Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 51

(AIS)

2005


(AIS)
. .: , 2005. -


(AIS), IMO 29 2001 .
( .917(22)), .956 (23), MSC 191
192 (79), AIS
AIS.


(ILA),
() ,

20 2003 .,
.
,
AIS
,
AIS.
X
1978 (STCW)
, , 1/4
STCW - 1/4 STCW-Code,
, ,
AIS.
.
(IMO)
(IEC)


,
.

,
,
, . ,
STCW ,

.
AIS
,
.
, .

( AIS)
,

.
,
/

COLREG,
-
,
AIS .
.. ..
.. .
. :


1.
2. AIS
3. AIS
4.
5. AIS

6
12
15
18
22
24

(
).
6. AIS

26

(
).
7. AIS

27

(
) .
8. AIS

29

( ,
).
9. AIS.
10. AIS

31
31

,
.
11. AIS

32

.
12. AIS COLREG
13. OOW-N AIS.
14. AIS,

34
37
38

6
39
15. AIS,
.
16. AIS,

41

49



()

()
ACK
Acknowledge
( -
)
AIS
Automatic Identification System

ANCH
Vessel at Anchor (applies to AIS)

Automatic Radar Plotting Aid


ARPA
ATA


Automatic Tracking Aid

AUTO


Automatic

AZ
BITE
BKGND

Acquisition Zone

Built in Test Equipment

Background

,
IMO (SN/Circ/243)

AIS .
, ,
, AIS
.

, , , () ,
. () ,
.

BRG
BRILL
C
C UP

CCRP

CENT
CHG
CLR
CNCL
COG
COLREG
CONT
CORR
CPA
CRS
CTW
DAY/NT

DECR

Bearing

Brilliance

Carried (e.g. carried EBL origin)


(, EBL)
Course Up
( ,

,
)
Consistent Common Reference Point
- ,
.
, (
). (
, GNSS, AIS) .
Centre
()
Change

Clear

Cancel

Course Over the Ground


( ) ( )
International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea

Contrast

Correction

Closest Point of Approach


( )
Course

Course Through the Water


( , )
Day/Night
/. (
) (
)
Decrease

8
DEL
Delete

DELAY
Delay
(
)
DEST
Destination

DGAL
Differential Galileo
Galileo (

Galileo, )
DGLONASS Differential GLONASS
GLONASS (

GLONASS, )
DGNSS
Differential GNSS
GNSS ( ,
)
DGPS
Differential GPS
GPS (

GPS, )
DISP
Display
()
DIST
Distance

DIVE
Vessel Engaged in Diving Operations (applies to AIS)
,
DRG
Vessel Engaged in Dredging or Underwater Operations (applies to AIS)
,

DSC
Digital Selective Calling

EBL
Electronic Bearing Line
( )
ECDIS
Electronic Chart Display and Information System

ENH
Enhance
,
ENT
Enter

ERBL
Electronic Range and Bearing Line
( )
ERR
Error

9
FISH

GAIN
GAL
GLONASS
GMDSS
GNSS
GPS
GRND

Fishing Vessel

Gain

Galilleo
Galileo
Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System
GLONASS
Global Maritime Distress and Safety System
Global Navigation Satellite System

Global Positioning System

GYRO

Vessel Aground (applies to AIS)



Gyro

GZ

Guard Zone
Head Up

HDG

Heading

HL

Heading Line

HS

Harmful Substances (applies to AIS)

HSC

High Speed Craft (applies to AIS)

I/O

Input/Output

ID

Identification

IMO

International Maritime Organisation

LIM


Limit

LOST TGT

Lost Target

. AIS
: (. . 2),
COLREG,
(. .1) (engaged in fishing),
COLREG. SN/Circ/ 243 ,
, .

10
MAN
Manual
MAX

Maximum

MENU

Menu

MIN

Minimum

MKR

Marker

MMSI

Maritime Mobile Services Identity number

MON

Performance Monitor

MP

Maritime Pollutant (applies to AIS)

MSI

Maritime Safety Information

MSTR

Master

MUTE

Mute

MVR

Manoeuvre

NUP

North Up

NUC

Vessel Not Under Command (applies to AIS)

OFF

Off

OFFSET

Offset

ON

On

OOW

Officer of the Watch

OS

Own Ship

OUT

Out/Output

PANEL

Panel Illumination

PASSV

Passenger Vessel (applies to AIS)

PERM

Permanent

11
PI
Parallel Index Line
PILOT

Pilot Vessel (applies to AIS)

POB

Person Overboard

PRED

Predicted

PWR

Power

RADAR

Radar

REF

Reference

REL

Relative

RJM

Vessel Restricted in Manoeuvrability) (applies to AIS)

RM

Relative Motion

RNG

Range

RoRo

Roll On/Roll Off Vessel (applies lo AIS)

ROT

Rate Of Turn

RR

Range Rings

SAIL

Sailing Vessel (applies to AIS)

SARV

Search And Rescue Vessel (applies to AIS)

SEL

Select

SET

Set (i.e., set and drift, or setting a value)

SIM

Simulation

SOG

Speed Over the Ground

SPD

Speed

STAB

Stabilized

STBY

Standby

12
STN
Station
STW

Speed Through the Water

SYM

Symbol(s)

True

TCPA

Time lo CPA

TEST

Test

TGT

Target

TIME

Time

TM

True Motion

TOW

Vessel Engaged in Towing Operations (applies to AIS)

TRAIL

Trail(s)

TRIAL

Trial

TT

Target Tracking

UTC

Universal Time, Co-ordinated

UWE

Vessel Underway Using Engine (applies to AIS)

VCD

Vessel Constrained by Draught (applies to AIS)

VDR

Voyage Data Recorder

VECT

Vector

VRM

Variable Range Marker

VTS

Vessel Traffic Service

XTD

Cross Track Distance

13

1. .
1.1. (AIS),
,
.
AIS ,

( ).
:
-

/ ,

AIS;
-

AIS;
-

, AIS,


;
-

-72,
;
-

AIS

, , ,
.
AIS
:
-

AIS, , AIS
;
-

AIS,

AIS,

14

, ,
;
-

AIS.

,

(),

AIS.
1.2. AIS .
AIS OOWN, . ,
AIS, AIS ,
.
AIS .

.
AIS
, ,

.
1.3. AIS .
OOW-N , :
-

AIS; ,

,
AIS;
-

AIS

;
-

;
-

(, , ..),

AIS;
-

(VTS)

AIS.

15

AIS , ,
,
.
,
.
1.4

AIS


.
AIS
.

, IMO 8.12.2004 .
AIS,
, 1 2008 . .

- (MKD), AIS
ARPA ECDIS AIS
.

,
-
, AIS ,

, AIS.
-
(MKD) AIS.
AIS

.
1.5

AIS OOW-N

COLREG.

16

COLREG
, ,
.
, AIS
,
.
12.
, SMS,
8 (),
COLREG (
, 2):

, ,
, .
AIS OOW-N
,
, , , ,
, .
2. AIS
2.1 AIS
,
,
.
AIS :
-

300 IMO;
-

300
;
-

17

2.2 VHF-
AIS-1 AIS-2
(TDMA).
( ) AIS
GNSS
.
AIS-1 AIS-2 .
2.3 , . 2.2,
AIS 70-
.

( , )
.
.
2.4
,
.
AIS
, , ..
AIS , ..
, AIS ,
AIS, . AIS
, GNSS.
2.5 AIS
, .. .

( ), ,
.
AIS ( ) 10 ,
20 .
40 .
. 1 AIS.

18

. 1. AIS.
A, B C , AIS,
D E , AIS,
1 AIS,
2 .

19

. 1
, -AIS
D, . AIS
. ,
AIS. D E
.
:
(- ) D
( ), ,
C E;
(- ) D
( ) , ,
C E;
,
;
( AIS) D E (
AIS) , .
3. AIS
3.1 AIS ,
:
-

,
;
-

, ( )

;
OOW-N;
-

OOW-N.
3.2 ,
1.
1
, AIS

20

MMSI:

9- ,

:

20

.
.

),


IMO :

.
.

9- IMO
:

(. . 2)

GNSS:

(. ).
.

4 (. . 2)

.
.

VGS-84

:
,
(< 10 ), ,
AIS (
(> 10 ),
AIS GNSS).
:
UTC
COG, SOG
HDG

(),

AIS

21

,
:

, ,
,

COLREG.

, ,
,
ROT

,
,
.

(. . 2)

(
)


.
3.3 ( ) .
2. .
2.
AIS

22
2

(WIG)
4

B
,

C
,

D
0
1
2

200

25

4
5
6
7
0
1
2
3
4
5
8

1949 .)
,

(
18 WARC Mob-83)

3.4 AIS
GNSS (. . 2).

23

. 2.
GNSS.
4.
4.1 6
. AIS
. ,
, AIS
.
4.2
. . 3
. . 4
.
3.



3

3
0 14
0 14 ,

14 23
14 23 ,

23
23 ,


3
10
10
3,33
6
2
2
2

24

4


AIS
2
2-14
14-23
23



3
30
15
5
10
10
3

4.3 GNSS
1-2 . AIS

, ,
VTS
.

AIS
.
4.4 . 3
,
, AIS.
VTS

AIS .
5. AIS
( ).
5.1
.
70 %
.
5.2 AIS .

25


,
, .
( )
.
IMO IEC
10 10 3 ..,
2 ..

. ,
/
(HL off). ARPA ATA
.
AIS 8 10 .
,
AIS.
5.3 AIS
,
,
:
-

;
-
;
- , , , ,
.
,
, ,
, , ..
( )
, .
ARPA ATA .

26

AIS (
AIS) , ,
, , .
5.4 AIS .

, .
( 1,5 . - 50),
. ARPA ATA
.
AIS (
AIS)
.
5.5 AIS .

. ARPA
ATA .
AIS (
AIS) , .
5.6 (, , )
AIS.
,
.

. ,
. 3 4 ..
, 1 2
. (A/C Rain)
, . ,
,
,
. ARPA ATA .
AIS (
AIS) .

27

5.7 (. 11. AIS) AIS


.
:
,
, ,
, - ,
. ARPA ATA
.
AIS .
6. AIS
(
).
6.1 AIS
.

( ),
-
.
,
, ,
.
( ARPA 1
3 ) .
TCPA ARPA
CPA

. , ,
.
AIS (ARPA, ECDIS)
CPA TCPA .
6.2 AIS CPA.

28


, , CPA
, .
( 1)
(1% ) ARPA 3
PA
7- 8 ( 1300 1500 ).
,
,
, .
AIS (ARPA, ECDIS) 18
24 CPA

100 - 150

50 60 GNSS.
GNSS ,
CPA
.
6.3 AIS
.
,
,
. ,
,
.
AIS

.
7. AIS
( )
.
7.1 AIS .

( ) .
,

29

, 15 COLREG
( ) 13 ().
(ARPA, ATA) ,
, .

0,5 1 10 , 15 18 .
,
40 50 , 5 .
, 3 ,
.
AIS ,
.
7.2 AIS , .

, 14 COLREG
( )

15 (

).
, ARPA ATA
( GNSS), ,
.
,
ARPA (ATA) , . ,
, .
AIS COG,
HDG. , ,
.
7.3 AIS ,
.
0,1
1 , .
,

IMO IEC
. IMO IEC
.

30

( ), 2 5
.
,
34 () COLREG ,
.
.
2 3 () 1
2 ( ) / .
,

10 30 .
. (
/ ) ARPA (ATA).
AIS ,
20 30 .
7.4 AIS .
(ARPA, ATA)
, :
-


( ) ,
,
;
-

, , ARPA (ATA)
, (pivot point)

.
AIS .
8. AIS
( ,
).
8.1 AIS .

31

2 COLREG
, .

. 22
, ,
2 3 ..
4 5
8 (f), 9, 10, 16 - 18.

- ,
35.
0,5 2 ..,
.

. 19

, .
AIS ,
,
,

.
8.2 AIS .

. COLREG
:
-

( 34 (c),

,
( 34 (d).
VHF
.
, ,
.

32

AIS , MMSI,


COLREG .
9. AIS.
, ,
AIS, AIS

, ,
. , AIS
,
.
AIS
, , ARPA.
AIS
.
10. AIS
,
.
10.1 AIS
.
CPA limit ( )
:
-

CPA,

,
-

().

AIS
. , AIS
CPA limit.
. AIS
, .

33

,
70 80%
,
.
10.2 AIS .

,
.
, .
10.3 AIS .

,
. ,
.
VTS
VTS ,

.
11. AIS
.
11.1 .
-

AIS ,

AIS; , , ,
AIS, ;
-

AIS

;
-

; , , ,
AIS ;
-

, , ,

AIS;
-

(, , ,

..), AIS, ;

34

-; , -
AIS , ,
;
-

AIS; AIS
ARPA (ATA)
ARPA (ATA) (scrolling) ()
AIS, , AIS,
OOW-N.
11.2 .
-

AIS

ARPA (ATA) ARPA (ATA),


CPA/TCPA , (CPA)
AIS

;
.
.
-

CPA ARPA (ATA) AIS

(, ) TCPA, ,
, CPA; CPA
.
-

ARPA (ATA) AIS

GNSS ,
(
);
-

AIS
.
11.3 .

AIS . , -
AIS

35

(HDG) . COG SOG


GNSS.
11.4 .
- ,
- AIS ;
- ,
OOW-N ;
- 8 COLREG ( 2003 .) ,

COLREG; COLREG (

2 (b).
11.5 , AIS
-
, IEC IMO AIS
;
- AIS -
;
- AIS;
- AIS
COLREG.
, AIS -
. , ,

, .

IMO

AIS

). ,
AIS
,
.

, XX

36

, ,
..

.
12. AIS COLREG
12.1 AIS
.
COLREG AIS.
5 .
,
, ,
7

, , ,
AIS .
.
5 7. , 5 7 COLREG
AIS,
. 5 7
AIS /
COLREG.
12.2 AIS
.
5
,
.
AIS, .
(
), OOW-N.
COLREG
(ARPA ATA).

37

AIS,
, AIS /
,
.
12.3
,
34 ,

AIS.
12.4 19 .
, AIS
COLREG,
19.
, AIS
19 (d) ,
, .
, AIS,
,
19 (d).
12.5 2 (b)
.
18 ,
. 19

.
, 2 (b)
(limitations
of the vessels involved),
.
, OOW-N
AIS ,
,
.

38

12.6 ,
AIS-.
:
- (, , .
) CPA;
- ().
, , .
:
- , ,
, ;
- ,
,
.
13. OOW-N AIS.
13.1 AIS , ,
, , ,
( )
.
AIS .
13.2 AIS , ,
. ,

AIS .
13.3 AIS 2
, ,
. ,
, .
13.4 OOW-N :
-

HDG AIS ;

, (

), ,
, ( )
-

39

13.5
.
13.6 .
13.7 .
13.8 , AIS,
,
. ,
, .
13.9 (
) AIS.
13.10 31 5 SOLAS
, , ,
, ..

, . AIS
. AIS
, ,
GMDSS.
13.11
AIS.
14. AIS,
.
14.1 AIS -
( MMSI, BRG,
RNG NAME)
SOLAS, , OOW-N
,
AIS
.

AIS
, , OOW-N
SMS, SMS
. , ,
3 . G 31 5 SOLAS
gjkfys/

40

14.2
ARPA (ATA) ,
ARPA (ATA).
ARPA (ATA)
AIS -
ARPA (ATA), , .
, ARPA (ATA) 5
7 .
ARPA (ATA)
AIS .

, ARPA (ATA) .
14.3 , AIS
, AIS,
(
, , ).

.
14.4
(, ) ,
AIS ,
AIS,
( , ,
).
, .
14.5 ,
( GNSS
GNSS !), ,
, .
14.6 , ,
,
( ),
AIS .

41

-72, -72.
14.7 , AIS, ,

ARPA (ATA).
AIS ,
(
),

AIS,
.
15. AIS,
.
15.1 (enhanced)
( MMSI,
BRG, RNG NAME)
( HDG, COG,
SOG, ROT).

.
, AIS ,

IMO (. ).
15.2 (
14.2 14.7)
. :
-

ARPA (ATA) ,
;

( 2) ( 1% )

AIS;

ARPA HDG,
ARPA , COG, ARPA

42

(
reference target), (SOG). ,
10 , ARPA AIS
10; ARPA AIS
2 ( ARPA
) 2 ( ARPA
);
-


CPA
ARPA, AIS.

16. AIS,
.
16.1
16.1.1 , , ,

:
-
;
-
, IMO 8 2004 . c
AIS,

, 1 2008 .
;
-
AIS-,
IMO 11 2001 .

43


, .
16.1.2.
AIS ,
ARPA,
. AIS
ARPA, (. . 14.2)
AIS

,
ARPA (ATA).
16.2
. 5 ,
.
AIS (ARPA, ATA)
, . 5
.
.

5.

Own ship


.
,

Own Ship
True scale
outline

Own Ship
Radar
Antenna
Position



(

)
.
(
CCRP,

44



Own Ship
Heading line

)
.
,

Own Ship
Beam line

CCRP.
.
(
).

Own Ship
Speed vector

CCRP.
.
,
.
.
:
,
.

Own Ship
Path
prediction
Own Ship
Past Track






, .

Tracked Target
including
Dangerous
Target


( )
.
(
),

Target in
Acquisition

(Ack)
.
,

45
State
( )
Lost Target

(Ack)
.

Selected Target

(Ack)
.

Target Past
Positions
Tracked
Reference
Target


.
, ,



.
: R1, R2, R3 ..

AIS Target
(sleeping)

AIS-
.
,
HDG
( COG, HDG
).
,
,

Activated AIS
Target
Including
Dangerous
Target


( ).
HDG ( COG,
HDG ).
.
HDG ,
.
.
:
- ,

46

-
,
-
(CPA/TCPA)

AIS Target True Scale


Outline

Selected target

.

(
)
.

Lost target
Target Past
Positions

AIS Based
AtoN Virtual
position
Trial
Manoeuvre

.
(Ack)
.
, ,



.
.

,

,

Simulation
Mode
Cursor

.
.


.

47

16.3 AIS.
16.3.1 AIS,
IMO
:
-

100 500 (
);

150 500 10000


10000;

200 10000 .

16.3.2 , ,
, ,
AIS (, , CPA/TCPA,
A/B ..)
16.3.3 ,
CPA/TCPA ,
CPA/TCPA ,

.
16.4 AIS.
16.4.1 AIS,
IMO
:
-

20 500 (
);

30 500 10000
10000;

40 10000 .

16.4.2 AIS
.
16.4.3 ,
AIS .
, /
, -

48

/ ,
.
16.4.4
( CPA/TCPA).
16.4.5 ,
.
16.5 CPA LIM, TCPA LIM.
16.5.1 CPA LIM, TCPA LIM
, ,
, OOW-N (
).
16.5.2 CPA
LIM, TCPA LIM :
- , ,
;
- ,

, ,
ACK
;
- CPA ,
, .
16.6
16.6.1 .
16.6.2
:
-

( IMO ),

DIST,

BRG,

CPA,

TCPA,

49

COG,

SOG,

AIS ,
.
16.6.3 , ,
CCRP. ,
( ).
16.6.4 :
-

HDG,

ROT.

16.6.5 .
16.7 .
16.7.1 AIS
/ .
16.7.2
AIS ( , CPA/TCPA, A/B).
16.7.3 ,

, , :
-

- ,

16.8 AIS.
16.8.1 ,
,
.
16.8.2 AIS,
, ( , , )
, , AIS
(ARPA, ATA), , , ,
AIS
- AIS.

50

16.8.3 AIS
,
AIS
.
16.8.4 ,
AIS- ARPA (ATA),
, IS.
16.8.5 AIS (ARPA,
ATA)
.

( , )
.
AIS
.

():

. , , 1999 ., 16 .

() () . (

20.01.2003 .)
- () -02-22/848-62
( ) (

15.03.2002)
1974

. 5 .
IMO A.917(22) 29 2001 .

.
MSC.74(69) 3.

7
8

().
MSC 140(76)
MSC 191(79)

51
9
MSC 192(79)

10 - .1371-1
(),
.
11 .
12 60936-5

13 61993-2 2
() .
, .
14 IEC 62287 ()
- .
15 . .. , ..,
.., .., .., .. . . . .
. . .. . .: . 2004. 180 .
16 - .1371-1
17 IMO SN/Circ.217 (11 July 2001)INTERIM GUIDELINES FOR THE PRESENTATION
AND DISPLAY OF AIS TARGET INFORMATION
18 IMO SN/Circ.226 (16 December 2002) DANGERS OF CONFLICTING ACTIONS IN
COLLISION AVOIDANCE
19 IMO SN/Circ.217 (11 July 2001) INTERIM GUIDELINES FOR THE PRESENTATION
20

AND DISPLAY OF AIS TARGET INFORMATION


IMO SN/Circ.227 (6 January 2003) GUIDELINES FOR THE INSTALLATION OF A

SHIPBORNE AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS)


21 IMO SN/Circ.236 (28 May 2004) GUIDANCE ON THE APPLICATION OF AIS BINARY
MESSAGES
22 Maritime navigation and radiocommunication equipment and systems - General
requirements - Methods of testing and required test results (IEC 60945:2002
23 SHIPOWNERS VIEWS ON AIS, THE INTERNATIONAL CHAMBER OF SHIPPING,
IMO/IALA Seminar on AIS, Session No: 5