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Workbook-2 7
Р а б о ч и е т е т р а д и

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ
ЯЗЫК 7 «се
Рабочая
тетрадь-2
Пособие
для учащихся учреждений
общего среднего образования

Рекомендовано
Научно-методическим учреждением
«Национальный институт образования»
М инистерства образования
Республики Беларусь

Минск
«Аверсэв;
2016
УДК 811.111(075.3)
ББК 81.2Англ-922
А64
Серия основана в 1999 году

Авторы:
Н . В. Юхнель, Е. Г. Наумова, Н . В. Демченко, А . В. Волков,
Т. Е. Лабода, А . В. Манешина, Е. А . Родовская

Рецензенты:
каф. английского языкознания Белорусского государственного университета
(канд. филол. наук, доц. Е. Н. Гвоздович ); учитель англ. яз. гос. учреждения
образования «Средняя школа № 64 г. Минска» Ю. В. Кургун

Английский язык. 7 класс : рабочая тетрадь-2 : пособие для учащихся


А64 учреждений общ. сред, образования / Н. В. Юхнель [и др.]. — Минск :
Аверсэв, 2016. — 128 с. : ил. — (Рабочие тетради).
ISBN 978-985-19-2221-1.
Рабочая тетрадь дополняет учебное пособие и содержит упражнения, способствующие
развитию устойчивых навыков чтения и письма, а также активизации грамматических
структур в устной и письменной речи.
Адресуется учащимся 7 класса учреждений общего среднего образования.
УД К 8 1 1 .1 1 1 (0 7 5 .3 )
ББК 8 1 .2 А н гл-922

Учебное издание
РАБОЧИЕ ТЕТРАДИ
Юхнель Наталья Валентиновна
Наумова Елена Георгиевна
Демченко Наталья Валентиновна и др.
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
7 класс
Рабочая тетрадь-2
Пособие для учащихся учреждений общего среднего образования

Редактор Л. Д. Касьянова
Ответственный за выпуск Д . Л . Дембовский

Подписано в печать 30.08.2016. Формат 70x90 V16- Бумага офсетная. Печать офсетная.
Уел. печ. л. 9,28. Уч.-изд. л. 4,59. Тираж 60 000 экз. Заказ 1685.
Общество с дополнительной ответственностью «Аверсэв».
Свидетельство о государственной регистрации издателя, изготовителя, распространителя
печатных изданий № 1/15 от 02.08.2013. Ул. Н. Олешева, 1, офис 309, 220090, Минск.
E-mail: info@aversev.by; www.aversev.by
Контактные телефоны: (017) 268-09-79, 268-08-78.
Для писем: а/я 3, 220090, Минск.
ОАО «Полиграфкомбинат имени Якуба Коласа».
Свидетельство о государственной регистрации издателя, изготовителя, распространителя
печатных изданий № 2/3 от 04.10.2013. Ул. Корженевского, 20, 220024, Минск.

ISBN 978-985-19-2221-1 © Оформление. ОДО «Аверсэв», 2016


Ш ш Ш

LESSON 1

© (after ex. 6) Write down the story of Rosie and Nick. Use the words:
archaeologist, ruins, grave, skeleton, treasure, time machine.

( I ) Match the parts of sentences. Write down the sentences.

Example: 1 — E.A n archaeologist is a per


ancient life.
1. An archaeologist is a person 2. Vikings were Scandinavia
people 3. A grave is a place in the ground 4. A skeleton is a structure
5. Treasure is gold, silver or coins 6. Deep in the past means 7. If
you bury something, it means that 8. If someone dies, 9. Ancient
is used to describe something 10. If people settle somewhere,
A . that were buried with dead rich people. B. that consists of
all the bones in a human or animal body. C. which is used to bury
dead people. D. who settled in Eastern and Northern Europe in the
8th and 10th centuries. E. who studies ancient life. F. long ago in
history. G. they stop living. H. you put it into the ground. I. they
go and live there. J. that comes from long time ago, something
having lasted a very long time.

1 E 2 3 4 5 6 7

8 9 10

(2) a) Complete the questions with the words from Lesson 1 (SB).

1. Are there any_______________ castles in York? 2. When did the


Vikings in Britain? 3. W hat have

3
they found in York? 4. W hose________________have they found in the
grave? 5. Where did________________come to Britain from? 6. What
city was the capital of the North of England________________in the
past? 7. What did the________________find below the streets of York?
8. W h a t________________have they found in the grave? 9. Is there
a _______________________museum in York? 10. W h y did Vikings
_______________ treasure with dead people?

b) Write down short answers. Use ex. 4 from Lesson 1.

© Im agine you are a newspaper reporter. You are going to interview an


archaeologist. Write five interesting questions about ancient London
you are going to ask.

LESSON 2

© (a fte r ex. 5) Do a quiz on Ancient Egypt.


1. W hat river did Ancient Egypt stand on?
a) The River Thames
b) The Ancient River
c) The River Nile
2. How long did the Egyptian civilization last?
a) 300 years b) over 3000 years c) 30 years
3. The Ancient Egyptians were among the first people who
developed a system of ... .
a) walking b) writing c) flying
4. The Ancient Egyptians were famous for building ... .
a) the Pyramids
b) the Great W all
c) the Kremlin
4
5. How many pyramids are there in Egypt now?
a) 8 b) 18 c) over 80
6. How old is the Great Pyramid at Giza?
a) 450 years old
b) 45 years old
c) over 4500 years old
7. W hat else did the Egyptians like building?
a) airports b) shopping malls c) temples
8. W hat was Tutankhamen’s sarcophagus made from?
a) glass b) stone c) gold
9. The name ‘sphinx’ was given to the statue of the magic animal
by ... .
a) the soldiers of Napoleon
b) the Greeks
c) the Russians

(T) Read about Ancient Egypt. Fill in the gaps with the following words:
buried, treasures, ancient, mysteries, archaeologist, grave, digging,
deep.

In April 1922 ( 1 ) ________________ Howard Carter and his men


found a grave in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt. The grave was
( 2 ) ________________ in the sand. They worked for fifteen years.
When they were ( 3 ) ________________ they found an underground
door which led to a grave. An Egyptian Pharaoh, or king was
( 4 ) _______________ in the grave. There was a rich collection of
( 5 ) ____________ in the grave. The ( 6 ) _________________Egyptians
believed that treasures could be helpful for the dead in the afterlife.
The Pharaoh’s name was Tutankhamen. His body was still in the
( 7 ) _______________ . The discovery of the grave was surrounded by a
lot of (8 )_______________ .
5
(2) Complete the puzzle.
Across: 1. Archaeologists found it in the Valley of Kings. 2. The
opposite of modern. 3. A structure of human body bones. 4. Howard
Carter’ s job. 5. A stone monument that has a man’ s head and
a lion’s body. 6. Something that is very large. 7. It was found in
Tutankhamen’ s grave.
Down: people who settled in Britain in the years after 800 A D.

(3 )a ) Write the words in the correct order to make questions.


1) Howard Carter / Tutankhamen’s / did / when / find / grave?
2) was / what / in the grave? 3) the Sphinx / was / when / built?
4) the Great Pyramid / is / how old? 5) settle / when / the Vikings /
did / in Britain? 6) skeleton / found / in York / whose / was / in
the grave? 7) pyramids / monuments / were / to the dead?

b) Write down short answers to the questions above.

LESSON 3

© (a fte r ex. 6) a) Work in groups А, В, C and D. Study the information


on the card. Decide where you can use a Present Simple Passive form
and where — a Past Simple Passive one.
CARD A : TAJ M AH AL
— translated as ‘the crown of buildings’ from the local languages
— built at Agra, in India between 1632 and 1653
6
— made of white marble
— built by Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife Mumtaz
Mahal
— visited by thousands of tourists every year
— thought to be one of the most beautiful buildings in the world
CARD B: STR AW BER R Y FIELDS
— situated in New York City
— named after the Lennon / McCartney song Strawberry Fields
Forever
— designed by Bruce Kelly
— opened in October 1985 by his wife Yoko Ono
— often covered with flowers and candles
CARD C: LENIN’ S MAUSOLEUM
— known also as Lenin’ s Tomb
— situated in Red Square in the centre of Moscow
— used as a resting place of Vladimir Lenin
— made of marble, granite and other materials
— designed and built by Alexei Shchusev and other architects
— finished in 1930
— visited by thousands of people every year

CARD D: BREST FORTRESS


— located on the Mukhavets and Western Bug rivers in Brest,
Belarus
— built between 1836 and 1842
— modernised in the 19th and 20th centuries
— made of red brick
— visited by thousands of tourists every year

b) Prepare to speak about a memorial. Memorise the information on


your card.
c) Work in groups of four (А, В, C and D). Tell your group mates about
a memorial. Decide which of the memorials you would like to visit.
7
(7) Write the Past Participle (V3) forms of the following irregular verbs.
To feed, to take, to spend, to find, to build, to make, to think,
to say, to tell, to see, to write, to leave, to break, to buy, to catch,
to forget, to know, to grow, to keep, to learn, to lose, to put, to
read, to throw.

(2) Rewrite the sentences correcting one grammar mistake in each sentence.
1. Las Fallas festival was celebrated in Valencia every March.
2. The tradition of this festival is born in the 18th century.
3. St. Petersburg was known for its architecture. 4. Sometimes
archeologists are found treasures in ancient graves. 5. Students in
our school teach well. 6. Many tourists are visited by this castle.
7. The letter were written by the girl. 8. These pictures was painted
by Rembrandt.

© R e w rite the sentences matching the beginnings and the endings.

1. Coffee is grown a) by Daniel Defoe.


2. America was discovered b) in Australia.
3. Mandarin is spoken c) in Brazil and Colombia.
4. Australia was discovered d) in China.
5. Kangaroos are found e) by Antoni Gaudi.
6. Robinson Crusoe was f) by Columbus.
written g) by James Cook.
7. Many buildings in
Barcelona were created

LESSON 4

© (after ex. 5) Work in groups. Answer these tricky questions for history
lovers.
a) W hy were the dying gladiators finished off by a man dressed
like a mythical character called Charon?
8
b) W h y were gladiators’ skeletons found on the territory of
modern Britain?

(T) Complete the sentences with some words from the list: to give the
thumbs up / down, active, passive, strong, weak, modern, slave,
sword, freedom. Change the form of the words if necessary.

1. In this film Mel Gibson plays the role of W illiam Wallace


who fights for t h e ______________of Scotland. 2. Many Africans
were sold a s ______________in the 16th and 19th centuries. 3. If
something bad is going to happen to you, you can say that
a ______________of Damocles is hanging over your head. 4. They
have ______________our idea _______________ because they didn’ t
like it. 5. He is 85, but he is physically v e r y ________________ .
6 . _____________smoking is also very dangerous for your health.
7. Janet has been ill for a week and now she’ s feeling really
______________ . 8. ______________ languages are the languages
that are spoken at the present time. 9. It was difficult to
understand her — she spoke with a _____________ accent.

(2) Use ‘with’ or ‘by’ with the passive verb forms.

1. Hamlet was w ritten _______Shakespeare. 2. It was written


______ ink, n o t_______ pencil. 3. The bottle was filled _______ milk.
4. They were caught____ the police. 5. Many people don’t believe
that Kennedy was killed_______Lee Harvey Oswald. 6. He was killed
______ a gun. 7. Penicillin was discovered_______ Alexander Fleming
in 1928.
9
© R e a d about the eating habits of Ancient Romans. Choose between
active and passive verb forms.
Poor Romans (1) ate / were eaten bread, vegetable soup, and
porridge. Meat and fish (2) ate / were eaten by the poor only if
they (3) lived / were lived in the country and could go hunting or
fishing. Poor people’s home had no kitchens. So they often (4) took /
was taken their food to the baker, to cook in his oven. Many people
(5) bought / were bought takeaway food, such as sausages or fried
fish, from food shops.
Food for rich people (6) cooked / was cooked by their slaves in
the kitchens. Most rich people (7) ate / were eaten a light breakfast
and a snack at midday — bread and cheese, or boiled eggs and
salad. Dinner (8) ate / was eaten in late afternoon with meat. Meat
(9) followed / was followed by fruit or nuts. Then sometimes ice
cream (10) ate / was tn
ea
. Lettuce (11) served / was
end of the dinner, because Romans (12) believed / were believed it
(13) helped / was helped you sleep.

LESSON 5

@ (after ex. 4) a) Read a critic’s opinion on Jurassic World— a new film


about dinosaurs. Fill in the missing words from the box. One of the
words must be used twice.
Dino-stars
The shark from Jaws could be eaten for breakfast
by a dinosaur from Jurassic Worldl The theme park
in the new action film is bigger, louder, and has
more teeth than either Jaws or Jurassic Park. However, it isn’ t
as wonderful as any of the American cinema classics if you think
about logic and characters. Of course, the 3D monsters are really
(1 )_____________ and aggressive — you easily believe they could eat
you ( 2 ) _____________ , but the humans in the new film are only 2D.
10
It is hard to believe they are as real as the dinosaurs. It seems they
are more likely ( 3 ) _____________ soon.
In Jurassic W orld , twenty-two years after Jurassic Park , Isla
Nublar is a dinosaur playground, which is visited by thousands of
tourists every day. W hy? Because of hybrids which were created
to attract boatloads of people. The owners of the amusement park
have learnt nothing from the other owners’ mistakes and now, while
they run their park, their guests are eaten by the attractions.
Forty years ago, the summer blockbuster was invented by Stephen
Spielberg with a clever idea, great actors and a rubber shark. Today,
in Jurassic W orld dinosaurs can be brought ( 4 ) _____________ in
ways never before imaginable, but they can’ t make us believe in
its characters. The dinos are the stars of the film, not the actors.

b) Find two Present Simple Passive verb forms; two Past Simple
Passive verb forms; two passive infinitives.

c) Do you agree with the critic’s opinion? Why? / Why not? Write
a short comment.

(7) Use words from the three boxes and write pairs of sentences.

Example: Horward Carter is an archeologist. H e found the


grave o f Tutankhamen.
Howard Carter dinosaurs crocodiles
the Great Pyramid archaeology Rome
an ancient monument built by thousands of people
an ancient city founded by Romulus and
a science Remus
dinosaurs’ relatives helps understand the past
huge animals are still alive
an arcnaeoiogisi. died out millions of years ago
iouna tne grave oi ш ш к п а -
men
ll
© W r it e which of the animals from the list died out and which are still
alive: dinosaurs, mammoths, turtles, snakes, crocodiles.

© Look through the titles of these recent books. Read the extracts from
the book reviews. Match them with the titles.

DINOSAUR

A N C IE N T
GREECE

Exam ple: 1 — B.
1. This book is one of the most interesting history books which
I have ever read. It tells us about huge animals that died out
65 million years ago.
2. If you collect coins, this book is for you. You’ ll find a lot of
interesting things about ancient coins from different countries of
the world.
3. Would you like to know more about the fashion of the 19th
century? This book will show you what our great grandparents wore
in everyday life.
4. A wonderful book! You aren’t going to put it down after you’ve
opened it. Every page is full of exciting stories about culture,
education and sports in this ancient country.
12
5. This is a book about one of the Seven Wonders of the World,
about the only huge monument of ancient life which is still standing.
You’ll also enjoy beautiful and unusual photos.
6. There are six true stories about these Scandinavian people who
were the Lords of the seas. The chapters on voyages, farming, and
legends are of great interest.

LESSON 6

© (after ex. 3) Write about the animals that are dying out on our planet.
Explain why they might become extinct. Use passive verb forms where
possible.

(7) Make as many words as possible using the letters of the phrase 'to
become extinct’.

Example: mix, ten t , ....

(2) Read the texts about three extinct animals. Answer the questions
below. The first has been done for you.
Which of the texts tells us about the extinct animal
1) which looked like a huge cow? [A]

2) which looked like a huge penguin? EH

3) which was the size of a modern tiger or lion? EH

4) which lived on the territory of the present-day Belarus? EH

5) which became extinct the first of the three? EH

6) which became extinct the last of the three? EH

7) whose cubs were found in the ice in Siberia? EH

8) which was hunted by royals? EH


13
9) that was black and white? СИ

10) that lived mostly in Northern countries? СИ

11) which lived all over the world? СИ

12) that lived mostly in Europe in the Middle Ages? СИ

13) whose skull is now a museum exhibit? СИ

14) that had feathers? СИ


A. One of Europe’ s most famous extinct animals is the aurochs.
It was a huge type of cattle. Aurochs appeared in India about two
million years ago, migrated into the Middle East and further into
Asia, and reached Europe about 25 0 ,0 0 0 years ago. By the 13th
century AD the aurochs lived only in Poland, Lithuania, Moldavia,
Transylvania and East Prussia. Only very rich people and later
only kings were allowed to hunt the aurochs. If somebody killed an
aurochs, this person was killed too. In 1564 only 38 animals were
left. The last aurochs died in 1627 in the Jaktorow Forest, Poland.
The skull (череп) of the animal was later taken by the Swedish Army
and is now kept in the museum of the Royal Palace in Stockholm.
B. Great Auk has been extinct since 1844. It was also known as
garefowl, or penguin. The huge bird stood about 75 centimetres
high and weighed about 5 kilograms. It had white and black
feathers. In the past the auk was found in great numbers on islands
off eastern Canada, Iceland, Norway, Ireland and Great Britain. It
was eventually hunted to extinction.
C. Cave lion became extinct 2000 years ago. It was one of the
largest lions ever. An adult male which was found in 1985 in
Germany was 1.2 metre high at his shoulder and was 2.1 metre long
without a tail. So, it was about the same size as a very big modern
lion or a modern tiger. The cave lion once lived everywhere from
the British Isles to the Yukon in Canada. In 2015, on the Uyandina
River in Siberia, two cave lion cubs were found by people collecting
mammoth tusks (бивни мамонта). The babies were two or three
14
weeks old. Some 12 000 years ago they were buried in the ice. They
are in a very good condition. Their fur, legs, tails, ears, eyes and
even whiskers can be seen. They will be studied by scientists who
are planning to learn more about their lifestyle, family connections
and eating habits.

© F in d the sentences in the article which contain passive verb forms.


Translate the sentences into your language.

LESSON 7

© ( a f t e r ex. 2) Read the paragraph from the listening. Answer the


questions below.
If a boy was not a very good student, the teacher could hit him
with a stick. Many boys were afraid of the teacher and hated school
because they were afraid of being hit with a stick. There was a stick
but there was no carrot. If you were a good student, you just were
not hit with a stick.

What does the idiom ‘stick and carrot' mean?


What do you think is the Russian equivalent of the idiom ‘stick and
carrot’:
1) палка и морковка; 2) кнут и пряник; 3) палка и пряник?

What is the ‘stick and carrot' in today’s school?

© R e w rite the newspaper headlines as complete sentences. Use the


Past Simple Passive or the Future Simple Passive. Add articles where
necessary.

Example: 1.Treasures found in Tutankhamen's


Treasures were found in Tutankham en’s grave.
1. Treasures found in Tutankhamen’ s grave. 2. Exhibition o
ancient art to be shown next Sunday. 3. Archaeologists meeting
15
to be held next Friday. 4. Dinosaur’ s skeleton found in desert
last week. 5. Ancient grave found in Giza yesterday. 6. A new
supercomputer to be introduced next month.

(2) Look at the advertisement. Write an article for your local newspaper
about this event.

Example: A com petition for young inventors will be held on


M a y 1 0 ,2 0 1 7 in the Inventors club.

INVENTORS CLUB
COMPETITION FOR YOUNG INVENTORS
AGE LIMIT — 14
May 10, 2017, 4 to 6 p.m. professional engineers examination.
May 15, 2017 — open to the public.
Prizes to the winners — presented by the Head Teacher.
The winners’ names — published in the Sunday News.
The winners’ models — photographed for the Inventor magazine.
Contact telephone: 01392 421245.

(3)Copy out the text. Put the verbs in brackets in Present, Past or Future
Simple Passive.

Example: 1. The first calculator was called the abacus.

The first calculator (1 — to call)___________ the abacus. It (2 —


to use first)___________ by the Chinese in about 500 BC. A machine
for calculating (3 — to invent)___________ by Charles Babbage but
it was difficult to build. The first real computer (4 — to make)__
______ in 1948 at Manchester University. It (5 — to call)_________
Mark I. The first small “home” computer (6 — to sell)___________ in
June 1975. Modern computers (7 — to use)___________ everywhere:
in watches and washing machines, in cars and planes, in factories
16
and offices. Special effects in films (8 — to make)___________ with
computers and they (9 — to u se)___________ also to make cartoon
films. In the future, everything in our life (10 — to do)___________ by
computers and robots.

LESSON 8

@ (after ex. 3a) Choose which of the sentences below can be used to
answer the following questions.
1) W ill it make our life better?
2) Can it be invented / made / built?
3) Is it a good idea?
4) When will it be invented?
I think medicine for all illnesses is a brilliant idea. It can be
invented because progress is fast and successful. I’ m sure it will be
invented soon — in fifty or one hundred years. It will make our life
much better of course. People will live longer and will be healthier.

(T) Match the columns and write 8 sentences in your exercise-book about
the inventions of the past.

Example: Concrete — ancient Romans: Concrete was invented


by ancient Romans.
Aqualung J-Y. Cousteau, France, 1943
Aspirin India, c. 600 AD
Coca-Cola Egypt, c. 4000 BC
Cosmetics Alfred Nobel, Sweden, 1867
Dynamite Mesopotamia, c. 3800— 3600 BC
Toilet, flush John Pemberton, US, 1886
Wheel Crete, c. 2000 BC
World W ide Web Dr. F. Hoffman, Germany, 1899
Zero Tim Berners-Lee, England, 1989
17
2. 3ak. 1685.
(2) a) Match the form of the passive in each sentence with the name of the
passive form: A — the Present Simple Passive; В — the Past Simple
Passive; C — the Future Simple Passive.
Exam ple: 1 — В
1. America was discovered by Christopher Columbus in 1492.
2. The exhibition of ancient clay pots will be opened in the
museum next week.
3. Sensational discoveries are not usually made every day.
4. The work at the dig site will be completed next month.
5. The first vacuum cleaner was invented by Booth in England
in 1901. **

b) Write questions to the sentences below.


Exam ple: 1. The first bicycle was invented by Karl von
Sauerbronn in Germany in 1816. — W hen was the
first bicycle invented?
1. The first bicycle was invented by Karl von Sauerbronn in
Germany in 1816. (When ...? Where ...?)
2. The first glass was made in Egypt in 3000 BC. (W hat ...?
W h ere...?)
3. Penicillin was discovered by Alexander Fleming in England
in 1928. (Where ...? When ...? By whom ...?)
4. A new archaeological museum will be built here next year.
(W h a t...? When ...?)
5. New planets will be discovered in the 21st century. (W h a t...?
General question)

(3) Insert the passive forms from the box to complete the text about an
invention.

G will be worn, is worn, be shown, will be used, will soon be made

Camouflage clothes ( 1 ) ___________ similar to the invisible cloak


)
which ( 2 ) ___________ by Harry Potter. These clothes are now so
18
secret that the Canadian company behind them states that the
technology cannot even ( 3 ) ___________ . Super-modern materials
(4)___________ to make them. These clothes (5)___________ by soldiers
to make them invisible to the enemy.

LESSON 9

© (after ex. 4) Do a vocabulary test. Use the words in the box to complete
the sentences in the text.
Г
inventions, discoveries, ancient, treasures, alive, died out,
skeletons, clay pots, archaeology, buried
4
W hat is (1) ___________ ? This word comes from the Greek
and means “the study of what is ancient” . Archaeologists get
information about the past from the ( 2 ) ___________ of animals
and ancient people, from ( 3 ) ___________ found in graves, from
( 4 ) ___________ monuments such as the Egyptian Pyramids and
Stonehenge in England. Little of the past can be found in the
ground — things that were lost, thrown away or ( 5 ) ___________ in
graves with people who died. Different documents and relics such
as letters, coins, drawings on stones, maps and (6 )___________ help
us understand the past. ( 7 ) ___________ in archaeology show us how
people lived and how they worked. They help us understand why
some animals (8 )___________ and why others are still (9 )___________ .
W hy should we study the past? W e all want to know what life was
like before our birth. The past is a natural source (источник) of
interest and wonder. The past can help us today. The past, like the
present, is done by people and it belongs to everyone. It unites us, it
gives us pride in all the (10)___________ that have been made by man.
19
(7) Rewrite the sentences in the passive form if possible. Use the example.

Example: TheCelts settled in W ales in 500 BC. — W


settled by the Celts in 500 BC.
1. The Celts settled in Wales in 500 BC. 2. The ancient Greeks
built the Acropolis. 3. A group of archaeologists found a dinosaur’s
skeleton. 4. I visited Rome in 2002. 5. The aboriginals of Hawaii
killed James Cook in 1779. 6. Ford made his first car in 1896.
7. Lewis Carroll wrote “Alice in Wonderland” in 1865. 8. W e saw
the Pantheon when we were in Rome.
(2) Write down the historical facts. Use the dates from the box. Follow
the example.
Example: M insk ( to fou n d ) — M insk was 1067, 1870,
founded in 1067. 1607, 776 BC,
860, 1703, 1850
1. Minsk (to found). 2. Ancient Troy (to find)
by German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann.
3. The first English settlement (to found) in Virginia. 4. The first
Olympic Games (to hold) in Greece. 5. Swedish Vikings (to invite) to
rule Russia. 6. St. Petersburg (to found) by Peter the Great. 7. The
first jeans (to make) by Oscar Levi Strauss in the USA.

(3) How well do you know famous people of the past? Do the quiz. Choose
the correct answer from the box. Use the Past Simple Passive and

William Shakespeare Steven Spielberg the ancient Chinese


Paul McCartney Lewis Carroll Leonardo da Vinci

Example: W as Rome founded by emperor H adrian? — No, it


)
wasn’ t. I t was founded by Romulus and Remus.
1. W as “Alice in Wonderland” written by Shakespeare? 2. W as
the Great W all built by the ancient Egyptians? 3. W as the song
“Yesterday” written by Elvis Presley? 4. W as the film “ET” made
by Alfred Hitchcock? 5. W as “Romeo and Juliet” written by Agatha
Christie? 6. W as “The Mona Lisa” painted by Picasso?
20
LESSON 1

© (before ex. 4) a) Together with your partner decide where you should
go if you want
a) to have a bird’ s eye view of a city?
b) to keep fit?
c) to see a show of letters written by Elisabeth I?
d) to change dollars into euros?
e) to sit and watch how the river flows?
f) to park your motorbike?
g) to meet with people who are responsible for keeping your
town clean?
b) Have you ever been to any of these places? Tell your partner more
about it.

(T) Fill in the gaps with the words from the list: bank, opposite, exhibition
centre, bridge, car park, fitness centre, high-rise, town hall,
skyscrapers, river bank.

1. In the centre of my town there’ s a ___________ where our local


government sits.
2. John drove up the street and there he found a ______________
where he could leave his car.
3. New York is the city o f ___________ .
4. There are a lot of modern___________ buildings in the capital
of Belarus.
5. Last Friday we went to t h e _______________________where we
could see a fascinating collection of jewellery which dates back to
the 1 1th century.
21
6. Most people think it’ s safe to keep money in a ______________ .
7. W e crossed the river over th e ________________and went along
th e________________.
8. A s we went straight ahead and turned we found ourselves
________________the cinema building.
9. Three evenings a week my friends and I spend in the
________________ , we love sports and in general I try to lead
a healthy life.

© R e a d Kate’s description and mark the buildings on the map.


I live in a small town not far from Minsk. It is a nice town with
beautiful little streets. I go to the local school which starts at 8.00
five days a week. It usually takes me about 10 minutes to get to my
school. There’ s a parking lot opposite my house and I can see my
parents’ car as I go out. I turn right and pass the library and fitness
centre which are on the right and the town hall and exhibition centre
which are on the left. I go straight ahead. Next to the fitness centre
there’ s a church and opposite the church there’ s a hospital. I turn
right and there’ s my school behind the church. Opposite the school
building there’ s a huge supermarket.

© Describe your way to school. Draw a map to illustrate it. Use as many
new words from Lesson 1 as possible.
22
LESSON 2

© (after ex. 3a) a) Match the words in the box with their definitions.
Г
a place of interest, picturesque, worth visiting,
to be mentioned, to be situated, to suffer, to survive
4
a) is / are important enough to be visited; b) to be written about;
c) to be in a position or a place; d) attractive in an old-fashioned way;
e) to feel physical or mental pain; f ) to continue to live after coming
close to dying; g) important or interesting buildings or areas.

b) Complete the sentences below with the words from the box. Change
the form of the words if necessary.
Smolevichy is a small town with the population of about 14,000
people, which ( 1 ) _________ on the banks of the Plisa River. Since
2010 it has been a satellite of Minsk. Smolevichy first (2)________ in
1448 as a place that belonged to Olekhna Dorgievich. Since the
second half of the 14th century for almost 300 years it was owned
by the Radziwills. In 1793 it became part of the Russian Empire.
The people of Smolevichy ( 3 ) _________ a lot during the World W ar
II. Two thousand of them ( 4 ) _________ — they were killed by the
Nazis. Smolevichy became a town in 1968.
Smolevichy is definitely ( 5 ) _________. Smolevichy is not famous
for its (6 )_________there, but if you want to feel the atmosphere of
this small Belarusian town, walk along its streets, talk to the friendly
people or travel down the (7 )_________banks of the Plisa River.

(T) a) Read the story about Gomel and put the paragraphs into the correct
order.
a) In those times, the tribe of Radimichi lived on the area alon
the banks of the river Sozh. Historians describe this tribe as strong,
23
courageous and brave people. Being good warriors, they were
also known as kindhearted, hospitable, cheerful, and generous.
(1)_________was their main activity. Hunting, fishing and collecting
honey from the wild bees were also popular among Radimichi.
b) During the period of World W ar II the city was destroyed. A t
the beginning of the 20th century the Jewish population of Gomel
was about fifty thousand (a third of total population), but during
the war most of the Jewish people were killed.
c) (2 )_________by a Radimichi tribe many centuries ago, the town
that would later have the name Gomel appeared on the right bank
of the river Sozh. The river surrounded the town on three sides.
In the nearby areas, there were deep forests and clear lakes. A lot
of birds and wild animals lived in the forests around the town.
Lakes and rivers were home to fish, wild geese, ducks and swans.
On the banks, beavers hustled restlessly around the fallen trees...
According to ( 3 ) _________ chronicles, this is how Gomel and its
surroundings appeared several centuries ago.
d) Today Gomel is an important industrial, ( 4 ) _________ and
cultural centre of the Republic of Belarus with lots of factories,
plants, schools, universities, hospitals, ( 5 ) _________ , exhibition
centres, theatres and museums. The city with its beautiful parks,
historical monuments, tourist attractions and ( 6 ) ________________
countryside is really ( 7 ) _________ .
e) In 988 Gomel became part of Kievan Rus’ . The people of Gomel
suffered a lot from ( 8 )_________wars at that time. A t the end of the
15thcentury the town passed into the hands of the Russian state. In
1667, Gomel again passed into the hands of the LithuanianPolish
state at that time already called Rzeczpospolita. In 1772 Gomel
was again returned to Russia and later it became part of Belarus.
b) Fill in the gaps in the history of Gomel with the following words:
monuments, local, scientific, picturesque, ancient, worth visiting,
agriculture, founded.
24
© C o m p lete the article about Mogilev with the new words and phrases
from the Lesson.

Mogilev was first ( 1 ) _________ in chronicles in the 13th century.


The city was founded in 1267. A castle was built on the banks of
the Dubrovenka River and people began to settle nearby. The castle
was burnt in 1595 and archaeologists couldn’t find any traces of it.
First Mogilev was part of the Great Duchy of Lithuania (united with
Poland in 1569). It was later held by Sweden and passed to Russia.
Between 1941 and 1944 the city was under German occupation
and the population of Mogilev ( 2 ) _________ a lot. The modern city
( 3 ) _________ on the banks of the Dnieper. It is definitely ( 4 ) ______
____ as it has a lot to see. Many of the old buildings have ( 5 ) ______
____ or have been reconstructed. One of the ( 6 ) __________is the
convent of St. Nicholas which is a complex of beautiful buildings
set in a ( 7 ) _________countryside.

© Y o u are going to write an article for your school newspaper. If you


have been to one of the regional centres of Belarus, write a paragraph
describing it. If not, write a paragraph about a city in Belarus you would
like to visit. Explain why.

LESSON 3

© (after ex. 3a) Match the words with the definitions.

1 .cathedral a) doing a lot of work


2. hotel b) friendly and welcoming to visitors
3. sight c) someone who goes to a place to look at it
4. visitor d) a building where you pay to have a room to
sleep in and where you can often eat meals
25
5. underground e) a railway system in which electric trains
travel
6. hospitable f) a very large, usually stone building, which
is the largest and most important church of an
area
7. hard­ g) an old, important or interesting building or
working area, place of interest
8. convenient h) interesting and nice to look at
9. attractive i) situated near you, easy to get to, easy to use

(T) Match the halves of the sentences.

1. Minsk is a) its museums and theatres.


2. It stands b) one of the oldest parts of Minsk.
3. It is a city c) with green streets and avenues.
4. Minsk is famous for d) on the Svisloch river.
5. Troitskoye suburb is e) one of the oldest cities in Belarus.

(2) Choose the most suitable word or phrase.


1. The town is a ______ mix of old and new.
a) boring b) fascinating c) picturesque
2. The exhibition centre is certainly______ .
a) picturesque b) opposite c) worth visiting
3. The cathedral in the centre of the city is a beautiful sight
which attracts lots o f ______ .
a) visitors b) skyscrapers c) animals
4. Minsk underground makes it really______ to travel around
the city.
a) hardworking b) convenient c) hospitable

26
5. There are lots o f ______shops, cafes and restaurants in the
area.
a) hardworking b) attractive c) comfortable

(3) Match the phrases in bold in 1— 4 with their meanings. Write their
equivalents in your language.
1. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.
2. It’s more than my job’s worth to let you in without a ticket.
3. Any guide worth her salt knows the legend.
4. A good mechanic is worth his weight in gold.
a) very useful and helpful;
b) deserving respect, especially because you do your job well;
c) it is better to keep something that you already have than to
risk losing it by trying to get much more;
d) not worth doing because it is against the rules or because it
might cause you to lose your job.

LESSON 4

© (after ex. 4b) a) Write the words in the box in the alphabetical order.

garage, cottage, roof, chimney, fence, balcony,


two-storeyed, block of flats
)
b) Use the words from the box (+ prepositions and articles) to write
where you can find
1) many flats; 2) a chimney; 3) a car; 4) flowers.

c) Use the words from the box (+ prepositions and articles) to write
what you can find
1) around a house or a garden; 2) on a roof; 3) on top of a cottage.

© M a tc h the words with the pictures: a) block of flats; b) cottage;


c) chimney; d) fence; e) roof; f) garage; g) balcony; h) bridge.
27
(2) Put the words from the list into four columns depending on the number
of syllables they have: hotel, exhibition, cathedral, situated, hall, bank,
worth, visitor, attractive, convenient, survive, suffer, sight, picturesque,
skyscraper, mentioned, underground, convenient, hospitable, hard­
working, town, centre.

1 syllable 2 syllables 3 syllables 4 syllables


town centre cathedral situated

(3)Look at the pictures. Imagine that you live in one of these places.
Describe it.

28
LESSO N 5

© (after ex. 2a) Match the words in the box with their meanings:

village green, pond, vicar, gossip, pub

1) in the Church of England — a priest who is the head of a local


church;
2) an area of water smaller than a lake, often man-made;
3) a common open area, usually grassland, sometimes with a
pond, used as an open-air meeting place for the local people, or for
public celebrations;
4) talk about other people’ s lives which may be unkind or not
true or someone who talks about people in this way;
5) a building with one or more rooms where drinks can be bought
and drunk and where food can be bought and eaten.

(T) Write who usually does this — a villager, a citizen or both a villager
and a citizen:
a) travels by the underground; b) milks a cow; c) looks at high
rise buildings and skyscrapers; d) sees picturesque places; e) lives in
a cottage; f ) goes to exhibitions, theatres and museums; g) attends
a fitness centre; h) enjoys clean air; i) sits on the river bank.

(2) a) Reread the description of a typical British village in ex. 2a in the SB


and decide if the statements below are T (true) or F (false). Correct
the false statements.
1. The local vicar usually knows your name.
2. You can hear the village gossip in the village hall.
3. Christmas parties usually take place in an old traditional
pub.
4. In every British village you can find playing fields for
quidditch.
5. The typical local people are unfriendly and noisy.
29
6. The villagers go to church only at Christmas and meet for
carol singing on Sundays.
7. The village is usually quiet and friendly.
8. The locals love their cars and are proud of their garages.
9. Having the latest model of a mobile phone is a good talking
point.
10. Village life is wonderful for children.

b) Use the description of a typical British village in the SB as a model


to write about a typical Belarusian village.

(3) a) Read about igloos. Choose between active and passive verb forms.
Igloo
An igloo (1) also knows / is also known as a snow house or a snow
hut. It (2) builds / is built of snow. On the outside of the house the
temperature may be as low as - 4 5 °C, but on the inside — up to
16 °C. It (3) happens / is happened when the house (4) warms / is
warmed by body heat alone. Igloos (5) found / were found in Canada
and Greenland. In the Inuit language ‘igloo’ (6) means / is meant
a house or home built of any material. There are three traditional
types of igloos. The smallest igloos (7) usually use / are usually used
for one or two nights. These (8) built / were built and used during
hunting trips, often on open sea ice. Middle-sized igloos were for
families. There was usually a room that housed one or two families.
Often there were many of these in a small area, which (9) form ed /
was formed a village.
The largest igloos (10) normally built / were normally built in
groups of two. Sometimes there were up to 5 rooms that housed up
to 20 people. Small igloos (11) joined / were joined by tunnels and
turned into big ones. They (12) used / were used for traditional
dances and celebrations.

b) Underline the Present Simple Passive forms with one line and the
Past Simple Passive forms with two lines.
30
LESSO N 6

© (after ex. 4) Play a guessing game in pairs. Take it in turns to describe


British houses of a certain type. Let your partner guess the period they
were built in.

(T )a) Read about a famous house. Choose the best of the three options
in each case. Use the picture for help.
Agatha Christie’s House
If you like detective stories, you
must visit this (1) hotel / exhibition
cen tre / p la ce o f in terest. Agatha
Christie’ s house (2) is m entioned /
is situated / is made in the South of
Britain. Even now, forty years after
she died, Agatha Christie is the best­
selling author in the world.
There has always been a house in this place. The building (3) was
first mentioned / was situated / was built in 1493 as ‘Greynway’ .
In the late 16thcentury it was a Tudor house called Greenway court.
The present Georgian house was built in the late 18th century.
Greenway was Agatha Christie’ s (4) hard-working / hospitable /
worth visiting holiday home in Devon. It was where she spent her
summers. Greenway was bought by Agatha Christie and her husband
in 1938. It was given to the National Trust by her children a few
years ago. The garden was opened to the public in 2009.
The (5) three-storeyed / two-storeyed / skyscraper white house
stands on the (6) picturesque / modern / hospitable (7) banks / car
parks / fences of the River Dart with views down towards the sea.
It is more (8) convenient / hospitable / attractive for (9) villagers /
citizens / visitors to come by boat. If you arrive by boat, you will
easily see the bluish-green (10) garage / roof / fitness centre of
the house with a few (11) river banks / cottages / chimneys from
31
far away. The (12) garage / balcony / car park is very small, so if
you want to come by car, you will need to ring and book a parking
space beforehand.
The house is full of the collections which were made by the family
in the Middle East — Agatha Christie’ s second husband was an
archaeologist. The writer’ s favourite room was the library, where
a mural was painted by an American soldier during World W ar
II. The mural has (13) suffered / survived / situated and now is as
bright and fresh as it used to be in Agatha Christie’ s times.
The gardens are (14) hard-working / high-rise / attractive — they
are definitely (15) convenient / hard-working / worth visiting. You
will enjoy both the house and the gardens. And if you are musical,
you will even be allowed to play Agatha’ s own grand piano!

b) Write out passive forms from the article. Put them into three
columns: the Present Simple Passive, the Past Simple Passive and the
Future Simple Passive.

© F ill in the gaps in the poem by Kenn Nesbitt. Use rhymes for help.
Here is the House
Here is the house
on the street in the ( 1 ) ________________
where the downstairs is up
and the upstairs is down.
The people who live here
all stand on their ( 2 ) ________________.
They sleep on the ceilings
and can’t reach their beds.
The basement’ s the attic.
The roof is the floor.
They climb up a ladder
to crawl through the ( 3 ) ________________.
32
Their pets run in circles
because they’ re all dizzy.
This house is confusing
and everyone’s busy.
The downstairs is upstairs.
and upstairs is ( 4 ) _________
since twenty tornadoes
blew into the town.

© D e s c rib e the fairy-tale house in


the picture. Use as many new
vocabulary items from the unit as
possible.

LESSON 7

© ( a f t e r ex. 3b) Match the words with the definitions.


1) charm (Chester); 2) military (Chester); 3) plays (Stratford-
upon-Avon); 4) bard (Stratford-upon-Avon); 5) date back to (York);
6) smell (York); 7) spa (Bath); 8) springs (Bath).
a) the characteristic of something that can be noticed usin
the nose; b) to be around since; c) places where water flows out
from the ground; d) something that makes you like someone or
something; e) pieces of writing that are acted in a theatre or on
radio or television; f) belonging to the army; g) a poet; h) an often
fashionable town where water comes out of the ground and people
come to drink or lie in it because they think it will improve their
health.
_ 33
3. 3ak. 1685.
(T) Complete the article about the British city of Lancaster with the words
from the box. Change the forms of the words if necessary.
S-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
attractive, convenient, picturesque, hospitable, sight,
place of interest, worth visiting, to be situated, banks,
to be mentioned, survive, visitors

Small City — Big Story


Lancaster ( 1 ) ___________ on the River Lune and the Lancaster
Canal. It has a population of about 4 6 ,0 0 0 people and is very
tourist-friendly.
Lancaster Castle dominates the city. On the hill where the castle
now stands there was a Roman fort in the 1st century AD, so the city
dates back 1000 years. The city’s name came from the River Lune
and Latin ‘castrum’ — fort. The name Lancaster ( 2 ) ___________ in
1086 as Loncastre in the Domesday Book — a famous medieval
manuscript.
Parts of Lancaster Castle ( 3 ) ___________ from the 13th century.
The castle with its rich history is definitely ( 4 ) ___________ .
There are many ( 5 ) ___________ for tourists to see in Lancaster.
As a historic city, it has a lot of ( 6 ) ___________ Georgian buildings.
They line the (7 )___________ of the River Lune. One of them is now
a maritime museum that also tells of the slave trade.
The Edwardian A shton Hall Memorial is among many
(8 ) _______ , too. It is sometimes called the Taj Mahal of the North.
Coffee is the city ’ s oldest business. Two cafes, The Hall
and The Music Room, are very popular with the locals and
( 9 ) ___________ alike.
43 miles of canals go through Lancaster and the (1 0 )__________
farmland around it. You can travel along the canals in comfortable
canal boats.
34
If you have got a bike and like cycling, the city is very
(1 1 )___________ for you with its 50 miles of cycleways in and around
Lancaster.
Welcome to the (1 2 )___________ city of Lancaster!

© R e re a d the article to find out which of the questions from ex. 2b in


Lesson 7 of the SB the article does NOT answer.

© U s e the questions in ex. 2b in the SB to describe a city or a town in


Belarus. Use as many new words from the unit as possible.

LESSON 8

@ (after ex. 4) Read these rules for discussion. Do you agree with them?
Can you add anything to the list?
1. Never interrupt. 2. Never listen to others. W hat you ar
saying is most important. 3. Be polite. Attack the problem, not
the person. 4. Don’t shout. 5. Push others if they don’t listen to
you. 6. Make notes. 7. Ask questions. 8. Listen with an open mind.
9. Focus on the problem.

© I n your exercise-book write the words below into two columns: Town
and Village.
Fresh air, block of flats, noise, cottage, skyscraper, natural
beauty, boring, fascinating, picturesque, quiet, supermarket.

Add more words to each column.

© a ) Put the parts of the story in the correct order.


A Town Mouse and a Country Mouse
A. The country mouse said, “W hat a difficult life you lead!” M
life in the country is so wonderful and I can eat my meals in peace.
35
B. Once there were two mice. One lived in the country and the
other in the town.
C. The country mouse thanked the town mouse for being so
hospitable, went back home and never returned to the town again.
D. On the way to the town the mice had to cross seven dangerous
roads, to feel the air which was dirty from the cars and the
factories. They had to run away from the town dogs. A t the town
mouse’ s house the food was really delicious, but all the time, while
eating, the two mice were on the look-out for the angry people and
the cats they kept to kill mice.
E. One day, the country mouse invited the town mouse to have
dinner with him and served him the best food. He laid the table just
under the fence in the garden. They sat on the green grass under
the sun and enjoyed the fresh air of the countryside. But the town
mouse said that the food was not tasty at all and invited the country
mouse to his house.
F. The country mouse’ s house was sm all. It had only two
windows and an old creaky door. The roof had holes in it and
in the chimney some bricks were m issing. The town mouse’ s
house was very different — it was huge, with many windows
and chimneys, a beautiful new roof, brightly coloured doors and
polished floors.

b) Think of a moral for the story.

(3) Use these questions to help you write a description of life in your city /
village. Write approximately 100 words.
Paragraph 1. W hat is the name of your city / town / village?
How long have you lived here? W hat buildings are there in your
city? W hat is your city like? W hat are your house and the area
near it like?
Paragraph 2. What do you like about living in your city / village?
What don’t you like about living there?
36
Paragraph 3. Would you like to move to another place from your
city / village? W hy? / W hy not? If not, what would you change in
your city / village?

LESSON 9

© ( a f t e r ex. 2b) Find the active vocabulary of this unit in the boy’s
description.

(T) Guess the words whose definitions are given below.


1. A place with many streets and buildings — t... . 2. A large an
important town — c... . 3. The town or city where the government
of a country is — c... . 4. The town where you live or where you
feel you belong — h... t... . 5. Land which is away from towns and
cities — the c... . 6. A group of houses with a school, church, etc.
in the country — v... . 7. An area of a town — d... . 8. A particular
part of a town and the people who live there — n... . 9. An area of
a town where people live, outside the centre — s... . 10. An open
space in a town or city that has buildings all around it — s... .
11. A public garden with grass, trees and open spaces — p... .
12. A person who lives in the village — v . . . . 13. A system for making
a house warm — h... . 14. Someone who lives in a city or town — c ....

(2) a) Fill in the gaps with some of the words from ex. 1.

1. Most people live in the__________________ and travel to work in


the centre of town. 2. The__________________ of Sweden is Stockholm.
3. Thousands of demonstrators filled the __________________ .
4. Oxford is a picturesque u n iversity__________________ . 5. W e
went for a walk in the__________________ . 6. The__________________ of
Minsk are proud of their capital. 7. My Granny’ s house is not very
37
convenient to live in — it has no central__________________ and no
running water.

b) Make up your own sentences with the other words from ex. 1.

(3 )a ) Read the information about Cumbria — the Lake District and put
the paragraphs into the correct order.
a) W ith stunning hills and mountains, you will find picturesque
country villages and lovely market towns nestling in green valleys.
Head towards the sea and you will discover peaceful, inviting
beaches.
Keen walkers will enjoy the walk along Windermere — England’s
longest lake — with its fantastic range of water spots and lively
atmosphere. Those interested in history will have a wonderful time
discovering the secrets of the ancient castle of Carlisle. The place
is also home to Britain’ s most important and impressive Roman
monument — Hadrian’ s wall.
b) Everyone takes away with them a special memory of Cumbria —
the Lake District, why not come and discover yours.
c) Welcome to Cumbria — the Lake District, England’ s most
beautiful corner. Whatever the weather, this is always the most
breathtaking areas England has to offer.

b) Answer the following questions.


1. W hat makes Cumbria — the Lake District — an attractive
place for tourists?
2. Would you like to go there? W hy? W hy not?

c) Write an article for a leaflet on Belarus. Describe a picturesque area


of your country. Use ex. 3a above as an example.

38
ОШШЯ

LESSON 1

© ( a f t e r ex. 2b) Match the words with their definitions.

1. a journey a) not to do something that is planned


2. a flight b) the act of travelling from one place to another
3. to catch c) to travel or be able to travel on a plane, train,
bus, etc.
4. to leave d) an act or the process of flying
5. to arrive e) to need a period of time to do something
6. to miss f) to go away from
7. to take g) to get to a place at the end of a journey
8. to see off h) the bags, suitcases that you take with you
when you are travelling
9. to check in i) a card given to someone showing that they
have paid for something
10. a ticket j) to report that you have arrived at an airport
or hotel
11. luggage k) to go somewhere with (someone) in order to
say goodbye to them
© Read the sentences and label them with letters P or F depending on
what they describe — present or future.

1. John is winning the game. EH


2. It’s raining outside. EH __ _
3. Mary is working in the library. EH
4 . 1 am playing football tomorrow. EH
5. Lauren is leaving for San Francisco on Friday. EH
6. The Olympics are taking place here next year. EH
39
© D iv id e the following sentences into two groups.

Timetables, routines Personal arrangements,


and schedules fixed plans

1. — W hat are you doing this evening? — I am travelling to


Minsk.
2. W e are going to London in July.
3. My train leaves at 5 o’clock.
4. W hat are we having for dinner?
5. W hat time does your train arrive in Brest?
6. Do you have classes next Monday?

© Look at Nick’s diary. Write about his plans for the coming week.

June, week 23
5 Monday pack my luggage
6 Tuesday travel to London
7 Wednesday visit museums
8 Thursday meet friends
9 Friday visit Hyde Park
10 Saturday travel back home

LESSON 2

© (b e fo re ex. 4) a) Read Nick's diary for tomorrow. Use the verbs from
the box to write about his plans.

09:00 — breakfast; go (2) ^


10:00 — bus tour; have(2)
13:00 — lunch; visit
14:00 — Madame Tussaud’s Museum;
17:00 — Sherlock Holmes’ Museum

1. 09:00 — Nick ... breakfast.


2 .1 0 :0 0 — 13:00 — Nick ... on a bus tour around London.
40
3 .1 3 :0 0 — Nick ... lunch.
4. 14:00 — Nick ... Madame Tussaud’ s Museum.
5. 17:00 — Nick ... to Sherlock Holmes’ Museum.

b) Do you think Nick has planned enough time for his bus tour?

(T) Answer the questions. Use ex. 3 from your SB for help.
a) W hat is the name of the river that flows through the centre
of London?
b) The Tower used to be a museum, didn’ t it?
c) W ho built St Paul’ s?
d) Where can you find Speaker’ s Corner?
e) How high is the clock tower of the Palace of Westminster?
f ) How heavy is Big Ben?
g) How many rooms are there in the Queen’s palace?
h) W hat battle did Admiral Nelson win?
i) How big are the wax figures in Madame Tussaud’ s?
j) Where does Piccadilly begin?

(2) Fill in the missing words.

surrounded, coach, take, leave, tickets,


on, miss, arrive, take, landmark

A Day Trip to Windsor


If you go by ( 1 ) _____________ and ( 2 ) ______________ London early
in the morning you will ( 3 ) _____________ at Windsor in about an
hour or so. It may take longer if there are traffic jams. You can
also get there from London Paddington Train Station. This trip will
( 4 ) _____________ you about 30 minutes.
Windsor Castle is an official residence of the Queen and the
largest occupied castle in the world. A Royal home and fortress
for over 900 years, the Castle remains a working palace today. The
castle is (5 )_______________ by beautiful gardens and the picturesque
41
English countryside. There is a lot to see there and a tour around
the castle will ( 6 ) _______________ at least two hours. You can buy
( 7 ) _______________ there upon your arrival. If you want a guided
tour and buy tickets in advance, you have to be ( 8 ) _______________
time. Otherwise you may ( 9 ) _______________ your group.
Windsor castle is the most famous (1 0 )_____________ in Windsor
but not the only one. You can also visit Eton College, one of the most
exclusive schools in the country that has educated many former
British Prime Ministers as well as members of the Royal family. There
are also several parks and gardens, including Windsor Great Park.

(3) Guess what popular London attraction is described here.


It all started with a lady taking heads of dead people home and
making masks from them. But that was very long ago. Now you
can touch the exhibits. Each of them costs £30,000. There is a hand
department, hair and colour department, head department there.
It takes five weeks to cover a head with hair. Visitors take fingers,
ears and jewellery as souvenirs.

LESSON 3

® (after ex. 3) Match the words from the box and the pictures.

get on, get off,


a window seat,
an aisle seat,
guide, passenger

42
(T) Write down the names of the countries where these people live.
Belarusian, Japanese, French, German, Italians, Spanish, Polish,
Russian, Dutch, Swedish, Ukrainian.

(2) Complete the tourist booklet information with the words from the box.
Change the form of the words if necessary.

guided tour, book, guide, sight, seat, landmark, v i s i t o r !

. и of interest in

but our guides will turn you


known to many (2)

Г оO xford
iota you behind th e cioseddoors~°f
the city centre. p>ey w. ^a ke У |i ^
of
Qxf opd trad,t ,ons
rd fr me T ? h e y o"deStYcolle9es. You will remember th.s
^ fo r the rest of your life.

Carroll’s Wonderland
. Visit H arry Potter filming ( 5 ) --------------------
. see the Oldest Examinations Hall (1 3* century)
. Visit th e oldest building standing in O xford (more than

1000 C V h e O l d City Wall (more than 10 00 0 years old) in

a secret garden

43
Timings: The tours begin at 11 am and 2 pm every day.
Tour length: The tour lasts approximately 2 hours, with
the chance to sit down on the way, and less than 25 minutes
of walking.
We have 75 professionally trained guides working with the
O xford Walking Tour.

Special Price O ffe r:


30 minutes — £ 6 per person;
60 minutes — £ 8 per person;
90 minutes — £ 1 0 per person;
2 hours — £ 1 0 per person;
Private Tour fo r 90 minutes — £ 6 0 ;
Private Tour fo r 2 hours — £ 7 0 (group tours)
Limited (6) are available.
(7) now!!!
irts every day from outside Oxfam Shop on

Call us 07412937003

(D Write 5 0 -1 0 0 words
to explain why you would like
on the tour in ex. 2. or not like to go

LESSON 4

notes to continue one of the


e-play your conversation.
44
(T) Look at the pictures and say what is going to happen

(2) Choose the best tense.


1. We go / are goin g to Moscow in A ugust. 2.
going to Grodno tomorrow. 3. The train won’ t / doesn’ t stop at
Molodechno. 4. When does / will school start? 5 . 1 visit / am visiting
them on Saturday. 6. A re you going / Do you go to Gomel next week?
7 . 1 write / will write this letter tomorrow. 8. My train leaves / will
leave at two o’clock.
(3) Complete the sentences with the words form the box.
Г business trip, window seat, stay, get off, aisle

L seat, local, passengers

l.M a n y ____ shops are going to close when the big new
supermarket is built.
45
2. You should____ the train at Lancaster.
3. London Underground_____________ will have to pay more for
this kind of public transport next year.
4. I’ m afraid she’ s away on a _____________ and won’ t be back
until next week.
5. Would you like a n ___________ or a ____________?
6. W e are going t o ____ with our grandparents for a month in
the summer.

LESSON 5

© (b e fo re ex. 4) a) Change the statements in ex. 2b in your SB to make


them true for Minsk.
b) Imagine Mr. Rambler is on a business trip in Belarus. Use ex. 3a to
role-play a similar conversation about Minsk.

© C h o o se two words from the list in the box to match the definitions
below. Use a dictionary if necessary.

country, population, government, library,


parliament, exhibition, capital

a) the group of people who control the country;


b) in some countries, the group of (usually) elected politicians
or other people who make the laws for their country.

© S tu d y the diary page of a Belarusian girl on a visit in Britain. Correct


the sentences below.
1. She is playing football with her new English friends at 11 am
on Sunday.
2. She is leaving for Oxford at 8 am on Monday.
3. She is going on a guided tour of Oxford on Tuesday.
46
4. She is making ‘ okroshka’ for the Belarusian party on
Wednesday.
5. She is visiting Shakespeare’s birthplace on Thursday morning.
6. She is going to the circus on Friday.
7. She is going to Jake’ s birthday party on Friday.

N E X T WEEK
20 July Sunday 23 July Wednesday
Cricket with my new English Belarusian party 6 pm
friends — 11 am Draniki!!!
Tennis with Jake — afternoon 24 July Thursday
21 July Monday Day trip to Stratford-on-Avon
Day trip to O xfo rd 8 am — 8 am — И pm
9 pm Visiting Shakespeare's
Coach 8.15 am birthplace 2 pm
Guided to u r o f O x fo rd — 25 J uly Friday
afternoon Shakespeare's play 7 pm
22 July Tuesday 26 July Saturday
Free day _______ My birthday!!! Party 6 pm

(3) Choose the correct options to complete the tourist booklet information
on Canberra.
Canberra has so many (1) attractions / aisle seats / journeys that
you should start making your (2) itinerary / journey / business trip
well in advance.
A visit to the local W ar Memorial is a must if you want to
understand Australian history.
Parliament House is a modern complex that opened in 1988.
(3) Visitors / passengers / guides can see the Australian democracy
in action every day. Question Time is a session that starts at 2 pm
when (4) capital / Parliam ent / visitor is sitting. The wonderful
building also houses (5) flights / exhibitions / tickets and public
47
galleries. Free (6) business trips / guided tours / coaches take place
at 10 am, 1 pm and 3 pm.
Pull yourself away from Canberra’s (7) capital / governm ent /
local buildings and you’ ll see that the (8) parliament / government /
capital has a fun side. It’ s packed with interesting things to buy,
eat and do.
A t the Australian Institute of Sport a swimming pool, tennis
courts and a (9) sightseeing tour / river bank / fitness centre are
open to the public.
Lake Burky G riffin is one of Canberra’ s most important
(10) luggage / landmarks / libraries. It is used for yachting, kayaking
and windsurfing. You can also cycle around its 35-kilometre
perimeter.
Canberra is (11) local / worth visiting / !

LESSON 6

© ( a f t e r ex. 1) Learn the chant. Role-play it.


— Would you like to go out?
— I’d love to, but I’ m busy.
— How about the weekend?
— A t the weekend I’ m free.
© C om plete the article with the words from the box.

itinerary, book, guided tour, travelling, arrive, schedule,


business trip, check-in, timetable, trip, journey, tour, miss

Enjoy Your Journey!


J
W e call the general activity of moving from one place to another
( 1 ) _____________ . But there are lots of words that have similar
meanings. If you travel from one place to another and if you are
speaking about travelling a long distance or travelling somewhere
regularly, you are speaking about a (2) . A journey
48
to visit a place is called a ( 3 ) ______________. And a journey for
pleasure, during which you visit several different towns or areas
is a ( 4 ) _____________ . A trip that you make for business is called
a ( 5 ) _____________ . A tour that you make with a guide who shows
you around a place is a ( 6 ) _____________ .
To have a good journey, you need to plan it. A plan or list of the
places you will visit on a journey, which usually shows the date or time
that you will be there is called an ( 7 ) _____________ . A ( 8 ) _________
is a detailed plan of what someone is going to do and when they will
do it. Here we speak about something important. Presidents, for
example, have very busy schedules. In British English, a written
list that shows the exact times when something will happen, for
example when planes or buses leave, or when classes at school take
place is called a ( 9 ) _____________ . In American English the word
‘ schedule’ is used to convey this meaning.
To enjoy a journey, you have to be very organized. First, you
should ( 1 0 ) ______________your tickets, pack your suitcases and
(1 1 )_____________ at the airport in time to catch your flight. Don’ t
forget about leaving some time for the (1 2 ) _____________ . Oh, and
remember to get up early enough not to (1 3 )_____________ the flight!

(2) Choose the best tense.


1. I com e / will com e after six, if it is OK. 2. The train w
arrive / arrives at six sharp. 3. How will / do I check in? 4. What
time does / will the coach arrive? 5. My exams will be / are at the
beginning of June. 6. My father says he will stop / stops smoking
on the 1st of January. 7. Don’ t worry, I get / will get the phone.
8. I go / am going to the dentist tomorrow. 9. She has / is having
a lecture on Saturday.

(3) Write 3 sentences about your fixed plans for this week / month.
_ 49
4. 3ak. 1685.
LESSO N 7

© ( a f t e r ex. 3c) Complete the following sentences:


1) I expect I’ ll ... 4) I think I’ ll ...
2) I hope I’ ll ... 5) I’ ll probably ...
3) I’ m afraid I won’ t ...

© C o m p le te the article from an Australian


newspaper with the correct Future forms.
April 2014
The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge
arrived three weeks ago in the glorious
autumn sunshine and now they are
preparing to leave. W hat have they done
so far?
In Sydney Opera House they were met by thousands of people
and watched aboriginal dances; in the aviation museum in Blenheim
in New Zealand they saw the collection of planes of famous film
director Peter Jackson. When Prince William was invited to get
into a Fokker plane, he said “I (1 — not / g e t)_____________ into
that German plane!” They have seen Australian cave paintings, have
played cricket, have been at a rugby match and have taken part in
a yachting ['joting] competition (which Catherine has won!). Prince
George has played with other babies and the Duchess was surprised
to learn that koalas smell of eucalyptus — their favourite food.
W hat’ s next for the Royal couple? The royal aide1 says, “After
a break we expect they (2 — b egin )_________ a busy programme
of events over June, July and August. They probably (3 — visit)
___________ Scotland at the end of May, then we think they (4 — join)
___________ the Queen in France on 6th June to celebrate the D-day

1aide — som eone w hose job is to h elp som eone w ho h as an im p o rta n t job, especially
a p o liticia n
50
of W orld W ar II. W e also expect they (5 — travel)_____________ to
Belgium in August to remember the events of World W ar I.
W e are afraid they (6 — not / take)_____________ all the presents
they have received back home, but a special surfboard for Prince
George probably (7 — tr a v e l)______________with them. Prince
W illiam hopes he (8 — re tu rn )______________to Australia and
New Zealand with his son when George grows older to see how the
countries will change. Prince George has been presented with a bilby
toy, so the Duke of Cambridge thinks his son’ s first word (9 — be)
_____________ ‘bilby’ because ‘ koala’ is harder to say.

(2) Use the text in ex. 1 to give short answers to the following questions:
a) W hy do koalas smell of eucalyptus?
b) W hat caption can be written under the photo of this animal?
c) W hat sports are popular in Australia and New Zealand?
d) W ill W illiam and Catherine have a busy schedule in th
summer?
e) W hy the article says ‘ they arrived in the glorious autumn
sunshine’ ?
f ) W hy didn’t Prince William want to get into the Fokker plane?
g) Do William and Catherine like sports?
h) W hat famous film did Peter Jackson direct in New Zealand?
i) W hat does D-day stand for?
(3) Rewrite the following sentences in three groups: a) inviting; b) refusing
an invitation; c) accepting an invitation.
1. I’m afraid I won’ t be able to come. I ’m going to the theatre
on Friday. 2. How about going surfing at the weekend? 3. Thanks
for the invitation. I’ ll be there. 4. I’ d love to but I have an exam
on Thursday. 5. Do you fancy going out tonight? 6. I’ ll come over
with pleasure. Shall I be there at six? 7. Would you like to go for
a swim today in the afternoon?
51
LESSO N 8

© (as a warm-up activity) Make as many words as you can from the letters
of the word ‘itinerary’.

Example: it,in, at, t e n , ...

(T) Do the word puzzle. Write the words vertically to match the definitions
below. If you guess the words 1— 10 correctly, you will read one more
word across. 2 4 5 9
Down: __ ______ _
1. A journey in which someone 7
7 8 8
goes to a place and returns from x 3 6I I 10
it and which usually takes a short
time or involves travelling a s h o r t ----------------------------------------------
distance. ----------------------------------------------
2. The act of travelling from o n e ------------- ---------------------------------
place to another, esp. in a vehicle. L J ___________________________
3. To reach a place, for example, __ |
_________ | _________
at the end of a journey.
4. To go away.
5. A list of things to be done ”
with the times or dates.
6. The bags you take with you when you are travelling.
7. Journey by plane.
8. A small piece of paper or card given to someone to show that
they have paid for something.
9. A detailed plan or route of a journey.
10. Someone whose job is to take tourists to a place and show
them around.

(2) a) Fill in the missing verbs from this unit. Change the form if necessary.

1. The house___________ by a large garden. 2. Passengers at this


airport have t o ______ three hours before the flight. 3. I __________
52
you’ ll find the ticket somewhere in your bag. 4. The boy______ the
group of tourists he was with and came over to speak to us. 5 .1 arrived
too late t o ______ the last bus home. 6. Nick’ s uncle has come to
______ with them for a week. 7. First people_______ in this area
over 40 000 years ago. 8. The journey home usually is going to
______ us about two hours. 9. H e_______ a seat on a morning flight to
Rome. 1 0 .1______ the start of the film because my bus arrived late.
11. Several more passengers_____ the bus, but nobody g o t_______ .

b) Use the adjectives in the box to complete the sentences.

1. Most of the___________ population live by fishing.


2. I ’ m afraid I ’ ll be v e r y ___________ next week, so
I won’ t be able to see you. 3. The results will be
made___________ tomorrow. 4 . ____________ transport is
not very expensive in our country. 5 . 1 stopped and asked a man the
way, but he wasn’ t ___________ to the area and he couldn’ t tell me.
6. He took time out of h is ___________ schedule to visit us. 7. W e
live on a very___________ road, so sometimes it can get really noisy.
8. Alex i s ___________ working on his project.

(3) Choose the best option to complete the information for tourists.
Belarus can be proud of Belovezhskaya Pushcha — the oldest
wildlife park in Europe. The park (1) surrounded / is mentioned /
is situated some 60 kilometres North of Brest. About eight centuries
ago forests like this one covered the whole of Northern Europe. Half
of the park is in Poland, but about 1300 sq km of ancient forest
still (2) stays / arrives / survives in Belarus.
Belovezhskaya Pushcha is a large tourist centre of the country.
It is a wonderful (3) attraction / landmark / journey for Belarusian
53
and foreign tourists. One can walk in the (4) com fortable / busy /
picturesque forest, see the animals and even enjoy hunting. Tourists
can choose walking, horse-riding and motor (5) business-trips /
flights / journeys. There are several hotels with (6) local / busy /
comfortable rooms, billiards, swimming pools and gyms. In 2003
the house of Grandfather Frost was built in the Pushcha. It has
been very (7) convenient / local / attractive for both children and
their parents.
It is possible to see the National Park without taking a (8) business
trip / guided tour / ticket, although if you don’t speak the language,
you may (9) leave / catch / miss some interesting facts. The best
thing is to book a day trip with Brest Intourist. This includes
transport, the services of an English-speaking (10) passen ger /
local / guide and museum and park entry fees.

LESSON 9

© (as a warm-up activity) a) Mr. Rambler has chosen the ecology break —
a tour of the national parks of Belarus. Play the game with your partner.
From the list in the box choose the things he will need in his trip. Decide
which things he won’t need.

Example: H e will need a medical kit. H e won’ t need a cricket


bat. / I don’ t think he’ll need a cricket bat.
^ a medical kit, a mobile phone, a cricket bat, ^
a French dictionary, a compass, a camera,
a suitcase, a rucksack, skis, skates, binoculars,
, matches, a piano
v J
b) Many other important things are missing in the list. Think of ten
more things he will need in his trip.
Example: H e ’ll (probably) need a sleeping bag.
54
(T) Complete the conversation. Put the verbs in suitable tenses to speak
about the future.

— ... W hat (1 — do) щ и tonight?


— I (2 — g o ) _____________ to the cinema.
— When (3 — b egin ) _____________ the film?
— A t 4.30. Would you like to come with us?
— W ho you (4 — g o ) _____________ with?
— Denis and Jake.
— OK, 1(5 — jo in ) _____________ you then. Where and when you
(6 — m eet) _____________ ?
— A t 4 o’ clock near the cinema.
— Do you think 1(7 — g e t ) _____________ a ticket?
— I’ m sure you will. Hey, look at the sky. It (8 — ra in ) _______
but I’ve got no umbrella. I have to run. See you at 4.

(2) Read Mr. Rambler’s postcard from Canberra. Choose the correct
alternative.

55
(3) Do the questionnaire to see what your ideal transport is. Write whether
you agree or disagree with the comments and why. Use 50— 70 words.
Ideal Transport Questionnaire
You like travelling: a) very fast Ц , b) fast O , c) slowly I L
d) very slowly Q .
You are: a) very fit and active Ц , b) lazy I |.
When you travel you like: a) looking at the countryside I I,
b) getting exercise O , c) watching a film I L d) sleeping I I.
When you travel you must: a) spend a lot of money О » b) spend
some money O , c) not spend any money I I.
When you travel you want: a) an adventure O , b) to get where
you want O , c) to have fun I I.
When you travel you feel: a) scared and sick O , b) excited Ц ,
c) bored O , d) happy I I.

Comments
6 — You must travel on foot, you’ re active and fit; lying on the
sofa, eating crisps and watching Travel Channel is not for you.
Enjoy the walk!
7 — 12 — You’re active and fit, but you don’t want to lose your
time; your ideal transport is the bike. Remember to put on your
helmet!
13— 20 — You’ re a busy person; the most important thing for
you is to get to where you want as fast as you can. You must travel
by train, bus or car. Have a nice trip!
21 and more — Planes, planes and planes again; high up in the
sky, higher than birds and faster than birds. Don’ t be scared. The
plane is the safest transport. Have a safe flight!

56
LESSON 11

© ( a f t e r ex. 3) Complete the rule for Conditional 0.

p unctuation
if-clause main clause
mark

I f + Present... / 9 Present Simple / ... verb with


Present... (comma) an infinitive / an imperative

p unctuation
main clause if-clause
mark

Present Simple / ... verb with an no comma I f + Present... /


infinitive / an imperative Present...

© C h o o s e between and unless.

1 . ____ you don’ t help me, I won’t do it. 2 . _____I meet him, I’ll
tell him about the party. 3 . ____ you are late, I’ ll leave without
you. 4. I won’ t do i t , ___________ you agree to help me. 5. The
teacher will be angry____ you don’t do the homework. 6. They’ll be
la te ____ they leave soon. 7. In my country,_____ you don’t speak
English, you can’ t get a good job. 8 . ____ I’ m not feeling better
tomorrow, I ’ ll go to the doctors. 9. ___________ you don’ t stop
making that noise, I’ ll call the police.

57
© R e w rite the sentences using ‘unless’ instead of ‘if’. Make all the
necessary changes.
1. You will feel cold if you don’ t wear warm boots. 2. I’ ll arrive
on time if there aren’ t many cars. 3. I won’ t go if you don’t go.
4. My little brother won’ t sleep if I don’ t tell him a story. 5. If she
doesn’t have a passport, she can’ t travel abroad. 6. W e ’ ll arrive at
10.00 if our train is on time. 7. W e ’ll go swimming if it isn’t too
cold. 8 . 1 won’ t do it if you don’ t agree to help me.

© C om plete the travel tips below with the clauses from the box.

don’t forget some headphones that will fit your kids’ heads;
it’s a good idea to buy more tickets than you need;
choose overnight flights; don’ t forget wet wipes

1. If your journey is going to be quite long,


_____________ . They’ re useful for washing hands, cleaning toilet
seats and wiping down restaurant tables. Little bottles of hand
cleanser can be a life saver in some countries.
2. If you’ re travelling with more than one child and you want
more space for them to p la y ,______________________________________ .
3. If you want to get some sleep on the plane,________________ .
4. If you want some peace and q u iet,__________________________ .

LESSON 2

© ( a f t e r ex. 5) a) In pairs, role-play a conversation on travelling to


Australia. Use the cards below.

A l : Mother / Father:
You get seasick when you travel by sea — you can’t go by ship.
You would like to go by plane — it is faster and more comfortable.

58
А 2: Son / Daughter:
You’ re scared of flying — you would like to go to Australia by
ship. It is more interesting and enjoyable.
You want to learn something on the life of the local Australian
people — you’ re doing a project on that next year.
You want to buy a boomerang in Australia.

b) Change roles and role-play conversation B.

B l: Mother / Father:
You can’ t travel by ship — you get seasick, but you can’ t go by
plane either — you’ re scared of flying.
You would like to go by train, most of the way.

B2: Son / Daughter:


You hate trains. You don’t feel comfortable on the train. You’d
like to travel by ship (more enjoyable) or by plane (faster).
You want to learn more about the wildlife of Australia, because
in the future you’ d like to be a biologist.
You want to bring some coral back with you.

(T) Choose if or when to complete the clauses.

1 . _____________ she grows up; 2 . ______________ they like the idea;


3. ______________the Lesson finishes; 4. _______________ I get up
tomorrow; 5 ._____________ I get up late tomorrow; 6 . _____________ it
doesn’ t rain tonight; 7. ______________I don’ t buy the tickets;
8 . _____________ we choose the route; 9 . ______________ you’ re scared
to fly.

59
(2) Make sentences beginning with If or When.

Example: W hen you get up tomorrow, I won’ t be at home.

you get up tomorrow i won i oe at ноше


you decide to buy the dress they’ll see everything inside it
you’re busy tomorrow I’ ll give you the money
she doesn’t come on time I’ ll take her to the doctor
she likes the idea I’ ll tell him the news
she doesn’ t like the idea we’ ll choose another route
I see Nick tomorrow we’ ll go there later
they Xray your suitcase we’ ll go to Australia together
the girl gets seasick we’ ll leave without her

(3)Read the story. Explain the meaning of the title.


Laconic Answer
The Lacons lived in Southern Greece. They were very brave and
proud of their Motherland — Laconia — and ready to fight for it,
too. They lived very simple lives, didn’t think about comfort and
hated making long speeches. They were never too talkative. They
used to repeat: “The shorter, the better” .
Once a king from Northern Greece decided he wanted to be
King of all Greece. His name was Philip, King of Macedonia.
The people of Laconia knew he was not clever and brave enough
to become their king. But he had a great army and soon he was
master of all Greece. Laconia, however, was still free from his rule.
So Philip sent a message to the Lacons. He wrote: “If I win the
battle with your army, I’ ll become your king and your city will be
ruined!”
Some time later Philip got an answer. It was: “If” .

60
LESSON 3

© (after ex. 5)
a) Work in groups of 4. Use the card the teacher has given you to
speak about another country.
b) Describe your country to the group. Don’t give the name of the
country. Let your classmates guess.

61
© Egypt
Local name: Misr
Landscape: deserts, covering over two thirds of the country,
a lake, one of the longest rivers in the world — the Nile
Climate: desert climate; very hot on the coast, very little rainfall
History: known as a great kingdom from 3100 BC; became
^ independent from Britain in 1922_______________________________

4
( d ) India
Local name: Bha-rat (in one of the local languages)
Languages: many, English — too
Landscape: the seventh largest country in the world, mountains
and valleys, deserts and rivers
Climate: a lot of rainfall in some parts and desert conditions in
others
History: goes back to 2500 BC
Special notes: independent from Britain since 1947
________________________________ ,_____________________ ,_____________г
(T)Make five sentences similar to the sentence below taken from the
interview with Mr. Rambler. Use the map of the world.
Mr. Rambler: If you look at the sky above Australia, you’ ll see
that it is absolutely different.
Example: I f you look at the map o f the world, yo
Belarus is in the centre o f Europe.
(2) a) Make phrases with the words below using along and through. Use
the diagrams for help.

Example: along the river, through the forest

62
1 . _________ the coast; 2 . __________the jungle; 3 . __________the
desert; 4 . _________the road; 5 . _________ the street; 6 . _________ the
fire; 7 . _________ the village; 8 . _________ the wall.

b) Use the phrases you have made to fill in the gaps in the sentences.

1. He drove slowly________________and stopped at the corner.


2. They were walking________________looking at the shopwindows.
3. There are many big cities________________in Australia.
4. He was scared of g o in g ________________ because of the wild
animals.
5. He w ent__________________ , got to the bedroom and saved the
child.
6. They had to walk__________________ to get to the waterhole in
the oasis.
7. There were five chairs__________________ .
8. The wolves r a n ________________ scaring the people and the
domestic animals.3

(3) Use the following words in the sentences below: land, flat, rock, holy,
sky, star, coast, landscape, central. Some of the words will have to
be used more than once.

1. Many Australians have worked th e____ all their lives. 2. The


____ character of the film is a young Australian who wants to protect
the local animals. 3. W e spent a week on th e____ by the sea before
travelling inland. 4. The mountainous___________ of the North is
changed by the flat areas of the Midlands. 5. He travelled across
the United States fro m ____ t o _____ . 6. The fa rm ____ of Australia
suffers a lot because of the kangaroos. 7. I spent the day looking
63
under th e ____ by the sea to find crabs for dinner. 8. Jerusalem is
a ____ city not only for Christians. 9. The sky is so clear tonight
that you can see lots o f ____ . 10. There are many highrise buildings
around our house so we can’ t see very m uch____ . 11. Much of the
countryside in East Anglia has no hills and is very____ . 12. Moun­
tains are formed from t h e ____ . 13. A d ark ____ is a sign that it
is going to rain. 14. T h e _________star of the Solar system is the
Sun. 15. In ancient times people used to believe that the earth
w as____ .

LESSON 4

© ( a f t e r ex. 6) Work in two teams. Prepare 5 questions for a quiz on


Australia. Close the books. Ask and answer the questions. Which team
is the best?

© a) Open the brackets.


1 .1 (besorry) if you (leave).
2. If they (come) tomorrow, I (make a cake).
3. W e (go) on a picnic if the weather (not / wet).
4. If you (travel) to London by plane, it (take) you about three
and a half hours.
5. The population of Australia (grow) if more people (settle)
there.
6. If you (not / feel) well, I (call) the doctor.
7. When I (finish) school, I (go) to university.

b) Complete the sentences. Use your own ideas.


a) I’ ll be happy if ... . c) I’ ll be sorry if ... .
b) I’ ll be bored if ... . d) I’ ll be surprised if ... .
64
(2) a) Fill in the gaps with the new words from Lesson 3 SB.

There are six different (1 )________________in Australia: Western


Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and
South Australia. There are also two ( 2 ) ________________: Northern
Territory, and Australian Capital Territory, with Canberra, the
nation’ s capital city in it. ( a )
Each Australian state has its own ( 3 ) ________________, and its
own capital city. The state capitals are Perth, Brisbane, Sydney,
Melbourne, Hobart, and Adelaide. The capital city of Northern
Territory is Darwin, ( в )
Australia has three different climates. In the North the weather
is tropical — hot and ( 4 ) ________________. In the centre, the climate
is very dry, and the land is mainly desert. In the South, it is mild,
with cool winters and warm summers, ( c )
The area of the continent is about 8 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 square kilometres,
but 2,0 00,000 square kilometres in central Australia are covered
with great deserts. A long line of mountains — the Great Dividing

65
Range — runs from the north to the south of the east coast. It
( 5 ) ________________the green, wet coast of eastern Australia from
the hot, dry lands in the centre, ( d )
Australia is famous for gold ( 6 ) ________________, ( 7 ) ___________
______ and fruit growing, sheep and ( 8 ) ________________ farming,
(9) ________________ and (10) _________________ production, wool,
meat and sugar ( 1 1 ) ________________ . The continent of Australia
is surrounded by oceans and seas. So the country is known for its
( 12) fishing. Australian wildlife and the beauty
of the landscape bring millions of tourists and millions of dollars
too. ( e^)
Australia is part of Oceania together with New Guinea and
other islands of the Pacific Ocean. New Guinea is a large island
to the North of Australia, where people speak more than 700
different languages. Some 50 years ago New Guinea was known for
cannibalism. Oil and gold were discovered in New Guinea some years
ago, so now the unique wildlife of the island is in great danger. ( f )
Most people in Australia speak English. Thousands of people
have come to the country to settle there. They have moved from
Oceania, Russia and other European countries, from Asia and
America. Australia is a very hospitable country and the people of
Australia are open and friendly. [GJ

b) Match the paragraphs of the text with the key words and phrases
below.
1) climate; 2) capitals of states and territories; 3) parts o
Australia; 4) parts of Oceania; 5) language and people; 6) landscape;
7) known for.3

(3) How well do you know Australia? Complete the sentences about this
country.
1. The Northern territory has a huge rock called______________.
66
2. The building in Sydney that has a roof shaped like sails is
called__________________ .
3. The biggest reef in the world is called______________________ .
4. Dolphins will eat off your hand at Monkey Mia i n ___________
_____________ (state).
5. The ocean off the east coast of Australia is called__________ .
6. An extinct animal from Tasmania is th e ____________________ .
7. Adelaide is known as the city o f _____________________________ .
8. The capital city of Queensland i s ____________________________ .
9. The capital city of Victoria i s _______________________________ .

LESSON 5

© (b e fo re ex. 3a) Unjumble the questions below.


1) Europe / it / is / in?
2) the / the / climate / is / mild / of / country?
3) speak / the / do / many / people / of / country / the / languages?
4) famous / does / country / this / have / a / team / football?

(T) Use the sentences below to ask all types of questions.

Example: Belarus is divided into six regions.


a) Is Belarus divided into six regions? (Yes / No question)
b) How many regions is Belarus divided into? (Wh-question)
c) Belarus is divided into six regions, isn’t it? (Tag question)
d) Is Belarus divided into six or seven regions? (Or-question)
1. The central government of our country is in Minsk. 2. Th
climate of Belarus is not very mild. 3. Most people of the country
speak two languages: Belarusian and Russian. 4. Belarus is famous
for its picturesque landscapes. 5. Belarus is a landlocked country.
67
© C om plete the article below with the best options.
If you look at the map of Europe, you will see this country right in
the middle of the continent. It is a (1) marine / flat / landlocked country
in Central Europe with the population of over 10 million people.
The Czech state was formed in the 9th century. Throughout
its long history it was part of the Holy Roman Empire, Austro-
Hungarian Empire and Czechoslovakia. The Czech Republic
became an independent state in 1993, when Czechoslovakia was
(2) surrounded / situated / divided into two countries. The other
(3) territory / state / region is Slovakia.
The (4) landscape / production / climate of the country is
continental, with warm summers and cold, cloudy and snowy
winters. Many wild animals, along with numerous species of birds
can be found in the forests of the country. There are some 900
natural springs producing (5) holy / mineral / mild water. The
Czech hills and mountains are great for skiing, mountain biking
and hill walking. The (6) coasts / regions / castles that are worth
visiting are Moravia and Bohemia.
The capital of the country is Prague, the fifth most visited
city in Europe after London, Paris, Istanbul and Rome. Prague
is also one of the oldest cities in Europe and has a lot of tourist
(7) production / minerals / attractions. Fortunately, the Czech capital
(8) surrounded / divided / survived the World W ar II. The city’ s
4th-century Charles Bridge is one of the continent’ s most beautiful
(9) territories / states / sights. Many Hollywood and European
movies have been filmed in Prague. Children can enjoy wonderful
holidays in Prague: a toy museum, Prague Zoo, DinoPark, Sea
World and boat trips are waiting for them. Not far from the capital
there is a water park — the biggest one in Central Europe.
There is a lot to see in the Republic besides Prague: charming
towns full of historical (10) stars / treasures / rocks, peaceful
mountains, forests, lakes, (11) mineral / marine / picturesque
villages, hospitable people and old traditions. Y ou’ ll never feel
hungry if you try all the traditional dishes of the Czech Republic.
68
The people of the country are hard-working and talented.
Classical composer Antonin Dvorak and writer Franz Kafka are
world famous. And the word ‘robot’ which is now used by everybody,
was (12) divided / invented / surrounded by the Czech writer Karel
Capek.

(3) Write a paragraph to answer the question of ex. 4b in your SB.

LESSON 6

® ( after ex. 6b) Open the brackets using Conditional I.


1. If you (arrive) late, you (miss) your flight. 2. If the weathe
(not / change), the plane (be) on time. 3. You (catch) your coach if
you (leave) now. 4. If passengers (not / fasten) their seatbelts, we
(not / start) the tour. 5. (get) you homesick if you (stay) far away
from home? 6. (help) you me, if you ( not be / busy)? 7 . 1 (not / eat)
local food if I (go) on a business trip to China.

(T) a) Which is right?


1. Do you go / Will you go to Australia, if they will invite / invite you?
2. If you won’ t climb / don’ t climb this tree you don’ t see / won’ t
see the bird of paradise.
3. W ill this country become rich if they will find / find gold or
oil there?
4. When I see / will see a snake in the desert tomorrow I don’t
get / won’ t get scared.
5. You avoid / will avoid the wild animals of the forest if you
will climb / climb this rock.
6. If they decide / will decide to settle here, it takes / will take
them a week or two.
7. Do you walk / W ill you walk barefoot if you go deep into the
jungle in New Guinea?
69
b) There are four mistakes in these sentences. Rewrite the sentences
with mistakes correctly.
1. If I will become President, I’ ll help the poor.
2. W hat will you do if the weather is wet?
3. W ill you introduce me to your uncle if I will ask you?
4. If she doesn’t stop crying, I leave.
5. When he grows up he’ ll be very handsome.
6. If I’ ll have time tomorrow, I’ ll teach you how to do it.
7 . 1 think we’ ll go to the beach at the weekend if it is still dry.

(2) a) Complete the sentences. Follow the example below:

Example: Animals that lay eggs are called egg-laying animals.

Animals that eat meat are called______________________ animals.


Animals that eat grass are called______________________ animals.
Animals that move fast are called_____________________ animals.
Children who grow fast are called_____________________children.
People who work hard are called_______________________ people.

b) Fill in the words from ex. 2a to make true statements.

1. The people of Belarus are hospitable and___________________ .


2. Tyrannosaurus Rex was the largest_______________dinosaur.
3. Some of th e ___________________________ dinosaurs weighed up
to 150 tonnes.
4. The black swan and the platypus are both ___________________
animals.
5 . ____________________ children sometimes have problems with
their health.
6. The Red Kangaroo is a _______________________________animal.

70
(3) Use your dictionary to read this article from a children’s encyclopaedia.
Answer the question after the article.
A popular Australian folk song tells us about a very interesting
and unusual bird — the kookaburra, which lives in eucalyptus trees
and can imitate the human laugh. This bird is one of the famous
mockingbirds of Australia. But the ‘ prince of the mockingbirds’ is
definitely the lyrebird.
If you leave the hot and dry Australian desert, go deep into
the dark and wet forests of Victoria, you’ ll hear the calls of
kookaburra, then of a black cockatoo, then — of a dozen other
birds, and finally — something like coughs, wheezes, sneezes and
whistles. Were actually a dozen birds in the jungle? No, just one.
The world’s greatest mimic: a lyrebird. Dr. L. H. Smith, an expert
on the lyrebird says that one bird he watched imitated 27 different
sounds, including other birds, koalas, and even railroad trains!
Question: W hat will happen if you enter the Australian jungle?

LESSON 7

© ( a f t e r ex. 3) a) Play the Australian Bush Market game. Choose


something from the list below. Get ready to advertise your goods.
Use the adjectives in the box to describe the things you have.

gorgeous, cute, naughty, special, pretty,


beautiful, fantastic
J
15 woollen scarves, 300 seashells, 25 pieces of coral reefs, 33
shark’s teeth necklaces, 3 talking cockatoos, 5 CDs with local music,
100 birds of paradise feathers, 5 tortoiseshell boxes, 7 Aboriginal
paintings, 9 crocodile belts, 3 stuffed kangaroos, 37 toy koala bears,
10 upside-down world maps, 2 baby kangaroos, 50 postcards with
Australian sights, 6 books on the history of Australia, 20 tickets
to the circus, 6 rocks with X-ray paintings
71
b) Mix around and exchange your things with as many people as you
can. Make notes. Remember: your time is limited.
Example: What will you give me if I give you three woollen
scarves? M y scarves are gorgeous!
If you like what your partner is offering you, say: “It’ s a deal!”
If you don’t like what your classmate is offering you, say: “No deal!”

c) Your time is out. Count how many things and what kind of things
you have got.
d) Who’s the greenest?

(T) Read about the Great Barrier Reef near the eastern coast of Australia.
Complete the questions after the text.
The Great Barrier Reef is a coral necklace, more than 2,000
kilometres long which looks like an unfinished jigsaw puzzle made
up of 2,900 reefs and hundreds of smaller islands. Together they form
the largest system of living corals. The warm clear waters are home
to all marine animals from large whales and gentle whale sharks to
shoals of colourful small fish. In all about 1,500 species of fish, along
with sea turtles and millions of sea birds live there. You can look at
the wonders of the deep sea world through the glassbottomed boats.
The best time to visit the reefs is from May to November.
1. How long ... ? 2. W h a t ... look like? 3. What animals ... in th
reefs? 4. How can you ... ? 5. When ... ?

© C om plete the sentences using ideas of your own.


a) W e ’ ll go to the beach tomorrow if ... .
b) If you come late again ... .
c) I’ m going to the party on Thursday ... .
d) If you don’t do your homework for tomorrow ... .
e) When I grow up ... .
f) If you don’t let me go ... .
g) When I go to Australia ... .
72
(3 )a ) Read the dictionary definitions of the words coast, shore, bankand
beach. Fill in the correct word in the sentences 1— 5 below (one of the
words is used twice).
Coast — the land next to or close to the sea, the area where the
land meets the sea.
Example: M ost o f the population o f Australia live in big cities
along the east coast o f the continent.
Shore — the land along the edge of a sea, lake or wide river.
Example: You can walk for miles along the shore.
Bank — land along the sides of a river.
Example: These flowers usually grow on river banks.
Beach — an area of sand or small stones beside the sea or a lake;
the place where people usually enjoy themselves.
Example: W e spent the day on the beach.
W e could see beautiful white sailing boats about a mile from the

( 1 ) ____________•
In summer people love sunbathing on the ( 2 ) ___________ .
The west (3 )_________ of Australia is washed by the Indian Ocean.
You can get to the opposite (4 )_________of the river by the bridge.
I used to live in a small village on the (5 )___________of the Pacific
Ocean.

b) Find equivalents of the four words in your language.

LESSON 8

@ (after ex. 3) Play the memory game.


a) Look through the tips in ex. 3a for one minute. Try to remember as
much as you can.
73
b) Work in pairs.
Your partner: Uses the book to ask questions.
You: Keep the book closed and answer the questions keeping the
beach safety tips in mind.
Example: — Will you swim in calm sea when you’re on the beach?
— Yes, I will.
— Will you swim if you feel unwell?
— No, I won’t.

(T) Rewrite the warnings below two times to use Conditional I with a) 'if’
and b) ‘unless’.

Example: Get up early or you’ll miss the plane.


I f you don’t get up early, you’ll miss the plane.
Unless you get up early, you’ll miss the plane.
1. Write down her telephone number or you’ ll forget it. 2. Go
away or I’ ll call the police. 3. Stop playing with that knife or you’ ll
cut yourself. 4. Take a taxi or it’ ll take ages to get to the airport.
5. Wake me up at six or I won’t catch the train. 6. Start packing
now or you’ ll be late for the bus. 7. Take a window seat or you won’t
see anything.

(2 )a) Read the travel tips below. Match them with the headings.
A . Beach holiday C. City Sightseeing Holiday
B. African safari D. An Active Outdoor Holiday
1) Bring water and windproof trousers, T-shirts which are
breathable, hiking shoes and boots. Scarves and hats — even in
summer — make a big difference in comfort when you get higher.
Hiking socks are a must — they will keep your feet dry. You won’t
need formal clothes, but you should bring a flashlight with plenty
of batteries.
2) Get a swimsuit and make sure you buy more than one.
A waterproof bag would be very convenient. Plastic bags can be
your best friend. Use them to bring food with you, and carry wet
74
swimsuits and towels on the way home. It may feel good, but the
sun is not your friend. Pack a lot of sunscreen, wear sunglasses
and a hat.
3) Good walking shoes, a pair of jeans, a couple of blouses or
shirts (for men) are a must. To cut a long story short, if you don’t
want to lose it, don’t bring it. Also, don’t pack a monster suitcase —
it will be very difficult to get onto a bus.
4) If you wear white and bright, it will distract animals. If you
wear black and blue, it will attract insects. Wear olive, green and
khaki. Don’t forget a small first-aid kit. Insect repellant and malaria
medication should be on your list. Pack an extra toothbrush. Bring
a pair of good binoculars. Buy an extra digital camera card — you
don’t want to run out of space when you’re ready to take that close-
up of a lion.

b ) Copy Conditional I sentences into your notebook.

c) Write the safety tips below in two groups: Travel safety and
Transport safety.
1) Keep your travel plans to yourself.
2) Try not to travel at night.
3) A t the airport, watch for your suitcase. Don’t hang back and
wait for the people to disappear — you might find that your bag
has disappeared with one of them.
4) Don’t go into dangerous areas of the cities you visit, especially
at night.
5) Don’ t share taxis with strangers.
6) Ask your hotel manager for advice on ‘ safe’ versus ‘ unsafe’
local areas.
7) If you see that in the city street there are many children and
women, it means the area is safe for families.
8) Don’t change money at airports, as you might be watched.
9) Keep a photocopy of your passport and all other important
documents in a safe place.
75
10) Consult with your hotel manager or tourist information
centre about the public transport in your area. Make sure you know
what official taxi cabs look like.
11) Use cash machines during the day, when there are people
around.
12) If you are attacked in the street, don’t fight back. It is better
to lose a few dollars and a wrist watch than get hurt.

(3) Write 3 Conditional I sentences. Make them true for you.

LESSON 9

© ( a f t e r ex. 2) a) Read the postcards from Australia. Answer the


questions.
1. How old are the people who wrote them? W hy do you think
so? 2. Are they busy? W hy do you think so? 3. W hat do they like
about Australia? 4. W hat holidays are they having?

To: J ill Rambler


253, Green S tre e t
Edinburgh
Scotland
UK
Dear J ill,
I believe I ’ve found paradise! I like feeling s o ft white sand
under my fe e t and hearing th e waves, not mobile phones.
I haven't used a watch since I got here. Every day a fte r a
morning dive I sleep under th e palm-trees. W hile th e kids go
fishing, I enjoy sunbathing or ju s t look a t th e gorgeous sea.
L ife is quiet here. I f you travel to Australia one day, you'll
see everything w ith your own eyes.
Love, Andrew.

76
To: Benjamin Anderson
44, Scotland S treet
Edinburgh
UK
Dear Ben,
Been here fo r two weeks — love it! Go swimming, diving and
fishing. Learning to s u rf, too. Travel a lot. Been to Canberra,
Sydney and to th e bush. Enjoyed th e Great B arrier Reef and
th e deserts. Koalas and bilbies — cute! Everybody says I'm
not a t all naughty.
I f you can, go to Australia one day. W orth it! Life is fun here!
Love, Rose.

b) Change postcard В to make the sentences complete.


Example: Been here for two weeks. — I have been here for two
weeks.
c) Change postcard A to make sentences shorter.
Example: I believe I ’ ve found paradise! — Found paradise!

d) Imagine you are Mr. Rambler. Write a postcard from his travelling in
Belarus to his friend in the UK. Use postcard A for help.

e) Rewrite it making the sentences shorter. Use postcard В as an


example.

(T)ln your exercise-book write the new words from the unit in groups
according to the parts of speech.

Example: Adjectives: dry , .... Verbs: get seasick,.... Nouns: route,....


A d je c tiv e s V erbs Nouns

dry get seasick route


Scared, flat, settle, holy, coast, special, wet, marine, divide,
state, territory, government, minerals, oil, production, wheat,
mining, cattle, gorgeous, cute, naughty, shell, shore, route, get
seasick, settle, dry.
77
(2) a) Match the verbs with their definitions.

1. settle a) to feel unwell travelling by sea because of


the movements of the ship
2. divide b) to have difficulties or great pain
3. get seasick c) to go and live
4. suffer d) to break into parts

b) Fill in the words from ex. 2a. Mind the form of the verb.

1. The first people w h o _____________ in Australia were sheep


farmers.
2. She hates travelling by ship, because she knows she might*1 3

3. The U rals_____________ Europe from Asia.


4. The poor animals_____________ in small badly kept zoos.

(3) Complete the article about Belarus with the words from the list: situated,
minerals, climate, ancient, hardworking, settle, wheat, area, flat, holy,
cattle, mining, rocks, territory, oil, landscape.

If you look at the map of the world, you’ll see that Belarus is
( 1 ) _____________right in the centre of Europe. It is a landlocked
country with the (2) _____________ of 207,600 square kilometers.
There are no huge mountains in Belarus, the landscape is mostly
( 3 ) _____________with hills that go up for miles and then go down
for miles again. But this (4 )_____________ is never boring, as forests
make up a third of the ( 5 ) _____________ of Belarus and you can also
enjoy looking at hundreds of gorgeous rivers and lakes. During
the Ice Age lots of (6) _____________ were brought to the country

78
from Finland and Sweden. Many of these rocks — boulders — were
(7 )_____________ places for the Slavic people that settled the territory
of (8)_____________ Belarus.
The population of Belarus is about 10 million people. Most of
them live in cities and towns. Belarus is made up of 6 regions. The
capital of the country and of Minsk region is Minsk. Each region
has its own capital.
Belarus has one ( 9 ) _____________ — continental — with cold
winters and warm and sometimes even hot summers. It snows in
winter and it often rains in autumn and spring.
Belarus is famous for salt (1 0 )______ , ( 1 1 ) __________ farming,
( 1 2 ) ______________production and ( 1 3 ) _______________ processing,
( 1 4 ) ____________ and vegetable growing, production of tractors
and trucks.
Most people in the country speak Russian and Belarusian. Many
people from all over the world have been coming to Belarus to
(1 5 ) ____________in this hospitable country. Everyone knows that
Belarusians are friendly and ( 1 6 ) _____________ . Welcome to our
blue-eyed land!

79
ta m ©

LESSON 1

© (after ex. 4b) Add one more tip to each category.

© C ho ose some of the words from the box to complete the sentences.
In sentence № 7 the same word is used twice.

1. Little children love jumping out of cupboards and shouting


‘____ !’ at people. 2 . ____ ! The film has already started. 3 . 1 showed
my new laptop to my friends and they all said ‘ ____ . ’ 4. ____ !
I ’ ve broken another cup. 5. W hat is your pasta topping? —
Pesto. — ____ ! I hate it. 6. ____ ! Y ou ’ ve stepped on my foot!
7. “____ ! ____ ! Y o u ’ re dead!” said my little cousin, pointing
a plastic gun at me. 8 . ____ ! This monster really looks awful.

(D Read about comics. Mark the statements below T (true) or F (false).


The word ‘ comics’ makes us think that we are going to read
something funny. Not necessarily so. This word is used to describe
successions of pictures with some text attached to them. They can
be both funny and serious.
Many countries have taken their words for comics from English,
including Russian (комиксы) and German.
W e say ‘ comics is’ when we speak about a type of art, and
‘comics are’ when we speak about individual examples — comic
80
strips and comic books. Comic strips are generally short comics
that usually appear in newspapers. Comic magazines and books are
very different in different countries. Comic books can be mostly
found in the USA. They are thin and usually published in colour.
European and Japanese comics are mostly magazines — monthly
and weekly in Europe, and usually black-and-white and weekly
in Japan. Japanese comic magazines typically run to hundreds of
pages.
Some say that the history of comics began 20,000 years ago when
prehistoric artists drew symbols, animals and people in a cave in
what is now modern France. Birds, bears, lions, cattle, bison and
hunters look at you from the walls of the cave.
By the m id-20th century, comics had become popular in the
United States, France and Belgium, and Japan. American comics
appeared in newspapers first as comic strips and superhero comic
books later followed. They were mostly black-and-white. Superman
(1938) began the Golden Age of Comic Books. Japanese comics
and cartoons (manga) were born as early as the 12th century. The
European, American and Japanese comics traditions have gone
their own ways.
Text appears in comics in captions, speech balloons and sound
effects. Captions tell us about the place and time, present characters’
conversations and thoughts. Speech balloons actually turn an image
into comics. Sound effects can include animal noises like ‘miaow’
or ‘chirp’ . They are different in different languages. In England,
for example, the sound of the clock may be ‘tick-tock’ , ‘ katchin-
katchin’ in Japan and ‘ tik -tik ’ in India. Some other English-
language examples include ‘ hiccup’ , ‘ zoom’ , ‘bang’ , ‘beep’ , ‘ moo’
and others.
Now webcomics are popular all over the world. They can be
found on the Internet. Film studios often use comics for making
films. Today not only comic fans know 300, Jurassic Park, Iron
M an, Spider-Man, Hulk, The M en in Black, Avengers, Batman,
Catwoman, Superman, X -M en , The X-Files, etc.
81
1. Comics are funny. [HI
2. The word ‘ comics’ came from Japan. СИ
3. W e say ‘comics is’ when we speak about one thing only. □
4. Comic books are typical of Japan. CD
5. In Japan comics are usually black-and-white. СИ
6. The first prehistoric ‘comics’ were found in Japan. СИ
7. Comic traditions are the same for all countries. СИ
8. Sound effects present characters’ words. СИ
9. Sound effects are the same in all languages. СИ
10. Many very popular films were based on comics. СИ

(3) Match the famous quotes with the films and cartoons.

Mickey Mouse, Pocahontas, Mary Poppins,


Cinderella, Lion King, Winnie-the-Pooh,
Alice in Wonderland1*7
5
4
3
2
a
1. No matter how your heart is grieving, if you keep believing,
the dream that you wish will come true.
2. The past can hurt. But the way I see it, you can either run
from it, or learn from it.
3. In every job that must be done, there is an element of fun.
You find the fun and — snap! — the job’ s a game!
4. The things that make me different are the things that make
me.
5. How high does a sycamore grow? If you cut it down, you’ ll
never know.
6 . 1 can’t go back to yesterday — because I was a different person
then.
7. To laugh at yourself is to love yourself.

82
LESSON 2
© (after ex. 1) Do a short quiz on Roald Dahl.
1. Where was Dahl born?
a) In England c) In Scotland
b) In Ireland d) In Wales
2. His parents were originally from
a) Germany c) Norway
b) Belarus d) India
3. A t what age did he start writing a diary?
a) 2 c) 28
b) 8 d) 82
4. W hat organization did he join when war broke out?
a) British Boy Scouts c) British Red Cross
b) Royal Air Force d) Royal Society of Literature
5. How many children did Dahl have?
a) 1 c) 5
b) 3 d) 7
6. W hat was his first book in 1943?
a) The Gremlins
b) Charlie and the Chocolate factory
c) Matilda
d) James and the Giant Peach
7. Roald Dahl is known for writing ... .
a) on a plane c) in a Gypsy wagon
b) on the beach d) in an Inuit igloo
8. How did Dahl write his books?
a) by hand
b) typed them on a computer
c) typed them on a typewriter
d) dictated them to his secretary
9. Roald Dahl was a sweet tooth. W hat did he like eating?
a) strawberries and cream c) plum jam
b) orange marmalade d) chocolate
83
(T) Underline the correct word.
1) Can/ Could you learn a poem by heart when you were fou
2) By the age of seven she can’ t / could read this book from cover
to cover.
3) I ’ m afraid you couldn’ t / ca n ’ t speak to Mr. Brown at th
moment, he’ s in the meeting.
4) When Mrs. Rover was a teenager she couldn’t / can’t play the
piano.
5) John says he could / can speak French perfectly well.
6) What can / could you do when you were nine?
7) Yesterday I couldn’ t / ca n ’ t borrow a book from the library
because I hadn’t returned another one.
8) She said she couldn’t / can’t learn that poem yesterday because
she was busy.

© C om plete sentences 1— 8 with the endings a— h.

1. Many people really think a) book you read from cover to


2. I’m sure that I could cover?
3. The librarian asked me b) that grownups read more
4. Do you remember the first than teenagers.
5. How many poems in c) books to the library on time.
English d) what sort of books I would
6. Mum told me that when like to borrow.
7. It’ s very important that e) a huge poem by heart.
you return f ) do you know by heart?
8. Mr. Grey can learn g) I was a little girl I could read
fast and well.
h) read perfectly well by the
age of five.

© F ill in can / can 't/ could/ couldn’t.


1) You don’t have to speak so loudly. I _________hear you perfectly
well. 2) W e _________ go on a trip because it was too expensive.
84
3) He eats in restaurants all the time because h e _________cook.
4) I had an aisle seat on the plane, so I _________ see the landscape
below. 5) When we used to live in Germany, I _________speak some
German, but now I _________ say a word. 6 ) __________ you play
the piano at the age of six? 7) He spoke English so fast that
I _________ understand him. 8) I ’ m afraid I __________talk to you
now. I have to arrive at school in time. 9) I _________ get a good
mark in Literature because I didn’ t know the poem by heart.
10) I _________ retell my friend the whole story because I had read
the book from cover to cover.

LESSON 3

© ( a f t e r ex. 3) a) Read about William James Sidis — a prodigy child.


Which fact do you find the most exciting?
William James Sidis was born to Russian- A prodigy —
Jewish immigrants on April 1 ,1 8 9 8 , in New someone with a very
great ability which
York City. His father was a polyglot and his
usually shows itself
son would become one too at a young age.
when this person is a
B illy’ s parents wanted him to be able to young child.
love learning. They never punished him and
helped him to learn new facts, new subjects and new languages.
Young William could read the New York
Latin at the age of two, Greek — at three, had written four books
and knew ten languages (English, Latin, Greek, Russian, Hebrew,
French, German, Turkish, Armenian and Vendergood — his own
invention) before his eighth birthday. A t the age of five he was
able to name the day of the week for any given historical date with
the help of a formula invented by him. He gave a lecture at the
University of Harvard at the age of 11. His IQ was between 250
85
and 300 (usually it is between 85 and 115). He became a university
student at the age of twelve and graduated before he was sixteen.

b) Is it always possible to use can / could instead of be able to or be


able to instead of can / could in the text above? Why?

(7) Put the words in the correct order to make sentences.


1. two / could / foreign / age / languages / John / well / by /
the / of / speak / fourteen / perfectly.
2. were / use / a / you / mobile / when / you / phone / four /
Could?
3. girl / mum / was / a / well / little / When / she / swim / my /
could.
4. able / you / Would / to / to / use / the / like / Internet / be?
5. someone / Do / do / who / yoga / you / know / can?
6. like / to / cover / be / able / to / Jane / read / book / from /
this / cover / would / to.
7. were / books / borrow / A t / you / age / able / to / from / the /
what / library?
8. is / age / the / Nobody / to / trees / at / of / climb / three /
able.

(2) Correct the mistakes.


1. A t the age of five I was able count to a hundred.
2. Can you speak German when you were eleven?
3. John would like to able to play a musical instrument at the
age of fifteen.
4. Sam will like to be able to design clothes in the future.
5. Mary could write stories in English now.
6. All my classmates can use a computer and to write computer
programmes.
7. A t what age could you borrowed books from the library?
8. My cousins was able to read Matilda from cover to cover when
they were nine.
86
(3)Read the letter Steve wrote when he was 12 and fill in the missing
words.

would, prodigy, can, be able to, use, able, ’ m, recite

Hi everybody!
I’ m Steve. I live in Birmingham in England. My schoolteachers
say my classmates are ( 1 ) ________________ children because we
can do many things. Bob can (2) ________________ poems in a
beautiful way. Jerry can play football well. Mary and Val are
( 3 ) ________________ to play musical instruments. My best friend
Mike can use a computer well and he ( 4 ) ________________also write
some computer programmes. W hat concerns me, I also want to be
able to ( 5 ) ________________some new computer programmes in the
future. I ( 6 ) ______________ able to speak German but I hope in the
future I’ ll ( 7 ) ________________speak two more foreign languages.
And what about you and your classmates? W hat can you do? What
( 8 ) ________________you like to be able to do? W rite soon.

LESSON 4

© (after ex. 3d) a) Fill in the gaps.

Superman comics first ( 1 ) ________________on April 18, 1938. It


was created by Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster. Siegel’s father died
and Siegel created a man who became the world’ s greatest hero.
Later Superman moved to radio and television programmes,
films, newspaper ( 2 ) ________________strips and video games.
87
Superman was born Kal-El on the planet Krypton and travelled to
Earth in a rocket moments before his planet ( 3 )________________. He
grew up as Clark Kent in the family of a Kansas farmer and his wife.
Very early he started to display superhuman ( 4 ) ________________:
superhuman strength, speed, hearing, intelligence, vision
(5 )________________(X-ray, infra-red, telescopic, microscopic, etc);
he had an ability to fly, etc.
Superman usually wears a blue costume with a red-and-yellow
letter ‘S’ and a red cape. This letter ‘S’ is a ( 6 ) ________________of
this character.
The ( 7 ) ________________of his life is Lois Lane and he usually
fights against Lex Luthor and other bad guys. He was modelled on
religious and mythological characters like Samson and Hercules.
Superman’ s powers became more numerous with tim e.
Unfortunately, green Kryptonite — a radioactive material from
Krypton is ( 8 ) ________________for him.
( 9 ) ________________ Superman many other superheroes have
appeared.

b) Listen again and check yourselves.

© C om plete the sentences with the correct options.


1) The heroes / grown-ups / teenagers always tell us to be quiet
or play outside — it’ s not fun at all! 2) Roald Dahl was a pilot in
the World W ar II and though he wasn’ t a war power / ability /
hero, his books have made him one of children’s favourite authors.
3) Some countries have to return / borrow / recite a lot of money to
survive. 4) In Japan power / comic / grown-up magazines are called
manga. 5) She always makes a lot of mistakes when she returns /
borrows / recites in front of the class. 6) Someone who is telepathic
has the age / cover / power to know what other people are thinking.
88
7) He ran away from home at the pow er / ability / age of fifteen.
8) Paperbacks have very soft powers / covers / comics which don’t
last long. 9) Her parents recited / borrowed / used all their power
to make her study well.

(2) Read about a famous book and cartoon character and his abilities.
Choose the words from the box to complete the article.

( survive, wolves, suffer, magic, able (x2), exciting, abilities

Mowgli is a character of Rudyard Kipling’ s The Jungle Book


stories. He is a feral child1 from the Pench area in Central India.
This young man has very special ( 1 ) _________: he is brilliant at
hunting, tracking and driving wild animals. He does it with the help
of his wolf brothers and he doesn’ t use ( 2 ) _________or demons for
that. Mowgli got his almost superhuman abilities because he grew
up in a pack of ( 3 ) _________in the jungle.
In India, people ( 4 ) _________ a lot from tiger attacks. During
such an attack Mowgli was lost as a baby in the Indian jungle. There
he was adopted2 by the Mother W o lf and Father W o lf who call
him Mowgli (a frog) because he has got no fur and never sits still.
Mowgli grows up with the pack, hunting with his brother wolves.
He realizes he is (5 )_________to stare down other wolves: he can look
at them for a long time to make them look away. Wolves are even
happier about his unique ability to remove thorns3 from the paws4
of his brothers. Bagheera, the black panther, Baloo, the bear, and

1feral child — a h u m a n ch ild w ho h as liv ed aw ay fro m h u m a n c o n ta c t fro m a very


y o u n g age, a n d h as no a b ility to speak o r behave like a h u m an . F eral ch ild re n are
u su a lly b ro u g h t u p by a n im als o r live in th e w ild
2 adopt — to ta k e a ch ild in to y o u r ow n fa m ily as y o u r own ch ild
3 remove thorns — to ta k e aw ay sm all sh a rp p a r ts of p la n ts
4 paw — th e fo o t o f an a n im al su c h as a w olf
89
Kaa, the python, befriend Mowgli and help him ( 6 ) _________in the
jungle. Shere Khan, the tiger, is Mowgli’ s enemy. However, soon
Mowgli understands that he is (7 )_________to fight Shere Khan with
the help of fire. Mowgli has many ( 8 ) _________adventures which
make him one of children’s favourite book characters.

(3 )a ) Put the lines of a famous poem by Robert Louis Stevenson — the


author of Treasure Island, in the correct order.
And behave mannerly at table;
And speak when he is spoken to,
A t least as far as he is able.
A child should always say what’ s true

b) Learn the poem by heart to recite it in class.

LESSON 5

© (after ex. 2b) Listen again and mark the statements T (true) or F (false).
1. He had a bad fall from his horse when he was learning to ride
for Anna Karenina. EH
2. He was paralysed from the neck down in 1995. EH
3. His wife made him laugh with her silly jokes to help him
survive. □
4. Christopher Reeve spent his money on helping people with
disabilities. I__I
5. In 2000 he got some of his abilities back. EH
6. He directed a film about horse-riding safety tips. EH
7. He died in 2004. EH
8. After his death his friend Robin Williams said about him,
“He used his powers to save people. Nothing could stop him.” EH

90
(T) Choose the right option.

1. □ you see the fireworks from your bedroom last night?


a) can’t b) could c) can

2. Do you think you EH finish the project by next week?


a) couldn’ t b) will be able to c) was able to

3. Look! I EH climb that tree!


a) could b) can c) be able

4. You must be very careful and hard-working EH to pass this


exam.
a) can b) to be able c) be able to

5. □ you understand what you were talking about?


a) can b) is able to c) could

6. I’ ll EH help you later.


a) can b) be able c) will be able
7. I’m sure my dog understands me very well, but, unfortunately,
it EH talk.
a) can b) is able c) can’t

8. I’ m right-handed, but my friend Anna EH write with her left


hand.
a) can’ t b) can c) isn’ table

9. Spiderman EH climb skyscrapers.


a) couldn’t b) was unable to c) can

10. I would like to EH see the future.


a) can b) will be able c) be able to

1 1 . 1 live by the sea. I love EH to go to the beach every day.


a) being able b) able c) can

91
(2) Use the words from the box to complete the article below.
disability, disabilities, disabled (x3), teenagers,
superpowers, powers, uses, superhero, unable

Great Disability or Great Power


Different ( 1 ) _____________ have been shown in comics over the
years. From Doctor Mid-Nite who is unable to see, and Freddy
freeman to Echo who is deaf — unable to hear.
Doctor Mid-Nite is widely considered the first ( 2 ) ______________
superhero character, appearing for the first time in 1941. An owl
crashes through his window and after that he can see only in the dark
but is blind in the daytime — unless he (3 )_________ infrared glasses.
Such (4) ______________ characters are disabled, but some
feel that they are too fantastical and can’ t be used as positive
examples. ‘ Characters like Daredevil or Doctor Mid-Nite have
(5 )_____________ that compensate for their disability. This doesn’t
seem to be realistic,’ says graphic novelist A1 Davison from
Newcastle. ‘W e need more comic book characters who really are
disabled people rather than those with superpowers.’
Now, American comic Archie introduces a new ( 6 ) _____________
character. Her name is Harper Lodge and she is a fashion designer.
She is ( 7 ) _________to walk after a car crash she got into when she
was a teenager. She’s there for every kid with a ( 8 ) ________ and is
a role model.
On the advice from (9) ______________fans the character of
Vengeance was introduced in the Movement, a comic series about
a group of (10)_____________ . Vengeance can’t walk. Unfortunately,
the series wasn’t popular and was discontinued.
Davison believes that disabled people can make great comic
book characters and they don’ t need super (1 1 )_____________ which
92
compensate for their disability. He says, ‘I’m in the wheelchair but
I’ve got a fifth degree black belt in Rung Fu.’
(3) Write a paragraph about the superpowers you would like to have.
Explain why.

LESSON 6

© (after ex. 6b) Write full answers to the questions in ex. 6a.
(7) Match the words with their explanations.2

1. to recite a) an essay written by school or college


2. to borrow students
3. a teenager b) a person aged from 13 to 19
4. a dictionary c) to take from
5. a composition d) a piece of work by a school or college
6. a project student
7. by heart e) a book with words in alphabetical order
f ) from memory
g) to repeat from memory

(2) Fill in the missing words. Then compare Natasha with your friend or
friends. Write about your friend.

to be, dictionary, can’t, heart, projects, recited, grown-up,


could, attended, able

Natasha loves her English classes. She started learning English


J
when she was six and by the age of seven she ( 1 ) _________read and
write. She did her homework regularly, ( 2 ) _________ all classes,
learnt and (3 )_________poems, learnt how to use a (4 )_________ . Now
she’ s twelve and she is ( 5 ) _________ to do difficult tests, to read
newspapers and to learn songs by (6 )________ . In the nearest future
Natasha would like ( 7 ) _________ able to speak with her foreign
93
friend in the English language and to do creative ( 8 ) _________ .
Today Natasha ( 9 ) _________read English books in the original but
she would like to be able to when she is a ( 1 0 ) _________.

(3) Use the table below to write about Maggie, Steve, Helen and John at
the age of six, now and in the future. Use could / was able to; can /
is able to / will be able to and infinitives with ‘to' or without ‘to’.

Example: A t the age o f six M aggie could ( was able to ) play


hopscotch.
at the age o f six now in the future

M aggie

S te v e

Helen

John

94
LESSON 7

© (after ex. 4) Choose the best option.


1. Thank you for the lovely / loveless present. 2. Absolutely
friendly / friendless and without a job, he didn’t know how he was
going to survive the year ahead. 3. Everybody is happy that Mary
has come up with many helpless / helpful ideas. 4. Because of the
bad mark she now has to reread / rewrite her composition. 5. She
looks so young and is so active that she seems ageing / .
6. Be careless / careful with the glasses — they are very fragile
and expensive. 7. You are absolutely useful / useless — can’t you
even help in the kitchen without breaking something! 8. It was only
much later that she found sadness / happiness. 9. Physical fitness /
happiness is important in life.
© Read the letter and fill in the correct modal verb. Then write a letter to
Jake. Try to use as many modals as possible.
should, should, able to, have, to be able to, couldn’ t,
had, can’t, be able, must
)
l £ S to ask you if you (0) “ “ f J ” ) - %
I've been studying ^ . a n f o r th r у ^ R jt perfectly
I'm good at iT I wou d 1
(2) ^e rsta n d anything
well. When I : started to u c told
and wasnt (4) _ say aJ /<5 j ™ead aloud a lot. But I think
(5 )___ to attend aH classes а™з о т^ Ыпд dse. Do you think
ifs not or sing Russian songs?

1 ( M y T ie n d s say I. (8) _ _ " ^ SP& i a n


! r ; y hd°aily°lifee Ple“ e me a piece o f advice. W hat
(10)___ x do?
Regards,
Jake Mutombo --- ----------------- — ~~ Г
95
© O p e n the brackets, adding suffixes or prefixes, if necessary.
1. His (care) didn’ t help him to translate the text well. 2. It’
(use) to make him study regularly. He isn’t hard-working at all.
3. The composition Bill has written (late) is really good. 4. James,
if you want to get a better mark you must (write) your composition
and (do) the test. 5. Our English teacher is (friend) and (help). 6. To
do the test successfully you must be very (care). 7. It’s always (help)
and (use) to get good advice from your teachers.

© Add suffixes to the words in the box to complete the recommendation.


How to use a monolingual dictionary
The best way to make your English better is
to use a monolingual dictionary ( 1 ) ____ . Such
dictionaries are really ( 2 ) ____ because they give
you practice in understanding English. Look through the Examples
( 3 ) ___ and you’ ll see how the word is used. Of course, it ’ s
( 4 ) ___ to start with a dictionary which is too complicated. First
try a simpler dictionary, then move on to a more complex one.

LESSON 8
© (b e fo re ex. 1) Match the ‘brilliant’ students’ answers with the test
questions.
1. What ended in 1896?
2. How do you change centimetres to metres?
3. Name one popular queen.
4. W hat is the best way to stop overpopulation?
5. W hat are the three things you want to do in the future?
6. What can you never eat for breakfast?
7. What looks like half an apple?
8. How can a man go 8 days without sleeping?
9. How can you lift an elephant with one hand?
96
The answers:
a) The Hunger Games, b) Easy, sleep at night, c) Freddie Mercury,
d) The other half, e) 1895. f) Take out ‘ centi’ . g) 1) get a girlfriend;
2) kiss her; 3) rule the world, h) You can never lift an elephant
which has one hand, i) Lunch and dinner.

(T) Complete the sentences with the most appropriate word.


If You W ant to Study W ell
Students sometimes have trouble working with a lot of
information. This can result in bad marks. ( 1 ) _____________ , there
are some study techniques you can use to make your life easier.
Firstly, you (2 )_____________ to find a place, free of people and noise.
Listening to loud music while studying is not ( 3 ) _____________ at
all, because you’ ll focus on what is more interesting — in this
case, the music. Secondly, don’ t study in bed. If you’ re in bed,
you have to be ( 4 ) _____________ not to fall asleep. (I’ m sure you
can’ t study while you are sleeping.) If you want to sleep, don’ t
study. If you are sleepy, you won’ t ( 5 ) ______________learn half
as much as when you’ re rested. It’ s also very ( 6 ) _____________ to
start with doing your reading from the beginning to the end and
then to (7 )_____________ the text paying attention to the details. If
necessary, ( 8 ) _____________ to the most interesting parts and look
for the meaning of unknown words in the ( 9 )_____________ . Finally,
summarize what you’ve read.

1. a. regularly b. fortunatelly c. friendly


2. a. can b. was able c. have
3. a. helpful b. useless c. careful
4. a. friendly b. careful c. carelessness
5. a. be able to b. can c. should
6. a. careful b. regular c. useful
97
7. a. reread b. return c. recite
8. a. redo b. return c. rewrite
9. a. composition b. challenge c. dictionary

(2) Make sentences with the lines in A, В and C.

A. Until she started to speak B. one of the most serious


Before I started to to develop
W riting compositions was work on the project I borrowed
Please keep silent and remain seated
It’s important I hadn’t realized she
In case she isn’t a composition because he hadn’t
Den wasn’t able to write I could understand he was
Looking at his appearance able to translate

C. attended some lessons,


a friendly person,
good study skills,
the text — help her.
during the test,
some books from the library,
challenges I faced at school,
wasn’t English.

(3) What’s more of a challenge — to do a test or to make a test? Build a


test of your own to check your classmates’ grammar and vocabulary.

LESSON 9

@ (after ex. 2) Play the Abilities game.

c G, H, T, В, P, W , D, R, S, M, L
J
a) Choose a letter. You each have one minute to complete the
sentences with an action that begins with this letter. The sentences
must be true for you.
98
b) Get one point for each grammatically correct sentence. Your
classmates will also judge whether or not the sentences are true
for you.
c) If no one else in the group has the same sentence, you get two
points.
d) A fter everyone in the group has read out their sentences,
choose another letter and play again. The winner is the person with
the most points after all rounds.
Example: A t the age of six or seven I could recite little poems.
(R — recite)
1. A t the age of 6 or 7 I could ...
2. As a teenager I can ...
3. When I’ m a grown-up, I’ ll be able to ...

(T)Find eight words in the word square. Then complete sentences 1— 8


with the words.

i c h a i 1 e n g e
1. The final term will be devoted
кm m j s q a i q V
t o __________________________ work.
V d p s X Z t g r h
о w e m 2. Tom couldn’ t _______________
p j b У f d
e c e 2,000 euro from his parents.
r n О c r i t
о f r q w t e r u t 3. When did sh e_______________
j h r d s a a V r b home from the trip?
e c 0 V e r q n n 1 4. Money played a n ___________
c a w i t h О u t C role in his life.
t z r к d a i f m 5. This role will be the biggest
g
of his acting career.
6. Each student had t o _____________________ a poem to the class.
7. Her face was on th e ______________________of every magazine.
8. The student found the book______________________ difficulty.
99
© C ro s s out one extra word in each sentence.
1. It’s useful to learn poems from by heart and then to recit
them.
2 . 1 think you should to do grammar exercises regularly.
3. If the book is interesting, I can read it from the cover to cover.
4. When do you think you can will be able to use an English-
English dictionary?
5. W e had should to translate a very boring text yesterday.
6. What would you do in the case your teacher forgot to give you
your homework?
7 . 1 can safely to say that English is one of my favourite subjects
at school.
8. Do you think that all lessons at school are worth to studying?

(D Fill in the missing words.

1. She’ s returning_________Borisov tomorrow after half a year


in Minsk.
2. Members can borrow up to ten books_________ the library at
any one time.
3. David left school_________ the age of seventeen.
4. I’ve read this poem so many times that I know it _________heart.
5. Can I _________your dictionary for a while?
6. When I was your age I _________ able to read such a big book
from cover to cover.
7. Mr. Adams was sitting on his chair listening to the students
reading_________.
8. Josh and Mary have_________the same school for seven years.
9. Y o u _________make noise while doing your test.
10. W hat would you do i n _________ you were not ready for the
lesson?
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U n it 5: P a s s iv e v o ic e —
С трад ател ьны й за л о г
Значение действительного (активный — Active Voice) и стра­
дательного (пассивный — Passive Voice) залогов в английском
языке совпадает со значением соответствующих залогов в рус­
ском языке. Глагол в действительном залоге показывает, что
действие совершает лицо или предмет, выраженный подле­
жащим:
Н е often asks questions. — Он часто задает вопросы.
I bought this book yesterday. — Я купил эт у книгу вчера.
Глагол в страдательном залоге означает, что действие
направлено на предмет или лицо, выраженное подлежащим:
Н е is often asked questions. — Ему часто задают вопросы.
This book was bought yesterday. — Книга была куплена вчера.
Страдательный залог образуется следующим образом: t o be +
+ Past Participle (Participle II or V3 — the third form of the verb).
Глагол в страдательном залоге может сопровождаться указанием
исполнителя (agent) действия с предлогом by:
This book was bought by me yesterday. — Кн
мной вчера.
Present P a st Future

S im p le I am I (he, she) was I (w e)


asked asked h e (sh e , will be
h e (sh e ) is asked w e (y o u , were you, asked
th e y ) asked th e y )
w e (y o u , are
th e y ) asked

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Утверж дения Вопросы О трицания

Present P ia n o le sso n s are Are p ia n o le sso n s P ia n o le sso n s are


Sim ple given h e re . given h e re ? not given h e re .
P ast P ia n o le sso n s were W ere p ia n o le sso n s P ia n o le sso n s were
Sim ple given h e re . given h e re ? not given h e re .
Future P ia n o le s s o n s W ill p ia n o le sso n s be P ia n o le sso n s
Sim ple will be given eriven b v a n v o n e ? will not be given
b v so m eo n e. bv anvone.

U n it 5: N u m e ra ls used as nouns —
С у б с та н ти в и р о в а н н ы е числ ител ьны е
1. Обычно числительные hundred, thousand, million не
принимают окончания множественного числа -s: two hundred’,
twenty thousand’, forty-six million.
2.Однако указанные числительные ( thousand, million)
переходят в разряд существительных и принимают окончание
-s, если они употребляются для обозначения неопределенного
количества сотен, тысяч и миллионов. В этом случае за ними
следует существительное с предлогом of: thousands of people,
hundreds of students — тысячи людей, сотни студентов.

U n it 7: A r tic le s — А р ти к л и
I. Определенный артикль употребляется:
1. С названиями большинства политических и государственных
учреждений: The Kremlin, The House of Lords, the Houses of
Parliament, the A rm y, etc.
2. С названиями, в которых есть предлог ‘o f’ : The University
of London (сравните: London University).
3. С названиями, состоящими из существительного или
прилагательного в сочетании с другим существительным: The
Empire State Building, The W hite House, etc.
4. С названиями театров, музеев, картинных галерей, кино­
театров, концертных залов, отелей, уникальных произведений
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искусства, книг и газет: The T ate G allery, th e Bolshoi Theatre,
th e H erm ita ge, th e Opera H ouse, th e Bible, th e M on a Liza, The
Times, The Guardian (без артикля — газета Today и иностранные
газеты и журналы — K om som olskaya Pravda, etc.).
5. С названиями спортивных событий: The Olym pic Games
the W orld Cup, etc.
II. Артикль не употребляется:
1. С названиями, состоящими из имени собственного или
сочетания имени собственного с другим существительным:
M cDonald’s, St. Paul’s Cathedral, Buckingham Palace, Cambridge
U niversity, W a terloo S tation, etc.
2. С названиями аэропортов, станций и мостов, большинства
улиц, проспектов, дорог, парков, площадей: T ow er B ridge,
H eathrow , T rafalgar Square, F leet S treet, G orky Park, etc.
3. С названиями компаний: British A irw a ys (если в названии
присутствует слово ‘company’ , артикль возможен).

U n it 7: F u tu re — С п осо б ы в ы р а ж е н и я
б у д у щ е го в р ем ен и

Будущее действие, процесс или состояние можно передать


следующими способами:
1. The Future Simple, если решение принимается во время
разговора:
I ’ ll do it later. — Я сделаю это потом.
2. Конструкцией be going to, если это намерение, т. е. решение
принято до разговора:
I am g o in g to do it later. — Я собираюсь сделать это позже.
3. The Present Simple, если событие — часть какого-либо
расписания:
W hat time does your plane leave? — Во сколько вылетает
ваш / твой самолет?
юз
4. The Present Continuous, если речь идет о зафиксированном
плане или договоренности:
What are you doing this evening? — Какие у тебя планы на
сегодня? Что ты делаешь сегодня вечером?
W e are going to the Zoo next Saturday. — В следующую суб­
боту мы идем в зоопарк.
I am leaving tomorrow morning. — Я уезжаю завтра утром.

U n it 8: S e n te n c e s w it h c la u s es o f tim e and c o n d itio n —


С ложноподчиненны е предложения
с п р и д ато чн ы м и условия и в р ем ен и

Sentences with conditional clauses (conditional 0) — сложно­


подчиненные предложения с условными придаточными пред­
ложениями (нулевого типа)
Условие, содержащееся в условном придаточном предложении,
рассматривается говорящим как реально предполагаемый
факт, относящийся к настоящему или прошедшему времени.
Сказуемые главного и придаточного предложений выражаются
глаголами в форме изъявительного наклонения:
I f the weather is nice, we go for a walk. — Если погода хорошая,
мы ходим на прогулку.
I f the weather was nice, we went for a walk. — Если погода была
хорошая, мы ходили на прогулку.
Sentences with time clauses — сложноподчиненные пред­
ложения с придаточными времени
Когда мы говорим о будущем, в главном предложении
сложноподчиненного предложения используется будущее
время. В придаточном предложении для выражения будущего
времени за союзами when, as soon as, after, before, until, till
не используется the Future Simple. Придаточное предложение
относится к будущему времени, но в английском языке исполь­
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зуется настоящее простое время (the Present Simple): W hen our
guests arrive, we’ ll eat. ^4s soon as I have some news, I ’ll phone you.
I ’ ll do my work after I have a bath. I ’ll speak to you again before I
leave. W e ’ ll stay here until the rain stops.

conjunction + Present Simple,


will + infinitive (без частицы to) ________

Sentences with conditional clauses (conditional I) — сложно­


подчиненные предложения с условными придаточными пред­
ложениями (первого типа)
Сложноподчиненное предложение первого типа с придаточным
условия может использоваться для выражения возможных
условий и вероятных результатов в будущем:
I f they give те some money, I ’ll buy this book. Y ou ’ll get wet if
you don’ t take an umbrella.
Условие, содержащееся в условном придаточном предложении,
рассматривается говорящим как реально предполагаемый факт,
относящийся к будущему времени:
I f the weather is nice, we’ll g o for a walk. — Если погода будет
хорошая, мы пойдем на прогулку.
Как в придаточных предложениях времени, так и в при­
даточных предложениях условия для выражения будущего
времени используется не будущее, а настоящее время.

if + Present Simple,
________ will + infinitive (без частицы to) ________

Условное придаточное предложение может стоять либо перед,


либо после главного предложения. Если условное придаточное
предложение стоит перед главным предложением, то после него
ставится запятая:
I ’ ll pass ту exam s if I w ork hard. I f I work hard, I ’ ll pass my
exams.
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ВНИМАНИЕ! I f означает возможность того, что что-то прои­
зойдет; when выражает то, что, по мнению говорящего, должно
обязательно произойти:
If I find your book, I ’ll send it to you. — Если я найду вашу
книгу, я вышлю ее вам.
W hen I get home, Г11 have a bath. — Когда я приду домой,
я приму ванну.

U n it 9: M o d a ls —
М о д ал ь н ы е глаголы
I. CAN (COULD)
Модальный глагол сап используется для настоящего времени,
could — для прошедшего. Эти модальные глаголы употребляются
для выражения возможности или способности совершения
действия (в значении «мочь», «уметь»). Для выражения такого
же значения в будущем используется глагол to be able to:
She couldn’t speak English when she was ten. Now she can speak
English and French. I f she works hard, she’ll be able to speak
more than two languages in the future.

II. BE ABLE TO
Сочетание to be able + инфинитив с частицей to является
синонимом модального глагола сап (см. пункт I) для выражения
возможности или способности совершения действия во всех
временах.
ВНИМАНИЕ! Глаголы сап и could не требуют вспомогательных
глаголов при образовании отрицательных и вопросительных
форм. Они употребляются без частицы to. Глагол to be able
требует использования частицы to и вспомогательных глаголов
при образовании отрицательных и вопросительных форм.

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+ 7 —

PRESENT: CAN & BE ABLE TO


H e can Dlav th e D iano. Can h e Dlav th e H e can't (can not) p la y
p ia n o ? th e p ia n o .
H e is able to Dlav th e I s h e able to Dlav th e H e i s n ’t able to Dlav th e
p ia n o . p ia n o ? p ia n o .
I am ab le ( I ’m ab le)... A m I ab le...? I ’m n o t able...
Y ou a re able (y o u ’re able)... A re y o u ab le...? Y ou a r e n ’t able...
H e (sh e , it) is a b le ( h e ’s Is h e ab le...? H e i s n ’t able...
able)...
W e a re ab le (w e’re able)... A re w e ab le...? W e a r e n ’t able...
T h ey a r e ab le ( th e y ’r e A re th e y ab le...? T h e y a r e n ’t able...
able)...

PAST: COULD & BE ABLE TO


H e could s p e a k E n g lis h Could h e sp ea k H e couldn't (could not)
a t th e a g e o f s ix . E n g lis h a t th e a g e o f s p e a k E n g lis h a t th e ag e
s ix ? o f s ix .
H e was able to SDeak W a s h e able to SDeak H e w asn’t able to Dlav
E n g lis h a t th e a g e o f s ix . E n g lis h a t th e a g e o f th e p ia n o a t th e ag e of
s ix ? six .
H e (sh e , i t , I) w a s ab le W a s h e (sh e , i t , I) H e (sh e , i t , I) w as n o t
to ... ab le to ...? (w a s n ’t ab le) to...
W e (y o u , th e y ) w e re ab le W e re th e y (y o u , W e (y o u , th e y ) w e re n o t
to... th e y ) ab le to ...? (w e re n ’t able) to...

FUTURE: BE ABLE TO
T h e y (I, y o u , w e, h e , s h e , W ill th e y (I, y o u , w e, T h e y (I, h e , sh e , i t , y o u ,
it) will be able (’ll b e ab le) h e , sh e , it) be able to w e) will n ot (w on't) be
to t r a n s l a t e p o em s. t r a n s l a t e D oem s? able to t r a n s l a t e poem s.

III. M UST
Модальный глагол m ust употребляется:
1. Для выражения долженствования, необходимости прои
вести действие в настоящем или будущем:
I must go.— Я должен идти.
2.Для выражения запрещения в отрицательном предложении:
You mustn’t do it. — Нельзя этого делать.

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3. Для обозначения настоятельного совета, рекомендации:
You must come and see my new flat. — Ты должен прийти
посмотреть мою новую квартиру.
Глагол must не употребляется с частицей to, а также не
используется в прошедшем времени. Вместо него используется
had to (глагол have to в форме прошедшего времени).
IV. H AVE ТО
Модальный глагол have (to) употребляется в сочетании
с инфинитивом с частицей to для выражения необходимости
совершить действие в силу определенных обстоятельств.
В этом случае have (to) соответствует русскому «приходится,
вынужден», а отрицательная форма означает «не обязательно»:
It was very dark and we had to stay at home. — Было очень
темно, и нам пришлось остаться дома.
I don't have to stay here. — М не не нужно здесь оставаться.
Глагол have to требует использования вспомогательных
глаголов (do, does, did) при образовании отрицательных и во­
просительных форм.
V. SHOULD
Модальный глагол should в основном употребляется для
выражения совета, рекомендации:
You should see a doctor. — Вам следует показаться врачу.
Should является самодостаточным модальным глаголом
и не нуждается во вспомогательных глаголах при образовании
отрицательных и вопросительных предложений. Этот глагол
не спрягается по лицам и числам, используется в настоящем,
будущем и прошедшем времени. После should смысловой глагол
употребляется в форме инфинитива без частицы to.
Отличие should от must и have to состоит в том, что совет
или пожелание, выраженное should, не требует обязательного
выполнения (вам «следует» что-то делать, а не вы «обязательно
должны» это сделать).
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U N IT 5

Lesson 1
* Ss’ own answers.
1. 1 — E, 2 — D, 3 — C, 4 — B, 5 — A , 6 — F, 7 — H, 8 — G,
9 — J, 10 — I.
2. a) 1. ancient, 2. settle, 3. graves, 4. skeleton, 5. Vikings,
6. deep, 7. archaeologists, 8. treasures, 9. Viking, 10. bury.
b) Suggested answers: 1) Yes, there are. 2) In the 8th century.
3) Ancient graves. 4) A skeleton of a rich woman. 5) From
Scandinavia — Denmark and Norway. 6) York. 7) Buildings made
of wood and the ruins of an ancient castle. 8) Coins, silver and gold.
9) Yes, there is. 10) They thought they could take them to the next
world.
3. Ss’ own answers.

Lesson 2
* lc , 2b, 3b, 4a, 5c, 6c, 7c, 8c, 9b.
1. 1. archaeologist, 2. deep, 3. digging, 4. buried, 5. treasures,
6. ancient, 7. grave, 8. mysteries.
2. Across: 1 — grave, 2 — ancient, 3 — skeleton, 4 — archaeologist,
5 — Sphynx, 6 — huge, 7 — treasure. Down: Vikings.
3. a) 1. When did Howard Carter find Tutankhamen’ s grave?
2. W hat was in the grave? 3. When was the Sphynx built? 4. How
old is the Great Pyramid? 5. When did the Vikings settle in Britain?
6. Whose skeleton was found in the grave in York? 7. Were pyramids
monuments to the dead?
b) Suggested answers.
1. In April 1922. 2. An Egyptian Pharaoh was. 3. 4500 year
ago. 4. 4500 years. 5. After 800 AD. 6. A skeleton of a rich woman.
7. Yes, they were.
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Lesson 3
* CARD A : TAJ MAHAL: is translated as ‘the crown of buildings’
from the local languages; was built at Agra, in India between 1632
and 1653; is / was made of white marble; was built by Shah Jahan
in memory of his third wife Mumtaz Mahal; is visited by thousands
of tourists every year; is thought to be one of the most beautiful
buildings in the world
CARD B: STRAWBERRY FIELDS: is situated in New York City;
is / was named after the Lennon / McCartney song Strawberry Fields
Forever; was designed by Bruce Kelly; was opened in October 1985
by his wife Yoko Ono; is often covered with flowers and candles
CARD C: LENIN’ S MAUSOLEUM: is known also as Lenin’ s
Tomb; is situated in Red Square in the centre of Moscow; is used as
a resting place of Vladimir Lenin; is / was made of marble, granite
and other materials; was designed and built by Alexei Shchusev and
other architects; was finished in 1930; is visited by thousands of
people every year
CARD D: BREST FORTRESS: is located on the Mukhavets and
Western Bug rivers in Brest, Belarus; was built between 1836 and
1842; was modernised in the 19thand 20th centuries; is / was made
of red brick; is visited by thousands of tourists every year
1. To feed — fed, to take — taken, to spend — spent, to find —
found, to build — built, to make — made, to think — thought,
to say — said, to tell — told, to see — seen, to write — written,
to leave — left, to break — broken, to buy — bought, to catch —
caught, to forget — forgotten, to know — known, to grow — grown,
to keep — kept, to learn — learned / learnt, to lose — lost, to put —
put, to read — read, to throw — thrown.
2.1) Las Fallas festival was is celebrated in Valencia every March.
2) The tradition of this festival is was born in the 18th century.
3) St. Petersburg was is known for its architecture. 4) Sometimes
archeologists are found find treasures in ancient graves. 5) Students
in our school teach are taught well. 6) Many tourists are visited by
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visit this castle. / This castle is visited by many tourists. 7) The
letter were was written by the girl. 8) These pictures was were
painted by Rembrandt.
3. lc , 2f, 3d, 4g, 5b, 6a, 7e.

Lesson 4
* a) Because in Greek mythology, Charon is someone who carries
the souls of the dead people across the rivers that divide the world
of the dead from the world of the living.
b) Because the Romans got as far as Britain and ruled parts of
the island of Great Britain from AD43 to 409 or 410.
1. 1 freedom; 2 slaves; 3 sword; 4 given... the thumbs down;
5 active; 6 passive; 7 weak; 8 modern; 9 strong.
2. 1 by; 2 with, with; 3 with; 4 by; 5 by; 6 with; 7 by.
3. 1 — ate, 2 — were eaten, 3 — lived, 4 — took, 5 — bought,
6 — was cooked, 7 — ate, 8 — was eaten, 9 — was followed, 10 —
was eaten, 11 — was served, 12 — believed, 13 — helped.

Lesson 5
* a) 1 — huge; 2 — alive; 3 — to die out; 4 — alive; b) is visited,
are eaten; were created, was invented; be eaten, be brought alive;
c) Ss’ own answers.
1 .1 . Howard Carter is an archaeologist. He found the grave
of Tutankhamen. 2. Dinosaurs are huge animals. They died out
millions of years ago. 3. Crocodiles are dinosaurs’ relatives. They
are still alive. 4. The Great Pyramid is an ancient monument. It was
built by thousands of people. 5. Archaeology is a science. It helps
us understand the past. 6. Rome is an ancient city. It was founded
by Romulus and Remus.
2. 1. Dinosaurs died out. 2. Mammoths died out. 3. Turtles are
still alive. 4. Snakes are still alive. 5. Crocodiles are still alive.
3. 1 — B, 2 — C, 3 — F, 4 — E, 5 — D, 6 — A .

ill
Lesson б
1. Ss’ own answers.
2. 1 A ; 2 В; 3 C; 4 A ; 5 C; 6 B; 7 C; 8 A ; 9 B; 10 B; 11 C; 12 A ;
13 A ; 14 B.
3. Only very rich people and later only kings were allowed to hunt
the aurochs. — Только очень состоятельным людям, а позднее
только королям разрешалось охотиться на зубров. If somebody
killed an aurochs, this person was killed too. — Если кто-то убивал
зубра, этого человека убивали тоже. In 1564 only 38 animals were
left. — В 1564 году осталось только 38 животных. The skull
(череп) of the animal was later taken by the Swedish Army and is
now kept in the museum in the Royal Palace in Stockholm. — Череп
животного был позднее захвачен шведской армией и сейчас
находится в музее королевского дворца в Стокгольме. It was
also known as garefowl, or penguin. — Он был также известен как
бескрылая гагарка, или пингвин. In the past the auk was found
in great numbers on islands off eastern Canada, Iceland, Norway,
Ireland and Great Britain. — В прошлом гагарку можно было
найти в больших количествах на островах у берегов восточной
Канады, Исландии, Норвегии, Ирландии и Великобритании.
It was eventually hunted to extinction. — В итоге охота привела
к ее полному вымиранию. An adult male which was found in
1985 in Germany was 1.2 metre high at his shoulder and was
2.1 metre long without a tail. — Взрослый самец, который
был найден в 1985 году в Германии, был 1,2 метра высотой
в холке и 2,1 метра длиной (не считая хвоста). In 2015, on the
Uyandina River in Siberia, two cave lion cubs were found by people
collecting mammoth tusks (бивни мамонта). — В 2015 году на
реке Уяндина в Сибири сборщиками бивней мамонтов были
найдены два детеныша пещерного льва. Some 12 000 years ago
they were buried in the ice. — Около 12 000 лет назад они были
захоронены во льду. Their fur, legs, tails, ears, eyes and even
whiskers can be seen. — Можно разглядеть их мех, лапы, хвосты,
уши, глаза и даже усы. They will be studied by scientists who are
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planning to learn more about their lifestyle, family connections
and eating habits. — Они будут изучены специалистами, которые
планируют узнать больше об их образе жизни, семейных связях
и привычках в еде.

Lesson 7
* Кнут и пряник — метод поощрения и наказания.
1 .1 . Treasures were found in Tutankhamen’ s grave. 2. The
exhibition of ancient art will be shown next Sunday. 3. Archaeologists
meeting will be held next Friday. 4. A dinosaur’s skeleton was found
in the desert last week. 5. An ancient grave was found in Giza
yesterday. 6. A new supercomputer will be introduced next month.
2. A competition for young inventors will be held on May 10
2017 in the Inventors Club. The age limit is fourteen. All participants
will be invited to come to the club from 4 to 6 p.m. on Saturday. The
young inventors will be asked to put their models on the tables in the
hall. Their models will be examined by five professional engineers.
They will be shown to the public on May 15. The winners of the
competition will be given prizes. The prizes will be presented by the
Head Teacher. The names of the winners will be published in the
local newspaper. Their models will be photographed and published
in the Inventor magazine.
3.1 — was called, 2 — was first used, 3 — was invented, 4 — wa
made, 5 — was called, 6 — was sold, 7 — are used, 8 — are made,
9 — are also used, 10 — will be done.

Lesson 8
* 1) It will make our life much better of course. People will live
longer and will be healthier. 2) It can be invented because progress is
fast and successful. 3) I think medicine for all illnesses is a brilliant
idea. 4) I’ m sure it will be invented soon — in fifty or one hundred
years.
1. Aqualung was invented by J.-Y. Cousteau from France in 1943
Aspirin was invented by Dr. F. Hoffman from Germany in 1899.
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Coca-Cola was invented by John Pemberton from the USA in 1886.
Cosmetics were invented in Egypt around 4000 BC. Dynamite was
invented by Alfred Nobel from Sweden in 1867. Toilet with a flush
was invented in Crete around 2000 BC. The wheel was invented
in Mesopotamia around 3 8 0 0 — 3600 BC. The W orld W ide Web
was invented by Tim Berners-Lee from England in 1989. Zero was
invented in India around 600 AD.
2. a) 1 — B, 2 — C, 3 — A , 4 — C, 5 — B. b) 1. When was the first
bicycle invented? Where was the first bicycle invented? 2. W hat
was made in Egypt in 3000 BC? Where was the first glass made?
3. Where was penicillin discovered? When was penicillin discovered?
By whom was penicillin discovered? 4. W hat will be built next year?
When will a new archaeological museum be built here? 5. What will
be discovered in the 21st century? W ill new planets be discovered
in the 21st century?
3. 1 — will soon be made; 2 — is worn; 3 — be shown; 4 — will
be used; 5 — will be worn.
Lesson 9
* 1 — archaeology, 2 — skeletons, 3 — treasures, 4 — ancient,
5 — buried, 6 — clay pots, 7 — Discoveries, 8 — died out, 9 —
alive, 10 — inventions.
1. 1. Wales was settled by the Celts in 500 BC. 2. The Acropolis
was built by the ancient Greeks. 3. A dinosaur’ s skeleton was
found by a group of archaeologists. 5. James Cook was killed by the
aboriginals of Hawaii. 6. The first car was made by Ford in 1896.
7. “Alice in Wonderland” was written by Lewis Carroll in 1865.
2. 1. was founded. 2. was found. 3. was founded. 4. were held.
5. were invited. 6. was founded. 7. were made.
3. 1. “Alice in Wonderland” was written by Lewis Carroll.
2. The Great W all was built by the ancient Chinese. 3. The song
“Yesterday” was written by Paul McCartney. 4. The film “ET” was
made by Steven Spielberg. 5. “Romeo and Juliet” was written by
Shakespeare. 6. “The Mona Lisa” was painted by Leonardo da Vinci.
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U N IT б

Lesson 1
* a) skyscraper; b) fitness centre; c) exhibition centre; d) bank;
e) river bank; f) car park; g) town hall.
1 .1 — town hall, 2 — car park, 3 — skyscrapers, 4 — high
rise, 5 — exhibition centre, 6 — bank, 7 — bridge, river bank, 8 —
opposite, 9 — fitness centre.
2. 1 — parking lot, 2 — library, 3 — fitness centre, 4 — town
hall, 5 — exhibition centre, 6 — church, 7 — hospital, 8 — school,
9 — supermarket.
3. Ss’ own answers.

Lesson 2
* a) a) worth visiting; b) to be mentioned; c) to be situated;
d) picturesque; e) to suffer; f) to survive; g) a place of interest;
b) 1 — is situated; 2 — was (first) mentioned; 3 — suffered; 4 —
did not survive; 5 — worth visiting; 6 — places of interest; 7 —
picturesque.
1. a) 1 — c, 2 — a, 3 — e, 4 — b, 5 — d. b) 1 — agriculture,
2 — founded, 3 — ancient, 4 — scientific, 5 — monuments, 6 —
picturesque, 7 — worth visiting, 8 — local.
2. 1 — mentioned, 2 — suffered, 3 — is situated, 4 — worth
visiting, 5 — survived, 6 — places of interest, 7 — picturesque.
3. Ss’ own answers.

Lesson 3
* I f , 2d, 3g, 4c, 5e, 6b, 7a, 8i, 9h.
1. le , 2d, 3c, 4a, 5b.
2. lb , 2c, 3a, 4b, 5b.
3. 1 — с (Лучше синица в руках, чем журавль в небе), 2 — d
(Это не стоит того, чтобы потерять работу), 3 — b (уважающий
себя), 4 — а (на вес золота).
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Lesson 4
* a) balcony, block of flats, chimney, cottage, fence, garage,
roof, two-storeyed; b) 1) in a block of flats; 2) on the roof; 3) in
the garage; 4) on the balcony; c) 1) a fence; 2) a chimney; 3) a roof.
1. lg ; 2b; 3e; 4h; 5a; 6c,e; 7f; 8d.
2.1 syllable: town, hall, bank, worth, sight. 2 syllables: centre
mentioned, survive, suffer, hotel. 3 syllables: cathedral, picturesque,
skyscraper, visitor, underground, attractive, convenient, hard­
working, hospitable. 4 syllables: exhibition, situated.
3. Ss’ own answers.
Lesson 5
* 1 — vicar; 2 — pond; 3 — village green; 4 — gossip; 5 — pub.
1. a) a citizen; b) a villager; c) a citizen; d) both a villager and
a citizen; e) a villager; f) a citizen; g) a citizen; h) a villager; i) both
a villager and a citizen.
2. a) IT. 2F. small corner shop. 3F. in the village hall. 4F. football
and cricket. 5F. kind-hearted and hard-working, sometimes a bit
too nosy and talkative, but honest and hospitable. 6F. on Sundays.
7T. 8F. gardens, them. 9F. a nice garden. 10T.
b) Ss’ own answers.
3. a) and b) 1) is also known. 2) is built: 3) happens; 4) is
warmed: 5) were found; 6) means; 7) are usually used: 8) were built;
9) formed; 10) were normally built; 11) were joined; 12) were used.
Lesson 6
* Ss’ own answers.
1. a) 1. place of interest; 2. is situated; 3. was first mentioned;
4. hospitable; 5. three-storeyed; 6. picturesque; 7. banks;
8. convenient; 9. visitors; 10. roof; 11. chimneys; 12. car park;
13. survived; 14. attractive; 15. worth visiting, b) The Present
Simple Passive: is situated. The Past Simple Passive: was mentioned,
was built, was bought, was given, was opened, were made, was
painted. The Future Simple Passive: will be allowed.
2. 1) town; 2) heads; 3) door; 4) down.
3. Ss’ own answers.
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Lesson 7
* Id, 2f, 3e, 4g, 5b, 6a, 7h, 8c.
1.1) is situated; 2) was mentioned; 3) survived; 4) worth visiting;
5) sights; 6) attractive; 7) banks; 8) places of interest; 9) visitors;
10) picturesque; 11) convenient; 12) hospitable.
2. Are there many tourists in it? Is it convenient to live in?
3. Ss’ own answers.

Lesson 8
* Ss’ own answers.
1. Town: block of flats, noise, skyscraper, supermarket,
fascinating. Village: fresh air, cottage, natural beauty, quiet,
boring, picturesque.
2. a) B, F, E, D, A , C. b) Ss’ own answers.
3. Ss’ own answers.

Lesson 9
* Cottage, roof, chimney, underground, skyscraper, high-rise,
town hall, bank, sight, are situated, picturesque, survived, car park,
garages, fitness centre, exhibition centre, river bank, convenient,
hospitable, hard-working, attractive, worth visiting.
1. 1 — town, 2 — city, 3 — capital, 4 — home town, 5 — the
country, 6 — village, 7 — district, 8 — neighbourhood, 9 —
suburbs, 10 — square, 11 — park, 12 — villager, 13 — heating,
14 — citizen.
2. a) 1 — suburbs, 2 — capital, 3 — square, 4 — town, 5 —
country, 6 — citizens, 7 — heating, b) Ss’ own answers.
3. a) c, a, b. b) Ss’ own answers, c) Ss’ own answers.

U N IT 7

Lesson 1
* lb , 2d, 3c, 4 f, 5g, 6a, 7e, 8k, 9j, lOi, l l h .
1. Present: 1, 2, 3; future: 4, 5, 6.
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2. Timetables: 3, 5, 6; fixed plans: 1, 2, 4.
3. On Monday he’ s packing his luggage. On Tuesday he’ s
travelling to London. On Wednesday he’ s visiting museums. On
Thursday he’s meeting friends. On Friday he’ s visiting Hyde Park.
On Saturday he’s travelling back home.

Lesson 2
* a) 1) is having; 2) is going; 3) is having; 4) is visiting; 5) is
going, b) Ss’ own answers.
1. a) The Thames; b) Yes, it did; c) Sir Christopher Wren; d) In
Hyde Park; e) 98 metres above ground; f) 14 tons; g) 19 state
rooms, 52 bedrooms, 188 staff bedrooms, 92 offices, 78 bathrooms;
h) Battle of Trafalgar; i) lifesize; j) at Hyde Park corner.
2. 1) coach, 2) leave, 3) arrive, 4) take, 5) surrounded, 6) take,
7) tickets, 8) on, 9) miss, 10) landmark.
3. Madam Tussaud’ s Museum.
Lesson 3
* 1 — passenger, 2 — get on, 3 — a window seat, 4 — an aisle
seat, 5 — guide, 6 — get off.
1. Belarus, Japan, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Poland
Russia, Holland (the Netherlands), Sweden, Ukraine.
2 . 1) guides; 2) visitors; 3) landmarks; 4) guided tour; 5) sights;
6) seats; 7) book.
3. Ss’ own answers.
Lesson 4
* Ss’ own answers.
1. 1. He’s going to travel by train. 2. They are going to travel
by plane. 3. He’s going to travel by coach. 4. She’s going to write
a letter. 5. They are going to have dinner. 6. It’ s going to rain.
2. 1. are going, 2. am going, 3. doesn’ t, 4. does, 5. am visiting,
6. Are you going, 7. will write, 8. leaves.
3. 1) local; 2) get off; 3) passengers; 4) business trip; 5) aisle
seat, window seat; 6) stay.
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Lesson 5
* Ss’ own answers.
1. a) government; b) parliament.
2. 1. football cricket; 2. 8 8.15 am; 3. on Tuesday on Monday;
4. ‘ okroshka’ ‘ draniki’ ; 5. morning at 2 pm; 6. circus theatre;
7. going to Jake’ s having her.
3. 1) attractions; 2) itinerary; 3) visitors; 4) Parliament;
5) exhibitions; 6) guided tours; 7) government; 8) capital; 9) fitness
centre; 10) landmarks; 11) worth visiting.
Lesson 6
1. 1) travelling; 2) journey; 3) trip; 4) tour; 5) business trip;
6) guided tour; 7) itinerary; 8) schedule; 9) timetable; 10) book;
11) arrive; 12) check in; 13) miss.
2. 1) will come; 2) arrives; 3) do; 4) does; 5) are; 6) will stop;
7) will get; 8) am going; 9) has.
3. Ss’ own answers.
Lesson 7
* Ss’ own answers.
1 .1) am not getting; 2) will begin; 3) will (probably) visit; 4) w
join; 5) will travel; 6) will not take; 7) will (probably) travel; 8) will
return; 9) will be.
2. a) it’ s their favourite food; b) bilby; c) cricket, rugby and
yachting; d) yes, they will / they will; e) in Australia April is an
autumn month; f) the British fought against Nazi Germany in
W W II; g) yes, they do; h) Lord of the Rings; i) Debarkation day —
when the British and Americans landed on the territory of Europe
on Tuesday, 6 June 1944.
3. Inviting: 2) How about going surfing at the weekend? 5) Do
you fancy going out tonight? 7) Would you like to go for a swim
today in the afternoon?
Refusing an invitation: 1) I’ m afraid I won’ t be able to come.
I’m going to the theatre on Friday. 4) I’ d love to but I have an exam
on Thursday.
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Accepting an invitation: 3) Thanks for the invitation. I’ ll be
there. 6) I’ ll come over with pleasure. Shall I be there at six?
Lesson 8
* Ss’ own answers.
1. Down : 1 — trip; 2 — journey; 3 — arrive; 4 — leave; 5 —
schedule; 6 — luggage; 7 — flight; 8 — ticket; 9 — itinerary; 10 —
guide. A cross : travelling.
2. a) 1 — is surrounded; 2 — check in; 3 — expect; 4 — left; 5 —
catch; 6 — stay; 7 — arrived; 8 — take; 9 — booked; 10 — missed;
11 — got on / got off; got off / got on. b) 1 — local; 2 — busy;
3 — public; 4 — public; 5 — local; 6 — busy; 7 — busy; 8 — busy.
3. 1) is situated; 2) survives; 3) attraction; 4) picturesque;
5) journeys; 6) comfortable; 7) attractive; 8) guided tour; 9) miss;
10) guide.
Lesson 9
* Ss’ own answers.
1.1. are you doing, 2. ’ m going, 3. does the film begin, 4. are yo
going with, 5. ’ll join, 6. are you meeting, 7. ’ll get, 8. ’s going to rain.
2. a) ’ m going to, b) ’m going, c) ’ ll, d) leaves.
3. Ss’ own answers.

U N IT 8
Lesson 1
* Simple / Continuous; modal; Modal; Simple / Continuous
1.1) if; 2) if; 3) if; 4) unless; 5) if; 6) unless; 7) if; 8) if; 9) unless.
2 . 1. You will feel cold unless you wear warm boots. 2. I’ ll arriv
on time unless there are many cars. 3. I won’ t go unless you go.
4. My little brother won’ t sleep unless I tell him a story. 5. Unless
she has a passport, she can’t travel abroad. 6. W e ’ ll arrive at 10.00
unless our train is not on time / unless our train is late. 7. W e ’ll
go swimming unless it is too cold. 8 . 1 won’t do it unless you agree
to help me.
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3 .1 . don’t forget wet wipes; 2. it’s a good idea to buy more tickets
than you need; 3. choose overnight flights; 4. don’ t forget some
headphones that will fit your kids’ heads.

Lesson 2
* Ss’ own answers.
1.1. when, 2. if, 3. when, 4. when, 5. if, 6. if, 7. if, 8. when, 9. if.
2. If you decide to buy the dress, I’ll give you the money. If you’re
busy tomorrow, we’ ll go there later. If she doesn’t come on time,
we’ ll leave without her. If she likes the idea, we’ ll go to Australia
together. If she doesn’ t like the idea, we’ ll choose another route /
we’ll leave without her. When I see Nick tomorrow, I’ll tell him the
news. When / if they Xray your suitcase, they’ ll see everything
inside it. If the girl gets seasick, I’ll take her to the doctor.
3. Suggested answer. A laconic answer is an answer using very
few words to express what you mean.

Lesson 3
* Ss’ own answers.
1. Ss’ own answers.
2. a) 1. along the coast, 2. through the jungle, 3. through the
desert, 4. along the road, 5. along the street, 6. through the fire,
7. through the village, 8. along the wall, b) 1. along the road, 2. along
the street, 3. along the coast, 4. through the jungle, 5. through the
fire, 6. through the desert, 7. along the wall, 8. through the village.
3. 1. land, 2. central, 3. coast, 4. landscape, 5. coast, coast,
6. land, 7. rocks, 8. holy, 9. stars, 10. sky, 11. flat, 12. rock,
13. sky, 14. central, 15. flat.

Lesson 4
* Ss’ own answers.
1. a) 1. ’ ll be sorry, leave. 2. come, ’ ll make. 3. ’ ll go, isn’ t.
4. travel, ’ ll take. 5. will grow, settle. 6. don’t feel, ’ll call. 7. finish,
’ ll go. b) Ss’ own answers.
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2. а) 1) states, 2) territories, 3) government, 4) wet, 5) divides,
6) mining, 7) wheat, 8) cattle, 9) minerals, 10) oil, 11) production,
12) marine, b) A — 3, В — 2, C — 1, D — 6, E — 7, F — 4, G — 5.
3. 1. Uluru, 2. the Opera House, 3. the Great Barrier Reef,
4. Western Australia, 5. the Pacific Ocean, 6. Tasmanian wolf,
7. churches, 8. Brisbane, 9. Melbourne.

Lesson 5
* 1) Is it in Europe? 2) Is the climate of the country mild? 3) Do
the people of the country speak many languages? 4) Does this
country have a famous football team?
1. Suggested answers.
1. Is the central government of our country in Minsk? Where is
the central government of our country? Is the central government
of our country in Minsk or in Brest? The central government of our
country is in Minsk, isn’t it?
2. Is the climate of Belarus very mild? Is the climate of Belarus
very mild or continental? W hat is the climate of the country like?
The climate of the country is not very mild, is it?
3. Do most people of our country speak two languages: Belarusian
and Russian? Most people of the country speak two languages, don’t
they? W hat languages do most people of the country speak? Do
most people of the country speak two or more languages?
4. Is Belarus famous for its picturesque landscapes? W hat is
Belarus famous for? Is Belarus famous for its picturesque landscapes
or wild animals? Belarus is famous for its picturesque landscapes,
isn’ t it?
5. Is Belarus a landlocked country? W hat kind of country is
Belarus? Is Belarus a landlocked country or is it surrounded by
seas? Belarus is a landlocked country, isn’ t it?
2. 1) landlocked; 2) divided; 3) state; 4) climate; 5) mineral;
6) regions; 7) attractions; 8) survived; 9) sights; 10) treasures;
11) picturesque, 12) invented.
3. Ss’ own answers.
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Lesson б
* 1) arrive; ’ ll miss; 2) doesn’t change; will be; 3) ’ ll catch; leave;
4) don’ t fasten; won’ t start; 5) W ill / get; stay; 6) W ill / help;
aren’t; 7) won’ t eat; go.
1. a) 1) W ill you go, invite; 2) don’ t climb, won’ t see; 3) find;
4) see, won’t get; 5) will avoid, climb; 6) decide, will take; 7) W ill
you walk, b) 1. If I witt become President, I’ ll help the poor. 3. W ill
you introduce me to your uncle if I witt ask you? 4. If she doesn’t
stop crying, I’ll (will) leave. 6. If ГН have time tomorrow, I’ll teach
you how to do it.
2. a) meat-eating, grass-eating, fast-m oving, fast-growing,
hard-working, b) 1. hard-working, 2. meat-eating, 3. grass-eating,
4. egg-laying, 5. fast-growing, 6. fast-moving.
3. Suggested answer. If you enter the Australian jungle, you’ ll
hear dozens of sounds — the sounds of birds, animals and even
railroad trains. All these sounds are made by an Australian bird —
the lyrebird.
Lesson 7
* Ss’ own answers.
1 .1 . How long is the Great Barrier Reef? 2. W hat does it look
like? 3. W hat animals can you see in the reefs? 4. How can you see
them? 5. When is the best time to visit the reefs?
2. Ss’ own answers.
3. a) 1 — shore, 2 — beach, 3 — coast, 4 — bank, 5 — coast,
b) coast — морское побережье; shore — берег (не реки); bank —
берег (реки); beach — пляж.
Lesson 8
* Ss’ own answers.
1.1. If you don’t write down her telephone number, you’ll forget
it. Unless you write down her telephone number, you’ ll forget it.
2. If you don’ t go away, I’ ll call the police. Unless you go away,
I’ ll call the police. 3. If you don’ t stop playing with that knife,
you’ ll cut yourself. Unless you stop playing with that knife, you’ll
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cut yourself. 4. If you don’t take a taxi, it’ ll take you ages to get
to the airport. Unless you take a taxi, it’ ll take you ages to get to
the airport. 5. If you don’ t wake me up at six, I won’ t catch the
train. Unless you wake me up at six, I won’t catch the train. 6. If
you don’t start packing now, you’ ll be late for the bus. Unless you
start packing now, you’ll be late for the bus. 7. If you don’ t take
a window seat, you won’t see anything. Unless you take a window
seat, you won’t see anything.
2. a) A2; B4; C3; D l. b) If you don’t want to lose it, don’t bring
it. If you wear white and bright, it will distract animals. If you
wear black and blue, it will attract insects, c) Travel tips: 1, 2, 4,
6, 7, 9, 11, 12. Transport tips: 3, 5, 8, 10.
3. Ss’ own answers.
Lesson 9
* a) Ss’ own answers, b) I go swimming, diving and fishing. I’ m
learning to surf, too. I travel a lot. I’ve been to Canberra, Sydney
and to the bush. I enjoyed the Great Barrier Reef and the deserts.
Koalas and bilbies are cute!... It is worth it! c) Found paradise. Like
feeling soft white sand under my feet and hearing the waves, not
mobile phones. Haven’ t used a watch since I got here. Every day
after a morning dive sleep under the palm-trees. Enjoy sunbathing
or just look at the gorgeous sea while the kids go fishing, d) Ss’ own
answers, e) Ss’ own answers.
1. Adjectives: dry, scared, flat, holy, special, wet, marine
gorgeous, cute, naughty. Verbs: get seasick, settle, divide. Nouns:
route, coast, shore, state, territory, government, minerals, oil,
production, wheat, mining, cattle, shell.
2. a)
settle to go and live
divide to break into parts
get seasick to feel unwell travelling by sea because of the
movements of the ship
suffer to have difficulties or great pain
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b) 1 — settled, 2 — get seasick, 3 — divide, 4 — suffer.
3 . 1) situated, 2) area, 3) flat, 4) landscape, 5) territory, 6) rocks,
7) holy, 8) ancient, 9) climate, 10) mining, 11) cattle, 12) minerals,
13) oil, 14) wheat, 15) settle, 16) hardworking.

U N IT 9
Lesson 1
* Ss’ own answers.
1.1) boo; 2) shh; 3) wow; 4) oops; 5) yuck; 6) ouch; 7) bang; 8) ugh.
2. 1. F — they can be serious. 2. F — it came from England.
3. F — we say comics is’ when we speak about a type of art, and
‘ comics are’ when we speak about individual examples — comic
strips and comic books. 4. F — they are typical of the USA. In Japan
comic magazines are more popular. 5. T. 6. F — on the territory of
modern France. 7. F — they are different in different countries.
8. F — captions and speech balloons present characters’ words.
9. F — they may differ in different countries. 10. T.
3. 1. Cinderella; 2. Lion King; 3. Mary Poppins; 4. Winnie-the-
Pooh; 5. Pocahontas; 6. Alice in Wonderland; 7. Mickey Mouse.
Lesson 2
* Id, 2c, 3b, 4b, 5c, 6a, 7c, 8a, 9d.
1.1 — could, 2 — could, 3 — can’ t, 4 — couldn’t, 5 — can, 6 —
could, 7 — couldn’ t, 8 — couldn’t.
2. lb , 2h, 3d, 4a, 5f, 6g, 7c, 8e.
3. 1) can, 2) couldn’ t, 3) can’ t, 4) couldn’ t, 5) could, can’ t,
6) could, 7) couldn’t, 8) can’t, 9) couldn’ t, 10) could.
Lesson 3
* a) Ss’ own answers, b) Billy’ s parents wanted him to be able
to love learning. — It is impossible to use ‘ can / could’ instead,
because we need an infinitive here.
Young William could read the New York Times at 18 months
... — It is possible to use ‘was able to’ here to speak about an ability.
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A t the age of five he was able to name the day of the week for
any given historical date with the help of a formula invented by
him. — It is possible to use ‘ could’ here to speak about an ability.
1.1. John could speak two foreign languages perfectly well by the
age of fourteen. 2. Could you use a mobile phone when you were four?
3. When my mum was a little girl she could swim well. 4. Would you
like to be able to use the Internet? 5. Do you know someone who can
do yoga? 6. Jane would like to be able to read this book from cover to
cover. 7. At what age were you able to borrow books from the library?
8. Nobody is able to climb trees at the age of three.
2 .1 . was able could OR: was able to, 2. can could, 3. to able to be
able, 4. will would, 5. could can, 6. to (write), 7. borrowed borrow,
8. was were.
3.1 — prodigy, 2 — recite, 3 — able, 4 — can, 5 — use, 6 — ’ m
7 — be able to, 8 — would.
Lesson 4
* 1) appeared; 2) comic; 3) disappeared; 4) abilities; 5) powers;
6) symbol; 7) love; 8) dangerous; 9) after.
1.1) grown-ups; 2) hero; 3) borrow; 4) comic; 5) recites; 6) power;
7) age; 8) covers; 9) used.
2.1 ) abilities; 2) magic; 3) wolves; 4) suffer; 5) able; 6) survive;
7) able; 8) exciting.
3. a) A child should always say what’ s true
And speak when he is spoken to,
And behave mannerly at table;
A t least as far as he is able.
Lesson 5
* IF, 2T, 3F, 4F, 5T, 6F, 7T, 8F.
1. lb , 2b, 3b, 4b, 5c, 6b, 7c, 8b, 9c, 10c, 11a.
2.1) disabilities; 2) disabled; 3) uses; 4) superhero; 5) superpowers;
6) disabled; 7) unable; 8) disability; 9) disabled; 10) teenagers;
11) powers.
3. Ss’ own answers.
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Lesson б
* Ss’ own answers.
1. lg , 2c, 3b, 4e, 5a, 6d, 7f.
2. 1 — could, 2 — attended, 3 — recited, 4 — dictionary, 5 —
able, 6 — heart, 7 — to be, 8 — projects, 9 — can’t, 10 — grown-up.
3. Suggested answers. 1. When Maggie was six she could (was
able to) play hopscotch. 2. Now she can (is able to) play tennis. 3. In
the future she will be able to play chess. 4. When Steve was six he
could (was able to) ride a bike. 5. Now he can (is able to) drive a car.
6. In the future he will be able to fly a plane. 7. When Helen was six
she could (was able to) draw. 8. Now she can (is able to) paint. 9. In
the future she will be able to become an artist. 10. When John was
six he could (was able to) play with toys. 11. Now he can (is able to)
use a computer. 12. In the future he will be able to get a good job.

Lesson 7
* 1 — lovely; 2 — friendless; 3 — helpful; 4 — rewrite; 5 —
ageless; 6 — careful; 7 — useless; 8 — happiness; 9 — fitness.
1.1 — can’t; 2 — be able; 3 — couldn’ t; 4 — able to; 5 — had;
6 — must; 7 — should; 8 — have; 9 — to be able to; 10 — should.
2 . 1 — carelessness; 2 — useless; 3 — lately; 4 — rewrite, redo;
5 — friendly, helpful; 6 — careful; 7 — helpful, useful.
3 .1 — regularly, 2 — helpful, 3 — carefully, 4 — useless.

Lesson 8
* le ; 2f; 3c; 4a; 5g; 6i; 7d; 8b; 9h.
1.1 — b, 2 — c, 3 — a, 4 — b, 5 — a, 6 — c, 7 — a, 8 — b, 9 — c.
2. 1. Until she started to speak I hadn’ t realized she wasn’
English. 2. Before I started to work on the project I borrowed some
books from the library. 3. W riting compositions was one of the
most serious challenges I faced at school. 4. Please keep silent and
remain seated during the test. 5. It’ s important to develop good
study skills. 6. In case she isn’t able to translate the text — help her.
7. Den wasn’t able to write a composition because he hadn’ t attended
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some lessons. 8. Looking at his appearance I could understand he
was a friendly person.
3. Ss’ own answers.

Lesson 9
* Ss’ own answers.
1 .1 — project, 2 — borrow, i G h a i i e n g e
3 — return, 4 — important, 5 — m
challenge, 6 — recite, 7 — cover, P r
8 — without. b о e
p
2. 1 — from, 2 — to, 3 — the, r О r e c i t e
4 — can, 5 — should, 6 — the, 7 — о r t u
to, 8 — to.
j r a r
3.1 — to, 2 — from, 3 — at, 4 —
e c о V e r n n
by, 5 — use, 6 — was, 7 — aloud,
c w i t h о u t
8 — attended, 9 — shouldn’ t, 10 —
t
case.

CONTENTS
UNIT 5 ............................................................................................................3
UNIT 6 ..........................................................................................................21
UNIT 7 ......................................................................................................... 39
UNIT 8 ..........................................................................................................57
UNIT 9 ......................................................................................................... 80
GRAMMAR REFERENCE.................................................................. 101
K E Y S ......................................................................................................... 109

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ISBN 978-985-19-2221-1