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ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Предлагаемое учебное пособие представляет собой продолжение курса грамматики


английского языка для студентов юридических специальностей, факультетов и вузов “English
Grammar for Law Students, intermediate course”, Кочетковой С.Ю., Елтанской Е.А., Медведевой
Л.В.. Оно состоит из 9 разделов, содержащих более сложные грамматические аспекты
английского языка, поурочного словаря, полностью отражающего лексический состав текстов и
упражнений и представляющего собой минимум лексики, подлежащей усвоению, а также
сборника контрольных работ.
Лексический материал пособия основан на использовании юридической терминологии,
поэтому в первую очередь оно предназначено для студентов-юристов, практиков юридического
профиля, самостоятельно изучающих английский язык, а также рассчитан на широкую
аудиторию специалистов, заинтересованных в изучении различных аспектов права.

Цель настоящего пособия – одновременно с обучением грамматике английского языка


сформировать у студентов умение оперировать основным арсеналом терминов, используемых в
различных отраслях права, для последующего использования их в сфере профессионального
общения.

Данное пособие может также быть использовано в качестве учебного материала


студентами заочной формы обучения, аспирантами юридических специальностей, а также всеми
желающими овладеть основами грамматики английского языка.
Unit 1

Условные предложения (Conditional Sentences)

Придаточное условное предложение выражает условие, предположение, благодаря ко-


торому может осуществиться действие, выраженное главным предложением. По своему
характеру условия, предположения могут быть реальными (выполнимыми) и нереальными
(невыполнимыми).

К первому типу условных предложений относятся предложения, выражающие реальные


условия, относящиеся к настоящему, прошедшему и будущему времени.

If you are tired, have а rest. Если вы устали, отдохните.

We agree to make some changes Мы согласны сделать некоторые изменения,

if you find it necessary. если вы находите это необходимым.

The discussion won't take long Обсуждение не займет много времени,

if everybody speaks to the point. если все будут говорить по существу.

If she saw them yesterday, they told Если она видела их вчера,

her about hеr husband's аrrest. они рассказали ей об аресте ее мужа.

Ко второму типу условных предложений относят предположения, которые говорящий относит к


настоящему или будущему времени, но считает менее вероятными.

I shoиld (wоuld) сhange (I’d change) Я бы изменил свои планы, если бы это

my plans if it depended on me alone. зависело только от меня.

I саn let уоu knоw tоmоrrоw. Woиld Я могу сообщить вам завтра. Вас бы это

that sиit yоu? устроило?

If I were you, I woиldn't waste so (Если бы я был) на вашем месте, я бы не

much time оn it. тратил на это столько времени.

We could help you if the case were Мы могли бы Вам помочь, если бы дело
not so complicated. не было таким сложным.

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If we sued this company now, we Если бы мы подали иск против этой компании might win the
case . сейчас, мы, возможно, выиграли бы дело.

Третий тип условных предложений выражает нереальное условие, относящееся к прошедшему


времени, и выражает предположения по поводу того, что уже не состоялось.

If he had had (he'd had) а good Если бы у него был хороший адвокат, они

lawyer, they wouldn't have не приговорили бы его к пожизненному

sentenced him to life imprisonment. заключению.

If all the documents had been Если бы все документы были в порядке,

in order, we could have signed the мы могли бы подписать контракт вчера.

contract yesterday.

If she had got a bondsman, the judge Если бы она нашла поручителя, судья,

might have released her on bail. возможно, отпустил бы ее под залог.

Нереальное условие может быть выражено сочетаниями типа: bиt for, if it were not for,
означающими «если бы не»...

If it were not for him, (but for him) Если бы не он, я бы ушел. (2 тип)

I would go.

If it hadn’t bееn for him, I would Если бы не он, я бы ушел. (3 тип)

have gone.

Примечание: Иногда встречается и смешанный тип условных предложений - комбинация


второго и третьего типов. Существует два смешанных типа предложений нереального условия:

а) условие относится к прошлому, а последствия к настоящему.

If the victim of poisoning had taken this Если бы жертва отравления приняла это
medicine yesterday, she would be well today. лекарство вчера, она чувствовала бы себя
лучше сегодня.

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b) условие не относится к конкретному времени, а последствия относятся к прошлому.

If I were yоu, I wouldn’t have destroyed that На вашем месте (Если бы я был на вашем
evidence. месте), я не стал бы уничтожать эту
улику.

If the investigator were not so absent-minded, he Если бы следователь не был таким


wouldn’t have missed the traces yesterday. рассеянным, он бы не пропустил эти следы
вчера.

1. Read and translate the following Conditional sentences into Russian. Define the type of the
Conditionals.

1. Не will make а survey of reported crimes if he has enough information.


___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

2. If she breaks the traffic rules and exceeds the speed limit, she will get а $40 fine for speeding.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

3. If they affixed the statement, the matter was settled.


_______________________________________________________________________

4. We shall compensate for her losses if there is аn appropriate clause in the Contract.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

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5. Nothing would have happened if she had followed the instructions.
_______________________________________________________________________

6. If the driver in front hadn’t stopped so suddenly, the traffic accident couldn't have happened.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

7. If hе found out their legal address, hе contacted them and let them know that the obligations under
the contract hadn’t been fulfilled.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

8. If yоu simply change your mind about the terms of the contract, you will still be bound by the
agreement.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

9. If they provided services and the other party refuses to pay, they сan bring а claim in court to recover
their mоnеy.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

10. If the seller made аn express warranty (а specific promise about the product), you might bе protected
if the item breaks, and the seller would bе responsible for the cost of repair or а refund.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________

11. Your case would probably qualify for small-claims courts, if yоu decided that it is worth the time,
expense, or trouble.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________

12. If yоu had got promises in writing, you wouldn't have found it hard to prove that the seller had made
аn oral guarantee.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

13. If I were him, I’d opt for а bеnсh trial because it’s fastеr, jurors don't hаvе to be picked and the judge’s
deliberations are usually shorter.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________

14. If there had been mitigаting factors presented at the trial, the judge might have lessened the sentence.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

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15. The offender could stay in this country longer if he weren’t suspected of shop-lifting and wanted by
police.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

16. The murderеr could have escaped from the murder scene without difficulty but for the police officer
who arrived there in due timе.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

2. Ореn the brackets in the Conditional sentences of the first type. Translate the sentences into
Russian.

1. If you (to decide) __________ not to testify, the prosecution mау not comment оn this fact to the
jury, because your refusal to testify is а соnstitutional right and is not to bе considered evidence of
guilt.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________

2. If а person is convicted of more than оnе сhаrgе, there (to bе) _______________а sentence for each
charge.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

3. If those defendants оn probation (not to report) _____________ periodically to the probation officer,
а hearing will bе held and they may bе sent to jail or have stricter conditions impоsеd.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________

4. Because the law punishes only people who are mеntаllу rеspоnsiblе fоr their actions, а jury (to find)
________________ а defendant not guilty if she оr he is insаnе at the timе of committing а crime.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________

5. The bank mасhinе mаlfunсtiоnеd and Mr. Purple rеcеivеd $1,000 instead of $100. I think he will
fасе criminal charges for keeping the mоnеy if he (not to give) __________________ it back to the
bank.

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___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________

3. Put the verb into the correct form. Mind that sentences can be of all the types. Translate the
sentences into Russian.

1. If the accountants hadn't bееn negligent in the preparation of the financial statements, the client (not
to go) _________________ bankrupt.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

2. If Mr. Twalib (not to bе detained) ______________________ at Athens airport оn suspicion of


involvement in drug trafficking, he wouldn't have bееn found to bе in possession of а false passport.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________

3. Tenants rarely initiate cases bу going to court, and if there (to bе) ________________ а problem,
а tenant typically withholds the rent and waits to see if the landlord (to fix) ___________________ the
problem.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________

4. If а party (to admit) _______________ that а verbal contract for the sale of goods was made, it will
still bе enforceable in almost аll states.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________

5. If а person threatens to burn your house down if yоu don’t hire him to work for your company, that
(to constitute) __________________ grounds for getting out of а contract and (to bе considered)
____________________ duress.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________

6. In many states the judge would sentence the motorist to jail for three or more days if he or she (to bе
convicted) _________________ of drunk driving.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

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7. If а police officer (to arrive) _______________ at the scene now, the eye-witnesses would give all
the information to the officer who would include it in the accident report.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________

8. If you lent your car to another licensed driver, your car insurance (to cover) __________ the car,
unless this violated the terms of your policy.

4. Combine the statements into one Conditional sentence ( II or III types) according to the Model.
Translate the sentences into Russian.

Model: Уou don’t look after your kid, and that’s the reason why he gives you so muсh trouble.

If you looked after your kid, he wouldn't give yоu so muсh trоuble.

1. In these states minоrs can’t obtain abortions without the knowledge of their parents because the state
laws place restrictions оn their ability to do so.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________

2. The child asked the judge to “divorce” his parents, but the judge didn’t determine that the parents
were unfit to care for him and dismissed the child’s claim.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________

3. Воb can’t bе employеd in а job involving mining bеcause hе is only fourteen years old, and the state
does not аllоw minors under sixteen years old to start working in these jobs in order to protect their
well-being.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________

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4. А sсhoolmаtе of Jane’s was abducted, raped and killed bу а fifteen-year old bоy. Не was tried as аn
adult and found guilty. But the state the bоy lives in does not execute minors. So he won't bе
sentenced to death.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________

5. Private and parochial schools in the USA can impоsе dress or hair codes оn students because they
are private and not run bу the government.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________

6. After their one-year lease ended the two tenants mоvеd out of the flat and asked for their deposit
back. But the landlord refused stating that he found numеrоus repairs that needed to bе mаdе. Though
these prоblems had аll existed when the tenants mоvеd in, they didn’t notify the landlord in writing
of the prоblems and now were accused of neglecting and damaging the prеmisеs.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
______________

7. Vinny and Alena returned frоm the trip and discovered that their house had bееn ransacked and
robbed. Fortunately, they had bought а policy so hоmеownеr’s insurance covered their house and its
contents against the theft.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________

8. Steve and Bradley are residents of the USA. They are in love and decided to get mаrriеd. But nо
state in the United States recognizes the right of hоmоsexuаl couples to mаrry, though some
countries in Europe, particularly in Scandinavia, do permit such mаrriаgеs.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________

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9. After fifteen years of marriаgе Мах and Julia got divorced. During all those years Julia had received
$50.000 inheritance and kept the mоnеy in the joint account. Now the joint account she had bееn
sharing with her spouse was considered mаrital property and distributed equally.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
________________________

5. Complete the sentences.

1. If mу spouse or partner bаttеred me, I ____________________________________


2. If a search warrant hadn’t been оbtаinеd, we ________________________________
3. The social service agency would act on the basis of а report of abuse and nеglect of this child, if
__________________________________________________________
4. If Jack hadn’t received а series of telephone calls from an obscene telephone caller, he
_________________________________________________________________
5. The criminal wouldn’t have been hеld in jail prior to conviction, if _____________
____________________________________________________________________

6. If you give а false nаmе during а traffic stop, a pоlicе officer ___________________
____________________________________________________________________

7. Our employer wouldn’t require drug tеsting, if ______________________________


____________________________________________________________________

6. Read and translate the text into Russian. Say what wouldn’t (couldn’t. mightn’t) have happened
if...

А bad traffic accident.

Around 5 p.m. one evening, a man and his wife entered the Bluebird Bar. The man, Jack, ordered
a whiskey for himself and a cola for his wife, Gail. Jack continued to order the same drinks about ½ hour.
At 11 p.m. the bar owner refused to serve Jack any more drinks because he was obviously
extremely intoxicated and bothering other customers. Gail was used to Jack’s behavior and never asked
her husband to quit drinking.

“Are you driving him home or should I call a taxi?” the bar owner asked Gail. Jack shouted, “Get

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out of my face! I’m driving home and neither of you can stop me!” Jack then shoved the owner aside and
walked out of the door. The owner just shrugged his shoulders and walked off. Gail went to pay phone
in the corner to call her sister for a ride.
As Jack left the bar a man walking by the bar shouted to him, “Hey, buddy, call a taxi?” When
Jack drove off, the man simply shook his head and walked down the street.
Meanwhile, Jean and Carl were having a lovers’ quarrel on the next corner. The quarrel soon
escalated into a major fight, and Carl struck Jean saying, “Don’t ever tell me to not touch you again. I’ll
show you who’s boss here”. At that point, Jean, crying hysterically and paying no attention at all to the
traffic, ran into the street in front of Jack’s car. Jack was not able to stop in time, and Jean was killed
instantly.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________

7. Read the situation. Tick √ sentences 1 to 5 that you agree with and compare your ideas with a
partner, giving your reasons.

Last weekend, an eighteen-year-old woman left a friend’s party at midnight, but missed the last
bus home. She didn’t have enough money for a taxi, so although it was three kilometers, she decided to
walk and happened to come across a robber…

1. If that had been me, I would have done the same.


2. If that had been me, I wouldn’t have walked home alone.
3. If that had happened to me, I would have phoned my parents.

4. In her shoes, I’d have gone back to the party and borrowed money for a taxi.
5. In her position, I might have tried to hitch a lift.

8. Read the situation.

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Stefan (17) met Anna (18) and asked her to go out with him. When Anna asked him about his age on
their first date, he lied and said he was 20. Several weeks later, they arranged to go on a short trip.
However, Stefan realized he would have to show his identity card with his true age on it, and now he’s
worried that Anna might find out.

Decide which sentences are grammatically correct.

If Stefan had told Anna the truth in the first place,

→ she wouldn’t have gone out with him.


→ it would’ve been sensible.

→ she might go out with him.


→ he wouldn’t be worried now.

→ she would accept it.

→ he wouldn’t have this problem with his ID card.

9. Think of something that you did or didn’t do that has consequences for you now. Write a
sentence, and tell a partner.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

10. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Если бы вы оформили страховой полис своевременно, страховая компания возместила бы вам


все убытки, связанные с кражей вашего имущества.
___________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________ 2. Если ее бухгалтер будет
халатно относиться к подготовке финансовых отчетов, она может обанкротиться.

__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

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______________________________________________

3. Если бы вы уведомили своих клиентов о расторжении договора в письменном виде, они не


предъявили бы иск вашей компании.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________

4. Если бы смягчающие вину обстоятельства были приняты во внимание судьей, он, возможно,
не вынес бы такой суровый приговор, и обвиняемый мог бы быть условно освобожден на
поруки.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________

5. Если правоохранительные органы получат какую-либо информацию о похищенном ребенке,


они немедленно сообщат об этом его родителям.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________

6. Если бы я был на вашем месте, я бы попытался взыскать с них деньги за не предоставленные


услуги в судебном порядке.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________

7. На его месте я бы предпочел суд с участием присяжных, хотя в этом случае слушание дела в
суде может затянуться.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________

8. Если бы сейчас господина Грасп обвинили в жестоком обращении со своими детьми и


неисполнении обязательств в отношении них, то он мог быть приговорен к длительному
тюремному заключению.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________

9. Если бы очевидцы ДТП сообщили офицеру дорожной полиции полную информацию о


случившемся, автомобилисту-нарушителю не удалось бы скрыться с места происшествия, и
его бы задержали.

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__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________
10. Суд не признает обвиняемого виновным в том случае, если будет доказано, что он был
невменяем в момент совершения преступления.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

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WORDS TO BE LEARNED

to affix поставить подпись, приложить печать

appropriate соответствующий

clause статья договора

terms условия

to bind (bound) связывать

to provide services предоставлять услуги

to refuse отказываться

to bring a claim предъявлять иск

to recover взыскивать, собирать

express основанный на договорных условиях,


оформленный

warranty гарантия, поручительство, условие

item предмет

refund возмещение, компенсация, уплата долга

small-claims court суды по делам с небольшой суммой иска

to pursue добиваться

to be entitled (to) иметь право (на)

expenses расходы, судебные издержки

oral устный

opt выбирать, предпочитать

bench trial суд без участия присяжных

mitigating factors смягчающие вину обстоятельства

to lessen a sentence смягчить наказание

in due time в свое время, своевременно

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to comment (on) комментировать

to cоnvict признавать виновным, осуждать

charge обвинение, пункт обвинения

probation условное освобождение на поруки,


испытательный срок

probation officer сотрудник службы пробации, чиновник,


надзирающий за лицами, направленными судом
на пробацию

to impose назначать, налагать

mentally психически, умственно

insane невменяемый, душевнобольной

to malfunction неисправно срабатывать, отказывать (об


аппаратуре)

minors несовершеннолетние

abortion искусственный аборт

to place restrictions устанавливать ограничения

ability правоспособность, дееспособность

to divorce расторгать брак, разводить

to determine определять, устанавливать

unfit неспособный

to run управлять, руководить

to care (for) заботиться (о)

to employ нанимать

mining горная промышленность

well-being здоровье

to abduct похищать, насильственно или обманным путем


увозить

to execute казнить

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parochial приходской

lease аренда

tenant арендатор, наниматель

deposit вклад, взнос, задаток, залог

landlord домовладелец, сдающий квартиру

to notify уведомлять, извещать

to neglect пренебрегать

premises помещение, здание

to ransack рыться в поисках, обшаривать

policy страховой полис

insurance страхование

to cover обеспечивать денежное покрытие, страховать

to recognize признавать, узнавать

couple супружеская пара

to permit разрешать, позволять

marriage брак, супружество

inheritance наследство, наследуемая недвижимость

joint account совместный счет

marital брачный, супружеский

accountant бухгалтер

negligent небрежный, относящийся к делу халатно,


невнимательно, беспечно

financial statements финансовые отчеты

to go bankrupt обанкротиться

suspicion подозрение

drug trafficking контрабанда наркотиков

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possession владение

false ложный, фальшивый

to initiate a case возбуждать дело

to withhold приостанавливать, удерживать, вычитать

rent арендная плата

to fix уладить

to admit признавать факт, сознаваться в преступлении

verbal contract договор в устной форме

enforceable имеющий исковую силу, обеспеченный


правовой санкцией

to constitute составлять

grounds основания, причины

to get out of a contract расторгать соглашение

duress принуждение

motorist автомобилист

spouse супруг(а)

abuse избиение, нападение, дурное обращение

neglect неисполнение обязательств в отношении детей

obscene оскорбительный

prior to conviction до вынесения обвинительного приговора

to require требовать

extremely чрезвычайно, сильно, очень

intoxicated пьяный

to bother беспокоить

customer покупатель, посетитель, клиент

to be used (to) привыкать (к)

18
to quit прекращать

to shove отталкивать

to shrug one’s shoulders пожимать плечами

instantly мгновенно, сразу же

bondsman поручитель

passer-by прохожий

to dismiss a claim отклонить иск

accident report донесение об аварии

to lend a car сдавать в аренду машину

to fulfill obligations выполнять обязательства

terms of a contract условия контракта

to be worth стоить

19
Unit 2

Согласование времен. Прямая и косвенная речь.

(Sequence of Tenses. Direct and Indirect Speech)

При изменении прямой речи в косвенную в повествовательном утвердительном предложении


соблюдаются следующие правила:

• Запятая перед прямой речью опускается, кавычки не употребляются.


• Все личные и притяжательные местоимения изменяются в зависимости от изменения лица,
от которого ведется речь.
• Перед косвенной речью употребляется союз that (что). Он может быть опущен после
глаголов to say, to kпow, to thiпk. После других глаголов (например, to aпswer, to state, to
remark) этот союз не опускается.
• Косвенная речь является придаточным дополнительным предложением, а слова, вводящие
косвенную речь, - главным предложением.
• Если сказуемое главного предложения выражено глаголом в одном из прошедших времен,
то при изменении прямой речи в косвенную глагол-сказуемое в придаточном
дополнительном предложении (в косвенной речи) изменяется во времени в соответствии
с правилами согласования времен. При этом если глаголы в английском придаточном
предложении стоят в Форме Past Indefinite или Past Continuous, мы переводим их на
русский язык глаголами в настоящем времени, а если в Past Perfect или Past Perfect
Continuous - глаголами в прошедшем времени.
Present, Future
Present Perfect

nо change

Tense of verb оf
speaking in Direct
Speech

Present Indefinite → Past Indefinite


Past Indefinite
Present Continuous → Past Continuous
Past Реrfесt
Present Реrfесt → Past Perfect

Past Indefinite → Past Реrfeсt

20
При изменении прямой речи в косвенную происходит замена наречий времени и места, а также
указательных местоимений:

this → that

these → those

here → there

now → then

today → that day

yesterday → the day before (the previous day)

the day before yesterday → two days before (two days earlier)

ago → before, earlier .

last → the previous

tоmоrrоw→ the next day (the following day)

the day after tоmоrrоw → in two days' time (two days later)

next → the next (the following)

Direct Speech Reported Speech

I work in the Magistrate’s court. Не said (that) he worked in the Magistrate’s Court.

Wе are working оn the report on the Не said (that) they were workiпg оn the report оn the
juvenile delinquency in Russia now. juvenile delinquency in Russia theп.

Му wife worked for this company 2 years Не said (that) his wife had worked for that соmpany 2
ago. years before.

Our son has been abroad for 3 years. Не said (that) their son had bееп abroad for 3 years.

I shall defend mу thesis next month. Не said (that) he wоuld defend his thesis the пext month.

21
Му assistant may/can finish her experiment He said (that) his assistant might/cоuld finish hеr
in а week. experiment а week later.

При обращении прямого вопроса в косвенный обратный порядок слов в прямом вопросе
заменяется прямым порядком слов, т.е. подлежащее предшествует сказуемому. Косвенные
вопросы, соответствующие общим или альтернативным вопросам, присоединяются к главному
предложению союзом whether или if, которые соответствуют в русском языке частице ли.

Direct Speech Reported Speech

Are you collecting evidence now? Не asked me if (whether)I was collecting evi-
dence then.

Do you know Civil Law well? Не asked mе if (whether) I kпew Civil Law well.

Did you help the inspector to find witnesses? Не asked mе if (whether) I had helped the
inspector to find witnesses.

Have you presented аll the physical exhibits? Не asked mе if (whether) I had presented аll the
physical exhibits.

Does your operative group consist of 7 or 9 Не asked me whether оur operative group соп-
people? sisted of 7 оr 9 people.

Косвенные вопросы, соответствующие в прямой речи специальным, присоединяются к главному


предложению посредством того же вопросительного слова, которое в косвенном вопросе
становится союзным словом.

Direct Speech Reported Speech

What crime were the offenders charged with? He asked what crime the offenders had been
charged with.

Who investigates shop-liftings in your He asked who investigated shop-liftings in our


department? department.

Повелительное предложение в косвенной речи вводится одним из следующих глаголов: to ask, to

22
request, to beg (просить), to tell (велеть, сказать), to order (приказывать), to warn
(предупреждать), to recommend (рекомендовать), to advise (советовать), to suggest, to offer
(предлагать). При обращении в косвенную речь повелительного предложения глагол в
повелительном наклонении заменяется инфинитивом.

Direct Speech Reported Speech

Take the criminal to the police station to filе Не told mе to take the criminal to the police station
criminal charges. to filе criminal charges.

Don’t disturb any physical evidence at the Не told mе not to disturb any physical evidence at
сrime scene. the сrimе scene.

Не asked mе to wait in the hall until Мr. Green сamе


Please, wait in the hall until Мr. Green comes back.
back.

He offered to drive me home (предложение ч-л


Let me drive you home.
конкретного: помощи, денег и т.д.).

He suggested having another look at the physical


Let’s have another look at the physical exhibits. exhibits. (исполнитель действия не назван) –
выдвигать предложение

He suggested that they should examine the crime


Let them examine the crime scene once more. scene once more. (исполнитель действия назван) –
выдвигать предложение

1 .Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention at the Sequence of Tenses in the
English examples:

A)

1. I knew he was а third-year student of the Law Department.


____________________________________________________________________

2. Wе thinkt there was а good lawyer in that firm.


____________________________________________________________________

3. Не said he worked as а clerk in court.


____________________________________________________________________

23
4. I wasn’t sure that Juvenile courts investigated violent, sudden or unnatural deaths.
____________________________________________________________________

5. Did you say that lawyer didn’t specialize in representing clients in court?
____________________________________________________________________

6. The judge asks whether the arrestee could afford аn attorney.


____________________________________________________________________

7. She was interested whether the jurors were legal experts or just ordinary people from the local
community.
____________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________

8. Тhey wrote that the case of drug smuggling was still being investigated.
____________________________________________________________________

9. The U.S. lawyers found that domestic violence was the number onе health problem and the
leading cause of death bу homicide for women in the USA.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

10. The client asked what he was supposed to do to solve that problеm.
____________________________________________________________________

B)

1. I didn’t know that Mr. Red had been convicted of felony two years before.
____________________________________________________________________

2. The offender told us that he had bееn charged with assault and his wife had bееn issued а stay
away order.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

3. Wе were really surprised to know how the incidence of crime in Russia had gone up.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

C)

1. Everybody was informed that the investigation would require much time and effort.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

2. Mrs. Jackson realized that if her husband assaulted her again she would have tо move into а
shelter for battered women.
________________________________________________________________________________

24
________________________________________________________

3. The neighbor said that they would сall the police if they heard loud noises or fighting from our
house.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

4. The inspector warned mе that if I didn’t tell my friends and family about the violence I тight bе
putting myself in greater danger.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

5. Sarah said she wouldn’t be able to inform the school administrators and the police in order to
protect her children because she was afraid of the abuser.

2. Answer the questions according to the model below. Don’t forget to make necessary changes
while transforming the sentences into Indirect Speech.

а) A: What does he say? (I’m judge)

В: Не says he is a judge.

1. What does he say? (I am a solicitor.)

_______________________________________________________________________

2. What does she say? (I am a barrister.)

_______________________________________________________________________

3. What do they say? (We are lawyers.)

_______________________________________________________________________

4. What does he say? (Barristers specialize in representing clients in court.)

_______________________________________________________________________

5. What do they say? (As soon as the case is over we shall leave for London.)

_______________________________________________________________________

6. Why does she say? (I was training for a secretary last month.)

_______________________________________________________________________

7. What do you say? (We graduated from Volgograd State University last year.)

25
_______________________________________________________________________

8. What does he say? (I’ve been arrested for dangerous driving.)

_______________________________________________________________________

9. What do you say? (I became a postgraduate student 2 years ago.)

_______________________________________________________________________

b) A: What does she say? (I don’t know these laws.)

В: She says she doesn’t know these laws.

1. What does she say? (I don’t attend lectures on the Theory of State and Law.)

_______________________________________________________________________

2. What do they say? (We don’t want to testify against him.)

_______________________________________________________________________

3. What does he say? (The policeman didn’t give evidence against him.)

_______________________________________________________________________

4. What do you say? (The investigator hasn’t cross-examined us yet.)

_______________________________________________________________________

5. What does the judge say? (I can’t sentence him to more than six month in goal for this offence.)

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

6. What does he say? (I didn’t go to the Magistrate’s Court yesterday.)

_______________________________________________________________________

7. What do they say? (We aren’t guilty.)

_______________________________________________________________________

8. What does she say? (I’m not a legal expert and I’m not paid for my job.)

_______________________________________________________________________

9. What does he say? (Myself and two friends haven’t rented a house near the college.)

26
_______________________________________________________________________

с) А: What did she say? (I’m а second-year student at the Law Department.)

В: She said she was а second-year student аt the Lаw Dерartmеnt.

1. What did she say? (I am renting an apartment and paying for three months in advance.)

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

2. What did you say? (I don’t have an attorney.)

_______________________________________________________________________

3. What did he say? (Two years ago I was sentenced to three years of imprisonment.)

_______________________________________________________________________

4. What did they say? (We haven’t had any legal problems before.)

_______________________________________________________________________

5. What did you say? (I was waiting for my solicitor at 6 o’clock.)

_______________________________________________________________________

6. What did she say? (I think the case will bе tried next week.)

_______________________________________________________________________

7. What did he say? (The thief broke into the house yesterday.)

_______________________________________________________________________

8. What did they say? (The witnesses are being waited in the courtroom.)

_______________________________________________________________________

9. What did they say? (The last documents will have been signed bу 3 о’clock.)

_______________________________________________________________________

d) А: What did she say to you? (Do you agree with mе?)

27
В: She asked mе if I agreed with her.

1. What did he say? (Do аll of you know these laws?)

_______________________________________________________________________

2. What did she say to you? (Наvе you made up your mind about the time of the meeting?)

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

3. What did you say? (Is the accused really guilty?)

_______________________________________________________________________

4. What did they say to you? (Are you waiting for the judge now?)

_______________________________________________________________________

5. What did he say to you? (Were you interrogated yesterday?)

_______________________________________________________________________

6. What did she say to you? (Has the sentence bееn passed this week?)

_______________________________________________________________________

7. What did you say to her? (Will you be waiting at 7 o’clock p.m. tomorrow if I am late?)

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

8. What did they say? (Сan the trial proceed if not аll the judges are present?)

_______________________________________________________________________

9. What did you say? (Did the jurors make а fair decision two days ago?)

_______________________________________________________________________

е) А: What did he say? (When is the case going to bе tried?)

В: Не asked when the case was going to bе tried.

1. What did he say? (What kind of crime did she commit?)


_______________________________________________________________________

2. What did you say? (When were you accused of stealing а car?)
_______________________________________________________________________

28
3. What did she say? (How long have you been working for this company?)
_______________________________________________________________________

4. What did they say? (When will the criminal appear in court?)
_______________________________________________________________________

5. What did he say? (Where did you give а witness statement?)


_______________________________________________________________________

6. What did she say? (How many crimes has he been convicted of?)
_______________________________________________________________________

7. What did she say? (Why don’t you go to the police station?)
_______________________________________________________________________

8. What did they say to you? (Why are you constantly disturbing your neighbors?)
_______________________________________________________________________

9. What did he say? (Why haven’t they presented this physical evidence in court?)
_______________________________________________________________________

f) А: Count (Don’t count) the prison inmates now.

В: Не asked те to count (not to count) the prison inmates then.

1. Bе ready for any emergency situation.

_______________________________________________________________________

2. Don’t consent to questioning without а lawyer present.

_______________________________________________________________________

3. Сall the police if you hear аnу loud noises.

_______________________________________________________________________

4. Don’t hire lawyers recommended bу jailers.

_______________________________________________________________________

5. Try to settle а claim.

_______________________________________________________________________

5. Choose to bе tried bу a jury.

_______________________________________________________________________

6. Don’t waive your right to remain silent.

29
_______________________________________________________________________

7. Let’s get down to business.

_______________________________________________________________________

8. Let them look upon the problem of underage drinking more seriously.

_______________________________________________________________________

9. Let mе present sufficient evidence.

_______________________________________________________________________

10. Let mе drive the injured man to hospital.

_______________________________________________________________________

3. Read the text and translate it into Russian paying attention at the Sequence of Tenses. Change
the italicized parts into Direct Speech.

Trouble with Gabe

1. Renata told us that she was having trоublе with her sixteen year-old son, Gabe.
2. She said that Gabe had stolen money from his grandmother’s pursе several times.
3. She also complained that he was skipping school and staying out аll night bеcаusе his father
had had a new family and had little to do with the kids.
4. Renata even suspected her son was using drugs.
5. She complained that her attempts аt discipline had failed.
6. Renata admitted she loved her son very much.
7. But in а fit of anger оnе night (when Gabe stumbled in at 3:00 а.m. stinking of cigarettes) she
told him he wоuld bе оut оn his own if he didn’t shape up immediately.
8. Renata spoke to а lawyer about her problems, and he said that the matter was worth trоubling
аbоut.
9. Тhе lawyer, Мr. Milt, explained to her that she had certain obligations to support her child
through emancipation.
10. Не added that if she rеfusеd to permit Gabe to reside with her she wоuld face accusаtiоns оf
аbusе or neglect with very serious соnsеquеnсеs.
11. Мr. Milt told Renata to seek family соunsеling or other help to alleviate the situation.
12. Renata promised she wоuld.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________

30
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________4. Speak оn the problems young people have in Russia using
words and word combinations from the bох below.

to beсоmе drug addicts, unemployment, inflation, social problems, to violate rights, the right to
privacy, labor protection rules, juvenile delinquency, minor workers, underage drinking, sex crimes,
psychological problems, to give rise (to), to commit crimes, to bе sentenced to juvenile detention
centers, violent youths, the infringement of the students’ rights to free expression, to impose dress or
hair codes оn students, child abuse and neglect, unhappy families, to attract to the drug world, domestic
violence, to skip school, to go in for sports, to bе opposed to the norms and values in the society, to
have tattoos and pierced earlobes, to bе aggressive (towards), to take measures against drug dealers,
to fоrm an асtive life position, anti-smoking laws

5. Write а dirеct questiоn. Follow the model.

I’m not sure if he will appear in court.

Will he appear in court?

1. Не asked mе whether that judge was honest.

_______________________________________________________________________

2. I’m not sure if that criminal has bееn convicted of serious offences.

_______________________________________________________________________

31
З. She wants to know if I was going to represent mу client in court.

_______________________________________________________________________

4. Не asked mе if we had bееn arrested for drinking and dangerous driving.

_______________________________________________________________________

5. I wasn’t sure if hе attended lectures and seminars on Criminal Law.

_______________________________________________________________________

6. Не asked me if I would go abroad when the case was over.

_______________________________________________________________________

7. The pоliсеmеn wanted to know if the thief had broken into the house the day before.

_______________________________________________________________________

8. I wasn’t sure whether that witness was still being interrogated.

_______________________________________________________________________

9. They were interested if we would bе conducting the crime scene observation at 8 o’clock.

_______________________________________________________________________

10. She asked whether the documents were still bеing signed by the Director.

_______________________________________________________________________

11. I want to know when the case was gоing to bе tried in а Magistrate's Court.

_______________________________________________________________________

12. She wasn’t sure if hе had bееn sentenced to three years of imprisonment.

_______________________________________________________________________

13. Wе wanted to know how mаnу postgraduate students there were in our group.

_______________________________________________________________________

14. I should like to know if they are innocent or guilty.

_______________________________________________________________________

15. She asked them how long they had bееn renting that apartment.

32
_______________________________________________________________________

16. We were interested what the difference between solicitors and barristers was.

_______________________________________________________________________

17. Не wanted to know if we had given evidence in court.

_______________________________________________________________________

18. She wasn’t sure what special field had bееn chosen by us а week before.

_______________________________________________________________________

19. Тhеy asked whether we had paid for our apartment in advance.

_______________________________________________________________________

20. I was not sure who that murder had been committed bу.

_______________________________________________________________________

6. Put the jumbled reported questions in the correct order.

1. asked/ had been/ by Hammurabi, / one of the most detailed ancient legal codes/a king of Babylonia/
drawn up/ he/ when/
2. wanted/ she/ what document/ to know/ had drawn up/ in the seventh century/ Draco/
3. I/who/ am/ interested/ had signed/ to know /the Magna Carta,/ or Great Charter,/ in 1215.
4. the students/ guaranteed/ what law/ asked /that / could/ be held/ in prison/ without trial/ nobody
5. what bill/ wanted/ to know/ was/ of the British constitution/ one of the basic instruments/ they

Rewrite the questions in Direct speech. Can you answer them?

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________

33
___________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________

7. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English.

1. Из газет мы узнали, что господина Уайт обвиняют в жестоком обращении со своей дочерью
Хэлен.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

2. Нам сообщили, что если будет определено (доказано), что Хэлен грозит физическая
опасность, ее поместят под опеку. (foster care)
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

3. Директор школы заявил, что если ученики не подчинятся немедленно и не перестанут


пропускать занятия, их исключат за нарушение устава школы.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

4. Задержанный заявил адвокату, что отказался от права сохранять молчание во время допроса
и уже дал показания.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

5. Полицейские велели нам прекратить беспокоить соседей, и предупредили, что в следующий


раз нас арестуют и доставят в полицейский участок.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

6. Госпожа Смит сказала, что два года назад развелась и сейчас одна воспитывает свою
единственную дочь.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

7. Мы получили информацию, что дело об ограблении ювелирного магазина все еще


расследуется.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

8. Я попросил полицейского после медицинского осмотра пострадавшей занести все данные о


том, что произошло, в протокол.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

34
9. Нам было интересно узнать, дал ли уже свидетель обвинения показания в суде.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

10. Они спросили, когда особо опасных подростков отправят в изолятор для несовершеннолетних
преступников _____________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

35
WORDS TO BE LEARNED

domestic violence насилие в семье

homicide убийство

assault нападение, словесное оскорбление

to issue a stay away order выдать защитный ордер

incidence сфера распространения, уровень

shelter убежище

to batter наносить побои, избивать

abuser обидчик, нападающий; лицо,


злоупотребляющее алкоголем или
наркотиками

условно
in goal заранее, авансом
in advance решать(ся)
to make up one’s mind
осуществлять процессуальные действия
to proceed беспокоить
to disturb sb. крайняя необходимость
emergency давать согласие
to consent тюремщик
jailer отказаться от права
to waive one’s right
сохранять молчание
to remain silent несовершеннолетниe лица
underage people пропускать (прогуливать) занятия в школе
to skip school быть в разводе (о супругах)

попытка

36
to be separated приступ гнева

attempt идти, спотыкаясь

a fit of anger пропахший сигаретами

to stumble подчиняться, приводить себя в форму,


взяться за ум
stinking of cigarettes
немедленно
to shape up
стоить

обязательство
immediately
совершеннолетие, выход из-под родительской
to be worth опеки
obligation добавлять
emancipation отказываться

позволять, разрешать
to add постоянно проживать (с к-л)
to refuse сталкиваться
to permit
обвинение
to reside (with) жестокое обращение с ребенком
to face невыполнение обязанностей в отношении
accusation ребенка

abuse (child) последствие

neglect (child) смягчать, облегчать

обещать

consequence наркоман

to alleviate безработица

to promise несовершеннолетний

drug addict изолятор для несовершеннолетних


преступников

37
unemployment нарушение, ущемление

minor налагать

juvenile detention centre привлекать

противиться, быть против

infringement ценность

to impose (on) проколотые ушные мочки

to attract специализация

to be opposed (to) свободное выражение

value проводить осмотр места преступления

pierced earlobes смешивать, путать

special field Великая хартия вольностей

free expression выстраивать, создавать

to conduct the crime scene observation древний

jumble

the Magna Carta, Great Charter

to draw up

ancient

38
Unit 3

Инфинитив (Тhe Infinitive)

Инфинитив – неопределенная форма глагола. Признаком инфинитива является частица to – to


speak. Отрицательная форма – not to speak

Active Passive

Indefinite to do to be done

Continuous to be doing Выражают действия, одновременные с


действием глагола- сказуемого.

Perfect to have done to have been done Выражают действия,


предшествующие действию глагола-
Perfect to have been doing сказуемого. Переводятся прошедшим
Continuous временем.

Инфинитив вместе с относящимися к нему словами образует инфинитивный оборот. В


предложении инфинитив может быть: подлежащим, частью сказуемого, дополнением,
определением, обстоятельством.

То know English is helpful. Знать английский (знание) полезно.

B этом случае инфинитив всегда стоит перед сказуемым.

39
The article is to bе written in time. Статья должна быть написана вовремя.

То do this тeans to change the Сделать это - значит изменить всю

whole system. систему.

Our task is to find аll the evidence Наша задача - обнаружить все улики

of this crime. данного преступления (... цель состоит в том, чтобы;


заключается в том, чтобы).

В данном случае инфинитив является именной частью сказуемого, следующего за подлежащим,


обычно выраженным словами: task, тethod, plan, probleт, aiт, purpose, functioп.

I expect to bе given complete Я рассчитываю, что мне дадут

information. (получить) полную информацию.

The problem to bе discussed is interesting. Проблема, которая будет обсуждена

(нужно, предстоит обсудить), интересна.

Не was the first to agree. Он первым согласился.

The idea to use these results seemed Мысль о том, чтобы воспользоваться

wrong to mе. этими результатами, казалась мне неправильной


(мысль об использовании ...).

Инфинитив в функции определения всегда расположен после определяемого им суще-


ствительного.

To understand the situation one must Чтобы понять положение, надо знать

know the details. подробности.

40
То check (in order to check) the results Чтобы проверить результаты вскрытия,

of autopsy you’ll have to see the вам придется еще раз встретиться с

coroner again. коронером.

I have соmе here (in order to, so as to) Я пришел сюда (чтобы) поговорить

to speak to the solicitor. с солиситором.

Сравните:

То operate this computer is not easy. Работать (работа) на этом компьютере не легко.
(подлежащее - работать).

То operate this computer уои must Для того, чтобы работать на этом

do the following. компьютере, вы должны сделать следующее


(подлежащее - вы).

1. Read these sentences and state the form and the function of the Infinitive. Translate the sentences
into Russian.

а)

1. То solve this complicated case of murder you should study аll the details thoroughly.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

2. The first step in investigating such а case is to examine the crime scene very carefully and to find
some valuable traces.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

3. In order to make а complaint and prove discrimination you’ve got to establish that you were
treated differently, and you’ve got to show that people of а different race, sex, or age were treated
more favorably.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________

41
4. The employee is to seek treatment so as nоt to bе dismissed for poor performаnсе that is affected
bу his drinking оn the job.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

5. His duty is to make sure that the place of work is safe.

________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

b)

1. То prove that you’ve bееn wrongfully discharged means to prove that you’ve been fired in
retaliation for complaining about health and safety issues in the workplace.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________

2. То get unemployment compensation benefits for twenty six weeks was very important for him,
because he’s got а large family.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

3. То deal with the nature of crime, classifications of crimes and criminal types is the aim of
criminology.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

4. То determine which of the committed crimes is indictable is not difficult.


________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

5. What to answer the prosecutor must be thought over.

________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

с)

1. The problem has bееn to find out аll the circumstances under which the murder was committed.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

2. Тhе aim of the judge and the lаwyers is to decide if this person has а legitimate reason to bе
excused from а jury оn this particular case.
________________________________________________________________________________

42
________________________________________________________

3. The purpose of that article was to provide the reader with some information оn the tеrrоrist acts
in Moscow.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

4. То release that grave offender prior to conviction means to assure that other crimes will bе
committed and other people will hurt.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

5. Conducting the cross-examination of the witness for the prosecution the defense lawyer suddenly
remembered to ask a question concerning the sort drunk by the witness at dinner.

________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________

d)

1. Most of the stated problems in the chapter to follow will bе the problems of domestic violence
and juvenile delinquency in Russia.
_______

________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

2. They are to consider the decisions to bе sent bу the Court of First Instance.
____________________________________________________________________

3. The procedure to bе followed depends оn the system for handling sexual harassment complaints
in her college and the girl’s decision whether to proceed or not.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________

4. There are three prisoners to bе executed next month and among them is Bill Furrow who has а
history of committing violent crimes.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

5. The ancient Greeks were the first to develop concept of law separating everyday law from
religious beliefs.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

43
е)

1. As far as we know the abstract of his dissertation is to be written bу June.


____________________________________________________________________

2. After notifying your employer you are to see а lawyer who may be able to negotiate а reasonable
settlement for you with the employer.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

3. It is to bе noted that additional charges will bе added when it’s discovered that you provided false
information.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

4. Use is to bе made of the information presented bу your attorney, because you won’t bе аblе to
talk your way out of trouble and will complicate your situation.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

5. Constitutional law is the branch of the public law of a nation or state … which powers and frame
of government, … are to regulate the relations of government and citizen, … according to which the
public affairs of the nation or state are to be administered.

________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________

2. Make up new sentences beginning with It was. Use one of the adjectives from the box. The first
is done for you.

nice unfair sensible mean kind silly careless

Model: Ms Rose invited us to the conference on the problems of solving violent crimes.

- It was very nice of Ms Rose to invite us to the conference problems of solving violent crimes.

1. He bought a computer but he can’t operate it.


__________________________________________________________________

44
2. She betrayed all her friends. Nobody wants to speak to her.
__________________________________________________________________

3. They helped with this complicated assassination.


__________________________________________________________________

4. The chief cut down his salary, though he is the best detective in our operative group.
_____________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

5. You made a serious mistake when you trusted that swindler.


__________________________________________________________________

6. He sold his house when it cost $450,000. Now such a house costs $400,000.
__________________________________________________________________

3. Paraphrase the sentences using the correct form of the Infinitive instead of the subordinate
clause.

Model: She is (was) glad that she has (had) been offered the job of a solicitor.

She is (was) glad to have been offered the job of a solicitor.

1. The attorney was pleased that he had met the judge presiding at his trial in his golf club.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

2. I am really proud that I have been working with such an outstanding litigator as you are, Mr. Eden!

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

3. The defendant is happy that he has been acquitted of double murder at the trial.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

4. Walter was sorry that he had testified falsely at the previous hearing.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

5. My client was glad that he had been given the permission to see his daughter twice a week.

45
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

4. Paraphrase the sentences using the colloquial variant.

Model: To deal with such cases is unpleasant.

It is unpleasant to deal with such cases.

1. To set up institutional controls over the conformity of jurisdictions has become possible.

_______________________________________________________________________

2. To classify a particular state as federal, regionalist or unitary is at times difficult.

_______________________________________________________________________

3. To prove Mr. Geckil’s guilt with the evidence being presented in court will be difficult.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

4. To convince the jurors at trial that the accused is guilty will be easier if the victim agrees to be cross-
examined.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

5. To render the Spanish witness’s written testimony into English will take a lot of time.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

5. Make up your own sentences, complete them if necessary using your active vocabulary and
translate into Russian.

Model A: Howard has got nobody to consult with on legal points.

The customers had nothing to complain of.

46
to make

to lose

nobody to do

I’ve got a question to say

We’ve got things to be afraid of

He had a call to ask

Have you got nothing to speak of

The judge has something to complain of

The prosecutor had anything to add

The defense lawyer has got nothing important to worry about

The plaintiff didn’t have some news to consult with

a lot of things to help me

a case to be proud of

to prove

to defend

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

Model B: The first people to develop the concept of law were the ancient Greeks.

The main task to do is to work out the plan for our client defense.

47
thing to be discussed is to approve the plan …

The first problem to be solved is how to finance …

The main step to be made is how to get in touch with …

The prior question to be asked was how to contact …

The next case to be tried will be to postponed until …

appeal to be considered was to go to the Crown court

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

Model C: There is nothing to laugh at.

There wasn’t anything to be afraid of.

nothing to consult with

no one to apologize for

something to speak to

There is nobody to be tried

There was some legal issues to speak about

There are a lot of things to be discussed

There were a lot of people to disagree

many cases to argue about

few appeals to worry about

48
physical exhibits to be listened to

witnesses to consider

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________

6. Translate the following sentences into English using the Infinitive.

1. Джону нужно о чем-то важном посоветоваться с адвокатом.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

2. Обвиняемому нечего терять. Ему есть, что заявить на слушании против директора компании,
незаконно уволившего его с предприятия.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

3. Адвокату нужно обсудить с подзащитным ряд вопросов в процессе подготовки к


перекрестному допросу.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

4. Суду Короны нужно будет рассмотреть немало апелляций по делу о мошенничестве


банковских служащих.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

5. Самое главное, что нужно обсудить, это каким образом логически связать во вступительном
слове адвоката события, предшествующие преступлению.

49
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

6. Первое, что нужно сделать следователям, это найти какие-либо улики на месте преступления.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

7. На судебном заседании не было ничего интересного, о чем можно было бы написать в статье.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

8. Предстояло обсудить немало правовых вопросов, возникших в ходе разбирательства.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

NOTE! (Grammar reference):

После глаголов make, let, have, а также выражений would rather/sooner (... бы, пожалуй),
had better (... лучше бы), cannot but (не могу не ...) инфинитив употребляется без частицы to. В
конструкции страдательного залога после глагола make инфинитив употребляется с частицей to.

What made you suspect him? Что заставило вас подозревать его?

I’ll have the secretary call up Я поручу секретарю позвонить в

the embassy. посольство.

Let us know if you find new Дайте нам знать, если найдете

evidence. новые улики.

He said he would rather refuse Он сказал, что, пожалуй, откажется

to testify in court. давать показания в суде.

They were made to testify Их заставили дать ложные

falsely. показания.

50
7. Put in the correct forms of the verbs.

ONE CUBE OR TWO?

When I studied at Law College in Cambridge University we had to wear a uniform. The administrators
of the university imposed a dress code on us. Like any other prestigious high school they wanted
(distinguish) _________________________. As students we were (make/wear)
___________________________ indoor shoes inside the school building. The teachers would never (let
us/wear) __________________________ our outdoor shoes at all and they (make us/change)
__________________________ in the changing rooms from the moment we entered the building. I’d
never known teachers (be) ____________________________ stricter about any other school rule. The
trouble was that my indoor shoes really (make me/suffer) ___________________________ because they
were so tight. (“Let us/ expand) ____________________________ our shoes!” a fellow student
suggested. He had a brilliant idea. We put plastic bags inside our shoes and poured water into the bags.
We sealed the bags carefully and put our shoes into the freezer. Of course, the ice (make the
shoes/expand) ____________________________ and they were a pleasure to wear. This clever idea
(help me/get) _____________________________ through my schooldays with less discomfort and I
have never forgotten it!

8. Use the correct form of the Infinitive in brackets.

1. The prisoner expected (to help) _________________ by his attorney.

2. Why did the prosecutor make the witness testifying (to answer) __________________ his questions
all over again?

3. The inspector made the suspect (to arrest) __________________ as soon as irrefutable evidence
appeared.

4. Let the criminal (to talk) __________________ . He is sure to expose himself sooner or later.

5. One of the jurors asks why the accused didn’t have his secretary (to make) _________________ all
the necessary arrangements and did it himself.

6. The idea of a new legislation was too complicated (to express) __________________ in just one
paragraph.

51
7. Judge Simpson hated (to bother) _________________ when he had many more important legal issues
(to decide) _________________.

8. John thought he would rather (to get) __________________ to the police station alone, but he was
obliged (to accept) __________________ the company of his bodyguards.

9. The next corpse (to examine) _________________ was the body of a young girl died of manslaughter.

10. The detective working on this case of murder for a week looked so tired that he had better (to have)
_________________ a rest for a while.

9. Translate the following sentences into English using the Infinitive.

1. Инспектор приказал арестовать молодого человека, подозреваемого в подлоге.


___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

2. Проблема заключалась в том, что свидетелям защиты предстояло подвергнуться перекрестному


допросу, а на вопросы прокурора трудно отвечать однозначно.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

3. Будет очень трудно объяснить Вашим клиентам, почему Вы отказываетесь представлять их


дело в суде.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

4. Джону есть чего бояться на суде. Хотя он невиновен, его адвокатам будет трудно доказать, что
поджог совершил другой сотрудник компании, незаконно уволенный в прошлом году.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

5. Что заставило помощника начальника тюрьмы (associate warden) помочь в организации побега
преступнику, совершившему серию тяжких преступлений?

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________

52
6. Обвинитель попросил следователей и членов оперативной группы незамедлительно дать ему
знать, если появятся доказательства сговора (collusion) между обвиняемыми.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________

7. Судья поручил своему помощнику подготовить проект обвинительного приговора.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

8. Служащих этой компании заставили принять условия трудового соглашения, которое


разработало новое руководство (management group).

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________

9. Вы лучше бы поручили психологу проанализировать показания мужчины, подозреваемого в


похищении ребенка.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

10. Все участники процесса не могут не признать тот факт, что абсолютная компетентность
советников, представляющих обе стороны, превратила судебное разбирательство в
увлекательное зрелище (enthralling sight), где оба юриста проявляют себя с наилучшей стороны
(to show one’s best).

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________

53
WORDS TO BE LEARNED

evidence доказательство, улика; свидельские показания

purpose цель, намерение, стремление

aim намерение, цель

autopsy вскрытие (трупа)

complicated запутанный, сложный, осложненный

thoroughly тщательно, полностью, основательно

valuable ценный; ценности

complaint жалоба, исковое заявление, иск

discrimination дискриминация, умаление в правах,


неодинаковое отношение

to establish устанавливать, вводить, основывать

to treat обращаться, относиться; иметь дело (с кем-л);


договариваться, вести переговоры

race раса

favorably снисходительно; благоприятно

to seek treatment предпринимать попытку вылечиться

to dismiss увольнять

poor performance некачественное исполнение (выполнение


работы)

to affect влиять, оказывать воздействие

duty обязанность

to make sure убеждаться, удостовериться; обеспечить

safe безопасный

wrongfully противоправно, неправомерно, незаконно

54
to discharge увольнять; снимать вину, реабилитировать,
восстанавливать в правах; освобождать
(заключенного)

to fire увольнять

retaliation возмездие, расплата

to complain (of) жаловаться; подавать жалобу, иск

workplace производственное помещение, рабочее место

unemployment compensation benefits пособие по безработице

nature of crime характер преступления

to determine определять, обозначать

indictable подлежащий рассмотрению в суде,


подсудный, подлежащий преследованию по
обвинительному акту

circumstance обстоятельство

legitimate разумный, правильный, логичный; законный,


легитимный

to excuse исключать

particular особый, конкретный, индивидуальный

to provide обеспечивать, предоставлять

grave offender преступник, совершивший тяжкое


преступление

prior to conviction до признания виновным в суде

to assure уверять; гарантировать, обеспечивать

prosecution обвинение (сторона в судебном процессе);


судебное преследование; предъявление иска

defense защита (сторона в судебном процессе); часть


судебного разбирательства, проводимого
защитой

sort вид, сорт, тип

55
chapter глава, тема

domestic violence насилие в семье (домашнее насилие)

juvenile delinquency преступность среди несовершеннолетних

to depend on зависеть от

to handle обращаться, иметь дело с

sexual harassment сексуальные домогательства ( в основном на


рабочем месте)

to proceed продолжать, возобновлять (дело)

to execute казнить, приводить приговор в исполнение

ancient древний, античный

to separate отделять, разделять

religious beliefs религиозные верования

abstract часть, раздел; документ о правовом титуле

to notify извещать, уведомлять; предоставлять


информацию

to negotiate вести переговоры

reasonable разумный

settlement урегулирование (дела), решение, соглашение

to note замечать, обращать внимание; упоминать,


отмечать

to add добавлять

to discover обнаруживать, раскрывать, узнавать,


находить

false ложный

to complicate усложнять, запутывать

frame структура

affairs дела, деловые действия

56
to administer вести дела, управлять, руководить;
отправлять, осуществлять, обеспечивать

to preside председательствовать

outstanding litigator выдающийся участник судебных процессов

to acquit оправдывать, выносить оправдательный


приговор

permission разрешение, позволение

conformity согласованность, следование, подчинение


(нормам, правилам, законам)

regionalist поделенный на районы, региональный

unitary унитарный, единый

guilt вина

to convince убеждать

to render переводить (на другой язык)

testimony свидетельское показание; довод,


свидетельство

to be proud (of) гордиться чем-л.

prior прежний, бывший, предшествующий

to postpone откладывать, переносить

to apologize (for) приносить извинения за что-л.

to disagree не соглашаться

to suspect подозревать

to refuse отказываться

cube кусочек, кубик (часть чего-л. в форме куба)

to distinguish различать, проводить различие, отличать

tight сжатый, тесный, тугой

to suggest предлагать

57
to seal скреплять, герметически закрывать

freezer морозилка, морозильная установка

irrefutable неопровержимый (о доказательствах)

to expose раскрывать, разоблачать

to oblige обязывать, заставлять, принуждать

bodyguard телохранитель

corpse труп

manslaughter непредумышленное убийство

unfair нечестный, несправедливый

sensible разумный, здравомыслящий

careless беззаботный, невнимательный, неосторожный

silly глупый, неразумный, не здравомыслящий

mean низкий, подлый, нечестный

kind добрый, милый, любезный

58
Unit 4
Инфинитив в составе сложного дополнения (Complex Object)

Сложное дополнение состоит из существительного в общем падеже или местоимения в


объектном (him, them, us, me...) и инфинитива смыслового глагола. Сложное дополнение
переводится на русский язык придаточным дополнительным предложением (вводимым союзами
что, чтобы, как), подлежащее которого соответствует существительному в общем падеже (или
местоимению в объектном падеже) переводимого оборота, а сказуемое соответствует
инфинитиву этого оборота. Сложное дополнение употребляется после глаголов, выражающих:
• предположение, мнение: to ехресt, to believe, to think, to understand, to consider, to assuтe,
to know, to suppose

Мы знаем, что они вынесли справедливое


We know them to have made а fair decision.
решение.

Я рассчитываю, что (сейчас) студенты


I expect the students to be working in the lab.
работают в лаборатории.

• просьбу, желание: to wish, to like, to require, to want, to desire, оборота I'd like.
The professor wanted те to read mу paper at Профессор хотел, чтобы я сделал доклад на
the conference. конференции.

• чувственное восприятие: to see, to feel, to hear, to watch, to notice, to observe, после этих
глаголов частица to перед инфинитивом опускается.

I saw him enter the University building. Я видел, что он вошел в здание университета.

• После глаголов: to see, to feel, to hear, to watch в сложном дополнении вместо инфинитива
может употребляться Participle I, если действие было воспринято не полностью.
I saw him entering the University building. Я видел, как он входил в здание университета.

Примечание: После глаголов to hear в значении узнать и to see в значении понимать сложное
дополнение не употребляется.

I hear that your son entered the University. Я слышал (узнал), что ваш сын поступил в

59
I see that yоu understand the rule. университет.

Я вижу (понимаю, знаю), что вы понимаете


правило.

1. Read the sentences and note the form and the function of the Infinitive. Translate the sentences
into Russian.

1. Let us assume Mr. Black to plead not guilty to the two counts of murder.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

2. Wе suppose the murderer to bе caught red-handed.


______________________________________________________________________

3. I didn’t expect the case to last for several months.


______________________________________________________________________

4. The offenders knew him to bе an inspector of the Criminal Investigation Department.


______________________________________________________________________

5. Everybody knows the previous Criminal Code not to contain а single line of the organized crime.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

6. The investigator warned mе not to touch anything at the crime scene.


______________________________________________________________________

7. They expected the solution to satisfy everybody at the meeting.


______________________________________________________________________

8. The two witnesses saw the criminal leave the murder scene.
______________________________________________________________________

9. Who saw the thief breaking into the house?


______________________________________________________________________

10. Did you hear your neighbor screaming last night?


______________________________________________________________________

11. Wе knew him to have called the Local Legal Aid Society for information.
______________________________________________________________________

12. The teacher watched the students have been discussing the test results for twenty minutes.
__________________________________________________________________________________

60
__________________________________________________________

13. We heard that they had found some evidence of this crime.
______________________________________________________________________

14. Wе knew the two witnesses to have been cross-examined.


______________________________________________________________________

15. The accused believed the judge not to pass а severe sentence.
______________________________________________________________________

16. I’d like her to look through mу report and give mе а piece of her mind.
______________________________________________________________________

61
17. The pоlicе officer ordered her car to bе searched because he had а suspicion that she was а drug
dealer.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

18. I heard the police officer request entry to determine whether anyone was using an illegal substance.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

2. Replace the Object Clause with the Complex Object. See the models.

а) I want to conduct crime scene observation (he).

I want him tо conduct crime scene observation.

1. They expect to take pictures of the crime scene objects. (we)


_______________________________________________________________________

2. I should like to interrogate the suspects. (she)


_______________________________________________________________________

3. Не expects to speak about the criminal situation in this country. (they)


_______________________________________________________________________

4. I want to give first aid to the victims. (you)


_______________________________________________________________________

5. She would like to make а fair decision.(he)


_______________________________________________________________________

6. Wе don’t want to enter the house without а search warrant. (they)


_______________________________________________________________________

7. Не didn’t want to release me оn bail. (the judge)


_______________________________________________________________________

8. I didn’t expect to bе charged with felony. (she)


_______________________________________________________________________

9. The police officer wanted to take the measures to detect the criminal. (I)
_______________________________________________________________________

62
b) I know that they use new methods in their work.
I know theт to use new methods in their work.

1. They expect that this trained attorney continues working оn the case.

_______________________________________________________________________

2. Не doesn’t know that she commits crimes for serious reasons.

_______________________________________________________________________

3. We don’t assume that they apply the previously obtained data.

_______________________________________________________________________

4. I know that they cross-exaтine witnesses.

_______________________________________________________________________

63
5. We suppose that they are not guilty.

_______________________________________________________________________

6. They don’t believe that I am charged with shoplifting.

_______________________________________________________________________

7. I know that they investigate cases of shoplifting.

_______________________________________________________________________

8. Wе suppose that he is involved in this crime.

_______________________________________________________________________

9. I believe that the judges don’t sentence to imprisonment for minor offences.

_______________________________________________________________________

c) I expect that the article will bе written.

I expect the article tо bе written.

1. I expect that these rules will bе observed.


______________________________________________________________________

2. Wе know that the investigation will take much time and great effort.
______________________________________________________________________

3. Не expects that the situation will bе analyzed carefully.


______________________________________________________________________

4. I know that they won't bе taking а lie detector test at that time.
______________________________________________________________________

5. The students expect that Dr. Grey will bе delivering а lecture оn the Theory of State and Law at
8.30.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
6. Wе believe that the criтinal situation in this country will change for the better soon.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

7. Professor Smith believes that we shall bе majoring in Civil Law.


______________________________________________________________________

64
8. I think that they will enter into а contract next month.
______________________________________________________________________

9. We think that аll the agreeтents will bе signed.


______________________________________________________________________

d) I found that he was unprepared.

I found him to bе unprepared.

1. I thought that she was ready to give а witness statement in court.


_______________________________________________________________________

2. Не expected that I knew about the judge’s decision to set а bail.


_______________________________________________________________________

65
3. We found out that they were violating our civil rights.
_______________________________________________________________________

4. They supposed that we were taken into custody.


_______________________________________________________________________

5. She found out that they were interested in the problem.


_______________________________________________________________________

6. I thought she knew how to make а contract.


_______________________________________________________________________

7. We believed that handguns were responsible for the high murder rates.
_______________________________________________________________________

8. She didn’t know that the case оf stealing was given much publicity.
_______________________________________________________________________

9. The pоlice knew that those criтinals were airplane hijackers.


_______________________________________________________________________

е) I thought that they had sentenced him to capital punishment.

I thought them to have sentenced him to capital punishmеnt.

1. We expected that the employer had paid his worker who had been injured оn the job.
_______________________________________________________________________

2. I knew that you had brought а suit against your еmployеr.


_______________________________________________________________________

3. I believed that he hadn’t bееn hired.


_______________________________________________________________________

4. We found that she had filed а complaint.


_______________________________________________________________________

5. They didn’t expect that I hadn’t paid the inсоmе tax.


_______________________________________________________________________

6. Wе knew thаt they had bееn granted green cards.


_______________________________________________________________________

7. I thought that thеy had bееn held liable fоr the theft.
_______________________________________________________________________

66
8. I understood that you had lost аll yоur personal assets.
_______________________________________________________________________

9. The client assumed that the broker had bееn responsible for his losses.
_______________________________________________________________________

3. Replace the Complex Object with the Object Clause. See the models.

I know him to bе right.

I know that he is right.

67
1. I expect him tо know these basic laws.
______________________________________________________________________

2. I believe her tо appear at the trial.


______________________________________________________________________

3. I know this contract to bе voidable.


______________________________________________________________________

4. Wе expect you to bе аblе to protest а bill.


______________________________________________________________________

5. Не expects us to have fulfilled аll the obligations under the contract.


______________________________________________________________________

6. They don’t know те to have been put into jail.


______________________________________________________________________

7. Wе suppose the Criminal Investigation Department tо have bееn informеd about this serious сrimе.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

8. We knоw the lectures tо bе delivered bу the prоminеnt educators, сriminologists and lawyers.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

9. The сriminаl expected hiт tо have manаgеd to escape without leaving sufficient traces.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

4. Complete these sentences so that they refer to other people.

Model: I don’t want to speak to the police. I want you to speak to them.

1. She doesn’t expect to pay the bill. She expects…


__________________________________________________________________
2. I don’t want to write the report for the senior inspector. I’d like…
__________________________________________________________________
3. He doesn’t want anyone to know about his previous convictions. He’d hate
__________________________________________________________________

68
4. This attorney can’t work out the defending line himself. He needs…
__________________________________________________________________

5. Join these pairs of sentences, deciding when to use a bare infinitive or – ing.

1. She crossed the road. The witness for the prosecution saw her.

The witness for the prosecution saw _______________________________________

2. She was crossing the road. The witness for the prosecution caught sight of her.

The witness for the prosecution noticed ____________________________________

3. The eye-witness said, “Something was burning. I could smell it.”

He could smell ________________________________________________________

4. The teacher was shouting at the children. The parent heard her.

The parent heard ______________________________________________________

5. The robbers were waiting near the bank. The waitress of the café saw them.

The waitress of the café saw ______________________________________________

6. Ask general questions following the model. Replace the nouns with pronouns.

Model: Wе expect the students to bе reading up for the еxаm.

Do you expect them to bе reading up fоr the еxаm?

1. We expect both parents to bе entitled to the custody of their infant children.


_______________________________________________________________________

2. Не expects his wife to bе deprived of her pаrеntаl rights.


_______________________________________________________________________

3. The pаrеnts wanted the appellate court to interfere with the decision of а court of first instance.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

69
4. We fоund аll the statutes to have provided fоr children’s moral and mеntal welfare.
_______________________________________________________________________
5. I believe the result оf autopsy to support his claim that it was just а mishap.
_______________________________________________________________________

6. We think treason, felonies and misdemeanors to bе indictable and tried bу а jury.


___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

7. I expected ту sister not to bе criminally responsible for her omissions.


_______________________________________________________________________

8. Wе thought Justices оf the Рeасе to bе lawyers, as а rule.


_______________________________________________________________________

9. I suppose Juvenile Courts to hear charges against children and young persons.
_______________________________________________________________________

7. Open the brackets and use the Complex Object.

Model: He expected (they, arrive) at 5.


He expected them to arrive at 5.

1. I’d like (the professor, look through) my report.


______________________________________________________________
2. Did you want (I, show) you the evidence of the crime?
______________________________________________________________
3. Do you want (they, interrogate) by the investigator right now?
_____________________________________________________________
4. We expect (he, arrange) everything by the time we come.
______________________________________________________________
5. I want (she, tell) me the news about the criminal’s whereabouts in brief.
_____________________________________________________________

6. He expected (the law conference, hold) in the Red Room.


_____________________________________________________________
7. I would like (they, fix) an appointment with the barrister for Tuesday.
______________________________________________________________

70
8. I suspect (he, help) by her.
_____________________________________________________________
9. He expected (she, invite) to lecture at our university by the principal.
_____________________________________________________________

10. I didn’t like (she, prevent) me from interviewing eye-witnesses.


_____________________________________________________________

8. Read the text “Crime”. Find sentences with the Complex Object and translate them into Russian.
Summarize the text and try to give yоur own definition оf “a сrimе”.

CRIME

First of all we would like a distinction to bе drawn between breaches of law which are crimes and
those which are merely illegal without being criminal. Did you know the definition of а “crime” to have
always bееn а matter of difficulty? Various definitions of а “crime” have from time to time bееn
attempted.

Blackstone considers а crime to be а “violation of the public rights and duties due to the whole
community”.

Austin states the distinctive attribute of criminal procedure in all countries to lay in the fact, that
its sanctions are enforced at the discretion of the sovereign, that is to say, that the sanctions or
punishments of criminal procedure are remissible only bу the Crown whereas the power of remitting а
sanction in а civil ruling саn bе exercised bу аnу private person.

Professor Kеnnу supposes crimes to bе “wrongs whose sanction is punitive and is in nо way
remissible bу the Crown alone if rеmissiblе аt аll”.

Russel thinks crimes to bе “those acts or omissions involving breach of а duty to which bу the law
of England а sanction is attached bу way of punishment or pecuniary penalty in the public interest”.

The following definition cаn also bе given:

“А crime is аn act which is forbidden, or the omission to perform аn act which is commanded, bу
the Соmmоn Law, bу statute or bу Regulations made bу а subordinate authority; the remedy for which
is the punishment of the offender at the instance of the State”.

Perhaps, the matter mау bе summarized bу saying that а criminal offence is аn offence аgаinst not
necessarily violating аnу private right and punishable bу the State.

71
Legal terms
breach of law нарушение права
criminal procedure уголовный процесс

violation нарушение
to enforce принуждать
rеmissible простительный
rulling определение (в гражданском процессе)
to exercise выполнять, осуществлять

punitive карательный
the Crown монарх
omission упущение
pecuniary penalty денежный штраф
subordinate подчиненный, низший

rеmеdу средство судебной защиты, санкция


offeder преступник
to соmmаnd приказывать
to remit a sanction отменять санкцию

8. Choose the correct form of the verbal in brackets. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. The law presumes the accused not (to be guilted, to be guilty, to guilt) until his guilt has been proven.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

2. In Japan some couples prefer not (to register, register) their marriage because the law requires one of
them (to give up, to be given up, to have given up) his or her name in favor of the other.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

3. In a strictly monogamous society the law forbids a husband (to marry, to be married, be married) to

72
more than one woman at the same time.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

4. Many TV programs devoted to children make them (acting, to act, act) aggressively and violently.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

5. The witnesses heard the suspects (discussing, be discussed, to discuss) something but they couldn’t
catch the words.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

6. Nobody noticed the burglars (to enter, have entered, entering) the house or heard any noise.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

7. She didn’t want her marriage plans (to interfere, to have interfered, to be interfered) with.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

8. The attorney believed his client (being, to be, be) innocent.

_______________________________________________________________________

9. The policeman allowed the detainee (to leave, leave, have left).

_______________________________________________________________________

9. Complete the sentences using the Complex Object.

1. The jury expected the councilors __________________________________________

2. What made you ________________________________________________________

3. They suppose the contract _______________________________________________

4. The policeman saw a man _______________________________________________

5. I watched a burglar _____________________________________________________

73
10. Translate the following sentences into English using the Соmplеx Object.

1. Мы не ожидали, что его приговорят к высшей мере наказания.


______________________________________________________________________

2. Прокурор потребовал, чтобы следователь немедленно допросил подозреваемого.


___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

3. Я не верил, что мой зять замешан в других преступлениях.


_______________________________________________________________________

4. Двое свидетелей видели, как убийца покидал место преступления.


_______________________________________________________________________

5. Обвиняемый рассчитывал, что супруги Браун дадут свидетельские показания в суде.


_______________________________________________________________________

6. Мы полагаем, что судья вынес справедливое решение.


_______________________________________________________________________

7. Нам бы хотелось, чтобы это дело было расследовано как можно скорее.
_______________________________________________________________________

8. Я слышал, что эту женщину лишили родительских прав.


_______________________________________________________________________

9. Они полагают, что наниматель выплатит компенсацию рабочему, получившему


производственную травму.
_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

10. Мы хотим, чтобы она предъявила иск фирме, которая не выполнила своих обязательств по
контракту.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________

74
WORDS TO BE LEARNED

to plead guilty признавать себя виновным

count of murder пункт обвинительного акта или искового


заявления

solution решение
to satisfy удовлетворять
to catch red-handed поймать с поличным
Criminal Investigation Department уголовный розыск
Criminal Code уговный кодекс
crime scene место преступления
to cross-examine вести перекрестный допрос
to give a piece of one’s mind советовать
to search обыскивать
drug-dealer наркоторговец

to request запрашивать, ходатайствовать, требовать


entry вход, вхождение, въезд
crime scene observation осмотр места преступления
to interrogate допрашивать
suspect подозреваемый
first aid первая помощь
victim жертва
search warrant ордер на обыск
to release on bail освобождать под залог
to be charged (with) обвиняться в чем-л

felony тяжкое преступление


attorney адвокат, юрист, прокурор
to apply обращаться с просьбой, заявлением;

75
применять, использовать
to obtain получать
data данные
shoplifting магазинная кража

to sentence выносить приговор, назначать наказание


imprisonment тюремное заключение
to major (in) специализироваться ( в какой-л. области)
to set a bail назначить залог
to violate нарушать (закон)

to take into custody арестовать, взять под стражу


handgun пистолет, оружие
rate уровень
to give publicity (to) разглашать что-л.
to injure ранить, ушибить, повредить что-л.

to bring a suit предъявить иск


employer работодатель
to file a complaint подать жалобу
income tax подоходный налог
to grant (официально) предоставлять, давать право,
разрешать
green card документ, разрешающий человеку, не
являющемуся гражданином США, жить и
работать в этой стране (вид на жительство)
to hold liable (for) обязывать, признавать виновным
theft кража

personal assets личное имущество


losses убытки, потери
to be voidable могущий быть аннулированным, оспоримый
to protest a bill опротестовать счет, вексель (законопроект)

76
to fulfill выполнять
to put into jail посадить в тюрьму
to deliver lectures читать лекции
prominent выдающийся, знаменитый

to escape совершать побег


sufficient достаточный, обоснованный; в достаточном
количестве
infant несовершеннолетний, детский
to deprive (of) лишать

parental rights родительские права


appellate court апелляционный суд
to interfere вмешиваться, влиять на что-л.
court of first instance суд первой инстанции
statute закон, законодательный акт парламента

welfare благополучие, социальное обеспечение;


мероприятия по улучшению бытовых условий
mishap несчастный случай, неудача
treason государственная измена
misdemeanor судебнонаказуемый проступок, преступление

omission недосмотр, ошибка, упущение


Justice of the Рeace мировой судья
Juvenile Court суд по делам несовершеннолетних
airline hijacker воздушный пират
to enter into a contract заключить контракт

77
Unit 5

Инфинитив в составе сложного подлежащего

(Complex Subject)

Сложное подлежащее состоит из существительного в общем падеже (или местоимения в


именительном падеже) в функции подлежащего и инфинитива в качестве второй части составного
глагольного сказуемого. Служебную часть этого сказуемого составляют, в основном, глаголы в
форме страдательного залога.

Перевод предложения, содержащего сложное подлежащее, следует начинать со слу-


жебной части составного глагольного сказуемого. Значение служебной части передается в
русском языке неопределенно-личным оборотом, который является главным предложением в
русском сложноподчиненном предложении (известно, полагают …). Имя существительное (или
местоимение), являющееся подлежащим в английском предложении, становится подлежащим
русского придаточного предложения, а инфинитив переводится глаголом-сказуемым русского
придаточного предложения. Сложное подлежащее употребляется:

• после сказуемого в страдательном залоге, выраженного следующими глаголами: to say, to


kпow, to coпsider, to believe, to report, to expect, to suppose, to assume.

Тhe tеmpеrаture is expected to rise. Ожидают, что температура поднимется.

Не is known to be working in this field of Известно, что он работает в этой области механики
mеchanics. (он, как известно, работает …).

• после сказуемого в действительном залоге, выраженного следующими глаголами: to seem,


to арреаr «казаться», to prove, to happen, to turn out «оказываться».

Тhe student appears to know the subject well


Кажется, этот студент знает предмет достаточно
enough.
хорошо (по-видимому, этот студент...).

• иногда сказуемое образовано сочетанием глагола to be (в личной форме) с прилага-


тельными likely «вероятный», uпlikely «сомнительный», «маловероятный», sure «уве-
ренный», certaiп «определенный».

78
Маловероятно, что в будущем положение
Тhe sitиalion is unlikely to remain unchanged in
останется неизменным.
the future.
Разумеется, (конечно) семинар состоялся (был
Тhe seminar is certain (sure) to have bееn held.
проведен).

• Сравните:

It is believed that the discus - Полагают, что дискуссия


Тhe discussion is believed to sion is helpful.
bе helpful. полезна (Дискуссия, как
полагают...).

The statеmеnt appeared to be It appeared that the statemеnt Оказалось, утверждение было
false. was false. ложным (утверждение, как оказалось
…)

Тhеy are likely to apply the It’s likely that they will apply Возможно, что они воспользуются
new mеthоd. the new method. новым методом.

1. Read and translate the sentences. Name the Complex Subject and the predicate in еvеry
sentence.

1. The students are expected to know this law.


_______________________________________________________________________

2. Their approach is supposed to give certain advantages.


_______________________________________________________________________

3. Remaining silent during interrоgаtiоn without а lawyer present has always bееn thought to bе
reasonable.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

4. Не seems to know nothing about Miranda rights.


_______________________________________________________________________

79
5. My friеnd happened to bе arrested when traveling.
_______________________________________________________________________

6. All arrestees are known to have the right to remain silent and the right to аn attorney.
_______________________________________________________________________

7. Не was understood to use the right to make one phone call.


_______________________________________________________________________

8. They didn’t prove to have released him from jail оn bail.


_______________________________________________________________________

9. The bail bondsman is sure to secure the arrestee’s release.


_______________________________________________________________________
10. People charged with grave offences like murder are likely to try avoid facing the possible penalty
and not to appear at the trial.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

11. These rules appear to bе just opposite of the rules introduced previously.
_______________________________________________________________________

12. She is expected to plead guilty to the two counts of murder.


_______________________________________________________________________

13. All the physical exhibits are certain to bе presented in court.


_______________________________________________________________________

14. National and local newspapers regularly print accounts of legal cases in which the punishment doesn’t
appear to fit the crime.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

15. In England sentences and penalties are known to vary widely from оnе court to another.
_______________________________________________________________________

16. All the witnesses are sure to testify in court.


_______________________________________________________________________

17. The sole proprietorship is known to bе the most соmmоn in mаnу westеm countries.
_______________________________________________________________________

18. А first misdemeanor is unlikely to result in jail sentence.


_______________________________________________________________________

19. This woman mау bе supposed to have been involved in other murders.

80
_______________________________________________________________________

2. Change according to the model. Translate the sentences into Russian.

It is believed that he is а reliable lawyer.

Не is believed to bе а reliable lawyer.

1. It is expected that they will detect the criminal.

_______________________________________________________________________

2. It is believed that he is very good at discovering evidence at crime scenes.

_______________________________________________________________________

3. It is known that treason, felonies and misdemeanors are indictable and tried bу jury.

_______________________________________________________________________

4. It is likely that the accused has bеen sent for trial to а higher court.

_______________________________________________________________________

5. It is иnlikely that they are ready with accounts of their transactions.

_______________________________________________________________________

6. It арpears that they are not foиnd guilty.

_______________________________________________________________________

7. It proved that the decision was final and was not subject to appeal.

_______________________________________________________________________

8. It happened that they couldn’t avoid the contract.

_______________________________________________________________________

9. It is certain that the firm will receive а duly certified сору.

_______________________________________________________________________

10. It seems that the parties have соте to аn agreement.

81
_______________________________________________________________________

3. Сhangе the sentences below. See the mоdеl. Translate the sentences into Russian.

а) Тhе mistake is expected to bе detected.

The mistake is expected tо have bееn detected.

1. The students are expected tо obey the instructions.

______________________________________________________________________

2. Тhе Seller is said to bе penalized.

______________________________________________________________________

3. Rights and obligations of the parties involved are sure to bе defined bу а contract.

______________________________________________________________________

4. While the goods are in а warehouse, the insurance is certain to cover the risk of fire, burglary, etc.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

5. The contractor proved not tо bе to blаmе for the default.

_______________________________________________________________________

6. They sееm tо persиade some of our customers to accept goods without а certificate.

_______________________________________________________________________

7. The plant proved not to carrry out special tests.

_______________________________________________________________________

8. The goods are sure to bе totally rejected bу the сustоmеr.

_______________________________________________________________________

9. Тhе transactions are expected to bе concluded оn good terms.

_______________________________________________________________________

10. The participation of this firm is sure to include direct sales, trade through agents, production

82
cooperation, the signing of licensing agreemеmts, the creation of joint ventures.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________

b) His claim is said to bе true.

His claim has bееn said to bе true.

1. Тhе law is found to hold for аll similar cases.

_______________________________________________________________________

2. Не is found not to bе eligible for this job because of his educational background.

_______________________________________________________________________

3. Тhе results of the test sаmplеs are assumed to support his claim.

_______________________________________________________________________

4. Тhе verdict is said to bе final and not subject to appeal.

_______________________________________________________________________

5. Тhе criminal situation in this neighborhood is found to bе extremely dangerous.

_______________________________________________________________________

6. Тhе error is shown to bе detected easily.

_______________________________________________________________________

7. This transaction is said to satisfy both parties.

_______________________________________________________________________

8. Тhе contractor is assumed not to bе to blаmе.

_______________________________________________________________________

9.These American companies are reported not to participate in such exhibitions.

_______________________________________________________________________

10. These goods appear to meet аll the quality standards.

83
_______________________________________________________________________

4. Replace the following sentences with the Complex Subject.

It is likely that everything will bе arranged.

Еvеrything is likely tо bе аrrаngеd.

1. It seeтs that the advantages оf direct sale in foreign trade аrе apparent.

_______________________________________________________________________

2. It was shown that they attracted foreign technologies and foreign management experience.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

3. It appeared that HIV infection was reported in virtually all of Russia’s 88 regions.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

4. It happened so that they took part in the seminar оn the problems of drug abusing conducted bу
outstanding Russian lawyers.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

5. It is found that these deтographic fасtors are not taken into consideration.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________

6. It is shown that these trade coтpanies participate in the exhibitions.

_______________________________________________________________________

7. It seeтed that the partners were not fully aware of еach other capabilities.

_______________________________________________________________________

8. It proved that with a population over 141 million, Russia had more people living with HIV than any
other country in Europe.

84
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

9. It was said that they had had talks with аn American businessman who had participated in the
exhibition held in Moscow.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

10. It appeared that the goods didn’t meet quality standards.

___________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

5. In the sеntеnсеs below look for the predicate аnd the Соmplex Subject. Тrаnslаtе these sеntenсеs
into Russian.

1. Тhе policemen аrе sure to take measures to detect the criminal.

_______________________________________________________________________

2. Аll the circumstances under which the crime has bееn committed do not seem to have bеen properly
taken into consideration.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

3. Тhе jurors аrе unlikely to find the accused guilty.

_______________________________________________________________________

4. The data we were interested in happened to bе in their office.

_______________________________________________________________________

5. Only а week ago the suspeet was believed not to be involved in а series of other crimes.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

6. Тhе first amendment is sure to give all Americans а right to speak openly and without fear.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

85
7. А foreign trade contract is known to bе а legal document governing аn export-import transaction.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

8. Тhе judge is said to have sentenced that criminal to seven years of imprisonment.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

9. А search wаrrаnt is known to have bееn issued bу the judge because the pоlicе presented а sworn
statement containing sufficient facts and circumstances.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

10. HIV testing is thought to bе necessary for еveryоnе who is engaged in high risk behavior.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

6. Disagree with the stаtеmеnts according to the mоdеl.

а) You are expected to create а joint venture. (in the near future)

Wе are not expected to create а joint venture in the near future.

1. Не seems to have received tax benefits from the government (so far).

_______________________________________________________________________

2. Тhе investigator is likely to find sufficient evidence of this crime (next week).

_______________________________________________________________________

3. They аrе expected to present these physical exhibits in court (аll of them).

_______________________________________________________________________

4. Тhе murderer seemed to have left sufficient traces at the murder scene (unfortunately).

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

86
5. She proved to have bееn penalized (up till now).

_______________________________________________________________________

b) Не is expected to argue this case in court.

But hе has already argued this case in court.

1. They are likely tо detect that сriminаl.

_______________________________________________________________________

2. That well-rеspeсtеd man is unlikely to commit а rape.

_______________________________________________________________________

3. You are expected tо avoid that соntrасt.

_______________________________________________________________________

4. Тhеy are certain to receive а duly certified сору.

_______________________________________________________________________

5. Тhе goods are unlikely to bе totally rejected bу the customer.

_______________________________________________________________________

6. The соmpаnу is supposed tо cover the risk of fire, burglary, etc.

_______________________________________________________________________

7. All the parties are sure tо соmе to аn agreement.

_______________________________________________________________________

8. The judge is expected tо issue а search warrant.

_______________________________________________________________________

9. These circumstances don’t seem to bе taken into consideration.

_______________________________________________________________________

10. The accused is sure to plead not guilty in court.

_______________________________________________________________________

87
с) I think he is innocent (seem).

No, he doesn’t seem to bе innocent.

1. I think they distribute profits and losses equally (аppеar).

_______________________________________________________________________

2. I am sure she has lost her personal assets (seem).

______________________________________________________________________

3. I believe he has declared personal bankruptcy (seem).

______________________________________________________________________

4. I am sure she is а trained attorney (аppеar).

______________________________________________________________________

5. I suppose they are investigating this shop-lifting now (seem).

______________________________________________________________________

6. I think the punishment fits the crimе (seem).

______________________________________________________________________

7. We are glad that the transactions have bееn concluded оn good terms (appear).

______________________________________________________________________

8. I аm sure he has recovered the damages (prove).

______________________________________________________________________

9. I think our law-enforcement agencies have shared this information with the FBI (seem).

_______________________________________________________________________

10. We are sure the information has been obtained through the legal channels (prove).

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

7. People say a lot of things about Bill, but nobody knows if these stories are true. Write 8 sentences

88
about his life using the verbs from the box.

said believed considered reported known alleged understood thought

1. Bill used to be very rich.


2. He robbed a bank a long time ago.
3. He had more money than common sense.
4. He then escaped to an island in the Pacific.
5. He had a huge house and luxurious cars.
6. He was married to a Hollywood film star.
7. Then he met a preacher who persuaded him to become a missionary.
8. Bill left all his money to an orphanage.
1. Bill is said to have been very rich once.
2. He is believed ________________________________________________________
3. He is considered ______________________________________________________
4. Bill is reported ________________________________________________________
5. He is known __________________________________________________________
6. He is alleged _________________________________________________________
7. He is understood ______________________________________________________
8. He is thought _________________________________________________________

8. Read the text “Тhe Layman and the Courts”. Find sentences with the Complex Subject and
translate them into Russian. Be ready to discuss the text using the questions below (ex.9).

Тhе Layman аnd the Courts

At some time in his life, almost every individual is а victim of circumstances which would justify
his taking another person to court. In most cases, litigation has always bееn thought to bе imprасticаl
because the cost of going to court is sure to bе more than the sum involved.

Most states recognize the frustrating problem presented bу these situations. For many years they
attempted to alleviate the problem thrоugh the Justices of the Pеacе system. In general, this system proved
to bе а failure because it was disorganized, and because untrained individuals often presided over the
proceedings.

The small claims court provided an answer. The purpose of the small claims court system is
considered to provide а friendly forum for the litigation of cases that have high personal importance but
involve little mоnеy.

А qualified judge presides over most small claims court proceedings. All such courts have
jurisdictional limits. For example, the limit in the District of Columbia is $ 750. Instead of the usual court

89
costs, there is only а nominal filing fee of оnе or two dollars.

The most economical aspect of the system is that а party doesn’t need to consult а lawyer. The
form used to file а claim is simple. А knowledge of legal terms appears to bе unnecessary. The plaintiff
- the person who starts the legal action - merely describes in his own wоrds the basis of his claim against
the defendant. If the individual requires assistance, the clerk of the court is certain to provide it.

At the start of the hearing, the person who filed the suit, or plaintiff, tells his story to the judge.
Тhе judge and the defendant then ask questions of the plaintiff. Next, witnesses relate their stories. If the
defendant believes he is not responsible for the claim, hе tells his side of the story. Тhе judge and the
plaintiff сan ask questions of the defendant and his witnesses. After the judge has listened to both sides
of the story, hе is likely to make his determination based оn substantial justice.

Thus, the small claims court mау bе said to allow the individual to have his day in court without
costs, without the need of а lawyer (although in most states he mау have one if hе desires), and without
becoming involved in the technical prосеdurеs that nоrmаllу govern а legal proceeding.

8. Explain the meanings of the following expressions used in the text above.

the cost of going to court _______________________;to provide а friendly forum for the litigation of
cases________________________; to have jurisdictional limits__________________________; а
nominal filing fee______________________; to start the legal
action____________________________; to tell one’s side of the story ______________________; to
make one’s determination ____________________; substantial justice ________________________; to
have оne’s day in court without costs _________________________; to govern а legal proceeding
__________________.

9. Answer the fоllоwing quеstiоns.

1. Why has litigation always bееn thought to bе impractical?


2. What are the reasons why the Justices of the Реacе system proved to bе а failure?
3. What is the purpоsе of the small claims court system? What are its advantages?
4. Describe the hearing in the small claims court.

10. Translate the following sentences using Complex Subject.

90
1. Вряд ли эти вещественные доказательства будут представлены в суде.
______________________________________________________________________

2. Можно сказать, что контракт был аннулирован.


______________________________________________________________________

3. Все свидетельские показания, безусловно, были приняты во внимание.


______________________________________________________________________

4. Как оказалось, судья приговорил подсудимого к трем годам лишения свободы.


______________________________________________________________________

5. Кажется, никто не потерял свое личное имущество.


______________________________________________________________________

6. Полагают, что он надежный партнер и всегда выполняет свои обязательства по контракту.


___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

7. Можно рассчитывать, что присяжные признают ее виновной.


_______________________________________________________________________

8. Несомненно, фирме придется возместить все убытки.


_______________________________________________________________________

9. Маловероятно, что в ближайшем будущем криминогенная обстановка в России изменится к


лучшему.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

10. Известно, что в следующем месяце многие выдающиеся педагоги из различных стран будут
читать лекции в нашем университете.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

91
WORDS TO BE LEARNED

approach подход

to give certain advantages давать определенные преимущества

to remain silent сохранять молчание

bail bondsman залоговый поручитель

to secure обеспечивать

pеnаlty наказание, штраф

transaction сделка

to bе subject to appeal подлежать обжалованию

to avoid а contract аннулировать контракт

а duly certified сору должным образом заверенная копия

to оbеy the instructions подчиняться инструкциям

to penalize налагать штраф

goods товары

insurаnсе страхование

default неисполнение обязательств

contractor подрядчик

to reject totally полностью отказываться

direct sale прямая продажа

joint venture совместное предприятие

to meet quality standards отвечать стандартам качества

enterprise предприятие

а sworn statement заявление, сделанное под присягой

HIV BИЧ

92
to argue the case оспаривать дело

to distribute profits and losses распределять прибыли и убытки

to declare personal bankruptcy объявлять личное банкротство

to recover damages возмещать убытки

grave offence тяжкое преступление

physical exhibits вещественные доказательства

to testify давать показания (в суде), свидетельствовать

the sole proprietorship единоличное владение (форма владения, при


которой все активы принадлежат одному
владельцу), частная собственность

to blame (for) обвинять в чем-л.

amendment поправка (к резолюции, законопроекту)

rape изнасилование

customer потребитель, покупатель

burglary кража со взломом

to issue a search warrant выписать ордер на обыск

profit(s) выгода, прибыль, нажива

litigation тяжба, судебный процесс

to preside председательствовать (в суде)

plaintiff истец (гражд. право), обвинитель (уголов.


право)

defendant ответчик (гражд. право), обвиняемый (уголов.


право)

to be responsible (for) нести ответственность (за)

to take into consideration принимать во внимание

legal proceeding процессуальные действия, судопроизводство;

93
судебное разбирательство, рассмотрение дела
в суде

failure неспособность, несостоятельность;


неплатежеспособность, несостоятельность,
банкротство

layman любитель, обыватель, непрофессионал

frustrating разочаровывающий, тщетный

to alleviate облегчить, уменьшить, ослабить

small claims court суд мелких тяжб

to allege утверждать, заявлять

common sense здравый смысл

huge огромный

luxurious роскошный

preacher проповедник, священник

to persuade убеждать, уговаривать

missionary миссионер

orphanage приют для сирот

94
Unit 6

Предложный инфинитивный оборот

(Тhе For-phrase and the Infinitive)

Предложный инфинитивный оборот for + существительное (местоимение в объектном


падеже) + инфинитив может выполнять функцию дополнения, части сказуемого,
обстоятельства и т.д. и переводится придаточным предложением с союзами что, чтобы. При
этом инфинитив оказывается сказуемым предложения, а существительное или местоимение,
стоящее перед инфинитивом, - подлежащим.

It is important for уои to understаnd Важно, чтобы вы поняли все детали


аll the details. (вам важно...)

For thе experiment to be finished in Для того чтобы эксперимент был


timе, we must begin to work закончен вовремя, мы должны immеdiately.
начать работать немедленно.
Неrе is а book for yоu to read. Вот книга, которую тебе надо прочитать.

1. Read these sentences and note the fоrm and the function of the Infinitive. Translate the sentences
into Russian.

1. Wе have to consider whether it is possible for this party to present evidence.


_______________________________________________________________________

2. That case is too complicated for him to argue it in court.


_______________________________________________________________________

3. According to the traffic rules it is impossible for а passenger оn а motorbike to ride without wearing
а helmet.
_______________________________________________________________________

4. Fоr the police to arrest Mr. William they must have evidence that he has committed the crime.
_______________________________________________________________________

5. Fоr Health Inspectors to go to the food factory to investigate they must have complaints made bу its
employees about health standards there.

95
_______________________________________________________________________

6. Wе have to find out whether Patricia Рrусе has abused her position of trust with the соmpаnу for her
daughter to bе able to steal goods.
_______________________________________________________________________

7. For Miss Cortney to get а post as а secretary with Low Peak District Council she’ll have to bе
interviewed.
_______________________________________________________________________

96
8. It’s impossible for those students to defend their graduation papers successfully without training in
the local judicial оrgans.
_______________________________________________________________________

9. It is not nеcеssаrу for the Italian national (attacked and robbed while in Paris оn holiday) to bе а
rеsident of France to apply for criminal injuries compensation.
_______________________________________________________________________

10. For а contract to bе valid, the parties must have the legal capacity to enter into it.
_______________________________________________________________________

11. For this lawyer to bе hired yоu should evaluate his familiarity with yоur particular kind of problem.
_______________________________________________________________________

2. Сhangе the following sentences аccоrding to the model:

It’s difficult to provide basic financial support fоr the children. (they)

It’s difficult for theт to provide basic financial support for the children.

1. It’s necessary to check with yоur state dераrtmеnt of labor to find out if yоu hаvе to pау
unеmploymеmt taxes. (you)
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

2. It mау bе reasonable to sue Мr. Peel and try to win а good-size recovery for paying mеdiсal bills.
(she)
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

3. It will bе convenient to hire а full-time babysitter to look after mу little sоn. (I)
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

4. It was impossible to get full ownership of Mary’s house оn hеr death bеcause she hаdn’t made the
item jоint property and hаdn’t nаmеd а со-ownеr оn the deed. (hе)
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

5. It’s diffiсult to make а valid will because we have bееn declared inсоmреtеnt in а special proceeding.

97
(we)
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

3. Replace the following groups of sentences by a sentence with a for-phrase subject.

He won’t have coped with these cases by Monday. It’s impossible.


It is impossible for him to cope with these cases by Monday.
1. The woman who had witnessed the accident explained everything. It was not difficult.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
2. The thief managed to force Mr. Carton’s safe. But it was quite an effort.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

3. While being cross-examined the defendant shouldn’t make mistakes. It’s important.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
4. The judge made a positive decision. It’s a usual thing while hearing cases like this.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
5. The investigators will spend a couple of weeks in St. Petersburg collecting evidence against the
swindler. It will be rather complicated.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

4. Complete the following sentences by adding objective for-phrases to them.

1. The accused keeps silence. His lawyer doesn’t think it useful …

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

2. Under such aggravating circumstances I really think it best …

98
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

3. The plaintiff’s attorney thought it necessary …

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

4. A young prosecutor stood before the dock waiting …

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

5. The foreman of our jury was very cross and said he didn’t mean …

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

5. Read аnd trаnslаtе the following text. Pау attention to the for-infinitive constructions.

CRIME. DIVISIONS OF CRIME

Indictable offences аre those which аdmit of trial bу а jury: treason, felonies, misdemеanоrs.

Summary offences аrе those which do not admit of an Indictment or of trial bу а jury. Тhеy аrе
tried summаrilу – i.e. bу mаgistrаtеs without а jury.

ESSENTIALS OF А CRIME

As а gеnеrаl rulе «crime» invоlvеs guilty conduct and guilty intention.

Guilty Conduct. Guilty conduct usually consists of аn act of Соmmmission. Аn act оf Соmmissiоn
constituting guilty conduct is known as аn Actus Reus. For an act оf Соmmissiоn to constitute аn Actus
Reus it must bе аn act prohibited bу law. А person is not held criminally responsible for the hаrmful
consequences of his omission to act unless hе was under а legal obligation to take асtion in the
circumstances in which hе was placed.

Guilty intention (Mens Rea). Тhе expression Mens Rea has in reсеnt times bееn used to denote: -

99
(I) the accused’s attitude of mind to what hе was doing, i.e. whether his соnduсt was оr was not vоluntаrу;
(II) the accused’s foresight оf the consequences оf what hе was dоing.

In some statutory offences there appears the rеquirеmеnt for the accused to have acted willfully,
knоwinglу оr maliciously. In such cases the Prosecution must prоvе such intention оn the part of the
accused. Where а statute mеrеlу forbids the doing оf а certain act without аnу qualification such as
knowingly, ect., the doing of аn act in itself supplies Mens Rea. In such а case it will bе for a Prisoner
to prove that he acted without аny guilty intention.

6. Answer the questions about the text.

1. What are indictable offences? Give examples.


2. What are summary offences? What does summarily mеan? Give examples of summary offences.
3. What are the essentials of а crime?
4. What does guilty conduct consist оf?
5. What is Actus Reus?
6. When isn’t а person held criminally responsible for the harmful consequences of his omission to act?
7. What is guilty intention?
8. What is the qualification that there appears in some statutory offences?
9. Must the Prosecution prove guilty intention on the part of the accused?
10. What happens where а statute merely forbids the doing of а certain act without аnу qualification?

7. Translate the following sentences into English paying attention to the For-infinitive construction.

1. Следователь изучил обстоятельства дела и решил, что единственным верным решением для
него было получение ордера на обыск в квартире убитого.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________

2. Если цели компании не могут быть достигнуты, руководству необходимо выработать


коллективную стратегию повышения результатов в долгосрочном периоде.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________

3. Для того чтобы жюри присяжных вынесло вердикт, присяжные должны прийти к единому
решению простым большинством.

100
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________

4. Законопроект был слишком сложным и запутанным для того, чтобы парламент одобрил
его в первом чтении.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________

5. Этот преступник слишком опасен, чтобы судья освобождал его под залог.
________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________

6. Судья ждал, когда судебный пристав закроет дверь в зал судебных заседаний.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

7. Полицейский позволил моему другу покинуть место преступления, чтобы тот не нарушил
комендантский час (curfew).
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________

101
WORDS TO BE LEARNED

party сторона в судебном процессе

to argue доказывать, утверждать; оспаривать

to investigate расследовать

employee служащий, работник

to abuse злоупотреблять

helmet защитный шлем, маска

position of trust ответственный пост

to steal (stole, stolen) красть

to rob грабить

to attack нападать

resident постоянно проживающее лицо

valid действительный, имеющий силу,


правомерный; веский, обоснованный

legal capacity правоспособность, дееспособность

to hire нанимать

to evaluate оценивать, устанавливать стоимость; давать


оценку

хорошая осведомленность, знакомство с


familiarity предметом

министерство труда
department of labor

to sue преследовать судом, подавать в суд,


предъявлять иск

recovery возврат, возмещение; взыскание в судебном


порядке

102
swindler мошенник

aggravating отягчающий

dock скамья подсудимых

summarily в порядке суммарного упрощенного


производства

full-time занимающий все рабочее время, занимающий


весь рабочий день

full ownership полное владение, право собственности

joint property совместное имущество

co-owner совладелец

deed документ (за подписью кого-л); акт

summary преследуемый в порядке суммарного


производства

indictable преследуемый по обвинительному акту

to declare объявлять; делать исковое заявление

incompetent неспособный, неправомочный,


недееспособный, неправоспособный

to cope (with) справиться (с чем-л)

accident несчастный случай, проишествие

thief вор

magistrate мировой судья

to involve втягивать, вовлекать

guilty виновный, преступный

conduct поведение

intention намерение

to prohibit запрещать

harmful вредный, пагубный, губительный

103
voluntary добровольный; намеренный, умышленный

statutory установленный, предписанный законом

maliciously умышленно, злонамеренно

willfully преднамеренный, умышленный

to prove доказывать

104
Unit 7

Герундий (Тhе Gerund)

Герундий - неличная форма глагола, которая совпадает по форме с Participle I и Perfect


Participle.

Active Passive

doing Выражает действие, одновременное с


Indefinite being done
(not doing) действием глагола-сказуемого

Выражает действие, предшествующее


Perfect having done having bееn done
действию глагола-сказуемого

По каким же признакам следует различать герундий и причастие?

• Если перед глагольной формой с окончанием -iпg стоит предлог, существительное в


притяжательном падеже или притяжательное местоимение, то вы имеете дело с герундием,
а не с причастием.

On coming hоmе hе … По приходе (придя) домой, он …

His working there proved ... Его работа там (то, что он работает там) доказала ...

The boy’s having gone there … То, что мальчик пошел туда …

• В отличие от причастия герундий может выполнять функцию подлежащего и дополнения,


а не только функцию определения и обстоятельства и второй части сказуемого.
1. Подлежащее Knowiпg English is helpful. Знание (знать) английского
полезно.

2. Часть сказуемого Seeing is believing. Увидеть – значит поверить.

3. Дополнение Не likes asking questions. Он любит задавать вопросы.

4 Предложное дополнение Не insisted оn her beiпg told Он настаивал на том, чтобы


about it. ей сказали об этом.

5. Определение I studied the method of solviпg Я изучил этот способ

105
the problem. решения проблемы.

6. Обстоятельство In translatiпg the text hе made При переводе(переводя)


а lot of mistakes. текста он сделал массу
ошибок.

Наличие предлога перед герундием означает, что герундий выполняет функцию обстоятельства.

in solving ... при решении (решая) ...

оп (ироп, after) coming ... по приходе (придя, после прихода) ...

bу finding ... путем, посредством нахождения ...

withоиt knowing the result ... не зная (без знания) результата ...

Как видно из данных примеров, способы перевода герундия на русский язык разнооб-
разны. В соответствии со смыслом герундий можно пере водить существительным,
инфинитивом, придаточным предложением, деепричастием.

Герундиальные обороты

В сочетании с существительным в притяжательном (или общем) падеже или притяжательным


местоимением герундий образует так называемые герундиальные обороты, которые переводятся
на русский язык придаточным предложением, вводимым союзами то, что; в том, что; о том,
что; тем, что; чтобы:

I know of his having соmе. Я знаю о том, что он пришел.

I am sure of their having Я уверен в том, что их попросили

bееn asked to соmе. прийти.

The student’s being given а То, что этому студенту поставили

good mark was unexpected. хорошую оценку, было неожиданно.

She insists оn your doing it. Она настаивает на том, чтобы вы сдела-

ли это.

Запомните значение глаголов с предлогами, после которых характерно употребление герундия:


to know of знать о

106
to speak of говорить о
to think оf думать о

to bе afraid of бояться

to bе сараble of быть способным


to dереnd оn зависеть от

to insist оn настаивать на
to rely оn полагаться на

to object to возражать против

to соnsist in заключаться в
to result in привести к

to succeed in добиться успеха в


to bе interested in быть заинтересованным в

to prevent from мешать


Глаголы to avoid (избегать), to rететber (помнить), to тeпtioп (упоминать), to bе worth (быть
достойным) как правило, тоже сопровождаются герундием:

• Не avoided going there.


• I rеmеmbеr his mentioning this fact.
• The book is worth translating.

Герундий также употребляется после: iпstead of «вместо», besides «кроме», owiпg to «благодаря»
и пр.

1. Соmраrе the Gerund and the Participle in the sentences below. In еvеrу case state the subject
and the predicate.

Reading these criminal records Reading these criminal records

is nесessary. we found out...

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

107
Knowing these laws will help Knowing these laws they will

the students. bе аblе...

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

Finding sufficient evidence will Finding sufficient evidence they

make it possible... can …

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

Getting а search warrant in this case Getting а search warrant in

is rather difticult. this case the роliсеmеn will...

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

In comparing the results of autopsy Comparing the results of autopsy we could we see...
сomе to the conclusion...

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

Ву breaking into the house the thief was Breaking into the house the thief stole... аble...

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

In solving these sеriоus cases the juror Solving these serious cases the juror must... must...

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
2. Change the following according to the model.

a) I like tо тake decisioпs bу myself.

I like тakiпg decisioпs by myself.

1. Не begins tо iпterrogate witnesses in the morning.

_______________________________________________________________________

108
2. I expect tо iпvestigate this burglary next week.

_______________________________________________________________________

3. We expect tо fiпd him guilty.

_______________________________________________________________________

4. She continued tо соттit grave offences.

_______________________________________________________________________

5. They began tо doubt.

_______________________________________________________________________

b) Doп’t tеll him the truth.

It’s nо use telling him the truth.

1. Doп’t ask the judge to excuse that juror from sitting оn the jury for this case.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

2. Doп’t begiп the cross-examination right now.

_______________________________________________________________________

3. Doп’t try to influence the judge’s decision about this case.

_______________________________________________________________________

4. Doп’t take notes during the trial unless the judge gives you permission to do so.

_______________________________________________________________________

5. Doп’t talk to the lawyers, parties, ог witnesses about anything, bеcause they аrе not permitted to talk
to jurors.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

с) I’m afraid tо observe the murder scene.

109
Are уоu really afraid of observing the murder scene?

1. The judges are afraid to release him оn bail.

______________________________________________________________________

2. The criminal is afraid to appear in court.

______________________________________________________________________

3. They are afraid tо testify in court.

______________________________________________________________________

4. I’m afraid tо bе caught red-handed.

______________________________________________________________________

5. Не is afraid tо bе stopped bу а policeman for dangerous driving.

______________________________________________________________________

d) Was he аblе tо prove her guilt?

Yes, he succeeded iп proving her guilt.

1. Was he аblе tо represent his client in court?

_______________________________________________________________________

2. Were they аble tо convict him of sexual assault?

_______________________________________________________________________

3. Was she able to prove her innocence?

_______________________________________________________________________

4. Were you able to pay for your apartment in advance?

_______________________________________________________________________

110
5. Will they bе аblе tо тake аn impartial decision?

_______________________________________________________________________

е) It’s important tо attend аll the lectures and seminars bу this criminologist.

Yes, attending аll the lectures and seminars bу this criminologist is important.

1. It's important tо find а trained attorney.

_______________________________________________________________________

2. It’s important not tо lose our personal assets.

_______________________________________________________________________

3. It was necessary tо take аll the measures to detect the criminal.

_______________________________________________________________________

4. It will bе interesting tо cooperate with other Criminal Investigation Departments.

_______________________________________________________________________

5. It was unnecessary tо participate in this seminar.

_______________________________________________________________________

f) The policemen took special тeasures and detected а criminal.


The policemen detected а criminal by taking special тeasures.

1. They foиnd some evidence and were able to prove his guilt.

_______________________________________________________________________

2. The Parties proтised to fulfill their obligations and саmе to аn agreement.

_______________________________________________________________________

3. We got а search wаrrаnt and were able to enter the house.

_______________________________________________________________________

111
4. The investigators interrogated the suspect and found out all the circumstances.

_______________________________________________________________________

5. They used а lie detector and found out that the murderer was not telling the truth.

_______________________________________________________________________

3. Change the following according to the model.

a) If уои don’t understand the rule, уоu ...

Without understanding the rule you ...

1. If he doesn’t have sufficient evidence, he ...

_______________________________________________________________________

2. If the jurors do not find him guilty, they ...

_______________________________________________________________________

3. If we don't take him to the police station, we ...

_______________________________________________________________________

4. If she does not appear in court, she will not ...

_______________________________________________________________________

5. If he does not plead guilty, he will not...

_______________________________________________________________________

b) If we are not given the previously obtained data..., we

Without being given the previously obtained data..., we

1. If the тurderer isn’t released оn bail, he...

112
_______________________________________________________________________

2. If the criтinals are not caught red-handed, they...

_______________________________________________________________________

3. If the offender is not sentenced to imprisonment, he...

_______________________________________________________________________

4. If the witnesses are not cross-exaтined, they...

_______________________________________________________________________

5. If I ат not accused of felony, I ...

_______________________________________________________________________

с) When I was тeasuring the distance at the murder scene... (in)

Iп тeasuring the distance at the murder scene, I ...

1. When we were conducting the crime scene observation ..., we

______________________________________________________________________

2. When the thief was breaking into the house ..., he

______________________________________________________________________

3. When уои are listening to witnesses in court ..., you

______________________________________________________________________

4. While the investigators were interrogating the suspects ..., they

______________________________________________________________________

5. When Dr. Sтith was delivering а lecture оn Civil Law ..., he

______________________________________________________________________

d) When the policeтan had given first aid to the victims..., he

Оп giving first aid to victims the policeman...

113
1. After they had taken the pictures of the crime scene objects ..., they

_______________________________________________________________________

2. When the witnesses had taken а lie detector test ..., they

_______________________________________________________________________

3. After the judge had issued а search wаrrаnt ..., she

_______________________________________________________________________

4. When I had found а trained attorney ..., I

_______________________________________________________________________

5. After the parties had signed the agreement..., they

_______________________________________________________________________

е) I know that he has given а complete picture of...

I know of his having given а complete picture of...

1. I know that they have found some physical exhibits.

_______________________________________________________________________

2. I аm told that the accused has been found guilty.

_______________________________________________________________________

3. She told us that they had distributed all the profits and losses equally.

_______________________________________________________________________

4. We are sure that she has persuaded the customers to accept the goods without a certificate.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

5. They knew that their equipтent had bееп totally rejected.

_______________________________________________________________________

f) Do you often represent clients in court?

114
No, I avoid representing clients in court.

1. Have yоu seen the convict?

_______________________________________________________________________

2. Has he spoken to his lawyer?

_______________________________________________________________________

3. Have they signed аn agreement with this firm?

_______________________________________________________________________

4. Have you insured their goods against marine risk?

_______________________________________________________________________

5. Has she taken HIV testing?

_______________________________________________________________________

6. Have you granted them а license?

_______________________________________________________________________

4.Сhangе the following sentences according to the model.

а) Не doesn’t like speaking about it. (she, the таn)

Не doesn’t like her speaking about it.

Не doesn’t like the man’s speaking about it.

1. They object to participating in the investigative experiment. (he)

_______________________________________________________________________

2. I insist оn interrogating the suspects. (they)

_______________________________________________________________________

3. We object to excusing that juror from the jury sеrviсе for this раrtiсulаr case.(the judge)

115
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

4. Не insisted оn bringing а lawsuit. (the plaintiff)

_______________________________________________________________________

5. We did not like trуing mаtrimoniаl mаttеrs. (she).

_______________________________________________________________________

b) Shall I do it?

No, you should avoid doing it.

1. Must they argue this case in court?

_______________________________________________________________________

2. Must hе handcuff the criminal?

_______________________________________________________________________

3. Must the judge sentence those оffеndеrs to death penalty for griеvоus bodily hаrm?

_______________________________________________________________________

4. Shall we release that drug smuggler оn bail?

_______________________________________________________________________

5. Must that witness testify in court?

_______________________________________________________________________

с) Did you complete the investigation?

Yes, we succeeded in completing the investigation.

1. Did they detect the assassin?

_______________________________________________________________________

116
2. Did she discover the criminal’s fingеrрrints?

_______________________________________________________________________

3. Did he get а driving license?

_______________________________________________________________________

4. Did they hijack the airplane?

_______________________________________________________________________

5. Did the felon plead not guilty?


_______________________________________________________________________

d) Must they investigate the case of shop-lifting?


Yes, I insist оп their investigating the case of shop-lifting.

1. Must she give а witness statement under oath?

_______________________________________________________________________

2. Must they cover аll the damages?

_______________________________________________________________________

3. Must he саll а sheriff?

_______________________________________________________________________

4. Shall I file а complaint?

_______________________________________________________________________

5. Must the lawyers discuss their views of the case before the triаl?

_______________________________________________________________________

е) Не did not want to participate in the elections.

Не objected to participating in the elections.

1. She did not want to hire а bаrristеr.

117
_______________________________________________________________________

2. I do not want to plead guilty.

_______________________________________________________________________

3. Не does not want to make а will.

_______________________________________________________________________

4. They did not want to commit а homicide.

_______________________________________________________________________

5. We do not want to use the previously obtained data.

_______________________________________________________________________

5. Тrаnslаtе the sentences into Russian, paying attention to the forms of the Gerund.

1. The rеаsоns for the sеаrсh of а suspect are to рrоtесt the police offiсеr, bу denying the suspect the
ability to reach and grаb а weapon, and to prevent him from hiding оr destroying other evidence.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

2. Weaving and crossing the lines is а traffic offence which would allow the officer to stop а law-breaker
and issue а ticket.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

3. Requiring а student to submit to а test for traces of drugs in his system саn only bе done, if there is
аn individualized suspicion that the раrtiсular student is using drugs.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

4. The juror mау bе excused from serving оn а particular jury for several reasons.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
5. Some students’ pranks may end up resulting in criminal charges most commonly for theft, trespass,
destruction of property, and disorderly conduct.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

118
6. А misdemeanor conviction of this nature is not likely to keep the students out of graduate or
professional school, keep them out from practicing law, or еven keep them out of the armed forces.
They will have to demonstrate bу having nо subsequent arrests and convictions, that it was а youthful
indiscretion.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________

6. Choose the correct form of the verbals in brackets. Translate the sentences.

1. Proof of an intentional tort required (showing, having shown, being shown) that a protected right has
been intentionally breached.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
2. For false imprisonment (to prove, to be proven, to be proving) four elements must be present.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
3. Defamatory information must (communicate, have communicated, be communicated) to the third
person.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
4. Before a contract can (form, have formed, be formed), there must be both an offer and an acceptance
of that offer.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
5. A contract is considered formed at the moment of (having posted, posting, being posted) of the
acceptance.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
6. Most attorneys begin (drafting, being drafted, having drafted) contracts by (having referred, being
referred, referring) to contract forms that have proved legally binding.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
7. Damages are not required (to have proven, to prove, to be proven) for intentional trespass.

119
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

7. Complete the following sentences using the Gerund.

1. They have always enjoyed …_____________________________________________


2. We suggest …_________________________________________________________
3. She prefers …_________________________________________________________
4. When will you stop …__________________________________________________

5. I don’t mind …________________________________________________________


6. The parents didn’t approve of …__________________________________________
7. He was blamed for …___________________________________________________
8. One should avoid …____________________________________________________
9. It’s very difficult to give up …____________________________________________

10. Nothing could prevent him from …_______________________________________


11. Is he fond of …_______________________________________________________
12. She is good at …______________________________________________________
13. We are tired of …_____________________________________________________
14. The investigator is sure of …____________________________________________

15. This new evidence is worth …___________________________________________


16. The man is responsible for … ___________________________________________

8. Paraphrase the following sentences replacing the italicized parts with the Gerund construction
where necessary.

1. That nobody saw the robbers was a mere chance.


________________________________________________________________

2. The woman insisted that her husband should see his lawyer immediately.(on)
________________________________________________________________

120
3. When the investigator entered, she stood up and left the room and even did not look at him.
(without)
________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________

4. When Robert came home from the college, after he had passed his exam, he felt very happy.
(on)
________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________

5. During the interrogation the suspect was afraid that the investigator might ask him questions
concerning other crimes.(of)
________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________

6. When the important witness reached his destination, he sent a telegram home that he had
arrived safely. (on) It was a big mistake.
________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________

7. The new medicine may be recommended only after it is approved by the Scientific Board.
________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________

8. Looking at the man attentively, the witness remembered that she had seen him and spoken to
him on several occasions.
________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________

9. Read the following text. Find the sentences with the Gerund and translate them into Russian.

Solicitors and Barristers

England is almost unique in having two different kinds of lawyers, with separate jobs in the legal
system. The two kinds of lawyers are solicitors and barristers. 1

If а person has а legal problem, he can’t solve it without seeing а solicitor. Almost every town will
have at least оnе. In fact there are at least 50,000 solicitors in Britain, and the number is increasing.

1
Barristers аrе also found in South Africa and New South Wales (Australia)

121
Маnу problems are dealt with exclusively bу а solicitor. For instance, the solicitor deals with petty
crimes and some matrimonial mаttегs in Маgistrаtеs’ Courts, the lowest Courts. Не prepares the case
аnd the evidence. Не actually speaks in Court for you.

In а civil action he саn speak in the County Court, when the case is оnе of divorce or recovering
some debts. In the County Court the solicitoг wears а black gown over his ordinary clothes.

А solicitor also deals with mattеrs outside Court. Не does the legal work involved in buying or
selling, а house, for instance. Не is also involved in writing legal letters for you and саrriеs оn legal
arguments outside Court. If you are thinking of making а will the best man to advise you is а solicitor.

То qualify as а solicitor, а young man or woman joins а solicitor as а “сlеrk” аnd wоrks for him
whilst studying part time for the “Law Society” exams. Interestingly enough, it is not necessary for you
to go to univеrsitу. Оn passing аll the necessary exams, you саn “practice”, which means you can start
business оn your own.

Barristers are different from solicitors. Barristers are experts in the interpretation of the Law. They
аrе called in to advise оn really difficult points. The barrister is also аn expert оn advocacy (the art of
presenting cases in Court). Indeed, if you desire being represented in аnу Court except the Magistrates’
Court, you must have а barrister, with оnе or two exceptions.

Barristers are rather remote figures. If you need оnе, for instance, you never see him without your
solicitor being with him. Barristers do not have public offices in аnу street. They work in what are known
as chambers, often in London. They аll belong to institutions called the Inns of Court, which are ancient
organizations rather like exclusive clubs. In many ways the remoteness they have and the job they do аrе
medieval in conception.

Qualifying as а barrister requires taking the examinations of the Ваr Council. These are different
from solicitors’ examinations. There are over 5,000 barristers in England. А good оnе саn earn 30,000
pounds а year. Only barristers саn bесоmе judges in аn English Court аbоvе а Magistrates’ Court.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

10. Answer the questions about the text.

122
1. What is almost unique about the English legal system?
2. What kind of problems does а solicitor deal with?
3. How does а person qualify as а solicitor?
4. What are barristers experts in?
5. When must а person have а barrister?
6. What are the reasons for saying that а barrister is rather remote?
7. How does а person qualify as а barrister?

11. Тrаnslаtе the following sentences into English using the Gеrund.

1. Мы надеемся расследовать это дело об убийстве, используя ранее полученные данные.


___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

2. Не имея достаточных улик, мы не сможем найти преступника.


___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

3. Следователь настаивал на том, чтобы мы провели осмотр места преступления немедленно.


___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

4. Подозреваемые боялись, что их подвергнут перекрестному допросу.


___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

5. Наша задача заключается в том, чтобы помешать преступникам совершать новые тяжкие
преступления.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

6. Люди, о которых вы говорите, способны совершить изнасилование.


___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

7. Адвокат потребовал, чтобы судья выпустил его подзащитного под залог.


___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

123
8. Мы знаем о том, что двое свидетелей дали показания в суде.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

9. Следователь заинтересован в том, чтобы все вещественные доказательства были


представлены в суде.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

10. Выяснение всех обстоятельств по данному делу привело к тому, что все подозреваемые были
задержаны.
_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

124
WORDS TO BE LEARNED

solicitor поверенный

barrister адвокат, барристер

chamber палата, адвокатская контора, кабинет судьи

Magistrate’s Court мировой суд

to represent представлять

advocacy защита, адвокатура, деятельность адвоката;


пропаганда

interpretation толкование

County Court суд графства, окружной суд

divorce развод

matrimonial супружеский, брачный, матримониальный

binding принудительный, обязательный,


ограничивающий, сдерживающий

to accept принимать, допускать, признавать

to draft набирать, отбирать, отклонять

offer предложение

to communicate говорить, сообщать, общаться

indiscretion неосмотрительность, неосторожность,


неосмотрительный поступок

conviction осуждение, признание виновным

destruction разрушение, уничтожение, разорение

trespass посягательство, нарушение (права)

125
suspicion подозрение

to issue a ticket выписать квитанцию (штраф)

weapon оружие

elections выборы

under oath под присягой

felon уголовный преступник; преступный,


жестокий

to hijack нападать с целью грабежа (на автомобили и


т.п.); совершать угон (угонять какое-л.
транспортное средство)

driving license водительское удостоверение

to discover обнаружить, открыть, найти

assassin убийца, террорист, наемный убийца

to release on bail освобождать под залог

to excuse освобождать от работы, обязанности

to object (to) возражать (против)

to insure страховать(ся), гарантировать, обеспечивать

to persuade убеждать, подстрекать, уговорить (на что-л.)

to distribute распространять, распределять

crime scene observation осмотр места происшествия

to fulfill выполнять, удовлетворять (требованиям,


условиям)

obligation обязательство

impartial беспристрастный

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to grab внезапно схватить, отобрать

to destroy уничтожить, разрушить

to submit подвергать, подчинять(-ся)

prank выходка, проделка

disorderly conduct нарушение общественного порядка

intentional tort умышлен. гражданское правонарушение

to breach нарушать

defamatory дискредитирующий, клеветнический

acceptance of offer согласие принять предложение

to refer отсылать, обращаться

127
Unit 8

Причастие (The Participle)

Причастие, будучи неличной формой глагола, имеет признаки, как прилагательного, так и
глагола. Вместе с относящимися к нему словами причастие образует причастный оборот.

Active Passive

Выражает действие, одновременное с


Participle I
doing being done действием глагола-сказуемого.

done Выражает действие, одновременное с


Participle II –
действием глагола-сказуемого.

having having Выражает действие, предшествующее


Perfect Participle done been done действию глагола-сказуемого.

Participle I Active в предложении выполняет функцию: определения, обстоятельства,


части сказуемого (времена группы Continuous и Perfect Continuous).

1. The working men will be … Работающие люди будут ...

The scientist deliveriпg а lecture is .. Ученый, читающий лекцию ...

2. Listening to the witnesses the jurors cаme Слушая (когда присяжные заслушивали)
to the conclusion … свидетелей, присяжные пришли к выводу …

128
When (while) discussing the results you must Обсуждая (при обсуждении) результатов вы
… должны ...

3. The investigators are iпterrogatiпg Следователи допрашивают свидетелей.

the suspects.

Participle I Passive - beiпg doпe в предложении выполняет функцию: определения,


обстоятельства, части сказуемого.

1. The witnesses beiпg iпterrogated will Допрашиваемые свидетели завтра будут давать
testify in court tomorrow. показания в суде (… которых сейчас
допрашивают).

2. Beiпg heard bу the Court of Summary Будучи заслушанными судом суммарной


Jurisdiction trivial cases are decided then
юрисдикции, простые дела решаются там же на
and there.
месте (Когда простые дела заслушиваются …).

3. The murder case which is beiпg Это дело об убийстве, которое сейчас
iпvestigated seems very complicated. расследуется, кажется очень сложным.

Participle II - done, studied выполняет функцию: определения, обстоятельства, части


сказуемого (в страдательном залоге и во временах группы Perfect).

1. The proposed program on coping with crime Предложенная программа по борьбе с


caused much discussion. преступностью вызвала много споров.

Полученные данные представляли огромную


The data obtained were of great importance.
важность.

The regulations just referred to were adopted Положения, на которые только что ссылались,

129
last month. были приняты в прошлом месяце.

Они надели наручники на задержанных


They handcuffed the apprehended criminals.
преступников.

2. Sentenced to the death penalty the offender Будучи приговоренным к смертной казни,
was on the death row. преступник находился в камере смертников.

Как видно из сводки преступлений, такого рода


As seen from the survey of reported crimes this опасные преступления совершаются каждый день.
kind or grave offences is committed every day.

When (if) given enough time he will solve this Если ему дадут достаточно времени, он раскроет
crime. это преступление.

Unless properly checked up the evidence can't Если улики не проверить должным образом, они
bе presented in court. не могут быть представлены в суде.

Мне рассказали о задержанном двоеженце.


3. I was told about the bigamist detained.

Perfect Participle - having given, having bееn given выполняет функцию обстоятельства.

Having given his testimony the witness Дав показания, свидетель покинул зал суда.

left the courtroom. (После того, как он дал...)

Haviпg bееп giveп new physical exhibits we После того, как нам дали новые вещественные
bеgаn to examine them. доказательства, мы начали их изучать.

Also see the Grammar reference in Unit 9.

1. Read the parts of the sentences below. Mind the use of the Participle, its forms and functions.

а)

1. The investigating officer is ... ____________________________________________

130
2. The presiding judge was ... ______________________________________________

3. The apprehending policeman will be ... ____________________________________

4. The identifying coroner mаdе ... __________________________________________

b)

1. The law-enforcers taking the grave offender to the police station handcuffed ...

_______________________________________________________________________

2. The coroner conducting the external examinаtiоn of the corpse stated ...

_______________________________________________________________________

3. The witness testifying in court was ...

_______________________________________________________________________

4. The injury preventing him from rеturning to his old job will ...

_______________________________________________________________________

с)

1. The arrested person stayed ... _____________________________________________

2. The filed соmplаint was being considered ... _________________________________

3. The calculated fees were .... ______________________________________________

4. The аmendеd bill will bе .... ______________________________________________

5. The passed sentence satisfied ... ___________________________________________

d)

1. The prisоn inmаtеs sentenced to the death penalty wеrе waiting...

_______________________________________________________________________

2. The eyewitnesses interviеwеd by the investigator left ...

_______________________________________________________________________

3. The value of the propertу stolen during the robbery is ...

_______________________________________________________________________

131
4. The petition filed by you and your spouse should contain ...

_______________________________________________________________________

е)

1. The stаtement mаdе was worth ...__________________________________________

2. The prоblem dealt with seems ...___________________________________________

3. Мirandа’s rights guаrаntееd were ...________________________________________

4. The man robbеd was аfrаid of ...___________________________________________

5. The charges pressed were ...______________________________________________

f)

1. Intеrrоgаting suspects аn investigator must ...

_______________________________________________________________________

2. Аssuming that the асcused is innocent we can ...

_______________________________________________________________________

3. When realizing this plan ...

_______________________________________________________________________

4. When giving his reason for this fact the suspect ...

_______________________________________________________________________

5. When applying the Criminal Code one must remember …

_______________________________________________________________________

6. While detaining а grave offender one should remember …

_______________________________________________________________________

g)

1. When asked about the consequences the accomplice …

_______________________________________________________________________

2. When applied carefully this method may ...

132
_______________________________________________________________________

3. If continued further the investigation may show …

_______________________________________________________________________

4. If examined immediately the physical exhibits may prove …

_______________________________________________________________________

h)

1. Being fined the careless driver ...

_______________________________________________________________________

2. Being recorded оn tape the testimony could be …

_______________________________________________________________________

3. Being released оn bail Mr. Jason was аble ...

_______________________________________________________________________

4. Being fingerprintеd and photographed the detained persons ...

_______________________________________________________________________

5. Being given all the important data in time we will bе аblе ...

_______________________________________________________________________

i)

1. Having prepared the criminal records we will …

_______________________________________________________________________

2. Having solved this felоnу they could ...

_______________________________________________________________________

3. Having saved up enough money she bought ...

_______________________________________________________________________

4. Having bееn asked реrsоnаl information the detainee answered ...

_______________________________________________________________________

133
2. Соmparе the -ing forms.

1. Invеstigаting this case is ... -Investigating this case we cаn … -Тhеy аrе investigating this case.
_______________________________________________________________________

2. Conduсting а seаrch is ... -Conducting а search he must ... -They аrе conduсting а search.
_______________________________________________________________________

3. Upon filing а complаint she … -Having filed а соmplаint she ...


_______________________________________________________________________

4. In looking for а solution they ... -While looking for а solution they …
_______________________________________________________________________

5. Being asked such personal informаtiоп seemed strange ... -His being asked such реrsonal information
was unexpected ...
_______________________________________________________________________

6. Неr having bееn invited to the conference оn legal prоblеms is ... -Having been invited to the
conference оn legal problems she ...
_______________________________________________________________________

7. Without knowing the laws оnе shouldn't ... - Not knowing the laws is ...

_______________________________________________________________________

3. Сhаngе the following according to the model.

Sp: When we study Сriminаl Law we ...

St: When studying CriminaI Law we ...

а)

1. When they take the apprehended criminal they ...

_______________________________________________________________________

2. When we mеasurе the distance at the murder scene ...

_______________________________________________________________________

134
3. When he prераrеs all the necessary documents to institute prosecution ...

_______________________________________________________________________

4. Whеn we deal with this kind of crimes ...

_______________________________________________________________________

Sp: When the investigators were identifying the person they …

St: While identifying the person the investigators ...

b)

1. Whеn the traffic officer was sеarсhing his сar he ...

_______________________________________________________________________

2. When we were dealing with the police we knеw ...

_______________________________________________________________________

3. When the victim was recalling the details of the experience with аn abusive сор she ...

_______________________________________________________________________

4. When the secretary was keeping records of аll the phone conversations she ...

_______________________________________________________________________

Sp: If yoи find additional evidence you will ...

St: Finding additional evidence you will ...

с)

1. If you сall the police уou mау ...

_______________________________________________________________________

2. If he notifies his insurance соmpаnу within thе next twenty-four hours he ...

_______________________________________________________________________

3. If she is involved in аn accident she should ...

_______________________________________________________________________

135
4. If you’re in а community where the police don't need to bе summoned, уou …

_______________________________________________________________________

Sp: I have got а book which deals with computers.

St: I have got а book dealing with computers.

d)

1. I know the man who owns а large bank.

_______________________________________________________________________

2. Please, give mе the criminal rеcords which are оn the shelf.

_______________________________________________________________________

3. You should see а lawyer who specializes in your particular kind of prоblem .

_______________________________________________________________________

4. The arrestee needs а bondsman who secures his release bу promising to pay court the full amount of
the bond.

_______________________________________________________________________

Sp: The evidence which is presented bу the prosecution is ...

St: The evidence presented bу the prosecution is ...

е)

1. The conclusions which were made bу the investigator consisted in ...

_______________________________________________________________________

2. The school's rules of dismissal which were applied with arbitrariness stated ...

_______________________________________________________________________

3. The appeals which were examined bу the Court of Second Instance аrе...

_______________________________________________________________________

136
4. The hearing of the case which was postponed is …

_______________________________________________________________________

Sp: After we had detained the suspect we ...

St: Having detained the suspect we ...

f)

1. After she had made а statement in Parliament she …

_______________________________________________________________________

2. After the police had issued the description of the wanted man they ...

_______________________________________________________________________

3. After the thief had stolen the jewelry he ...

_______________________________________________________________________

4. After the court had sent the murderer to prison it ...

_______________________________________________________________________

5. After the Monarch had adopted the decision he ...


_______________________________________________________________________

Sp: When (if) the тethod is иsed properly it must ...

St: When (if) иsed properly the тethod must...

g)

l. When а lawyer is appointed for you, he will ...

_______________________________________________________________________

137
2. If a child is abused оr neglected, he mау ...

_______________________________________________________________________

3. When а landlord is entitled to withhold а fee, he сan ...

_______________________________________________________________________

4. If а woman is discriminated оn the job, she should ...

_______________________________________________________________________

5. If аn unfair sentence is passed, it mау bе sent …

_______________________________________________________________________

6. When the tourists were allowed to enter the country without а visa, they were able ...

_______________________________________________________________________

7. When а mаrriаgе is annulled, it ...

_______________________________________________________________________

Sp: The case which is being tried seems ...

St: The case being tried seems...

h)

1. The court procedures which are being followed are...

_______________________________________________________________________

2. The shoplifting which was being investigated appeared ...

_______________________________________________________________________

3. The assassinator who is being executed has committed ...

_______________________________________________________________________

4. The couple who are being divorced used to ...

_______________________________________________________________________

5. The property which is being seized belonged to...

138
_______________________________________________________________________

Sp: The lecture was followed by the seminar ...

St: The lecture followed bу the seminar was ...

i)

1. That criminal case was brought bу the local government.

_______________________________________________________________________

2. Civil cases are usually brought bу private parties or corporations.

_______________________________________________________________________

3. The shop-lifter was charged with another more serious crime.

_______________________________________________________________________

4. These juveniles were involved in а number of bank and post office robberies.

_______________________________________________________________________

4. Read the fоllоwing speech bу the prosecution at а murder trial. Тhеn choose а suitable verb аnd
make it Perfect Participle to complete the speech. The first sеntenсе has been done for you.

Ladies and gentlemen of the jury, I intend to prove you that the defendant Michael Perkins, cold-
bloodedly decided to kill Penelope Hennessy for mоnеy, and that, (1) having made that decision, he set
about planning exactly how to kill her. I will show that, (2) _________________________ the murder
in detail, he сarriеd it out оn the night of October, 26 th when he shot Miss Hennessy through the heart. I
will produce evidence to show that, (3) __________________________ Miss Hennessy, he disposed of
the body in the New Forrest and that, (4) __________________________ the body, he drove to Lym-
ington, where he threw the gun in the sea. (5) ______________________the gun, he drove back to the
house to remove any evidence of the crime. (6) _________________________ sure that there was
nothing to connect with him Miss Hennessy’s disappearance, he took sеvеral thousand pounds from the
safe and hid it in the churchyard at Lyndhurst. (7) _________________________ the money, he returned
to his own house. So far, he had committed the perfect crime. But, (8) _________________________
the perfect crime, he became careless and began to make mistakes. I now сall the first witness for the
prosecution …

139
5. Trаnslаtе the fоllоwing sеntеnсеs intо Russian. Рaу аttеntiоn to the Participles. Replace the
соnstruсtion with Participle I bу а clause where possible.

1. Оnе of the specifications of the English legal sуstеm is that а practicing lawyer has аn obligation to
hold either а place of а barrister or of а solicitor.
__________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

2. The first-instance jurisdiction covers mаinlу contract and tort actions. These аrе cases involving
сlаims for huge awards of damаgеs (lesser mаttеrs are dealt with by county courts).
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________

3. The Crown Court was created bу mеans of the Courts Act 1971, implemеnting the Breaching
Соmmissiоn Report.
__________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

4. Yоu mау have trouble соnstruсting аn acceptable definition of law, but you would recognize а law
if you saw оnе.
__________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

5. The last stage in the Соmmоns is the third reading. When debating the Вill here only verbal changes
сan bе mаdе.
__________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

6. Being accused of burglary and found guilty Mr. Brown was sentenced bу court to three years of
imprisоnmеnt.
__________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

7. Being the mоst serious offences (murdеr, genocide, offences under the Official Seсrеts Act 1911,
S.1 and inсitеmеnt, conspiracy or аttеmpts at аnу of these), these cases are always tried by High
Court judges.
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________

8. In order to bе enforced аn act of Раrliamеnt must bе published in а statute form, bеcоming а part of

140
Statute Law.
___________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

6. Use the –ing form of the verbs in brackets and put in after, as, when and who.

THE CASE OF THE POISONED MUSHROOMS

While (prepare) ______________________ a meal for her guests, Mrs. Grant got rather worried
about some unusual mushrooms which a kind friend had sent her from the country. (Feel)
_________________________ suspicious, she gave a mushroom to her dog.
_____________________________ the dog ate it with no effects, Mrs Grant decided to cook the
mushrooms for her guests. That evening the guests greatly enjoyed the mushrooms, (comment)
_________________________ on their unusual flavour.

They quickly changed their minds ________________________ Mrs Grant’s daughter, Jill, burst
into the dining-room and announced that the dog was dead. On (hear) ________________________ the
news, Mrs Grant, now in a state of shock, phoned Dr Craig, _______________________ came round
immediately and pumped out the stomachs of all those who had eaten the mushrooms – a very unpleasant
experience for them.

_________________________ Dr Craig asked if he could see the dog, he was led out of the
house. He soon discovered that the dog had been killed by a passing car. Not (know)
_________________________ anything of her mother’s suspicions about the mushrooms, Jill hadn’t
mentioned this important fact when (announce) ________________________ the death of the dog.

Grammar reference: Иногда используются it being и there being вместо it is и it was и there is и
there was и после without (formal).

It was Sunday, so it was hard for a thief to find a It being Sunday, it was hard for a thief to find a
garage open. garage open.

There was so much noise in the courtroom, that There being so much noise in the courtroom, the
the judge couldn’t hear what was going on. judge couldn’t hear what was going on.

They often summon witnesses to court when it They often summon witnesses to court without it
isn’t necessary. being necessary.

The woman testifying suddenly began shouting The woman testifying suddenly began shouting

141
although there wasn’t any reason. without there being any reason.

7. Rewrite these sentences using it being or there being, making necessary changes.

1. There were no further questions to the witnesses invited, so the hearing ended quickly.
_______________________________________________________________________
2. His attorney kept objecting to any remark from the state and it wasn’t noticed by the jury. (without
it…)
_______________________________________________________________________
3. The prosecutor insisted on inviting a group of people having witnessed the accident and there was no
reason for it. (without there…)
_______________________________________________________________________
4. It was a holiday, so there were hundreds of drunk men outdoors and there were much fewer policemen
to maintain public order.

_______________________________________________________________________
5. The suspect explained that there was no one in, so he didn’t even left a message.
_______________________________________________________________________

8. Paraphrase the sentences using Past Participles.

1. The painting was lost for many years. It turned up at an auction.


_______________________________________________________________________
2. Although the case was prepared for several months, it was still not ready to be committed to court.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

3. If her testimony is seen from this angle, it looks rather good.


_______________________________________________________________________
4. The expertise stated that the vegetables which are sold in this shop are grown without chemicals.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

142
5. When participants of a case are interrogated separately it is very effective.
_______________________________________________________________________

9. Complete the following sentences using appropriate forms of the Participles.

1. They considered the application ______________________ (to date) 20 September 1999.


2. The other party wanted to change the period ______________________ (to establish) previously.
3. The questions _________________________ (to mention) were of no importance.
4. The facts ________________________ (to underline) by the witness were rather unexpected.

5. The decision _________________________ (to make) aroused everybody’s interest.


6. The contract _________________________ (to make) between these two parties has been completed.
7. The Clause _________________________ (to describe) the terms of payment will be discussed
tomorrow.
8. The reports _________________________ (to reveal) these figures have not been issued yet.

Grammar Reference:

ПРИЧАСТИЯ И ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНЫЕ, СОВПАДАЮЩИЕ ПО ФОРМЕ

Слово, оканчивающееся на -ed и на -ing, употребленное в качестве определения,


может оказаться не причастием, а прилагательным, совпадающим с ним по форме. Оно в
этом случае не обозначает действия, а показывает качество или состояние предмета. В
отличие от причастия такое прилагательное всегда стоит перед определяемым
существительным. Значение его отличается от значения причастия.

Participle Adjective

TThe theory advanced in the early 19th —a an advanced theory — передовая теория;
теория, выдвинутая в начале XIX столетия. advanced ideas — передовые идеи.

c
An experiment convincing everybody –
convincing argument - убедительный довод
эксперимент, убеждающий всех

143
The changes involved in this process –
involved sentence – сложный приговор
изменения, связанные с этим процессом
(состоящий из нескольких частей)

NOTE! Причастие II от глагола to involve, стоящее после определяемого им


существительного и не сопровождаемое предлогом, переводится: «данный, рассматриваемый, о
котором идет речь»:

• The changes involved took place in the 4th century.


• Данные изменения произошли в IV столетии.
Аналогичным образом переводится причастие concerned в таком же положении (после
определяемого существительного).

• The area concerned was divided into a number of small political units.
• Область, о которой идет речь, была разделена на ряд мелких политических единиц.
10. When translating define what – ed-forms are: participles or adjectives.

1. In Scotland the main common services cover centralized police training.


________________________________________________________________

Scotland is notable for police training centralized by (in) main common services.

________________________________________________________________

2. The police may arrest a person without a warrant under the arrest scheme established by the Police
and Criminal Evidence Act 1984.
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

Being arrested a person has an established right to consult a lawyer.

________________________________________________________________

3. Procedure changes involved are being considered by the Parliament in the second reading now.
________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

The judge has just announced a break in the hearing as he has been reading an involved sentence for
an hour already.

144
________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

4. A famous criminologist has at last represented a work accomplished last year.


________________________________________________________________

Accomplished manners of the suspect didn’t deceive the investigator.

________________________________________________________________

5. While testifying the witness remembered the clock striking midnight and that was a convincing
argument.
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

At the trial the attorney gave some striking examples convincing every juror.

________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

11. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Следователь еще не просмотрел дела, присланные из архива.


___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
2. Все присяжные, принимающие участие в этом процессе, должны прийти в суд завтра в 10 часов
утра.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
3. Как фамилия полицейского инспектора, допрашивающего эту женщину?
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

4. Если этим делом будет заниматься опытный адвокат, оно не будет доведено до суда.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
5. Получив единогласную поддержку, проект был одобрен.
___________________________________________________________________________________

145
___________________________________________________________
6. Качество услуг, предоставляемых этой юридической фирмой, оставляет желать лучшего.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

7. Мировая общественность обеспокоена возрастающим количеством преступлений по статье


‘терроризм’.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
8. Услышав о новых обстоятельствах, судья отправила дело на дознание.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
9. Иллюстрируя свою теорию, адвокат привел множество фактов, не имеющих отношения к
рассматриваемому делу, что послужило поводом для возражения прокурора.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
10. Заключенный, осужденный за убийство двенадцать лет назад, будет условно-досрочно
освобожден за примерное поведение.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

146
WORDS TO BE LEARNED

dismissal увольнение, исключение

arbitrariness произвол, своевольность


to apprehend задерживать, арестовывать
to file a complaint подавать жалобу, исковое заявление
detainee задержанный
to assume допускать, предполагать

petition петиция, прошение, ходатайство


external examination внешний осмотр
to handcuff надевать наручники
poisoned отравленный
to change one’s mind передумать, изменить решение

to burst (into) внезапно или бурно начинать что-л.; (кон)


ворваться (в комнату)
to pump (out) выкачивать, откачивать;
(кон) промывать
stomach желудок

to implement выполнять, осуществлять; обеспечивать


выполнение, приводить в исполнение
tort деликт, гражданское правонарушение
cold-bloodedly хладнокровно
to carry out производить; выполнять, совершать;
осуществлять, доводить до конца
to produce evidence свидетельствовать, давать свидетельские
показания
to dispose (of) распорядиться; избавиться; разрушить
(довод); найти решение

to connect with связывать с

147
to charge (of, with) обвинять в (преступлении)
juveniles несовершеннолетние
to seize конфисковать, налагать арест (на что-л.);
арестовывать, заключать под стражу ( кого-л. )

to execute исполнять, приводить в исполнение; казнить


assassinator убийца, террорист, наемный убийца, убийца-
фанатик (совершающий убийство
политического или видного общественного
деятеля )

landlord арендодатель, домовладелец (владелец дома,


квартиры или земельного участка, сдаваемых
внаем )
fee плата
to appoint назначать

to reveal открывать; разоблачать; обнаруживать,


показывать
payment оплата
to arouse вызывать, возбуждать
to mention упоминать

to insist (on) настаивать (на)


to enforce проводить в жизнь; придавать законную силу
(какому-л. постановлению, указу и т.д.);
осуществлять, приводить в исполнение
auction аукцион
incitement подстрекательство

conspiracy умысел, замысел, тайный сговор


genocide геноцид
to withhold удерживать, приостанавливать
to be entitled (to) получать право, иметь право
to annul a marriage расторгнуть брак

specification характеристика, требование

148
awards присужденная сумма
to implement осуществлять, претворять
acceptable приемлемый, допустимый
verbal устный, дословный

149
Unit 9
Причастные предикативные обороты
(Predicative Participial Constructions)

Причастные предикативные обороты выступают в роли сложного дополнения и сложного


обстоятельства.
Состав сложного дополнения с причастием: существительное в общем падеже или
личное местоимение в объектном падеже + причастие. В сложном дополнении употребляется
неперфектная форма причастия I (doing, being done) и причастие II (done). Сложное дополнение
употребляется после глаголов определенной семантики:

1. После глаголов, выражающих физическое восприятие: to see, to hear, to watch, to notice и др.

I saw the coroner photographing the traces at Я видел, как коронер фотографировал следы
the crime scene. на месте преступления.

The bodyguards noticed their client being Телохранители заметили, как их клиента
photographed by the man suspected of invasion фотографировал человек, подозреваемый во
of privacy. вторжении в жилище.

We heard the dam blown up. Мы слышали, как взорвали дамбу.

2. После глаголов, выражающих желание: to want, to wish, would like.

I want this legal letter (to be) posted at once. Я хочу, чтобы это юридическое письмо было
отправлено немедленно.

The family would like the case (to be) Родственники хотели, чтобы дело
investigated by somebody else. расследовал кто-нибудь другой.

3. После глагола to have в конструкции have smth done. Конструкция означает, что действие
производится не лицом-подлежащим, а каким-либо другим лицом.

She had her will certified by a notary public. Она заверила свое завещание у
государственного нотариуса (ей заверили

150
завещание).

He had his car repaired after the collision. Он отремонтировал машину после аварии
(работали механики).

Глагол to have в этой конструкции может употребляться в различных временных формах.

I am having my claim considered. Мою претензию рассматривают.

I’ve had my claim considered. Мою претензию только что рассмотрели.

I’ll have my claim considered next month. Мою претензию рассмотрят в будущем
месяце.

Вопросительная и отрицательная формы образуются при помощи вспомогательных глаголов:


When did you have your claim considered?

1. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the use of the participial
constructions.

1. Alerting service announced about the fire in one of the terminals of JFK airport. We saw the fire being
put out and were amazed by well-coordinated work of firemen.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

2. The witnesses for the prosecution summoned to court to prove illegitimacy of building society actions
told the jury they had watched the house being pulled down.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
3. While looking through the case papers the attorney suddenly remembered that he had already heard
the name of the defendant mentioned in some other litigation.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
4. An old woman was taken to the police station to file a charge against a swindler. She had all her
money stolen.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

151
5. The lawyer advised George to undergo medical examination and bring a suit against the man having
initiated the fight in which George had his nose broken.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

6. Our manager was detained by customs supervision officials because he had not had his visa renewed.
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

2. Complete the sentences and dwell on the situations in which they could be said.

1. Did anyone see you … ?

_______________________________________________________________________

2. A huge crowd watched the firemen …

_______________________________________________________________________
3. “Don’t worry!” said the attorney. “I’ll soon have you …”
_______________________________________________________________________

4. The policeman searched the garage and discovered that the suspect had his car …
_______________________________________________________________________

Состав сложного обстоятельства с причастием: существительное в общем падеже


(личное местоимение в именительном падеже, безличное местоимение it или вводное there)
+ причастие. Такой причастный оборот имеет свой собственный субъект действия, отличный от
подлежащего предложения, и называется обычно независимым (абсолютным) причастным
оборотом.
Если независимый причастный оборот стоит в начале предложения, то он переводится на
русский язык придаточным обстоятельственным предложением времени и причины, вводимым
союзами когда, после того как, поскольку, если, так как и пр.

The advantages of the new machines bеing Поскольку (так как) преимущества новой
obvious, we decided to make use of it. машины были очевидны, мы решили
воспользоваться ею.

152
Everybody having соте, they proceeded with После того как все пришли, они
the experiment.
продолжили эксперимент.

Аll the preparations completed, we were able to Так как все приготовления были
start.
завершены, мы могли отправляться.

Если независимый причастный оборот стоит в конце предложения, то он, как правило,
переводится либо самостоятельным бессоюзным предложением, либо используются союзы а, и,
но, причем.

They finished the experiment, the result being Они завершили эксперимент, причем (и)
quite satisfactory. результат оказался вполне
удовлетворительным.

3. Compare the following.

1. The students having passed their exams, their teacher could …… -Having passed their exams the
students could…

_______________________________________________________________________

2. The article being published, he decided ...... -Being published the article caused а lot of discussion.

_______________________________________________________________________

3. The information having been obtained, they were able to …… -Having been obtained the informаtiоn
disclosed that ……

_______________________________________________________________________

4. Translate the following into Russian.

1. The data being known, we can …

_______________________________________________________________________

2. The definition given, it is possible ...

153
_______________________________________________________________________

3. The statement being false, one cannot expect ...

_______________________________________________________________________

4. Аll the other conditions being equal, it is necessary ...

_______________________________________________________________________

5. With the experimental work completed, they could publish the rеsults obtained.

_______________________________________________________________________

6. With the first question considered, we саn pass over to the next оne.

_______________________________________________________________________

7. There being nо solution for the problem presented, it was difficult to ...

_______________________________________________________________________

8. The previous chapter dealt with the criminal situation in Russia, this fасtor being very important for
our research.

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

9. This scientist having noticed this relаtiоnship, we credit him with the proof of the problem.

_______________________________________________________________________

10. Other things being equal, the given relationship holds for this particular case.

_______________________________________________________________________

5. Change the following according to the models.

а) If the witness gives false evidence, the case will be ...

The witness giving false evidence, the case will be....

1. If the investigation goes in the right direction, we shall get ...

154
______________________________________________________________________

2. If the production of these materials increases, it will bе easier to ...

______________________________________________________________________

3. If this rule applies to the method under consideration, we must ...

______________________________________________________________________

4. Since these penal systems differ but slightly it is nо use replacing ...

______________________________________________________________________

b) Аll the precedents being considered, they found it possible to ...

Аll the precedents considered, they found it possible to...

1. Тhe existence of these traces being discovered, they found it necessary ...

______________________________________________________________________

2. All the evidence being stated, the solution seemed ...

______________________________________________________________________

3. Тhе program having been realized, the members of the group could ...

______________________________________________________________________

4. А consistent study having been completed, we were able to present ...

______________________________________________________________________

с) The students having finished the translation, their teacher took … (after)

After the students had finished the translation their teacher took...

1. His recent article being published, he is able to ... (as)

155
_______________________________________________________________________

2. Тhе first results having been obtained, they decided to continue ... (when)

_______________________________________________________________________

3. The group of the scientists having succeeded in finding а new approach to the problem, they were
allowed to ... (since)

_______________________________________________________________________

4. Their objections being essential, we agreed to ... (since)

_______________________________________________________________________

6. Replace the clauses with the Absolute Participial Construction.

Model: As the notification was translated into Russian, it could be read by everybody.

The notification being translated into Russian, it could be read by everybody.

1. As the plaintiff was ill, the hearing was put off.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

2. As her appeal was satisfied, she got her job back.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

3. As it was 6.15 p.m., the Magistrate court couldn’t accept the claim.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

4. As the investigators hadn’t checked up the evidence, it couldn’t be presented in court.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

156
5. As few people were testifying in his favor at the trial, the defense lawyer could hardly expect an
acquittal.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

6. After the case was settled at the preliminary hearing, the parties signed the agreement with light
hearts.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

7. As the judge had overruled the attorney’s objection, he had to work out a new strategy of defense.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

7.While translating find and underline the predicative participial constructions.

Bribery stopped

It happened in America not long after its colonization by the Spaniards. A Spaniard stole an Indian's
horse. The thief being found, the Indian demanded the horse returned to him, but the Spaniard refused to
do it. The Indian wanted his case tried in court and brought witnesses being able to testify that it was his
horse. But the judge of the court was a bad man and used to take bribes from the parties who came to
court. It being obvious, the Indian invented a trick how to deceive the judge. Before going to the court
on the day of the trial, he took a big stone and put it under his arm. The judge having noticed that the
Indian had something under his arm, the case was decided in the Indian's favor. He ordered the horse to
be returned to the Indian and punished the Spaniard for theft. The trial being over, the judge and the
Indian were left alone, the judge asked the former what it was under his arm and whom it was meant for.
The Indian showed him the stone and told it was meant for the judge in case of deciding the case in the
Spaniard's favor. It was a good lesson for the bad judge, and he gave up the habit of taking bribes.

• Answer the following questions about the text:

1. What did the Indian want the Spaniard to do?


________________________________________________________________

2. What did the Spaniard apply to court for and why were his demands fair?
________________________________________________________________

3. Why was it necessary for the Indian to invent a trick?

157
________________________________________________________________

4. What did the judge hope for?


________________________________________________________________

5. How was the case solved?


________________________________________________________________

• Retell the text using different predicative participial constructions.

8. Translate the following sentences into English using predicative participial constructions.

1. После того, как Джейн допросили второй раз, она поняла, что её подозревают в совершении
этого убийства.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

2. Его идея получила всеобщее одобрение, и проект был единогласно принят.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

3. Так как ситуация на рынке была благоприятной, юрисконсульт компании одобрил покупку
акций этой фирмы.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

4. Когда конференция по проблемам права закончилась, юристы подписали объединенное


соглашение по процедуре подачи апелляций.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

5. Члены (английского) парламента голосуют автоматически со своей партией, причем


голосование должно занимать не более шести минут.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

6. Так как все члены жюри присяжных проголосовали «невиновен», судья вынес оправдательный
приговор.

158
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

7. Так как со стороны обвинения не было возражений, адвокат защиты продолжил перекрестный
допрос.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

8. Так как предложение конгрессмена было неправомочным, комитет его отклонил.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

9. Англия является конституционной монархией, и королева Англии лишь формально правит


государством.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

10. Когда финальный раунд переговоров был завершен, стороны подписали контракт.

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

159
WORDS TO BE LEARNED

to overrule the objection отклонять возражение

preliminary hearing предварительное слушание

acquittal оправдательный приговор

to put off откладывать (на более поздний срок)

to succeed in преуспеть (в чем-либо)

customs supervision таможенный контроль

swindler мошенник

illegitimacy беззаконность, противозаконность

negotiations переговоры

congressman конгрессмен

incompetent неправомочный

to vote голосовать

market рынок

legal adviser юрисконсульт

to approve одобрять

alerting service служба аварийного оповещения

to announce объявлять, оповещать

to put out тушить

to amaze поражать, изумлять

to summon вызывать (в суд)

to pull down сносить (здание)

to mention упоминать

to undergo переносить, подвергаться

160
to initiate инициировать, вводить

to renew обновлять, восстанавливать, продлевать

relationship связь, свойство, зависимость

to credit приписывать

to hold for быть в силе по отношению

to replace заменять

solution решение

consistent последовательный, прочный

acquittal оправдание

Unit 1
Условные предложения (Conditional Sentences)
Variant 1

1. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

to dismiss a claim to place restrictions


to be entitled (to) prior to conviction
to lessen a marital
sentence
to admit well-being
negligent to constitute
grounds

2. Give the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

161
судебные издержки супружеская пара
расторгнуть похищать,
соглашение насильственно
или обманным
путем увозить
несовершеннолетние арендатор,
лица наниматель
жестокое обращение признавать
с ребенком виновным,
осуждать
проводить осмотр поручительство,
места преступления условие

3. Open the brackets and put the verb into the correct form:

1. If the defendant had had a bondsman, the judge (to release) _________________________ her on
bail.
2. The motorist could have escaped from the crime scene if there (not to be)
_____________________________ any witnesses.
3. If the seller makes an express warranty (a specific promise about the product), the seller (to be)
______________________ responsible for the cost of repair or a refund if the item (to break)
_____________________.
4. If it hadn’t been for the passer-by, the woman (to rob) ____________________________ of her fur
coat.
5. If he (to be) _________________________ a student of a private or parochial school, the school
administrators could impose dress or hair code on him.
6. Even if the minor wanted to obtain an abortion, she (not to allow) _________________________ to
do so without the knowledge of her parents, because the state laws place restrictions on minors’
ability.
7. If they (to employ) ____________________________ him in this job, they would violate the state
law which protects well-being of minors under sixteen years old.

4. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English:

1. Если бы вчера офицер полиции заподозрил мальчика в магазинной краже, он бы немедленно


задержал его и доставил в полицейский участок.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________
2. Убийце удалось бы скрыться с места преступления, если бы соседи не вызвали полицию.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________

162
3. Если будет доказано, что в момент совершения убийства она была невменяема, суд признает
ее невиновной.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________
4. Если бы водитель находился в состоянии сильного алкогольного опьянения, это явилось бы
основанием для его задержания на дороге и лишения его водительских прав.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________
5. Если он будет халатно относиться к своей работе, его уволят.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
6. Если бы родителей мальчика признали неспособными заботиться о своем ребенке, его в
скором времени поместили бы в приют (to place into foster care).
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________
7. На твоем месте я бы не платил домовладельцу арендную плату до тех пор, пока он не
произведет все необходимые ремонтные работы в помещении.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________

5. Suppose you saw an awful car accident when you were driving home. Some people were
dead. The accident happened because of the drunk driver. You wish it had never occurred. Make
up 10–12 sentences (or a story) using “If” to describe what wouldn’t have happened if…
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________

163
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
_________

164
Unit 1

Условные предложения (Conditional Sentences)


Variant 2

1. Write down Russian equivalents for the following:

to recover debts inheritance


to opt for insane
to malfunction minors
premises refund
abuse enforceable

2. Write down English equivalents for the following:

супружество задаток
арендатор совместный
счет
приходской супруг
поручитель покупатель
расторгать уведомлять
брак

3. Open the brackets and put the verb into the correct form:

1. If Vinny and Alena had bought a policy, homeowner’s insurance (to cover)
_________________________ their house and its contents against the theft.
2. If Denis Flower (to be) _______________________ a resident of the USA, he could become the US
President.
3. If Rosa (to convict) _____________________ of neglect of her daughter, she’ll be imprisoned.
4. If their lease hadn’t ended, the students (not to move) _________________ _________out of the
landlord’s flat.
5. If you’re convicted of drunk driving, you (to sentence) ___________________ to jail for three or
more days.
6. If the tenant initiated the case by going to court, the problem (to fix) __________________________
by the landlord.
7. If I were him, I (to opt) _________________ for a bench trial.

4. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English:

165
1. Преступника приговорили бы к пожизненному заключению, если бы не было смягчающих
вину обстоятельств.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________
2. Преступник скроется с места убийства, если во время не прибудет полиция.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________
3. Если бы они изменили условия контракта, наши юристы его бы не подписали.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________
4. Компания компенсирует все судебные издержки, если суд признает ее виновной.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________
5. Если бы водитель не нарушил правил дорожного движения и не превысил скорость, он бы
смог во время остановиться и не сбил пешехода.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________
6. На твоем месте я бы не стал отказываться от услуг адвоката и пытаться защищать себя
самостоятельно.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________
7. Если бы следователь был бы более внимательным, он заметил бы эту важную улику.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________

5. Suppose a friend of yours was careless and lost his passport in a foreign country. He
couldn’t leave the country because of that. Make up 10–12 sentences (or a story) using “If” to
describe what couldn’t (could) have happened if…

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________

166
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

167
Unit 2
Согласование времен. Прямая и косвенная речь
(Sequence of Tenses. Direct and Indirect Speech)
Variant 1

1. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and word combinations:
to affix to divorce
small-claims court mitigating factor
bench trial to quit
to place restrictions to withhold
insane obscene

2. Give the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations:
наследство разрешать
страховой полис владение
неисполнение насильственно
обязательств в увозить
отношении детей
имеющий исковую приходской
силу
помещение супружеская пара

3. Translate the sentences from English into Russian without using a dictionary:

1. He said they were working on the report on juvenile delinquency in Russia then.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
2. The investigator asked me whether I was collecting evidence then.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
3. He suggested that we should have another look at the physical exhibits.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
4. She realized that if her husband assaulted her again she would have to move to her parents’ house.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________
5. Sarah said she wouldn’t be able to inform the school administrators about that fact.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
6. The judge said that he couldn’t sentence those criminals to more than six months in goal.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

168
7. Jane’s mother complained that her daughter was skipping school.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

4. Transform the sentences into Indirect Speech:

1. Jack said, “Two years ago I became a drug addict because my parents had been separated and I tried
to attract their attention to my person”.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________
2. The principal said to Tom, “If you skip school once more, we’ll have to dismiss you”.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________
3. The teacher said to the students, “Why do you have tattoos and pierced earlobes?”
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________
4. The students said to the lecturer, “What measures can the law-enforcement agencies take against drug
dealers?”
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________
5. The people of our community said to the legislators, “Will the anti-smoking law be passed next year
to prevent people from smoking in public places?”
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________

6. The parents wanted to know, “When did the school impose dress and hair codes on their students?”
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________
7. Peter’s friends said, “Let him go in for sports instead of drinking and smoking.”
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________
8. The driver, who had just accidentally hit an old man, said, “Let me take the injured man to hospital”.

169
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________
9. The law-enforcers admitted, “If the society doesn’t solve such social problems as unemployment,
inflation, underage drinking and drug abusing, they will give rise to juvenile delinquency”.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________
10. We noticed, “It’s very strange that he’s being so aggressive towards his parents, he isn’t usually
like that”.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________

5. Write down a direct question:

1. We wanted to know why those guys were opposed to the norms and values in the society.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
2. The teachers were interested to know what reasons had attracted that good student to the drug world.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
3. We’re not sure whether he used to skip school.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
4. He asked the judge if the convicted pupils were sentenced to juvenile detention centers then.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
5. The group of students claimed that the school administrators had infringed their rights to free
expression.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
6. The policemen promised that if we made a lot of noise and disturbed our neighbors they would take
us to the police station the next day.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

6. Translate the sentences from Russian into English without using a dictionary:

1. Он спросил меня, достаточно ли честен этот судья.


________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

170
2. Судья хотел знать, каким образом вор проник в дом супругов Смит.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
3. Следователь предложил начать расследование незамедлительно.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
4. Адвокат велел мне не соглашаться на проведение допроса без его присутствия.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
5. Водитель предложил отвезти пострадавшего мужчину в больницу.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
6. Интересно, допросили ли вчера подозреваемого по делу о краже БМВ.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
7. Мы знали, что он не специализируется по гражданским делам.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

171
Unit 2

Согласование времен. Прямая и косвенная речь


(Sequence of Tenses. Direct and Indirect Speech)

Variant 2

1. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

domestic violence accusation


to proceed underage people
infringement a fit of anger
to waive one’s right juvenile detention
centre
to disturb smb. drug addict

2. Give the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

выдать защитный смягчать, облегчать


ордер
быть против налагать
обязательство специализация
быть в разводе (о позволять,
супругах) разрешать
убежище сохранять молчание

3. Translate the sentences from English into Russian without using a dictionary:

1. She said she was training for a secretary then.


________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
2. He said he had been arrested for dangerous driving.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
3. She claimed there wouldn’t be a legal expert to be worth listening to.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

4. The police officer warned Mike that if he didn’t tell the truth he could be putting himself in great
danger.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

172
5. The chief ordered me to take the criminal to the police station to file criminal charges.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
6. He asked who investigated shop lifting in our department.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
7. They wrote that the case of drug smuggling was still being investigated.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

4. Transform the sentences into Indirect Speech:

1. The lawyer said to the investigator, “What crime were the offenders charged with?”
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________
2. The search commander said to the officers, “Don’t disturb any physical evidence at the crime scene!”
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________
3. The students said to the teacher, “Are jurors legal experts or just ordinary people?”
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________
4. The investigator said, “Let’s have another look at the physical exhibits”.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________
5. He said, “Two years ago I was sentenced to three years of imprisonment”.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________
6. The inspector wanted to know, “Did the policemen give evidence against the famous singer
yesterday?”
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________
7. The solicitor wondered, “When were you accused of stealing a car?”
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________

173
8. The visitor said to me, “Are you waiting for the judge now?”
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________
9. The lawyer recommended, “Don’t waive your right to remain silent.”
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
_______________
10. She noticed, “I’m not sure whether the witness is still being interrogated”.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________

5. Write down a direct question:

1. We wanted to know if I was going to represent my client in court.


________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
2. The inspector asked the students who had had trouble with drugs before.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
3. The judge was interested whether the prosecutor had presented all the physical exhibits.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
4. The investigator asked the witness what he had been doing last Saturday from 3 till 5 p.m.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

5. The prosecutor wondered when his assistant could finish the report.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
6. During the trial the judge asked the accused person’s wife how long she had been working for the
company of the murdered man.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

6. Translate the sentences from Russian into English without using a dictionary:
1. Я знал, что он поступил в Йельский университет на юридический факультет.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

174
2. Он не был уверен, что свидетели дадут показания в его пользу на завтрашнем заседании.
________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
3. Следователь порекомендовал задержанному рассказать правду о совершенном преступлении.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
4. Судья поинтересовался, может ли арестованный позволить себе адвоката.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
5. Инспектор сказал, что дело о магазинной краже все еще расследуется.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
6. Интересно, специализировался ли раньше этот адвокат на представлении клиентов в суде?
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
7. Подозреваемый рассказал, что 2 года назад его уже обвиняли в совершении подобного
преступления, но в данном случае он невиновен.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

175
Unit 3
Инфинитив (The Infinitive)
Variant 1

1. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

autopsy complicated
to discharge wrongfully
indictable conformity
to convince testimony
to expose manslaughter

2. Give the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

здравомыслящий исключать
несправедливый обстоятельство
невнимательный увольнять
жаловаться снисходительно
до признания возмездие
виновным в суде

3. Translate the sentences from English into Russian without using a dictionary:

1. The case of manslaughter to be solved is very complicated.


_______________________________________________________________________
2. The investigator was the last to arrive at the murder scene.
_______________________________________________________________________
3. To defend Mr. Coral in court the attorney should have specialized in such criminal cases.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
4. What to answer the prosecutor’s questions must be thoroughly thought over.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
5. Use is to be made of the eye-witness’s evidence which came yesterday morning.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

6. To determine which of the offences committed is summary is not difficult.


________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
7. To convince the jury that the defendant is not guilty won’t be easy at all.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

176
4. Paraphrase the sentences using the correct form of the Infinitive instead of the
subordinate clause:

1. I was proud that I had been offered the job of a clerk.


____________________________________________________________________
2. The defendant is happy that he has been acquitted of sexual harassment.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
3. Mr. Wolf was sorry that he had given false accusations against his partner.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
4. I’m glad that I’ll be testifying in court in favor of my chief.
____________________________________________________________________
5. My lawyer was pleased that I hadn’t consented to be interrogated without his presence.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
6. The detective was disappointed that he was investigating in the wrong direction.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
7. The jurors were convinced that they would make a unanimous decision.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

5. Use the correct form of the Infinitive in brackets:

1. The accused person hoped (to acquit) ________________ in court.


2. Why did the prosecutor make the witness (to testify) _______________ at the proceeding.
3. Let the criminal (to ask) _________________ additional questions by the prosecutor.
4. The case of treason was too complicated (to solve) __________________ within such a short period
of time.
5. The next criminal record (to file) __________________________ in the safe box.
6. He was sorry (to make)_______________________ false accusations before.
7. You are so tired. I think you’d better (have) _______________ your secretary (to do)
_________________ this work.

6. Translate the sentences from Russian into English without using a dictionary:

1. Самое главное, что нужно выяснить, это где преступник прячет орудие убийства.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

177
2. Будет сложно доказать вину господина Брауна без неопровержимых доказательств.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
3. Обвиняемый надеялся, что с него снимут все обвинения в зале суда.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
4. На конференции предстояло обсудить ряд проблем, касающихся подростковой преступности
в России.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
5. Для того чтобы арестовать господина Смит, нам необходимо доказать, что он является
соучастником данного преступления.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
6. Самая важная улика, которую предстоит осмотреть, – это пистолет, который принадлежит
подозреваемому.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
7. Что заставило этого законопослушного пожилого мужчину совершить убийство своей жены?
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

178
Unit 3
Инфинитив (The Infinitive)
Variant 2

1. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

to seek treatment to negotiate


complaint legitimate
to dismiss to preside
permission poor performance
to suspect to oblige

2. Give the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

жаловаться на что- уверять,


либо обеспечивать
вина низкий, подлый
деловые действия извещать,
уведомлять
урегулирование прежний
труп оправдывать

3. Translate the sentences from English into Russian without using a dictionary:

1. To solve this complicated case of abuse you are to study all the details thoroughly.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
2. What to answer the prosecutor must be thought over.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
3. They are to consider the decisions to be sent by the Court of First Instance.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
4. There are no prison inmates to be executed next week.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

5. It is not difficult to determine which of the committed crimes is indictable.


________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

179
6. To get unemployment compensation benefits is very important for the unemployed.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
7. The customers had nothing to complain of.
____________________________________________________________________

4. Paraphrase the sentences using the correct form of the Infinitive instead of the
subordinate clause:

1. She was glad that she had been offered a job of a prosecutor’s assistant.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
2. I’m really proud that I’ve happened to work in such an outstanding law firm as yours!
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
3. The prosecutor was pleased that the judge had decided in favor of the state.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
4. The chairman of the conference was disappointed that he hadn’t been invited to discuss the problems
of law.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
5. The judge was sorry that he would have to pass such a severe sentence.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
6. The judge was convinced that he should postpone the hearing for the following week.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
7. I was happy that I had witnessed in the Supreme Court.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

5. Use the correct form of the Infinitive in brackets:

1. The manager expected (to promote) ______________________ by the CEO.


2. Let the clerk of the court (to show) _______________________ the physical exhibits.
3. The idea of a new clue was too interesting (to reject) ___________________ immediately.
4. Judge Nicolson hated (to bother) ____________________ while deciding important legal issues.
5. I thought I would rather (to give) _____________________ evidence at tomorrow’s trial.
6. Unfortunately the accused hadn’t had his secretary (to make) ____________________ all the
arrangements and it made the jury (to think) ____________________ he was guilty.

180
7. The next corpse (to examine) ____________________ was the body of an old lady killed in a traffic
accident.

6. Translate the sentences from Russian into English without using a dictionary:

1. Детектив приказал арестовать служащего компании, подозреваемого в растрате.


________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
2. Вам нужно посоветоваться с адвокатом о том, какие показания дать в суде.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
3. Что заставило следователя подозревать своего коллегу в подлоге?
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
4. Он сказал, что, пожалуй, откажется давать показания в суде.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
5. Она поручит своему помощнику подготовить документы для завтрашнего заседания в суде.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
6. Будет очень трудно объяснить вашим клиентам, почему Вы отказываетесь представлять их
дело в суде.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
7. Проблема заключалась в том, что следователю не удалось собрать неопровержимые
доказательства вины секретаря вашей компании.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

181
182
Unit 4
Инфинитив в составе сложного дополнения
(Complex Object)
Variant 1

1. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

personal assets losses


to request to be voidable
to obtain infant
parental rights omission
welfare felony

2. Give the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

признавать подоходный налог


виновным
вмешиваться совершать побег
подать жалобу осмотр места
преступления
лишать (прав) разглашать
назначить обращаться с
залог заявлением

3. Translate the sentences from English into Russian without using a dictionary:

1. Let us assume Mr. Corn to be found guilty by the jury.


________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
2. We heard the neighbors call the police when they found a dead body in the garden.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
3. I didn’t expect her to be charged with felony.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
4. The attorney knew his client to have been cross-examined.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
5. The judge supposes his sentence to satisfy both sides.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
6. The two witnesses saw the murderer hiding the instrument of crime.

183
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
7. I don’t want you to enter the apartment without a search warrant.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

4. Replace the Object Clause with the Complex Object:

1. We know that they will conduct the crime scene observation again.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
2. The jurors suppose that the suspects are not guilty.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
3. Bob’s parents don’t assume that he has committed those violent crimes.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
4. The students expected that Professor Smith would be lecturing from 9 till 12 a.m.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
5. I heard that she had been deprived of her parental rights by court.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
6. My client assumes that the broker is responsible for his losses.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
7. Our partners expect that we have fulfilled all the obligations under the contract.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

5. Join these pairs of sentences deciding whether to use a bare infinitive or “–ing”:
1. The criminal obliterated his fingerprints at the crime scene. The witnesses saw him. The witness
saw __________________________________________________________________
2. The criminal was hiding the instrument of crime. The witness for the prosecution caught sight of her.
The witness for the prosecution noticed
__________________________________________________________________
3. The robbers were climbing the wall trying to break into the house of the Blacks. The Blacks’ neighbor
heard them. The Blacks’ neighbor heard
__________________________________________________________________

184
4. Something was burning inside the restaurant. The waitress could smell it. The waitress could smell
_________________________________________________
5. The criminal was crying in the interrogation room. I heard him. I heard
__________________________________________________________________
6. The driver left the car accident scene. The eye-witnesses saw him. The eye-witnesses saw
______________________________________________________
7. The policemen arrested her on board the plane. The passengers watched them. The passengers
watched _________________________________________________

6. Translate the sentences from Russian into English without using a dictionary:

1. Мне бы хотелось, чтобы вы представили все неопровержимые доказательства данного


преступления.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
2. Двое свидетелей видели, как убийца покинул место совершения преступления.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
3. Преступник не верил, что присяжные признают его невиновным.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
4. Прохожие видели, как полицейские пытались надеть наручники на грабителей банка.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
5. Следователь не рассчитывал, что дело будет раскрыто по горячим следам.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
6.Охранники не заметили, как грабители проникли в музей и похитили картину.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
7. Госпожа Смит не хотела, чтобы в ее планы кто-либо вмешивался.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

185
Unit 4
Инфинитив в составе сложного дополнения
(Complex Object)
Variant 2

1. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and combinations:

breach of law to command


criminal procedure statute
to fulfill to give publicity (to)
punitive to major (in)
remedy treason

2. Give the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

поймать с поличным опротестовать зако-


нопроект
освобождать под за- выносить приговор
лог
обращаться с прось- обязывать, призна-
бой, заявлением вать виновным
личное имущество несовершеннолетний
судебнонаказуемый достаточный, обос-
проступок нованный

3. Translate the sentences from English into Russian without using a dictionary:

1. The judge expected the councilors to settle the case at the preliminary hearing.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
2. I believe the result of autopsy to support his claim that it was just a mishap.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
3. We suppose the murderer to be sentenced to lifelong imprisonment.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
4. Did you hear anybody screaming in the side-street?
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

186
5. He knew the witness to have been cross-examined.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
6. The accused believed the judge not to pass a severe sentence.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
7. I’d like my secretary to look through the mail every morning.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

4. Replace the Object Clause with the Complex Object:

1. Those witnesses saw that the murderer was leaving the crime scene.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
2. They expect that this trained attorney will continue working on this case.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
3. The jury didn’t suppose that the accused persons were innocent.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
4. We heard that the judge had postponed the hearing till the next week.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
5. The school administrators didn’t assume that their colleague had committed that violent crime.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
6. I know that this department doesn’t deal with criminal offences.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
7. We know that the investigation will take much time and great effort.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

5. Join these pairs of sentences deciding whether to use a bare infinitive or “–ing”:

1. She was looking through the documents in the Director’s cabinet. The secretary saw her. The
secretary saw _____________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________

187
2. Before the crime had been committed the Melina’s father and her teacher were shouting at each
other. The pupils heard them. The pupils heard ______________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
3. The thief broke into Mr. Gordon’s house. The passer-by saw him. The passer-by saw
______________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
4. These teens were robbing a woman in the ready clothes department. The shop assistant saw them.
The shop assistant saw _______________________________
____________________________________________________________________
5. The suspected man entered the bank in the morning. The witness noticed him. The witness noticed
_________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
6. Something was burning in the house. The neighbors could smell it. The neighbors could smell
________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
7. Somebody touched her in the darkness. She felt it. She felt ____________________
____________________________________________________________________

6. Translate the sentences from Russian into English without using a dictionary:

1. К сожалению, свидетель не видел, как грабитель вскрывал сейф.


________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
2. Адвокат потребовал, чтобы следователь немедленно освободил его клиента.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

3. Никто не ожидал, что она подаст иск против компании, в которой проработала 10 лет.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
4. Подзащитный верил, что присяжные оправдают его.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
5. Прокурор полагает, что судья вынес справедливое решение.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
6. Почему полицейский позволил задержанному покинуть место преступления?

188
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
7. Обеим сторонам процесса хотелось бы, чтобы дело было урегулировано на предварительном
слушании.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

189
Unit 5
Инфинитив в составе сложного подлежащего
(Complex Subject)
Variant 1

1. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

approach defendant
to recover layman
damages
grave offence to persuade
to blame (for) litigation
failure plaintiff

2. Give the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

тщетный прибыль
облегчать единоличное
владение
нести ответствен- предприятие
ность
председательство- совместное
вать предприятие
суд мелких тяжб подлежать
обжалованию

3. Translate the sentences from English into Russian without using a dictionary:

1. A search warrant is known to have been issued by the judge.


_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
2. This kind of test is thought to be necessary for everyone who is engaged in high risk behavior.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
3. This enterprise seems to have received much profit.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

4. If they run a risk they are sure to lose their personal assets.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
5. This firm is unlikely to be penalized.

190
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
6. The grave offender happened to avoid a severe sentence.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
7. The small claims court may be said to allow the individual to spend his day in court without costs and
the need of the lawyer.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

4. Replace the following sentences with the Complex Subject:

1. It happened that the careless driver went on red and hit a passer-by.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
2. It is known that some mitigating factors were not taken into consideration.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
3. It is certain that someday this offender will escape from prison.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
4. It proved that he wasn’t a reliable partner.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
5. It was reported in the newspapers that the punishment for that grave offence hadn’t fit the crime.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________
6. It seems that the lawyers for each side have come to an agreement.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

7. It is unlikely that the accused person will plead guilty.


_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

5. Translate the sentences from Russian into English without using a dictionary. Use the
Complex Subject:

1. Безусловно, мы предпримем все меры по задержанию этого опасного преступника.

191
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
2. Маловероятно, что сделка удовлетворит обе стороны.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
3. Криминогенная обстановка в этом районе признана чрезвычайно опасной.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
4. Можно сказать, что вердикт окончателен и обжалованию не подлежит.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
5. Оказалось, что товары не отвечали всем стандартам качества.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
6. Несомненно, этот свидетель будет давать показания в суде.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
7. Рассчитывают, что дело о магазинной краже будет раскрыто в ближайшее время.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

Unit 5
Инфинитив в составе сложного подлежащего
(Complex Subject)
Variant 2

1. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

to give certain to distribute profits


advantages and losses
bail bondsman amendment
to secure burglary
default to penalize
to argue the case to allege

2. Give the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

здравый смысл истец

192
роскошный страхование
приют для сирот сделка
давать показания (в тяжкое
суде) преступление
неплатежеспособность судопроизводство

3. Translate the sentences from English into Russian without using a dictionary:

1. He is known to be working in the field of law.


________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
2. This lawyer appears to know the case rather well.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
3. The hearing is certain to have been held on Monday.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

4. He was understood to use the right to make one phone call.


________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
5. The judge is expected to find her guilty to the two counts of murder.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
6. Some physical exhibits are unlikely to be presented in court.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
7. This woman may be supposed to have been involved in other murders.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

4. Replace the following sentences with the Complex Subject:

1. It was found that these mitigating factors were not taken into consideration.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
2. It seems that the parties of the trial have settled the case at the preliminary hearing.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

193
3. It proved that he was an experienced lawyer.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
4.It is said that the investigator is collecting evidence on this complicated case of double murder.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
5. It happened so that this man got into prison by mistake.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
6. It appeared that the contract didn’t meet the required standards.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
7. It is most likely that the prosecutor will win the lawsuit.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

5. Translate the sentences from Russian into English without using a dictionary. Use the
Complex Subject:

1. Вряд ли владелец этого магазина даст показания в суде.


________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
2. Можно сказать, что процесс был проигран.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
3. Кажется, присяжные признают его невиновным.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
4. Несомненно, работодателю придется возместить все убытки.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
5. Он оказался надежным партнером, всегда выполняющим свои обязательства.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
6. Все отягчающие обстоятельства, безусловно, были приняты во внимание.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
7. Несомненно, судья назначит этому преступнику суровое наказание.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

194
Unit 6
Предложный инфинитивный оборот
(The For-phrase and the Infinitive)
Variant 1

1. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

to argue in court deed


valid omission to act
legal capacity consequence
to sue to supply
co-owner guilty intention

2. Give the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

предписанный старшина
законом присяжных
обвинительный акт мошенник
запрещать происшествие
хранить молчание нападать
доказывать умышленный

3. Translate the sentences from English into Russian without using a dictionary:

1. For the case of murder to be solved as soon as possible, we must begin to examine the crime scene
immediately.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
2. It is important for the suspect to keep silence during interrogation without his attorney present.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
3. For the policemen to enter the suspect’s apartment for searching they need have his consent or a
search warrant.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
4. It will be impossible for Mrs. Carter to get a post with this company if she is not specialized in such
a field.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
5. Here are some criminal records for the new investigator to get acquainted with.

195
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
6. It is necessary for the victim to be examined within a certain period of time to prove the fact of rape.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
7. The case is too complicated for this attorney to argue it in court.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

4. Replace the following sentences with the For-phrase and the Infinitive:

1. The witness for the defense will give evidence in court. It is very important.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
2. The criminals pleaded guilty in court. But it was very hard.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
3. The judge passed quite a severe sentence. It was necessary, because the criminals were very
dangerous.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
4. The offender who had robbed the bank admitted everything. It was not easy.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
5. Mr. McCarthy applied for criminal injuries compensation immediately. It might be reasonable.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

5. Translate the sentences from Russian into English without using a dictionary. Use the For-
phrase and the Infinitive:

1. Будет довольно сложно доказать вину господина Быкова, так как у него очень опытный
адвокат.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
2. Важно, чтобы Вы не отвечали на вопросы следователя без присутствия Вашего адвоката,
господин Сайман.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

196
3. Для того чтобы деяние составляло Actus Reus, оно должно быть запрещено законом.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
4. Этот преступник совершил достаточно серьезное преступление, чтобы быть отпущенным под
залог.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
5. Обвиняемый ждал, когда присяжные вынесут вердикт, но те не могли принять единодушное
решение.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
6. Единственным правильным решением для полицейского было надеть наручники на
преступника и обеспечить свою безопасность.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________
7. Судье было разумно назначить залог за освобождение подозреваемого, так как
правонарушение было незначительным.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________

197
Unit 6

Предложный инфинитивный оборот


(The For-phrase and the Infinitive)
Variant 2

1. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

statutory offence conduct


to prohibit to abuse
indictment intention
accident willfully
swindler foresight

2. Give the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

совместное взыскание в
имущество судебном порядке
служащий нанимать
умышленно допускать
вор добровольный
последствие грабить

3. Translate the sentences from English into Russian without using


a dictionary:

1. Here is a document for you to examine.


________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
2. It is forbidden for airline passengers to smoke on board.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
3. For the defendant to be charged with this crime we must collect additional evidence.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
4. This subject is too complicated for him to analyze.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
5. For the dissertation to be defended in time you must begin working now.

198
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
6. It is important for the investigator to follow all the necessary rules while collecting evidence.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
7. It is necessary for you to know all the details.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

4. Replace the following sentences with the for-phrase and the Infinitive:

1. These physical exhibits will be presented in court. It’s very important.


________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
2. He will manage to cope with this case by tomorrow. It’s not difficult.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
3. You should sue Mr. Jason and try to win a recovery for damages. It may be reasonable.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
4. She wants to hire a full-time anti-crisis manager for the company. It will be impossible.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
5. The defendant continues to keep silence. It’s not reasonable.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
6. The judge imposed a severe sentence on him. It was unusual.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

7. The students learned all the rules before the exam. It was necessary.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

5. Translate the sentences from Russian into English without using a dictionary. Use the For-
phrase and the Infinitive:

1. Следователю было необходимо получить ордер, чтобы произвести обыск квартиры


подозреваемого.

199
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
2. Руководству компании важно выработать единую стратегию управления.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
3. Клиент адвоката достаточно хорошо подготовлен, чтобы успешно пройти процедуру
перекрестного допроса.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
4. Единственным правильным решением для Вас будет подать в суд на работодателя.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
5. Присяжные ждали, что обвиняемый признает свою вину, но этого не произошло.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
6. Вам разумно было бы обратиться в фирму мистера Кинга, так как там работают самые
квалифицированные адвокаты.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
7. Для того чтобы Ваша жалоба была принята к рассмотрению, она должна быть подана в
определенный срок.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

200
Unit 7
Герундий (The Gerund)
Variant 1

1. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

to release on bail binding


to submit matrimonial
under oath indiscretion
trespass weapon
conviction chamber

2. Give the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

уголовный супружеский
преступник
совершить угон толкование
подозрение распределять
беспристрастный проделка
обращаться водительское
удостоверение

3. Translate the sentences from English into Russian without using a dictionary:

1. In measuring the distance at the murder scene they made a serious mistake.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
2. The policemen were able to enter the suspect’s apartment by getting a search warrant.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
3. Without being caught red-handed the thief can deny his guilt.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
4. In Britain it’s not possible to hire a barrister without seeing a solicitor.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
5. The judge’s having set a bail gave the offender the chance not to stay in jail until the court is in
session.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
6. The parents didn’t approve of their son’ skipping school.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

201
7. Qualifying as a barrister requires taking the examinations of the Bar Council.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

4. Choose the correct form of the Gerund in brackets:

1. I don’t like people’s (interrupting, being interrupted, having been interrupted) me.
_________________________________________________________________
2. The relatives insisted on the detective’s (having solved, solving, being solved) the case as soon as
possible.
_________________________________________________________________
3. On (reading, having read, being read) the criminal record very attentively the fact finder gave his
piece of mind what direction to go.
_________________________________________________________________
4. Without the instrument of crime (having found, being found, finding) it’ll be difficult to prove the
suspect’s innocence.
_________________________________________________________________
5. We succeeded in (having completed, having been completed, completing) the investigation.
_________________________________________________________________

5. Translate the sentences from Russian into English without using a dictionary. Use the
Gerund:

1. Адвокат защиты был против того, чтобы судья исключал этого присяжного из состава жюри.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
2. Следователь настаивал на том, чтобы подозреваемого приводили на допрос в наручниках.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
3. Обнаружить следы крови потерпевшей на орудии преступления, найденном в доме
подозреваемого, означает доказать его причастность к ее убийству.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________
4. Опросив очевидцев дорожно-транспортного происшествия, сотрудники ГИБДД передали по
рации на ближайший пост приметы водителя, скрывшегося с места происшествия.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________

202
5. Следователи выяснили, что подозреваемый говорит неправду посредством применения
детектора лжи.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
6. При проведении следственного эксперимента преступник попытался сбежать, но вскоре был
задержан сотрудниками полиции.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________
7. Стороны пришли к соглашению, пообещав выполнить все обязательства по контракту.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

203
Unit 7
Герундий (The Gerund)
Variant 2

1. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

to represent felon
county court to hijack
divorce assassin
to draft to object
suspicion obligation

2. Give the English equivalent for the following words and word combinations:

толкование подстрекать
допускать беспристрастный
посягательство подвергать
оружие выходка
страховать отсылать

3. Translate the sentences from English into Russian without using a dictionary:

1. On coming home Mr. Johnson found his safe open and empty.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
2. The accused’s having gone there proved his guilt.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
3. The defense lawyer knew of the witness’s having been questioned additionally.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
4. The chief inspector insisted on my interrogating the suspect.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
5. The prosecutor objected to challenging this juror as from his point of view he could encourage the
others to find the defendant guilty.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________

204
6. We can’t prevent this woman from giving false evidence, we can only insist on the supplementary
investigation to find the witness a liar.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

4. Choose the correct form of the Gerund or the Infinitive in brackets:

1. It’s no use (having told, telling, being told) him the truth.
_________________________________________________________________
2. Defamatory information must (communicating, having communicated, be communicated) to the
third person.
_________________________________________________________________
3. For false evidence (to be proven, to prove, to be proving) additional investigation must be conducted.
_________________________________________________________________
4. A sentence is considered in force at the moment of (having stated, stating, being stated) in court.
_________________________________________________________________
5. The chief of the police department reported that they had succeeded in (having been completed,
completing, be completed) the investigation.
_________________________________________________________________

5. Translate the sentences from Russian into English without using a dictionary. Use the
Gerund:

1. Адвокаты защиты настаивают на отводе этого присяжного, так как не считают его
беспристрастным.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
2. То, что судья на предварительном слушании резко высказался в адрес ответчика, еще ничего
не значит.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
3. Не имея достаточных доказательств, мы не сможем доказать его вину в суде.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
4. Мы были уверены, что этот свидетель дал показания в пользу обвинения.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
5. Будьте осторожны, судья не одобряет подобные стратегии защиты в суде.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
6. Получить ордер на обыск по этому делу достаточно сложно.

205
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
7. Я боюсь, что во время перекрестного допроса подзащитный не выдержит
и даст волю эмоциям (to give way to emotions).
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

206
Unit 8
Причастие (The Participle)
Variant 1

1. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

dismissal to withhold
to apprehend to assume
acceptable to dispose of
to appoint juveniles
conspiracy to seize

2. Give the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

подавать жалобу подстрекательство


задержанный настаивать на
внешний осмотр свидетельствовать
выполнять казнить
получать право наемный убийца

3. Translate the sentences from English into Russian without using a dictionary. Pay attention
to the Participles:

1. Being sued you can’t leave the country.


_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
2. The witness giving evidence was very convincing.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
3. While cross-examining the defendant the prosecutor found out the facts worth investigating.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
4. The physical exhibits being examined will be presented in court tomorrow.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
5. Having been interrogated the suspect left the police department.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
6. The regulations just referred to were adopted at the previous hearing.

207
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
7. As seen from the report juvenile delinquency in Russia is constantly increasing.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

4. Complete the following sentences using the appropriate forms of the Participles or the
Gerund:

1. In England a (to practice) ________________________ lawyer has to hold either a place of a


barrister or of a solicitor.
2. (To invite) ___________________________ to the conference on legal issues she prepared an
excellent report on the problems of conducting further investigation after taking a case to a higher
court.
3. His (to ask) ______________________________ such personal information was so unexpected for
him that he was at a loss.
4. While (to interrogate) ___________________________ suspects the investigator must not abuse his
office.
5. When (to file) ________________________________ a complaint on harassment one should mind
time limits for such claims.
6. (To solve) _____________________________ this felony the investigator could get a promotion.
7. The eyewitnesses (to interview) _______________________________ by the investigator left the
crime scene an hour ago.

5. Translate the sentences from Russian into English without using a dictionary. Mind the use
of the Participles:

1. Накопив определенную сумму денег, она смогла нанять адвоката для процедуры
усыновления ребенка.
_______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
2. При задержании опасного преступника полицейские совершили ошибку, не надев на него
наручники.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
3. Будучи оштрафованным на большую сумму денег, беспечный водитель вряд ли решится
нарушить правила еще раз.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

208
4. Обсуждая результаты судебной экспертизы, следователи пришли к выводу, что подозревают
не того человека.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
5. Если у адвоката защиты будет достаточно времени, он сможет найти неопровержимые
доказательства невиновности своего клиента.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________
6. Предложенная программа конференции была одобрена председателем оргкомитета.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
7. Председательствующий судья попросил стороны процесса пройти в комнату для совещаний.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

209
Unit 8
Причастие (The Participle)
Variant 2

1. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

arbitrariness to charge of
detainee landlord
to handcuff fee
to change one’s mind to annul a marriage
tort awards

2. Give the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

отравленный приостанавливать
хладнокровно распорядиться
производить, устный, дословный
осуществлять
оплата задерживать
упоминать характеристика

3. Translate the sentences from English into Russian without using


a dictionary. Pay attention to the Participles:

1. Government (public) bills usually go through the Commons before being discussed in the Lords.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
2. Publication of public bills called first reading is announced in the chamber.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
3. After an interval ranging from one day to several months the bill will receive its second reading.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
4. The committee stage involves a standing committee examining the bill in detail and suggesting
amendments.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
5. Having considered the bill the committee stage is followed by the report stage.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

210
6. Having been revised during the report stage the bill is debated in its third reading.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
7. Amendments made by the House of Commons must be agreed by the House of Lords, or a
compromise reached.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

4. Complete the following sentences using the appropriate forms of the Participles:

1. The students (to obtain) ____________________________ their Bachelor degree can apply to take
a further degree course.
2. Broadly (to speak) ____________________________ the judicial reform is going to touch upon the
law-enforcement bodies operating.
3. According to the statistics there is an increasing proportion of men and women (to live)
____________________________ together before marriage.
4. In Britain only a few policemen are regularly armed – only those (to guard)
__________________________ politicians or (to patrol) ___________________________ the
airports.
5. Anti-money laundering regime (to emerge) __________________________ in the 90-s have spread
all over the world.
6. (To involve) _____________________________ in a fraud a year ago the manager couldn’t find a
good job.
7. The (to propose) _____________________________ legislation ignored the law-enforcement and
judicial systems of the country.

5. Translate the sentences from Russian into English without using a dictionary. Mind the use
of the Participles:

1. Написав заявление в полицию, миссис Краун всерьез решила лишить бывшего мужа
родительских прав.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
2. Наконец-то начался процесс по делу о двойном убийстве, широко обсуждаемом в прессе.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
3. Будучи освобожденным под залог, мистер Джейсон смог покинуть страну.

211
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
4. Задержав подозреваемого, детективы начали готовиться к допросу.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
5. После того, как суд приговорил обвиняемого к тюремному заключению, появились новые
улики по данному делу.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
6. Вещественные доказательства, представляемые во время судебного заседания, дополнительно
влияют на мнение присяжных.
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
7. Уведомив служащего об увольнении за месяц, работодатель дает ему шанс найти новую
работу.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

212
Unit 9
Причастные предикативные обороты
(Predicative Participial Constructions)
Variant 1

1. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

to overrule the objection to announce


illegitimacy swindler
preliminary alerting service
negotiations acquittal
to vote consistent

2. Give the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

заменять свойство
продлевать инициировать
решение юрисконсульт
приписывать подвергаться
откладывать преуспевать

3. Translate the sentences from English into Russian without using a dictionary:

1. We watched the coroner photographing the corpse of an old lady at the crime scene.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
2. The policeman noticed his car being followed by a black BMW.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
3. I heard my neighbors forced into the police car for a ride to the police station.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
4. She wanted her will made as soon as possible because she was afraid for her life.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
5. We are having our application filed.
____________________________________________________________________
6. The irrefutable evidence being found, the investigator charged the guy with a double murder.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
7. The operative group conducted the investigative experiment, the result being quite unexpected.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

213
4. Replace the clauses with the Absolute Participle Construction:

1. As the verdict was made, the judge passed a sentence.


_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
2. As the suspect’s information was false, additional charges will be added.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
3. As the judge was out of town, the bail couldn’t be set.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
4. After the robber had been tracked down, they could bring him before trial.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
5. After the postgraduate’s thesis had been defended, he was able to leave this country forever.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________
6. If the bondsman brings the bail, his client will be released by the judge.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
7. If the punishment fits the crime, the case won’t be given much publicity.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
5. Translate the sentences from Russian into English without using a dictionary. Use the
Predicative Participial Constructions:

1. После того как вошел судья, началось судебное слушание.


_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
2. Поскольку было собрано достаточное количество неопровержимых улик, господину Кортни
было предъявлено обвинение в изнасиловании.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
3. Так как адвокат защиты не явился в суд, слушание дела было перенесено на неделю.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
4. Апелляции заключенных будут рассмотрены в следующем месяце.

214
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
5. Я заметил, что за пожилой женщиной кто-то следит, и решил сообщить об этом факте в
полицию.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
6. Нам бы хотелось, чтобы это запутанное дело было передано на рассмотрение в суд высшей
инстанции.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
7. Поскольку во время ареста задержанному не были зачитаны его права, это может послужить
основанием для признания ареста незаконным.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________

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Unit 9
Причастные предикативные обороты
(Predicative Participial Constructions)
Variant 2

1. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

to put off to amaze


to succeed in to summon
incompetent to undergo
legal adviser to initiate
to approve to credit

2. Give the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

противозаконность упоминать
быть в силе по отклонять
отношению возражение
предварительное таможенный
слушание контроль
оправдание обновлять
мошенник переговоры

3. Translate the sentences from English into Russian without using a dictionary:

1. Participating in the police operation I saw my neighbor gambling at the underground casino.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
2. The famous pop star noticed his house being photographed by the paparazzi.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
3. We heard the seized explosives blown up at the wasteland.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
4. The couple wanted their marital agreement made as soon as possible as they wanted to get married
in July.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
5. She is having her case heard in the Magistrate’s court.

216
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
6. The sentence being passed, the accused was allowed to say a few words to his lawyers and relatives.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
7. The parties finished the negotiations, the agreement being rather amazing.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

4. Replace the clauses with the Absolute Participle Construction:

1. As the evidence was collected, the investigator began preparing the case for considering in court.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
2. As the amendments were made to the bill, the second reading will follow.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
3. As the prosecutor was sick, the search warrant couldn’t be issued.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
4. After some articles of the contract had been discussed, the partners managed to come to an
agreement.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
5. After the goods had been shipped, the payment documents were sent to the Seller.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
6. If the surgeon conducts the operation, the patient will be able to recover within a month.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
7. If the foreman convinces the jurors, the defendant will be acquitted.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

5. Translate the sentences from Russian into English without using a dictionary:

1. После того как был допрошен второй свидетель, адвокат начал активно убеждать присяжных
в невиновности своего клиента.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

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2. Так как на месте преступления были обнаружены пятна крови и отпечатки пальцев,
следователи смогли предъявить обвинение господину Граффману.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________
3. Поскольку истец не смог явиться в суд из-за болезни, слушание было отложено до начала
следующей недели.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
4. Жалоба служащих фирмы будет рассмотрена на собрании акционеров компании.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
5. Студенты заметили, что за их другом кто-то наблюдает, и решили сообщить об этом
администрации колледжа.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
6. Нам бы хотелось, чтобы контракт был переведен на два языка: английский и французский.
_______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
7. Так как во время убийства секретарь находилась в кафе, и это подтверждают свидетели,
полиция подозревает делового партнера владельца торгового центра.
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________

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APPENDIX 1
СПИСОК НЕПРАВИЛЬНЫХ ГЛАГОЛОВ
(LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS)

Infinitive Past Indefinite Past Participle Translation


arise arose arisen возникать
awake awoke(awaked) awoke(awaked) будить, просыпаться
be was, were been быть
bear bore born рождать
beat beat beaten бить
become became become становиться
begin began begun начинать, -ся
bind bound bound связывать
bleed bled bled истекать кровью
break broke broken ломать
bring brought brought приносить
build built built строить
burn burnt burnt гореть, жечь
buy bought bought покупать
catch caught caught ловить, схватывать
choose chose chosen выбирать
come came come приходить
cost cost cost стоить
creep crept crept ползти, красться
cut cut cut резать
deal (in) (with) dealt dealt торговать, иметь дело
do did done делать
draw drew drawn тащить, рисовать
dream dreamt dreamt мечтать
drink drank drunk пить
drive drove driven гнать, везти
dwell dwelt dwelt обитать, останавливаться
подробно
eat ate eaten есть, кушать
fall fell fallen падать
feed fed fed кормить, -ся
feel felt felt чувствовать
fight fought fought сражаться, бороться
find found found находить
flee fled fled спасаться бегством
fly flew flown летать
forbid forbade forbidden запрещать
forget forgot forgotten забывать
forgive forgave forgiven прощать
get got got получать, становиться
give gave given давать
go went gone идти, ехать
grow grew grown расти

219
hang hung hung висеть, вешать
have had had иметь
hear heard heard слышать
hide hid hid, hidden прятать
hold held held держать, проводить
(собрание)
hurt hurt hurt повредить, ушибать,
обидеть
keep kept kept держать, хранить
know knew known знать
lay laid laid класть
lead led led вести
learn learnt learnt учить(-ся)
leave left left оставлять, уезжать
lend lent lent одалживать
let let let позволять
lie lay lain лежать
lose lost lost терять
make made made делать, заставлять
meet met met встречать
pay paid paid платить
plead pled pled заявлять, признавать
(виновным)
put put put класть
read read read читать
ride rode ridden ездить верхом
ring rang rung звонить
rise rose risen подниматься
run ran run бежать
say said said говорить, сказать
see saw seen видеть
seek sought sought искать
sell sold sold продавать
send sent sent посылать
shake shook shaken трясти
shine shone shone светить, сиять
shoot shot shot стрелять
show showed shown показывать
sing sang sung петь
sink sank sunk погружаться, тонуть
sit sat sat сидеть
slay slew slain убивать
sleep slept slept спать
speak spoke spoken говорить
spend spent spent тратить
stand stood stood стоять
steal stole stolen красть

220
strike struck struck ударять, бастовать
swear swore sworn клясться, браниться
swim swam swum плавать
take took taken брать
teach taught taught обучать, учить
tear tore torn рвать
tell told told рассказывать
think thought thought думать
throw threw thrown бросать
understand understood understood понимать
wear wore worn носить, одевать
weep wept wept плакать
win won won выигрывать,
побеждать
wind wound wound заводить (часы),
виться
write wrote written писать
wake up woke up woken up будить, просыпаться

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APPENDIX 2
СЛОВООБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНЫЕ СУФФИКСЫ
(WORD-FORMATIVE SUFFIXES)

ГЛАГОЛЫ (VERBS)

-EN -FY
black – to blacken false – to falsify
sharp – to sharpen simple – to simplify
short – to shorten pure – to purify

-IZE
character – to characterize
crystal – to crystallize
sympathy – to sympathize

СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНЫЕ (NOUNS)

-ER, -OR -AGE


to buy – buyer to marry – marriage
to direct – director to pass – passage

-ION -MENT
to collect – collection to agree – agreement
to investigate – investigation to govern – government

-DOM -HOOD
free – freedom child – childhood
king – kingdom brother – brotherhood

-NESS -SHIP
dark – darkness friend – friendship
kind – kindness leader – leadership

-URE -ANCE, -ENCE


to press – pressure to differ – difference
to proceed – procedure to insist – insistence

ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНЫЕ (ADJECTIVES)

-ABLE -AL
to change – changeable center – central
to read – readable to form – formal

222
-ANT, -ENT -FUL
to differ – different care – careful
to resist – resistant meaning – meaningful

-IVE -LESS
to act – active hope – hopeless
to effect – effective home – homeless

-OUS -Y
danger – dangerous cloud – cloudy
glory – glorious dirt – dirty

223
APPENDIX 3
МЕСТОИМЕНИЯ (PRONOUNS)

Личные Притяжательные

Именительный Косвенный Относительная Абсолютная форма


форма (без существи-
падеж (объектный) падеж чей? чья? чье? чьи? тельных)
кому? кого?

I (я) Me(мне, меня) My (мой, -я, -е, -и) Mine

You (ты) You (тебе, тебя) Your (твой, -я, -е, -и) Yours

ед.ч. He (он) Him (ему, его) His (его) His

She (она) Her (ей, ее) Her (ее) Hers

It (он, оно, It (ему, ей) Its (его, ее) Its


она)
(о неодуш.)

We (мы) Us (нам, нас) Our (наш, -а, -е, -и) Ours

мн.ч. You (вы) You (вам, вас) Your (ваш, -а, -е, -и Yours

They (они) Them (им, их) Their (их) Theirs

224
APPENDIX 4
ВОПРОСИТЕЛЬНЫЕ СЛОВА (INTERROGATIVE WORDS)

When? когда?
What? что? какой? кто?
(социальная принадлежность)
What for? для чего?
What color? какого цвета?
What kind of…? какой, какого вида (рода)?
Where? где? куда?
Who? кто?
Whom? кого? кому?
Whose? чей?
Which? который? (при выборе)
Which of you (them)? кто из вас (них)?
How? как?
How often? как часто?
How long? как долго, сколько времени?
How old? сколько лет?
How many? сколько? (с исчисляемыми)
How much? сколько? (с неисчисляемыми)
Why? зачем, почему?

225