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-

.. , .. , ..


2015

621.01
34.5
-67
.. /
.. , .. // .
. 2015. 220 .
Additive Manufacturing () , ( CAD-) (add, . , )
.
,
-, ,
- .
, , ,
.

: 125438, . , . , . 2.
.: +7 495 456-30-81
: +7 495 456-31-32
E-mail: aolmin@nami.ru
: www.nami.ru

ISSN 0135-3152

1.
2.

12

2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.2

18
18
23
24
25
26
29
30
31
32
32


Bed Deposition
Direct Deposition
ASTM:
Material Extrusion
Material Jetting
Binder Jetting
Sheet Lamination
Vat Photopolymerization
Powder Bed Fusion
Directed energy deposition

17

3. AM-

34

3.1
3.2

34
44
47

4.

5.

63

5.1
5.1.1

68
68
69
71
73
74
75
78
79
81
85


Bed Deposition:
Concept Laser
EOS
3D Systems
SLM Solutions
Realizer
Renishaw
Arcam
ExOne
Matsuura Machinery
3

5.1.2

Fabrisonic
Direct Deposition:

89
92

POM Group

93

Optomec
Irepa Laser
InssTek
Sciaky
Ion Fusion Formation

6.
6.1
6.1.1

6.1.2

6.1.3
6.1.3.1
6.1.3.2
6.2
6.3

-
-
- :
SLS-

94
96
96
96
98
103
106
107
107

InkJet-
- :
SLA -
DLP-
MJM -

111
116
117
126
130

133
133
139
142
148

7.

157

7.1
7.1.1
7.2.
7.2.1
7.2.2
7.2.3

157
157
160
162
167
167

AM-




7.3
7.4

Spray forming
AM-

171
182

196
203

-. -

207

209


80- . .
3D Systems, SLA
Stereolithography Apparatus (1986 .). 90- . - , . (SLA), (SLS-) ,
. (CAD), (CAE) (CAM)
3D-,
,
3D-.
( Rapid Prototyping),
RP- . ,
, , , , .
()
() (, . add) , , (subtraction )
.
Additive Manufacturing (AM)
( 1): CAD- AM- .

(: www.optomec.com)

CAD-

AM-

1. Additive Manufacturing (LENS Optomec)


( Additive Manufacturing, Additive Fabrication, AM-, AFtechnologies)
( ) , , CAD/CAM/CAE-. ,

.
. , , , , , , 3D- . ( 2) -
Diegel (Massey University, Auckland, New
Zealand).
. -

3D- (
3).

(:http://3druck.com/objects/elektrische-gitarren-aus-dem-3d-drucker)

2. ,

(: www.iflscience.com/tags/3d-printing)

3. , .
Shanghai WinSun Decoration Design Engineering . (
4).
(Biozoon, Fab@Home, Dovetailed, Structur3D,
Choc Edge, SMRC, f3d, Natural Machines .)
3D- , , (8

5). - ,
3D- ( 6).

(: www.3dprinterplans.info/tag/china/)

4. ,

(: http://3dprintingindustry.com/2014/11/09/11-food-3d-printers)

5.
, ,
,
9

, ,
, --.

(: http://news.discovery.com/tech/gear-and-gadgets/open-wide-3d-printedfood-made-to-eat-photos-140130.htm)

6. , 3D-
DMF Direct
Metal Fabrication ( 7),
,
.

( Euromold 2014)

7. DMF Direct Metal Fabrication



buy-to-fly ratio, ,
, , , ..
10

.
, 15:1 20:1 .
1,5 2,0:1.
,
. , , , , ,
, , ..

AM- AM-
.

11

1.

AM-
[1], XIX . 1890 . Josef E.
Blanther
. , 1.1, : ,
,
.

1.1. Blanther J.E. 473901, 03.05.1892 .


. ,
.
LOM-
Lamination Object Manufacturing, ,
12

0,051-0,25 . 1979 . Nakagawa



-, , .
(Photosculpture) Franois Willme 1890 . ( 1.2). :
(Willme 24 15 ) . , . , ,
.

1.2. Franois Willme [2]


Willme Carlo
Baese 1904 . ,
-

13

. (. 774549, Photographic process for the reproduction of plastic objects, 08.11.1904).


1935 . Isao Morioka , ( 1.3). ( )
.
,
.

1.3.
2015457
, Franois Willme,
.
Otto Munz (1956 .), () .
() . ,
, , 14

.
(. . )
, ,
. : , , ,
. .
, ,
: ,
,
( 1.4). Otto Munz,

,
.

1.4. :
Otto John Munz, Photo-Glyph recording,
2775758, 25.12.1956
1977 . Wyn Kelly Swainson (. 4041476)
.

(P.A. Ciraud, 1972).
1981 . R.F. Housholder (. 4247508)
. .
Hideo Kodama 15

()
. 1982 . A.J. Herbert X-Y-, - ( 1.5).

1.5. , Housholder,
Kodama Herbert [2]
AF . 1986 . Charles W.
Hull , . . Charles W. Hull
3D Systems ,
.

16

2.
ASTM International (American Society for Testing and Materials),
, , . ASTM
F2792.1549323-1 process of joining materials to make objects from 3D model data, usually layer upon layer,
as opposed to subtractive manufacturing technologies ( 3D-, , , ).
() . ,
(subtractive) , (additive)
, . . .
, ,
3D- CAD-, . .
. CAD. . , usually (), -,
, ,
.
Additive Manufacturing
(AM), Additive Fabrication (AF), Additive Processes, Additive Techniques, Additive Layer Manufacturing, Layer
Manufacturing Freeform Fabrication.
, .
-, - :
17

, 3D-, 3D- 3D-. ASTM,


.
Rapid Prototyping,
,
, .
, , .
:
- , 2.1;
- , 2.2;
- () (,
, , . .), 2.3;
- (, ), 2.4;
- ( , ,
. .).
, , , : Bed Deposition Direct Deposition.
2.1.
2.1.1. Bed Deposition
( 2.1 )
, ,
,
. () , ( ) CAD-.

18

X-Y

Bed Deposition
Direct Deposition
(:www.ipmd.net)
- ()

3D Systems (SLS, SLA)


ExOne (Ink-Jet)
Optomec (LENS)
EOS (DMLS)
Renishow (SLM)
POM Group (DMD)
Envisiontec (DLP)
Voxeljet (Ink-Jet)
Trumpf (DLF)
SLM Solutions (SLM)
Concept Laser
Objet (Poly-Jet)
Realizer (SLM)
(Laser CUSING)
Stratasys (FDM, DoD)
3D Systems (MultiJet)
2.1.

19

"bed"

- ()
3D Systems (SLS)
Envisiontec (DLP)
Stratasys (Objet, Poly-Jet)

3D Systems (SLM)
EOS (DMLS)
SLM Solutions (SLM)
Optomec (DMD)
POM Group (DMD)
Trumpf (DMD)
Stratasys (FDM)
Arcam (EBM)

ExOne (Ink-Jet)
3D Systems (Ink-Jet)
Voxeljet (Ink-Jet)

2.2. ()
20

()

,
PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate)

Al, Cu, Ti-Al, Ti, Ag, Au


Co-Cr, Inconel, Ni-Fe

ABS-
PU-

(feedstock

2.3. ()
21


("", "")

("", "",
)

Bed Deposition

(SLA-)

(SLS-)

(LOM)

Direct Deposition

Bed Deposition

(LENS-, DMD)

(. );
(Laser based wirefeed process)

(DLP-)

(Ink-Jet)

(LOM-)

Direct Deposition

(Poly-Jet-, Ink-Jet)

(FDM-)

2.4.
22

, Bed Deposition, (bed), , () .


, ( ) .
(SLS Selective
Laser Sintering), ,
, (SLA), , . -bed ,
.
SLS- SLA-, Bed Deposition , :
SLM Selective Laser Melting ( SLM Solutions, );
DMLS Direct Metal Laser Sintering ( EOS, );
EBM Electron Beam Melting ( Arcam, );
Laser Cusing ( Concept Laser, );
SPLS Solid Phase Laser Sintering ( Phenix Systems, ,
3D Systems);
Ink-Jet Binder Jetting ( ExOne, 3D Systems, ) .
2.1.2. Direct Deposition
(), . .
(. 2.2 , 2.4).
, ,
(bed) , , 23

. ,
,
.
Direct Deposition, :
DMD Direct Metal Deposition ( POM, );
LENS Laser Engineered Net Shape ( Optomec, );
DM Direct Manufacturing ( Sciaky, );
MJS Multiphase Jet Solidification ( Fraunhofer IFAM, ; FDM, ) .
2.2. ASTM
ASTM 2012 . 7 :
1. Material Extrusion
;
2. Material Jetting ()
;
3. Binder Jetting
;
4. Sheet Lamination
;
5. Vat Photopolymerization
;
6. Powder Bed Fusion () ;
7. Directed energy deposition

.
24

Material Extrusion, , ,
MJS (Multiphase Jet Solidification), : . -
(green , , )
[3],
MIM- (Metal Injection Molding).
FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling), Stratasys

. ,

CAD, 2.5.

(: www.additive3d.com, www.custompartnet.com/wu/additive-fabrication)

2.5. FDM
, FDM-,
,
,
, . $1,5-2,0 .
, Stratasys 3DP Unlimited, 25

, , AM $10 000 $500 000, 2.6.

(: www.stratasys.com)

(: www.3dpunlimited.com)

Fortus 900 mc (Stratasys, ):


3DP1000 (3DP Unlimited, ):
:
:
XYZ=914x610x914 ;
XYZ=10001000500 ;
0,178-0,33
0,07
2.6. AM-, FDM
Material Jetting
Poly-Jet,
, .
Multi Jetting Material.
Objet (), 2.7. Objet Geometry 2012 .
Stratasys.
,
.
. ,
.

26

2.7. MJM
Objet500 Connex3, 2.8,
, ,

.

(: http://www.stratasys.com)

2.8. Objet500 Connex3:


XYZ=490 390 200 ; 0,016-0,030
Material Jetting DoD (Drop-on-Demand), Solidscape (), 2011 . Stratasys, 2.9.
, Objet, : , ;
27


. , , , . , WDM (Wax Deposition
Modeling),
()
, , 2.10.
.

(: http://www.additive3d.com/fdm_int.htm)

2.9. DoD- (Solidscape)

(: www.sculptcad.com/index.php/news/information/51)

2.10. CrownWorx:
XYZ=152,4x152,4x50,8 ; 50 . WDM

28

Binder Jetting
Ink-Jet-, , Material Jetting,
, , 2.11.
ExOne, ZCorporation ( 3D
Systems), VoxelJet, , - (. 2.12).

(: http://www.additive3d.com/fdm_int.htm)

2.11. Binder Jetting

( ExOne Corp.)

2.12. CAD- -

29

Sheet Lamination ,
,
, . . UAM (Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing, Fabrisonic),
, ( 2.13).
.

(: www.fabrisonic.com)

2.13. UAM-: ;
;
LOM - (Laminated Object Manufacturing), 2.14,
,
.

(: www.additive3d.com/fdm_int.htm)

2.14. LOM-
30


. , () . CAD-
, .
,
.
Mcor () Kira () ,
. Mcor Iris, 2.15, ,
3D- . $50 . ( Matrix 300+
$35 .).

(: www.3d-p.info/3d-printer-mcor-iris)

2.15. Sheet Lamination. Mcor Iris: XYZ=256x169x150 ; 0,1


Vat Photopolymerization , , , SLA- (3D Systems), 2.16, DLP (Digital Light Procession, Envisiontec).
31

(: http://www.additive3d.com/fdm_int.htm)

2.16. SLA
Powder Bed Fusion
SLS-, (. 2.1 ). , Arcam-, , SHS (Selective Heat Sintering [Blueprinter], .
Directed energy deposition ,
(. 2.1 ). , ()
(Optomec, POM)
(Sciaky). , 2.17.

AM- :
SLA, Steriolithography Apparatus
;
32

SLS, Selective Laser Sintering , ;


DMF, Direct Metal Fabrication SLS-, ;
DMLS, Direct Metal Laser Sintering;
SLM, Selective Laser Melting SLS-, ;
DLP, Digital Light Procession
;
Poly-Jet
;
FDM, Fused Deposition Modeling
;
Ink-Jet
( 3D).

(: http://www.tu.no/industri/2012/08/21/)

2.17. Directed Energy Deposition


, SLA SLS ( ), ,
.

33

3. AM-
3.1.

.
Wohlers Report (2013) Terry Wohlers - , , AM-* 2012 .
28,6% $2,2 . 2013 . 34,9%,
$3,07 . , 2018 . 4
.
Terry Wohlers : AM- - , . 5 10% ,
90 95% .
. , . AM- , , .
, AM-
. , AM . 2011 .
(Wohlers Report, 2012).
AM . -

*AM- 3D-, () , ( ), , ,

34

AM-.
40%
( 3.1), : 10%
( ); 9,4% (); 8,7%;
4,2%. 12- .

3.1. AM-
? 3.2
AM-
2012 . ( 2013 .). ,
AM-,
3.3.
, AM-,
() direct manufacturing.
( )
AM- 34,7%, 3.4.
AM- 2013
64,5% 2012 $1,0
($1065 .).
35

- 10,4% (16,8% 2004 .);


- 9,5% ( 2004 .);
- 17,5% (11,4% 2004 .);
- 19,2% (8,2% 2004 .);
- -
11,3% (10,6% 2004 .);
- - 10,8% (8,1% 2004 .);
- 4,8% (6,9% 2004 .);
- 28,1% (16,4% 2004 .);
- 6,4%;
- 1,3%.
3.2. AM-
Christine Furstoss, General Electric, 10
AM-.
AM,
.

36

2013 . 75,8% (.
3.5) 348 ( 2012 198 ).

(: Wohlers Report 2012)

19,5% (19,4% 2004 .);


12,1% (8,3% 2004 .; 9,9% 2010 .);
10,8 (6,8% 2004 .);
20,3% (27,7% 2004 .);
( , ) 15,1% (13,0% 2004 .);
8,0% (10,4% 2004 .);
6,0% ( 2004 .);
3,0%;
5,2%.
3.3. AM-


,
AM-.
Boeing , AM-.
22 300
10 , Dreamliner.

37

(: Wohlers Report, 2014)

3.4. Direct manufacturing


(
)

3.5.

Boeing,
AM-. 2014 .
38

(University of Sheffield)
, FDM, 3.6.

(: www.tctmagazine.com/additive-manufacturing/university-of-sheffieldtrials-3d-printed-unmanned-aircraft/)

3.6. , AM-
AM-
.
Envisiontec ZCorporation Ultra . (
ZCorporation 3D Systems). 2012 . Stratasys () Objet (). Hewlett-Packard Stratasys. MTT Technologies () Renishaw, Renishaw
.
3D Systems
20 , 3D-, , .
2012 . ZCorporation
$135 .

39

, . ,
,
.
, 3D, 3D- , , -
. , $1500, , , , . , Buildatron Systems
2011 . 3D- kit- $1200.
$2000.
Solidoodle 2011 . RepRap $699, $499. MOD-t New Matter (),


XYZ=150x100x125 $149, 3.7.
2009 . Stratasys
FDM, -, , . .
3D- .
, 3D Systems, Stratasys,
,

( . crowdfunding) ,


40

, 3.8.

(: www.newmatter.com)

3.7. MOD-t
3D . ,
.
RepRap - Replicating Rapid-prototype: , ( 3.9) ,
, , - .
. AM-, 3D-,
: . , : ( ),
; ,
.

( , , . .),
, , (
!), , -
41

MakerBot (Stratasys, ) 2500


XYZ=127x 127x127 ;
0,178

Da Vinci 1.0 Ai03D+3D-,


(XYZprinting, ) $799
XYZ=200x190x200 ;
0,1

Cube (3D Systems) 1099 Mojo (Stratasys) $6540


XYZ=152x152x152 ;
XYZ=127x 127x127 ;
0,07
0,178
3.8.
AM, .
( ), , 42

, , , .
,
, . ,
.

3.9. RepRap

3D- : 3D-printing , , ;
Additive Manufacturing, ,
, .
, AM- ,
.
, , AM.
43

AM- ,
3.1. , ,
. AM-, . , , , AM .
3.2.
AM-
( , - ),
30. -, , :
- 3D Systems, (SLA, SLS . );
- EOS, (SLS DMLS);
- SLM Solutions, (SLM);
- Stratasys, (FDM);
- Objet Geometries, (Poli-Jet), 2012 . Stratasys;
- Envisiontec, (DLP);
- ExOne, (Ink-Jet);
- Voxeljet, (Ink-Jet).
AM-
200 --,
, , . , .
AM- , :
44

- ;
- ;
- ;
- ( );
- ;
- -;
- ;
- () ;
- ( ) ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ( - );
- ;
- ;
- , , ,
.
. , ,

-, . , , 3DP1000, . 1.6,

, -: , 3.10,
FDM-,
.

45

- AM- , -
-.

(: www.3dpunlimited.com)

3.10.
AM-

46

4.

, . .
, AM-. . . , ,
. .
, ,
- (, - )
(, , , ).
,
, . .

SOP (Start of Production)
, ,
, . () , , ,
. , , ,
. , , , , .
AM- ,
47

( ),
. , , , , . , .
,
.
AM-
. , , .
.

(. 3.2): 2004 .
16,4 %, 2013 28,1%.

3D-. ,
.
-
, :
Stratasys Mojo 3D, Print SE, Dimension,
FDM, , Poly-Jet MJM Objet24, Objet30, Objet Eden, Objet
Connex, Objet260;
48

3D Systems ProJet 360,ProJet 4500, ProJet 460Plus, ProJet


660Pro, ProJet 860Pro, Binder Jetting
;
Envisiontec, Ultra .
, 20 -100
. , ,
, ,
, .

AM- (SLA, SLS)
150-900 . .
AM-, , FDM, SLA, SLS Poly-Jet ,
.
.
,
. , : ,
, , ,
, ,
4.1.

.
, , ;

.

49

4.1.
, , CAD-.
3D- . , 4.2. , , , , 4.3.

4.2. : ,
50

( )

CAD-
SLA-
,
4.3. CAD-

- AM-

. . ,
,
, 4.4, 4.5.
. (, , , ).
() . , , AM-.
SLS, DLP, Poly-Jet ., ,
, ( 4.6).
. ( Poly-Jet
Objet) (
SLA). 51

(SLA) ( Poly-Jet), , .
:
, ,
3D-.

(: www.3d-format.ru, www.ajax-mach.co.uk/3D_printers.htm)

4.4. , Eden 250 ProJet 660


(Objet Eden 250)
(ProJet 660)

52

( Euromold 2014)

4.5.
( FDM)

( )

4.6. SLA-
4.1 ,
.
( ) ( ) . , , , , , ,
53

,
.

4.1. - , AM-

SLA

SLS
SLM
DLP
Poly
Jet

AF

Mahr MarSurf PS1


Zeiss O-inspect 01-422

Ra
Rz
Ra
Rz
A B A B A B A B

Viper Pro AccuraXtreme 0,08 3,18 0,31


8000
Accura 60
0,13 2,82 0,66

18,5

Accura 55
Accura SI10
Sinterstati Dura form PA
on HiQ
Duraform GF
SLM 280 AlSi10 Mg
Ultra
SI500

0,1
1,32
10
10,39
8,12
0,53

1,35
5,17
12,47
9,46
8,63
0,55

0,63
9,7
50,6
67
43,3
3,87

Eden 250 Durus White

0,89

3,98

Tango Gray
Full Cure 720
Vero Blue
Tango Plus*

0,22
1,39
1,82
2,18

Vero Black
Vero Gray
Tango Black
Vero White
Ink-Jet Invision
XT
LOM SD300

13,9

0,03

3,8

0,54

7,02

0,19

2,4

0,5

4,42

13
7,9
61,7
51,6
39,1
2,26

0,15
1,93
4,24
6,36
10,76
1,44

0,4
4,4
7,55
6,51
3,55
1,36

0,42
7,4
17,1
30,3
39,2
5,4

4,14
23,2
41,1
22,7
14,2
6,6

3,68

17,8

2,41

6,18

8,5

29,3

1,3
2
1,94
2,81

1,08
6,76
6,61
15

7,9
11,3
9,42
18,3

1
2,01
2,2
2,36

1,02
3,06
2,39
6,61

16,6
6,2
12,9
9,4

11,7
13,4
13,3
23,9

1,17
0,9
1,18
1,39

2,64
2,36
3,14
4,33

5,02
4,03
7,79
7,75

14,1
10,9
18,1
23,3

1,8
2,28
2,55
0,62

4,91
5,26
8,62
8,46

8,2
16,8
6,8
5,2

20,8
18,1
36,4
43

Tango Black* 1,54


Visi Jet
2,55
EX200
PVC
0,06

2,11
9,38

1,34
11,9

12,1
46,1

0,69
0,91

6,93
6,12

0,9
3,7

45,5
19,5

5,25

0,52

24,9

0,06

5,25

0,41

4,14

, , , ( , ,
!). , ,
54

(SLA, DLP, Poly-Jet),


SLS- FDM-.
: ,
3D-. AM- . ,
, , layers
thickness , .
,
, , . ,
, 0,08 SLS- 3D Systems ,
250250250
0,08 . ,
(0,30,8 ). (, ) , : , , . . , SLS
, , 150. ,
.

, . , , layers thickness, :
.
, ,
: X-Y
, Z .
3D-
55

AM-, , . , ,
SLA-. , SLA-
.
.
SLA-, -, , -, , 0,025 . SLA-
0,0250,05 . ,
250 , 0,250,5 .
,
, ,
.

rapid tooling.

,
.
10-100 . 4.7.
( ) 3D-,
, - .

56

(: www.stratasys.com)

4.7. ()
- ( Objet500 Connex)
AM-
, ,
- . ,

( 4.8).

(: www.icing.ae.illinois.edu/3D_wing.html)

4.8.
LUXeXceL ()
(,
. .).

57

, Printoptical,
( 4.9): (1)
(3) (2),
- (4).
. , , 2D-
. ,
1440 dpi . , - , , -.

(: www.lucept.com/2012/09/25/luxexcel)

. 4.9. Printoptical
1 ; 2- ; 3
; 4 -; 5, 6
58


( 4.10, 4.11). ,
( , ).
(. 4.11), .
,
.

( Euromold 2014, 3D Systems)

4.10.

( )

4.11. ,


59

()
, . 4.12,
, .

( ) ( Euromold 2014)

4.12. :
;
. 3D , 4.13.
- AKF ARBURG Kunststoff-Freeformen ( ARBURG), 4.14. , , 3D-
,
. , , : , , , . . , 60

( Euromold 2014)

4.13. :
;
.
AKF
.
ABS, PC (), PA (), TPE (), . , FDM- , , SLS-,
. AM- Freeformer
-. ( 4.14 ) ,
. 205. . , 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 . ,
(61

) (
).

( Euromold 2014)

(: www.arburg.com)

4.14. - Freeformer (ARBURG):


;
, , ;
230x130x250; 0,15
, , , (
) .
62

5.

, ,
, .
,
. , , ,
,
. AM-, , , ,
5.1.
- , , .
, .

( )

( )

Ti64
5.1.

63

, .
AM- , , . 5-6 ,
.
. AM . , - (), 5.2.

( )

5.2. ABS-

, ,
, , , , -.
, . -
-
.

64

. , -
, ,
5.3.

( 3D Systems)

5.3. -
AM- 3D Systems, POM, Omtomec Fabrisonic - , ,
.
,
, , , .

30%. AM- -, .
, , . ., - .
65

- .
. ,
: AM-,
, ,
, , - ?
Direct Manufacturing
AM-.
, ,

. , , ,
. ,

CL 100NB, 5.4. , 17%.
AM , , , ( 5.5) . ., ( DMD, LENS) [4]). ,
, -
. AM- .
,
( !)
, ,
.

66

( )

5.4.
, ,
. ,
. ,
( ),
, , .

(: www.optomec.com, www.ipmd.net)

5.5.

.

67

: , ,
.
5.1.
, , Bed
Deposition Direct Deposition.
,
. (
5.1, 5.2).
5.1.1. Bed Deposition
, SLS-,
( 5.1). .
:
Concept Laser, EOS, SLM Solutions, Realizer ( );
3D Systems ();
Phenix Systems (, 3D Systems);
Renishaw ().
Arcam () EBM-.
, , -
,
SLM- (Selective Laser
Melting), SLM
Solutions.
AM- , AM , 68

, , , , ,
.
, , , .
:
, .

, . AM , , . , . , , . . -,

. , - .
Concept Laser Hofmann
AM- 2002 . LaserCUSING (
Fusing , Concept).
(Yb-). (N2,
Ar).
. M1
cusing, XYZ=250x250x250 , 200 400
, ,
69

,
25 , ( 5.6).

( Euromold 2014)

(:www.romanoff-rp.com/concept-laser-mlab-laser-sintering-machine)

5.6. M1 cusing M2 cusing Concept Laser


M2 cusing 280
. X line 1000R
630x400x500 , 1,0
(FILT)
Daimler AG, 2013 .
Daimler AG . ( Alu
generative research and development project) .

70

X line 1000R , . . .
EOS
AM-. EOS
100 , .
EOS ,
. Morris Technology,
GE Aviation, AM- EOS.
EOS PRECIOUS M 080, EOSINT M 280,
EOS M 290 M 400, ( 5.7).

PRECIOUS M 080

EOSINT M 280

EOS M 290

EOS M 400 ( Euromold 2014)

5.7. EOS
DMLS Direct Metal Laser
Sintering, ,
71

[5, 6], ,
(melting), (sintering), 5.8.

( )

d
5.8. 1.2709,
DMLS: a, b S.L. Campanelli [5];
c, d . .. [6]
EOS ,

; ,
.
PRECIOUS M 080 2014 .
EOS MLS- (Micro
Laser Sintering) , ,
( ), 72

. 50
30 1-5 Ra 2 .
3D Systems (). , 20 .
ProX 100, ProX 200, ProX
300, ProX 400, 5.9. ProX 100, ProX 200 Dental, , , . d50= 6-9
. , . , .

ProX 100

ProX 200
ProX 300
ProX400
5.9. Phenix (3D Systems)

50 Phenix Dental Co-Cr. -


SLM- .

73

SLM Solutions ()
.
FILT
SLM 500HL ( 5.10). 400 1000 .
400 , .

SLM 125 HL

SLM 280 HL
SLM 500 HL
5.10. SLM Solutions


,
. , ,
. ,
, : ,
, .
, . , .

, 74

. SLM 500 HL
. 0,3 ( 5.11).
: -, 5 , , , ,
(Ra 5-10).

( )

5.11. . 0,35 .
Realizer () 2010 .
, - SLM
Solutions,
Realizer. Realizer , ,
. : SLM 50, SLM 100, SLM 250, SLM 300, 5.12.
SLM- 5.13. (1) : ,
,
( ), ,
(6).

75

(: www.realizer.com)

5.12. Realizer: SLM 50, SLM 100, SLM 250, SLM 300
Realizer SLM 50
Desktop,
- ,
( 5.14).
.
.
SLM 100
. 125125100 , -

76

20 ,
60 .

(: www.realizer.com)

1 ; 2 , ;
3 ; 4
; 5 ;
6 , bed; 7
5.13. Realizer

(: www.realizer.com)
5.14. , SLM 50

77

SLM 250
, 40
20 ,
4 .
Renishaw , 2010 . , MTT Technology. MTT
Technology SLM Solutions, SLM-. 2012 .
3D Systems.
Renishaw AM- , .
Renishaw
AM 250, SLM Solutions: XYZ= 250250300 , 20-100 ,
200/400 , 70 (135
400 ), 5.15.

5.15. AM 250
78

AM 250,
,
, ( )
50 ppm .
Arcam ,
EBM-. (Electron Beam Melting) [7].
, 2500, ,
, 0,5 . , .
. ,
5.16.

(: www.arcam.com)

5.16. Arcam
79

EBM , ,
<1x10-4 . (
,
). .
0,2 100 .
3- Arcam Q10, Q20
Arcam A2X, 5.17.

Arcam Q10 (Arcam Q20)


Arcam A2X
5.17. Arcam
0,2-1,0 ( ),
EBM- SLM-. ,
( AM-)
, .
. 80

Arcam SLS. ,
Arcam , , . EBM-
55-80 3/ (2-20 3/ )

(
, .). Arcam 120
.
,

:
( H13), - (
18% Ni Maraging 300), (AlSi10Mg, AlSi12),
( Ti6Al4V Ti6Al4V ELI),
Co-Cr, (Inconel .).
ExOne 3D Systems [8]
, ,
AM- -.
. 3D Systems ,
,
. .
- . ( 5.18, . 5.3). 3D Systems
2000- ,

(SLM).
81

ExOne () -
Ink-Jet ( ASTM Binder Jet):
. - ,
( N2), 1000-1100
- .

1.

2.

3.

+
4.

5.18.
5.19 - . , .

-. , 60% 40%. Ra 5-10,
1 . : 610 , HRC= 10-20.

82

Ink-Jet
(- 200-500
. ), ,
, , , . . ,
M-Print ExOne ( 5.20, [8]).
- 6 / , 780x400 ,
1780 3 , , . X1-Lab .

( )

5.19. - , 3D Systems
Ink-Jet- fcubic,
Hgans AB (). ,
( ExOne) -
,
. - , , , ,
. ExOne 3D
Systems: - , 83

, . , . 10-20 .
-, .
.

5.20. ExOne: X1-Lab; M-Flex;


M-Print; - [8]

84

, fcubic
SIS- (Selective Inhibition Sintering [9]),
. ( fcubic)
, , . -
, .
Matsuura Machinery SLM- [10]. LUMEX Avance-25 ( 5.21) , AM-. 10

( 43000 -1). ()
250250100 .
- 5.21. ( , 5.21), , , 68 21
36 ; 29 08 53 30 .

. LUMEX Avance-25 , , . , . $850 .

.
, ,
,
, . .
SLM- , 85

, AM. , [5, 6, 11], ,


, . , ( 5.22)
4-5%, Ti 2%,
0,2%. , HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressure) .

5.21. LUMEX Avance-25 - [10]


- AM-

. 86

.
, .
, ,
, ( )
X-Y, , (
), .
, , 5.23 [11].
. 5.23
120-130 /.

( )

5.22. AlSi9Mg [6].


,
,
5.24.
Yasa E. Kruth J. ( , . ). , , . .
87

. ( 5.25),
[12, 13].

5.23. () () , SLM- [11]:


Al 6061; 50 ; 0,15

5.24.
[11]
88

5.25. 316L:
; [12]
Sheet Lamination
Bed Deposition, , SLS-,
bed () ,
, , , .
AM- Sheet Lamination

Fabrisonic (). , 90- . .
Solidica UAM (Ultrasonic Additive
Manufacturing), : , (.
2.13). .

, , . . ,
. 89

, --.

, ,
- , . .
SonicLayer R200 508x305x524 .
SonicLayer 4000 SonicLayer 7200 ( 5.26) , , 1016x1016x610 1829x 1829x914 . . SonicLayer 7200 60
3/ (983 3/).

(: Wohlers Report, 2012)

5.26. . SonicLayer 7200


- . 2012 .
Beijing Long Yuan Automated Fabrication Systems Trump Precision Machinery.
90

5.1.
( Bed deposition)

Concept
Laser

M1 cusing
M2 cusing
X line
1000R

250x250x250 20-80
250x250x280 20-80
630x400x500 30-200

200
200/400
1000

2-10
2-20
10-100

200/400

10-20

. . 316L
17-4PH; . .
H13; Ti; Al;
Co-Cr; Inconel; Cu;
Au; Pt; A.
. . 316L;
Al; Fe; CoCr; Ni; Ti;
Inconel

EOS M 290
EOS M 400
Precious M
080
SLM 125
SLM 280
SLM 500

250x250x300 20-60
400x400x400 20-60
80x80x95
20-60

400
400/1000
400

10-20
10-20
10-20

125x125x75 20-40
250x250x350 20-75
500x280x325 20-200

10-15
10-15
60-70

. . 316L; .
. H13; Ti;
Al; Co-Cr;
Inconel; Au.

SLM 50
SLM 100
LM 250
SLM 300

70x80
125125100
250x250x300
300x300x300

5-10
10-15
10-15

AM 250

250x250x300 20-100

100/200
400/1000
400+1000/
2x400/
2x1000
20-120
50-200
400
200/400/
600/1000
200/400

3000
3000
3000

55-80
55-80
55-80

. . 316L, Ti,
. . H13;
Ti6Al4V, Al,
Inconel, CoCr, Au.
. . 316L
17-4PH; . .
H13; Ti; Al;
Co-Cr; Inconel.
Ti; Co-Cr;
Inconel.

50
300
500
2500/1000

1-5
5-10
10-15
10-15

Arcam

20-50
20-100
20-100
20-100

Arcam Q10 200x200x180 50-200


50-200
Arcam Q20 350x380
ArcamA2X 200x200x380; 50-200

3D
Systems

Renishaw

Realiser

SLM
Solution

EOS

EOS M 280 250x250x250 20-60

- *
, 3/

ProX 100
ProX 200
ProX 300
ProX 400

100x100x80
140x140x100
250x250x300
500500500

20
20
20
10-100

91

5-20

. .; . .;
Inconel;

ExOne
Matsuura

X1-Lab
M-Flex
M-Print

40x60x35
. 50
400x250x250 . 100
780x400x400 280-500

Lumex
Avance-25

250x250x185 20

/
/
1780
400

. . 316L
+;
. . 420L
+;

. . H13.

* .. ; .. ; . . ; Inconel 625 718; /

5.1.2. Direct Deposition


Direct Deposition POM
Group (), Optomec (), Irepa Laser (), InssTek (
), Sciaky (), 5.2.
POM (Precision Optical Manufacturing), 2012 .
DM3D,
DMD-,


( ,
),
.
DMD

.

( :
, , 5.26 )
,
, , ( 5.26 ).

92

(: www.dm3dtech.com)

5.26. DMD: ;

POM Group, Trumpf (), AM-. (, ,
. .), ,
, .
,
.

- .
44R, 66R IC106 ( 5.27) .
DMD 105D 505D [14]
. ( 1 5 ) 24-160 3/.

:
93

, ,
.

5.27. DMD IC106 [15]


DMD 105D IC106 , IC106 . , , . $500 ., , .
Optomec
Direct Deposition.
3-4 .
LENS 450, LENS MR-7, 94

, LENS 850-R
( 5.28).

. .

(: www.optomec.com)

5.28. Optomec LENS 450, LENS MR-7; LENS 850-R


Optomec
. ,
1000/,
. LENS 450, LENS MR-7
,
,

0,25
,
95

100 /. LENS 850-R


14 .
36-150 .
Irepa Laser () EasyCLAD
(CLAD Construction Laser Additive Directe).
BeAM (Be Additive
Manufacturing),
, - .
0,6 5,0 .
O2<40 ppm H2O< 50 ppm.
,
.
45 75 50 150 . . MAGIC LF6000
1500x800x800
( 5.29). 750 .
- InssTek MX-3
( 5.30), 4- CO2- Trumpf,

. 1000800650 .
Sciaky (),

. AM- Sciaky, 5.31,
,
( 5.32).
EBDM Electron beam Direct
Manufacturing ( ).
96

(7-18 /) EBDM
, ,

AM-.
,
EBDM-
.

(: www.irepa-laser.com/en/laser-processes)

5.29. MAGIC LF6000

(: www.insstek.com/system)

5.30 MX-3
97

(: www.sciaky.com)

5.31. EBDM Sciaky



, ,
:
, , CoCr , ,
.

Sciakys DM
570012001200
.
10
.
$2,0 .
IFF (Ion Fusion Formation) 2004 .
Honeywell Aerospace [16]. 98

Direct Deposition Sciaky, , ( 5.33).


5000-30000K. , , , .
120012001800 .
.

CAD-


(: www.sciaky.com)

5.32. Sciaky

,
,
99

, (,
. .).

102 ; 104 ; 110 ;


150 ; 152 ; 154 ; 160
; 170 ; 172 ; 174

5.33. . 6,680,456 B2 [16]



: , ,
, ,
,
.

0,2 0,9, .. 20 90% ,
,
.

: , (, Optomec),
(, POM, Fraunhofer ILT), 5.34, 5.35.

100

5.2.
, Direct Deposition

, ,

., .

. -
, - *

,
3/
100x100x100 400
0,3-1,0 80
CP Ti, Ti-64
LENS 450
300x300x300 500
0,3-1,0 30-100 6264; ..: H13,
LENS MR-7
A2, S7; ..: 304,
1500x900x900 1000; 2000; 0,3-1,0 30-150 316, 420, 17-4
LENS 850-R
PH; Inc. 625, 718;
3000; 4000
X; Cu,
Al, 21
863x863x609 1000-5000 0,2-1,2 20-150 .. H13, S7;
DMD505D
DMD103/105D 300x300x300 1000-5000 0,2-1,2 20-150 420SS, 316SS;
CPM1V,
1950x2140x 1000-5000 0,2-1,2 20-150 CPM10V;
DMD 44R
330
Cermets, C250,
3200x3665x 1000-5000 0,2-1,2 20-150 C276; Inc. 625,
DMD 66R
360
718; Waspalloy;
800, 6- - 1000-5000 0,2-1,2 20-150 Invar; DMD IC106

6, 21, 31; Ti, Ti6Al-4V
400350200 300-500
0,1-0,3 0,5-4,0 . c. 316L, 410;
VC LF200
CpTi, Ti-Al(LF300, 500)
V,INCO 718, 625;
950x900x500
VI LF4000300-500
0,1-0,3 0,5-4,0 Stellite 6-12-21-MesoCLAD
1000-4000 0,5-1,2 8,0-85,0 25, .. H13, D7,
-MacroCLAD
T15, CPM
650x700x500
VH LF4000
300-500
0,1-0,3 0,5-4,0 10V,M2, Waspal- MesoCLAD
1000-4000 0,5-1,2 8,0-85,0 loy, 440, Hatfield
- MacroCLAD
steel,Cu.
1500x800x800 750-4000
0,2-0,8 8-50
MAGIC
3/
LF6000
1000x800x650 500-1000
/
/
P20, P21, H13,
MX-3
D2, 304,
450x450x350
/
/
MX-4
316, 420; CP Ti,
Ti-6-4;
718, 738; Hastelloy X; Ni, Co-Cr,
6, 21.

InssTek

Irepa Laser (Laser Beam)


(BeAM)

POM (Trumpf)

Optomec

AM-

101

5700x1200x12 (- /
7-18 / . .; Ti,
00
)
Ni, Al.
1200120018 ()
/
/
Ti, Al, Inc., 316L.
Honeywell
00
Aerospace
* CP - commercially pure, ; . ; . c.
; Inc. Inconel (); CpTi ; Ni-Base
;
Sciaky

Sciakys DM


. (4-10 ) ( ) 9-15 / [17].

(: www.optomec.com, www.ilt.fraunhofer.de)

Optomec
- Fraunhofer ILT
5.34. Optomec Fraunhofer ILT

( www.ilt.fraunhofer.de)

5.35. :
;
102

6.

,

. , , . ,
, , , ,
, .
(
) . , , , . .
, ,

. ,
,
.
, .

, 103

, . , ,
,
.
CAD
CAD , ,
, , ,
, .
-
. ,
,
, . Quick-Cast ( SLA- , 6.1)
. ,
, 6.2, ExOne.
,
,
4-5 -
: Quick-ast-
( ); + (1-2 ); (1-2 ).

104

( )

6.1. : Quick-ast-; .

( Euromold 2012, ExOne)

6.2. :
CAD/CAM/CAE- , ,
.

CAD-

.

105

, , .
AM . , - (), 6.3,
.

( Euromold 2012, 3D Systems)

6.3. -
6.1. -
-
. ,
,
, ,
, .
AM- . AM- :
; -; .
() :
106

;
, ,
Quick-ast
MJ (Multi Jet) .
6.1.1. -
SLS-.
.
,
. AM- ( 6.4),
SLS-.
.

( )

6.4. SLS- sPro 60 (); ();


()
SLS- Powder Bed Fusion ASTM (. . 1 1.1 )
. 50-150
, 107

. ,
CAD- ,
, . ,
(
120). 0,1-0,2 , ,
. , .
. ,
.
3D Systems EOS (
6.1)
550550750 ,
, .
:
( ,
, .) 0,6 ;
1,5 .

,
, .
, ,
,
, .
:
, ,
. 108

, . ( 6.5).

EOS

3D Systems

6.1.

ProX500
sPro 140
sPro 230

381x330x457
550x550x460
550x550x750

80-150
80-150
80-150

sPro 60HD

381x330x437

80-150

30

900

EOS P 110
EOS P 396
EOSINT P
760

200250330
340x340x600
700x380x580

60-120
60-180
60-180

30
70
250

/
/
700

EOSINT P
800

700x380x560

120

250

PS, PA,
-

PS, PA,
-

+
PA
PMMA

300x200x150
150
700
500x400x300
80-150
3000
850x500x1500/ 80-200
18000
2000
VX 1000
1060x600x500
100-300
23000
VX 2000
2060x1060x1000 120-400
47000
VX 4000
4000x2000x1000 120-300
123000
* PS ; PA , PMMA
Voxeljet

VX200
VX500
VXC800

- ,
,
3/
100
2000
70/200 3000/5000
70/200 3000/5000

.
, ,
. ,
, , 109

, : ,
.
. .

( )

6.5. : ;
;


.
80
( ,
- ). .
: ,
, , .

110

.
, EOS , ( 6.6).
, SLS- .
, SLS-,

( Euromold 2014)

6.6.
,
SLS-, , ,
SLS-, ,
, .
(, SLA DLP).
Ink-Jet-. - Ink-Jet Voxeljet Technology ().
(PMMA , modified acrylic glass).
Voxeljet 6.7 6.1.

111

VX200

VX 500

VXC800

VX 1000

VX2000

VX4000
(: www.voxeljet.com)

6.7. Voxeljet

()
CAD-. 30 , -

112

0,2
12 48 .
VX500 VX800 GSH 768, 768 .
250 dpi ( ).
C-VKH 2656,
600 pi 80
. , 30 . Voxeljet
3D Systems
EOS.
VX1000 10624
, 600 dpi.
100 450 ,
30 .
VX 2000 VX 4000
.
.
, ()
Voxeljet ( 6.8,
6.9). , , , SLS-. , , .
SLS-, , , , . . ,

113

( )

6.8.

( )

6.9. Voxeljet : ;
;

114

. .
9.10.

( )

6.10. : SLS-

, , .
( ).

.
, .
: , ; .
115

6.1.2. -
,
.
(, , ,
).
SLA, Poly-Jet DLP-.
, .
.
CAD-.
. DLP-
Poly-Jet- . -
,
.
, , , Stratasys Envisiontec,
,
. AM- .
, , , -
. , : ,
.

116

SLA . 3D Systems
,
1987 . SLA-250
250250250 .
SLA- ( 2). , SLS-, . CAD-
. , , , , . ,
,
,
, . . , , .
.
, .

. , 30,
. ,
,
, ( 6.11).

117

( )

6.11. : SLA- ;

:
;
- ( ,
);
-, ;
, , ,
,
.

Quick-Cast- ( 6.12), . . ,
, , ( 6.13, 6.14). Quick-Cast-
. . Quick-Cast
:
, . ,
-, 70% , , ,

118

. -, ,
.
,
.
Quck-Cast-.

( 3D Systems Schueltheis GmbH)

6.12. Quick-ast : ;

( )

6.13.

, :
Voxeljet 6.9 , SLA
119

6.15, , 6.16, , SLA ( 6.16 ).

( )
6.14. Quick-cast-

( )

6.15. : SLA-Quick-Cast-,
;
120

( )

6.16. :
Voxeljet; SLA- Quick-Cast
Quick-Cast- , , . ,
- . , (10 100) ,
. SLA-
-. - ( ). ( ) , , ( 6.17).
,
6.18.
, . Rz 20-40.
, ,
-, .
SLA-
121

( )

6.17. SLA--:
- (SLA); ; ;

( )

6.18. -

122

.
( 6.19).
- SLA.

( )

6.19. : CAD-,
SLA- ;

Quck-Cast . , . (0,1-0,05 )
, , .
Quck-Cast ( [18], [19], , ,
), (
[20]), 6.20, 6.21. .

, . ,
.
123

( )

6.20. : SLA-;
; , Quick-Cast [20]
3D Systems,
.
2014 6.22 6.2.

( )

6.21. : , SLA-;
, Quick-Cast
direct
manufacturing. SLA- ProJet 6000 7000 , . 0,0250,05 25 . 0,05-0,2 ,
124

4-7 .
iPro (
ProX). .
.
.
,
. , . SLA- .
250-300 /, .

(: www.3dsystems.com)

ProJet SD 6000 (7000)


iPro 8000
iPro 9000
6.22. SLA- 3D Systems
SLA- , 1,0-2,0 /3. 125

( ) 0,35-0,4 /3.

. :
- VisiJet Flex -, , ,
. ;
- VisiJet Tough ABS-,
-, ;
- VisiJet Clear - ;
- VisiJet HiTemp ( 130C);
- VisiJet e-Stone . .
6.2. SLA- 3D Systems

, ,

,
. *:

HD
UHD
XHD
ProJet 6000 SD
250250250 2000
250250125
ProJet 6000 HD
0,05
25025050
ProJet 6000 MP
0,05
0,125
0,1
ProJet 7000 SD
380380250 2000
38038050
ProJet 7000 HD
0,05
ProJet 7000 MP
0,05
iPro 8000
650x350x300 1450
(ProX 800)
650x750x50
650x750x275
0,05-0,15
650x750x550
iPro 9000
1500x750x550 1450
* HD High Definition ; UHD Ultra HD ; XHD Extra HD .

DLP. Envisiontec,
2003 . Envisiontec Perfactory 126

DLP Digital Light Procession, Texas Instruments . , DLP-,


(Digital Micromirror
Device, DMD) ,
( 6.23). ,
. , . ,
20 , . . 16 , 1 . , , . DMD SXGA. DMD-
6 10 /.

6.23. DMD Digital Micromirror Device



CAD-, DMD- () 127

. ( CAD) ,
(voxel) XYZ=161615 . XY 16-69 , Z 15-150 . ,

.
3-7 .
, SLA-
, Envisiontec , . . .
25 /
0,05 . ,
.
Envisiontec , SLA-, - .
SLA- ,
, , 0,6%, 3D Systems
. Envisiontec ( 6.24) , (
) . Envisiontec
, , AM-,

( )

6.24. Envisiontec: ;

128

. DLP . , , - 32 100 1,5 5 , . SLA- Viper si2 5,5 16 , .


Envisiontec , , .
Ultra, Xtreme Xede ( 6.25). Xtreme 14001050 , Xede . - , .

.

(: www.envisiontec.com)

Ultra
Xtreme
,
266x175x193 254x381x330
. XY,
50-100
100

Xede
457x457x457
100

6.25. - Envisiontec
129

Xtreme Xede , ,
, ,
. , , .
-, - ( 150),
,

. Envisiontec ,
, .
MJM-. ASTM, MJM
Multi Jet Modeling Material Jetting (. . 2). - - - . 3D- , (
50% ). .

,
.
( 6.26) 3D Systems

( 6.27, 28).
ProJet 3510 HD
(XYZ) 375x375x790 (
32 ) 298x185x203
UHD Ultra High Definition (XYZ)
750x750x890 ( 29 )
130

127x178x152 . ProJet 3500 HDMax


(XYZ) 750x750x1600 ( XHD
Xtreme High Definition, 16 ), 298x185x203 . ProJet 3510 HDPlus XHD 127x178x152 (.
6.3).

(: www.3dsystems.com)

ProJet 3510 HD (HDPlus)


ProJet 5000
ProJet 5000X
6.26. MJM- 3D Systems

( 3D Systems)

6.27.
MJM , ,
, . 131

VisiJet S300 , .
VisiJet 3 VisiJet S300 -.
ProJet 5000 -
,
. : VisiJet M5
Back, VisiJet M5 MX, VisiJet M5-X ABS- PP .

( )

6.28. ,
-
6.3. MJM- 3D Systems

ProJet 3510SD
ProJet 3510HD
ProJet 3510 HDPlus
ProJet 3500 HDMax
ProJet 5000

, ,
298x185x203
32
298x185x203
29
127x178x152
298x185x203
32
203x178x152
29, 16
298x185x203
32, 29, 16
533x381x300
64, 32

132

VisiJet
M3-X, M3 Black, M3
Crystal, M3 Proplast,
M3 Navy, M3
Techplast, M3 Procast
M5, M5 MX, M5-X

ProJet 5000X , , , , 6.29.


MJM- 3D Systems (
, ) 0,025-0,05 (25,4 ). 1 ,
0,8 . .

( 3D Systems)

6.29.
400 /.
(, ).
6.1.3.
6.1.3.1.
. AM- ( EOS)

133

, Ink-Jet-
(ExOne).
EOS () SLS-. , ( ) .
, , ,
. - , . -, . .

( 300-350)
. .
ExOne
, Ink-Jet-. MJM , , , 6.30.
( )
0,2-0,4 SLS.
, . .
- ( 6.31, 32):
CAD- ,
, 6.31;
134

, ,
CAD-,
,
CAD-, 6.31;
CAD- ( 6.31, ) , 6.31.

( Euromold 2014)

6.30. :
; ,

stl- , AM-, 6.31. - .
. , :
Magma (Magma GmbH, );
ProCAST (ESI Group, );
QuikCAST (ESI Group, );
( , );
LVMFlow ( , ),

135

, . , , , ,
. . ,
.

. AM. : -

( )

6.31. :
CAD-; ;
, ;
;
136

( )

6.32. : (SLS-);
AM-; ;
, ,
;

137

( )

6.32. (): , ; , ;

;
( .) .
( 6.32 , , , ), , -,
(6.32 ), , ,
138

. ., (6.32 ) (6.32 ).
, (6.32 ) (6.32 ).
6.1.3.2.
ExOne, 6.33, 34,
ProMetal,
, .

(: www.exone.com, Euromold 2014)

6.33. ExOne: S-Max S-Print


S-Max 800 ,
. 12-28 / ,
40 . : , (
). 140 .
. SMax 1,4 . .
Voxeljet VX200, VX500, VXC800,
VX 1000, VX 2000 VX 4000, . 6.7,
139


PMMA, . Voxeljet
, ExOne.

( )

( Euromold 2014)

(: www.3ders.org/articles/20140521-legendary-ferrari)

6.34. S-Max: ; ; Ferrari


ExOne Voxeljet
( 6.35).
EOS S750 ( 6.36) SLS-.
1 . 720x380x380
, 0,2 , 0,3 ( 720
140

). 2500 3 (S-Max 7500 3/).


, EOS S750
. EOS S750 , . , ( 6.36).

( Euromold 2012)
6.35. (ExOne)
,
,
. .
800 . .
(- )
30 . .

141

( EOS GmbH)

6.36. EOS S750

EOS

Voxoljet

ExOne

6.4.

S-Max
S-Print
VX500
VXC800
VX 1000
VX 2000
VX EOS 4000
EOS S750

1800x1000x700

280-500

,
3/
60000-85000

800x500x400
500x400x300
850x500x1500/2000
1060x600x500
2060x1060x1000
4000x2000x1000
720x380x380

280-500
80-150
80-200
100-300
120-400
120-300
200

20000-36000
3000
18000
23000
47000
123000
2500

6.2.
- - AM-. 142

() ,
() , , . . ( 6.37).

( )

6.37. :
, ; -; ;
.
- SLA- DPL,
. , 3D ProJet (3D Systems) Objet Eden (Stratasys).
143

. ( - ,
B,
).
,
.
- . - ( 6.38 , ),
,
A B, .
.
20-40 .
,
, (- )
. 35. ,
70,

.
.
,
.
, , , . ,
6.38 . 100-500 ,
.
- ,
144

.
- ,
.

( )

6.38. : SLA--;
- ;
; ; ,
; ;

145

,
,
AM- - ( 6.39).

6.39. SLM Solutions


AM- , , -
.
,
,
, (, ).
,
ProJet 3510 HD, 6.40 ; Quick-Cast, 6.40 ,
- ,
, 6.40 ).
146

( Euromold 2014, 3D Systems)

6.40. , : ; Quick-cast ;
- ,

-,
- -, :
- ;
- ;
- (, . .);
147

- ;
- ;
- .
,

.
6.3.

,
. 90- , - ,
.
, . - , , . -
, .
-, 3D-
-,
. - ,
( ACTech GmbH). ,
148

-. , , ,
. ,
, , -, , . ., .

.
:
( -).
( ).
( , , ).
(, ,
. . ).
- (
, ,
, ,
).
( ).
: , , ,
. .

( ), - () , ,

149

- - ,
.
, , ,
.
, .
( 6.41-6.45):
- CAD- 3D , , . . ;

,
, 6.41;
-
, 6.42;

, , 6.43;
,
,
, 6.44;
, , , ;
,
, , 6.45;
, .
150

6.41. - S-Max

6.42.
System 2 (MK Technology)

6.43.
- Voxeljet
151

6.44.
- Concept Laser

6.45.
ATOS Triple Scan

ATOS Triple Scan
.
, ,
.
,
,
152

. -
[29].
,
,
( 6.46).

,
.
,
, ,
, -
.
(, , . .) , .
, ,
CAD-.
. , , .
200 (0,2 ),
,
, . .

153

( )

6.46. : CAD-, ( )

154

,
:
- ;
- ;
- ;
- .
, , YXLON Werth ()
YXLON.CT Universal Tomoscope,
- , . 10-225 /0.01-3.0 mA.
60 - 450 /2.0-9.0 mA. Y.CT
Modular ( 6.47) 65 , 650 , 635
.

6.47. Y.CT Modular



- . 1 ,
10 .
.
, 155

.
: Nikon (, ), General Electric
( Phoenix, ), Carl Zeiss, Werth, Matrix Technologies
().
(80-120 . ) CTportable (Fraunhofer
EZRT) SHR (Shake GmbH) 50-160 .

, VGStudui
Max 2.1 Volume Graphics.

156

7.

7.1. AM-
7.1.1.
1,0 .
( d), d<0,001
, d =0,01-0,1 , d=0,110
, d= 1040 , d=40250
d=2501 000 [18].
, AM-. AM- , .
. , , d50 . , d50 = 40 ,
50% 40 . ,
Phenix (3D Systems) d50=10 ; Conzept Laser
2552 d50=26,9 ; Arcam
45-100 , SLM Solutions d50=10-30 . .
. , , ,
. AM-.
, , , -

157

,
.
NIST National Institute of
Standards and Technology (); ISO ( TC261 ) ASTM
( F42 ).
(ASTM F2924) Ti-6Al-4-V Powder Bed Fusion.
, ,
SLM ,
, , , .
SLS-
. -. , , , , , .
AM- . , -, , . , -, ,
.
, , , .
( d50 <10) .
, d50, ,
158

. , ,

: , ( ) .
.
, , , . :
, , , ,
,
.
.

d50 <10 , , . ( ) -,
.
.
AM-.
AM-, .
, , ,
, ,
( 7.1).

159

7.1.

Al-Ni-Co, Fe-Nd-B
Al-Si-Mg
Al-Sn-Cu
Al-
Bi-Te,
Cr-Al
Co-Cr
Cu-Ba, Cu-Y
Cu-Cr-Zr
Cu-In-Ga- Selenide
Cu-Mn-Ni, Cu-Ti-Sn
Au-Pt-Pd-Ag-In, Ni-Ti-Si-B,
Ag-Cd-Zn-Cu
Au-Ag-Cu
Fe-14%Cr-0,4%C
Fe-Mn
Fe-6%Si
Fe-Si-Al
Mg
Ni-
Ni-Ce
Ni-Cr-Fe-Si-B
Ni-Cr-Mo-B
Ni-
304/316
T42
Tb-Fe

,



,




MIM-

-

7.2.
,
- .

160

- , ,
.
. , , , ,
.
, , , .
.
, .
,
: 60-70 %
[18]. ()
,
, , , .
, , , , .
90% , , . AM- : ; ; .

161

7.2.1.

( ) ,
. (d = 10-40 ),
, VIM- (Vacuum Induction Melting),
.

VIGA Vacuum Induction Melt Inert Gas
Atomization, . . , , , 7.1.
, .
.
1900C. , ( ,
).
, .
: (
),
,
. . ,

.
( ) , .
162

.
.
.

7.1. VIGA
, , , , . .
8 / 1,0 / ( ). , 1,0-3,0 ,
.
, . , .
163


5,0 ( 40 ).
5
4,5 .
(
7.2).

7.2.
(20, 22 25 /) [19]
VIGA , ,
:
- (, Inconel 718, Rene 88
..) ;
- , ;
- (, NiCrAlY, CoCrAlY,
. .) ;
- (, 17-4 PH, 316L)
;
- (,
) AM-;
164

- (, ) ;
- (, ) .
EIGA (Electrode Induction Guide Inert Gas
Atomization ) . Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Pt, Ir,
Nb, Mo . .,
.
EIGA- .
,
. . .
EIGA ( 7.3) (feed stock ,
) .

( 7.3 ). .

( ALD)

7.3. EIGA: (feed


stock) ; ; EIGA

165

, , , TiAl, FeGd, FeTb, Zr Cr. EIGA Fe, Ni


Co. EIGA
0,5 /, .

Plasma Atomization, ,
Mo, Ti, Ni, Ta Co-Cr
. Plasma
Atomization [20].
, Raymor () , ( 7.4) [21].

7.4. Plasma Atomization: ; Raymor [21]


166

1-5 .
.
. ,
, . ( 7.5 [22]) , ,
( 7.6).
7.2.2.

Soluble gas atomization [23, 24], . . . . ( 7.7)
.
(, , ), .
,
, . ,
.
7.2.3.
[23,
24]. ,
,
. REP Rotating Electrode Process , ( 15-75 )
( 7.8).
167


, VIM .
PREP Plasma Rotating Electrode Process [23, 24],

7.5. :
c Powder Plasma gas
, [22]
168

7.6. ,
[22]: a ;
d50 =50 ; SiO2 ;
SiO2

7.7. Soluble gas atomization [23]

169

7.8. REP [23]


. REP PREP

. Ti-6Al-4V ( 7.9),

7.9. Ti-6Al-4V, : ;
(PREP) [25, 26]
170


(PREP) [25, 26], , , PREP,
,
.
7.3. Spray forming
,
. Spray forming, ( )
( ). , ,
Spray forming A-.
Spray forming, 7.10,

.
,
, Al-Si Mercedes.
, , ,
(CuSn),
(CuMnNi, CuAlFe) .
Spray forming () 1970 . Singer (Swansea University, ). () . ,
171

, 10-100
, ( 7.10, . 4).

(:http://www.lagermetall.com/high_tensile/spray.aspx?i=2)

7.10. Spray forming: 1 ; 2


; 3 , 4 ; 5 ; 6 ; 7 ;
9 ()
, ,
, Spray forming, - ( 7.11).
( 7.12) . ( 20%)
,
.
Spray forming ,
172

. (HIP), 7.13,
.

7.11. Al-15% Si: a ;


b Spray forming (400)

7.12. Si Al-25%; Si-0,89%; Cu1%; Ni-0,84%; spray forming; +


, ,
- ( 7.14 ),
( 7.14 ).

173

, ,
( 7.14 , 7.15).

7.13. AVURE

7.14.
Spay forming
Spay forming
(
- ),
( ) .
174

7.15. ,
Spray forming
Spray forming (), 7.16.

7.16.
[27]

175

. CAD- -,
, SLA-, -, RIM-.
( Ceramic Pattern). Spray forming- . . (
)
. ,
-.
RSP Tooling (RSP Rapid Solidification Process,
[27]) Spray forming. RSP
( 7.17) ( ). (
) ,

. 7.17. RSP- RSP Tooling [27]


176

( 7.18). 70%
, 30 %
. , () . ,
, .
, . , , , , , . 1,5-2 : - .

7.18. RSP- [27]


RSP 180180100 . 3-4 , 2-4
.
177

RSP- . ,
,
( 7.19 [27]).
, , , .
Al-Zn-Cu-Mg . , .
Spray forming . 7,
,
, .

7.19. [27]
Al-Li , . , Spray forming ,
:
,
.
4% , 2,4 /3
30% , . Al-Cu-Mg-X ,
, .

178

spray forming
, . (MMC, Metal
Matrix omposite),
15%
.
Spray forming.
Al-Si 70%
-
. , (
). , , . ,
Spray forming, 7.20.

7.20. ,
Spray forming
Spray forming Sandvik Osprey (), 179

( 7.21), ALD, ,
.

7.21. Spray forming: 80 Al.



General Electric, Teledyne Allvac, Sprayform Technologies International Pratt & Whitney Howmet, - ()
1400 .

Spray forming : U.S. Navy Labs, Pennsylvania State University, University of California at
Irvine (), Applied Research Labs, Advanced Institute of Science and
Technology (. ), National Cheng Kung University (), IPEN
(), Oxford University Centre for Advanced Materials and Composites (), Inner Mongolia Metals Institute (), Bremen
University (), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven ().
180

Spray Steel 4000


, , BHLER-UDDEHOLM AG
(), .
Spray forming , , ,
().

()
85 300 ,
. ( 7.22) 90 (
). .

(: www.vniief.ru)

7.22.

181

,
, ,

.
, , , .
.

, , , , . Spray forming
.

. , , .
7.4.
AM-
(,
, , , , .). . ,
, .
Sandwik Osprey (), 80- . .
ALD Vacuum Technologies ().
Sandwik Osprey,
182

-, .
ALD (), PSI (Phoenix
Scientific Industries Ltd.) Atomising Systems Ltd. ()
.
ALD AMG Advanced Metallurgical Group N.V.
( 1,0-2,0 ), 500
. ALD VIGA 1-B, VIGA 2 ( 7.23)

.

( ALD)

7.23. VIGA 2
ALD VIGA 1-B, VIGA 2 ,
, , . 183

(VIM), , .
,
. , ,
.
,
. , .
.
, VIGA-6 ( 40
) VIGA-8 (50 ).
VIGA 250-300 . d50= 15-60 .
.
ALD
EIGA . EIGA 50 ( 7.24) EIGA 100 ,
, 50 100 .
Spray forming 50 500 . Spray
forming ,
( ) .
VIGA (
) d50 = 30
. EIGA ( 184

500 )
, ,
d50 = 60-80 ( 7.25).

( ALD)

7.24. EIGA 50: ;

7.25. , : a VIGA, - EIGA ( ALD)

185

,
VIGA EIGA, , PIM-. PIM
Powder Injection Molding ( )
.
Hermiga 75/3 ( 7.26 ) Hermiga 75/5 PSI
. (3 5 , )
. 103
106 K/c. 10 100 .
.

7.26. PSI: Hermiga 75/3; Hermiga 100/10 VI


.
.
Wirecasting ( ) 186

0,1 . 210032002400 , 2500 .


Hermiga 100/10 VI ( 7.26 ) , , , ,
Spray forming.
() , ( , )
. 10 . 10 100 .
5050x59505070 .
PSI
. ,
. PSI
(Hermiga 100/25VI) (Hermiga 100/50V21, Hermiga 120/100 V21, Hermiga
100/200 V21). , , , 25, 50, 100 200 , - .
Atomising Systems Ltd.
:
- ;
- ;
- ;
- .
Atomising Systems ,
, , . , 187

1-5 ,
5 ( 7.27).

7.27. Atomising Systems


Atomising Systems Ltd
().
( 10 1000 ), (
) ( 103 107 K/)
, [28].
- AM- . , ,
. AM- . 7.1
, 188

AM-. ,
, ,
, EOS, SLM Solutions
Realizer.

Concept Laser

7.1. ,
AM-

.
.
(Cr>12%)
.

Al- AlSi12

CL 20ES
CL 90RW

AlSi10Mg
Ti6Al4V ELI
Ti6Al4V

CL 31AL
CL 40TI ELI
CL 40TI


Inconel 718
Co-CR
(remanium star)

CL 100NB

EOS

AlSi10Mg
CoCrMo,

Co-Cr

CL 91RW
CL 50/60WS
CL 30AL

1.4404
1.2083

316L

DIN 1.2803
1.2709
ISO AlSi12

18% Ni Maraging
300, AISI H13
AA 4047
ASTM A04130
A03600
ASTM F136
ASTM F1472, AMS
4928, AMS 4967
UNS N07718, AMS
5662, AMS 5664
ASTM F75

ISO 3522
ISO 5832-3

ISO 6208
UNS N07718
CL 111 CoCr DIN EN ISO
9693/DIN EN
ISO 22674
AlSi10Mg
ISO 3522
CobaltChrome ISO 5832-4,
MP1
ISO 5832-12,
UNS R 31538
CobaltChrome ISO 5832-4,
SP1
ISO 5832-12,
UNS R 31538
MaragingSteel 1.2709
MS1

7.1
625
NickelAlloy
IN625
E
O

UNS N06625,
DIN NiCr22Mo9Nb

189

A03600
ASTM F75
ASTM F1537
ASTM F75
ASTM F1537
18% Ni Maraging
300, AISI H13
UNS N06625,
AMS 5666F,

718

SLM Solutions

3D Systems

.
.
Ti6Al4V
Ti6Al4V
ELI
.

NickelAlloy
IN718

ISO 6208, UNS


N07718, DIN
NiCr19Fe19NbMo3
St.Steel GP1
1.4542
St. Steel PH1 DIN 1.4540
Titanium Ti64 ISO 5832-3
Titanium
ISO 5832-3,
Ti64 ELI
UNS R56401
ST4404D
1.4404

- ST2709B

1.2709

Co-Cr

ST2724G

ISO 5832-4


Ti6Al4V

CP Titanium

ISO 5832-2
UNS R50400
ISO 5832-3

Ti6Al4V

TiAl6Nb7 TiAl6Nb7
- 1.2709

ISO 5832-11
1.2709

1.4404
1.2344
1.4542
ISO AlSi12

Co-Cr
625

718

1.4404
1.2344
1.4542
AlSi12
AlSi10Mg
AlSi7Mg
AlSi9Cu3
AlMg4,5Mn0,4
Co212-f
Inconel 625

Inconel 718

ASTM Grade 2
ASTM F136
ASTM F1472
ASTM F1295
18% Ni
Maraging 300,
AISI H13
AISI 13
ASTM AA 4047,
ASTM A04130
A03600
ASTM Al3560

UNS N06625, DIN


NiCr22Mo9Nb
ISO 6208, UNS
N07718, DIN
NiCr19Fe19NbMo3
2.4665

R
ea

190

316 L
18% Ni
Maraging 300,
AISI H13

ISO AlSi10Mg
ISO AlSi7Mg
ISO AlSi9Cu3
ISO 5182

HX
Inconel HX
7.1
Tool steel
DIN 1.2803,
H13
1.2709

AMS 5599G
UNS N07718,
AMS 5662,
AMS 5664
17-4 PH
UNS S15500
ASTM F1472
ASTM F136

ASTM F75
UNS N06625,
AMS 5666F,
AMS 5599G
AMS 5662,
AMS 5664

18% Ni Maraging
300, AISI H13

Al-
Co-Cr

Inconel
718
, ,

CP Titanium

ISO 5832-2,
UNS R50400

ASTM Grade 2

Titanium V4

ISO 5832-3

ASTM F136,
ASTM F1472
/
ASTM F75,
ASTM F1537

/
Cobalt
chrome
316L
Inconel 718

/
ISO 5832-4,
ISO 5832-12,
UNS R 31538
1.4404
ISO 6208, UNS
N07718, DIN
NiCr19Fe19NbMo3
/

316L
UNS N07718, AMS
5662, AMS 5664
/

. -,
AM-,
,
. , :
,
, .
, ,
. , Sandwik Osprey,
. , , . 7.2 , LPW Technology ().
,
.
191

Raymor Industries Inc. () Ti, Co-Cr,


Mo Nb,
.
: 0-25, 0-45, 45-106, 45-150, 0-250 .
, AM-,
:
- TLS Technik GmbH & Co. Spezialpulver KG (): ( Titanium Grade 1 ASTM, Titanium Grade 2 ASTM,
Titanium Grade 5 ASTM (Ti 6Al 4V), , , , , , , , , .
- Wiretec Handels und Beratungsgesellschaft GmbH () d50=2-10 .
. , , . : 230-400/; Ti-6Al-4V
200-400/; Co-Cr 150/; Al 70-90/; Inconel 625
75/ ( EXW, . . , ,
).
, .
10 50 .

192

7.2. LPW Technology AM-

UNS ASTM
ISO
AMS
Ni Co
LPW
Co-CrMo C 0.16 max, Mn 1.0 max, Si
31537 F1527, 5832-4
CoCr-1LC
1.0 max, Cr 27.0-30.0, Ni
F75 5832-12
+
0.50 max, Mo 5.0-7.0, Fe 0.75
LPW CoCr-2LC
max, S 0.010 max, P 0.020
max, Al 0.10 max, Ti 0.10
max, W 0.20 max,
B 0.010 max, Co Bal
LPW 718-2
718
Al 0.30-0.70, B 0.006 max,
7718
B537
5832,
Ca 0.01 max, C 0.02-0.08,
B670
5596
Cr 17.0-21.0, Co 1.0 max,
Na+Ta 4.75-5.50, Cu 0.30
max, Fe 15.0-21.0, Mg 0.01
max, Mn 0.35 max, Mo 2.803.30, Ni 50.0-55.0, P 0.015
max, Se 0.005 max, Si 0.35
max, Ti 0.75-1.15,
S 0.015 max.
LPW 625-2
625
Mo 8.0-10.0, Co 1.0 max,
6625 446 Gr1,
5599,
Nb+Ta3.15-4.15,Al 0.40 max,
443 Gr1
5666
Ti 0.40, max C 0.10, max, Fe
3.0-5.0, Si 0.50 max, Mg 0.50
max, P 0.015 max, Mn 0.50
Max Cr 20.0-23.0, S 0.015
max, Cu 0.50 max, Ni Bal.
193

DIN

MP1

2.4668

IN718

2.4856

IN625

7.2
Fe
LPW M300-1 18Ni300 C 0.03 max, Mn 0.15,
Si 0.10 max, Ni 17.0-19.0,
Mo 4.50-5.20, Co 8.50-10.0,
Ti 0.80-1.20, P 0.010 max,
S 0.010, Fe Bal.
LPW 174-1
17-4ph
Cr 15.0-17.0, Ni 3.0-5.0,
17400 A708 15156-3 5604
Cu 3.0-5.0 Mn 1.0 max,
5643
Si 1.0 max, Mo 1.0 max,
Nb+Ta 0.15-0.45,C 0.10 max,
Fe Bal.
LPW 155-1
15-5ph
Cr 14.0-15.0, Ni 3.5-5.5,
S15500 A564
5659,
Cu 2.5-4.5, Mn 1.0 max,
A693
5862
Si 1.0 max, Mo 0.5 max,
Nb 0.15-0.45, C 0.07 max,
Fe Bal.
LPW 316-1
SS 316L C 0.03 max, Si 0.75 max,
S31673
F138 5832-1
Mn 2.0 max, P 0.025 max, S
F745
0.01 max, Cr 17.5-18.0,
Ni 12.5-13, Mo 2.25-2.50,
Cu 0.50 max, Fe Bal.
Ti
LPW Ti6-4 -2 Ti6-4
Al 5.5-6.5, V 3.5-4.5,
R56400 F1472, 5832-3
4954,
N 0.03 max, C 0.08 max,
B348gr 5
4911,
H2 0.0125 max, Fe 0.25 max,
4928
O 0.20 max, Res Each 0.1,
Res Total 0.4, Ti Bal.
194

1.2709

MS1

1.4548

GP1

PH1

1.4404
1.4401

3.7164

Ti64

7.2
LPW
Ti6-4ELI-2

Ti6-4 ELI Al 5.5-6.5, V 3.5-4.5,


R56401 F136, 5832-3
N 0.03 max, C 0.08 max,
B348
H2 0.0125 max, Fe 0.25 max,
gr 23
O 0.13 max, Res Each 0.1,
Res Total 0.4,
Ti Bal.
LPW CpTi1-2 CpTi gr 1 N 0.03 max, C 0.08 max,
R50250
F67, 5832-2
H2 0.015 max, Fe 0.20 max,
B348gr 1
O 0.18 max, Res Each 0.1,Res
Total 0.4, Ti Bal.

4956

LPW CpTi2-2 CpTi gr 2 N 0.03 max, C 0.08 max,


H2 0.015 max, Fe 0.30 max,
O 0.25 max, Res Each 0.1,
Res Total 0.4, Ti Bal.
Al
LPW
AlSi10
Si 9.0-11.0, Mg 0.2-0.45,Fe
AlSi10Mg-1
Mg
0.55 max Ni 0.05 max,Cu
0.05 max, Zn 0.10 max, Mn
0.45 max Pb 0.05, Sn 0.05
max, Ti 0.15 max, Al Bal
LPW AlSi12-1 AlSi12 Si 11.0-13.0 Mg <0.10, Fe
0.55 max, Ni 0.05max,Cu
0.05 max, Zn 0.10 max, Mn
0.45 max, Pb 0.05, Sn 0.05
max, Ti 0.15 max, Al Bal.

4921
4902

R50400

A13600

F67, 5832-2
B348gr 2

A03600

3.2381.01

3.2581.01

195


2010 . EWI
AMC (AM-Consortium),
.
33 , . Boeing, General Electric, General Dynamics, Goodrich,
Honeywell, Lockheed Martin, Morris Technologies, Northrop Grumman,
Rolls-Royce Sciaky, , , NASA, NAVAIR NIST [30].
2011 .
3D Systems .
2012 . 7 . [31].
, () [32].
22-
, GARPA Global Alliance of Rapid
Prototyping Associations.
2012 . .
$1 . 15 . $45 . National
Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute NAMII , . NAMII : America Makes
( 1), . . , , , , .
2013 . Arcam Arcam Q10
[33].
196

(: https://americamakes.us/)

1.
2010 . -- Made in
Space, NASA $824597 . 2013 . NASA 3D-, 2014 .
Zero-G ( )
, 2).

(: http://www.space.com)

2.

2013 . NASA SMRC (Systems and Materials
Research Corporation) $125000
3D-
.
2014 . 10- Rosetta () 67P-- ,
3D- ( 3).
197

3.
67P-- [34]
1995 . -
(Northwestern Polytechnical University, NPU)
, ,
.
. 2012 . NPU
5-
Comac C919, 4 [35].
2013 . Nanfang Ventilator Co., Ltd
3D- : 28 , 23 , 9,5
. 6 , 10 .
: ,
, .
,
.

A4. Comac C919[35]

198

2013 . (Dalian University of Technology) Unit Science and


Technology Development Co. Ltd. 1,8 ,
5.

5. - [35]
45 20
, , .
AM- 2012 . 450 , 2011 . $5,5 ., $9,5 . [37].
: Rapid Prototyping Journal, TCT
Magazine, Wohlers Report, RTejournal (Rapid Technology Electronic Journal), International Journal of CAD/CAM.
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: 2009 . 265; 2010 . 419; 2011 . 474;
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199

, ,
.
. , ( ) . , .
, . , ( , ),
. ,
, - , , - , . .. [38]. ,

AM- . , ,
-
A-, . , - -
.
, , () ,
.
200

, . .
,
AF-,
, , ,
. . - .
:
, . , .
.
, ,
[39, 40].

6 (45ACP), ,
, 3D-
DMLS ( Solid Concept, [40])
***
, -: , , , .

201


,
.
. ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
, . .

,
, ,
.
AM-
XXI . , , ,
, , .

.
, AM- , .

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-
-

: Lithoz GmbH, www.lithoz.com.


: Bits from Bytes, www.bitsfrombytes.com.
Renishaw, www.renishaw.com.
: Concept Laser GmbH, www.concept-laser.de.
Envisiontec GmbH, www.envisiontec.de.
EOS GmbH, www.eos.info.
Fruth Innovative Technologien GmbH, www.pro-fit.de.
ReaLizer GmbH, www.realizer.com.
Sintermask, www.sintermask.com.
SLM Solutions GmbH, www.slm-solutions.com.
Voxeljet, www.voxeljet.com.
: Blueprinter, www.blueprinter.dk.
: Mcor Technologies, www.mcortechnologies.com.
: CRP Technology, www.crptechnology.com.
D-Shape, www.d-shape.com.
DWS, www.dwssystems.com.
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Beijing Yinhua Laser Rapid Prototypes Making and Mould Technology
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Delta Micro Factory Corp., www.pp3dp.com.
Shaanxi Hengtong Intelligent Machine Co., Ltd., www.china-rpm.com.
Shanghai Union Technology Co., Ltd., www.union-tek.com.
Trump Precision Machinery Co., Ltd., www.trumpsystem.com.
Wuhan Binhu Mechanical & Electrical Co., Ltd., www.binhurp.com.
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InssTek, Inc., www.insstek.com.
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DSM Somos, www.dsm.com.


Essential Dynamics, www.essentialdynamics.net.
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: Arkema, www.arkema.com.
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Phenix Systems, www.phenix-systems.com.
: Arcam, www.arcam.com.
: Agilista, www.agilista.jp.
Aspect Inc., www.aspect-rp.co.jp.
CMET Inc., www.cmet.co.jp.
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208

ABS, - ,
(C8H8)x(C4H6)y(C3H3N)z), , .
Additive Fabrication (AF) ; .
Additive Manufacturing (AM) , Additive Fabrication
(AF)).
Additive Processes .
Additive Systems , .
AF Additive Fabrication.
AFK ARBURG Kunststoff-Freeformen, ,
ARBURG, ( ) .
AM Additive Manufacturing.
AMF Additive Manufacturing File, ,
Stl., 1987 . 3D-
. AMF EML (Extensible Markup Language )
, , , , ,
Stl- ; , Stl-.
ASTM International American Society for Testing and Materials
,
, , ,
.
Bed Deposition ;


,
209

CAD-, , , ,
.
Binder Jetting
,
, .
Blueprinter - AM- (); , , .
CAD/CAM/CAE- ,
: CAD (ComputerAided Design), CAM
(Computer-Aided
Manufacturing), CAE
(Computer-Aided Engineering).
CIM- Ceramic Injection Molding, PIM, ;
: - ( ),
( -), -
.
Concept Laser - AM- ().
Direct Deposition ,
; ( , , ) , .
Direct energy deposition
,

210


.
DLP Digital Light Procession, ,
AM- Envisiontec.
DM Direct Manufacturing, , Sciaky ().
DMD Direct Metal Deposition, , AM- .
DMF Direct Metal Fabrication, AM-,
, DMD
DMLS Direct metal laser sintering,
(), AM-, EOS ().
DoD Drop on Demand, Solidscape.
EBM Electron Beam Melting, ,
( Arcam, Sciaky).
EIGA- Electrode induction guide inert gas atomization,


.
EOS Electro Optical Systems GmbH, -
AM- ().
Euromold (-, ).
Fcubic ,
; Hgans
AB (); ,
- ,
. - , , 211

, .
FDM Fused Deposition Modeling, AM- Stratasys; Material extrusion.
FFF Fused Filament Fabrication, , FDM
FILT Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology
HIP - Hot Isostatic Pressure, ;
, - ,
, .
Hgans AB - AM- ();
fcubic.
Jetting ,
,
()
X-Y .
Ink-Jet , Binder Jetting.
Kira - AM- (), Sheet Lamination.
Laser Cusing ( Concept Laser, ).
LENS Laser Engineered Net Shape, , Optomec ().
Lithoz - AM- LCM Lithography-based Ceramic Manufacturing (); - .
Material extrusion , -

212


.
Matsuura - AM- (), Multi-functional.
Mcor Technologies - AM- (), Sheet Lamination.
MIM- Metal Injection Molding, PIM, ;
: - ( ), ( -), - .
MJS Multiphase Jet Solidification, AM, .
MLS Micro Laser Sintering, , 5 .
MLS MicroLightSwitch, - ( -),
.
MTT-Technologies - AM- (), Renishaw.
Multi-functional , ,
, , .
NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology, , .
Objet Geometries - AM- (), Poly-Jet.
213

Optomec - AM- (), LENS.


PA polyamide, ( ).
Phenix Systems - AM- ()
.
PIM- Powder Injection Molding, , -. CIM- (Ceramic Injection
Molding MIM- (Metal Injection Molding).
Poly-Jet AM-,
, , ,
.
Powder Bed Fusion
, , CAD (, ) .
ProMetal - AM- (), Ink-Jet, ExOne ().
Rapid Prototyping, RP- , .
Realizer - AM- ()
SLM.
Renishaw , AM (), SLM.
REP Rotating Electrode Process.
RP- , Rapid Prototyping.

214

Sciaky - AM- (), Directed energy deposition ( EBM).


Sciaky - AM-,
DMD- ().
SFF Solid Freeform Fabrication, , AM-.
SHS Selective Heat Sintering, ,
Blueprinter ().
Sheet Lamination AM-;
.
SIS Selective Inhibition Sintering,
AM- .
SLA Steriolithography Apparatus,
,
.
SLM Selective Laser Melting ( ),
AM-;
SLM Solutions - SLM- AM- ().
SLS Selective Laser Sintering, ,
AM-.
SMS Selective Mask Sintering, AM-,

, (, ) .
Solidica - AM- (); .
Solidimension Ltd. - AM-, Sheet Lamination,
().
215

Solidscape - AM- ().


SPLS Solid Phase Laser Sintering, , Phenix Systems ();
Spray forming , (
) .
Steriolithography (), ,
.
Stl-() Steriolithography, ,
1987 . 3D-
.
Stratasys - AM- (), Material Extrusion.
TPE Thermoplastic elastomers, ,
-.
UAM Ultrasonic additive manufacturing,
Fabrisonic (), .
Vat hotopolymerization AM-,
,
AM-,
, , .
VIGA Vacuum Induction Melt Inert Gas Atomization,
; ALD ().
VIM Vacuum Induction Melting, , , -

216

, .
Voxeljet Voxeljet Technology GmbH, -
AM- ().
WDM Wax Deposition Modeling,
DoD.
ZCorp Z Corporation, - AM-
(), 3D Systems.

217

.. , .. , ..
.
.

.
. . .
. . 300.

218