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1. Match an adjective (19) with

a noun (ai).

1 Appalling a science fiction film
2 Charming b documentary
3 fantastic

c sitcom
4 funny d horror film
5 gripping e quis show
6 independent f love story
7 romantic g thriller
8 spectacular h musical
9 popular i action film

2. What kinds of films do you usually watch on TV?
Using a television/telly/TV
You can turn it up (= increase the volume; opp turn it down) and turn over
(= char to a different channel; e.g. from 1 to 3). You can use switch on, switch
off, or switch o* in place of turn. (NOT switch it up/down)
Types of programme
Soap opera: a programme often on two or three times a week, which follows
the lives of a group/community of people. The stories are often exciting, dramatic
and hard to believe. Quiz show or Game show: individuals or teams (called
contestants) answer questions or play different games against each other. The
winner gets a prize, e.g. money or a holiday. Chat show: a programme where a
presenter talks to famous people about their lives. Documentary: a film with
factual information, often about a problem in society. Series: a number of
programmes about the same situation or the same characters in different
situations. This may be a comedy series (= programmes that try to be funny), or
drama series. (= programmes with interesting characters and exciting situations)
Current affairs: programmes about a social or political problem. Current means
happening now/at the present time.
TV in Great Britain
At the moment there are five terrestrial channels (or stations) on TV (BBC
1, BBC 2, ITV1, Channel 4 and Channel 5). If you pay extra, you can have a
satellite dish and receive satellite TV; or pay to have cable TV (TV sent through
wire cables underground). There are many channels available.
Talking TV
Whats on TV tonight? (= what programmes are shown on TV tonight?) Is
there anything on TV tonight? What times the film on? (= what time is the film

shown?) I quite like television commercials. (= the advertisements between
programmes) Are they showing the game live (= as it happens) or just recorded
highlights? (= parts of the game after it has been played, e.g. later in the
day/evening) Friends is on tonight, but its a repeat (= the programme has been
on TV before). Ive seen it. Whats your favourite programme? (= the
programme you like most/best)
3. You are watching TV with a friend. What could you say in each of the situations
be Stereo Subtitled 5500 low?

1 You want to watch a programme on TV. ...Could you turn the TV on?
2 You cant hear the programme very well. Could you................... ?
3 You want to watch a different programme. Could you.................... ?
4 Now its too loud for you. Could you ............................. ?
5 You dont want to watch any more. Could you.............................. ?
4. Complete these dialogues in a suitable way.

1 A: Whats .............. TV tonight?
B: Oh, the usual soap....................... and stuff like that.
2 A: Did you see the game live?
B: No, they just showed the recorded ...............
3 A: Ally McBeal is ........... tonight.
B: Yes, its a good programme, but Ive seen it before: its a.....
5. Answer these questions about TV in your own country.
1 How many channels approximately can you watch?
2 Do you watch a lot of satellite TV and/or cable TV?
3 In total, how much TV do you watch every week?
4 What are your favourite programmes on TV at the moment? When are they on?
5 Do you enjoy watching the commercials?
6. Look at the words in the box which describe different kinds of television

childrens programmes documentaries drama series quiz shows soap
operas wildlife programmes news sports programmes chat shows
films current affairs

Think about the following questions.
a) What range of programmes would appeal to a wide audience? What kind of
programmes are suitable for different times of day?

b) Should TV be educational as well as entertaining?
c) Do TV planners have a moral obligation to educate?
d) Should sex and violence be censored, or at least restricted to certain times?
7. Write a review describing a film, play, TV programme, etc. that youve seen
recently, or a book that youve read (it could be the one you discussed earlier).
a) Organise your review something like this:
I) Introduction (include factual information: title, writer, director, actors);
II) The plot, setting, characters;
III) Your feelings and thoughts (e.g. about the acting, story);
IV) Conclusion (recommendation).
8. Match each title with the most appropriate kind of film.
1 Last Days of the Black Rock Gang;
2 Bridge over the Seine;
3 John loves Mary loves Tom loves Judy;
4 Born to be a Star;
5 Light Years from Yesterday;
6 The Blood of the Innocents in White;
7 The London to Glasgow Express;
8 Avalanche;
9 Goldilocks at the Teddy Bears Picnic;
10 Wildlife and the West;
11 Bonaparte and Alexander;
12 Casablanca to Cape Town in 20 days;
13 Life begins at Midnight in Amsterdam.
a cartoon
a western
a science fiction movie
a disaster movie
a travelogue
a documentary
a war film
a (Hollywood) musical
a horror film
a blue movie
a thriller
a historical film
a romantic comedy

9. In what situation might you say the following? Match each question with one of the
situations on the right.
1 Whats on?
2 Whos in it?
3 Whats it about?
4 Wheres it on?
5 What time does it start?
6 Where shall we sit?
7 Wheres the bar?
8 What did you think of it?

You. You want to know whether the actors are any good.
You cant see a free seat anywhere.
You need to know what time to get to the cinema.
Youre thirsty.
Youre leaving the cinema with a friend.
There are three cinemas in town and you dont know which is showing the film you
want to see.
You havent a clue what to go and see.
It might be a horror film and you wouldnt enjoy that.

10. Here are some of the categories for the annual Academy Award Winners. Each
winner gets an Oscar. Look back over the past few years not just this year and note
down who you would give your awards to for as many as you can of the categories
below. If you dont know the name of the person involved, then just give the name of
the film. If you are working in a group, compare and discuss your notes with a partner.
Best film
Best Actor
Best Actress
Best Supporting Actor
Best Supporting Actress
Best Director
Best Original Screenplay (script)
Best Screen Adaptation
Best Cinematic Photography
Best Editing
Best Special Effects
Best Original Score (music)
Best Costumes / Wardrobe
Best Title Sequences / Credits
Best Short (film)
Special Award for Services to the Cinema Industry, the motion picture business, the
dream factory, the movie world

11. Look through the TV schedule and:
1. Find and read aloud:
a. political programmes and news
b. sports programmes
c. music programmes
d. soap operas
2. Say which programmes have more time given to them than others.
3. Which programmes are on at prime time (the best time)? Why do you think these
programmes are on then?

12. Fill in the table. Think of the advantages and disadvantages of watching TV.
Give your opinion. Use the following words and expressions:

1 to rest, to relax, to receive information, to watch operas, ballets and performances,
sitting at home, to listen to famous people, to study foreign languages, to take part in
shows and win prizes (money, cars), to buy things for the comfort of your home, to
travel round the world without wasting money, TV is a good friend for disabled and
lonely people
2 to become lazy, to have no time to speak to or see friends and relatives, to gain
weight, to damage ones eyes, to sleep badly, too much radiation in the room, to be
too lazy to go to the theatre and cinema, to have no time to do ones homework and to
help ones pare3nts around the house, to be too lazy to read books, to watch films for

TV advantages TV disadvantages
I relax when I watch soap operas. I spend too much time watching TV.

13. Say whether or not you like adverts on TV. Why do you like or dislike them?


1. The man lost his money gambling in a casino. Read his revelation.
The first time I gambled, I just stayed for an hour. I didnt get addicted until the
next day. I cant honestly say, from that day on, I was in the casino at two oclock
every afternoon, seven days a week, for the next five years, except when I was
penniless. It was a complete obsession
a) What other forms of gambling are there?
b) Why do you think people start gambling?
c) What kind of people do you think gamblers are (e.g. age, sex, background)?
d) What kind of help or advice would you give them if they wanted to stop

2. The text you are going to read is about a teenager who became addicted gambling.
Write any questions that you would like to ask him.
Read Julians story below, and see if your questions were answered.

A quarter of people who seek the help of Gamblers Anonymous are children
addicted to fruit machines. Julian started playing fruit machines five years ago when
he was 18. Since then he has spent more than 20,000 money ha has earned,
borrowed or stolen on what quickly grew into a frightening addiction. I was in a
bowling alley with friends one day. One of them was playing the electric fruit
machines and he kept pestering me to have a go. First I thought it was a waste of
money, but somehow I couldnt keep away. At the beginning I used to spend all my
paper-round money on the machines, but then I started selling everything I owned
even my records and tapes. I took money from my parents and sold their things, too. I
always told myself it wasnt really stealing, that I was just borrowing and would pay
them back.
By the time I was 15 I was already spending more than 30 a week on
machines. They were my whole life. I used to skive off school every day and play the
machine in the local caf. I was in a world of my own where nothing else mattered.
Winning wasnt even important; I always knew I was going to lose. There was just
something about the machines. They became my friends; friends I didnt owe
anything to and who never and who never got annoyed with me. Whatever mood I
was in it made it made no difference to them, we got on fine. Id go into the arcade
feeling tense and excited, but as soon as I started playing I came totally relaxed.
Sometimes Id spend 20 on a taxi to get to one of my favourite machines. the
bigger and more complicated the better and I would spend a solid eight or nine
hours playing. When I ran out of money I felt completely shattered and was
desperate to get more to carry on.
The crunch came the Christmas before I left school when I was 16. Ii was so
frantic to get some money I stole my parents antiques and sold them. When they
found out, they made me show them each shop where I had sold the antiques and they
bought them again back. I left home after that, rented a room and found a job in an
insurance company. After Id paid for food and rent I spent every penny I earned on
machines at first it was 350 a month, then it went up to 700 a month.
Julian is one of the lucky ones. He hasnt played for five months now and is
determined to keep it that way. I had just split up with my girlfriend and was feeling
very upset. Quit suddenly I realised how much pain Id put other people through it
made me feel so bad I wanted to die. It was incredibly difficult but I stopped playing
completely. I didnt get any help I did it on my own. Now Ill have to live with all
the damage Ive caused and try to rebuild things. Im tempted all the time but I now if
I go back itll destroy me. If you havent been trough it you cant understand what it
feels like. It starts off as a bit of fun, but its like a silent drug that eats you up from

3. Read the text again and find out:

a) how old he was when he started gambling.
b) why he began gambling.
c) where he gambled his money on.
d) where he got the money from.
e) why he liked it.
f) why he gave up.
g) how he stopped.
h) if he misses it

4. What is the significance of these numbers in the story? Give as much information
as you can.

a) 13
b) 20,000
c) 5 years
d) 30
e) 20
f) 16
g) 700
h) 5 months

5. Read the text again. Guess the meaning of the words and expressions in italics.

a) pestering me to have a go (paragraph 3)
b) a waste of money (paragraph 3)
c) paper-round (paragraph 3)
d) skive off school (paragraph 4)
e) a solid eight or nine hours (paragraph 6)
f) the crunch (paragraph 7)
g) so frantic to get some money (paragraph 7)
h) split up with (paragraph 8)
i) put other people through (paragraph 8)

6. Interview each other.

a) Work in groups.
You are a television interviewer. Think of questions to ask Julian, using the cues
Think of other questions to ask him about his family life.
1 When / start / play / fruit / machines?
2 How much / spend?

3 How / get money?
4 How long ago / stop / play?
5 How / feel / while / play?
6 Why / leave home?
7 Why / give up?
8 How long ago / give up?
You are Julian. Read the text again carefully so that you will be able to answer the
details about your life. Discuss what kind of family life you had (use your
imagination!) and be prepared to answer questions about it.
b) Work in pairs to conduct the interview. There should be one member of Group A
and one of Group in each pair.

7. Which preposition do you need to complete the following sentences?

a) I am addicted _____ chocolate.
b) They are obsessed _____ money.
c) He is dependent _____ alcohol.

8. Find terms, connected with card games.

She never liked card games, but we did finally graduate from snap to whist, to
canasta, to bridge. We stopped short of poker; poker came later.
ace of spades king of hearts queen of clubs jack (knave) of diamonds
You shuffle the cards, she can cut them, and Ill deal them. Perhaps I can deal
myself a good hand. Its about time I won some tricks.

9. Underline two of the following which are not card games.

poker pontoon chess roulette baccarat snap draughts

10. Choose a word from the box to fit each of the definitions below. They all refer to

a) The money you get when you win in gambling. ________
b) The largest amount of money to be won at cards. ________
c) Money that can be won or lost. ________
d) The person who gives out the cards. ________
e) A piece off metal, card or plastic used instead of money. ________

stake jackpot token dealer winnings

11. Read the first part of a radio programme about Las Vegas, and answer the
questions below.
a) In which US state is Las Vegas?
b) How much money is made there each year from gambling in casinos?
c) What kinds of gambling take place at the airport?
d) What is the population of Las Vegas?
e) Name three typical buildings you can see in Las Vegas.
f) What does much of the city look like?

12. Read the second part of the radio programme, and underline the correct5 answers
or complete the sentences below.

a) Caesars Palace describes itself as a fantasy land / a theme casino.
b) The gambling takes place ________ days a year.
c) People sometimes gamble more than ________ dollars.
d) The Alabaman woman is not winning anything / keeps winning.
e) The Alabaman couple once won ________ dollars.
f) A housewife from Detroit once won ________ dollars.
g) She spent her money on ________.
h) Next to the Colorado River there is a gambling place for older people /

Part 1
A radio programme about Las Vegas
ANNOUNCER: Last week Mike Davies visited Las Vegas, in Nevada, USA,
and brings us this report from the land of the casinos.
MD: Las Vegas is a casino empire with yearly revenues of over six billion dollars.
This is where America lets its hair down, and gambling has the status of an official
religion. The industry greets you like a salesman the moment you step off the plane.
Fruit machines in the Arrivals Hall, the sound of the handles, reels spinning, and the
sound of dollars cascading into trays. And in Departures video poker as far as you
can see, as people wait reluctantly for their planes. Downtown, in the suburban
luxury, the dominance of the big casinos is absolute. If you dont like gambling stay
out of Vegas, is the clear message. The city, with its swelling population of more than
700,000 is built on the proposition that every American likes to chance his luck.
The city centre is in fact a collection of casinos, motels, souvenir shops, porn
cinemas and pawnbrokers. Occasionally a spire intrudes the churches are usually
well-attended but the wise clergyman knows which subjects are best avoided on

Sundays. Much of the city looks like a parking lot areas of concrete which mock the
meaning of its Spanish name: The Meadows.

Part 2
Mike Davies continues
Caesars Palace, the most famous theme-park, describes itself as an opulent
Greco-Roman fantasy land and the 85 acre complex is, in appearance, a cross
between a re-creation of the Roman forum, with Greek additions, and a multi-storey
car park. Its approached by moving walkways of white marble, overlooking
fountains and palm trees. Throughout, there are enormous reproductions of classical
statues especially of Julius Caesar.
The actual gambling goes on 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Roulette, baccarat,
craps, pontoon and poker are all played for stakes that can sometimes exceed
$ 100,000, under the practiced gaze of dealers, bankers and security men. There are
also a variety of different machines. We pick our machines each morning and we
stay on em, one retired Alabaman told me. I figure, by the end of the day, it owes
me. His wife is doing better than him. She feeds in handfuls of dollar tokens and
with surprising regularity the machine is sick over her, spewing out as much as $20 a
time. A small tub is already three-quarters full of her winnings.
I just love Caesars, she confesses, needlessly. We come here three or four times a
year. It turns out that they once won $600 but their goal remains the Big One.
Two years previously a housewife from Detroit won spectacularly. There had
been no big winners for some time and the jackpot stood at $2 million when she
pulled the lever. The money literally engulfed her, but she didnt go crazy. She
bought a mink coat, had champagne for breakfast and had her hair done at the casino
salon. Then she went home to Michigan.
These days theres even a zone for the elderly, on the banks of the Colorado
River. Here, senior citizens, with their wealth of savings and a reckless urge to do it
just one more time park their caravans and move inside to work machines. So far
theres no childrens version planned but it does ever happen itll be in Vegas and
nowhere else. You can bet your bottom dollar.


1. Write down five characteristics of ideal parents. Think about factors such as age,
personality and behaviour. Use the Present Simple and words like never and always.
Example: They never lose their temper.
In groups, discuss what you wrote and agree on five characteristics.

2. Read and discuss.

Does Nanny know best?
It is very difficult for a working couple to spend as much time as they should

with their children. Take the case of a couple who work in the centre of London and
live in the suburbs. Both will probably have to leave the house around 8a.m. and will
be lucky to get home before 6p.m. Since school hours run from 9 a.m. to about 3.30
p.m., such a couple has no option but to pay for someone to look after their children,
such as a childminder that is to say someone who looks after the children whenever
their parents cannot do so or even a full-time nanny. Such services do not come
cheap. A nanny, for example, will have to be paid a salary comparable to that of a
receptionist or a typist, or even more. In other words, one of the partners in the
marriage might well be working for practically nothing.
Of course this is not true all over the world. In such countries as Brazil or
Malaysia in other words countries which have a great many unemployed or
underpaid workers nannies can be employed-for practically nothing. This can also
have its disadvantages, of course, because these nannies are not always as reliable or
capable as their famous English counterparts. Employing such people can also be
extremely dangerous. A case in point was the Brazilian nanny who was overheard
explaining the best way to keep her 6-month-old charge quiet for most of the day.
Her method was to impregnate a cloth with gas from the cooker, then hold it over the
mouth and nose of the baby. Another example was that of a nanny who took an
exceptionally attractive baby out into the streets during the hottest part of the day and
begged at traffic lights, using the child to arouse the pity of drivers.
But such stories are always a possibility if one employs people from shanty
towns for minimal wages. To put it another way, when all is said and done, You get
what you pay for

3. You are going to read a newspaper article which consists of six paragraphs. First
read the opening of each paragraph.
a) Guess how the paragraphs will continue.
b) What do you think the article is about?

1) Perhaps memories of my own childhood have been coloured by time. I grew up
during the war and without the father.
2) I know of no other country where so many crimes are committed against children.
3) The British tradition of boarding school will always remain a mystery for us poor
4) In public, at least, the British arrear cold.
5) Women friends who travel to Italy with their children come back glowing with
praise for the way their children (and they themselves) are treated.
6) How can I say that the British do not make good parents, when I happen to be
married to an Englishman who is a wonderful father and husband, and have many
English friends whom I consider to be excellent parents?

4. Read the whole article below quickly.
a) Match the openings to the paragraphs (a-f). Example: a) = 6
b) What would be the best title for this article?

The British and boarding schools
A national lack of tenderness
Parents contribution to football violence
Children in Britain and Italy

a) And yet every day the evidence before me in the streets and in the newspapers
suggest that they are unusual. Where is the warmth and tenderness between adults
and children which is so prevalent in my native Italy, among all classes and types of
people? Is this the famous British reserve?
b) And their, children certainly look as if they bear the brunt of this national
characteristic. In my experience, children thrive on tenderness. I have looked, but
there certainly does not seem to be a lot of it among the British. Perhaps in private
they are warm and affectionate parents, but in public they seem to go to extraordinary
lengths to hide it.
c) It could almost be called the English disease. It seems almost impossible to turn on
the television without some new crime toeing reported. Of course, there are similar
horror stories in other countries, including Italy, but one does not hear about them
with such appalling regularity. To what extent, I wonder, is football hooliganism the
result of bad parenting?
d) Not only are they not shunned, but seats are proffered, doors smilingly held open
for pram-pushing mothers and tables miraculously appear in crowded restaurants.
Why is it that children are so unwelcome and so rarely seen in restaurants here?
e) In the course of our travels, my husband and I have often met British diplomats
and foreign correspondents who, between gulps of pink gin at one party or another,
would bewail the departure of their eight-year-old child, usually a son. Why were
these distressed parents sending their children away? Its a beastly family tradition ...
a high standard of education ... blah blah blah. And if they have to go, why on earth
when they are-only eight? Of course some children like it. But what happens when
children hate it? From countless melancholic memoirs, biographies and novels it
seems that when it comes to tradition children have to do what they are told.
f) What kept us going was the love and support of family and friends. There was
always that feeling of tenderness which I so often find lacking
over here.

5. Complete the following sentences.

a) The writer comes from ___.
b) The British national characteristic is.
c) The English disease is ____.
d) The writer had a very ____ childhood.
e) She thinks that being a bad parent can lead to.

6. Answer the following questions.
According to the writer, what is the British attitude to children in restaurants?

b) What is her opinion of parents who send their children to boarding schools?
c) What does she think about the way her friends bring their children up?

7. This is the reaction of some British people to the newspaper article. In groups,
discuss your responses.
a) At least our children have some discipline and good manners and dont demand
attention all the time. Francescas kids think the world revolves around them.
b) I think we are prepared to spend more time and money on our childrens education
and extra curricular activities then many foreign parents are.
c) Well at least we spend our summer holidays together and have our kids friends
back to the house a lot, which is more than can be said for a lot of families abroad.
d) British children grow up more independent and self-reliant because they are not
over-babied and over-protected. Lots of foreign parents are much too possessive.
8. Do you agree or disagree with the following statements? Discuss and give your
a) Single people do not make good parents.
b) Children of working mothers are disadvantaged.
c) Fathers and mothers should have equal responsibility for looking after their
d) Younger people make better parents.

1. Look at the article below and make notes on:
what Pamela Megginson did.
why she did it.
what happened to her.
Include only the basic facts of what happened.
A woman scorned
Pamela Megginson, 61, of The Bishops Avenue, Hampstead, was convicted at the Old
Bailey in September 1983 of murdering her millionaire lover and sentenced to life
Cold fear swept over Pamela Megginson as she sat in a candlelit-restaurant on
the French Riviera. Across the dinner table was the elderly lover she now hated so
much she could no longer even bear to look at him. Self- made millionaire Alec
Hubbers, aged 79, had just announced that he was leaving her for a younger woman.
Less than an hour later he was dead. The jilted divorcee had battered him repeatedly
over the head with a champague bottle.
Megginson, the daughter of an English country squire. and Hubbers, a Russian-
born Jewish Immigrant, had fallen head over heels in love many years before. For t3

years she shared his London mansion and lavish lifestyle until suddenly and
unexpectedly there was a new love in his life. The life of luxury was about to end and
Megginson felt humiliated and rejected.
Many people who followed her trial were confident the jury would return a
verdict of manslaughter, allowing the judge to deal leniently with the sad and
defeated woman. But the jury of six men and six women found Megginson guilty of
murder. The judge had no choice but to sentence her to life imprisonment, Her face
crumpled and she wept as she was led away by two women prison officers.
2. On a separate sheet of paper, write a summary of the article in not more than 70
words. Organise it like this:
PARAGRAPH A: The murder
PARAGRAPH B: Background information
PARAGRAPH C: The trial
3. These headlines accompany two newspaper articles which are both about crimes
of passion.
a) Make guesses about:
why the houseproud husband snapped.
what he did when he snapped.
why he is called Mr. Mustard.
b) In what situations might a son attack his father? Why do you think the boy went
c) Make a note of any questions youd like to ask about either of the stories
connected with the headlines.
4. What irritating habits might provoke a partner or relative to violence? Discuss in
5. Do you think crimes of passion should be punished differently from crimes
which are planned? Give reasons to support your opinion.
6. Work in two groups. One group should read Text A and the other group should
read Text B. While reading your text note down the answers to the following
a) How was the victim killed?
b) Why was the victim killed?
c) What was the victim like?
d) What is the accused like?
e) What was the punishment?

Probation for youth who stabbed father
Mr. Mustard is jailed
House proud husband snapped over supper
Text A
Mild-mannered Thomas Corlett, the houseproud husband who strangled his wife
after a row over a tube of mustard, was jailed for three years yesterday after denying
murdering his wife.
It took the jury just ten minutes to find the 58-year-old balding civil servant not
guilty of murder, but guilty of manslaughter on the grounds of diminished
Corlett, described as a man of impeccable character, had gradually taken over
the household chores during his 26-year marriage, including cooking and cleaning.
After his wife became ill with asthma, their relationship had deteriorated.
Medical witnesses at the trial said Corlett was like a house- proud housewife
with a craving for perfection. A pent-up rage built up in him over his wifes
untidiness. His wife started going on holidays with a friend, never asking if he
wanted to join them and never telling him when she would be back. In 1985 she
forgot to send him a birthday card for the first time. Five weeks later the trivial row
over the mustard led to her death.
The snapping point came when the couple sat down to a supper of sausages,
green beans and mashed potatoes at their home in Middlesex on December 12, 1985.
On the spot on the table where he 40 normally put his newspaper was a tube of
German mustard. He moved it. His wife, Erika, 63, picked it up and slammed it down
in its original place. During the quarrel Erika stood up and started flailing her arms.
Corlett grabbed her by the throat and the couple fell to the floor. Corlett called an
ambulance when she fell unconscious but minutes later Mrs. Corlett was dead.
Defence counsel David Farrington handed over a glowing reference from
Corletts boss. The barrister said that Corlett would be extremely unlikely to offend
again, and asked for him to be sent home, Judge Gerald Butler accepted that Corlett
acted out of character but said that he could not take the lenient course being urged
upon him.
(from the Daily Male)

Text B
Sixteen-year-old Peter Stone went free yesterday after admitting killing his
father with a homemade knife.
He stepped in as his were arguing one night and stabbed him through the heart.
He told the police, He hit my Mum in the face. When was younger he used. to hit her
and I could do nothing. But after his arrest the catering student said of his father, He
always loved me.

Stafford Crown Court was told that there had been a strong bond between father
and son, but this broke down as 49-year-old Leonard Stone tyrannised his wife for
four years after losing his job.
Stone, said to be quiet, well-spoken and non-violent by police, is the youngest
of six children.
His father became violent towards his 40.year-old wife Sylvia after losing his
lorry-driving job because of a drink-driving conviction nearly four years ago.
He became depressed and made several half-hearted suicide attempts but
always when someone was close by.
He frequently attacked his wife although several months could go by without
him raising his fists and he spent periods in a psychiatric hospital.
Yesterday Peter Stone, from Walsall, was put on probation for three years after
he pleaded guilty to manslaughter. Mr. Justice Kenneth Jones told him. You are on
the threshold of your life. This is the inevitably a burden you will have on your
conscience and will have to carry over the years. I do understand the position in
which you found yourself.
I accept your father was a difficult man. Any father must understand nothing is
quite so insupportable in the eyes of a son as violence offered by a father to a
And the judge referred to his courage in admitting the offence, and said he was
taking a perhaps exceptional course.
He said, I do it because I have faith in you. I hope you will in the future do
everything in your power to justify the faith I am showing in you.
(from the Evening Standard)
7. Read the text and then work out the questions which go with the following answers
to both Text A and Text B.
Ten minutes.
26 years
Sausages, beans and
He called an ambulance
A home-made knife
Quiet, well-spoken and non-violent
Because the father was violent to Peters
Because he was convicted of drinking
and driving
Four years ago.
8. Discuss the following questions
a) Is it fair that the boy went free? Why do you think the court was sympathetic to
b) Do you agree with the verdict of manslaughter for Mr. Mustard? Why do you
think he was not accused of murder?
c) Do you think the law is too soft where domestic violence, such as the Mr.
Mustard case, is concerned?


9. Look at the phrasal verbs (in italics) and express them in another way. Refer to
your dictionary if necessary.

a) He had gradually taken over the household chores... (Text A)
b) She slammed it down ... (Text A)
c) He handed over... (Text A)
d) He stepped in and stabbed him through the heart.(Text B)
e) (the bond) broke down as 49-year-old (Text B)
10. Read the texts again and find an equivalent word or expression for each of the
Text A
a) household Jobs
b) strong desire
c) anger
d) took hold of something quickly
e) gentle, not severe
Text B
a) something that unites people
b) not really interested
c) a heavy weight

11. Look through the texts again and underline all the words you can find connected
with law and order. Compare with a partner.

12. Use the words you found to complete the following definitions.
a) If you commit a crime the police _______ you.
b) You have to go to _______ for a trial.
c) You can_______ guilty or not guilty.
d) A person who sees a crime being committed is a ________.
e) For serious crimes the people who decide if the accused are guilty or not are
f) The man who sentences the accused is called the _______
13. In pairs, look at the words and expressions.
a) Which are against the law in your country?
b) Which are the most and least serious in your opinion? Give reasons.

dropping litter jaywalking drug pushing fraud
spitting in public suicide arson libel kidnapping
manslaughter treason
14. In your country, which crimes are punished by:
a fine? death?
jail? some other method?
15. What do the following mean?

a) to be given a suspended sentence
b) to be put on probation
c) to be out on bail

16. Decide whether the following words have the same stress pattern when they are
nouns and verbs and then check with your dictionary.

a) arrest e) debate
b) produce f) attack
c) contrast g) permit
d) witness h) appeal
17. Work in groups. Read the five court cases below. Imagine you have to make
decisions about some or all of them.
a) Decide what the people concerned should and shouldnt have done,
b) Decide what sentence you would impose, if any (e.g. jail).
c) Present your opinions to the rest of the class.
A teacher is doing project work with a class of ten-year-olds and gives a pair of
scissors to each group. Unfortunately, one of the girls is severely injured by a pair of
scissors and the girls parents claim compensation.
Your decision
Should the family get compensation? If so, how much and who should pay? Is the
teacher in any way responsible?
Mrs. Anderson is driving her car, keeping to the speed limit, when a dog suddenly
runs across the road in front of her. She brakes to avoid the dog. A man in a Jaguar
behind her, driving quite fast, crashes into her and causes a lot of damage. Both
drivers are slightly injured.
Your decision
Who is to blame for the accident? Should Mrs. Anderson have braked to avoid the
dog? Who should pay for the damage?

Mr. and Mrs. Davies were married for 18 years and had one daughter. When they got
divorced in 1977, Mr. Davies re-married and his new wife looked after him through
his illness until his death in 1990. In his will he left to his daughter, to his first wife,
to a lover in London and to his golf club. His second wife demanded that the will be
Your decision
Should the will be changed in any way?
Mrs. James is stabbed by Mr. Jordan during a row, and starts to lose a lot of blood.
She is taken to hospital where it is said that her condition is not critical but she needs
a blood transfusion. However, she belongs to a religious sect which does not believe
in blood transfusions. She refuses to have one, and dies.
Your decision
Should Mr. Jordan be charged for murder or manslaughter? What should his
punishment be? Are the hospital at all responsible?
Mrs. Williams, aged 85, was terminally ill and in great pain. She was given an
overdose of sleeping pills by her daughter, who could not bear to see her mother
Your decision
Should the daughter be prosecuted?

18. Choose the most suitable word or phrase underlined in each sentence
a) Sally didnt realise that she had broken/countered/denied the law.
b) The police have banned/cancelled/refused parking in this street.
c) I must remember to get a/an agreement/licence/permission for my television.
d) The president admitted that there had been a breakdown of law and
e) Jims parents wouldnt agree/allow/let him go to the demonstration
f) Carlos was arrested because he had entered the country falsely/illegally/wrongly.
g) Talking to other students is against the law/orders/rules of the examinator.
h) The two men were arrested before they could commit/make/perform any more
i) I had to take the company to court/justice/law to get the money they owed me.
j) Smoking is compulsory/prohibited/refused near the petrol tanks.

19. Match each person in the list with the description given.
blackmailer forger hooligan murderer shoplifter vandal
burglar hijacker kidnapper pickpocket smuggler witness
a) This person takes control of a plane or boat by force _________.
b) This person sees what happens during a crime or accident_________.
c) This person brings goods into the country illegally_________.
d) This person might steal food from a supermarket_________.

e) This person kills someone on purpose_________.
f) This person takes people and demands money for their return_________.
g) This person makes illegal copies of paintings, documents etc_________.
h) This person damages other peoples property_________.
i) This person might steal your wallet in a crowd_________.
j) This person steals from houses________.
k) This person gets money from others by threatening to tell secrets_______.
l) This person causes trouble at football matches________.

20. Complete each part sentence a) to j) with one of the endings 1) to 10). Use each
ending once only.
a) I decided to buy a burglar alarm after someone broke________.
b) When Alan was stopped outside the supermarket he ended___________.
c) As it was Sheilas first offence she was let ________.
d) After climbing over the prison wall, Peter managed to get_________.
e) The old couple who live opposite were taken _________.
f) At the end of the trial Hilary was found__________.
g) My neighbours admitted denting my car but got away__________.
h) The bank at the end of the street was held_________.
i) Nobody saw Jack cheating and he got away with_________.
j) The hijackers took fifteen people ________.
1) ____ in by a salesman who cheated them out of their money.
2) ____ away by stealing a car parked nearby.
3) ____ up at the police station, charged with shoplifting.
4) ____ it, although everyone suspected what had happened.
5) ____ into my house and stole my stereo.
6) ____ off with only a warning.
7) ____ with paying only damages.
8) ____ hostage and demanded from the authorities.
9) ____ guilty and sentenced to six months in prison.
10) ___ up by two masked men last week.

21. Complete each sentence with a word from the list. Use each word once only.
accused evidence guilty lawyer statement
charged fine jury sentence suspect
a) The customs officers arrested Bob and ________ him with smuggling.
b) The police spent all morning searching the house for________.
c) Jean left her car in a no-parking area and had to pay a/an ________
d) Unfortunately at the end of the trial my brother was found ________
e) The trial took a long time as the ________ couldnt reach a verdict.
f) George won his case because he had a very good defence ________
g) The police visited Dawn and asked her to make a/an ________
h) Because of his past criminal record, Brian was the main ________
i) Pauline decided to sue the police because she had been wrongly ________

j) The murderer of the children received a life ________
22. Choose the most suitable word or phrase to complete each sentence.

a) Most schools in my country no longer have_____ punishment.
A) physical B) capital C) bodily D) corporal

b) The policemen following the robbers were in _____ clothes.
A) plain B) ordinary C) normal D) simple

c) The two old ladies were _____ of their purses.
A) stolen B) attacked C) robbed D) snatched

d) At the end of the story, the hero manages to arrest the _____.
A) offenders B) villains C) wrongs D) evils

e) I had to answer question A because it was _____.
A) compulsory B) necessary C) a must D) an obligation

f) Charles could not _____ having been at the scene of the crime.
A) refuse B) object C) deny D) alter

g) As there was no evidence, the judge dismissed the _____
A) trial B) witness C) court D) case

h) If your dog damages your neighbours property, you could be _____.
A) guilty B) liable C) payable D) illegal

i) After ten years in prison, Stephen was _____ and set free.
A) pardoned B) released C) innocent D) forgiven

j) The detective inspector told the young_____ to make some tea.
A) officer B) official C) guardian D) police
23. Rewrite each sentence, beginning as shown, so that the meaning stays the same.
a) They said that John had stolen the money.
They accused ____________________________________________________
b) Ian said that he hadnt punched anybody.
Ian denied _______________________________________________________
c) OK, Andy, you can go now, said the detective.
The detective gave Andy __________________________________________
d) James Frogget, you will go to prison for ten years, said the judge.
The judge sentenced ______________________________________________
e) I forged the signature, said Mary.

Mary admitted ___________________________________________________
f) Harry stole and was arrested.
Harry was arrested ________________________________________________
g) We saw the accused break into the car, said the witnesses.
The witnesses stated_______________________________________________
h) Graham said that he wouldnt go to the police station.
Graham refused___________________________________________________
i) Its true, said Norman, I murdered Alan.
Norman confessed to ______________________________________________
j) Can you come with me, please, the detective said to Helen.
The detective asked _______________________________________________

24. Use the word in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the
space in the same line.

Arthurs life of crime
At his last trial, nobody believed in Arthurs (1)_______. He had
been accused of the (2) _______ of a valuable Chinese vase, and
was also charged with ten other (3) _______. The value of the (4)
_______ goods was said to be over Arthur said in his own (5)
_______ that the vase had been put into his car (6) _______. He
also pointed out that the Chinese vase was a fake, and was almost
(7) _______. The judge did not believe Arthurs story. He told
Arthur he was a hardened (8) _______ and that he deserved a
severe (9) _______. Then the judge sentenced Arthur to five years
(10) _______. Arthur just smiled. He had spent most of his life in
prison and so he was used to it.
25. Choose the most suitable word or phrase underlined in each sentence.
a) Harry was told that fishing in the lake was against/by/over the law.
b) Catherine led a secret life for/in/of crime before she was caught.
c) Having trouble with your phone? Send at/for/to Fix-a-phone!
d) I regret to tell you that you are for/in/under arrest.
e) I only attacked the young man from/in/with self-defence.
f) David was often at/in/with trouble with the police when he was young.
g) The robbers car was hidden below/by/from sight behind the bank.
h) The kidnappers have been caught, and the child is no longer at/in/on danger.
i) Tony was caught by a policeman who was off/out/away from duty and 4 cycling to
j) The thieves took the wrong painting by/in/under mistake.
k) The suspicious manager left the safe unlocked from/on/with purpose.
l) The robbers met to plan the bank raid from/in/with secret. 220.


26. Decide which A, B, C or D best fits each space.
Inspector Crumb Investigates
I think I know the identity of the murderer, said Inspector Crumb, and at (1)______
one of the guests in this hotel was a/an (2) ______ to the crime, probably by
(3) ______. I believe that the same guest is also a (4) ______, and has been given
money by the killer. So whoever (5) ______ this terrible crime is still here, I said.
But of course. In (6) ______ he or she is in this room, and will soon be
(7) ______ arrest. There was silence for a moment. I noticed that everyone was
trying to look (8) ______, but they all looked guilty instead! Do you have any
(9) ______, Inspector, asked Lady Grimshaw finally, or are you simply (10) ______
people for fun? If you intend to (11) ______ someone, you should do it now. The
Inspector smiled. I asked you here (12) ______ purpose, Lady Grimshaw. I have
been reading your (13) ______ , you see, and it is quite clear that you have told
several (14) ______. How dare you! Lady Grimshaw spluttered. Do you
(15) ______ that you were with Tim Dawson in the garden on the night of the
murder? the Inspector said? You forgot about the security cameras, you see...
1) A) last B) least C) the D) school
2) A) witness B) offender C) guilty D) verdict
3) A) now B) damages C) law D) accident
4) A) blackmailer B) hostage C) hooligan D) forger
5) A) confessed B) committed C) admitted D) performed
6) A) crime B) self-defence C) fact D) danger
7) A) to B) having C) under D) my
8) A) accused B) suspicious C) ordinary D) innocent
9) A) evidence B) witness C) permission D) body
10) A) suspecting B) suing C) denying D) accusing
11) A) trial B) charge C) sentence D) confess
12) A) with B) for C) on D) by
13) A) statement B) biography C) evident D) history
14) A) people B) errors C) times D) lies
15) A) refuse B) deny C) contradict D) suppose

27. Complete the following sentences with words from the box.

burglary robbery mugging pickpocket

a) When you steal money or a large amount of goods from a bank or a shop the crime
is called_________ .
b) Somebody who steals from your bag or pocket (usually in a crowded place) is
called a _________.

c) When somebody breaks into your home and steals something, the crime is
d) When somebody steals money from you and uses violence its called_________ .

28. What is the person called who commits:

a) a burglary? b) a robbery? c) a mugging? d) a theft?

29. Read the comments made by three teenagers about their attitudes to stealing.

a) Where possible, decide which of their comments you agree or disagree with and
write down any comments of your own.
b) Do you sympathise with any of the young people? Is stealing more acceptable if
youre poor? Discuss your views in groups.
c) Read what the young people said again and find two colloquial expressions which
mean steal.

30. Put the following crimes in order depending on how serious you think they are
(1 is the most important, 6 is the least important). Discuss in groups.

a) Taking clothes from a large shop without paying.
b) Mugging an old lady and taking from her.
c) Stealing from your mothers purse.
d) Taking home things like pens and sellotape from where you work.
e) Selling stolen goods.
f) Stealing million from a bank.

Andrew: If somebody
pinches some thin from a big
shop or a business or
something like that and they
get away with it, I say good
luck to them. What does it
matter? Its not the same as
stealing off a friend or
knocking down a poor old lady
and running off with her
Tina: Ive nicked.
loads of pens,
sellotape and things
from work. The
employers nick
things and cheat,
dont they. If you
dont do it they will.
Janet: My father was
done for selling stolen
goods and went to
prison. But what else
can you do when youre
unemployed and youve
got a family to bring

31. Look at the sentences below. Match the definitions of crimes to words from the box.

blackmail kidnapping arson trespass hijacking manslaughter
murder smuggling drug dealing forgery fraud mugging spying
shoplifting libel bribery burglary speeding

1 When someone kills someone else deliberately.
2 When someone offers you money to do something.
3 When someone steals something from your home.
4 When someone captures you and demands money for your release.
5 When someone attacks you in the street and takes your money.
6 When someone writes something false and offensive about someone.
Find out what the other words in the box mean.

32. Work in pairs. Decide on punishments for some of the crimes in the vocabulary

prison sentence fine caution life sentence damages community
service disqualification

33. Read Rules of law. Now work in pairs and discuss which law you find most
amusing or strange.

Rules of law
In Lancashire, it is against the law to hang male and female underwear on the
same line.
In Saskatchewan, Canada, you must not drink water in a beer house.
A transportation law in Texas, USA: when two trains approach each other at a
crossing, they should both stop, and neither shall start up until the other has gone.
In Waterloo, Nebraska, USA, it is illegal for a barber to eat onions
between 7 a.m. and 7 p.m.
The town council of Widries, Lancashire, England introduced a fine of for
those who made a habit of falling asleep in the reading rooms of libraries.
Duelling in Paraguay is legal as long as both participants are registered
blood donors.
In New York City there is still a law which makes it illegal for women to
smoke in public.
The citizens of Kentucky, USA, are required by law to take a bath once a
In 1659 it became illegal to celebrate Christmas in Massachusetts.
In New York State you are not allowed to shoot at a rabbit from a moving
trolley car. You have to get off the car, or wait for it to come to a complete stop,
then fire away.
In Malaysia it is against the law to dance on the backs of turtles.
In Madagascar it is illegal for pregnant women to wear hats or eat eels.
In Alaska, USA, it is illegal to look at a moose from the window of an airplane
or any other flying vehicle.
It is illegal to hunt camels in the state of Arizona, USA.

In Indiana, USA, it is against the law to travel on a bus within four hours of
eating garlic.
During the reign of Elizabeth 1, the wearing of hats was made compulsory
in England.
In 1937 in Hungary spring cleaning became compulsory. All lofts and cellars
had to be cleaned.

34. Answer the questions. Try to do this in one minute.

1. Where cant barbers eat onions during the day?
2. Where and when did you have to wear a hat?
3. Where and when did you have to clean out your lofts and cellars?
4. What must two trains do at a crossing in Texas?
5. What mustnt you do if youve just eaten some garlic?
6. What mustnt you do from an airplane window?

35. Work in pairs. Here are some possible reasons why some of the laws were
introduced. Match the reason and the law.
1. Because it makes their breath smell.
2. Maybe theyre an endangered species.
3. It doesnt give the animal a sporting chance.
4. Because it distracted people from the true meaning of there religion.
5. Maybe because it was considered unsuitable behavior for a lady.
6. In case people snored.
Can you think of reasons why the other laws were introduced?
36. Work in groups of two or three. Are there any laws you would like to introduce in
your country? Think about:
use of mobile phones smoking in public places use of cars
pollution healthcare housing pets language learning school
leaving age
37. Write some new laws for your country. They can be as amusing or strange as you like.
38. Work in groups of two or three. Look at the words in the box and use them to
complete the gaps in the questions.

innocent guilty prison offence weapon arrest lawyer suspect
crime legal charged with confess custody magistrate trail
sentence executed for jury judge bail

1. Are you innocent until youre proved to be ____, or the other way round?

2. If youre convicted of drug dealing, are you always sent to ____or is there
sometimes a fine?
3. Is it an offence to carry a____ such as a gun or a knife?
4. 4 If the police arrest you, are you allowed to call a____ ?
5. If the police____ you for a crime, is it legal to remain silent when they question
6. If youre____ a crime, are you always kept in custody while you wait for a trial?
7. If you____ to a crime, do you always get a light sentence?
8. Are there any crimes which you can be____ ?
9. Is there always trial by____ for serious crimes?
10. Who decides on a sentence? Is it the____ or the jury?

39. Read the newspaper article and the letter in reply it. Who do you agree with the
judge or the writer of the letter?

A judge ordered an 82-year-old man to pay 4,000 damages to a burglar who was
trying to break into his house. Jack Lewis was asleep in his house in Maidstone, Kent
when he heard noises. He picked up his shotgun and went downstairs where he found
Michael Phillips in the hall with a bag full of electrical equipment. Phillips claimed that
because he was unarmed, he put the goods down and raised his hands when he saw the
shotgun. Lewis said Phillips had turned to run out of the open front door, so he shot him.
Phillips suffered minor wounds to the legs. The judge said despite the fact that Lewis
was defending his own property. The shotgun was unlicenced and in any case, it was not
acceptable for people to take the law into their own hands.

Sir, I am writing in disbelief at the judgement passed on Jack Lewis yesterday. In my
opinion it is absolutely unfair to make him pay for his act of self-defence. In theory
he has committed an offence by firing an unlicenced shotgun, and he should be
prosecuted for this. But in practice the law should be more flexible. As far as Im
concerned, for a criminal to receive compensation for an injury sustained while
carrying out a crime is quite outrageous.
Yours faithfully
Brian Forbes
40. Match the words below with the definitions.
jury prosecution judge defence lawyer magistrate
defendant court
1 The person who decides on a sentence.
2 The person who presents the victims case.
3 The person who presents the case of the person standing trial.
4 The person who stands trial.
5 The people who decide whether the person standing trial is guilty or innocent.

6 The place where a trial takes place.
7 The person who presides in a court for minor offences.

41. Put these legal procedures in the order in which they usually take place.

a. be convicted of an offence
b. be charged with an offence
c. be sentenced
d. be arrested
e. be suspected of an offence
f. appeal
g. stand trail
h. be given bail or go into custody

42. Complete the news reports below with words from the list. You may need to
modify the nouns and verbs. You may need to use some words more than once.

forged sentence prison jury extradite suspended convict
lawyer prosecution charge appeal guilty fine court
innocent case

1 A court ___________ the former boss of a first division football club to one year in
__________ and another year __________ for rigging a soccer match. The sentence
was harsher than the six-month term sought by the ____________. The former
football boss is to against the sentence.
2 The mayor of a major town was found _________ of fraud when he was finally
brought to __________ last month. He fled the country two years ago when an
enquiry revealed he had been using taxpayers money to finance personal projects.
The former mayor was ____________ from America in January. He received a two-
year prison __________ and was ___________.
3 A _________ sentenced one of Europes most wanted men to seven months jail for
possession of ___________ documents. After serving the sentence he is likely to be
_________ to Italy where he had escaped from jail after he was ____________ of
murder in 1991.
4 A 40-year-old man was found not _________ of murder by a __________ in
Birmingham this week. The man had been __________ with the murder of a
neighbour in May 1993 and had spent over a year behind bars before his.
___________ finally came to court this month. The man was overwhelmed with
relief as he left the ___________ with his wife. His ____________ is making a
compensation claim for the months he spent in prison.

43. Read the following, paying particular attention to the words in italics. Discuss the
meanings of these in groups, and use your dictionary for any which are still not clear.

When someone is arrested for committing an offence, he is taken to the police
station for interrogation. If the police decide there is a case against him, he is charged

with the offence, that is to say the police formally accuse him of committing it. After
this, the accused appears before a mastrate. This is a well-respected member of the
public who is empowered to decide, with a lawyers help, what to do about minor
cases. If the magistrate finds the accused guilty, he will sentence him to pay a fine, or
some other minor punishment.
More serious cases are passed up to the Crown Court, where the accused is tried
for the offence by a judge, and usually a jury. Very serious cases are heard in the
high courts in London. The accused may have to wait a long time to stand trial.
Sometimes he can pay bail, as a kind of guarantee, and await the trial in freedom. In
other cases, he is remanded in custody by the magistrate, and must wait in a cell, in a
police station or a remand prison.
At the trial, the accused pleads guilty or not guilty. If he pleads not guilty, the
jury, composed of twelve ordinary citizens, has to decide if he is guilty or not. This
decision is called their verdict. The judge directs proceedings, and decides what
punishment to give, if any. The lawyers who try to persuade the jury are called
barristers. In court, the one on the side of the accused is known as the Counsel for
the Defence, and the one against him is called the Counsel for the Prosecution. Each
barrister calls witnesses to give evidence in support of his case. The witnesses can be
cross-examined by the other counsel, who tries to persuade the jury that the evidence
is untrue or not important.
When all the evidence has been heard, the judge sums up the case and explains
legal points for the jurys benefit. He must not try to influence their decision,
however. The jury retire to another room, where they try to reach a verdict. If they
find the accused guilty as charged, we say he has been convicted of the offence. The
judge then passes sentence. He may sentence the guilty person to pay a fine, to a
number of years imprisonment, or to some other punishment. If the verdict is not
guilty, we say the accused has been acquitted of the offence, and he goes free. If the
accused feels there was something unfair about the trial, he may appeal to the Appeal
Courts, where three judges decide the case.

44. Cover the text. Which words on the left go with which word or words on the

a plead
b cross-examine
c remand
d commit
e reach
f stand
g find
h hear
i pay
j call
k give
l sum up
m pass
I verdict
II case
III imprisonment
IV sentence
V witnesses
VI offence
VII evidence
VIII guilty/not guilty
IX trial
X fine
XI bail
XII custody

45. Which people are connected with which items in Exercise 43. In what way?

the police the accused the magistrate the judge the jury the
witnesses the barristers

46. Circle the odd-one out.

1 illegal unlawful offence crime prohibited truth
2 jury judge magistrate witness weapon lawyer
3 innocent prosecute sentence convict charge arrest
4 murder blackmail bail mugging burglary arson
5 fine trial prison sentence damages caution community
6 thief burglar forger barrister drug dealer shoplifter

47. Match these definitions with a word(s) from activity 45.

1 A person who saw a crime being committed. __________
2 To deliberately set fire to a property. __________
3 Someone who defends the accused in court. __________
4 To sentence an offender to pay money. __________
5 Against the law. __________
6 Someone who steals from houses. __________
7 A group of citizens who decide whether a defendant is guilty or not. __________
8 To take legal action against someone. __________

48. Complete the sentences.

1 He was c_______ of manslaughter and s_______ to two years in prison.
2 The j______ found the man g ______ of pre-meditated murder.
3 In Britain, it is a criminal o________ to carry a weapon.
4 There is always a t_______ by jury for serious crimes.
5 The policeman stopped the driver and a _______ him of dangerous driving.
6 The police dropped the c_______ against the woman because she had a good alibi.
7 The jury found the man i______ and he was released.
8 It is against the l________ to sell stolen goods.

49. Match the sentences with the replies.

1. Someone tried to break into my house in the
night. I turned the lights on and they ran away.
2. Why cant I fish in that river?
3. Should I bring a cake or something?
4. He was attacked by thieves and he fought
back bravely. Unfortunately he is in hospital now.
a No, but you must have a licence to drive a
b He should have given them his money
without resisting.
c No, you cant drive until you are eighteen.
d You dont need to bring anything.

5. Do you need a licence to ride a bike in
6. Are you allowed to drive a car before you.
are eighteen?
e Nevertheless, you should have called the
police. They may come again when you are
f Because you have to have a licence.

50. You are going to read about ten people who have been charged with different
crimes and found guilty or not guilty. Guess what the courts verdict was.

1 Joe a 15 year-old, broke into his neighbours house, burgled the house, locked the
eighty-year-old woman a her bathroom and escaped in her car. At the trial, the
defence pleaded not guilty to the charges with the reason of temporary insanity
caused by Joe watching too much television. He watched more then six hours a day,
loved come programmes and had just watched a film which contained scenes similar
to the crime he had committed.
Was Joe GUILTY or NOT GUILTY of burglars and false imprisonment?
2 Max went to a second-hand car dealer named Harry and told him that he only
wanted a car that had air conditioning. Harry said OK and pointed out a car. Max
took the car to the test drive and then bought it to see if it had air conditioning. When
he got the car home, he discovered that the knob marked air was for ventilation
only. Max sued Harry for fraud and demanded compensation.
Was Harry GUILTY or NOT GUILTY of fraud?
3 James had been unemployed for over two years and needed a new suit to wear at job
interviews. However, he did not have enough money. He happened to have the same
name as the richest man in town, so he went to a tailors and put a new suit on the other
mans account, simply by signing his own name. He was charged with forgery, but he
argued that he had not forged anyones signature by signing his own name.
Was James GUILTY or NOT GUILTY of forgers?
4 Police began searching a suspected thiefs home but couldnt find any of the stolen
goods they were looking for. During the search, a police officer secretly took aside
the thiefs five-year-old son and said he would pay him five dollars if he showed him
where the stolen goods were hidden. The boy accepted the money and took the police
to the hiding place. When the police charged the boys mother with burglary, she
stated that the stolen goods should not be used as evidence and accused the
policeman of bribing her child.
Were the police GUILTY or NOT GUILTY of bribery?
5 The manager of a shop was informed by a customer that a woman had taken
something off a shelf and put it in her bag without paying for it. When he
investigated, the manager saw articles similar to those on sale in the shop in the
womans clear plastic bag. At the cash-desk, the manager accused her of shoplifting.
However, when the woman emptied her bag and the manager saw that she possessed
no stolen items, he apologised. She pressed charges against him for slander.
Was the shop manager GUILTY or NOT GUILTY of slander?
6 Sally reversed her car out of her drive and accidentally ran over her flat-mates dog
which was sleeping in the cars path. The dog was badly injured and had to be treated

by a vet. Sallys flat-mate Jane sued her for $1000 in damages to compensate for the
vets fee. Jane argued that Sally had driven without due care and attention because
she knew that the dog would often sleep on the drive and could not hear the car
because he was deaf.
Should Sally be ordered to pay compensation?
7 In New York in the l970s, a young woman whose surname was Cooperman went to
court to have her name changed to Cooperperson. She was an active member of the
Womens Rights Movement and because of this, she wanted to have a name which
reflected human equality.
Should Ms Cooperman be allowed to change her name?
8 Diana consulted a plastic surgeon who told her that he could make her nose smaller
and more harmonious with her other features. After three operations, it looked
much worse than before. Diana sued the surgeon.
Should the surgeon be ordered to pay compensation?
9 A male teacher who wore a small earring to work was sacked from his job. He
claimed that he had been sacked because the school administration thought it was
inappropriate for a male teacher to wear an earring and he accused the school of
sexual discrimination.
Was the school GUILTY or NOT GUILTY of sexual discrimination?
10 During local government elections, a newspaper printed profiles of all the party
candidates, but the profile of the Green Party candidate was completely unintelligible.
Margaret, a member the Green Party, thought that the newspaper had done it on
purpose and so she wrote an angry letter to the editor. In order to make sure it was
printed, she paid for it to be published as an advertisement. The newspaper printed it
and then sued Margaret for libel.
Was Margaret GUILTY or NOT GUILTY of libel?

51. Now read the courts verdict for each case.

1 The court found Joe guilty, stating that there was no evidence that television was
responsible for his inability to distinguish between right and wrong.
2 The court found Harry not guilty because Max should have checked the air
conditioning for himself.
3 The court found James guilty of committing forgery.
4 The court found the police not guilty and stated that they pay for information all the
5 The court found the shop manager guilty and ordered him to pay the woman
6 Yes, the court found Sally guilty of negligence.
7 No, the court ruled against a change of name, saying that they would have to accept
all requests of this nature. For example, Jackson would become. Jackchild and
Manning would become Peopling.
8 Yes, the court ruled that the surgeon had broken his contract to improve Dianas

9 The court found the school not guilty of sexual discrimination. Although the law
prohibits dismissal based on gender, it does not protect against discrimination against
an effeminate appearance
10 The court ruled against the newspaper because it neednt have agreed to print
Margarets advertisement.

52. Look at the definitions of some crimes below and circle words in the word square
which make the name of the crimes. You can read forwards or backwards, across,
down or diagonally.

a) Breaking into a building and stealing something.
b) Being married to more than one person.
c) Getting money-by threatening to tell a secret about somebody.
d) Taking things in and out of a country against the law.
e) Going on to privately owned land without something permission.
f) Attacking and robbing someone.
g) Sexual assault.
h) The premeditated killing of someone.


53. Which verbs go with the nouns above? What is the person called who commits
these Crimes? Complete the columns below.




54. Guess which of the following statements about murder are true.

a) Most murders are premeditated. _______
b) A lot of murders are caused by alcohol or drugs. _______
c) People who know each other do not often kill each other. _______
d) Murders usually are more violence than is necessary to kill someone. _______
e) In the USA there are more than 10.000 murders each year. _______
f) In Britain there are no more than 1.000 murders a year. _______
g) Its quite difficult to get a gun anywhere in Britain. _______

55. Divide these expressions into P (for Premeditated) and U(for Unpremeditated).

a) sudden fit of passion_________.
b) in co/el blood _________.
c) plan the deed_________.
d) lose your temper_________.
e) on the spur of the moment_________.

56. Below you see the story of an extraordinary case in British legal history. The
affair started in 1949 and was finally closed in 1966.
At the moment, there are a number of gaps in the story. Use the words below to
complete it.

trial confessed court custody guilty
convicted enquiry(x2) sentenced jury execution

arrested innocent charged appeal dropped
pardon judges plea apprehended hunt
suspect tried executed statements denied

The story began when a man called Timothy Evans was for the murder of his
wife and baby. He was with the double murder, but a shot time later one of the
charges was and he was for the murder of his daughter only. During the
Evans accused the man whose house he had been living in, John Christie, of the
crimes, but no attention was paid to him. The found Evans and he was to
death. An was turned down and he was in 1950.
Some time later, more womens bodies were discovered in Christies house:
two, three, four, five, six. John Christie was the polices chief and they started a
nationwide for him. He was soon . Alleged by Christie while he was in
cast doubt on the Evans handing. When he went to , Christie that he had
murdered Mrs. Evans, but in private it was said that he to that crime. His of
insanity with regard to other murders was rejected and he was of killing his wife.
Soon afterwards there was an into the of Timothy Evans. The decided
that justice had been done and Evans had been rightly hanged. It was only in 1966
that another was set up. This time it was decided that Evans had probably been
and he was given a free . Better late than never, as they say.

57. Now a quiz on some points of law English style. The answers may well be
different in your country. Simply answer the question Yes or N. The answers
according to English law are printed at the end of the quiz.

1. Is it a crime to try and kill yourself?
2. Is it illegal to help somebody to commit suicide?
3. Can you be executed for murdering a policeman?
4. If, after a murder, all the victims relatives plead: Please dont prosecute! can
charges against the suspected culprit be dropped?
5. If two armed thieves break into a house, guns in hand, and one of them shoots
and kills the house-owner, is his accomplice guilty of murder?
6. If I surprise an intruder in my lounge at night stealing my millions, have I legal
right to assault him with a weapon?
7. If I set a trap a fifty-kilo weight just above the front door for any burglars
who might try and enter the house, am I breaking the law?
8. After a divorce or legal separation, can a wife be required to pay alimony to
her ex-husband?
9. If I promise to marry my girlfriend and then change my mind shortly before the
wedding, can she take me to court?
10. If you said to your teacher in the middle of one of his lessons: You dont know
the first things about teaching! could he bring a civil action against you?
11. Would I be in danger of committing an offence if I put an advertisement for my
school in the paper saying: Male white teacher required?

12. If, as a defendant (or the accused), I am not satisfied with the way my
barrister has handled my defence, can I sue him?
13. If you were in my house uninvited and the ceiling, which had had a large
crack in it for some time, caved in and broke your leg, would it be a good idea to
consult your solicitor?
14. Can a person suspected of and charge with rape be allowed bail?

1. No, not any more.
2. Yes, even mercy-killing (euthanasia) is against the law.
3. No. Capital punishment was abolished in the 1960s.
4. No. Murder is a crime against society (this involves criminal law) and not just
a civil matter between individuals.
5. Yes. Joint guilt. In the eyes of the law, both are guilty.
6. No at least, only in self-defence.
7. Yes.
8. Yes.
9. No, not now. Some years ago she could have sued me for breach of promise.
10. Yes, he could claim it was slander (or libel, if you wrote it in a newspaper). He
probably wouldnt, though, because of the legal costs.
11. Yes, because of the Sex Discrimination Act and the Race Relations Act.
12. No.
13. Yes. You could sue me for negligence and I would probably have to pay
14. Yes.

58. There are many crimes and offences apart from the few mentioned above.
Explain, define or give examples of the offences listed below.

baby- or wife battering
driving without due care and attention
mugging robbery with violence
drug peddling
espionage spying
bribery and corruption
Which of the above would or could involve the following?
counterfeit money
a ransom
a traitor
state secrets
a store detective

59. Here is a story of a very unfortunate, irresponsible man called Mr. N.E. Body.
Imagine that he was stopped by the police at each and every point of the drama. Read
about what happened and, after each piece of information you receive, decide what
punishment he deserves.
Here are some of the sentences you might wish to hand out:

You might feel the death penalty is in order, or life imprisonment, even solitary
confinement. You could put him on probation, give him community service or
impose a fine anything from to You might consider corporal punishment (a short,
sharp shock), a shortish prison sentence or, of course, you could make that a
suspended sentence. You might make him pay compensation, or would you like to
see him banned from driving? No? Well, his licence could be endorsed. Or would
you dismiss the case, find him not guilty of any crime, acquit him, find the case not

1 Mr. Body drank five pints of beer and five single whiskies in a pub, got into his car
and drove away.
2 He did not drive dangerously but exceeded the speed limit as he wanted to catch
up with a friend who had left his wallet in the pub.
3 As e was driving along, a little girl ran into the road and he knocked her down.
4 There was no way he could have stopped, drunk or sober.
5 The little girl suffered only bruises and superficial injuries.
6 Mr. Bodys wife had left him two days before.
7 Six months later, it was clear that the little girl was to suffer from after-effects of
the accident and would stutter for many years.
8 Mr. Body had never previously received any summons for traffic offences.
9 The little girl admitted that it was all her fault.
10 The passenger in Mr. Bodys car was killed outright as he went through the.

60. Write or discuss the answers to these questions.

1 Which aspects of the law seem unsatisfactory to you?
2 How have criminals been portrayed in films you have seen recently? Were the
criminals portrayed as heroes, idiots or evil individuals?
3 What in detail would happen to you in your country if you were caught:

a speeding in your car?
b in possession of soft drugs?
c with a gun in your pocket?
d breaking into a house?

61. Write a judges summing up after a trial, reminding the jury of the witnesses
testimony and advising them on how to reach their verdict.

A. Note the difference between the verbs: steal and rob. The object of the verb
steal is the thing which is taken away, e.g. they stole my bike, whereas the object of
the verb rob is the person or place from which things are stolen, e.g. I was robbed
last night. A masked man robbed the bank. Steal is irregular; steal, stole, stolen.
B. The table below gives the names of some other types of crimes together with
their associated verbs and the name of the person who commits the crimes.

crime definition criminal verb
murder killing someone murderer murder
shoplifting stealing something from a shop shoplifter shoplift
burglary stealing something from someones home burglar burgle
smuggling taking something illegally into another country smuggler smuggle
kidnapping taking a person hostage in exchange for money
or other favours, etc.
kidnapper kidnap

C. All the verbs in the table above are regular.
Here are some more useful verbs connected with crime and law. Note that many
of them have particular prepositions associated with them.
Bill committed a crime when he robbed a bank. Someone witnessed the crime
and told the police. The police charged him with bank robbery. They also accused
his twin brother, Ben, of being his accomplice.
The case came to court and they were tried. The trial did not last very long. Bill
and Ben both pleaded not guilty in court. Their lawyer did her best to defend them
but the prosecuting lawyer produced a very strong case against them.
After brief deliberations, the jury passed verdict on them. They decided that Bill
was but Ben was innocent. The judge acquitted Ben of any involvement in the
robbery but sentenced Bill to three years in prison. He also had to pay a large fine.
Bill served two years in prison [jail] but was released from prison a year early. He got
time off for good behaviour.
D. Here are some useful nouns.
trial: the legal process in court whereby an accused person is investigated, or tried,
and then found guilty or not guilty
case: a crime that is being investigated
evidence: information used in a court of law to decide whether the accused is guilty or not
proof: evidence that shows conclusively whether something is a fact or not
judge: the person who leads a trial and decides on the sentence i.e. the punishment
jury: group of twelve citizens who decide on the verdict i.e. whether the accused is
guilty or not

62. Put the right form of either rob or steal in the sentences below.

1 Last night an armed gang_____ the post office. They _____2.000.
2 My handbag _____ at the theatre yesterday.
3 Every year large numbers of banks _____.
4 Jane _____ of the opportunity to stand for president.

63. Here are some more crimes. Complete a table like the one in B opposite.


64. Fill the blanks in the paragraph below with one of the verbs from C opposite.

One of the two accused men_______
at yesterdays trial. Although his
him very well, he was still found guilty by the jury. The
him to two years in prison. Hell probably _______
after eighteen
months. The other accused man was luckier. He _______
and left the courtroom
smiling broadly.

65. Here are some words connected with law and crime. If necessary, use a dictionary
to help you check that you understand what they all mean. Then divide them into
three groups, in what seems to you to be the most logical way.

member of a jury judge smuggling witness prison fine
bribery detective hi-jacking community service probation traffic
warden death penalty rape drunken driving lawyer

66. Write a paragraph to fit this newspaper headline. Give some details about the
crime and the court case, using as many words from this unit as is appropriate.

Local girls evidence gets
mugger two years prison


A Against the law
If you do something illegal (= wrong / against the law), then you have
committed a crime. Most people commit a crime at some time in their lives, e.g.
driving above the speed limit, parking illegally, stealing sweets from a shop when
they were children, etc.

B Crimes
theft (= general word for stealing)
robbery (= steal from people or places)
burglary (= break into a shop/house and steal
shoplifting (= steal from shops when open)
murder (= kill someone by intention)
manslaughter (= kill someone by accident)
rape (= force someone to have sex)
Criminal (=

steal (also take)


C Crime prevention
What can governments do to fight crime (= take action to stop crime)? These
things happen in some countries, although many people may think they are not a
good idea.
Police carry (= have) guns.
Police are allowed to (= are permitted to) stop anyone in the street and question
The courts give tougher punishments for crimes committed than in the past
(e.g. bigger fines or longer prison sentences than in the past).
There is capital punishment (= death, e.g. by electric chair or hanging) for
some crimes.
What can individuals do to prevent a crime from happening (= stop a crime
Here are things some people do to protect themselves and their property (=
home and land), although you may not think they are all a good idea.
Dont walk along dark streets late at night (e.g. midnight) on your own (=
Lock all doors and windows when you go out.
Dont wear expensive jewellery.
Leave lights on at home when you go out.
Fit (= install) a burglar alarm ( a machine which makes a noise if someone
enters your home).
Make sure your money is safe, e.g. wear a money belt.
Carry a mace spray. (This is a chemical and if you spray it in someones face, it
is very unpleasant. In some countries you are allowed to carry this type of spray.)
Put money and valuables (= valuable possessions) in a safe (= a strong metal
box, which is very difficult to open or break).

Keep a gun in your house for self-defence (= to protect yourself if someone attacks

67. Organise the words in the box into three groups: crimes, people, and places.

murder thief prison barrister robbery
burglar cell criminal court rape shoplifting
manslaughter judge prisoner jury police station

68. Respond to these statements or questions confirming the crime in each one.

1 A: He broke into the house, didnt he?
B: Yes, hes been charged with _______.
2 A: He killed his wife?
B: Yes, hes been charged _______.
3 A: She stole clothes and jewellery from that department store, didnt she?
B: Yes, and shes been _______.
4 A: The man on the motorbike didnt mean to kill the boy.
B: No, but hes been charged _______.
5 A: He took the money from her bag?
B: Yes, but they caught him and hes been _______.

69. How safe and secure are you? Answer these questions, yes or no.

1 Do you often walk in areas which are not very safe?
2 Do you often walk on your own in these areas late at night?
3 Do you wear a money belt when you go out?
4 Do you wear an expensive watch or expensive jewellery?
5 Do you check doors and windows before you go out when
your home is empty?
6 Do you have a burglar alarm?
7 Do you leave lights on when you go out?
8 Is there someone who protects the building while you are
9 Do you have a safe in your home?
yes = 1
yes= 2
yes= 0
yes= 1
yes= 0

yes= 0
yes= 0
yes= 0

yes= 0
no = 0
no = 1
no = 0
no = 2

no =1
no = 1
no = 2

no =1

Now add up your score: less than 3 = very, very safe; 35 = quite safe; 68 = you
could take a lot more care; more than 8 = you are a dangerous person to know!

70. Fill the gaps in these questions with a suitable word.

1 Do you think the police should .................... guns?
2 Do you think the police should be to stop and question people without a special
3 Do you agree with capital for certain crimes such as murder?
4 Do you think it should be legal for people to carry a mace?
5 Do you think people should be allowed to use a gun or knife in self.
6 Do you think tougher punishments will help to crime?
What is your opinion on these questions? Discuss them with another person if


1. Do you prefer to spend or to save money? Give reasons, and say: either what you
spend your money on; or what (if anything) you are saving your money for.

2. Match the statements below with a word(s) from the box.

building society cash cheque credit card currency, deposit Wee grant
income tax in credit interest loan mortgage overdrawn pension rate of
exchange receipt salary statement unemployment benefit
(VAT) value added tax wages withdrawal
1 A word for a document, you receive when you buy something.
2 A word for an organisation which lends you
money to buy a house or flat.
3 A word for a document your bank sends you telling you what you have in your
4 A word for money you earn from a larger amount of money or pay on money you
5 Two words for money which is lent to you.
6 Two words for the action of taking out or putting money into a bank account.
7 Three words for methods of paying for things you buy.
8 Two words to describe the status of your account.
9 Two words for money the government takes away from you.
10 A word/an expression to do with money from a foreign country.
11 Three words to describe the payment you receive for work you do.
12 Three words or expressions to describe money which the government may pay

Think about your answers to the statements 5-12. Whats the difference between
the words?

3. Choose words from the box to complete the sentences below.

wealthy afford on cost bargain
broke overdrawn lends earns owe
a) An idiomatic expression for to have no money to be_________
b) Another expression for to be in the red to be_____________
c) I got a really good ______at the sale. A pullover for only 5 dollars.
d) Another adjective for rich is ______.
e) You can borrow money from a bank. In other words, a bank _____ people money.
f) I cant____to buy a new car. Theyre too expensive.
g) I ____ the bank 3,000.
h) We spend lots of money ______ food.
i) Shes quite rich now shelots of money in her new job.
j) Id like a new coat, but they ___ too much.
4. Choose the most suitable word or phrase underlined in each sentence.
a) I havent got enough money, Im afraid. Could you borrow/lend me some ?
b) Its a good school, but the fares/fees are rather high.
c) This car is too expensive. We cant afford/pay it.
d) It was a very good meal. Can we have the account/bill please?
e) Theres a small flat to hire/let in Bridge Street.
f) How much do you earn/gain in your new job ?
Shes a good dentist, but she doesnt charge/spend too much,
h) I bought this coat in the sales. It was decreased/reduced a lot.
i) Jack made his fortune/treasure buying and selling property,
j) How much do you reckon/value that house would cost ?

5. Replace each word or phrase underlined with a word or phrase from the list which has
the opposite meaning.
cash generous profit save well off expensive poverty purchase takeout
a) I was surprised by how mean Charles was
b) Janet says that she is very hard up at the moment
c) Last year their business made a huge loss
d) Id like to pay in 100 please
e) That part of Spain always seems very civilian to me
f) Most people in the city live in great prosperity
g) The manager insisted that I paid by cheque
h) Some people manage to spend most of their money.
i) Jean was able to make only one sale during the morning
j) The old painting I found in the loft turned out to be valuable.
6. Complete each sentence with a word from the list. Use each word once only

coin guarantee pension rent tip credit card loan receipt safe wealth
a) The old couple had only a small to live on.
b) My uncle Sam acquired his considerable .selling cars.
c) David never carries cash with him and pays for everything by.
d) I wouldnt have been able to buy my boat without a bank
e) The shop wont change any goods without the original .
f) Keith didnt like the waiter so he didnt leave
h) The food mixer has a twelve month ................................................................
i) We keep all our money and valuables in this ............................................................. in
the floor.
j) The five pence

7. Choose the most suitable response to each sentence a) to j) from the sentences 1) to 10).
Use each response once only.
a) Who do I make the cheque out to? ..
b) We seem to be spending a lot of money lately. .
c) The house has burnt down! What are we going to do?...............
d) How much do you want for this drawing? .
e) Did you inherit this house? .
f) Your dog must have cost a lot of money. ................................
g) Do we still owe the bank any money? .
h) How much do you make a year? .
i) Can we change money at the hotel to pay the bill? ... .
j) Why are you putting so much money in the bank? ..........................
1) Sorry, but its not for sale..
2) Im saving up to buy a new motorbike.
3) Perhaps we should try to economise a bit..
4) Yes, my Aunt Clara left it to me
5) Well, weve nearly paid it all back
6) To JB Woolbury PLC
7) Actually got it for nothing.
8) I think they accept travellers cheques anyway.
9) Ive got quite a good salary actually..
10) Dont worry, were insured..
8. Choose the most suitable word or phrase to complete each sentence.

a) I bought these shoes in the sales. They were a real
A)cheap B) economy ) bargain D) purchase

b) If you put your money in the bank, it will earn ten per cent

A) interest ) profit ) deposit D) investment

c) John asked his parents if they would pay off his
A) rents B) debts ) accounts D) credits

d) Adults have to pay 2.50 to get in, but children under 14 get in
A) free ) nothing ) penniless D) open

e) Im interested in this old car. Is it ?
A) selling ) a sale ) to sell D) for sale

f) Im trying to save for my holidays so Im some money each week.
A) putting in B) putting aside ) putting behind D) putting up

g) Just a minute! Youve forgotten to your cheque!
A) mark B) make ) place D) sign

h) I like your typewriter. How much did it exactly?
A) pay B)cost ) afford D) spend

i) The blackmailer asked for the money in used.
A) notes ) cheques ) paper D)cash

j) I gave the assistant 10 and she gave me four pounds
A) rest B) money C) coins D) change

9. Use the word in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the Space
in the same line.
Helen had always dreamed of becoming a (1) WEALTH
woman, and imagined living in a (2) mansion, LUXURY
and how her friends would praise her (3) GENEROUS
when she gave them expensive presents. In reality she
was usually hard up. She had some (4) and a SAVE
small life (5)..., but her antique shop was not really INSURE
very (6) ..... Every time she took money out of the bank, PROFIT
the (7) ..... checked her account, and told her how little CASH
there was in it! Helen had taken out a (8) a month LEND
before. How could she repay it? Then one day she noticed
an old painting in her shop. She had thought it was (9) WORTH
but as she brushed away the dust, she saw the (10) SIGN
at the bottom. It said Renoir! She was rich at last!

10. Complete each sentence with a word or phrase formed from pay. Each space

represents one word.

a) You can pay the full price now, or make six monthly
b) If you lend me the money, Ill.................next week.
c) I havent got enough money to...... the suit now.
d) We ................ a lot of money on the decorating for this house.
e) Whenever Alan loses a bet he refuses to .....
f) Thank goodness its Friday today. Its .....
g) I must do something about all these bills.
h) Please make the cheque..... R.D. Smith.
i) Take this money and.................. to the bank.
j) I like my job, and its very .......

11. Match each person from the list with a suitable description. Use each name once only.

accountant cashier heir manager pensioner agent customer
investor miser swindler
a) Someone who likes to keep money and not spend it.
b) Someone who inherits money or property.
c) Someone who runs a bank ..... ..
d) Someone who has retired......
e) Someone who keeps or checks financial records. .. .. .....................
f) Someone who buys things in a shop .. ..
g) Someone who pays out money in a bank.
h) Someone who represents others in business..
i) Someone who puts money into a business
j) Someone who cheats people out of money.. .. .

12. Decide which answer , , or D best fits each space.

Money Matters
Are you always (1).. up? Do you often have to (2).money
from friends, or from your parents, whenever you need a little extra (3)..? If
you (4).. too much, and save too little, you will end up with more
(5)than friends. You know the solution, of course: just save a small (6).
every month. Most banks will pay (7).. on your savings, and you will soon be
able to (8).. all those things which seemed to cost too much before. The trouble
is, youre a university student, and many banks treat you like a child. But not us. If you
open a/an (9)...with Smith Fulton Bank before October 31st, well not only
send you your own (10). book and credit (11).., but youll also
receive a copy of our bookletPutting Money (12)for Your Future. Smith
Fulton can pay your (13)., help you with special student (14),
and your friendly I branch (15)can give you advice for the future. We believe in

you. Why not believe in us and open an account?

1) A) shut B) hard C) debt D) money
2) A) borrow B) lend C) save D) pay
3) A) cheque B) pension C) wealth D) cash
4) A) sign B) spend C) cost D) cheat
5) A) owe B) loans C) debt D) profits
6) A) amount B) number C) note D) rest
7) A) receipts B) credits C) rents D) interest
8) A) lend B) economise C) afford D) spend
9) A) cheque B) customer C) bill D) account
10) A) loan B) cheque C) cash D) money
11) A) plastic B) tip C) card D) cheque
12) A) aside B) up C) inside D) work
13) A) sales B) bets C) bargains D) bills
14) A) coins B) loans C) fortunes D) pensions
15) A) miser B) swindler C) manager D) cashier

13. Here are some humorous sayings about money.
Match the two parts of these sentences.
1 Ive got all the money I need...
2 Money cant buy you love...
3 Money isnt everything...
4 Money cant buy you friends...
5 Money doesnt go as far as it used to...

a. ...but it certainly goes faster.
b...but it certainly puts you in wonderful bargaining position.
c...but you can get a better class of enemy.
d ...but its certainly handy if you dont have a credit card.
e ...if I die by four oclock.

14. The dialogue below takes place in a bank. Complete the dialogue with the following
words. You may need to change the form of some of the words. You may need to use
some words more than once.
cash commission credit card cheque note withdrawal exchange
refundable amount currency transaction trip abroad withdrawal
travellers cheque

A. I shall be travelling (1) a lot over the next year and Id like some advice on travel
money, please.
B. What countries will you be visiting?
A. Mainly European countries but I shall be making a (2)______ to South

America in January.
B. Its a good idea to have some foreign(3)____ for use when you arrive.
You may want to make a phone call or pay a taxi so its useful to have same small
denomination (4)________However, advisable to carry too much (5)_________ in
case you lose it or it is stolen.
A. What alternatives are there?
B. All over Europe you can use your (6) ______to withdraw cash and even pay ret
goods or services.
A. Is there a (7) ______ on cash (8)__________ ?
B. Yes, its one per cent of the total (9) _____ .
A. What rate of (10)__________ will I get?
B. The rate on the day your (11) ___ goes through.
A. Can I pay by (12) ____ ?
. Only in Europe with a Eurocheque book and card. Otherwise, no.
A. What happens if I lose my card?
. You should inform us immediately. But it is sensible to have some
These are safer than (14) _______because they are (15)___________.
15. Read Tips from a mean millionaire and choose the best definition for the word tight
1 being imaginatively mean
2 saving as much as possible
3 living on bare essentials
Amy Dacyczyn, the founder of The Tightwad Gazette -a monthly newsletter
promoting thrift as a viable alternative lifestyle - is making tea. In her kitchen in rural
name she Dons the kettle, pours the excess water into a Thermos, so she wont have to
waste electricity boiling more later, then opens her elderly fridge to get the milk She
has a husband, six children and an income of over half a million dollars each year, but
all the fridge contains are three old glass apple juice bottles full of milk, a weary-
looking Tupperware box, a few covered bowls of leftovers and an apple with a few
bites out of it.
Welcome to the world of tight wadding, where super-creative hyper-frugality is
the order of the day, nothing is ever bought new if it can humanly be found second
hand, ordinary shops are visited only for special offers that extensive prior research has
proved to be the very cheapest available.
Amy Dacyczyn is a multi-millionaire, but if you saw her on the street or diving
into a skip for some discarded bargain you certainly wouldnt guess it. She has got
rich by being imaginatively mean. Her monthly food bill is $ 180. Her yearly budget
to clothe the children never exceeds $50. And it is her Tightwad Gazette, to which
over 100,000 Americans have subscribed at $ 12 a year, and in which she imparts
frugal hints, that has made her wealthy.
When Amy got married, she and her husband Jim decided that there were three

things they wanted more than anything else: a large family, a business they could run
from home and a farmhouse. But their combined salaries could barely cover essentials.
They decided they would have to be ruthless about cutting costs if they wanted to
achieve their goals.
First they divided all their expenses into essentials and optionals and cut out every
optional: meals out, cigarettes and alcohol, magazines, junk food, new clothes. Then
they looked at how they could pare down the essentials: utilities, groceries, petrol.
Within seven years they had saved $49,000.
Everything about Amy reflects the tightwad life. Her hair has been washed in cheap,
bulk-bought shampoo and she is wearing minimal make-up. Since she is dedicated to
frugality with time as well as money, her maroon blouse is unironed. The jeans were bought
in a sale. Her sneakers have a three-year plan all their own. Today shes wearing this years
pair; last years pair she wears when shes not seeing visitors and the year befores she
wears around the garden. All come from sales, at a maximum $ 15 a pair.
The issue of surplus money is the core of tightwaddery. Theres no point in
scrimping in one area if youre wasting money in another and still not achieving the
quality of life you really want. And the tightwad life is not only about spending less
but spending in a way that reflects your values.

16. Write down four ways in which Amy saves money.
She uses a Thermos to keep water hot in order to save electricity.

17. Write down six things which Amy considers as optionals.
18. The words in columns A and have something to do with money. Match a word
in A with its closest opposite in B. Use your dictionary to check new words.

generous waste
spendthrift second-hand
luxury well-off
brand new loss
hard up stingy
deposit(v) expenditure
save overdrawn
in the black penny pincher
debt withdraw
tight-fisted extravagant
income priceless
worthless millionaire
beggar necessity
profit loan
19. Complete the following sentences, including words from A or B.


a. Tom couldnt afford a brand new car ...
b. Do you see that vase? We thought it was worthless. I paid only 50p for it in a
jumble sale, but ...
. I think that nowadays a car is a necessity, but my grandmother says ...
d. My two daughters are so different. One regularly saves her pocket money, the
other ...
e. Susies always getting into debt and then she has to go to her father ...
f. I was so sure my account was in the black, but Ive just got an angry letter ...
g Youd never believe that he used to be a millionaire, now ...
h. Teds so tight-fisted. Hes worn the same suit every day for work for 15 years, but
his wife ...
i. Annas always complaining about being hard up, but compared to me ...
j. Mr. Micawbers advice to his young friend, David Copperfield, in the year 1850:
Annual ____ 20, annual __ 19 and six shillings, result happiness.
Annual_____ 20, annual __ 20 and six pence, result misery.

20. Would you be happy or miserable if you:

- fell on hard times?
- lived on a shoestring?
- lived in the lap of luxury?
- were living rough?
- couldnt make ends meet?
- were rolling in money?
- had to penny-pinch?
- were made of money?
- were down and out?
- had to tighten your belt?
- had a business that was doing a roaring trade?
- lost a quid and found a fiver?

20. Below is an English familys budget in pounds sterling for next month. Look at it
to see where their money is coming from and how much is going out. Note down how
you think they could save money and any differences between this budget and a
family budget in your country.

Income Outgoings
Basic salary (gross National Insurance
380, after tax): 335.00 Contributions: 46.00
Overtime payment: 56.50 Mortgage payment: 175.0
Productivity bonus: 10.00 Rates (Direct Debit) 39.50

Royalties on Son of
35.50 Gas and Electricity -
Sons wages (4 x 45 180.00 Quarterly Bills: 164.0
His tips and
25.00 Alimony -

money to ex-wife: 173.5
Basic Earnings: 642.00 HP installment on car: 88.00
Road Tax: 80.00
plus extras: Speeding fine: 35.00
Jims college grant Life Insurance
(240 - 3, tax-free): 80.00 Deposit on new

Fredas scholarship machine: 45.00
(120-3): 40.00 Accountants fees
Child Benefit (3 months overdue): 25.00
(7.50x2x4): 60.00 Repayment on Credit
Dads pension: 136.00 loan (Standing 60.00
Teds dole money - Interest on overdraft
146.00 current account: 45.00
Dads dividend on Other bank charges: 10.00
BP shares: 13.00 Subscription to
Interest on Mums magazines 10.00
(bank deposit 3.50 Donation to Help the
Tax Rebate (Tax Aged: 5.00
1980-81): 4.50 Contribution to
Winnings on the 2.50 Party funds: 7.50
Jenny and Jims pocket
Total extras: 485.50 money: 60.00
Stake money for
pools and horse-racing: 18.50
Church Collection: 1.00

Total Income (all sources): 1127.50 Total Expenditure: 1136 50
Balance: 8.50
22. Act out or write a conversation between various members of this family, discussing
how perhaps they could cut down and save a little money.
23. Below are a number of ways of saving or making money. Note down which you

think are sensible and which you would not recommend. If you are working in a
group, discuss your notes. If you are working on your own, write a brief summary of
1 buying in bulk to beat inflation
2 looking out for genuine reductions and real bargains in the sales
3 buying supermarket brands rather than brand-name products
4 buying economy-size packets and tins of things
5 collecting packet tops that offer discounts on the next purchase, have 5p off
labels on them or contain forms for special offers
6 looking out for special HP (hire-purchase) deals at good rates of interest
7 delaying payment of bills until the final demand
8 taking your holidays out of season at cheap rates
9 buying second-hand clothes in jumble sales or charity shops
10 buying products that offer trading stamps or gift vouchers or competitions
with once-in-a-lifetime prizes
11 using the telephone at off-peak, cheap-rate times
12 shopping only at places where money can be refunded rather than goods
13 changing your foreign currency when the rates of exchange are favourable
14 checking your bank statement and cheque counterfoils to make sure there are
no errors
15 looking after receipts and guarantees
24. Which expression from the list of comments below would you use about yourself at
the moment? Notice how many expressions we have for rich and poor, reflecting our
obsession with money, and how we often refer to pence as p in everyday conversation.
Hes a multi-millionaire.
She inherited millions (an oil-heiress).
They won a fortune.
Shes got more money than sense.
Theyre made of money.
Hes a very wealthy businessman.
Shes extremely well-off.
Youre looking very prosperous.
They say were living in an affluent society.
Hes comfortably off.
Money doesnt buy happiness, but it helps.
Im a bit hard up at the moment, actually.
Im down to my last ten p.
Hes broke.
Theyre on the breadline.
I havent got a penny to my name.
Im afraid were bankrupt, gentlemen.

Now I know what its like to be poverty-stricken.
Im running into debt.
I owe money everywhere.
Im heavily in debt.
Im a few thousand in the red.
Im up to my ears in debt.
I wonder if its true that crime doesnt pay!

25. Note down the various ways in which shops and firms in your country encourage
you to buy their products.
26. Act out or write a conversation between a friendly bank manager and a newly-
married couple. They are asking for advice on financial matters: how to manage their
salaries, savings, monthly outgoings, etc.

Personal finance
Sometimes in a shop they ask you: How do you want to pay? You can answer:
Cash. / By cheque. / By credit card.
In a bank you usually have a current account, which is one where you pay in
your salary and then withdraw money to pay your everyday bills. The bank sends you
a regular bank statement telling you how much money has gone in and out of your
account. You may also have a savings account where you deposit any extra money
that you have and only take money out when you want to spend it on something
special. If you spend more than you have in your account you can have an overdraft.
The bank allows you to spend more and charges you interest. If your account is
overdrawn [you have taken more out of your account than you had in it] you are in the
red (as opposed to in the black or in credit).
Sometimes the bank may lend you money this is called a bank loan. If the bank
[or building society] lends you money to buy a house, that money is called a
When you buy [or purchase more formally] something in a shop, you usually pay
for it outright but sometimes you buy on credit. Sometimes you may be offered a
discount or a reduction on something you buy. For example, you might get 10 off
perhaps because you are a student. You are often offered a discount if you buy in bulk.
It is not usual to haggle ha about prices in a British shop, as it is in, say, a Turkish
market. If you want to return something which you have bought to a shop, you may be
given a refund, i.e. your money will be returned, provided you have a receipt.
The money that you pay for services, e.g. to a school or a lawyer, is usually called
a fee or fees; the money paid for a journey is a fare. If you buy something that you feel
was very good value, its a bargain. If you feel that it is definitely not worth what you
paid for it, then you can call it a rip-off [very colloquial].

Public finance
The government collects money from citizens through taxes. Income tax is the
tax collected on wages and salaries. Inheritance tax is collected on what people inherit
from others. Customs or excise duties have to be paid on goods imported from other
countries. VAT or value added tax is a tax paid on most goods and services when they
are bought or purchased. Companies pay corporation tax on their profits. If you pay
too much tax, you should be given some money back, a tax rebate.
The government also sometimes pays out money to people in need, e.g.
unemployment benefit [also known as the dole, informal] disability allowances and
student loans [money lent to help pay for studying]. Recipients draw a pension /
unemployment benefit or are on the dole or on social security.
Every country has its own special currency. Every day the rates of exchange are
published and you can discover, for example, how many dollars there are currently to
the pound sterling.
A company may sell shares to members of the public who are then said to have
invested in that company. They should be paid a regular dividend on their investment,
depending on the profit or loss made by the company.

27. Answer the following money quiz.

1 What currencies are used in Japan, Australia, India and Russia?
2 What does the expression hard currency mean?
3 Give two examples of imports that most countries impose customs duties on.
4 Give three examples of kinds of income that would be classed as unearned.
5 What is the Dow Jones index and what are its equivalents in London and Japan?
6 Give an example of something that is priceless and something that is valueless.
7 Name the coins and banknotes used in your country and one other country.
28. Match the words with their definitions.

1 interest
2 mortgage
3 an overdrawn account
4 savings account
5 current account
6 pension
7 disability allowance
8 child benefit
9 inheritance tax
a bank account with a negative sum of money in it
money paid towards the cost of raising a family
money paid on what is inherited after someone dies
an account that is used mainly for keeping money

money paid to people after a certain age
an account for day-to-day use
money chargeable on a loan
money paid to people with a handicap
a loan to purchase property
29. Complete the sentences with words from the opposite page.

1 If you get something more cheaply, perhaps because you buy in bulk, you get a
2 If the bank lends you money, you have a bank .......
3 If you have some money in your account you are in the.....
4 I paid too much tax last year so I should get a .......soon.
5 If its no good, take it back to the shop and ask for a.....


1. Complete the gaps in the following dialogues with words from the boxes. For
speaker A, choose words from box A. For speaker B, choose words from box B. Use
a dictionary if necessary.
A Symptoms
diarrhoea pain sneezing sick cough faint sore bleeding
temperature cut
B Illness
food poisoning flu tonsillitis infection heart attack
a) A: My throats .. .It hurts to swallow. But I dont .. at all, even
though I smoke fifty cigarettes a day.
B: It sounds like to me.
b) A: My nose is running and I cant stop .. .
Ive also got a very high .. .
B: Its probably . .Theres a lot of it about.
c) A: My mother feels very after eating at that new restaurant. She has had terrible
.. for twenty-four hours!
B: Oh no! Thats the third person whos suffered from ...... after eating at that place.
d) A: I had this .. in my hand last week. It was very deep and
the wound wouldnt stop . Now its very painful again.
B: I expect youve picked up some kind of .
e) A: At the match yesterday, Brian felt very . and nearly fell
over. He said he had a terrible in his chest.
B: Oh no! He didnt have a . , did he?

2. Look back. What advice would you give to each person for their illness. Use some
of the words in the box if you wish. Example:
Take an aspirin, and lie down and get some rest.
pastilles hot lemon suck rub aspirin antiseptic lotion doctor
plaster tie keep warm bandage

3. Put these words under the following headings people, places, medicine and
medical complaints.

sister dentist pill tablet nurse hospital wound chemist cut matron
pain ointment ward diseasel temperature patient surgeon surgery
injection blood pressure heart attack consultant clinic

4. Work in pairs. Here are some more words to do with medical matters In what
circumstances would you use them in English or in your own language?
bandage ambulance appointment prescription emergency casualty
dizzy shiver outpatients wheelchair limp plaster stick crutches
disabled sedative

5. Match a person in A with suitable lines from B and C. Make at least one sentence
about each person. Example: The nurse took the patients temperature.
The nurse performed his knee.
The surgeon suffered her wrist.
The accident victim had in the smoky atmosphere.
The toddler took during the crossing.
The teenager fell over and grazed the patients temperature.
The pregnant woman felt faint a difficult operation.
The old man felt sea-sick in the attack.
The tennis player sprained on a stretcher.
The racing driver was wounded a heart attack.
The soldier was carried from sunburn.
The gardener was stung the crash.
The ferry passengers was lucky to survive by a wasp.
The holidaymaker spots on her face.

6. Choose the word or phrase which best completes the sentences.
a) wounded injured damaged
Footballer Jimmie White was _______ in the second half of the match in a tackle
with the goalkeeper.

b) sprained sore dislocated.
Hell be out of the game for several weeks with a ____________________ shoulder.
c) a bandage stitches a sling
My daughter fell off her bike and she had to have _______________ in her leg.
d) pain ache indigestion
Suddenly Tom felt a sharp _______ in his stomach.
e) bruises a rash warts
Whenever I eat shellfish I get __________________ all over my body.
f) allergic to allergic with allergic from
Lots of people are shellfish.
g) a blister a blemish a boil
Ouch! Ive got ______________ on my heel from these new shoes.
h) drowsy tipsy dizzy
My husband hates heights. When he looks down he feels ___________.
i) run in run over run down
Theres nothing seriously wrong with me. Im just a bit _____________ because Ive
been working so hard recently.
j) damages hurts injures
Theres no doubt about it. Smoking ______________ your health my body.

7. Circle the odd-one-out.
1 surgeon doctor patient consultant nurse
2 dizzy shiver faint limp prescription
3 outpatients casualty surgery maternity hospital
4 bandage ointment hurt tablet plaster
5 cut wound pill injury sprain
6 cough heart attack sore throat accident flu
7 wheelchair pain crutches stick stretcher
8 blood heart anaesthetic throat stomach
9 death burial undertaker autopsy emergency
10 ears sight touch smell taste
8. Complete the sentences with the following words. There are five extra words.
outpatients casualty toothache disabled plaster sedative operations
appointment pain injection prescription disease thermometer emergency
1 Hes got a broken leg and he has to keep the _____________ on for six
2 I went to the dentists yesterday because I had a dreadful __________ .
3 If you dont want to waste too much time its a good idea to make an

4 They gave her a ______________ to calm her down.
5 The doctor made out a _____________ for pain-killers.
6 He cut his finger so badly that I took him to ______________ to have
7 He is so severely ________________ that he has to have a wheelchair.
8 He caught some strange tropical ____________ when he was abroad last
9 I couldnt take my temperature because I couldnt find the ___________ .
10 Nowadays many _____________ are performed under local anaesthetic.

9. Read and translate.

WASHINGTON. Because medical costs are rising so fast, more and more
people are diagnosing their own illnesses or, worse still, those of their friends. The
government would do well to make a study of how these non-professional diagnoses
are affecting the nations health picture.
The other day I had a cold. It was just like the ones you see on television. I was
sneezing, coughing and looking mournfully at my wife. I called my secretary at the
office and said I wouldnt be in because I felt lousy.
You must have one of those eight-hour things thats going all around town,
she said. Youll feel perfectly well tomorrow.
Eight hours seemed to be a reasonable time to have a cold, and I was looking
forward to staying in bed, particularly since the Yankees and Red Sox were playing a
crucial game to get into the American League playoffs.
My sister called, and I told her I had one of those eight-hour things thats been
going all around.
Are you sure its only an eight-hour thing? she asked. It could be the 24-hour
bug Harold had last week. Do you have any fever?
A little maybe 100.
Thats the 24-hour bug for sure. Drink lots of fluids and take aspirin, and
youll be able to shake it off.
I really hadnt counted on staying in bed for 24 hours, but its stupid to fight a
bug. My other sister called up 10 minutes later. Edith says youve got a 24-hour
I dont know if its a bug or just a cold.
Is your nose red from blowing it?
Yah, sure it is. Why do you ask?
Then you dont have a 24-hour bug. You have a 48-hour virus.
My secretary said all I had was an eight-hour thing. How come you moved it up
to 48 hours?
The eight-hour thing is entirely different. You feel funny but your nose doesnt
get red when you blow it. The 24-hour bug has all the symptoms of the
eight-hour one, except that you cough a lot. The 48-hour virus makes you

sneeze, cough and perspire while youre sleeping. You have to stay in bed for two
days. But I cant stay in bed for two days. Look, my sister said. If you
dont want medical advice, dont ask me.
I think I might have been all right except that my secretary told Healy I was
home with the flu.

Wealth is nothing without health. .
An apple a day keeps the doctor away. , .
Never say die. .
Look before you leap. .
Good health is above wealth. .
Once bitten, twice shy. .
A man is as old as he feels, and a woman is old as she looks. ,
, .
Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.
, .
Whats the matter? How do you know? (the symptoms) Cause of illness
Ive got a cold a sore throat, sneezing, a cough a virus
Ive got flu (U) (more symptoms for a cold + aching a virus
serious than a cold) muscles and a temperature, e.g. 39.5
Ive got hay fever (U) sneezing, runny nose, sore eyes allergic
reaction to pollen
Ive got diarrhoea (U) I keep going to the toilet often food,
or a virus
I feel sick I want to vomit (= be sick) many e.g.
food, alcohol
Ive got a hangover headache, feeling sick too much alcohol
Note: For these illnesses, you can either buy something from the chemist, or go to
your doctor, who may give you a prescription (= a piece of paper with an order
for some medicine) that you get from the chemist.
Aches and pains
Nouns: We only use ache with the following: Ive got toothache (U), a stomach-
ache, backache (U), earache (U) and a headache. For other parts of the body we
use pain, e.g. I woke up in the night with a terrible pain in my chest.
Verbs: You can use ache for some things, e.g. my back aches; but hurt is more
common to describe real pain, and it can be used with or without a direct object:
She hurt her foot when she jumped off the bus and fell over, (also injured here) or
She hurt herself when she jumped off the bus and fell over.
I hit my leg against the table and it really hurts. (= gives me a terrible pain)
Adjectives: The only common adjective is painful (painless):
I had an injection yesterday and it was very painful.

A.: Did it hurt when you had your filling? (= when the dentist fills a hole/cavity in
the tooth).
B: No, it was painless.
Serious illnesses
Doctors believe smoking is the major cause of lung cancer. He had a heart
attack and died almost immediately. Hepatitis is a liver disease.
Asthma (chest illness causing breathing problems) has become more
Note: Illness and disease are often used in the same way, but disease is used
for a serious condition caused by an infection e.g. a liver disease. Illness is a more
general word.
10. Write down the main symptom or symptoms for these conditions.
1) a cold: ..................................................................................
2) flu: ...................................................................................
3) hay fever:.............................................................................
4) a hangover: ........................................................................
5) diarrhoea: .........................................................................
6) asthma: ................................................................................
11. Look at the underlined letters in these pairs of words. Is the pronunciation the
same or different? Look at the examples first.

Examples: ache pain same
constipated stomach different
1 disease diarrhoea 4 virus illness
2 chemist ache 5 flu muscle
3 hurt allergic 6 cough enough

12.Fill the gaps with a suitable word.

1. I hit my hand on the desk and it really .
2. They say she died of a heart.. .
3. She had some apples that werent ready to eat and now shes got
4. Ive got this terrible in my neck from sleeping in the
wrong position.
5. He died of . cancer even though he never smoked a
cigarette in his life.
6. I went to the doctor, and she gave me a ..for some tablets.
7. Pollution makes her ..worse and its difficult for her to
8. There are different forms of hepatitis; one is a more serious

than the other.
9. I hurt ..when I fell off that chair.
10. My back .. from sitting at that computer all day.
Common injuries
An injury is damage to part of your body, usually caused by an accident in the
home, on the roads, or during a game, e.g. of football. Here are some common

Whats the problem? How did it happen? Result Solution
1. I cut (v, n) my finger using a knife its bleeding a bit a plaster
2. I cut my leg quite I fell over its bleeding a bandage (n, v)
badly quite a lot
3. I twisted my ankle running for a bus I cant walk rest
on it easily
4. I broke my arm I fell off my bike I cant use it plaster (U) and
a sling
5. Ive got concussion playing football Im confused; rest
dont know
where I am
6. I burnt my hand taking something out its very painful special cream
of a hot oven
7. Ive got a bruise I hit it on the side its swollen and ice pack
(n, v) on my arm of my desk blue/black
in colour
Hospital treatment
Look carefully at the key words in these texts.
John fell off a chair, hit his head on the floor, and knocked himself
unconscious. His wife called an ambulance but John was still unconscious when
it arrived. He was rushed to hospital (= taken very quickly) where they kept him
for two days for blood tests.
I jumped for the ball and collided with another player (= we ran into / hit each
other). We both had cuts on our head, but I had to go to hospital for eight stitches.
Wounds and injuries
Wound (n, v) and injury are both used to describe damage to the body, but a
wound is generally caused by a weapon (e.g. gun or knife) and it is usually
He shot the man in the chest. (= a bullet wound in the chest) [from a gun]
He stabbed the boy in the back. (= a knife wound in the back)
He got into a fight and got beaten up. He had a black eye and two broken ribs.

13. Complete the table with the correct verb forms.

Noun Verb

Noun Verb

14. Complete these conversations in a suitable way.
1. A: ... bleeding quite a Bit, so I had to put a plaster on it before I could finish.
B: How did you do it, anyway?
A: Oh, I was ................................................... : ...................................................
2. A: ... the next day the eye was really swollen and he had bruises down both his arms.
B: My goodness. What did he tell his parents?
A: More or less the truth. He said .....................................................................
3. A: ... tried to get up again but I couldnt move. It was incredibly painful, but
fortunately there were a few pedestrians around to help me.
B: Thats lucky. But what were you doing?
4. A: ... my face was cut and he had a terrible bruise on his head.
B: Sounds very unpleasant. How did it happen exactly?
A: .........................................................................................................................
15. Answer these questions about yourself. If possible, ask another person the same

1) Have you ever broken your arm or leg?
2) Have you ever needed stitches ?
3) Have you ever had concussion?
4) Have you ever been unconscious?
5) Have you ever had a blood test?
6) Have you ever been in an ambulance?

What are your symptoms?

Ive got a cold / a cough / a sore throat / a temperature [a higher
temperature than normal] / a stomach ache / chest pains / earache / a pain in my

side / a rash on my chest / spots / a bruise on my leg [e.g. after playing football] /
a black eye [e.g. after being hit in the eye] / a lump on my arm / indigestion [after
eating too fast] / sickness and diarrhoea [an upset stomach which makes you
vomit and need to go to the toilet frequently] / sunburn / painful joints [e.g.
ankles, knees, wrists, shoulders] / blisters [after wearing new, tight shoes].
I feel sick / dizzy [my head is spinning] / breathless / shivery [cold and hot] /
faint [light-headed].
I am depressed / constipated [not able to go to the toilet] / tired all the time.
Ive lost my appetite / voice; I cant sleep, my nose itches [I want to scratch it],
my leg hurt!
What do doctors do?
They take your temperature, listen to your chest, look in your ears, examine
you, take your blood pressure, ask you some questions and weigh and measure you
before sending you to the hospital for further tests.
Whats the diagnosis?
Youve got flu / chickenpox / mumps [singular noun] / pneumonia /
rheumatism an ulcer / a virus / a bug / something thats going round.
Youve broken your wrist and sprained/dislocated your ankle.
Youre pregnant / a hypochondriac.
He died of lung cancer / a heart attack / a brain haemorrhage / AIDS.
What does the doctor prescribe?
a) Take one tablet three times a day after meals.
b) Take a teaspoonful of medicine last thing at night.
c) Rub this ointment on you and dont spend too long in the sun without
d) Well get the nurse to put a bandage on your wrist.
e) Youll need to have some injections before you go to the Amazon.
f) Ill ask the surgeon when he can fit you in for an operation.
g) Youll have to have your leg put in plaster until the break mends.
h) I think you should have total bed rest for a week.
What might the doctor ask you?
What would you say if the doctor asked you the following questions?
Do you have health insurance?
Have you ever had any operations?
Are you taking any medication?
Are you allergic to anything?

16. Match the diseases with their symptoms.
1) flu swollen glands in front of ear, earache or pain on eating
2) pneumonia burning pain in abdomen, pain or nausea after eating

3) rheumatism rash starting on body, slightly raised temperature
4) chickenpox dry cough, high fever, chest pain, rapid breathing
5) mumps headache, aching muscles, fever, cough, sneezing
6) an ulcer swollen, painful joints, stiffness, limited movement
17. What does the doctor or nurse use the following things for?

EXAMPLE stethoscope For listening to a patients chest.
1 thermometer 2 scales 3 syringe 4 scalpel
18. Look at the statements (a) to (h) in D opposite. Which do you think the doctor
said to each of the following patients?

1) Anne with bad sunburn.
2) Jo whos broken her leg.
3) John whos off to the Tropics.
4) Paul with flu.
5) Liz with a bad cough.
6) Sam who needs his appendix out.
7) Rose suffering from exhaustion.
8) Alf whos sprained his wrist.
19. What medical problems might you have if ...

1) you wear shoes that rub?
2) you eat too fast?
3) you smoke a lot?
4) you play football?
5) you go skiing?
6) you stay out in the sun too long?
7) you eat food youre allergic to?
8) you run unusually fast for a bus?
9) you eat food that is bad?
10) a mosquito bites you?
11) you get wet on a cold day?
12) you think youre ill all the time?

20. Study the case history below. Then write ten headlines for the Presidents ten-
day illness, from President taken ill to The nation holds its breath.
Youre in perfect health ... as fit as a fiddle ... theres nothing wrong with you.
I feel a bit off-colour ... rather under the weather ... I do feel funny ... I really
dont feel well... I think Im sickening for something ... I feel feverish ... like death
warmed up.
Hes been taken ill... hes in a coma ... fighting for his life ... still critically
ill... in a very critical condition ... no change ... still seriously ill... still hasnt

regained consciousness ... is responding to treatment ... off the danger list...
showing signs of coming round ... making progress ... his condition is satisfactory
... hes come out of the coma ... hes as well as can be expected ... comfortable ...
no change ... hes turned the corner ... hes on the mend.
We all wish you a speedy recovery ... get well soon ... were glad youre over it.
The worst is over ... hes almost completely recovered ... hes practically
cured ... hes convalescing ... coming along nicely ... hell be on his feet again
soon ... hell be out and about again in a few days.
Hes had a relapse ... hes no better ... hes getting worse ... his condition is
deteriorating ... hes getting weaker ... hes slipping away ... fading fast... his life
is hanging by a thread ... its just a matter of time ... he could go at any second!
Hes made a miraculous recovery ... hes as good as new ... as right as rain
... hell live till hes a hundred.
21. Without looking back at the previous two texts, try to supply the missing word that
completes these expressions:
1) under the ...
2) its just a ... of time
3) the mend
4) suffer ... hayfever
5) to go ... with flu
6) turn the...
7) as ... as a fiddle
8) a bit...- colour
9) fighting ... his life
10) allergic ... dust
11) as right as ...
12) just a ... attack of nerves
22. Here, on this rather unpleasant page, are some of the best-known and least-
wanted diseases and conditions, arranged according to where they strike or what
causes them. However, in each group there is one that should not be there. Can you
identify it?
The heart and blood vessels
poor circulation
high blood pressure
a stroke
heart attack
cardiac arrest
heart failure

The liver
cirrhosis of the liver
cancer of the liver
coronary thrombosis

The stomach and intestines
stomach ulcer
a hernia

The blood
a haemorrhage
a blood clot

Infectious fevers
german measles (rubella)
glandular fever
yellow fever
scarlet fever
whooping cough

Food poisoning
diarrhoea and vomiting

The joints

The lungs and respiratory system
tuberculosis (TB)
lung cancer

The nervous system
epilepsy (epileptic fits)
Parkinsons disease
multiple sclerosis
muscular dystrophy

Mental disorders
manic depression

23. This is a section on symptoms, possible diagnosis and remedies. These six
exchanges between doctor and patient have been mixed up. Decide which response
should follow which question.

1. Ive been suffering from insomnia lately. Do you think I might be heading for a
nervous breakdown?
2. I seem to have some sort of stye or infection in my right eye. Do you think I might
have conjunctivitis?
3. I cant stop scratching this place on my foot. Do you think its athletes foot?
4. Ive got a rather sore throat, and I keep feeling a bit flushed. Do you think it
could be flu?
5. Ive got a big bump on the back of my head. Do you think it might be more than a
6. I keep getting shooting pains down my shin and ankle. Is it possible that Ive
broken or sprained something?

a) Possible. Try this lotion for a few days to stop the itching, then start putting on
this powder at night.

b) Unlikely, but Ill let you have some cough mixture to relieve the symptoms.
You can get yourself some lozenges, if you like.
c) I would doubt it. Here, rub this cream in for the next few nights to help reduce
the swelling.
d) No, of course not. But Ill prescribe some barbiturates sleeping pills to help
you get a good nights rest. OK?
e) l wouldnt have thought so. But Ill give you a prescription for some drops to try
and clear it up.
f) Well, the X-ray didnt show anything. If its so painful, youd better have some
crutches to walk with and some painkillers to ease the pain.
24. Rearrange these six paragraphs in the same way.

1) Ive got a dull ache in my arm and occasionally I get a spasm. Could it be a minor
fracture, a chipped bone or something?
2) Ive got these tiny little bumps all over the back of my neck. Do you think it
might be gland trouble?
3) Ive come out in a rash on my chest. Do you think it could be a skin disease like
impetigo or dermatitis?
4) I keep getting short of breath. Is there any way I could be suffering from
5) I think Ive got an ulcer in my mouth. Do you think it could be a sign that Im run
6) I feel so feverish, and Im sure Ive got a temperature. Im so afraid that theres
something wrong with my heart.

a) Mm, sounds a bit like it. Ill make you out a prescription for some penicillin, and
some menthol inhalations might speed up the recovery.
b) Its just possible. Ill strap it up anyway and put it in a sling. That should reduce
your discomfort quite a lot.
c) Oh, I shouldnt think so, but I think perhaps you ought to start taking these
tranquillisers, to at least get your blood pressure down.
d) Oh no, no, no. Youd know if it was. Ill give you some ointment to rub in to get
rid of the inflammation.
e) Probably not. Ill put you on a course of tablets to prevent them from
spreading. They should go soon.
f) It might well be. Ill put you on antibiotics for a while anyway, to lessen the risk
of serious infection.
25. Complete the text below by filling each gap with one of the following verbs:
dressing setting giving taking saving fitting sterilizing taking out
transplanting taking off performing

Well, dont you think its unfair? There they are upstairs,... bones, ... skin grafts, ...
pacemakers, ... organs,... lives and exciting things like that. And here I am

spending the whole of my day ... peoples pulse,... injections, ... bandages, ...
stitches, ... wounds and ... bottles. And to think they earn four times as much money
for all the fun they have!

26. Write or act out conversations in a doctors surgery rather longer than the
ones you read earlier in which a doctor, a patient and the patients mother, wife
or husband discuss how the patient should recover from the operation he or she is
about to have.

27. List and give reasons for five golden rules for keeping healthy.

28. Describe the remedies or treatments you have heard of for the complaints and
accidents listed below.

1) a bad burn
2) nosebleed
4) hiccups
5) a hangover
6) a fish-hook in the finger
7) a cold
8) a person whos fainted
9) a person whos nearly drowned

29. Write, in dialogue form, a conversation between a GP (General Practitioner or
family doctor), a parent and a very spotty child.

30. Choose the most suitable word or phrase underlined in each sentence.

a) There were ten people waiting in the doctors office/surgery/ward.
b) After I ate the shellfish I experienced/fell/happened ill.
c) Georges cut arm took over a week to cure/heal/look after.
d) David fell down the steps and twisted his ankle/heel/toe.
e) Everyone admired Lucy because she was tall and skinny/slim/thin.
f) Ive been digging the garden and now my back aches/pains/injures.
g) Whenever I travel by boat I start feeling hurt/sick/sore.
h) The doctor cant say what is wrong with you until she cures/examines/recovers you.
i) Use this thermometer and take his fever/heat/temperature.
j) I seem to have caught/infected/taken a cold.

31. Replace the wards underlined in each sentence with one of the words from the list.
Use each word once only.

agony body breath look stomachache beard brains
heart spine tongue

a) Janet fell from her horse and injured her backbone. .. .
b) I had a very bad toothache, and was in great pain all night. .
c) The police discovered the dead person buried in the garden. ..
d) One thing you can say about Ann, she has certainly got intelligence.
e) They have a new house right in the centre of the countryside. ..
f) Italian is actually Marys native language. ..
g) Before I dived in the water, I took a deep mouthful of air. .
h) After dinner, Jack had a pain from eating too much.
i) Shirley had a strange expression on her face. .
j) David managed to grow a lot of hair on his face.

32. Complete each sentence with a word from the list. Use each word once only.
cheek knees neck throat waist chin lips nose thumb wrist
a) After speaking for two hours, the lecturer had a sore.
b) Terry was on his hands and ., looking for the fallen coin.
c) Paul gave his aunt an affectionate kiss on the.. .
d) There was such a terrible smell that I had to hold my. .
e) Stan is deaf, but he can understand people by reading their ....... .
f) I never wear a watch because I dont like the weight on my . .
g) One of the boxers punched the other on the and knocked him
h) When Diane was a baby, she used to suck her .
i) Ive lost a lot of weight, especially around the .. .
j) Norma wears a heart on a gold chain around her .
33. Complete each sentence a) to j) with one of the endings 1) to 10). Use each ending
once only.
a) I think we should send for an ambulance ....................................
b) Some people go jogging every morning .....................................
c) It would be a good idea for you to go to the dentists .................
d) The doctor gave Andy an injection .............................................
e) Im going into hospital tomorrow ...............................................
f) We took the cat to the vet.............................................................
g) Susan took two aspirins ...............................................................
h) Nobody could find a stretcher .....................................................
i) The doctor gave Helen a prescription ..........................................
j) I bought some special cream ........................................................

1).................... to have that bad tooth of yours taken out.
2).................... to check whether it had recovered from its accident.
3).................... to take old Mrs. Jones to hospital.
4).................... to put on my sunburnt arms and legs.
5).................... to get rid of her headache.
6).................... to reduce the pain and help him sleep.

7).................... to take to the chemists.
8).................... to keep fit, or to lose some weight.
9).................... to carry the injured man out of the building.
10).................. to have an operation on my foot.

34. Choose the most suitable word or phrase to complete each sentence.
a) Martin hasnt quite .. his illness yet.
A) recovered B) got over C) looked after D) suffered

b) Pauline birth to a baby girl yesterday afternoon.
A) was B) put C) had D) gave

c) Your leg isnt broken but it is badly .. .
A) fractured B) bruised C) bandaged D) bent

d) Several angry drivers shook their at me as I drove away.
A) fists B) arms C) hands D) elbows

e) That was a bad fall! Have you yourself?
A) harmed B) damaged C) wounded D) hurt
f) Each time I sneezed, everyone said, . you!
A) cough B) bless C) cold D) thank

g) Stop making that noise! You re getting on my .. !
A) muscles B) brains C) nerves D) blood

h) As the little boy cried, large .. rolled down his cheeks.
A) drips B) tears C) puddles D) streams

i) I had severe toothache and half my face was badly .
A) swollen B) rounded C) exploded D) injured

j) Ive got a headache, and I dont feel very .. .
A) healthy B) fit C)sane D) well

35. Use the wards in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the
space in the same line.

A visit to the doctors.
Jim decided to visit the doctor after his trip to the jungle.
He was normally a tall (1) .. person, but over the past MUSCLE
month he had lost a lot of (2) He had also noticed WEIGHT
that his ankles and knees had become rather (3) PAIN
He thought that he might have eaten or drunk something (4). POISON

or caught some kind of (5) disease. The doctor INFECT
took some blood for tests and told Jim to go back a week later.
This time the doctor had an optimistic (6) . on her EXPRESS
face, and Jim felt quite (7) .Dont worry, said the HEART
doctor, its nothing serious. You havent caught an (8) CURE
disease, or anything terrible like that. Its a simple virus, and
you will need some (9) .Take these tablets twice a TREAT
day for two weeks, and youll make a full (10).. RECOVER

36. Match each sentence a) to j) with a sentence from 1) to 10) which has the same

a) Henry s heart was in the right place. . .
b) Paul held his tongue. .
c) Richard jawed away for at least an hour. .. .
d) Dave had a lot of cheek to talk like that. .. .
e) Keith couldnt stomach his new boss. .. .
f) Harry backed his boss. . .
g) William kept poking his nose in. .
h) Graham thumbed a lift to work. . .
i) Charles put his foot in it. . .
j) Jacks heart ached to be where he belonged. .. .
1) He talked.
2) He supported him.
3) He said the wrong thing.
4) He was kind.
5) He was rather rude.
6) He didnt say anything.
7) He interfered in other peoples business.
8) He hitch hiked.
9) He missed home.
10) He didnt like him.

37. Complete each sentence with one suitable word.

a) I am afraid she is suffering an incurable disease.
b) I was . agony all night with earache.
c) I think youve put .. a lot of weight lately.
d) The effect of this drug will slowly wear .
e) You really get . my nerves sometimes!
f) After Jack fainted it was several minutes before he . round.
g) Is Coral being operated tomorrow?
h) Harry went . with flu during his holiday.
i) Peter was treated .. minor injuries and shock.
j) Dont worry. Ill take care .. you myself.

38. Decide which answer A, B, C, or D best fits each space.
A Disastrous Holiday
The day Gerald arrived at the Almara Beach Hotel, he fell (1) .. the stairs. The
manager called a/an (2) . , but fortunately Geralds leg was only
badly (3) .. , and not broken. The doctor
(4) swimming as further (5) but gave
Gerald a/an (6) .. for some tablets in case his leg became
(7) . The next day Gerald sunbathed by the pool, and
then took a deep (8) . and dived into the water. There
was not very much water in the pool, and he (9) . .one of his arms
when he hit the bottom. This time he complained to the hotel manager, who sent a
special meal to Geralds room. Later that night, Gerald was (10) . from a
(11) .. back, the injuries to his arm and leg, and also had a terrible
(12) .. . He had a high (13) and felt
terrible. Luckily he had the tablets the doctor had given him to (14) ..
the pain. As he reached for them, he fell out of bed and broke his
(15) . He spent the rest of his holiday in bed.
1) A) down B) to C) with D) for
2) A) stretcher B) prescription C) ambulance D) emergency
3) A) sick B) bruised C) hurt D) infected
4) A) went B) prevented C)said D) recommended
5) A) medicine B)cure C) drugs D) treatment
6) A) recipe B) paper C) prescription D) order
7) A) painful B) pained C) painless D)pain
8) A) end B) breath C) mouthful D) water
9) A) hurt B) injury C) ached D)sore
10) A) ill B) injured C) suffering D) damaged
11) A) sunny B) sunburnt C) sunshine D) grilled
12) A) agony B)hurt C)heat D) stomachache
13) A) pain B) temperature C)ache D) degree
14) A)hold B) check C) rid D) reduce
15) A) waist B) lips C) wrist D) throat


1. Choose the most suitable word or phrase underlined in each sentence.
a) I enjoy taking the baby out in its cart/pram/trailer.
b) The train fare is expensive, its cheaper to go by carriage/coach/waggon.
c) Terry and Bill rode around the island on their bicycle/trolley/tandem. .
d) A farmer gave me a lift across the muddy field on his dustcart/lorry/tractor.
e) Cars made between 1916 and 1930 can be called racing/sports/vintage cars.
f) The first person who arrived at the scene of the accident phoned for a/.in

g) Lorries, motorbikes and sports cars are all kinds of cars/motors/vehicles.
h) Jack was nearly run over by a fire engine/hosepipe/tanker on its way to a put out a
serious blaze.
i) You need a powerful car to tow a camping/caravan/sleeper in the mountains.
j) Most buses in London are double decks/decked/deckers and you can see the sights
from upstairs.

2. Complete each sentence with a word from the list. Use each word once only.

captain crew guard pedestrian chauffeur cyclist mechanic steward
conductor driver motorist traffic warden

a) The company chairman has a Rolls-Royce driven by a............................. .
b) When my car broke down a passing.towed it to a garage.
c) The police wanted me to describe theof the car.
d) The four passengers on the ship had dinner with the.................................. .
e) The train couldnt leave until the waved his green flag.
f) Hilary was given a parking ticket by a .
g) Before take-off, the.told me to fasten my seat belt.
h) When I got on the ship, one of thehelped me find my cabin.
i) There isnt a..on this bus, you pay the driver.
j) Eddie is a keenand rides his bike to work every day.
k) The bus mounted the pavement and injured a ..... .
l) Jim works as a.in a local garage.

3. Choose the most suitable word or phrase to complete each sentence.

a) The ship stopped because two passengers had fallen..
A) upside down B) overboard C) underground D) inside out

b) Thewas crowded with passengers waiting for the train.
A) platform B) quay C) runway D) pavement

c) We had to stop for petrol at a filling.
A) garage B) service C) pump D) station

d) Mary looked up the fastest train to Glasgow in the .
A) catalogue B) timetable C) dictionary D) programme

e) The train was very crowded because there were only four.....
A) coaches B) wagons C) trucks D) cars

f) Peters car .off the icy road and fell into a ditch.
A) crashed B) collided C) hit D) skidded

g) I dropped my wallet from the boat but luckily it .......
A) drifted B) floated C) sank D) rescued

h) Everything went dark when the train entered a/an ............
A) underground B) tunnel C) tube D) metro

i) David missed his train because of the queue in the ticket ..........
A) office B) agency C) room D) lounge

j) To get to our hotel we had to cross the railway..
A) road B) route C) rails D) line

4. Use the word in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space
in the same line.

A letter of apology
I am writing to apologise for the (1) of your Happy Holiday Coach
Tour to Aberdeen. (2)..our luxury coach was involved in a (3) ..in
France a week ago, and our driver has been (4) ..obliged to remain there for
the moment. The coach was travelling on a road (5) for heavy traffic,
and the accident was (6) Luckily none of the passengers suffered any
(7) .., and we have complained to the authorities that the road needs
(8) .Our new coach will be fitted with (9) .seat belts for the
safety and comfort of passengers. We will of course return the (10) . you
have made for your holiday as soon as possible.


5. Complete each sentence with the word sail or ship, or a word formed from one of
these words

a) Jack has been working as a.for ten years.
b) Were all flying home but our furniture is being .
c) What time does the ferry set .... .
d) We are expecting a .............. or coffee from Brazil this week.
e) We have decided to go for a ..tomorrow afternoon.
f) When Paul was young he ............ round the world.
g) Its time you were aboard .. . Were leaving soon.
h) Do you like . ? Or do you prefer water-skiing?
i) Graham works in the harbour as a . clerk.
j) The boats on the lake had brightly coloured . .

6. Match these words with the description given.

accelerator chain gear parachute bonnet cockpit
handlebars reverse brakes deck oars wings

a) An aeroplane has two of these. .............
b) Change this in a car to change speed ..
c) Hold these when you ride a bicycle.
d) This will save your life if you fall from a plane.
e) You need these to row a boat. ............
f) This might be on a bicycle or around your neck.
g) Put these on if you want to stop.
h) Your car engine is usually under this.
i) Walk on this when you are on a ship.
j) The pilot of a plane sits in this. .
k) Put your foot on this to make the car go faster.
1) Go into this if you want to go backwards.

7. Complete each sentence with one suitable word.
a) Im really forward to sailing in Jeans new yacht.
b) In cities, cars and other vehicles up most of the space.
c) Well come with the van and up the rest of the furniture.
d) When the storm began, the small boat for the nearest harbour.
e) How can you up with all those exhaust fumes!
f) We cant up with that speedboat in this rowing boat!
g) Jane likes off by driving her sports car at 100 miles an hour.
h) A fire engine arrived and soon out the fire.
i) Little Johnny is in the garden out his new tricycle.
j) One way with the pollution problem is to use unleaded petrol.

8. Decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space.

Past, Present and Future
A hundred years ago, most people traveled (1) foot, by train, or on
horseback.. (2) had made it possible to travel rapidly over long distances.
Bicycles were also becoming (3) , after the invention of the air-failed
(4) , which made cycling a lot more comfortable. Buses, trams and (5)
railways had already been invented, and cities all over the world already had traffic
(6) . There were very few private cars, and city (7) were still full of
horses. What a difference a hundred years have (8) ! (9) we have got
(10) to the problem of private cars, and some cities are so noisy and
(11) that in many places (12) have been banned from the city centre.
How will we be traveling in a hundred years time? Perhaps (13) then there
will be only personal helicopters. There may be no need to (14) to work or

school in the future, since everyone will have a computer at home. There might even
be more people walking and horse-riding, for pleasure and (15) .

1) A) by B) on C) with D) to
2) A) Tracks B) Lines C) Ways D) Railways
3) A) popular B) invented C) then D) handlebars
4) A)boot B) brake C) tyre D) engine
5) A) metro B) buried C) underground D) submerged
6) A) blocks B) sticks C) knots D) jams
7) A)streets B) pavements C) lawns D) carts
8) A) taken B) done C) made D) got
9) A) Presently B) Nowadays C) Then D) Later
10) A) more B) them C) motorisrs D) used
11) A)even B) polluted C) so D) poisoned
12) A) vehicles B) traffic C) transport D) trips
13) A)cars B) by C) even D) transport
14) A)have B) transport C) decide D) commute
15) A)exercise B) keep fit C) energy D) healthuy

9. Read and discuss.

Crawlers, winkers, flashers
The crawler is that irritating individual who sticks rigidly to the centre lane of a
three-lane motorway, driving consistently at around 50 to 60 miles per hour, and who
refuses to move from his comfortable middle road position even when the inside lane
is completely clear. He thus effectively blocks two lanes, since British motorway
regulations prohibit overtaking on the inside.
The winker is protected from reality in his belief that a couple of swift winks on
the right-hand indicator will keep him safe when he blasts straight out from a slip-
road to join a heavy stream of traffic on the inside lane. The same individual often
changes lane in a similarly thoughtless manner.
The flasher is that pushy individual who regards the fast lane as his personal
property, and insists on staying there, usually with liberal flashing of headlights at
those who dare to be in the way at the legal maximum of 70.

10. Additional reading.

Female drivers making right turn

In the prevalence of western countries, a woman at the wheel is a sign of a
civilized society in which she uses cars as routinely as mobile phones. This fact does
not stir surprise, concern or negativity amongst male drivers.
In Moldova, however, the picture and attitude are different. One of my friends,
who rode with her husband from Germany in their car, had long been bewildered to

see many Moldovan drivers turning back to look at her. Her husband also had
problems understanding our drivers conduct and the mimicry they performed with
their facial muscles.
A lot of men in this country came to admit that women with a driver s license is
a valuable and comfortable possession that can be resourcefully used while
intoxicated heading back home or busy with a notebook and mobile phone, unable to
hold the wheel. Modern Moldovan husbands, however, would drive intoxicated or
deep in thoughts, rather than let their wives drive. Honestly, I fee! uncomfortable
whenever I see a women at the wheel, said Oleg, 32, a businessman. I do not
intentionally try to cause accidents, but I always keep women far from the wheel.
Men, on the other hand, are genetically good drivers.
There are many stories about women exploiting their charm and beauty while
confronting police officers or paying fines. Statistics show that women, however, are
fined less in comparison with men, as the first tend to break traffic rules less often.
Those women who do not want to learn to drive cars account their unwillingness for
female fears, prejudices and mechanical problems that can arise while they are on the
Women are predisposed to panic whenever a car accident occurs. Surprisingly,
men causing traffic accidents are usually sympathized with, whereas women charged
for accidents run the risk of being verbally attacked and humiliated.
Presently, the majority of students at driving courses are females.
Women should certainly be encouraged to learn how to operate a car. They will
additionally command mens attention as soon as they start attending driving courses
and secure themselves altruistic instructors willing to help them navigate a car.
Female drivers will also benefit from the service at filling stations and parking
lots supervised by male staff. A private vehicle is definitely a priceless purchase
capable of beautifying women just as remarkably as a chic haircut or stylish shoes.


1. Read and discuss.

The Changing Family
The family is changing. By the year 2020 there will be fewer married people
than single people.
In the past, people got married and stayed married! Divorce was very difficult
and took a long time. The only reason for a short marriage was usually the death of
the husband or wife. But today peoples views on marriage are changing. Many
couples, mostly in their twenties or thirties, live together without getting married.
About 60% of these couples do get married in the end.
People get married at a later age now and many women do not want to have

children immediately. They prefer to do well at their jobs first. So they often decide
not to have a baby until they are in their late thirties, or even forties.
In the past, people married before they had children, but now about 40% of
children are born to unmarried parents. The number of single-parent families is
increasing. Single parents are usually divorced women (2/3) or women who have
never married (1/3). The government gives help to single parents, but money can still
be a problem. And studies show that, in general, children are happier and more
successful in traditional two-parent families.

The number of births in Britain is falling. There are fewer marriages, but more
divorces. The divorce laws were changed and divorce became quicker and easier. But
can people walk away from marriages too easily now? Do couples not try hard
enough to stay together?

The great divorce discussion
A popular newspaper described Britain as the divorce capital of Europe. There
are 3 10.000 marriages a year, but 161,000 divorces. Why? A professional British
woman in a top job wrote this surprising letter to the newspapers Womens Page.
Why do so many people get divorced? The reason is very sad. Women are
destroying their marriages!
In the past women stayed at home, did the housework and had babies. When a
husband came home from the office, his wife welcomed him. She looked nice, and
dinner was ready. She asked him about his day and listened to all his problems. So
husbands were happy with their wives and marriages were very successful.
But now women want good jobs like their husbands, and they also war their
husbands to help with the children and the housework.
If a husband has a bad day at work, his wife doesnt want to know about it. She
wants to talk about her own day. She often gets angry because her husband doesnt
help her more. In the end, the husband doesnt enjoy being at home. He leaves his
wife for another woman, and the marriage ends in divorce.

The newspaper asked its readers for their views!
1. I agree with the letter. Women must do something about their marriages. When
your husband comes home from work, cook his dinner. Ask him about his day. If he
helps you, thank him. Dont tell him about your problems the office or at home. Talk
about things that are interesting to him. Then hell want to come home to you.
2. This woman cant be serious! Women arent destroying their marriages - men
are! A working wife works hard all day. At night shes tired, too. But she has to cook,
wash clothes and put the children to bed. And what does her selfish husband do? He
sits down and watches TV!
3. A clever wife cooks her husbands meals, washes his shirts and makes his home
life comfortable. Men want us to be like their mothers. Whats wrong with that?

4. A wife isnt very interesting if she stays at home and does housework. Her
husband will get bored and run away with his young secretary.
5. You dont like housework? Your husband doesnt like housework? Get a cleaner
and. save your marriage!

2. How much do you know about different wedding customs from around the world?
Answer these questions by matching each custom to a country from the list below.
In which country

is a song or poem specially composed for the bride and groom?
do the bride and bridegroom feed each other cake?
does the bridegroom pay money to the brides friends and relatives before passing
through a cloth barrier to his bride?
do the bride and groom stand under a canopy?
do the bride and groom give presents to the wedding guests?
do the wedding guests pin paper money to the clothes of the bride and groom?
do the bride and groom walk seven times round a sacred fire?
are the brides family seated on one side of the church while the grooms family are
seated on the other?

3. Read the text.
The Night of Henna
Weddings in many Egyptian villages take place traditionally after the farmers
have sold the summer harvest. This is the only time of year when they have enough
money to go into town and buy a trousseau for the future bride. The wedding
festivities begin on the eve of the wedding which is called the night of the henna.
During the night of the henna the brides hands and feet are painted with henna.
This ceremony, which takes place in the privacy of the brides home, marks the
beginning of the wedding festivities.
But the highlight of the day is the arrival of the poet. Although today many
families have abandoned this traditional form of entertainment, the few remaining
poets always receive an enthusiastic welcome.
The poet and his musicians usually arrive during the early afternoon, before the
henna ceremony. After greeting him at the entrance to the village, a few local
dignitaries take him to the house of the host family. There, he takes refreshments
before having a sleep to prepare him for the long evening ahead. After having an
early supper, he and his partners tune their instruments.
During the day, he village square is prepared for the evening performance. A
platform is set up for the poet and his musicians. Mats are placed around the platform
for the guests, and seats of honour are reserved for the local dignitaries. The children
are the first to crowd into the square and sit as close to the platform as possible. Alter
going to the mosque to pray, the wedding guests make their way to their seats.
Finally, when everyone is settled, the poet appears on the platform. He is greeted with
cries of joy, the entire audience is attentive to his slightest change of expression.

Every poet always tells the same story, the epic of About Zeid El Hilali. The
poet never begins the story at the beginning, just as he never reaches the end. His art
lies in his ability to catch the listeners attention and control their sympathies and
emotions. There are a number of interruptions during the narrative for the musicians
to play and the whole evenings entertainment lasts for several hours.
The wedding ceremony takes place on the following day. The musicians play all
afternoon during the presentation of the brides trousseau to her grooms family.

4. Read and discuss.

Between 1971 and 1975, a researcher called Mark Abrams, at the Social Science
Research Centre, conducted a complicated series of studies designed to gauge
peoples satisfaction with various domains of their lives.
Throughout the series, marriage emerged as by far the greatest source of
satisfaction -ahead of family life, health, standard of living, house, job and much
more. The obvious inference, that marriage makes you happy, is widely accepted
among those who specialise in marital studies. So is the view that marriage, like
happiness, is good for your health, a view borne out by a number of studies.
Some of these studies present a confused picture because they compare the
health and life expectancy of married people with the health and life expectancy of
the divorced, separated and bereaved. (The latter group invariably come out worse,
but should that be blamed on the termination of their marriages or on the fact that
they married, perhaps unhappily, in the first place?)
But other studies have specifically compared the married with the single and
reached similar conclusions. Even these are slightly ambiguous. Are single people
more susceptible to serious illness because they are single? Or is their single status a
result of their susceptibility?
None the less, the general message seems incontrovertible: marriage is not as
bad as it seems. It is certainly not bad for you and almost certainly good for you. Few
sociologists, doctors or statisticians would dispute the statement that married
people live an average of five years longer than the unmarried and are significantly
less susceptible to strokes, ulcers, cancer, heart attacks, depression, mental illness and
high blood pressure.
Nor is the institution of marriage as beleaguered as it is sometimes made out to
be. As well as having the second highest divorce rate in Europe (Denmarks is
highest), Britain has the equal-highest marriage rate (along with Portugal). The
divorce rate seems to have leveled out since 1985, and the huge long-term increase in
the twentieth century probably owes as much to changing legislation as it does to
worsening marital relations. The total numbers of marriages and of married people
are much the same today as they were in 1961 (although both increased briefly in the
early 1970s).
Since 1891 the proportion of the population who are married has increased
significantly, while the proportion who are single has decreased. Today, around 85
per cent of men and 91 per cent of women will marry at some point in their lives.

That said, marriage is clearly under threat, both from divorce and from the
growing trend for unmarried cohabitation. The divorce rate is increasing, even since
the last significant changes in the divorce laws: from 11.6 per thousand in 1978
(143,667) to 12.8 per thousand in 1988 (152,633). The marriage rate is declining,
from 14.9 per thousand in 1978 (368,258) to 13.8 per thousand in 1988 (348,492).
And a growing proportion of marriages - about one in three -are remarriages
(partly because the number of people in a position to marry again has increased so
much). Unmarried cohabitation has never been more popular. The proportion of
women aged 18 to 49 who are cohabiting almost tripled between 1979 and 1988,
from 2.7 per cent to 7.7 per cent. The proportion of children born out of wedlock in
the UK has increased from 5.8 per cent in 1961 to 26.9 per cent in 1989. And
according to Gallup three adults in four no longer think that becoming pregnant is a
reason for a single woman to marry.
One problem is that marriage is increasingly perceived, in popular culture,
as lacking the spontaneity of unstructured love. Does reality bear this out? According
to the Observer/Harris poll, people who cohabit are two-and-a-half times more likely
to be madly in love with their partners than married people (25 per cent to 10 per
Yet most other indicators suggest that married couples derive more happiness
from their relationships than non-married couples, and peoples perception of their
own marriages remains optimistic. The 1991 Observer/Harris poll showed that 91 per
cent of married people expect their own marriages to last until death. Their negative
feelings about marriage are reserved for other people - 66 per cent rate the average
marriages chance of succeeding as 50:50 or worse.
Last year the Family Policy Studies Centre caused a great stir by predicting that,
based on existing trends, 37 per cent of new marriages would end in divorce an all-
time high. Another way of looking at this, as several advocates of marriage have
pointed out, is to say that nearly two-thirds of marriages will succeed.

Talking about family and friends
Ive got two brothers and a sister. My brothers are twins (= two children born to
one mother at the same time), and they are three years younger than me. Im the
oldest and I take after my father (= I am similar to him in appearance and/or
character). My sister takes after my father in some ways, but she looks like my
mother (- her appearance is similar to my mothers). Were a close family (= we have
a good relationship/see each other a lot). My best friend Pete is an only child (=
without brothers or sisters); he spends a lot of time with us and hes almost one of the
Family names
Your parents give you a first name, e.g. James and Sarah are common first
names in Britain. Your family name, usually called your surname, is the one that all
the family have, e.g. Smith and Jones. Your full name is all the names you have, e.g.
Sarah Jane Smith.


Changing times
In some parts of the world, couples may live together but do not get married. In
this relationship they often call each other their partner. Where the child or children
live(s) with just one parent, especially after the parents have separated (= they dont
live together any more), these are sometimes called single-parent families.
an old friend (= someone you have known for a long time)
a close friend (= a good friend/someone you like and trust)
your best friend (= the one friend you feel closest to)
classmates (= other people in your class)
flatmates (= people you share a house/flat with, who are not your family)
colleagues (= people you work with; they may or may not be friends)
We use this for a relationship that we had in the past but do not have now:
The children stay with my ex-husband at the weekend. I saw an ex-girlfriend
of mine at the disco last night.
5. How world deals with divorce.

Divorce does not really exist in Ireland. Legal separation is permissible, but separated
couples cannot remarry.
To divorce after less than two years separation you must prove unreasonable
behaviour or adultery.
Qiuckie divorces by mutual consent have been available since 1975. If one party
contests the case, divorce will only be granted in case of unreasonable
behaviour or separation lasting more than six years.
Legally, divorce easily obtainable. In practice, the divorce rate is kept down because
the severe housing shortage means couples that break up have to continue living
Divorce instantly granted by marriage registration office if both parties agree. If just
one partner wants to end the marriage, divorce is granted after the failure of
mediation attempts.
Australian law has abolished the term divorce to make the procedure less painful.
Divorce is now a straightforward question of changing your civil status.
Under Jewish law divorce is easier than marriage. Before the wedding the husband must
set aside a sum of money, that will be used to care for his wife in case of divorce.

6. In which country:

a)can men divorce their wives by saying they want to? Iran
b)is it hard to get divorced in less than two years?
c)is it possible for couples to separate legally but not get divorced?
d)must you normally wait six years if only one party wants the divorce?

7. Answer the following questions, according to the text. Use your dictionary to help
you if necessary.

a) Why do couples in Russia often continue to live together after a divorce?
b)What do Chinese couples have to do if only one partner wants to end the marriage?
c)Why is divorce in Australia now easy?
d)How do couples in Iran have to try to improve their relationship before getting a
8. Work in groups of two or three. Are there any unusual weddings or alternatives to
traditional weddings in your country? Is marriage in your country as popular as it was
fifty years ago? What reasons are there to get married?

9. Write down the different stages of preparation, ceremony and celebration in
traditional or alternative wedding ceremonies in your country.

In Britain, the groom arrives at the church with the best man. They sit on the right-
hand side. The bride arrives with her father
Join your notes with any other ideas from 1, and write a paragraph about traditional
or alternative weddings in your country.
After arriving at the church, the groom and the best man sit on the right-hand side.
The bride arrives with her father...

10. .

Wedding when the year is new?
Hell be loving, kind, and true.
When February birds of made,
You wed nor dread your fate.
If you wed when March winds blow,
Joy and sorrow youll both know.
Marry in April when you can,
Joy for maiden and for man.
Marry in the Month of May,
And youll surely rue the day.
Marry when June roses grow,

Over land and sea youll go.
Those who in July are wed,
Must labor for their daily bread.
Whoever wed in August be,
Many a change is sure to see.
Marry in Septembers shine,
Your living will be rich and fine.
If in October you do marry,
Love will come, but riches tarry.
If you wed in bleak November,
Only joys will come, remember.
When December snows fall fast,
Marry, and true love will last.

11. Discuss the following.

The mayor has nine wives
Elizabeth, 38, is a smart, bright, modern-looking woman, and the town attorney. She
lives here in Big Water with her husband, Alex Joseph, most of his twenty children
and all of his eight other wives.
Its an ideal arrangement for a career woman, Elizabeth, a Mormon, says Most
American women trying to juggle their CE lipstick and marriage not succeeding very
well In a plural marriage can have it all. You never have to worry about wholl look
after the s. You can be fully a mother, fully professional and fully woman.

12. The big question is

IS MARRIAGE OLD-FASHIONED. What does marriage mean to you? Just a
piece of paper or a deeper and more secure relationship?
Yes, its no different to living together, apart from a bit of paper. I wouldnt bother
with getting married, unless my girlfriend wanted to, or we were going to have kids.
I think its important then.
No, its not old-fashioned Im married and I highly recommend it! Its rubbish to
say that marriage is just a bit of paper, and its certainly a lot more than just living

In groups, discuss the following questions and give reasons for your answers.
a) What are the main reasons for getting married and what are the drawbacks?
b) What is the best age to get married? Why?
c) Is there too much social pressure on people to get married? Should other kinds of
partnership be more acceptable?
d) Should weddings be religious?

e) Is it acceptable to have more than one partner at the same time?
f) Why do people get divorced? Is it too easy?
g) What problems are there when people decide to get divorced?

13. You have been going out with someone for a while and you have decided to live
together. However, before you do so you wish to draw up a personal contract. In
groups, discuss the kinds of things you think it is a good idea to include in such a
contract. Things to think about might include:
- when to use the bathroom.
- who cooks the meals and when.
- what happens if you want to go out with other people.

14. The text is about a Balinese marriage, but the paragraphs have been mixed up.
Read the text and put the paragraphs in the correct order. Discuss the following.
a) What helped you decide on the correct order? (e.g. Which words or phrases refer
back to a previous paragraph?)
b) How is the text organised? (e.g. How do you know which paragraphs come at the
beginning and end of the text?)
A. Discovering what has happened, the girls family then pretend to be very worried.
The angry father is supposed to search the surroundings, asking everyone in the
household who took his daughter. Of course, even a close friend who may have
helped the daughter pack her clothes, innocently denies any knowledge of the affair.
B. First, the couple secretly decides to run away, usually to a friends house a good
distance from the girls village. On the appointed day, the girl is suddenly carried off
by her young man.
C. No matter how couples are married, divorce is not difficult. A man merely reports
to village authorities that his marriage is finished; or if it is a woman, she simply
returns to her home and the children are cared for by the mans family. However,
divorce does not often occur. If the situation arises, it is likely that a man takes a
second wife, and the first remains as head of the household.
D. In Bali, there is one form of marriage, the negerorod -marriage by elopement
which is considered exciting for it is preceded by the honeymoon and the man is
considered heroic.
E. Sometimes even a search party is organised, but the shock reaction is all in fun.
Generally the family is well acquainted with the young man and understands that if
their daughter took some clothes, she left by her own choice.
15. Read the text quickly. It is about a couple called Clifford and Annie, who are
planning to get married.

Answer the questions.
1 What are your impressions of Clifford and Annie? Which of the following words
best describe your opinion of them? Why?
sensible weird ridiculous romantic spontaneous easygoing warm and
loving cold and calculating unbelievable

2 Do you think their marriage will last?
3 How many of their rules can you remember?

Ill marry you but only on a few conditions...
When Clifford met Annie, they found one thing in common. They both love
lists. So together they have written the ultimate list, a list of rules for their marriage.
This prenuptial agreement itemizes every detail of their lives together, from shopping
to sex. Timothy Laurence met them in Florida in the apartment that they share.
The living room is neat and tidy, with a dining table already laid for a meal that
has yet to be cooked. All the ingredients for the meal are in the kitchen, prepared,
weighed, waiting in a line. It is his turn to cook. Annie is chatting over a cup of
coffee by the pristine kitchen bar when her fianc pours himself a cup and joins her.
He touches her arm. She tenses, looks at him anxiously, and asks, Oh, sorry. Did I
say something wrong?
No, no. I was just showing affection, Clifford explains ponderously.
Oh, I see, says Annie.
His hand returns to her arm, and this time she relaxes. It is a significant moment,
because spontaneity is not at the heart of this relationship. Love, for Clifford and
Annie, means following a book of rules.

A signed, legal document
They have become curiously famous since details of their prenuptial contract
were publicized. They wanted a legal contract, signed and witnessed by lawyers.
Their agreement is intended to regulate the chaotic heart, and smooth the path of true
love before the journey of marriage has begun We will have healthy sex 3 to 5 times
per week ,it declares, and continues through every aspect of married life, from the
wedding itself, to a trip to the supermarket: We will spend $400 a month, to who is
boss when it comes to the big decisions. They are getting married in six months
time. The ceremony will last twenty minutes. The reception will be held in a
restaurant on Miami beach. We will invite a twenty guests each, who will be served
two drinks, one of which may be alcoholic.

List of rules
So what are some of the other rules that will lead to married bliss?
Once we are married, we will each receive an allowance of $70 per week to cover
haircuts, eating out, gifts for friends and spending money.
We wont raise our voices at each other. If we get angry, we will count to 10 and
take a deep breath.
We will not use tobacco products.
We will go to bed and turn out the lights by 11.30 pm.
Family leadership and decision-making will be Cliffords responsibility. Annie will
make decisions in emergencies and when Clifford is not available.
We will buy unleaded fuel, and we wont let the fuel gauge get lower than half a tank.
If any of these rules are broken, a fine will have to be paid out of personal savings.

Everyone wants to know whether they are the saviours of modern marriage, or
the butchers of romance. Did we put anything in the contract about love? asks
Annie, a little uncertainly. 1 think so, says Clifford. Ah, yes, they did: We will
provide unconditional love and fulfill each others basic needs. Oh, good. So
thats all right then.
Their prenuptial contract is a response to uncertainty, and a plan for emotional
and financial security for the future. At 39, Clifford has been through two divorces
and has, two sons. Annie, 31, was married briefly and disastrously in her early
twenties. As Clifford likes to point out, the divorce rate, for first-time marriages is
now 54 per cent. Nobody plans to fail, he says, but a lot of people fail to plan. Im
going to write a book about our experience of a fully planned and programmed
marriage. I just know that it will be a bestseller.

When Clifford met Annie
Clifford and Annie met at a dance, and started a cautious romance. He took her
out to a movie and dinner, and gave her roses with a card signed with affection that
she still keeps in her handbag. They started their own small marketing business, and
in the running of the business discovered that they were both goal setters. One day,
not having anything else to talk about

they decided to create the perfect budget!
We were really excited that we could agree on something so vital and
fundamental to any enterprise, whether its a business or a marriage, says Clifford.
With so much romance in the air, their relationship deepened,, and as, the weeks
passed, they began to make lists of increasingly personal concerns. From the start,
they agreed that the big marriage breakers were money, behaviour, sex, and
85 children. Nothing is going to make this marriage go wrong, says Clifford.
Everything has already been planned.
In five years, we will have moved from our present address, and we will be
living in a beach house overlooking the ocean.

When Annie met Clifford
Annie sees their arrangements slightly differently. For her, the prenuptial
contract, was a way of getting to know Clifford - a kind of courtship, just probing and
asking questions. If we dont like and respect each other, this union wont last. She
liked what she found, including a mutual fondness for lists. Id made a list of what I
wanted in a man, what I liked, and what was unacceptable. I had prayed to God to
find a man who was my father, only 30 years younger.
She is very keen to have children, but Clifford admits to having problems with
the prospect of more kids, more 100 college fees! Their contract states: We will not
start a family for the first two years of our marriage. So Ill be pregnant in three
years, Annie says, and then pauses. No, sooner than that. Ill be pregnant in
30 months ...
Such is the wild intensity of passion in the heat of Florida.

16. Read the text more carefully and answer the questions.

1 Find some things that Annie and Clifford have in common, and some things that
they dont have in common.
2 Annie and Clifford say, that marriages fail because or arguments about money,
behaviour, sex, and children. Which of their rules refer to these four things?
3 Are the following statements true (V) or false (X)? Correct the false ones with the
right information and discuss your answers.
a. Clifford does all the cooking.
b. He prepares everything very carefully.
. Their apartment looks messy but comfortable.
d. Annie misunderstands why Clifford touches her.
e. They want the contract to ensure an uncomplicated divorce if they split up.
f. There will be no alcohol at their wedding.
g. If any of the rules are broken, they will divorce immediately.
h. Clifford has no doubts that both his book and his marriage will be successful.
i. On their first date, Clifford took Annie out to a dance.
j. Annie had no idea what her perfect man would be like until she met Clifford.




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4. , .
5. ,
6. , ?

1. . 2. , , . 3.
, . 4. ,
, . 5. . 6. ,
. 7. . 8. ,
-. 9. . 10. ,
, . 11. , , ,

1. , , . 2.
. 3. , . 4. , ,
. 5. ,
. 6. , , ;
. 7. . 8. , ,
, , . 9. ,
, , . 10.
; . 11. ,
, , . 12. , ,

Translate into English using the verb must, to be (to), to have (to)
1. , ?
2. , . 3. : ,
, . 4. , , . 5.
5, 6 . 6. , , ,
5 . 7. , , ? 8. ,

1. , ,
. 2. () ,
. 3.
? 4. .
. 5. ,
. 6. ,
. 7.
, . .
8. ? 9.
? . 10. .
11 . . 11.
. , ,
. 12. , , , . 13.
, , , . 14. , , ,
. 15. . 16.
, .


Translate into English using the verb must, to be (to), to have (to) or should, can.
1. , , . .

2. ; .
3. , , . , . 4.
. . 5.
, .
6. . . 7.
, , , . 8.
: . 9.
. .
10. , . ? 11. ,
. 12. , , .
. 13. ,
. 14.
. 15. , , : ,
. 16. ,
. 17. , , - ; ,
. 18. ,


Translate into English using the verb (dont) have to, neednt (have).

1. . . 2.
: . 3. ,
. 4. ,
. 5. , .
6. . -. 7.
, .
8. . 9.
, . 10. , ,
. 11. , ,
. 12. ,
, , .
13. , . 14.
: . 15.
. 16. ,

Translate into English.

1. M , . .
! , , .
. 2. (knock down),
. 3. , ;
. 4. ,
. 5. :
. 6. ;
. 7. . .
8. ? 9. ,
. 10. ?

1. , . 2.
. 3. .
, . 4. , ,
, , , . 5.
, , .
6. , .
? 7. , , . ,
. 8. .
. 9. .

Translate into English.
1. , , , .
2. , , .
3. , , . 4.
. , , - . 5.
. . 6. ,
, . 7. , ,
, , . 8.
, , , - ,
, . 9. 10-,

. 10. , . 11. , ,
. 12. , , .
13. , , ()

. 14. ? , ,

1. ?
.) , , .
.) , .
2. ?
.) .
.) , .
3. , ?
.) , : .
.) , . .
5. ?
. , .
6. ?
7. ?
8. ?

Translate the words in bold type into English.

? ,
? .
, .
. , . .
, :
. ,
, .
, .
? , , ?
, .
, . !
. ,

. !

, ,
, .
- - ,
, .
, , , (Id rather), .
? ,
. . , ,
, (gift) .
, (pile)
. . ,
, (all year round).
(to be unlucky). (to offer)
, -
(wouldnt hear).
, , .
- ,
. , ,
, (at any price). ,
(visitors) .
(to get hold of) .
, (fight), :
. :
, , (skyscraper), .
. , (victory),
? .



Active Passive
Having written
Being written
Having been written

Translate the sentences using the models.
A) Model 1: mind/like/hate/avoid doing smth
1. . 2. .
3. (rival) . 4.
. 5. ? 6.
. 7. , . 8.
. 9. .

Model 2: way/intention/purpose/difficulty of doing smth
1. . 2.
. 3. .
4. . 5.
. 6. . 7. ,
. 8. . 9.
. 10.
, , .

Model 3: think of/object to doing smth
1. . 2. , .
3. , . 4.
. 5. . 6.
, . 7. . 8.
, . 9. , ? 10.

Model 4:
by doing smth
through (because of)
in spite of

1. . 2. ,
. 3. , .

4. , . 5. ,
. 6. , . 7.
, . 8. ,
, .

B) Translate the following into English using the Gerund after the verbs in brackets.
Fill in prepositions where necessary.
1. , (to blame).
2. , (to suspect). 3.
(to have difficulty). 4. ,
(to insist). 5. ,
(to prevent). 6. ,
(to apologize). 7. (to succeed). 8.
, (to accuse). 9.
, (to insist). 10.
(to talk into). 11. ,
(to begin). 12. , (to
insist). 13. , (to feel about). 14.
? (to account). 15. ,
(to reproach).

) Translate the following into English using the Gerund after the adjectives in
brackets. Fill in prepositions where necessary.
1. , (proud). 2. ,
(capable). 3. (used).
4. , (sorry). 5. ,
, , (interested). 6. ,
(capable). 7.
, (tired). 8. ,
(surprised). 9. ,
(disappointed). 10. , ,
(grateful). 11. ,
(annoyed). 12. ,

D) Translate the following into English using the Infinitive or the Gerund.
1. , (lucky). 2.
, (ready). 3.
(busy). 4. :
, (sorry). 5.
(worth). 6. , (quick). 7.
(worth). 8. ,
(delighted). 9. ( , )
(interested). 10. ,

- (hard). 11. .
, (busy). 12. ,
(surprised). 13.
(proud). 14. ,
(free). 15. , (distressed). 16.
(easy). 17.
(determined). 18.

E) Translate the sentences from Russian into English using gerundial phrases.
1. , . 2.
, . 3. ,
. 4. ,
. 5. , . 6.
, . 7.
, . 8. ,
. 9. ,
? 10. , ?
11. , . 12.
, . 13.
, ? 14.
, . 15. ,

F) Translate the sentences from Russian into English.
I. 1. . 2. , .
3. , . 4.
. 5. . 6.
. 7. -
. 8. . 9.
. 10. ,
. 11. -
. 12. ,
. . 13. , ?
II. 1. , . 2.
, ? 3. . 4.
, . 5. (to jog).
. 6. .
. 7. .
. 8. , . 9.
, . 10. ,
? 11. !
12. , .
13. ; . 14. ,

. 15. . 16.
: . 17.
. 18. ,
? 19. , . 20.
, .

G) Translate the following into English using infinitival or gerundive forms as direct
1. (to begin). 2. - (to want).
3. ,
(to feel like). 4. (to need).
5. (to like). 6.
, , ,
(to keep). 7.

- (to begin).
8. (to cease). 9.
(to resist). 10.
, (to help). 11.
(to keep). 12.
(to propose). 13. ,
, . (to mention). 14.
(to forget). 15. , ,
(to forget) 16. (to try). 17.
, (to want, to offer). 18.
(to put off). 19. ,
(to endure). 20. ,
(to mind). 21.
(to set about). 22. , (to
take the trouble). 23. ,
? (to remember). 24. ? (to remember).
25. (to decide). 26. , ,
, (to enjoy). 27.
, (to try). 28. ,
(to try). 29. (to ask). 30.
, (to pretend). 31.
(to feel like). 32. (to
refuse). 33. -, (to avoid).
34. , (to go on). 35.
(to afford). 36.

(to suggest). 37. , (to
remember). 38. , - , (to remember).
39. , , (to regret).
40. (to dread).
41. , , (to agree). 42.

(to promise). 43.
(to prepare). 44. ,
(to arrange). 45.
, , - (to
keep). 46. ? (to care). 47. ,
(trouble.) 48. (to
start). 49.
(to prefer).


1. , (to mow) .
2. , .
3. .
4. , .
5. , .
6. , ?
7. , .
8. .
9. .
10. . .

1. .
2. .
3. , .
4. , .
5. , .
6. , , .
7. , .
8. , .
9. (pretext), .
10. , .

1. .
2. .
3. , .
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. .

8. , .
9. .
10. .

1. , ?
2. , .
3. (to set fire to) .
4. , .
5. .
6. .
7. .
8. ? .
9. .
10. , ,
1. , .
2. , .
3. , .
4. ?
5. , .
6. , .
7. , ,
8. .
9. .
10. - .

1. . .
2. , (case).
3. , .
4. , .
5. ,
6. , - .
7. , .
8. , .
9. .
10. ?



Active Passive
Perfect Continuous
to write
to be writing
to have written
to have been writing
to be written
to have been written

A) Translate the sentences.
1. , . 2. ,
. 3. , . 4. , . 5.
, : ,
, 6. , . 7.
. 8. , . 9. ,
. 10. , . 11.
, . 12. ,

B) Translate the sentences into English using the models.
Model 1: to do smth is (was, will be) necessary (a mistake)
tell her the truth now is not at all necessary,
(would be a mistake; means to ruin her chances)
1. . 2.
.3. , .
4. , , . 5.
. 6. .

Model 2: It is important to do/be done/be doing smth
It is necessary to explain everything to her.
It was strange to meet him here of all places.
1. . 2.
. 3. , . 4.
. 5. . 6. ,
. 7. , .
8. , ? 9. ,
. 10. .

C) Translate the sentences into English.
1. . 2.
. 3. . 4.

. 5.
. 6.

D) Translate the sentences using the models.
Model 1: The first (last) to do smth
She was the first to see the danger.
He was the second to cross the finish line.
Model 2: smth/smb (nobody) to do smth
Have you anything else to say?
There was nobody there to show him the way out.
Model 3: the man (time) to do smth
He is just the man to do it.
It is not the right time to discuss this subject.
1. He , . 2.
. 3. . 4. ?
5. , . 6. .
7. , (full) .
8. . 9. ,
. 10. , .

E) Translate the sentences using the model.
Model: do smth (in order/so as) to get smth
I have come here to speak to you.
She pretended to be quite well not to be taken to the doctor.
1. , (to catch) . 2.
, . 3. ,
(to pass by) . 4.
, . 5. ,
. 6. , .
7. , (to punish).

F) Translate the sentences from Russian into English.

I. 1. , . 2.
-, .
3. . ( ). 4. ,
, . 5. ,
. 6. , . 7.
. . 8. ,
. 9. , .

Model: She is nice to work with.
His story was hard to prove.
1. . 2. (to deal with).
3. . 4. . 5. -
. 6. . 7.
. 8. 9.
. 10. . 11. .

G) Translate into English. Mind the syntactical functions of the Infinitive.
I. 1. . 2. ,
. 3. , .
4. , . 5. ,
. 6. ,
. 7. . 8. , ,
. 9. . 10.
. 11. .
II. 1. , . 2.
, (workshop). 3. ,
. 4. ,
. 5. ,
(witnesses). 6. . 7.
(to stay with) . 8.
, ? 9. ,

H) Translate into English, using appropriate form of the Infinitive.
I. 1. , . 2. , . 3.
. 4. ,
. 5. , . 6. ,
.7. , . 8.
, . 9. (to mean)
. 10. , , 11. ,
. 12. .
II. 1. , . 2. , , ,
. 3. ,
. 4. , . 5.
, . 6. ,
. 7. , . 8. ,
. 9. . 10. ,
. 11.
. 12. ,
. 13. , .

I) Translate the sentences from Russian into English using:
the Infinitive as subject
1. . 2.
. 3.
. 4. , ,
. 5. .
6. .
7. .

the Infinitive as predicative
1. , . 2. ,
, . 3.
. 4. , ,
. 5. , ,

the Infinitive as object
1. . 2. ,
. 3. -
? 4. . 5.
. 6. ,
. 7. ,
. 8. : . 9.
, , .

the Infinitive as attribute
1. , . 2. .
. 3. . 4.
, . 5. ,
, . 6.
, .
7. . 8. ; .
9. ? 10. -,
? 11. ,

the Infinitive as adverbial modifier of purpose.
1. 6 , . 2.
, . 3.
. 4. ? 5.
, . 6. , .

J) Translate the sentences from Russian into English.
1. . . 2.
, , .
3. , , . 4.

, . 5. .
6. . 7. ,
, . 8.
. . 9. ,
. 10. .
. 11. , . 12. , .
13. . 14. ,
. 15. , .
16. , , .


A) Translate the sentences using the phrases:
let smb do smth ; ()...; ()...;
make smb do smth ;
have smb do smth , ...
I. 1. . 2. .
3. , - . 4. .
5. . 6. . 7.
. 8. , .
9. . 10. . 11. .
12. , . 13. ,
. 14. , . 15.
II. 1. , . 2. ,
. 3. . 4. ?
5. . 6. . 7.
. 8. , .
9. . 10.
. 11. . 12.
( ).
. 13. ,
. 14. ( ).

B) Translate the sentences from Russian into English using the models when
Model 1: see (hear) smb do smth
I heard somebody call me.
Model 2: want (expect) smb to do smth
I want you to repeat the sentence.
I. 1. , . 2. ,
. 3. , . 4. ,
- . 5. ,

. 6. ,
. 7. ,
, - . 8. ,
. 9. , - . 10. ,
II. 1. , . 2. ,
. 3. , - .
4. , . 5. ,
? 6. , . 7. ,
. 9. , .
III. 1. , (to move). 2. ,
. 3. , .
4. , . 5. ,
. 6.
. 7. , . 8.
, . 9. ,
. 10.
. 11. , .

C) Translate the sentences from Russian into English.
I. 1. , . 2. ,
. 3. , . 4.
, . 5. , ?
6. , . 7. ,
. 8. , . 9. ,
. 10. ,
. 11. , ?
12. , ? 13. ,
. 14. , .
15. , ? 16. ,
. 17. , .
18. , . 19. ,
. 20. , . 21. ,
. 22. , . 23.
, . 24. ,
II. 1. , . 2. ,
. 3. , .
4. , . 5. , . 6. ,
. 7. , . 8. ,
. 9. , ? 10. ,
. 11. , .

D) Translate the sentences from Russian into English using the Complex Object
wherever possible.
1. , . 2. , .
3. , . 4. ,
. 5. , . 6. , ,
, . 7. ,
. 8. , , , . 9.
, , , . 10. ,
, , . 11. ,
. 12. , . 13. ,
- . 14. ,
. 15. , . 16. ,
? 17. (), . 18.
, . 19. ,
E) Translate the following sentences.
1. , . 2. ,
? 3. -, -?
4. , . 5. , .
6. , . 7. ,
. 8. , . 9. ,
? 10. , () ?
11. , . 12. ,
. 13. ,
. 14. , . 15. ,
, . 16. ,
. 17. , . 18. ,
. 19.
. 20. , .


A) Translate the following sentences into English.
1. , . 2. , .
3. , . 4. ,
. 5. , . 6.
. 7. . 8. , .
9. , . 10. ,
. 11. .

I. 1. , , . 2. , , . 3. , , .
4. , -, . 5. , ,

. 6. , -, . 7. ,
. 8. , , .
9. , .
10. , -, . 11. , ,
II . 1. , . 2. ,
. 3. , 15 . 4. ,
. 5. ,
6. ,
. 7. , , . 8. ,
-, . 9. , -,
III. 1. , -, .
2. , , . 3. , -,
. 4. , . 5. , ,
, . 6. , ,
. 7. , , . 8.
. 9. . 10.
. 11. . 12.
, .

) Translate the sentences from Russian into English.
I. 1. , . 2. ,
, . 3. , , . 4. ,
, . 5. , ,
. 6.
. 7. . 8.
. 9. , , . 10. ,
, . 11. , ,
. 12. , , .
II. 1. , , . 2. ,
. 3. . 4.
, . 5. , ,
. 6. , , . 7.
. 8. , , .
9. , , . 10. ,
. 11. ,
. 12. , , .

A) Translate the sentences from Russian into English.
1. , . 2. ,
. 3. ,
. 4. ,

. 5. ,
. 6. , . 7. ,
(average) ,
. 8. , . 9.
(to commit a crime). 10. ,

B) Translate the sentences from Russian into English.
I. 1. , - . 2. ,
. 3. , , . 4. ,
. 5. . 6. ,
, . 7. ,
(shop). 8. , , . 9. ,
. 10. , , . 11. ,
-, . 12. , , .
13. , -, . 14. , ,
. 15. , ,
. 16. , -, .
II. 1. ,
. 2. , . 3. , ,
. 4. . 5. ,
, . 6. , -,
. 7. , . 8. , -
, . 9. , ,
. 10. ,
. 11. , . 12.
. 13. , -
, . 14. , . 15.
. 16. , .

The FOR-TO-INFINITIVE Construction

A) Translate the sentences from Russian into English.
1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5.
. 6. .
7. . 8. . 9.
. 12. .

B) Translate the following sentences.
1. , ? 2. (
), . 3. ,

. 4. , . 5.
, . 6. ,
. 7. , .
8. . 9. . 10.
, .

) Translate the sentences from Russian into English.
1. , .
2. , . 3.
, . 4. -
, , . 5. ,

A) Translate the sentences.
1. , . 2.
5 . 3.
. 4. . 5.
. 6. , . 7.
, . 8.
. 9. , . 10.
. 11. ,
. 12. , ,
. 13. . 14.
. 15. ,
. 16. ,
. 17. . 18.
. 19. ,
. 20. .

B) Translate into English using infinitive attributes.
1. - . 2. ,
. 3. . 4.
. 5. . 6. ,
. 7.
. 8. , . 9.
, . 10. ,

C) Translate the following sentences using Infinitive Constructions.
1. , . 2, , , ,
. 3. , . 4. ,
. 5. ,

. 6. , . 7. ,
. 8. . 9.
. 10. , . 11. ,
- . 12. ?
13. , - . 14.
, . 15. ,
- . 16. ,
. 17. ( ) ? 18.
. 19.
. 20. ,

D) Translate into English using the Complex Object (Objective-with-the-lnfinitive
Construction) where possible.
1. , ,
, . 2.
. 3. ,
. 4.
. 5. ,
. 6. , , - .
7. , .
8. , , ,
. 9. ,
, , .
10. , (to dismiss),
. 11. , .
12. , (

E) Translate into English using For-to-lnfinitive Construction where possible.
1. ,
, . 2. , ,
, , . 3.
(cookery book), . 4.
, , , -
. 5. ,
, , (beneficial) .
6. ,
(exposure) ,
(to with). 7. ,
(account-books) . 8.
, .


F) Translate into English using the Infinitive or Infinitive Construction where
1. ,
, , ,
. 2. ,
. 3. ,
, ,
, ,
. 4. , ,
. 5.
, .
6. , ,
( ). 7. ,
. 8.
9. : , ,
. 10. ,
. 11.
, , ,
. 12. .
. 13. (to be of short
duration): , ,
. 14. , ,
, . 15.
, .
, .

G) Translate into English using the Complex Subject (the Nominative-with-the-
Infinitive Construction).
1. . 2. ,
. 3.
, . 4. , -
, ; , .
5. . 6. .
7. , , . 8. ,

(Shakespeare Memorial Theatre). 9. , , ; ,
. 10. , ,
. 11. . 12.
; , , .


1. , .
2. , .
3. ?
4. .
5. , .
6. , , .
7. , , .
8. .
9. . ,

1. , .
2. , .
3. , .
4. , .
5. .
6. , .
7. , (load) ,
8. .
9. , .
10. , , .

1. , .
2. , .
3. ,
4. , .
5. , .
6. , , .
7. , .
8. .
9. , .
10. , .
11. , ?
12. , .
13. .
14. , ?
15. , .

16. - .
17. , .
18. , -.
19. . , .

IV. 1. , . 2.
. 3. , , . 4.
. . 5. ,
. 6. , . 7. ,
XVII . 8. ,
. 9. , . 10. ,
, , .




Russian English Examples
1. ,

2. ,

3. ,





(is going to read)
Look at the reading boy!

We looked at the reading

The boy who had read the
poem now was taking part
in the discussion.

We have never heard of
the actor who will read the


1. ,

2. ,

3. ,


4. ,

( )




These are the methods
used for it

There were several
methods used before the

This is the method used in
the first experiment

What do you think of the
method being used?

The methods to be used in
our new project are quite


Russian English Examples

(When/while) reading

having read
(While) reading the book
I always remember my cat.
(When) reading the book
I wrote out a lot of words.

Having read this book I
learnt a lot.
Having read this book I
can tell you my opinion of

Translate the following participles.

, , ,
, , ,
, , ,


1. ; 2.; 3. ; 4. ; 5. ;
6. ; 7. ; 8. ; 9. ; 10. ;
11. ; 12. ; 13. ; 14. ; 15. ;
16. ; 17. ; 18. ; 19. ; 20. ; 21. .

1. ; 2. ; 3. ; 4. -
; 5. ; 6. ; 7. -
; 8. ; 9. , () 10. ;
11. ; 12. /

C) Translate the following sentences.

I. 1. , . 2. ,
. 3. ,
? 4. , . 5.
, , .
6. (adopted) ,
. 7. , . 8.
, . 9.
, .
II. 1. , -
. 2. , ,
. 3. , ,
, . 4. ,
, , . 5. ,
, . 6.
? 7. .
8. , . 9.

D) Translate the following sentences.
1. , . 2.
, . 3.
, . 4. ,
, , . 5.
. 6. , ? 7.
, , . 8.
. 9. ,
. 10. ,
. 11. , . 12.
, .

E) Translate the sentences.
I. 1. . 2.
. 3.
. 4. -
. 5.
. 6. . 7.
. 8.
. 9. . 10.

. 11. ,
. 12. , ,
. 13. ,
. 14. , , . 15.
, . 16. , ,
. 17. , .
18. , . 19.
. 20. , . 21. ,
: .

II. 1. , , .
, , . 2.
. , , , .
3. , , , .
, - , ,
. 4. , ,
, , . ,
, . 5. , .
6. , , . 7.
, , .
8. , , , .

F) Translate the sentences. Use the Present Participle instead of the italicised verbs.
Model: . stood at the window smoking a

1. . 2.
. 3.
. 4. . 5.
. 6.
. 7.
, . 8.
. 9. , , .
10. - ,

G) Translate the following sentences into English.
1. , . 2.
, . 3.
, ,
6 . 4. (
), . 5. ,
. 6. , .
7. , . 8. ,
. 9. .
10. , - . 11.
, . 12.
, . 13.
, . 14.
, , .
15. , . 16. ,
, . 17. ,
, . 18. ,
, . 19. ,
, , . 20. ,
. 21. , . 22. ,
, . 23. ,

1. , .
2. .
3. , , .
4. , .
5. , .
6. , , .
7. (got to know), , .
8. , , .
9. , .
10. , , .

1. , , , .
2. , ,
3. , , .
4. (guilty), .
5. , , .
6. , , .

7. , , .
8. , .
9. .
10. , , .

1. , .
2. , , .
3. .
4. , .
5. , , ,
20- .
6. , 1941 .
7. , .
8. , .
9. , , .
10. , .

1. , .
2. .
3. , .
4. , .
5. .
6. , , (scare) .
7. , .
8. , .
9. , .
10. , ?

1. , ,
2. , .
3. , .
4. , , .
5. , .
6. , , .
7. , , .
8. ,
9. , .
10. , .

VI Translate the following into English.

1. , (to clean).
2. (to advise).
3. (to tell). 4. ,
(to hear). 5.
, (to count). 6. ,
(to believe). 7. , (to know).
8. , (to see). 9.
, (to be excited). 10. ,
(to report). 11. ,
(to be capable of). 12. , (to
be fond of). 13. (to allow).
14. (to leave). 15.
- (t have difficulty). 16. ,
, (to be of interest). 17.
, (to leave). 18.
. , (to say). 19.
(to tell). 20. . .
( ) (to find). 21. ,
(to watch). 22. , (to hear). 23.
, ,
(to say). 24. ,
(to look at).


Vocabulary ............................................................................................................ 3
Part 1. TV or not TV? ............................................................................................. 3
Part 2. Gambling ..................................................................................................... 7
Part 3. Bringing up children ................................................................................... 12
Part 4. Crime and punishment ................................................................................ 15
Part 5. Money matters ............................................................................................ 44
Part 6. Health .......................................................................................................... 57
Part 7. Vehicles and transport ................................................................................ 75
Part 8. Marriage and divorce ................................................................................... 80

Grammar section................................................................................................... 92
Modal verbs ............................................................................................................. 92
Can...................................................................................................................... 92
May..................................................................................................................... 93
Must.................................................................................................................... 94
Should and ught to........................................................................................... 96
Need.................................................................................................................... 97
The Verbals.............................................................................................................. 101
The Gerund......................................................................................................... 101
The Infinitive...................................................................................................... 107
The Complex Object .......................................................................................... 111
The Complex Subject ......................................................................................... 113
The For-to-Infinitive Construction..................................................................... 115
The Participle .......................................................................................................... 120


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30.07.2007. 6084/16.
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, 432027, . , . . , . 32.