard biographical information (eg about your education and experience),
along with some open-ended questions that give you the chance to highlight your
suitability for the job.

How employers use job application forms


Many recruiters prefer application forms to CVs because they help to
standardise applications. This can be seen as fairer because recruiters can compare
candidates easily. The downside is that this standardised approach also allows
recruiters to filter out unsuitable candidates quickly (sometimes this is even done by
computer), so it's important to include all the information necessary to make your case.
Employers use written applications to select candidates for interview, and may
also refer to information on the form during the interview. It's a good idea to keep a
copy so you can remember what you wrote.

What employers are looking for in application forms


When assessing an application for a job, recruiters want to know two things:
1. Do you meet their criteria? This information lets them filter candidates into a 'long
list'. Make sure you check the job description and prove that you match the
requirements.

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2. Do you stand out among the other applicants? This is what helps recruiters make
their shortlist for interview. If other candidates have similar qualifications it may be
your work experience or extra-curricular activities that reveal your employment
potential.

How to complete a job application form


Step 1. Prepare yourself
Get all your basic information together: personal details, education etc.
Contact the people you want to use as referees, to get their permission and to
confirm their contact details.
Think about why you want the job.
Think about what you have to offer and what makes you stand out.

Step 2. Find out what the employer wants


Check closing dates; if possible, apply before the deadline. Some employers
start processing applications before the closing date – and they are usually deluged by
last-minute applications – so if you submit yours early you may get more attention.
Read the job description and personal specification to find out what skills and
experience they are looking for.
Research the organisation for more clues about the kind of applicant who would
be successful.

Step 3. Write your application


Give yourself enough time: writing a good job application is likely to take
longer than you expect.
Draft your answers first, before you start filling in the form.
Read the application form right through before you write anything. Follow all
instructions and answer the questions asked (yes, it is a bit like an exam!).
If there is a question that does not apply to you, write ‘not applicable’ or ‘N/A’
in the appropriate box. This shows that you have considered the question and is better
than leaving blanks.
Make your answers relevant, interesting and personal. Your aim is to write your
own interview invitation, so you want to stand out.

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Step 4. Final checks
Spell check and proof read your application. If possible, ask a friend or careers
adviser to check it too.
Check that you have included everything you’ve been asked for.
Keep a copy of your application, so you can go over it before the interview.
Sign and send!

Online application forms


Applying for a job online is similar to filling in a paper application form. The
questions will be the same; only the format is different.
Allow plenty of time and make sure you won’t be disturbed. Some online forms allow
you to ‘save and return’ but some have to be completed in one sitting.
If possible, print off the form so you can prepare your answers offline. This
gives you thinking time and lets you check your answers before pasting the text into
the form. Use a word-processed document to write longer answers so you can edit and
spell check them first.
Write for online applications in the same way as you would for a paper form:
beware of lapsing into the informal style you might use when sending emails to
friends.
If you are asked to email your CV, it is likely to be electronically scanned. You
may have to use standard typefaces etc so follow any instructions you are given. If a
recruiter is using scanning software, you'll also need to ensure you include keywords
for the specific skills and qualifications that they have asked for.
Some online application forms include built-in psychometric tests, so it’s useful
to get some practice in first.
Keep a copy for reference: print out the form before you hit ‘send’.

The 'further information' section in job applications


Most application forms will include questions such as ‘Why are you suitable for
the job?’, ‘What is your greatest achievement?’ and ‘What are your interests and
hobbies?’ Don't ignore it: this is your chance to make an impact.
This gives you a chance to reveal something of your personality: aim to show
that you’re more interesting than other candidates with similar work experience and
grades. Use a range of examples from all areas of your life – college, work and other
interests/activities.

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Sometimes an application form will just have the heading ‘additional
information': this is an open invitation to tell them what you want them to know.
However the question is worded, your answers should demonstrate that you are
a well-rounded individual with the skills, aptitude and personality to do the job and to
fit into the organisation. That's exactly what a recruiter wants to hear.

Job application checklist


Here are some final checks before you send off your application form:
 Are your personal details accurate?
 Have you spelt the employer's name correctly?
 Have you filled in all the fields?
 Have you signed the form and cover letter?
 Have you kept a copy?

Job application tips


 Take your time: it could take several hours and a lot of concentration to
complete an application form.
 Think about what's behind each question: what are recruiters looking for?
 Keep a copy for reference: if it’s a paper form, photocopy it; if it’s online, print
it out before you hit ‘send’.
 Make sure you meet all the employer’s criteria, and make it easy for them to see
this.
10 steps to a successful CV

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Writing a good CV can be one of the toughest challenges of job hunting. Most
employers spend just a few seconds scanning each CV before sticking it in the 'Yes' or
'No' . But never fear! We've compiled our Top 10 hints on how to show the world 'this
is me!' and get that all-important interview.

1. Keep it real!
Usually a CV should be no more than two pages – and that's two pages of A4
paper! Employers spend, an average, just 8 seconds looking at any one CV, and a
surefire way of landing yourself on the no pile is to send them your entire life story.
Keep it punchy, to the point, and save those niggly little details for the interview.
2. Tailor it
We've all done it. Whizzed the same CV out to lots of employers to save time...
Stop! Take the time to change your CV for each role that you apply for. Research the
company and use the job advert to work out EXACTLY what skills you should point
out to them. They will appreciate the obvious effort.
3. Include a personal statement
Don’t just assume an employer will see how your experience relates to their job.
Instead, use a short personal statement to explain why you are the best person for the
job.
4. Don't leave gaps
We are a cynical bunch and leaving obvious gaps on your CV immediately
makes employers suspicious – and they won't give you the benefit of the doubt. If
you’ve been out of work it can be a worry but just put a positive spin on it. Did you do
a course, volunteer work or develop soft skills such as communication, teamwork or
project management? If so, shout about it!

5. Keep it current
You should keep your CV up-to-date whether you’re looking for a job or not.
Every time something significant occurs in your career, record it so you don't later
forget something that could be important.
6. The error of your ways
Employers DO look for mistakes on CVs and if they find them, it makes you
look really bad. David Hipkin, head of recruitment and resourcing at Reed Business
Information, warns, 'With most employers experiencing massive volumes of applicants
right now, giving them the excuse to dismiss your application because of avoidable
99
errors is not going to help you secure an interview.' If you're unsure then use a
spellchecker and ask someone else to double-check what you've written.
7. Tell the truth
Everyone lies on their CV, right? NO! Stop! Blatant lies on your CV can land
you in a whole heap of trouble when it comes to employers checking your background
and references. The last thing you want is to start work and then lose your new job for
lying. You also may get caught out at the interview stage when you suddenly can't
answer questions on what you claim to know. And that can be VERY awkward!
8. The maths
This may sound dull but by backing up your achievements with numbers it
makes selling yourself much easier. When writing your work history, don’t just say
that you increased sales; tell them you increased sales by 70% over a six month period.
Get it? Big numbers are especially good (although don't forget point 7 of our list!).
9. Make it look good
We live in a world where image is everything, and that also goes for your CV.
Take some time to pretty it up... Use bullet points and keep sentences short. Use the
graphic design trick of leaving plenty of white space around text and between
categories to make the layout easy on the eye.
10. Make it keyword friendly
If you’ve uploaded your CV to a job site so recruiters can find you, keywords
are very important. Job titles and job buzzwords will help a search engine pick out
your CV from the pile. Confused? Don't be. A marketing candidate might mention
SEO (Search Engine Optimization), direct marketing and digital marketing among
their experience and skills, for example.

Part YI
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES
УЧАСТИЕ В МЕЖДУНАРОДНОЙ КОНФЕРЕНЦИИ

100
1. Answer the questions:
1. How can you define the word «conference»?
2. Have you ever participated in а conference/international соnference?
3. What ргоblеms it devoted to?
4. Dо уоu have аnу ехрerienсе in organising conferences?

2. Read the text and formulate the steps you need to follow to organise а
successful conference.

An International Academic Conference


An international academic
conference is а conference for researchers
(not always academics) to present and
discuss their work. Together with
academic or scientific journals,
conferences provide an important
international channel for exchange of
information between researchers.
Academic conferences fall into three
categories: а themed conference, а general
conference, and а professional conference. International conferences are usually
organised either by а scientific society or by а group of researchers with а
common interest. Large meetings may be handled on behalf of the scientific
society by а Professional Conference Organiser (PCO). А PCO will assist with
finding the right venue, dealing with accommodation and appointing other
companies if necessary (audio-visual, registration services etc). Site selection is
important for the success of the event. It should include considerations for a
hotel room rate, conference rooms and facility usage, and easy access from major
international airports. Time selection is also important tо succeed. It is necessary
to avoid а time conflict with existing conferences.
As soon as the dates and venue have been decided, the next step is to
advise everyone involved and to issue а directive for attendance. The conference
is announced by а Call for Papers (CFP). А CFP is sent to interested parties,
describing the title and subject matter to be covered, the way of registration, the
deadline for registration, the language of the conference, any costs involved and
payment policy, and organising team contact details. Online registration service
allows delegates to register easily and 24 hours а day.
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Prospective presenters are usually asked to submit а short abstract of their
presentation, which is peer reviewed by members of the programme соmmittee
or referees chosen by them.
At the start of the conference it is а good idea to have an opening session
where the chairperson can welcome everyone and follow this with а keynote
speaker to set the theme for the meeting. The chairperson plays an important
role. Не needs to ensure the event flows smoothly, to introduce speakers, to
manage questions from the floor, and keep an eye on the time. Accordingly the
chairperson should be а good speaker.
Often there are one or more keynote speakers (usually scholars of some
standing), presenting а lecture that lasts an hour or so, and which is likely to be
advertised before the conference. All speakers need to be good communicators
and their speeches must be relevant, up-to-date and of the correct length for the
time allocated. In some disciplines, such as English and other languages, it is
common for presenters to read from а prepared script. In other disciplines such
as sciences, presenters usually base their talk on а visual presentation that
displays key figures and research results.
Panel discussions, round-tables on various issues, and workshops are parts
of the conference. GeneralIy, the topic is presented in the form of а short,
concise speech lasting about 10 — 30 minutes, usually including discussion. It
can be presented in the form of academic papers and published as the conference
proceedings.
Conferences might be single track or multiple track, where the first one has
only one session at а time, while а multiple track meeting has several parallel
sessions at the same time with speakers in separate rooms.
Depending on the theme of the conference, social or entertainment
activities mау also be offered. Informal international networking and getting
people talking otitside the main conference sessions can be very productive and
social activities are ideal for this.
After the conference the organising committee should meet to evaluate and
possible report on the meeting. 1 delegate evaluation forms wеrе handed out, the
results on the returns should be analysis, considered and used for planning future
events.

GLOSSARY
themed conference - тематическая конференция
general conference - общая конференция
professional conference - профессиональная конференция
Professional Conference Organiser - компания, профессионально
занимающаяся организацией конференций, семинаров и др.
102
venue - место проведения (мероприятия, конференции)
facilities - оборудование, приспособления, аппаратура
advise - информировать, объявлять
Call for Papers - приглашение принять участие в конференции
subject matter - тема, предмет обсуждения
abstract - аннотация
be peer reviewed - пройти экспертную оценку (научной статьи, работы)
session - заседание
keynote speaker - пленарный докладчик на съезде, конференции
question from the floor - вопрос с места
panel discussion - экспертная дискуссия на общем заседании (на
конференциях)
round-table - круглый стол, встреча за круглым столом
workshop - практикум, семинар, секция конференции
academic paper - научная статья. научный доклад
conference proceedings - материалы (статьи или тезисы докладов)
конференции
networking - установление контактов, налаживание связей
returns - отзывы участников (обычно письменные) о конференции

Exercises

1. Match the sentences (1-7) with the corresponding conference


organisational аctivities (А- G).
А. Forming an organising team.
В. Choosing the time and the venue.
С. Announcing the conference by а Call for Papers.
D. Selecting the Chairperson and the speakers.
Е. Setting the programme.
F. Organising social activities.
G. Organising post conference evaluation.

1. It should describe the title and subject matter to be covered, the way of
registration, the deadline for registration, the language of the conference and
other important details.
2. International conferences are usually organised either by а scientific society or
а Professional Conference Organiser.
3. They all need to be good communicators and their presentations must be
relevant, up-to-date and of the correct length.
103
4. After the conference the results on the returns should be analysis, considered
and used for planning future events.
5. Panel discussions, round-tables on various issues, workshops should be parts
of the conference.
6. Informal international networking and getting people talking outside the main
conference sessions can be very productive.
7. Site selection includes а hotel room, conference rooms, facility usage, and
easy access from major international airports. Besides, it is necessary to avoid а
time conflict with existing conferences.

2. Fill in the gaps with the following words and word combinations.

а) panel discussion; е) academic papers;


b) keynote speakers; f) deadline;
с) abstracts; g) networking;
d) session; h) venue

1. The final list of accepted … will be enabled when available.


2. Most … should be written in academic voice.
3. There were а number of participants at the conference dinner, several of them
were ….
4. А number of social events will be organized to facilitate ….
5. А great interactive … — definitely an ice breaker.
6. The day will conclude with а … during which the debate will be thrown
open to the audience.
7. А cosy cocktail lounge is the perfect … for or а quiet drink.
8. Submission … for articles for the next issue is 10 December 2004.

3. Read the following Call for Papers. Fill in the missing words and word
combinations:

а) language; f) conference proceedings;


b) entertainment activities; g) deadline;
с) presentation; h) annual;
d) fee; i) topics;
е) program committee; j) abstracts.
You are invited to take part in the 17th London 1nternational Conference
on Web Engineering to be held on 29 — 31 Мау 2009. This _____ Conference
104
has become а traditional meeting place for the exchange of ideas between
scientists and engineers involved in web engineering all over the world.
Conference _____ :
 Web application development.
 Design models and methods.
 Rich Internet Applications.
The Conference _____ is English.
The _____ will be published and handed to the conferees at the registration.
Each full-length paper will be allowed 20 minutes for _____ and discussion.
_____ of 500 words in English should be sent by email to the conference _____
(please indicate your telephone and fax numbers, email and mailing addresses).
_____ for receipt of abstracts is 1 December 2008. The authors of the selected
papers will be notified by 15 February 2009.
The conference _____ — €350. It includes one copy of the conference
proceedings, lunch and coffee during three days, transportation and _____ (an
evening banquet and а tour of London).

4. Translate the following words and word combinations into English:


Вопрос с места; экспертная дискуссия на общем заседании (на
конференциях); выступающий с основным докладом; экспертная оценка
(научной статьи, работы); аннотация; избежать совпадения по времени;
тщательно подобранное оборудование; материалы конференции; проходить
гладко (без осложнений); конференция с несколькими одновременными
заседаниями; информационное письмо (о конференции); вечернее
заседание (секции); председательствовать (на заседании).

5. Describe the academic conference organised at your University. Was it а


success?
What are your goals if you participate in а conference without making а
presentation?
What are your goals if you make а presentation? What experience have you
gained participating in conferences?

105
LIST OF LITERATURE

1. Top Tips for Effective Presentations | Skills You Need [Electronic media] /
Com.freely downloadable and copiable from https://www.skillsyouneed.com/present/
presentation-tips.html
2. [Электронный ресурс]: Единое окно для доступа к информационным
ресурсам: window.edu.ru/resource/357/19357. Дата доступа: 25.09.2016.
3. Крупаткин, Я. Б. Читайте английские научные тексты: курс для
начинающих: учебное пособие для студентов высших учебных заведений / Я. Б.
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Учебное пособие по английскому языку


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