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ESP FOR PHYSIOTHERAPY

Analysis

Translation
Английский язык как второй язык в области физиотерапии
Поскольку основной фокус политики касательно английского языка как второго уже
оговорен, первым шагом в разработке курса было накопление соответствующих текстов того
типа, с которыми студенты действительно должны иметь дело на своих курсах, и
определить, как студенты должны работать с ними. Все это было достигнуто, путем запроса
от факультета списка литературы в рамках курса, основных журналов в этой области и
других ссылок, а также о том, какие задания студенты должны будут выполнять с текстами.
По словам одного преподавателя, задачи включали в себя возможность читать книгу по
анатомии, определять все концепции и понимать связи между ними. По мнению другого
преподавателя, поскольку студент будет проверен на основные концепции и проблемы в
нескольких главах, студент должен быть способен понимать длинный текст, делать заметки
во время чтения и делать краткую сводку или другую форму передачи информации в
качестве помощи в подготовке к экзамену.
1) The text presents an extract from a newspaper “CATESOL News” (1993). The
extract under consideration is a fragment of the chapter entitled ”ESP for physiotherapy” and deals
with some aspects of proficiency of students in reading comprehension in the specific field
(physiotherapy).
The text presents a piece of the scientific prose functional style the main aim of which is to
prove a hypothesis, to create new concepts, to disclose the relations between different phenomena.
Therefore it tends to be objective, precise and highly informative.
Practically all the specific features of scientific prose can be traced in the analyzed passage.
The text abounds in terms pertaining to cognitive linguistics and other branches of science.
The vocabulary of the text is presented by the words used mostly in their direct meanings
that contribute to the preciseness of the narration.
2) The problem the author investigates in the article is to elaborate such content courses in
the field of physiotherapy to meet academic requirement and students needs in getting proficiency
in English. The first step in designing the course was to acquire appropriate texts of the type that
students would actually need to deal will in their content courses and to determine what tire students
were expected to do with them.
The tasks included being able to read the anatomy book, define all the concepts, and
understand the connections between them. Since the student would be tested on the main concepts
and issues in several chapters, the student should be capable of understanding a long text, taking
notes while reading, and making a concise summary or other form of information transfer as an aid
in studying for the exam. The next step was to analyze the texts obtained in order to identify typical
features or systematic patterns which were relevant to the students' needs and which would be
perceived by students as appropriate teaching points in a course syllabus. Furthermore if the
material is huge and unfamiliar students should precede the reading of each of these texts with a
chapter from an introductory textbook which not only introduced and elaborated on the unfamiliar
concepts in a way that was readily comprehensible to the students but also served to facilitate
vocabulary and language learning and thus simulate an authentic reading and learning situation.
3) On the graphical level of the text such stylistic devices are used as capitalization in the
headline and subheadlines. For example: ” ESP FOR PHYSIOTHERAPY”, “DESIGNING THE
COURSE”, “LANGUAGE ACTIVITIES”, “DEALING WITH NEW CONTENT”. Besides in the
article abbreviations are applied (ESP, ESL, EFL). In the text italics help to pick out some Greek
and Latin prefixes, medical terms. For example: non-, dis-, ab-, un-, -in; lesion, paralysts, defect,
disorder and so on. Another graphical stylistic device is putting additional information into brackets
and quotation marks. For example: (Chusid, 1976); "Aphasia Associated with Verified Subcortical
Lesions”. All the text is subdivided into 3 paragraphs. It is expressed by means of detachment.
4) In the text some terms are employed. For example: lesion, paralysts, imparrment,
disorder,defect, incapacitate and so on.
Physiotherapy -the treatment of disease, injury, or deformity by physical methods such as
massage, heat treatment, and exercise rather than by drugs or surgery.
Lesion - a region in an organ or tissue which has suffered damage through injury or disease,
such as a wound, ulcer, abscess, or tumour.
Disorder -an illness that disrupts normal physical or mental functions. Also it means “skin
disorders”, “an improved understanding of mental disorder”.
5) The author resorts to references to show authenticity of information, try to induce the
readers to study more materials concerning presented theme. They are: “(e.g., Wiadowson, 1978;
Nuttai, 1982; Hutchinson and Waters, 1987; Adamson, 1990; Master, 1992; Kirschner, 1992);
(Rotblatt- Lieberman, et al., 1986);(Chusid, 1976)”.
6) In the studied text Passive constructions are used. It is done for foregrounding main
information, not stressing on doers of actions. This feature is one of the most important in the
Scientific Prose style.
For instance:” what the students were expected”; “this was accomplished”; “student would
be tested”; “synthetic patterns would be perceived”.
7) In the article there are several means that ensure the cohesion of the text. First specific
feature of scientific prose is logical arrangement of utterances accompanied by a developed system
of connectives. For example: thus, while, In order to , since, although, together with, according to,
so and etc. So, the text illustrates the logical sequence of utterance, stressing their interrelations and
interdependence.
Second logical coherence is also achieved by the use of specific sentence patterns such as
following postulatory, argumentative and formulative sentences.
Postulatory sentence: “Since the focus of ESP for Physiotherapy was reading, the first step
in designing course was to acquire appropriate texts of the type that students would actually need to
deal will in their content courses and to determine what tire students were expected to do with
them”.
Argumentative one: “This was accomplished by asking the faculty for course reading lists,
major journals in the field, and other references, and what tasks the students would have to perform
with the texts”.
Formulative ones: “ According to one instructor, the tasks included being able to read the
anatomy book, define all the concepts, and understand the connections between them”.
8) One of the means of conveying the author’s ideas is the use of numerous repetitions in the
text. The most recurrent words are “student”, “text ”, “content-course”, “problem”, “solution”,
“exam”, “skill”.
For example: “The two thematically-linked texts also lent themselves well to activities on
two levels of text processing: vocabulary skills and global processing skills. Vocabulary skills
included the study of roots…”.
Along with various types of lexical repetition syntactic repetition (i.e. parallel constructions)
is used to foreground the author’s essential ideas: “According to one instructor, the tasks included
being able to read the anatomy book, define all the concepts, and understand the connections
between them. According to another, since the student would be tested on the main concepts and
issues”. Such parallel constructions are also an effective means of creating contrast which is
important for the understanding of the author’s point of views on the problem discussed.
To draw attention of readers the author also used such syntactic mean as detachment by
means of commas and brackets.
For example: “For example, a chapter entitled "Aphasia, Apraxia and Agnosia" (Chusid,
1976) was followed immediately by three case studies fifth a journal article entitled "Aphasia
Associated with Verified Subcortical Lesions” (Rotblatt- Lieberman, et al., 1986), the first text,
providing detailed definitions and classifications of aphasia presupposed by the second text.”
Lexical repetition in scientific prose is not necessarily a deliberate stylistic device it may just
be a mean of avoiding ambiguity or misunderstanding.
For instance: “…that students would actually need to deal will in their content courses and
to determine what students were expected to do with them”.
9) The text has the lack of emotional colouring. It confirms that discussed text belongs to the
Scientific Prose Style. Vocabulary of the article is presented by the words used mostly in their
direct meanings that contribute to the preciseness of the narration.
A large part of the vocabulary used belongs to the literary stratum: movement, explain,
words, think, deal, expect, chapters, perform, task, problem, solution, course, design, text,
instructor, field etc.