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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ПРОСВЕЩЕНИЯ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ


ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ
ВЫСШЕГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
БАШКИРСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
им. М.АКМУЛЛЫ

Н.В. Баранова, Н.Ж. Гумерова

PRACTICAL GRAMMAR: VERBALS


ПРАКТИЧЕСКАЯ ГРАММАТИКА: НЕЛИЧНЫЕ ФОРМЫ
ГЛАГОЛА

Учебно-методическое пособие

Уфа 2019

1
УДК 811.111-26
ББК 81.2Англ-923
Б 24, Г 93

Печатается по решению учебно-методического совета


Башкирского государственного педагогического университета
им. М. Акмуллы

Баранова Н.В., Гумерова Н.Ж. Практическая грамматика: неличные


формы глагола: учебно-методическое пособие [Текст]. – Уфа: Изд-во
БГПУ, 2019. – 105 с.

В данном пособии, подготовленном на основе многолетнего


преподавания курса практической грамматики английского языка,
рассматриваются особенности неличных форм глагола, представляющие
некоторые трудности для понимания, и тренировочные упражнения для
усвоения данной темы. Особое внимание уделяется устойчивым
конструкциям с неличными формами английского глагола и их
синтаксическим функциям.
Материалом для упражнений послужили отдельные предложения из
произведений англоязычных писателей и наработки авторов, имеющие
коммуникативную направленность.
Предназначено для студентов направления подготовки бакалавриата
44.03.01, 44.03.05 «Педагогическое образование» с направленностью
(профилем) «Иностранный (английский) язык».
Пособие может служить основной литературой при изучении данной
темы. Для лучшего усвоения материала рекомендуется использовать и
другие источники по практической грамматике английского языка.

Рецензенты:
И.А. Шерсткова, канд. филол. н., доцент кафедры «Иностранные языки»
ФГБОУ ВО УГНТУ
Ю.Р. Юсупова, канд. филол. н., доцент (БГПУ им. М. Акмуллы).

ISBN 978-5-87978-454-1
© Издательство БГПУ, 2019
© Баранова Н.В., Гумерова Н.Ж., 2019
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Введение

Предлагаемое учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для


студентов вузов по направлению подготовки 44.03.01, 44.03.05
«Педагогическое образование» с направленностью (профилем)
«Иностранный (английский) язык» и может быть использовано всеми, кто
хочет изучить данный раздел практической грамматики английского языка.
Пособие рассчитано на тех, кто уже овладел грамматическим материалом в
рамках программы среднего общего образования по английскому языку, и
знает основные понятия морфологии и синтаксиса.
Пособие обобщает теоретический и практический материал по
разделу грамматики английского языка «Неличные формы глагола» и имеет
яркую практическую направленность. Теоретическая часть описывает
грамматические нормы английского языка, объясняет типичное
использование неличных форм английского глагола, так называемые
конструкции и комплексы с ними, объясняет особые случаи их
употребления, подготавливает студентов к тренировке данных
грамматических явлений в речи и преодолению типичных ошибок.
Практическая часть представляет собой тренировочные упражнения с
четко сформулированными заданиями. Упражнения можно использовать на
занятиях по практической грамматике английского языка и
самостоятельно, для самоконтроля усвоения материала.
Отбор материала для упражнений происходил на основе типичных
явлений лексики, грамматики и коммуникативных ситуаций – студенты
учатся использовать типичные для носителей языка модели общения.
Рекомендуется уделить внимание упражнениям, где необходимо провести
анализ форм и синтаксических функций неличных форм английского
глагола, и упражнениям на перевод.
Учебно-методическое пособие включает также устойчивые
выражения с неличными формами глагола и таблицы с синтаксическими
моделями употребления герундия, инфинитива, причастий.

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CONTENTS
The Non-Finite Forms of the Verb 5
The Infinitive 5
The Use of the Bare Infinitive 6
The Syntactical Functions of the Infinitive 8
The Complexes with the Infinitive 10
The Gerund 11
The Gerund and the Verbal Noun 11
The Syntactical Functions of the Gerund 12
The Verbs Used either with the Gerund or the Infinitive 13
The Complex with the Gerund 16
The Participle 17
Participle I and the Gerund 17
The Functions of the Participles 18
The Misrelated (Dangling) Participle 19
The Complexes with the Participle 19
Practice 20
The Infinitive 20
The Infinitive: Revision 43
The Infinitive: Test Your Knowledge 49
The Gerund 51
The Gerund: Revision 58
The Participle 65
The Participle: Revision 73
Test Your Knowledge 79
Supplement 82
The functions of the Infinitive 82
The Infinitive Constructions 85
The functions of the Gerund 88
The functions of the Participles 91
The Participial Constructions 94
The Gerund as Prepositional Object 96
The Gerund as Attribute 101

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The Non-Finite Forms of the Verb

There are four non-finite forms of the verb in English: the infinitive, the
gerund, participle I and participle II. These forms possess some verbal and non-
verbal features, which makes them grammatically different from the verb. One
of the main distinctive features of these forms is that they can be used as part of
analytical verb forms (e.g.: is passing, are made, has brought, will manage,
etc.)
Semantically non-finite forms (i.e. verbals) do not differ from finite forms
(the verb), but the grammatical difference is huge: while the verb possesses the
categories of person, number, tense, aspect, voice and mood, the non-finite
forms have only two grammatical categories – voice and aspect. Another
difference is that syntactically they can be used in the functions, which are more
typical of the noun (subject, object or predicative, etc.). However, in contrast to
the verb, they cannot form a predicate, although may function as part of a
compound predicate in combination with a link verb or a modal verb. Also, all
verbal forms are used as part of the so-called complexes or constructions, where
a noun or a pronoun in combination with a non-finite form appear in predicative
relations, similar to those of the subject and the predicate:
e.g.: I saw them talking.
We made them come.
She waited for the bus to arrive.

The Infinitive

The infinitive is one of the non-finite forms, which names a process or an


action in a most general way. As such, it is generally treated as the initial form
of the verb and represents the verb in dictionaries.
The grammatical categories of the infinitive. As it has already been
mentioned above, the infinitive possesses only two grammatical categories:
voice and aspect, and according to these categories we can build up six possible
infinitive forms:

Voice Active Passive


Aspect
Common (Simple) to do to be done

Continuous to be doing -----------

Perfect to have done to have been done

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Perfect Continuous to have been doing -----------

According to the category of aspect, each infinitive form expresses some


particular kind of action:
a) the common (or simple) infinitive shows an action of a
general kind, simultaneous or posterior to the action expressed by the
preceding verb;
b) the continuous infinitive shows an action in progress,
simultaneous to the action expressed by the preceding verb;
c) the perfect infinitive shows a completed action prior to the
action expressed by the preceding verb;
d) the perfect continuous infinitive shows an action, which
started in the past, was going on for a period of time and still has not
finished by the time of the action expressed by the preceding verb.

As a part of speech, the infinitive is generally preceded by a special


marker – the particle to. The use of this particle is so closely connected with the
non-finite, that is always placed in pre-position and does not allow any
grammatical elements to be put between itself and the stem:

e.g.: I want to see them as soon as possible.


She is unlikely to come.
They chose not to interfere.

However, sometimes an intensifying particle can be inserted between


them:

e.g.: I don’t want to even hear of that.

In such case the verbal form is called the split infinitive and is used to
emphasize the meaning of the verb.
There are also cases when the infinitive is used without the particle to.
This kind of the infinitive is called bare, in contrast to the full infinitive, which
suggests that the particle is used.

The Use of the Bare Infinitive

Construction Example Notes


With auxiliary verbs I don’t like skating. All types of sentences
I will see you tomorrow. and all tenses can be
She did realise the involved here.
importance of it.
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Modal verbs I can do it right now. Verbs ought to, have to,
You mustn’t go there be to are not included
alone. into the list.
Should I pay them right
now?
Verbs need, dare How dare you interrupt In case they are used as
me? modal verbs in
I need go now. particular.
Modal expressions You had better leave
now.
I would rather talk to
her myself.
She would sooner stay
alone.
I can’t but agree with
them.
Verbs of sense I saw him cross the The group includes the
perception street. verbs: see, watch,
Jane watched us dance observe, notice, hear,
in the hall. feel, etc. in the active
She heard him talk to the voice. Passive voice
butler. requires the use of the
but particle to.
He was seen to enter the
place.
The Verb know I have never known him Only if know is used in
utter a single curse the present perfect tense
word. form.
Verbs of compulsion or His words make me cry. The group includes the
inducement She wasn’t let go. verbs: make, let, have,
They were let go. bid.
but If the verbs make and
We were made to go. bid are used in the
passive, then the particle
to appears.
The Conjunction but I can do everything but When it follows do +
sing. nothing, anything,
There is nothing to do everything.
but stay where we are.
Why-not sentences Why do it right now?
Why not go there today?
The Expression rather Rather than wait for In this construction the
than somebody, do it infinitive can be
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yourself. replaced by a gerund.
The Verb help She helped me carry her
things. In both cases the use of
Can I help you to pack the bare infinitive is
your luggage? optional.
Phrase with all and only All you have to do is
(to) add some water.
The only thing we can
do is (to) call the police.

The Syntactical Functions of the Infinitive

The main functional role of the infinitive is to be part of a compound


verbal predicate but its nominal features also suggest that it can be taken in the
role of subject, object or attribute.
The subject. The infinitive can be used as the subject of the sentence and
as such it is placed at the beginning of a sentence, i.e. before the predicate.

e.g.: To live is to fight. (simple subject)


To make fun of him is not a good idea. (phrasal subject)

However, this use is considered to be formal in Modern English. It is


much more common now to build structures with a special introductory element:

e.g.: It was nice to walk in the park on such a lovely sunny day.
It would be worthwhile to start an investigation.
It was a mistake to talk to them like that.
It usually takes me an hour to get to my work.

In all the examples given above ‘it’ serves as a formal subject placed at
the beginning of the sentence and expressed by an introductory particle. The
infinitive serves as the real subject of the sentence.
Part of a predicate. As it does not possess the grammatical categories of
person and number, the infinitive cannot agree in its form with the subject and
because of that is not used as a simple verbal predicate. However, if preceded by
a verb, it can function as part of a compound predicate:
a) compound nominal predicate
e.g.: My dream is to travel the world.
Her grandmother is hard to please.
Susan is easy to deal with.
b) compound verbal modal predicate
e.g.: You must see that movie!
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I want to join them.
You had better not go there alone.

c) compound verbal aspect predicate


e.g.: I started to laugh as soon as I had seen them.
Lucy continued to dance.
On entering the room, she immediately ceased to
speak.

The object. This function is very common for the infinitive:

e.g.: I decided to stay at home.


We are happy to see you.
I find it hard to communicate with them.
She doesn’t know how to act under such circumstances.

The attribute. In this function the infinitive can modify nouns, indefinite
and negative pronouns, ordinal numerals and substantivized adjectives:

e.g.: This is a beautiful landscape to look at.


I need someone to talk to.
Sam had nowhere to go.
Susan is always the first to hand in the task.
She was the last to arrive.

The adverbial modifier. We can observe several types of adverbial


modifiers with the infinitive:

a) adverbial modifier of purpose


e.g.: We came here to discuss the contract with you.
She switched off the phone so as not to be disturbed.

b) adverbial modifier of result


e.g.: Alice was too happy to say anything.
She is clever enough to understand it.

c) adverbial modifier of manner/comparison


e.g.: She turned to him as if to speak.
He held out his hand as though to touch them.

d) adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances


e.g.: Kate arrived home only to find that her husband was
not there.
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He disappeared round the corner never to be seen
again.

The parenthesis. Certain infinitive phrases can function as parenthetic


elements in a sentence:

e.g.: To start with, I have nothing to tell you now.


Needless to say, it drove him crazy.
To be more exact, I want to do it myself.
Here comments were rather tactless, to say the least.

The Complexes with the Infinitive

The infinitive can be used in specific predicative structures of three types:


the subjective infinitive construction, the objective infinitive construction
and the for-to-infinitive construction. In all of them the infinitive denotes an
action ascribed to the person or non-person, though grammatically this relation
is not expressed in form. The agent may be expressed by a noun in the common
case or a pronoun in the nominative case (She is said to have come late) or in the
objective case (We heard him sing that song).
The objective infinitive construction. Here the infinitive is put in a
predicative relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective
case, thus performing the function of complex object:

e.g.: I saw them arrive at the hotel.


The manager judged him to be unfit for the task.
She declared him to be an impostor.
We want them to come.

The subjective infinitive construction. Here the infinitive is put in a


predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative
case, thus performing the function of complex subject:

e.g.: She was seen to enter the house.


The man was rumoured to become out new executive officer pretty
soon.
She happened to be our neighbour.
The requirement is unlikely to be fulfilled.

The for-to-infinitive construction. In this construction the infinitive is


put in a predicate relation to a noun or a pronoun preceded by the preposition
for:

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e.g.: I waited for him to come.
She spoke too fast for me to understand.
That was a good example for us to follow.

For further details, watch the table.

The Gerund

The gerund is another non-finite form, which denotes a process. It is often


confused with nouns of verbal origin. However, nouns tend to convey the fact or
the result of some action, while gerunds convey not the result but the process
itself.
The grammatical categories of the gerund. The gerund possesses only
two grammatical categories: voice and aspect, and according to these categories,
we can build up four possible forms:

Voice Active Passive


Aspect
Common (Simple) doing being done

Perfect having done having been done

According to the category of aspect, gerund forms express some particular


kinds of process:
a) the common (or simple) gerund shows an action
simultaneous to the action expressed by the preceding verb;
b) the perfect gerund denotes an action prior to the action
expressed by the preceding verb;
However, we should note that nowadays the use of the perfect gerund is
commonly avoided if there is no fear of misunderstanding.

The Gerund and the Verbal Noun

In the English language besides the gerund, which is half-verb, half-noun,


there is a pure verbal noun ending in ~ing. Let us draw the difference between
these two forms:
1. The gerund has no plural while the verbal noun may be used in the
plural:
e.g.: All his sayings and doings did not affect her in the slightest degree.
(verbal nouns)
2. The gerund has tense and voice forms while the verbal noun has not:
e.g.: Saffron denied ever having seen them before. (gerund)
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Frederick remembered being drawn into a dark room. (gerund)
3. The gerund takes no article while the verbal noun may have an article:
e.g.: We were interrupted by the ringing of the doorbell. (verbal noun)

4. The gerund is modified by an adverb while the verbal noun is


modified by an adjective:
e.g.: The early coming of spring was doubtful. (verbal noun)
The child grew tired of sitting still in the library. (gerund)

5. The gerund of a transitive verb has a direct object while the verbal
noun formed from a transitive verb cannot have a direct object, but takes an
object preceded by the preposition of:
e.g.: The screeching of the door startled us in the silence. (verbal noun)
James was right on the point of leaving the house. (gerund)

The Syntactical Functions of the Gerund

The gerund can perform any syntactical function typical of a noun,


although in each case it has peculiarities of its own.
The subject. The gerund can be used as the subject of the sentence and in
such case it is generally placed at the beginning of a sentence.

e.g.: Seeing is believing. (simple subject)


Living in this beautiful town is utter pleasure. (phrasal subject)

However, in this function it can also be used in structures with a special


introductory element:

e.g.: It is no use trying to convince him to stay with us.


It is worth to starting your own business in this sphere.
There is no denying the fact.

In all the examples given above ‘it’ or ‘there’ serve as a formal subjects
expressed by an introductory particle. The gerund itself serves as the real subject
of the sentence.
Part of a predicate. As it does not possess the grammatical categories of
person and number, the gerund cannot agree in its form with the subject and thus
become a simple verbal predicate. However, if preceded by a verb, it can
function as part of a compound predicate:
a) compound nominal predicate
e.g.: My dearest wish is meeting my biological mother at
last.

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b) compound verbal modal predicate
e.g.: I couldn’t help feeling tired.
His shirt wants ironing badly.

c) compound verbal aspect predicate


e.g.: On seeing him she burst out crying.
We finished writing and handed in our papers.

The object. The gerund is widely used in this function and can express
either a direct or a prepositional object:

e.g.: She missed talking to her brother every evening. (direct object)
We apologized for being late. (prepositional object)
He grew tired of being treated so unfairly. (prepositional object)

There may appear a confusion as to which verbs and expressions should


be followed by an infinitive and which require the use of the gerund, so here is
the explanation:
I. The following verbs are used with the gerund only:
Admit, adore, appreciate, avoid, begrudge, burst out, cannot help, carry
on, celebrate, consider (in the meaning of ‘think over’), contemplate, defer,
delay, deny, detest, discuss, dislike, endure, enjoy, entail, excuse 1, fancy (‘like
the idea of’), finish, forgive, give up, grudge, include, imagine, involve, justify,
keep on, mean (‘entail’), mention, mind, miss, postpone, practise, prevent,
propose, put off, recall recollect, report, resent, resist, risk, stand, suggest,
tolerate, etc.
II. The following verbs are used with the infinitive only:
afford, agree, aim, arrange, attempt, decide, claim, fail, hope, intend,
learn, manage, offer, plan, prepare, promise, refuse, swear, threaten
III. With the expressions of feeling and attitude:
love, hate, like, love, prefer, can’t stand, can’t bear
Gerund means a more habitual action, while the infinitive shows a single
one or something that we want to do.
e.g. I hate cooking. (in general)
I hated to cook that cake for them. (didn’t want to cook but did it
anyway)

IV. With remember, forget, regret:


Gerund represents an earlier, preceding action while the infinitive denotes
the things that we have to do.
e.g. I remember seeing them in Cheswick last month.
Don’t forget to post the letter.
1
Two variants are possible here: Excuse my being late and Excuse me for being late.
13
V. With dread:
Gerund represents something unpleasant that is most likely to happen in
the future and to think is always taken as an infinitive.
e.g. I dread going by plane.
We all dread to think he will win.

VI. With deserve, need, require, want:


Gerund has a passive meaning here while the infinitive has the active one.
e.g. The skirt needs ironing.
I need to have a bath.

VII. With begin and start:


Gerund has a more general meaning while the infinitive shows one
singular action.
e.g. She started dancing at the age of seven.
She heard some music and started to dance.
a) if the verb is put in the continuous tense form it is always followed by
an infinitive:
e.g. He is starting to believe.

b) with non-living beings only the infinitive is used:


e.g. The door started to creak.

VIII. With go on and continue:


Gerund expresses the continuation of the same process while the infinitive
points out to a series of actions.
e.g. She went on singing. (the same song)
She went on to sing. (one song after another)

IX. With allow, advise, encourage, forbid, permit, recommend, remind,


urge, warn:
Usually gerund is taken here but after an indirect object we need the
infinitive.
e.g. They don’t allow drinking beer here.
She allowed us to drink beer.

X. With mean:
Gerund shows the meaning of this verb is synonymic to ‘entail’ while the
infinitive shows the intention.
e.g. I didn’t mean to hurt you. (I didn’t want to)
This will mean going to bed earlier. (it will involve this
thing)
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XI. With try:
Gerund means some general practice while the infinitive means a single
experience.
e.g. Jane tried to arrange the wedding. (one single time)
Jane tried arranging weddings. (it’s her lifetime occupation)
She tried talking to them but that didn’t solve the problem.
(method of dealing with something)

XII. With afraid:


Gerund points out some unpleasant situation which you want to avoid
while the infinitive shows you just try not to do it at all.
e.g. He was afraid to go there. (he didn’t go there)
He was afraid of attending them. (it was rather unpleasant)

XIII. With stop:


Gerund forms part of a compound verbal aspect predicate while the
infinitive has the function of an adverbial modifier of purpose.
e.g. They stopped talking when he came in. (they broke off the
process)
She stopped to exchange a few words with her neighbour.
(she stopped and did it)

XIV. With cease:


Gerund is used here, unless the verb is in the continuous form or the verb
that follows is not used in the continuous form.
e.g. They ceased laughing and stared at us.
She has long ceased to like me, my lord.

It should also be noted that the gerund here is more typical of informal
style while the infinitive makes the sentence sound more formal and official.
The attribute. When used in this function, the gerund is always preceded
by a preposition (‘of’ mainly, though sometimes other prepositions may appear):

e.g.: I liked his idea of going to a restaurant.


He does not stand a chance of winning.
He has no interest in studying the law.

The adverbial modifier. Here the gerund is also preceded by


prepositions:
a) adverbial modifier of purpose
e.g.: This hall is used for dancing.

15
b) adverbial modifier of time
e.g.: In trying to avoid another car, he ran into a lamp post.

c) adverbial modifier of manner


e.g.: They escaped by sliding down a rope.

d) adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances


e.g.: He put the letter away without reading it.
Instead of joining his uncle’s company, he escaped with his
girlfriend.

e) adverbial modifier of condition


e.g.: You will never speak good English without learning it.

f) adverbial modifier of cause/reason


e.g.: He refused to invest into the project for fear of losing the money.

g) adverbial modifier of concession


e.g.: In spite of living alone, he never felt lonely in his own house.

For further information see the table.

The Complex with the Gerund

The gerund can be used not only singly but in specific structures as well.
In such case the gerund is put in predicative relations to a noun or a pronoun
preceding it. The agent of such construction may be expressed by a noun or a
possessive pronoun, although it should be noted that nowadays possessive forms
are generally avoided within the informal style.

e.g.: I do not recollect Peter Catering’s visiting their mansion. (formal)


We objected to Sarah coming. (less formal)
I dislike his coming here every day. (formal)
She hated him talking like that. (less formal)

Various other elements may become the nominal element of gerundial


constructions: all, that, this, both, each, something, etc.:
e.g. She agreed to each of them being taken to hospital.
He was afraid of somebody sneaking into their bedroom.

The gerundial construction is not ascribed to any particular function in a


sentence and can appear as complex subject, complex predicative, complex
object, complex attribute or complex adverbial modifier of any kind.
16
The Participle

The participle is a non-finite form of the verb, which possesses both the
verbal and the adjectival characteristics. We might even note here that with
some participles the adjectival features started to prevail so much that they
turned into adjectives altogether: interesting, charming, distinguished, etc. There
are two participles in English: participle I and participle II.
Participle I is formed by adding suffix ~ing to the stem of the verb. It has
two grammatical categories – voice and aspect – and four possible forms:

Voice Active Passive


Aspect
Common (Simple) doing being done

Perfect having done having been done

According to the category of aspect, participle I forms express some


particular kinds of process:
a) the common (or simple) participle shows an action
simultaneous to the action expressed by the verb;
b) the perfect form of participle I denotes an action prior to the
action expressed by the verb.

Participle I and the Gerund

The two verbals are very much alike in their verbal characteristics (the
categories of voice and aspect, verbal combinability) but differ in non-verbal
characteristics (syntactic functions and non-verbal combinability). All in all, we
can point out the following differences:
a) the gerund can be used in the functions of subject or object,
while participle is never used in them;
b) the gerund can be introduced by prepositions, while participle
I is never used in such way:
c) in the function of attribute the gerund is always put in post-
position, while participle I can go both before and after the word it
modifies;
d) the gerund is modified by an adjective, while participle I is
modified by an adverb.
Participle II is built by adding ~ed to the stem of a regular verb or from
rd
the 3 form of irregular verbs. It has only one possible grammatical form but we
can say that it possesses the potential meaning of voice and aspect. Thus,
17
participle II of transitive verbs (invited, told, taken) are semantically passive and
correspond to the Russian passive participles приглашенный, рассказанный,
взятый; while the participles arrived, gone, risen are semantically active and
correspond to the Russian variants прибывший, ушедший, взошедший.

The Functions of the Participles

These non-finite forms can be used in the functions typical of the


adjective and the adverb and therefore may appear in the sentence as an
attribute, predicative or adverbial modifier.
The attribute. If the attribute is expressed by participle I or participle II
as one separate word it is usually placed in pre-position to the word they modify,
but if it is expressed by a participial phrase, it always goes in post-position:

e.g.: She looked at the winding road ahead of her. (pre-position)


The withered flowers on the window-sill made the whole room look
deserted. (pre-position)
We went along the street winding among the low one-storey houses.
(post-position)

The predicative. The participles may appear in this function as part of a


compound nominal predicate if they are preceded by the following group of
link-verbs: to be, to look, to seem, to get, to grow, to turn, to remain, etc.

e.g.: Her answer was quite disappointing.


At the award ceremony Jane looked delighted.
As a result of such a long working day we all grew tired.

The adverbial modifier. We can find a whole variety of adverbial


modifiers expressed by participles, and here are some examples of them:

a) adverbial modifier of time


e.g.: While getting breakfast ready the two old ladies exchanged gossips.
When told the fare he realized he couldn’t afford it.

b) adverbial modifier of cause (reason)


e.g.: Having been informed about it beforehand, he was perfectly ready
for the meeting.
Released at last from her solitary confinement in the attic, she could
talk to him.

c) adverbial modifier of manner (attendant circumstances)


e.g.: Fill in the application form as instructed.
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He was looking outside his hotel room admiring the beautiful view.

d) adverbial modifier of comparison


e.g.: He was silent for a moment as if posing to think of the reply.
He looked bewildered as if told something unbelievable.

e) adverbial modifier of condition


e.g.: If sent immediately, the telegram will be delivered in time.
She ought to go there but, being there, she wouldn’t know what to
say.

f) adverbial modifier of concession


e.g.: Though moving with difficulty, a man was approaching me.
Though frightened, he didn’t show it.

The parenthesis. In this function participle I forms the headword of a


phrase which is a comment upon the contents of the whole phrase:

e.g.: Strictly speaking, this is a real crime.

The Misrelated (Dangling) Participle

As it has already been mentioned, we typically observe participles as part


of participial phrases when the subject does not change. However, sometimes a
different pattern can be observed:

e.g.: Walking along the street, an idea came to my mind.


Having missed the bus, it seemed wise to return to my friend’s
house.

Such participles are called misrelated or dangling and can only be


accepted in informal speech and should be strictly avoided in formal texts. The
syntactic function of the structure is restricted to the adverbial modifier of time.

The Complexes with the Participle

The objective participial construction. Here the participle is placed in a


predicative position to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective
case, thus performing the function of complex object:

e.g.: I noticed a car arriving at the castle.


She found them rather confused.
I’ll have the dress made to order instead of buying it ready-made.
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The subjective participial construction. Here the participle is put in a
predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative
case and performs the function of complex subject:

e.g.: She was seen entering the house.


The girl was discovered crouched under the table.

The nominative absolute participial construction. This construction


contains participle I or participle II in a predicative relation to a noun or a
pronoun and is used to introduce a subject, different from the subject of the
finite verb:

e.g.: It being cold and rainy, we decided to return home.


He couldn’t get home, the door being locked from the inside.

The prepositional participial construction. This construction differs


from the previous ones in the fact that it is always introduced by prepositions
with or without:

e.g.: I couldn’t fall asleep with the noise coming from the neighbouring
house.
She refused to leave the room without a promise given to her.

The nominative absolute construction (without participle). Sometimes


in participial constructions the use of the participle itself can be omitted:

e.g.: The meeting over, she hurried to her office.

The prepositional absolute construction (without participle). The same


phenomena is observed here:

e.g.: She opened the door, with her bag in her hand.

For further information see the table.

Practice
The Infinitive
Exercise 1. Define the type of the infinitives and build up the missing
forms:
To make, to be sent, to have been crying, to be dreaming, to have heard,
to have been justified, to sleep, to be jumping, to have tried, to rest, to be
expected, to have been living, to have been read.
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Exercise 2. Finish the sentences using ‘not + infinitive’:
Model: - Did your neighbour agree … (to play his stereo so loud)?
- Did your neighbour agree not to play his stereo so loud?

1) In a dangerous situation do you usually pretend … (to be scared)?


2) It’s raining heavily outdoors! Did you decide … (to go out)?
3) Please, when in class will you try … (to switch on your phones)?
4) With the train tickets so expensive, have you chosen … (to travel by
train)?
5) Have you made up your mind … (to go there again)?
6) Did you decide … (to trust Meredith) after she lied to you once?
7) After Lucy had gone back on her promise, did you prefer … (to ask her
again)?
8) Did you advise your friend … (to go there) after you’d been so
disappointed with the performance?

Exercise 3. Point out the infinitives in the following sentences and


define their type:
1) I do not want your fiancée to have committed the crime, for from my
point of view it is so uninteresting that she should have done so.
2) To spend the summer with him meant to waste your time completely
and lose the whole of three months just for nothing.
3) James isn’t so easy to deal with but he is sure a good professional to
solve any problem.
4) Julie and Daisy were both heard to have been practicing this business
for quite a long period of time, long enough for it to make them a certain type of
professionals.
5) Martin stopped to talk to them for a while and then left and disappeared
behind the corner never to be found again.
6) She seems to be having a good time at the moment, so I guess we
shouldn’t interfere and spoil everything.

Exercise 4. Divide the sentences below into three groups:


a) the action expressed by the infinitive is posterior to the action
expressed by the verb;
b) the action expressed by the infinitive is simultaneous to the one
expressed by the verb;
c) the action expressed by the infinitive precedes the action expressed
by the verb.

1) He is sure to come.
2) They knew him to have committed a crucial mistake.
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3) Jane understood them to be sleeping.
4) The task is too hard to do it on our own.
5) She was known to have been writing books since her childhood.
6) James realised they must have heard his words.
7) Can he be still doing it?
8) That was a suitable pretext to have been used under the circumstances.
9) This is very kind of you to have done this for us.
10) I asked Jane to cut sandwiches for all of us.
11) I brought a list of products to be bought for Charles’ party.
12) Mother seems to have been cooking since father left.
13) She is said to have been taken to hospital.
14) He was told to help his younger sister unbutton her coat.
15) He smokes a lot and is sure to be ruining his health.
16) She is planning to take a course in Spanish.
17) I know him to have been an outstanding politician.
18) We believe the manager to be having a talk with our German partners
at the moment.
19) Your proposal is certain to be accepted.
20) That pleated skirt doesn’t seem to fit you.
21) She happened to be passing by the chemist’s when she saw her former
husband.
22) We know James to have been saving money since last year to buy a
new car.

Exercise 5. Insert the suitable form of the infinitives in brackets:


1) Harry seemed … (to sleep) when I came in, so I left quietly.
2) I decided never … (to trust) him anymore.
3) He appeared … (to finish) his dinner already by the time we arrived.
4) I never expected him … (to be) so stubborn.
5) George must … (to do) it since he returned from his trip to Venice.
6) Lilly ceased … (to speak) just the time we entered the place.
7) The house seemed … (to abandon) long before we came there to search
it.
8) Fay hated her brother … (to behave) like that during their visit to the
Palmers.
9) Judy wished her friends … (to send) somewhere by the Matrons so that
she could work at last for a while.
10) They were … (to come) by Tuesday but something interfered and the
Smiths chose to stay where they were.
11) You are supposed … (to do) the task by now, how can you be so
irresponsible!
12) Everyone wants … (to respect).
13) I have nothing … (to hide).
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14) Mr. Geoffrey must … (to plan) this journey long ago.
15) He is good enough … (to give) the first prize.
16) It’s suicidal … (to continue) running the company in the same way.
17) Mother left the washing … (to sort out).
18) Can he … (to cheat) on her all this time?
19) Henry is said … (to spend) all his money while travelling round the
world.
20) You should … (to see) the mess in their house, it was disgusting!
21) Frank seems … (to work) in the garden since morning.
22) His younger brother appears … (always to complain).
23) Some people don’t like … (to praise) and find it … (to be) a sort of
temptation.
24) He is so lucky … (to find) his wallet.
25) The baby may … (to sleep) now.

Exercise 6. Translate into English paying attention to the use of


infinitives:
1) Моя сестра обрадовалась, когда ее пригласили на вечеринку.
2) Я предпочитаю не вмешиваться в чужие дела.
3) Мне пришлось редактировать его статью, так как ее должны
опубликовать уже в следующем месяце.
4) Ничего не поделаешь, придется принять их предложение.
5) Они были рады помочь друзьям в беде.
6) Эндрю ожидает, что его встретят в аэропорту и отвезут в
гостиницу.
7) Ему совершенно нечего было там делать.
8) Мне приятно радовать вас! А вам нравится, когда вам делают
подарки?
9) Это все, что нужно сказать, когда вы дозвонитесь до них.
10) Вероятно, жюри уже закончило распределять премии.
11) Филипп планирует вернуться на следующей неделе.
12) Мы рады познакомиться с вашим новым мужем.
13) Мы ожидали, что вы придете.
14) Говорят, все экземпляры этой книги были распроданы еще на
прошлой неделе.
15) Так мило с вашей стороны пригласить ее погостить у вас.
16) Сообщают, что вчера был ограблен банк, но преступников, к
счастью, поймали.
17) Мне нечего вам ответить, я глубоко оскорблен подобными
предположениями.
18) Перед тобой стоит выбор: согласиться с ними или потерять
компанию.

23
19) Известно, что многие наши студенты уже не раз бывали в США и
прошли курс обучения в различных американских университетах.
20) Непонятно, чего ожидать в такой ситуации.

Exercise 7. Finish the sentences using the infinitive substitute ‘to’


after the verbs given in brackets:
Model: She didn’t go to the concert though she … (to intend).
She didn’t go to the concert though she intended to.

1) She changed the topic of her course paper though she didn’t … (to
intend).
2) They didn’t come to meet me at the station though they … (to
promise).
3) He didn’t take the medicine because he … (to forget).
4) Jane didn’t keep the date because she … (not to want).
5) Sue failed to pass the exam though she … (to try not).
6) I hope I’ll visit my aunt Katherine next month, at least I … (would
love).
7) Dad didn’t buy a new bike for me though he … (to plan).
8) She hurt her sister though she … (not to mean).

Exercise 8. Translate into English using the infinitive substitute ‘to’:


1) – Пойдешь со мной в ночной клуб?
– С удовольствием! (should love)
2) – Не могли бы мы поехать на дачу?
– Я не хочу.
3) – Вы должны прийти точно в 3.
– Непременно. (ought)
4) – Почему ты не поблагодарила его за помощь?
– Я просто забыла.
5) – Почему вы не перезвонили ей?
– Мы не хотели. (wish)
6) – Вы меня толкнули!
– Ах, простите, я не хотела! (mean)
7) – Почему ты не участвовал в собрании?
– Я не смог! (be able)
8) – Я не стал сдавать экзамен.
– Почему? Ты же собирался!

Exercise 9. Insert particle ‘to’ where necessary:


1) We miss them a great deal and we are happy that they’ll … visit us
next month.
2) You could … have done it long ago.
24
3) The boy felt his mother … touch his cheek but he pretended … be
sleeping.
4) Mrs. Coltraine wants her son … look after his little sister as she is
going … be busy till Saturday.
5) Mr. Trollop was seen … be planting some flowers in his garden.
6) Don’t let your children … swim in the river alone.
7) Who made you … stay here and … not go away?
8) The neighbours saw Valerie … leave but didn’t … tell Fred about it.
9) Susan would sooner … miss her class than … refuse to go to a party.
10) You’d better … phone your Grandma. She needs your help badly and
there’s no one … take care of her.
11) I’d rather … tell her what I think about their proposal than just …
follow her advice.
12) They cannot but … support your project, otherwise they won’t be able
… get any profit.
13) Why not … join the Abbots and … go to the shooting lodge in Wales
for the weekend.
14) Hey, there’s an overturned chair there! You … go and … put it
upright.
15) She suddenly felt his hands … be icy cold when she touched them.
16) His family was made … sell the house just for nothing and … leave
for Dublin.
17) - Was she seen … speak to the director?
- Yes, my assistant saw her … do it.
18) I heard him … pray when everybody went to bed.

Exercise 10. Translate into English using the bare infinitive where
necessary:
1) Я бы лучше поехал с вами за город, чем сидел в офисе в такую
погоду.
2) Ты бы лучше готовился к экзамену, а не играл в компьютерные
игры с утра до вечера.
3) Он скорее расстанется с ней, чем уступит ей в споре.
4) Я почувствовал, что он хочет сказать мне что-то важное.
5) Ее соседи заметили, что к ней часто приходит какой-то человек.
6) Почему бы не съездить в Лондон на этот концерт?
7) Мне кажется, ничто не сможет заставить его бросить эту работу.
8) Не могу не поспорить с тобой.
9) Ее свекровь только и делает, что жалуется на нее. Лучше бы она
не вмешивалась в их жизнь.
10) Не стоит звонить им сейчас.
11) Почему бы их не поздравить?

25
12) Он бы предпочел отдохнуть в Греции или навестить родителей,
чем лететь с ней в Таиланд.
13) Они, возможно, ожидают, что он к ним придет.
14) Почему бы нам не купить этот брелок?
15) Ему ничего не оставалось, кроме как довериться нам.
16) Ты только и делаешь, что развлекаешься на вечеринках.
17) Почему бы нам не пойти в ресторан?
18) Он скорее умрет, чем изменит свое решение.
19) Помоги нам решить этот вопрос, я в долгу не останусь.
20) Мы, пожалуй, оставим все как есть.

Exercise 11. Point out the infinitive as Subject:


1) To be here and not to visit her was utterly impossible.
2) It was hard to understand his inconsistent mumbling.
3) It required a great deal of courage to go there alone.
4) It is impossible sometimes to understand the motives of a criminal.
5) It meant a lot to me to hear him say so.
6) It is never easy to please our old aunt.
7) Why is it so difficult for you to keep the promise you’ve given to me?
8) It’s my long-term habit to have seaside walks in the morning.
9) It will do you no harm to talk to him for a while.
10) Never to see you again is the brightest of my dreams.
11) I could not remember when to see him every day turned into an
obsession.
12) It made me hot to realise that I might have been killed.
13) It gives him pain to think of her poor destiny.
14) To be with her it was never late to turn back and drive home.
15) I had a great inclination to laugh. It infuriated him to even see me
happy.
16) It made me feel awkward to realise how deeply mistaken I was.
17) Would it be appropriate to go now to his study and talk to him?
18) To dance with her there was the best present he could ever imagine.
19) Sometimes to talk to my father was a bit of an ordeal.
20) It was arrogant of you to come here!

Exercise 12. Complete the following, using the infinitive as subject:


1. ... would be unjust. 2. ... was very pleasant. 3. ... is the only thing to do.
4. ... would be much more useful. 5. ... is not an easy matter.

Exercise 13. Translate into English using the Infinitive as Subject:


1) Здравствуйте, рад с вами познакомиться.
2) Приятно видеть, как столь молодой и неопытный человек
достигает таких выдающихся результатов.
26
3) Странно, что он всё время молчит.
4) Было полнейшей глупостью с её стороны никого не предупредить.
5) Потребуется много времени и денег, чтобы привести этот дом в
приличное состояние.
6) Я никогда бы не подумал, что так трудно в нашей стране взять
кредит.
7) У меня превратилось в привычку беседовать с миссис Армитедж
перед сном.
8) Меня бросило в жар, когда я понял, что мы чуть не потеряли наш
приз.
9) Трудно предугадать, как он поступит в следующий раз.
10) Тебе не навредит немного больше времени проводить на
открытом воздухе.
11) Очень часто отказать мистеру Филипсу в просьбе означало стать
его врагом навеки.
12) Мне очень нравится выступать с тобой на сцене.
13) Я привыкла засыпать под его рассказы о дальних странствиях.
14) Неужели тебе так сложно просто прийти и поговорить?
15) Страшно подумать, что ещё он мог бы натворить, не останови мы
его.
16) Слушать ваши оправдания просто смешно.
17) Было крайне невежливо с его стороны не дослушать до конца
моё выступление.
18) Как странно с его стороны приходить сюда каждый день и даже
ни разу не упомянуть в разговоре, что он с вами знаком!
19) Такую премьеру просто невозможно пропустить.
20) Бесполезно с ней разговаривать, она всё равно не согласится.

Exercise 14. Point out the infinitives and infinitive constructions as


part of a Predicate:
1) George was beginning to understand what was going on.
2) My first desire was to change the subject.
3) She used to play the piano every evening.
4) We all wanted to join their company.
5) How could I forget it?
6) She was anxious to leave the shelter.
7) She wasn’t so easy to deal with.
8) Harold started to understand this at last.
9) They are both so pleasant to talk to.
10) My plan will be to meet them at the airport first.
11) To talk to him like that means to commit a suicide.
12) I ceased to talk and went to my seat.
13) I wish to stay with them for as long as it’s possible.
27
14) This armchair is quite comfortable to sleep in.
15) Sue would tell us that again and again.
16) My hobby is to disclose people’s secrets.
17) James must have used all the money I’d given him.
18) How dare you talk to me like that?
19) I tried to interfere but they continued to talk.
20) I’d better go now.

Exercise 15. Complete the following using the infinitive as part of a


predicate:
1. My plan is ... . 2. The best way to master a foreign language is.. . 3. The
next thing to be done is ... . 4. Our aim was ... . 5. To say so means ... . 6. His
only wish is ... . 7. After the ceremony they started … . 8. She was pretty
comfortable … . 9. James wants … . 10. James was quite fascinated … . 11. But
before it we all had to … . 12. My sister longed … . 13. He knew she would
rather … . 14. We were anxious … .

Exercise 16. Paraphrase the following sentences, making the object of


the infinitive the subject of the sentence:
Model: l. It is hard to please him. He is hard to please.
2. It is pleasant to look at her. She is pleasant to look at.

1. It is not difficult to remember the rule. It is simple. 2. It's very


comfortable to sit in my Grandfather's armchair. 3. She's a kind person. It's easy
to deal with her. 4. He's very stubborn. It's difficult to persuade him. 5. It's not
very easy to translate this passage. It contains some idiomatic expressions. 6. It
is pleasant to look at the girl, but not at all pleasant to talk to her. She's pretty,
but not very clever. 7. It was unpleasant to watch their quarrel. 8. It's always
funny to listen to his stories. 9. It would be useful to follow Uncle Jack's advice.
10. It's not so very easy to answer this question.

Exercise 17. Translate from Russian into English using the infinitive
as part of a predicate:
1. С ним трудно договориться.
2. Моя мечта сейчас – уехать как можно дальше.
3. Вы не должны так плохо о ней думать.
4. Я с нетерпением жду встречи с ним.
5. Вам не нужно платить за это сейчас.
6. На этом острове трудно выжить в одиночку.
7. Они, должно быть, уже знают это.
8. Уйти сейчас – значит окончательно разорвать отношения.
9. Я ещё не закончила разговаривать по телефону, когда они пришли.
10. В таком доме не слишком уютно жить.
28
11. Я, пожалуй, поговорю с ними позже.
12. Анна должна прийти не раньше 7 часов вечера.
13. Мы продолжали работать, несмотря на протесты соседей.
14. В этом магазине трудно найти качественные продукты.
15. Мой главный принцип в жизни – не спорить с мужем.
16. Я чуть не заблудилась ночью в парке.
17. Мой план состоит в том, чтобы рассказать ему всё первыми.
18. Туда неудобно подъезжать на машине, я лучше дойду пешком.
19. Раньше он, бывало, часто беседовал с соседями о погоде и
урожае.
20. С ней приятно танцевать, она очень гибкая и подвижная.

Exercise 18. Point out the infinitive as Object:


1) “I never hesitated to beat you, dear, and I never will.”
2) Jane didn’t know whether to come up and talk to them or simply
disappear.
3) The editor thought it cowardly to adjust the article to the needs of the
government.
4) “If you can make it convenient to pay me a visit now and then, I shall
be obliged”.
5) She couldn’t bring herself to ask if it was true.
6) We weren’t sure how to respond to his suggestion.
7) I am delighted to meet you at last.
8) He didn’t bother to hide his contempt.
9) If you think I’m happy to sit in a hotel room waiting for you, you’re
wrong.
10) It was his mother’s disapproval that prompted him to propose to
Alice.
11) She found it rather convenient to have him always at hand.
12) He became quite an expert as soon as he learned not to put his hand
over the lens.
13) There was a trouble with the garden with which Julia refused to
interest herself.
14) I don’t pretend to be a saint but I believe it’s a bad plan to have a
lover.
15) I didn’t know how else to express my feelings.
16) I thought immediately of Jake and arranged for him to meet the
manager of the restaurant.
17) I don’t see why you found it necessary to tell everything to Nick.
18) He was rather surprised to see the bill but with all the money in his
pockets he could afford not to care.
19) James made up his mind to wait until the woman was asleep.
20) Breasley sat and waved to us to sit by him.
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21) Kate was angry with me as I didn’t remember to pay the bill.
22) I told them to come in and make themselves comfortable.

Exercise 19. Match the columns:


1. Rick finds it necessary a) not to marry anybody for his looks.
2. The surgeon was requested b) to impose strict rules on his
children.
3. Sally’s mother told her c) to operate on the patient.
4. Lucy plans d) to blame his wife for all that.
5. The doctor recommended the patient e) to enter into marriage.
6. The parents persuaded him f) to have the tooth out.
7. The boss advised his personnel g) to take the final exams.
manager
8. The students were asked h) to apply for this post.
9. His mother considers it impossible i) to hand in their test-papers.
10. Her fellow-students encouraged her j) to hire a new team.

Exercise 20. Paraphrase the following sentences using the infinitive as


object:
1) I think you should read as much as possible.
2) I wanted to continue the experiment but the boss said it was high time
to stop it.
3) His recommendation was that we should go to Stratford-on-Avon and
visit Shakespeare’s birthplace.
4) First I’ll pack for the trip, and then I’m going to take a taxi and get to
the airport.
5) Father told Jimmy that he would buy him a new bike.
6) “You should continue to do as much swimming as possible, this way
you may lose some weight,” said Kate.
7) They were very polite when they asked whether we could take off our
shoes before entering the room.
8) He is the sort of man you could cause to do just anything.
9) We were given permission to use their phone and make a call to the
embassy.
10) The way of handling the mechanism was demonstrated to the
customers.

Exercise 21. Complete the following, using the infinitive as object:


1. He asked ... . 2. In the kindergarten they teach children ... . 3. I am so
glad ... . 4. We are awfully sorry ... . 5. The doctor advised ... . 6. The child is
afraid ... . 7. I've clean forgotten ... . 8. Everybody promised ... . 9. Would you
like ... ? 10. Who has allowed you ... ? 11. Aunt Polly instructed Jim ... .

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Exercise 22. Finish the sentences using WHAT, WHICH, WHERE,
HOW, WHEN to introduce the infinitive:
Model: You should advise … (to turn to) – You should advise me who to
turn to for help.

1. They told … (wine to choose)


2. We asked … (to turn to the right)
3. Can you advise … (to buy)
4. He showed … (to ride a bicycle)
5. The teacher taught … (to pronounce English sounds)
6. We informed … (to stop on the way)
7. He recommended … (to repair my car)
8. The teacher showed (to write letters)
9. The shop-assistant advised … (to use the detergent)
10. The manager reminded … (to come to the meeting)

Exercise 23. Translate from Russian into English using the infinitive
as object:
1) Наполеон ставил себе целью завоевать Россию.
2) Им не по карману снимать квартиру.
3) Мы могли позволить себе ждать.
4) Мы договорились с Майклом, что он встретит тебя на вокзале.
5) Он утверждал, что ничего не знает о сделке.
6) Я договорился, что ты остановишься у моего брата.
7) Он вполне заслуживает критики.
8) Джеймс рассчитывал продать весь товар к сентябрю.
9) Я ожидаю получить известия от них не позже четверга.
10) Мы рассчитывали быть дома около пяти.
11) Спрашивайте, не стесняйтесь.
12) Какое-то время я сомневался, можно ли давать её телефон.
13) Миссис Карстон дала нам понять, что наше присутствие
нежелательно.
14) Я не мог вспомнить ни слова из того, что планировал сказать.
15) Он предложил показать нам Эрмитаж.
16) Люси притворилась, что спит.
17) Она не советовала мне покупать эту машину.
18) Джордж делал вид, что читает книгу.
19) Отец не позволял ей есть шоколадные конфеты.
20) Он убедил нас купить ему новый мотоцикл.
21) Её успех побудил и меня заняться журналистикой.
22) Напомни мне, что нужно купить сметаны.

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Exercise 24. Point out the infinitives in the function of an object or a
predicative:
1) The rule was quite difficult to follow, and we soon chose to ignore it
completely.
2) Jane was excited to see her brother so involved in his work again.
3) I’m quite willing to agree to your proposal, though I’m not sure it will
be approved of.
4) I didn’t mean to criticise you, actually.
5) We all hoped to get to the hotel by dusk but the stormy weather
interfered.
6) That photo of his is so nice to look at.
7) To do so means to betray your closest friend.
8) He cried and begged to let him stay here for another night but Father
refused flatly.
9) I’m bound to believe there would be no radical change in their life
pattern.
10) I find it useful to let them live in my basement and run errands for me.
11) She was glad to find so many new friends here.
12) Carl felt anxious to stay there alone but didn’t attempt to leave
anyway.
13) Mark is quite capable to look after himself now, so leave him alone.
14) I’m proud to see him achieve such great success.
15) We all encouraged James to apply for that position.
16) They didn’t expect to find so many people inside.
17) His handwriting is so indecipherable to read, I can’t make head or tail
of it.
18) I’m sorry to disappoint you, but I shall not agree to that anyway.
19) We were afraid to go there alone, and so chose to stay home instead.
20) The article is hard to translate without a dictionary, so I’ll put it off till
the evening.

Exercise 25. Point out the infinitives and infinitive constructions in


the function of attribute:
1) He hasn’t produced enough evidence to justify a perhaps lengthy and
expensive investigation abroad.
2) Headfield is a prosperous town with pleasant country to be reached in
ten minutes’ drive.
3) She left shortly after dinner, saying that she had an article to write and
a deadline to meet.
4) They thought it would be a nice place to bring up the kids.
5) And I have the house to look after and your dinner parties to arrange.
6) There are no slums in Headfield of the kind to be seen in London and
other big cities.
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7) She had been frightened of him once, but now he was a piece of
property to be wheeled about in a chair.
8) There was an ad in our local rug put in by a man with a collection of
stamps to sell.
9) He felt that Colin would lack the nerve to do anything original.
10) Brenda pointed out the undesirable publicity likely to follow any
police enquiry.
11) Still, there may be time for him to see her.
12) Once he stayed out all night and there was no one to make my coffee
when I woke up.
13) There is nothing for a student to do here now.
14) It must have been something to do with the sun, the water and their
low voices.
15) Laura was the first to arrive, though nobody expected her to come at
all.
16) You’d better find somebody to walk your dog.
17) The man made me a sign to approach him and help him with the load.
18) We have very little to give you. You’d better find some other family
to support you.
19) The next thing to do is to go to the Embassy and get a visa.
20) His lecture leaves much to be desired.

Exercise 26. Match the columns:


1. She is the woman a) to be solved immediately.
2. I’ve got little money b) to be engaged to.
3. He has nobody c) to be done.
4. Lucy is not a girl d) to lend you.
5. We have a problem e) to fall in love with at first sight.
6. It is the first thing f) to promote him.
7. This is a chance g) to trust.
8. We have a good idea h) to be dismissed.
9. Simon was the last i) to show your good points.
10. One should have someone j) what to tell her when she comes.

Exercise 27. Paraphrase the following using a conjunctive infinitive


phrase as an attribute:

Sample: She has no idea … (what). – She has no idea what to say to him.

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1) Leo had an idea … (how).
2) Dad always gives me advice … (what).
3) This is the station … (where).
4) Could you give me a hint … (whom)?
5) We badly need the information … (when).
6) His suggestion … (where) was approved of by everybody.

Exercise 28. Complete the following, using the infinitive as attribute:


1. He was always the first ... . 2. We have nothing .... 3. This is a chance ...
. 4. Benny has no friends ... . 5. He is not a man ... . 6. She made an attempt ... .
7. Is there anybody ... ? 8. He always finds something ... . 9. This is the
information .... 10. He spoke of his wish ... .

Exercise 29. Replace the subordinate clauses with attributive


infinitives:
1) There weren't many children in the neighbourhood who we could play
with.
2) He fell asleep with full determination that he would go and see for
himself.
3) He is a man one can trust.
4) We didn't know the way to the station, and there wasn't anyone who we
could ask.
5) He was the first person who came to the bar and the last who left it.
6) It isn't a thing you can joke about. It's a serious matter.
7) He will always find something that makes him laugh.
8) They decided that it was a nice little town where they could live quietly
for a while.
9) He's not a man who you can easily frighten.
10) There's nothing that we might discuss now. Everything is settled.
11) He was the first man who guessed what George was driving at.
12) No doubt it was the best time when I could find them all at home.
13) A good housewife will always find something that must be done about
the house.
14) The old general wanted nothing but a grandson who he could dandle
on his knee.

Exercise 30. Translate these sentences into English using attributive


infinitives:
1) Это как раз хороший случай помириться с ними.
2) Мне не у кого попросить совета.
3) Вот свежая роза, которую ты можешь приколоть к волосам.
4) Это было неподходящее время для перерыва.

34
5) Сомневаюсь, есть ли здесь кто-либо, с кем можно было бы
поговорить об этом деле.
6) Мне дали текст, который я должен был перевести без словаря.
7) Не о чем спорить. Мы говорим практически об одном и том же.
8) Он как раз подходящий человек, чтобы заполнить вакансию.
9) Вот ключ, которым открывается ящик конторки.
10) Вопрос, который будет обсуждаться на нашем собрании, очень
важен, на мой взгляд.
11) Я не вижу тряпки, которой стирают с доски.
12) Это как раз подходящая книга для чтения перед сном.
13) Мы уезжаем завтра утром, а у нас еще куча дел.
14) Он отвечал первым.
15) Нельзя было терять время, и Джон выпрыгнул через окно на
крышу соседнего дома.
16) Тут и понимать нечего, все очень просто.
17) Несмотря на желание сказать что-нибудь веселое (cheering), он
смог только робко улыбнуться.
18) Он с сожалением понял, что ничего нельзя было сделать.

Exercise 31. Point out the infinitives as adverbial modifiers:


1) I intended to use the opportunity, it was too good to be missed.
2) He came over here not to quarrel with you but to warn you that they
may do you harm.
3) When I left the Post Office I found that I was too late to catch the
London train.
4) To get the information you need you’d better go to the agency.
5) Switch the lights off not to wake the baby.
6) It was getting too hot to work and we decided to take a break.
7) Dixon was clever enough to avoid talking on this subject with Wendy.
8) Sylvia cried loudly so as to draw the man’s attention.
9) Michael considered Jonny to be too young to be drawn into their
religious community.
10) He moved into the kitchen to get some water.
11) She was woman enough not to forget to powder her nose even at that
critical moment.
12) His case is such as not to be helped.
13) He turned to Margaret to find her in conversation with Carol
Goldsmith.
14) He heard a loud knock at the front door and opened it to see a stranger
in a shabby raincoat.
15) The man whistled as if to attract my attention.
16) She liked to be kind to people and used to give promises to forget
them at once.
35
17) He went quickly to the bathroom, and returned to find Murphy sitting
beside his bed.
18) I wish I were strong enough to help you, my boy.
19) Everyone knows that to tell the truth is better than to tell lies.
20) Ben looked sadly at his mother as if to say that he was sorry for her.
21) To think of her complaints you would have thought she had nothing to
live on.
22) We left earlier so as to have a talk with the professor before everyone
arrived.

Exercise 32. Complete the following, using the infinitive


a) as adverbial modifier of purpose:
1. He came immediately ... . 2. We'll stay after the lecture ... . 3. They
stopped ... . 4. Write down this rule ... . 5. I've opened the door ... . 6. He stepped
aside politely .... 7. ... you must work hard. 8. The boy ran out....
b) as adverbial modifier of result:
1. She was too frightened .... 2. The article is too difficult ... . 3. The fence
is high enough ... . 4. The baby is too restless ... . 5. The weather is warm enough
... . 6. We are too busy ... . 7. She was grown-up enough ... . 8. The night was too
dark... .

Exercise 33. Paraphrase the following using an infinitive or an


infinitive phrase as the adverbial modifier of purpose:
1) Mother wanted to cook soup, so she bought some mushrooms, carrots
and onions at the greengrocer’s.
2) She has to write things down and use memo magnets, or she’ll forget
everything.
3) His desire was to justify himself and he persuaded her to give evidence.
4) If you do not want to lag behind your group, you’ll have to take all the
exams before the academic year is over.
5) You should follow the advice of your financial consultant or you’ll go
bankrupt pretty soon.
6) You will make your idea clearer if you illustrate each point.
7) Try to show good manners and don’t be so rude, otherwise your teacher
may get disappointed.
8) She tried to stay in good shape and she joined a sports club.
9) He scraped up some money as he wanted to start a restaurant.
10) Let’s hurry up, or we’ll miss the 5.05 train.

Exercise 34. Paraphrase the following sentences so as to use infinitives


of result:
Model: 1. The storm was so strong that I couldn't go out.
The storm was too strong (for me) to go out.
36
2. The text is so short that it can be translated in an hour.
The text is short enough to be translated in an hour.

1) It was so dark that he could see nothing before him.


2) You are so experienced, you ought to know better.
3) She was so excited that she couldn't utter a word.
4) He was so angry, he wouldn't speak to me.
5) His English vocabulary is very poor; he can't make himself understood.
6) She knows English so well that she can read Somerset Maugham in the
original.
7) Mrs. Burton was so kind that she sent some money to her poor friend.
8) The story of her return is so tragic, it can't be merely ironic.
9) The man was so down and out that he could not get a decent job.
10) The man was not very strong and so was unable to swim the distance.
It was very late, nobody could save him.

Exercise 35. Complete the sentences using the infinitive as the


adverbial modifier of comparison/manner:
Model: She knew …… (better, to trust).
She knew better than to trust Susan in such deal.

1) He knew …… (better, to follow smb’s advice).


2) To give him money …… (more appropriate, to give advice).
3) To get to Paris by boat ...… (more convenient, to get by train).
4) Not to mention her name in his presence …… (wiser, to talk).
5) To arrange things beforehand …… (better, to take last minute
decisions).
6) To bother other people …… (more pleasant, to burden yourself).
7) To deliver your opinion under such circumstances would be ……
(more ridiculous, to say nothing).
8) To be laughed at is …… (pleasant, to laugh at somebody).
9) To defend the helpless woman would be ……. (nobler, to comfort her).
10) To betray friends is …… (not better, betray oneself).
11) To have little money is …… (better, to have no money at all).
12) To keep your word is …… (more difficult, to promise).

Exercise 36. Translate the sentences into English using infinitives:


1) Он достаточно умен, чтобы понять это.
2) Течение было таким сильным, что он не мог проплыть вокруг
маяка.
3) Чтобы разобраться в этой истории, нужно выслушать каждого
свидетеля.

37
4) Рассказ был слишком захватывающим, чтобы не дочитать его до
конца.
5) Ее произношение было слишком правильным, чтобы быть
естественным.
6) Для установки памятника потребовалось разрешение городской
администрации.
7) Он был так взбешен, что одного слова было бы достаточно, чтобы
свести его с ума.
8) Я просмотрел две главы и (в результате) нашел только пять
подходящих примеров.
9) На следующее утро она проснулась и обнаружила, что она одна во
всем доме.
10) Чтобы уйти незамеченным, он решил переждать до ночи.
11) Наши друзья навестили нас прошлым летом и больше не
приезжали в наш дом.
12) После длительного путешествия он вернулся домой и понял, что
в гостях хорошо, а дома лучше.
13) Он прошел через все комнаты и (в результате) увидел только
кошку на кухне. Квартира была пуста.
14) Лучше молчать, чем говорить глупости.
15) Она открыла дверь кабинета и увидела, что отец ходит взад и
вперед в сильном гневе.
16) Время от времени он просыпался и тут же снова засыпал.
17) Он покачал головой, словно в знак осуждения.
18) После долгого отсутствия она вернулась домой и поняла, что
ничего не изменилось: они не простили ее.
19) В который раз обдумав ситуацию, он понял, что выхода нет.
20) Она открыла дверь и увидела, что все уже собрались и ждут ее.
21) Проводить отпуск на море гораздо лучше, чем все лето
оставаться в душном городе.
22) С ее стороны было бы гораздо разумнее смириться с ситуацией,
чем переживать и нервничать без толку.

Exercise 37. Point out the objective with the infinitive construction in
the following sentences and comment on its use:
1) We can’t believe him to have robbed the bank.
2) He hated her to wake him up so early each morning.
3) They reported the train to have arrived.
4) I’ll get you to pay my money back.
5) I’m sorry I didn’t notice you enter the room.
6) We just want you to obey the instructions.
7) I can’t make you go there.
8) We relied on her to book the tickets.
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9) She wished the house to be let as soon as possible.
10) She usually lets her son stay at home when he feels unwell.
11) Susan ordered the tea to be brought.
12) I won’t have you interfere into my business.
13) From her window Bonnie saw Mrs. Geoffreys approach the house.
14) I’d like my book to be published in France.
15) She wanted the play to be staged at the local theatre.
16) She preferred the paintings to be exhibited at the central gallery.
17) The director ordered the contract to be translated into English by
Tuesday.
18) Greg watched her knit the scarf for a few minutes.
19) We’d like the car to be parked near the office.
20) I felt the conversation to be turning into a quarrel.

Exercise 38. Paraphrase the sentences so as to use the objective with


the infinitive construction:
1) She hates it when people lie.
2) I noticed that the woman passed him by and gave him a quick look.
3) We counted on their bringing some bread and didn’t go to the
supermarket.
4) They reported that the train had already left.
5) His request was to post the letter.
6) We expected that they would arrive at 5 pm.
7) I believe you will take the right decision.
8) She felt how Erwin touched her on the shoulder and whispered
something in her ear.
9) I can’t say I love it when you watch horror films or soap operas.
10) Mr. Brief asked to bring him a glass of warm milk and a bun.
11) The director reported that our wages would be paid on time.
12) I suppose dogs love only kind people.
13) I have never known that she used to be an actress.
14) I thought you had cheated on her.
15) We knew old Mrs. Perkins had been living in this house since her
nurcery years.
16) They declared that the general wasn’t guilty.
17) Her greatest wish was that her mother should recover as soon as
possible.
18) All children love it when their parents kiss them before bed.
19) The surgeon pronounced that the patient had been successfully
operated on.
20) She gave permission to sell the house.

39
Exercise 39. Translate the sentences into English using the objective
with the infinitive construction:
1) Никогда не слышал, чтобы он упоминал свою семью.
2) Из-за него она уехала и бросила хорошую работу.
3) Пусть он поступает, куда хочет, и сам поймет, если это
неправильный выбор.
4) Я видела, как он открыл дверь и вошел, когда никого не было
дома.
5) Неужели она не может заставить своего мужа сделать ремонт?
6) Я не думала, что он так издевается над собственнм ребенком.
7) Не поверю, что они продали свою дачу.
8) Я считаю, что ее доклад – это новое слово в науке.
9) Мне не нравится, когда вы приходите сюда без предупреждения.
10) Я хочу, чтобы вы съездили куда-нибудь отдохнуть и немного
развлечься.
11) Не выношу, когда ты бездействуешь.
12) Мэри заявила, что никогда не видела этого человека.
13) Как мне заставить их сделать работу вовремя?
14) Я не хочу полагаться на то, что кто-то придет и спасет положение
– мы должны действовать сами.
15) Он никогда не приказывает свои сотрудникам что-то сделать, но
на его просьбы невозможно ответить отказом.
16) Люблю, когда ты звонишь мне по вечерам.
17) Я раньше наблюдал, как Элис ходит гулять под руку с мужем, а
теперь она гуляет только с собачкой.
18) Полагаю, что этот фильм не для детей.
19) Я не допущу, чтобы вы порочили его честное имя (to blacken
smb’s reputation).
20) Мы не ожидали, что он совсем откажется от проекта.

Exercise 40. Point out the Subjective with the Infinitive construction
in the following sentences:
1) She didn't seem to notice his unfriendly tone.
2) The number to which I had been directed turned out to be a house
standing a little by itself, with its back to the river.
3) "He appears to be asleep, my lady," said the butler.
4) The boy was made to repeat his story twice.
5) Professor Lee was expected to join the expedition in North Africa, but
he had fallen ill.
6) He was heard to say that it would rain and ordered the door to the
balcony to be shut.
7) I looked at the house with suspicious curiosity, and it seemed to be
looking back at me.
40
8) He is said to have been a sailor in his youth.
9) You're not likely to keep us company, Jim, are you?
10) He happened to meet them at the station.
11) If you throw mud you are sure to slip on it.
12) They proved to have very little sense.
13) The headmaster is supposed to take care of the staff.
14) She was seen to be trying on a new coat.
15) Until recently we believed he was unlikely to come.
16) We sent them all our comments on their work but they appear to take
no interest.
17) The children are never allowed to stay home alone.
18) Their team is certain to win the game.
19) ‘Doctor Zhivago’ is known to have been published abroad long before
being published in Russia.
20) She was let park the car near the bank.

Exercise 41. Paraphrase the sentences so as to use the subjective with


the infinitive construction:
Model: It appeared that she knew him well.
She appeared to know him well.

1) It is reported that the police have caught the criminal.


2) It is planned that Mr. Green will have an operation next week.
3) It is quite certain that they will sign the contract.
4) Everyone heard that he shouted at his wife.
5) They discovered that the documents had been stolen by the secretary.
6) They were sure she would come.
7) James expected her to finish by noon.
8) It turned out she used to live in the same town.
9) I’m absolutely sure they will solve the problems the company is facing.
10) He will probably lose a lot of money gambling.
11) Nothing can make him move to Australia.
12) It happened that I was passing your house when I heard the noise.

Exercise 42. Translate the sentences into English using the subjective
with the infinitive construction:
1) Его заставили обратиться к врачу.
2) Оказывается, он ничего об этом не слышал.
3) Кажется, вы расстроены. Что-нибудь случилось?
4) Ожидается, что зима в этом году будет суровая.
5) Я случайно услышала последнюю фразу, сказанную вами.
6) Они наверняка поженятся.
7) Маловероятно, что он поправится к понедельнику.
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8) Оказалось, что мы уже знакомы.
9) Сообщается, что они добрались до самой вершины.
10) Он сопротивлялся, но его заставили пригласить Паркеров на
вечеринку.
11) Кажется, шеф тебя ищет.
12) Безусловно, мы придем на ваше торжество.
13) Говорят, он проиграл все деньги.
14) Вряд ли она получит стипендию.

Exercise 43. Point out the for-to-Infinitive Construction and state its
function:
1) I think the best thing would be for you to see him for yourself.
2) He held the door open for her to get in.
3) "Three weeks and two days, my lady," Leadbitter replied. "How nice of
you to have counted the days!" said Lady Franklin.
4) "It's nice of you to have come," came his voice from the bed.
5) It's too late for the children to go out.
6) There was no home for him to go to.
7) He waited for me to sit down.
8) How nice of you to know my voice! Am I disturbing you?
9) There's nothing for us to do but amuse ourselves.
10) He cordially extended one forefinger for Erik to shake.
11) Some trouble with the authorities had made it necessary for him to be
much abroad.
12) It was kind of you to come, but you must go now.
13) Since you are so anxious for me to distinguish myself I have
concluded to do so.
14) It is impossible for me to write about that time in detail – I can't bear
to.
15) He opened the door of his room for her to go out.
16) She longed for night to come and bring sleep to her.
16) It was really warm for May, and still light enough for him to see the
meadow beyond the river.
17) The idea is for us to give a special concert at the Festival Hall.
18) Erik saw that she was impatient for him to be gone.

Exercise 44. Translate into English, using the for-to-Infinitive


Construction where possible.
1) Первое, что мы должны сделать – это заказать билеты.
2) Вопрос был слишком неожиданным, чтобы я мог на него ответить.
3) Я подчеркнула эти предложения, чтобы вы проанализировали их.
4) Он попросил принести бумагу и ручку.

42
5) Этот текст достаточно легкий, чтобы вы могли прочитать его без
словаря.
6) Мне очень хочется, чтобы вы поступили в университет.
7) Ему ничего не оставалось делать, как немедленно выехать в
Москву.
8) Сделать это должен был он.
9) Было бы неразумно, если бы он сейчас уехал из Ленинграда.
10) Самое лучшее, что вы можете сделать, – это поехать в санаторий.

The Infinitive: Revision


Exercise 45. Insert the appropriate form of the infinitive:
1) But there was nothing now … (to wait) for.
2) She put on the cape, and turned round … (to admire).
3) He appeared … (to listen).
4) He appeared … (to have) plenty of money, which was said … (to gain)
in the Californian goldfields.
5) "When I seemed … (to doze) a long while, the Master of Salem House
unscrewed his flute into the three pieces, put them up as before, and took me
away.
6) Every feature seemed … (to sharpen) since he saw her last.
7) This fellow seemed … (to be) a famous explorer or something of that
sort in his younger days.
8) The house appeared … recently... (to repair).
9) Nobody seemed … (to perceive) his entry, but there he certainly was.
10) Paula would be the first concentration camp … (to liberate) by
American troops.
11) Willoughby was not the man … (to overlook) the lessons of his
predecessor.
12) A twelve year old girl, Patience Barlow, was the first … (to attract)
his attention or … (to attract) by him.
13) One might guess Mr. George … (to be) a military man once upon a
time.
14) I suppose Mr. Jelleby had been more talkative and lively once; but he
seemed … (to exhaust) long before I knew him.
15) Dave seemed … (to watch) Stephanie, waiting for her to make the
first move.
16) For the last few days she seemed … (to talk) to nobody but strange
men.
17) I lack the will-power … (to do) anything with my life, … (to better)
my position by hard work.
18) There's no time … (to lose).

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19) And, in a very little while, the Murdstone and Grinby life became so
strange to me that I hardly believed in it, while my present life grew so familiar,
that I seemed … (to lead) it a long time.
20) Roger Havisham was a youngish Conservative member who was
beginning … (to talk) about.
21) He is said … (to put away) a small fortune.
22) That Jolyon seems … (to be born) in 1710, son of Jolyon and Mary.

Exercise 46. Insert ‘to’ before the infinitive where necessary:


1) Do you think I plan … spend the rest of my life in the same situation? I
would rather … die!
2) She could not help but … feel a little choked for breath.
3) Why not … come down to my place?
4) He gave a quick grin that made his lean twisted face … look more lean
and twisted than ever.
5) Ever since I came into this silly house I have been made … look like a
fool.
6) He did nothing from morning till night but … wander at random.
7) I'm the cook, and I won't have anyone … come interfering in my
kitchen.
8) Abe let the hammer … drop out of his hands and … fall on the step.
9) You'd better … take me back to Oxford.
10) They ought … have asked my advice. They ought … have.
11) The poor boy was absolutely broken up. It made my heart … bleed. I
couldn't … let him … go without a word of comfort.
12) I've got nothing … do but … talk, talk.
13) I would die sooner than … ask him for another penny.
14) Your mother's gone to some friends — they do nothing but … play
bridge.
15) There's nobody in the world I would rather … work with or … have
greater respect for.
16) Conrad had never known her … talk so much.
17) But Emma knew Mrs. Pettaway … be her enemy, and … hate her.
18) Then why not … try … save yourself?
19) She opened the iron gateway and bade me … enter.
20) You'd better … get some sleep.
21) English women in our station have duties but we, strangers in a
strange land, have nothing … do but … enjoy ourselves.
22) I want … look at him and hear him … talk.
23) The key of the door below was now heard in the lock, and the door
was heard … open and close.
24) She felt herself … be tall and slim and fresh.
25) I felt my blood … freeze.
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26) And if you say you gave me no encouragement I cannot but …
contradict you.
27) When she reached the front steps, she heard the taxi … drive away.
She turned around and watched the red tail-light … disappear in the darkness.
28) Tommy really does nothing but … propose to me.
29) I thought that I had better … try … speak openly myself.
30) Arthur could not but … glance at Daniel in the ensuing silence.
31) Why not … write to her?
32) At first I tried … excuse myself, for the present, on the general ground
of having occupation … attend to, which I must not … neglect. I then said that I
had much … learn myself before I could … teach others. For these reasons, I
thought it best … be as useful as I could, and … render what kind services I
could to those about me: and … try … let that circle of duty gradually … expand
itself.

Exercise 47. Replace the clauses in the following sentences with


infinitive phrases:
1) I should be delighted if I could get acquainted with the captain of your
team.
2) He was annoyed when he learnt that they hadn't chosen him as a player
for the All-Union match.
3) I was sorry that I had missed the beginning of the match.
4) We must wait till we hear the referee's whistle, then we'll see the teams
coming out.
5) They wouldn't be surprised if they were to receive an invitation to play
in this tennis match.
6) You would be foolish if you missed the chance.
7) I'm pleased that I've been of some service to you.
8) She turned to me as if she was going to ask me something.
9) We are happy that we have won, it was a difficult match.
10) I was sorry when I heard of their failure.
11) I'm sorry that I've been of so little assistance.
12) He pressed his finger to his lips as if he wanted to warn her.

Exercise 48. State the functions of infinitives in the following


sentences:
1) He came into the room to shut the windows.
2) He seemed to know all about influenza and said there was nothing to
worry about.
3) Do you want me to read to you?
4) I made a note of the time to give the various capsules.
5) They said the boy had refused to let anyone come into the room.
6) You can't come in. You mustn't get what I have.
45
7) Don't make me laugh.
8) It took me about five minutes to work out how much the set would
cost.
9) The British Museum is much too big to be seen in an hour or so.
10) Father decided to take a holiday from his office so as to help in
celebrating the day.
11) It was necessary to make it in a day, just on Monday.
12) She was sitting near enough to see his face.
13) That's how I used to be a soldier.
14) A railway station is the most difficult of all places to act in.
15) I think the best way to get a general idea of a country is to study the
map.
16) If he couldn't get something to do he'd have to commit suicide.
17) You may fail in your English if you go on like that.
18) It's true there was no scenery to stare at, but the costumes and make-
up, the light and sound effects helped the audience to concentrate on the
dialogue and the acting.
19) It seemed a privilege to lend anything to him.
20) Thank you for your very kind invitation to visit you and stay with you.
21) It made our mouths water to hear him talk about such tasty things.

Exercise 49. Translate the sentences into English, using infinitives:


1) С ней приятно разговаривать.
2) Вопрос был слишком сложный, чтобы обсудить его за час.
3) Я рад, что узнал правду.
4) Ты бы лучше не надоедал ему своими глупыми вопросами.
5) Этот вопрос слишком сложен, чтобы она могла решить его одна.
6) Он не такой человек, от которого можно ожидать помощи.
7) Было бы лучше убедить его работать, чем принуждать его.
8) Мы очень довольны, что видели этот спектакль.
9) Кажется, дети уже забыли об этом печальном событии.
10) Вам следовало бы предупредить меня заранее.
11) Я молчала, так как мне нечего было сказать.
12) Они обещали мне помочь подготовиться к приему гостей.
13) Номер его телефона легко запомнить.
14) Этот человек сидит здесь, должно быть, около часа. Кого бы это
он мог ждать?
15) Вы помните, кто первый вошел в комнату?
16) Вряд ли он тот человек, который даст вам интересующую вас
информацию.
17) Мы сделали вид, что не заметили его ошибок, чтобы не смущать
его.

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18) Главное в том, как заставить ее поверить нам и послушаться
нашего совета.

Exercise 50. Point out the Objective Infinitive and the Subjective
Infinitive Constructions:
1) Never once had she been seen to cry.
2) It was the first time he had ever seen her weep.
3) He didn't mean this to be a long meeting.
4) There was a rumour that at last they were likely to be married.
5) Without complaints she suffered me to have my own way.
6) Irving proved to be a long, sallow-faced chap, solemn as an undertaker.
7) Mr. Worthing is sure to be back soon.
8) I came to get someone to tell me the truth.
9) I'll have Bertha bring you breakfast.
10) Unfortunately, at this moment he chanced to catch sight of Judith's
face.
11) I have never known Hector Rose behave like this.
12) His "office" turned out to be in one of the back streets close by
Olympia.
13) Conrad pulled out a chair and made her sit down.
14) He looked at his watch, rang the bell, and ordered the car to be
brought round immediately.
15) Paul felt his heart lift as if at a great victory.
16) People took an oath when they were married, and that was supposed
to hold them together.
17) You make me think of spring flowers.
18) At thirteen he began to read books that were said to be evil.
19) She watched him go up the street and enter a door.
20) He appeared to be an ideal home man.
21) Young men of this class never do anything for themselves that they
can get other people to do for them.
22) He said he wouldn't suffer a word to be uttered to him in his uncle's
disparagement.
23) She doesn't seem to want to do anything I suggest.
24) Cecily and Gwendolen are perfectly certain to be extremely great
friends.
25) He heard the town clock strike twelve.
26) Nearly a year ago, I chanced to tell him our legend of the black monk.
27) Harriet, pale and trembling, suffered her to go on uninterrupted.
28) He turned out to have no feeling whatsoever for his nephew.
29) From the extreme freshness of her complexion I estimated her age to
be sixteen, or less perhaps.
30) This appeared to amuse the police officer.
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31) I can't bear anyone to be very near me but you.
32) At any moment he was expecting Erik to pull a gun and rob him.
33) He decided to write her and ask for an explanation, as well as have her
meet him.
34) You can easily get in through a window if the door happens to be
locked.
35) You are sure to be there tomorrow night, aren’t you, Professor Potts?
36) He was said to be one of the most promising of nuclear physicists.
37) The peasants did not seem to see her.
38) Mrs. Merridew instantly permitted herself to be taken by the arm, and
led into the garden.

Exercise 51. Translate into English, using the Objective Infinitive or


the Subjective Infinitive Construction:
1. Мы хотим, чтобы каждый человек был свободен.
2. У нас в полку я считался одним из лучших стрелков.
3. Извини меня, мой ангел, но твое грустное письмо расстроило
меня.
4. Иван слышал, как хлопнула дверь на крыльце (porch), и увидел,
что кто-то опять поглядел к нему в окошко (through the window into his
room).
5. Заря сияла на востоке, и золотые ряды облаков, казалось, ожидали
солнца.
6. «Не ожидала я, что ты такая злая (spiteful)», – сказала Алиса.
7. Охота (the shooting) оказалась хуже, чем ожидал Левин.
8. Село это от нас недалеко, всего три версты: пройдите погулять в
ту сторону вдоль реки и вы, верно, увидите его.
9. Барин велел подать чай в кабинет.
10. Как только случалось нам быть одним, мы усаживались в уютный
уголок и начинали рассуждать, забывая все на свете.
11. Ему было около тридцати пяти лет, и мы за то считали его
стариком.
12. Она была прекраснее, чем он воображал ее.
13. Кити ожидала, что он пригласит ее на вальс (to ask somebody for a
waltz), но он не пригласил, и она удивленно взглянула на него.
14. Вечером они пошли на мол (pier), чтобы посмотреть, как придет
пароход.
15. Письма из дому приходили тихие, добрые, и, казалось, все уже
было прощено и забыто.
16. Я хочу быть артисткой, я хочу славы, успехов, свободы, а вы
хотите, чтобы я продолжала жить в этом городе, продолжала эту пустую
(dull) бесполезную жизнь, которая стала для меня невыносимой.

48
The Infinitive: Test Your Knowledge
1. Insert the particle ʻtoʼ where necessary:
1. You would hardly … believe it.
2. He’d better not … let them … catch sight of him.
3. My friend motioned for him … come in.
4. Andrew dared not … meet his wife’s eyes.
5. Pat caught Liam’s eye but Liam happened … look away at the moment.
6. All they can do in this situation is … leave as soon as possible.
7. James was made … give up his job although it suited him perfectly.
8. Rather than … go home, I watched the sea … come closer to my feet.

2. Put the infinitive in brackets in the required form:


1. He tried … (to give) her a ring for Christmas, and failing that, got her
… (to accept) a gold watch, which must … (to cost) him two hundred dollars.
2. It was a usual thing for him … (to fire) every four or five months.
3. I’m deeply sorry … (to involve) you in this.
4. They found him in one of the back rooms of the house, where he
seemed … (to hide) from the guests.
5. When I arrived from my year-long business trip, the whole family
appeared … (to have) fun at the neighbour’s party.
6. The things that Alice thought funny were … (not to describe) by such
adjective at all, so he wanted her … (to give up) the idea that seemed … (to
occupy) her mind for two weeks already.

3. Point out the infinitives and infinitive constructions and define


their functions:
1. To have seen and talked to Cecil Goldsmith several times a week for
some months didn’t make the fellow any less a nonentity.
2. It was pleasant to be driving a car again.
4. “The only thing I have to do” he said, “is to find the cash for it.”
3. To reach their house, he crossed the ocean and two countries, and spent
a night at that disgusting place.
4. She couldn’t remember the last time she didn’t have a computer
nearby, or a meeting to attend, or a deadline to meet, and Claire found it
liberating to be away from her desk for a while.
5. Don’t worry. He’s experienced enough to manage this kind of work.
6. She doubted whether to reveal it to the others.
7. Joe and Daisy were expected to make a success at Broadway with their
new play but the hopes didn’t come true.
8. When he met Sarah at the station, she came to him with a joyous
expression of anticipation to find his troubled silence.

4. Correct the mistakes:


49
1. He was told to be famous and rich but I’d never heard anyone mention
his name before.
2. Trish appeared to pass the exam long ago.
3. James never was to put it mildly a promising student.
4. She felt with a sudden shock some disgusting creature to creep up her
sleeve.
5. Maureen was unexpectedly pleasant to deal with her.
6. Julie felt this strange grayish man know much more than he pretended
to.
7. No one was let to leave the meeting hall.
8. We all knew Ron be a very talented musician.

5. Translate the sentences into English:


1. Мы не ожидали, что он придет, но бедняга, по-видимому, так
тщательно готовился к этому визиту, что нам жаль было его
разочаровывать.
2. Трудно сказать, какое он примет решение, все зависит от того,
какие он получит известия.
3. Им пришлось уйти из театра за полчаса до конца спектакля,
потому что начальник Эдварда хотел, чтобы он немедленно явился в офис.
4. Как оказалось, вопрос был не по существу.
5. Я не предполагал, что будет распродано более двадцати тысяч
экземпляров его книги.
6. Чем критиковать всех и все, пошел бы ты лучше работать, и сам
сделал хоть что-нибудь полезное.
7. Она сомневалась, принимать ли ей сейчас его предложение или
подождать до лучших времён.
8. Мне кажется крайне несправедливым, что с ними так обращаются.

50
The Gerund
Exercise 1. Point out the Gerunds and define their forms:
1. Talking about ourselves is what we modern authors have a strong
objection to doing.
2. He stopped writing and ran out into the bathroom. He started washing
with great speed. He was two minutes late already.
3. It's silly of me, but I can't help feeling anxious.
4. She denied being involved in that crime.
5. I don't like being lied to — and that, I think, is what you are trying to
do.
6. I feel a good deal of hesitation in telling you this story of my own.
7. On hearing the sound Nancy hurried to the door, and Grand to the
window.
8. He left without having paid the bill.
9. Would you mind waiting a moment in the hall?
10. He admitted having opened the box.
11. Writing quickly tires my hand.
12. She mentioned having been invited to the club.
13. I remember seeing it on the table.
14. He was accused of having entered the country illegally.
15. I disliked my mother's interfering in the affair.
16. The boy spent half the night in writing to his people.

Exercise 2. Use the appropriate form of the Gerund of the verbs in


brackets:
1. … (to speak) without … (to think) is … (to shoot) without aim.
2. Do you know what is peculiar about the English rule of … (to drive)?
3. I'm glad to say that the lady didn't mention … (to have) to wait for us so
long.
4. I remember … (to take) to Paris when I was a very small child.
5. I strongly suspect Gerald of … (to know) all about it beforehand,
though he swears he didn't.
6. Excuse me for not … (to write) more at the moment.
7. She never lost the power of … (to form) quick decisions.
8. He had an air of … (to be) master of his fate, which was his chief
attraction.
9. She denied … (to see) me at the concert though I'm sure I saw her in
the stalls.
10. I want to thank her for … (to look) after the children while I was out.
11. He passed to the front door and out without … (to see) us.
12. I enjoy … (to read) poetry.

51
13. I don't mind … (to stay) here for a little while.
14. They reproached us for … (not to come) to the party; they were
waiting for us the whole evening.
15. He suspected her of … (to give) the police information about him
while the workers were on strike.
16. I sat on the doorstep thinking over my chances of … (to escape) from
home.
17. There is very little hope of the work … (to do) in time.
18. The coat showed evident signs of … (to wear) on the preceding night.
19. Harry recalled … (to meet) them at Mr Humpfrey’s office the other
day.
20. … (to avoid) the use of the perfect gerund is quite common if there is
no fear of … (to misunderstand).

Exercise 3. Use the appropriate form of the Gerund and insert


prepositions where necessary:
1. Newton, the famous scientist, was sometimes engaged … (to work out)
difficult problems.
2. "There's no question … (to forgive) you," he said quickly.
3. Of course, I should insist … (to pay) for my work.
4. I wonder if there's any use … (to try) to improve him.
5. We all objected … (to go) there alone so late at night.
6. I persisted … (to try) to arrange our meeting.
7. We all suspected him … (to learn) it before and … (to conceal) it from
us.
8. They were all busy … (to unpack) the books and … (to put) them on
the shelves.
9. … (to hear) the news she ran over to the telephone to inform Gerald at
once.
10. But … (to make) this request Mr. Dennant avoided … (to look) in his
face.
11. I spent the rest of the time in the hall of the Station Hotel … (to write)
letters.
12. You can help me … (to give) a piece of good advice, you're old
enough to know it better.
13. … (to discuss) the plan ourselves we decided to consult Mike's eldest
brother who in our eyes was an expert.
14. He hesitated a little … (to open) the door. He had a feeling that there
was somebody waiting for him inside.
15. … (to hear) the sound of the door opened downstairs he tiptoed into
the corridor and bent over the banister.
16. … (to see) three little children dancing in the street to their own music
he came up nearer to see them better.
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17. Excuse me … (to come) late.
Exercise 4. Comment on the functions of the Gerund in the following
sentences:
1. Looking after children requires patience.
2. It is no use discussing it now, we must act.
3. It was no good taking the little darling up to town, she got only tired.
4. Seeing is believing.
5. What he loves best in the world is playing football.
6. The main thing to do in this situation is getting away as soon as
possible.
7. The car began moving away down the road.
8. Every second he kept glancing at the clock.
9. The kind woman started crying before the boy had finished his sad
story.
10. However hard he tried he could not stop thinking about it.
11. He enjoyed teaching and knew that he did it well.
12. Do you mind seeing these photos again?
13. I dislike reminding you continually of the things you ought to have
done.
14. I couldn't help buying this exquisite hat.
15. Oh, how I dislike being interrupted!
16. He was busy getting ready for his journey.
17. Nobody thought of anything but spending money, and having what
they called "a good time."
18. But instead of soothing Shelton these words had just the opposite
effect.
19. The idea of settling down in that little town filled her with nothing but
regret.
20. He was in the habit of dozing after dinner in his favourite armchair.
21. She knew that there was a danger of falling ill.
22. I walked to my place as fast as I could without breaking into a run.
23. Before speaking he carefully thought out what he was going to say.
24. By studying early in the morning he saved a good deal of time.
25. On reading her letter he had once more a feeling of disappointment.

Exercise 5. Translate into English, using the Gerund:


1. Я не люблю провожать. Я предпочитаю, чтобы провожали меня.
2. Вам не следовало бы настаивать на том, чтобы вам сказали правду.
3. То, что он пришел, меняет дело.
4. Я помню, что положила деньги в сумку.
5. Она продолжала молчать, так как боялась обидеть его, если
расскажет всю правду.
6. Вы ничего не имеете против того, чтобы он зашел к вам сегодня?
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7. Она продолжала говорить, не обращая внимания на наши слова.
8. Он был сердит на нас за то, что мы его побеспокоили.
9. Мысль о том, чтобы сказать ей все открыто, пугала его.
10. Мы хотели проводить ее, но она настояла на том, что пойдет
одна.
11. Я не помню, чтобы он когда-либо обращался ко мне с подобной
просьбой.
12. Вместо того, чтобы обдумать вопрос как следует, она сразу
отказалась.
13. Что помешало вам поехать вместе с нами?
14. Услышав отдаленный крик, он остановился и прислушался.
15. Осознав свою оплошность, она рассмеялась.
16. Она никогда не уставала говорить о своих детях. Она так
гордилась ими!
17. Она дала мне понять, что заметила меня, слегка кивнув головой.
18. Мать не могла не волноваться, так как детям давно пора было
вернуться.
19. Она разорвала письмо на мелкие кусочки, не читая его.
20. Этот вопрос стоит обсудить.
21. Его оштрафовали за то, что он перешел улицу в неположенном
месте.
22. После того, что произошло, она избегала встречаться с ним.
23. Он подумывает о том, чтобы оставить работу и переехать в
деревню.
24. Мне понравилась мысль о том, чтобы провести конец недели за
городом.
25. Вы не возражаете, если я зайду к вам сегодня вечером?
26. Я привыкла рано вставать, так как занятия в институте
начинаются в 7.30.
27. Вы должны вовремя возвращать книги в библиотеку без
напоминания.
28. Бесполезно пытаться достать билеты на этот спектакль.
29. Мы получали удовольствие, слушая, как он рассказывает о своих
приключениях.
30. Видя, что я подхожу, они перестали разговаривать.
31. Она отрицала, что видела нас там.
32. Она казалась очень удивлённой тем, что увидела меня там.

Exercise 6. Choose between the Infinitive and the Gerund:


1. I seem ... (to spend) my life saying good-bye.
2. I left the clothes lying wherever they happened ... (to fall).
3. She waited while Johnson went round ... (to shake) hands with
everybody.
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4. When they chanced ... (to meet) she always gave him a friendly smile.
5. I find plenty to do. I have a very nice neighbour. We go ... (to fish)
and ... (to sail) together.
6. Dick considered her suggestion and appeared ... (to find) it acceptable.
7. You should forbid the children … (to play) with matches.
8. The driver struggled … (to pull) the lorry out of the mud.
9. She can’t help … (to worry) about her children.
10. He keeps … (to promise) … (to repay) the debts but I don’t think it
possible.
11. I avoided … (to meet) him.
12. She claims … (to be) the heiress to the throne.
13. We discussed … (to leave) our present jobs and … (to launch) a new
project together.
14. The prisoners were ordered … (to stand) in a line.
15. She advised us never … (to trust) the captain.
16. The parents were trying to urge their son … (to continue) his
education.
17. The windows of the cabin needed … (to clean) badly.
18. Surprisingly enough, I enjoyed … (to listen) to “the Hooverphone”
concert.
19. Fancy … (to get) the first prize!
20. I don’t mind … (to run) errands for him if it speeds up my career.
21. She warned me … (not to look) him straight in the eye.
22. The girl’s skirt wants … (to iron).
23. Many people prefer … (to watch) movies online to … (to go) to the
cinema.
24. She resented … (to send) out of town.
25. I didn’t feel like … (to do) my home task.
26. He suggested … (to have) some lunch and we all agreed.
27. Emma offered … (to bring) some home-made cookies to the party.
28. I don’t have to remind him … (not to smoke) inside the house.
29. I can’t stand … (to work) with figures.
30. She can’t keep a secret and resist … (to tell) everything to anybody.
31. We all appreciated his … (to offer) the help of the whole department.
32. Saul took great trouble … (to add) that painting to his collection.
33. I can’t afford … (to buy) a new desk at the moment but I’m working
on it.
34. He finally admitted … (to highjack) that car.
35. I don’t recall ever … (to hear) them … (to discuss) the matter.
36. We plan … (to visit) our Aunt Julia in Spain this summer.
37. She considered … (to buy) a new diamond ring.
38. I refuse … (to stay) in this house another minute.
39. She mentioned … (to read) about it in the evening newspapers.
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40. The Professor encouraged his students … (to express) their opinions
on the problem.
41. We all practised … (to read) the tongue twisters.
42. Hugh finally agreed … (to join) in.
43. Nobody denied … (to try) … (to get) rid of the candidate.
44. Sally swore … (to become) a nun and help people.
45. We all didn’t want to risk … (to get) into prison.
46. I miss … (to talk) to you about it every night.
47. We postponed … (to sign) the contract.
48. I burst out … (to laugh) when I saw that pitiful man.
49. I wonder how he managed … (to get) away with it.
50. I never contemplated … (to give) up on my dream.
51. She put herself together and prepared … (to face) the worst.

Exercise 7. Point out gerunds and verbal nouns. Translate the


sentences into Russian:
1. Oh, Robert, dearest, don't leave us! I've so loved being with you.
2. He may have noticed my goings out and comings in.
3. There's no going back now.
4. Remember at school one was always kept waiting for a beating.
5. Now and again came the clear hammering of the woodpecker or the
joyless call of a crow.
6. She tried to speak lightly, but there was a lump in her throat and a
tightening at her heart.
7. Upon reading this letter Shelton had once more a sense of being
exploited.
8. She went quickly past him and out of the room without looking back.
9. He looked at us with a kind of cheerful cunning.
10. Well, what are your plans, Dixon? — I was thinking of going in for
school teaching.
11. She confirmed his coming to the concert.
12. She arose, but before she had time to get out of the room a loud
rapping began upon the front door.
13. He began tidying the cabin, putting away his clothes and straightening
the bed.
14. I have only a candle to see by, so I trust you will excuse my bad
writing.
15. He reached his rooms at midnight so exhausted that, without waiting
to light up, he dropped into a chair.
16. He said he was looking forward to meeting you again.
17. And the worst of it is that I shall go on doing exactly I was going to do
in the first place.

56
18. There was the splashing of big drops on large leaves and a faint
stirring and shaking in the bush.
19. She began talking to the girl behind the bar.
20. Her father took no notice of her comings and goings.

Exercise 8. Point out complexes with the Gerund and comment on


their function in the following sentences:
1. Do you agree to our taking her up to town and putting her under the
best control?
2. His breathing heavily when he greeted her was the result of running up
two flights of stairs.
3. Of course, I should insist on your accepting the proper professional fee.
4. She was startled by the noise of the outer door being opened.
5. "You know Sven hates your standing down at the door alone," said
Minnie.
6. I can't bear the thought of the children staying there alone.
7. We knew nothing of his being a humorous writer.
8. Your being so indifferent irritates me a great deal.
9. We've got a lot of questions to settle before your leaving.
10. What annoyed me most of all was his accepting their proposal quite
readily.
11. Nick was very much excited about his favourite cake getting spoiled.
12. I remember in school days he couldn't answer the teacher's questions
without my prompting him.
13. Don't think she'll approve of your telling me this.
14. His having failed at the entrance examination was a great
disappointment to his mother.
15. Uncle Julius insists on my coming to keep him company.

Exercise 9. Use the Gerund instead of the subordinate clauses. Insert


prepositions if necessary:
1. I remember Mother reprimanded me when I spoiled her favourite fish-
cake.
2. We recommended that work should start at once.
3. Thank you that you reminded me.
4. Nick suggested that we should dine at a restaurant to celebrate this little
event.
5. He doesn't like when you interfere.
6. He prevents when I help him.
7. Nobody knew that they had agreed to take part in the expedition.
8. I insist that everything should be said in plain words so that there can't
be any misunderstanding.

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9. She dislikes when the children prompt one another and always gets
very angry.
10. He wrote he would stay in Paris another week and did not explain why
he was obliged to do so.
11. I can't recollect that they ever invited me to stay a weekend with them.
12. He was afraid that the news might cause excitement among the girls.
13. She disliked that he was so stubborn and would never listen to her
reasons.
14. Nell denies that he is a bore.
15. I prefer that we should make use of the record before we read the text.
16. Nobody objects that Peter lives with us.
17. We decided that we should join them in Glasgow.

Exercise 10. Translate into English using the gerundial constructions


where possible:
1. Вы ничего не имеете против того, чтобы я открыл окно?
2. Мальчик не отрицал, что потерял книгу, взятую в библиотеке.
3. Извините, что я заставил вас ждать.
4. Преподаватель возражал против того, чтобы студенты
пользовались словарем, переводя этот текст.
5. Преподаватель настаивал, чтобы новые выражения записывались.
6. Преподаватель настаивал, чтобы студенты записывали новые
выражения.
7. Я устала от того, что со мной обращаются как с ребенком.
8. Я не возражаю против того, чтобы помочь вам, но я возражаю
против того, чтобы мне мешали, когда я занят.
9. Мы слышали, что ваша сестра уехала в Англию.
10. Я не одобряю того, что вы пропускаете лекции.
11. Похоже на то, что будет дождь.
12. Вы можете рассчитывать на то, что я достану вам эту книгу.
13. Декан не согласился, чтобы собрание отложили.
14. Все были удивлены, что этот трудный вопрос был так быстро
разрешен.
15. Мы уверены, что письмо будет получено вовремя.
16. Мы уверены, что письмо было получено вовремя.
17. Мне стыдно, что я сделала так много ошибок в последней
контрольной работе.

Revision
Exercise 11. Insert the appropriate form of the gerund:
1. Stark sat down without … (to speak).
2. He did not go without … (to congratulate) by Amy.

58
3. After … (to shave) more closely than usual and … (to brush) his hair,
he took the bus uptown.
4. At South Square, on … (to discover) that Michael and Fleur were out,
he did not dress for dinner, but went to the nursery.
5. I had to sound as if I didn't mind … (to insult), as though I had no
temper of my own.
6. She kept on … (to talk), her voice low and controlled.
7. In the morning light she was ashamed of herself for … so … (to elate)
the night before.
8. The house wanted … (to do up).
9. Even a criminal must be told the nature of his crime before … (to
convict).
10. She showed none of the usual feminine pleasure at … (to be) hard to
understand, inscrutable, mysterious.
11. I still reproached myself for not … (to be) open with Douglas from the
start, when he had invited me to do so.
12. No woman looks her best after … (to sit) up all night.
13. His legs were somewhat stiff from not … (to hike) or … (to climb)
for days.
14. I'm tired of … (to treat) like a silly fat lamb.
15. I know everyone who's worth … (to know).
16. After … (to say) this, he cursed himself for not … (to say) the
opposite, so that he might have used the expected guest as a lever to get rid of
Misha.
17. There is vivid happiness in merely … (to be) alive.
18. "Your tie needs … (to straighten)," Mrs. Simpson said.
19. The attempt is at least worth … (to make).
20. Mr. Creakle then caned Tommy Traddles for … (to discover) in tears,
instead of cheers, on account of Mr. Mell's departure...
21. He apologized to Hooker for … (to be down) so late.
22. I just couldn't stand … (to be) away from you any longer.
23. I remember … (to see) him with her and Marner going away from
church.
24. When I told him that I meant to live in Paris for a while, and had taken
an apartment, he reproached me bitterly for not … (to let) him know.
25. He had a flat smooth face with heavy-lidded green eyes that gave the
impression of … (to set) at a slant.
26. His latest craze was to discover her age, which he cursed himself for
not … (to observe) when he had her passport in his hands.
27. Let me tell you whose house you've come into without … (to ask) or
… (to want).
28. I'm tired of … (to talk) to you.

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29. They soon discovered that the gate was securely locked. They looked
at one another in a mixed fashion, a trifle disappointed at … (to hold up), but
still triumphant at … (to find) the place.

Exercise 12. Complete the sentences using the necessary prepositions:


1. She reproached him … (to come) … .
2. I thanked them … (to call) … .
3. Nobody felt … (to go) out … .
4. Mike insisted … (to go) by underground … .
5. She will never approve … (to marry) … .
6. You can hardly blame … (to fail) … .
7. She accused us … (to ruin) … .
8. The boy came up and apologised … (to be late) … .
9. Can I depend … your (to keep promise) … ?
10. Do you think she will agree … his (to join) … ?
11. He was suspected … (to murder) … .
12. She complained … (to treat) … .
13. People here persist … (to think) … .
14. The child was excited … (to go) … .
15. I’m not accustomed … (to live) … .
16. You have a good reason … (to wish) … .
17. It’s very late. I’m worried … (to miss) … .
18. I think she will be interested … (to research) … .
19. Who is responsible … (to clean) … ?
20. I’m thinking … (to leave) … .
21. His angry frown stopped me … (to tell) … .
22. Nobody will object … (to drive) … .
23. I’m not used … (to wear) … .
24. The girl was looking froward … (to go) … .
25. In addition … (to study) grammar, … .
26. He succeeded only … (to change) … .
27. He was fined … (to exceed) … .
28. I caught a cold … (to sit) … .
29. There is no point … (to stay) … .
30. We should do something to prevent boys … (to climb) … .
31. We know that he was capable … (to commit) … .
32. She wasn’t surprised … (to find) … .
33. Everybody was sure … our (to get) … .
34. Jack was indignant … (to talk) … .
35. They thought him guilty … (to murder) … .
36. What’s the use … (to send) … ?
37. I’m sick and tired … (to listen) … !
38. She contented herself … (to nod) … .
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39. I’m afraid I was mistaken … (to assume) … .
40. I would never dream … (to accept) … .
41. I have no scruples … (to leave) … .
42. The story ended … everybody … (to return) … .
43. She knew that her cousin Alice was jealous … her (to achieve) … .
44. He decided to try his luck … (to gamble) … .
45. Nobody was particularly keen … (to go) … .
46. Mother was busy … (to bake) … .
47. The manager aimed … (to promote) … .
48. I could hardly refrain … (to tell) … .
49. He was very skillful … (to avoid) … .
50. She seemed pretty much fed up … (to listen) … .
51. That woman is particularly set … (to get off) … .
52. He was never smart enough … (to play) … .
53. The girl was usually rather anxious … (to reply) … .
54. The boy looked deeply engrossed … (to read) … .
55. Sadly enough, we were slow … (to figure out) … .

Exercise 13. Choose between the infinitive and the gerund in the
following sentences:
1. Remember … (to lock) the door and … (to switch) off the lights when
you go to the university.
2. I remembered … (to mention) that problem to him during our previous
meeting.
3. I regret … (to inform) you that your late Aunt Muriel didn’t mention
you in her will.
4. I regret … (to follow) my sister’s advice, she was absolutely wrong.
5. When he asked her about selling his share, she tried … (to explain) all
the possible advantages and disadvantages to him.
6. As a student, he did a lot of jobs to scrape up some money for his
living: he tried … (to clean) houses, … (to cut) lawns, … (to work) as a waiter
in town cafes.
7. I hate … (to tell) you that but I’m not crazy, actually, about … (to take)
part in that contest.
8. I didn’t like … (to taste) the fish as I wasn’t sure whether it was fresh.
9. I like … (to listen) to jazz and classic rock.
10. As I pushed open the door it began … (to creak), so I waited a little …
(to make) sure no one was there and noticed my … (to come).
11. I totally forget … (to tell) that to her ever.
12. He forgot … (to tell) me his telephone number, though I remember …
(to ask) him about it.
13. I hate her … (to talk) to me like that but I’d hate her … (to know) it
hurts me even more.
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14. Although I usually prefer … (to spend) my weekends outdoors to …
(to stay) at home, this time I chose … (not to go) anywhere.
15. I know he loves … (to play) hockey and would really wish … (to turn)
a professional.
16. I dread … (to think) what she will do when she learns the truth.
17. I dread … (to go) by plane. I dread … (to think) how claustrophobic it
really is.
18. I regret … (to open) up my secret to him.
19. I regret … (to tell) you how unreliable he appeared to be.
20. The old lady was afraid … (to sit) so close to the TV and … (to catch)
some disease from the waves.
21. Children are usually afraid of … (to stay) home alone.
22. Their family problems have long ceased … (to raise) any interest in
me.
23. She ceased … (to try) … (to reason) with him.
24. It never ceased … (to rain) that week.
25. The government ceased … (to take) any interest in solving the
problem.
26. My cousin Amy started … (to work) in the laboratory last year.
27. Her condition began … (to grow) worse.
28. It was getting dark and the storm clouds were beginning … (to form)
but they still continued … (to walk).
29. After telling them all about his plans for the trip to Venice, he went on
… (to complain) about the financial problems he claimed he was facing at that
moment.
30. The author gives there an unfavourable description of the queen’s
character, yet then he goes on … (to say) that she was loved by most of her
subjects.
31. The girls went on … (to whisper) something to each other, and
everybody was beginning … (to feel) the urge to shut them up.
32. Do you mean … (to say) that it is all my fault, not yours?
33. I realized that our stay here in the hotel would mean … (to accept) all
their rules and demands.
34. I think you should stop … (to talk) to her like that.
35. He left the house in a hurry and didn’t even stop … (to look) back.

Exercise 14. Translate into English using either the gerund or the
infinitive:
1. Она начала плакать, как только покинула их дом.
2. Я захотел что-нибудь узнать о нем.
3. Он захотел почитать перед ужином, но единственной книгой в
комнате была Библия, и Гарри отправился в библиотеку. (to feel like)
4. Поль не нуждается в помощи.
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5. Он любил находиться в обществе своих родственников.
6. Он непрерывно поглядывал на часы и, выпив чай, сказал, что
должен возвращаться.
7. Теперь, наконец, я начинал кое-что понимать.
8. Вскоре я перестал быть полезным им.
9. Дэн не мог побороть искушение показать свою работу.
10. Даже в затемненной комнате я не мог не видеть, что лицо миссис
Джоунз распухло от слез.
11. Все то январское утро телефон настойчиво звонил в моем
кабинете.
12. Я предложил найти доктора и привести его к Эду.
13. Я не думаю, чтобы он упоминал о том, что навещал их.
14. Они забыли пригласить меня.
15. Я никогда не забуду, как я гостил в вашем доме в Кенте.
16. Я пытаюсь читать вслух, но мое произношение, по-прежнему,
оставляет желать лучшего и приводит в отчаяние моих учителей.
17. Мне не хотелось оставлять его одного в горе, и я предложил
отвезти его к себе домой.
18. Я отложил письмо к нему на завтра.
19. Я не мог вынести такого равнодушного отношения к себе.
20. Она не возражала против того, чтобы остаться одной в коттедже в
этот вечер.
21. Он был рад, что она взяла на себя труд написать ему. (to take the
trouble of)
22. Ты помнишь, как ты привез виноградный сок в этот дом в то
утро?
23. Ты не забыл послать деньги в Лидс?
24. Я решил не беспокоить Роджера этим делом.
25. Я думаю, вам понравится жить здесь, когда наступит лето.
26. Он попробовал выращивать там картошку, но это не принесло
больших денег, и Макс переключился на свеклу и морковь.
27. Я знал, что он старается накопить немного денег на поездку в
Лондон к родным.
28. Мне не хотелось шутить. (to feel like)
29. Я отказываюсь взять на себя ответственность за твои действия.
30. Он старался избежать встречи с кем-нибудь, кого он знал.
31. Несмотря на дождь, мы продолжали ждать его в парке весь день.
32. В эти дни он не мог позволить себе опаздывать.
33. Хью прочитал в одной американской газете рецензию на эту
книгу и предложил купить ее для их библиотеки.
34. Возможно, что Мэри пожалела, что она так много болтала при
посторонних.

63
35. Она все больше и больше боялась, что останется одна с детьми.
(to dread)
36. Она села у камина и приготовилась рассказывать свои новости.
37. Он продолжал упорно звонить в гостиницу, спрашивая, нет ли
для него каких-либо сообщений.
38. Вы хотите взглянуть на него? (to care)
39. Утром он начал переносить свои вещи в комнату Свена.
40. Здесь не разрешается курить и распивать спиртные напитки.

64
The Participle
Exercise 1. Point out Participle I and state its functions in the
sentence:
1. She sat very still, and the train rattled on in the dying twilight.
2. He wished to say something sympathetic, but, being an Englishman,
could only turn away his eyes.
3. I sat quite silent, watching his face, a strong and noble face.
4. She was always to him a laughing girl, with dancing eyes full of
expectation.
5. It was a bright Sunday morning of early summer, promising heat.
6. The door opened and he entered, carrying his head as though it held
some fatal secret.
7. I'm afraid it's the moon looking so much like a slice of melon.
8. Lying he spoke more quickly than when he told the truth.
9. I hadn't slept the night before, and, having eaten a heavy lunch, was
agreeably drowsy.
10. When driving in London itself she had as immediate knowledge of its
streets as any taxi-driver.
11. "What a nice lunch," said Clare, eating the sugar at the bottom of her
coffee cup.
12. While eating and drinking they talked loudly in order that all present
might hear what they said.
13. For the first time she stared about her, trying to see what there was.
14. I received from her another letter saying that she was passing through
Paris and would like to have a chat with me.
15. I sat on the doorstep holding my little sister in my arms thinking over
my chances of escaping from home.
16. I used to tell all my troubles to Mrs. Winkshap, our neighbour living
next door.
17. "It's a quarter past seven," he said trying as hard as he could to keep
relief from his voice.
18. As he wrote, bending over his desk, his mouth worked.

Exercise 2. Use the appropriate form of Participle I of the verbs


brackets:
1. … (to look) out of the window, she saw there was a man working in the
garden.
2. That night, … (to go) up to his room Shelton thought of his unpleasant
duty.
3. … (to descend) to the hall, he came on Mr. Dennant … (to cross) to his
study, with a handful of official-looking papers.
4. The carriage was almost full, and … (to put) his bag up in the rack, he
65
took his seat.
5. … (to know) that she couldn't trust Jim, she sent Peter instead.
6. … (to do) all that was required, he was the last to leave the office.
7. … (to return) home in the afternoon, she became conscious of her
mistake.
8. He couldn't join his friends … (to be) still busy in the laboratory.
9. … (to finish) his work, he seemed more pleased than usual.
10. … (to step) inside, he found himself in what had once been a sort of
office.
11. He left the room again, … (to close) the door behind him with a bang.
12. I spent about ten minutes … (to turn) over the sixteen pages of "The
Times" before I found the chief news and articles.
13. … (to turn) to the main street, he ran into Donald and Mary … (to
return) from school.
14. … (to return) from the expedition he wrote a book about Central
Africa.
15. … (to get) out of bed she ran to the window and drew the curtain
aside.
16. … (to confuse) by his joke, she blushed.
17. … (to inform) of their arrival the day before, he was better prepared to
meet them than anyone of us.
18. Sir Henry paused and then said, … (to glance) down at his watch,
"Edward's arriving by the 12.15."

Exercise 3. Translate the sentences into English, using Participle I:


1. Будьте осторожны, пересекая улицу.
2. Написав сочинение, она начала готовить другое задание.
3. Студенты, не уделяющие достаточно внимания грамматике,
никогда не овладеют английским языком.
4. Мы сидели в саду и разговаривали о нашей поездке по Волге.
5. Сбежав с лестницы, она остановилась на мгновение, как бы
колеблясь, в каком направлении пойти.
6. Объяснив все подробно, он спокойно сел на свое место.
7. Очутившись одна на улице, она сразу пожалела о том, что
случилось.
8. Схватив сына на руки, Элиза бросилась бежать.
9. Молодой человек, стоявший у окна, внимательно посмотрел на
меня.
10. Проводив сына, они медленно возвращались с вокзала.
11. Театры Ист-Энда часто ставят пьесы, затрагивающие многие
современные проблемы.
12. Утопающий за соломинку хватается.

66
13. Маме приходилось много раз вставать из-за стола, меняя тарелки
и принося то одно, то другое блюдо.
14. Заметив меня, она остановилась.

Exercise 4. State whether the ~ing form is a participle, a gerund, an


adjective or a verbal noun:
1. To my mind, the setting of the scene was beautiful.
2. As to his stooping, it was natural when dancing with a small person like
myself, so much shorter than he.
3. I found him in exactly the position I had left him, staring still at the foot
of the bed.
4. If possible, give up smoking, at least for a time.
5. There you can see the Fire of London with the flames coming out of the
windows of the houses.
6. Having finished the work, he seemed more pleased with himself than
usual.
7. Pausing in his story, Burton turned to me.
8. I admired the grounds and trees surrounding the house.
9. Father said that we were not to let the fact of his not having had a real
holiday for three years stand in our way.
10. I saw there wooden cabins with beds, electric light and running water.
11. Most Englishmen are not overfond of soup, remarking that it fills
them without leaving sufficient room for the more important meat course.
12. The evening meal goes under various names: tea, "high tea," dinner or
supper depending upon its size and also social standing of those eating it.
13. Colleges give a specialized training.
14. I want you to give my hair a good brushing.
15. The boys could not go there alone without asking for permission.
16. I am much pleased with my surroundings.
17. The news we heard on our arrival was quite fascinating.
18. Being awakened by the sound, he found it hard to fall asleep again.
19. He is still hoping for promotion but without so much of confidence.
20. Training for the marathon was a hard task, as it required a lot of time,
energy and keeping patient when dealing with curious and envious neighbours.

Exercise 5. Point out Participle II and state its functions in the


sentence:
1. His name was well-known among the younger writers of France.
2. London, like most cities which have a long history behind them, is not
really one single city, but rather a collection of once separated towns and
villages which in the course of time have grown together.
3. The door opened. A little frightened girl stood in the light that fell from
the passage.
67
4. The broad thoroughfare which runs between Trafalgar Square and the
Houses of Parliament, is known as Whitehall.
5. The child kept silent and looked frightened.
6. Prudence glanced up at the top of the hill. High in the air, a little figure,
his hands thrust in his short jacket pockets, stood staring out to sea.
7. He lived in a little village situated at the foot of a hill.
8. He fell asleep exhausted by his journey.
9. If you hadn't caught sight of him at the door he might have slipped out
unnoticed.
10. In the coppice they sat down on a fallen tree.
11. Seen from the Garden Hills the city looks magnificent, and especially
at night in the electric light.
12. She entered the drawing-room accompanied by her husband and her
father.
13. Presently I grew tired and went to bed.
14. Locked in her room, she flung herself on the bed and cried bitterly.
15. She sat for a while with her eyes shut.
16. The house in which Denby lives is little more than a cottage, looked at
from outside, but there are more rooms in it than one would think.

Exercise 6. Replace the attributive clauses in the following sentences


by phrases with Participle II, where possible:
1. By a residential college we mean a college with a hostel which is
usually situated on the same grounds as the principal building.
2. The slogan which was made by Mike's brother attracted everybody's
attention.
3. The boy who had broken the windowpane ran away and did not appear
till the evening.
4. The child that was left alone in the large room began to scream.
5. I have a letter for you which was received two days ago.
6. They were all pleased with the results which were achieved by the end
of the month.
7. His words, which he uttered in an undertone, reached my ears.
8. He said that the book which I had chosen belonged to his grandfather.
9. I asked the librarian to show me the magazines which were sent from
the German Democratic Republic.
10. Everybody felt that in the farewell dinner there was sadness which
was mingled with festivity.
11. We were all looking at his smiling face which was framed in the
window of the railway-carriage.
12. The storm that caused a lot of harm to the crops abated late at night.
13. There was another pause which was broken by a fit of laughing of one
of the old men sitting in the first row.
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14. There lay a loaf of brown bread which was divided into two halves.
15. The English people love their green hedges which are covered with
leaf and flower in summer, and a blaze of gold and red in autumn.
16. From his essay we learn about various goods, which are produced in
Birmingham and the adjoining manufacturing towns.
17. The teacher told us that the centre of the cotton industry is
Manchester, which is connected with Liverpool by a canal.
18. In the South of England we find fertile valleys, which are divided by
numerous hedges.
19. Tennis is one of the most popular games in England, which is played
all the year round.
20. They say that in their college, as well as in ours, the students have lots
of exams which are held at the end of each term.

Exercise 7. Translate into English, using Participle II where possible.


1. На листе бумаги было несколько строк, написанных карандашом.
2. Если меня спросят, я скажу правду (to tell the truth).
3. В вазе было несколько увядших роз.
4. Я не люблю смотреть на посаженных в клетку животных (to cage).
5. Книга будет здесь, пока ее не спросят (to ask for).
6. Муж ее был отставным полковником.
7. Хотя он был очень удивлен, он не сказал ни слова.
8. Вот новые учебники, присланные для нашей школы.
9. Оставленный один в темноте, ребенок заплакал.
10. Студенты писали сочинение о системе образования в Англии, как
она описана Диккенсом.
11. Солнце село, и деревья казались темными, как будто
высеченными (to cut) из черного мрамора.
12. Кусты шиповника, посаженные под окнами больше год назад,
наконец-то начали цвести.
13. Когда меня вызовут, я немедленно явлюсь в офис.
14. Его загорелое обветренное лицо показалось ей смутно знакомым.
15. Пока его осматривали, мой кот умудрился трижды укусить
ветеринара.
16. Я предпочитаю носить вещи, сделанные на заказ, а не купленные
в магазине.

Exercise 8. Point out the Complex Object with Participle I and


Participle II. Translate the sentences into Russian:
1. I heard the visitor walking restlessly backwards and forwards. I also
heard him talking to himself.
2. She turned and saw Shelton standing down there.
3. He felt his irritation mounting.
69
4. She had the windows cleaned and curtains washed by the evening.
5. He found Dora reading a novel in their bedroom.
6. With amusement they watched them going.
7. We heard her walking on the stairs by the cellar.
8. At that moment I noticed Charles sitting a little farther in the hall.
9. For the first time she found herself wondering about him.
10. The moon came fully through a cloud, and he was startled as he
suddenly saw her face looking at him.
11. We got the mail delivered in no time.
12. You can always find him handing round bread and butter at a tea
party.
13. He felt the bridge shaking under his feet.
14. Then in the complete silence of the night he heard somebody opening
the door quietly.
15. He looked at groups of young girls walking arm in arm.
16. Soames raised his hand to his forehead, where suddenly she saw
moisture shining.
17. As I was looking this over I heard the doors which led on to the main
corridor being opened.

Exercise 9. Use the Infinitive or Participle I of the verbs in brackets to


form a Complex Object:
1. A moment later they heard her bedroom door … (to shut) with a bang.
2. I've never heard your canary … (to sing). Is there anything the matter
with the bird?
3. Would you like me … (to make) you lunch, or have you had some?
4. I want you … (to explain) the disappointment we had this morning.
5. She watched him … (to pass) the gate and … (to walk) down the street.
6. Through the chink in the shutters she watched Emma … (to pick)
cherries in the orchard.
7. The captain said something which made them … (to laugh), he did not
hear what it was.
8. They had their own pattern of life and expected me … (to fit) in.
9. You can see him … (to work) in his little garden every day.
10. She had never heard philosophy … (to pass) those lips before.
11. I saw him … (to put) his suitcase right here.
12. During that moment Miss Pembroke told a lie, and made Rickie … (to
believe) it was the truth.
13. Together they watched the old oak … (to drop) its leaves.
14. He found them … (to sit) together and … (to talk) peacefully. They
did not notice him … (to approach).
15. He felt the water … (to reach) his knees.
16. She felt her voice … (to tremble) and tried to control herself.
70
17. We saw him … (to open) the envelope and … (to read) something
hastily.
18. I saw him … (to unfold) the telegram slowly and hesitatingly as
though he expected it … (to contain) some bad news.
19. He heard the young people … (to sing) and … (to shout) from the
opposite bank.
20. She watched him … (to work) for a long time.

Exercise 10. Translate the sentences into English, using Participle I or


Participle II:
1. Она слышала, как ее отец ходит взад и вперед по террасе.
2. Доставленные товары вызвали у нас сомнения в их качестве.
3. Том увидел, что в воде что-то быстро движется.
4. Приехав домой, он увидел, что его совсем не ждали.
5. Холодные лучи заходящего солнца заставили его поежиться.
6. Он заметил, что за ним кто-то следит и, поняв это, решил изменить
свой путь.
7. Было слышно, как где-то вдалеке играла музыка.
8. Видели, как офицер Полтерн выходил из бара один в час ночи.
9. Видя, что собираются тучи, мы решили отложить прогулку.
10. Дойдя до середины, я почувствовала, что мост дрожит.
11. Было слышно, как больной стонет от боли.
12. Обнаружив, что ее сумку уже занесли в номер, Сьюзен
забеспокоилась.
13. Я и не заметил, что Патти сидела в углу за шитьем.
14. Выйдя в сад, я увидела, что дети мирно играют, как будто ничего
не случилось.
15. Я наблюдала за тем, как внимательно он читал письмо.
16. Вообще говоря, у меня нет времени, чтобы выслушивать ее
нелепые истории.

Exercise 11. Point out the Absolute Constructions and state what kind
of adverbial modifier they express. Translate into Russian.
1. Mrs. Mayzie being fatigued, they returned more slowly home.
2. Then she sprang away and ran around the desks and benches, with Tom
after her, and took refuge in a corner at last, with her little white apron to her
face.
3. In the afternoon, with the wind from the south, the big canoes had come
drifting across the waters.
4. The concert over, the lottery came next.
5. Dinner being over, Sarah, for want of a better companion, had asked
Helen to come and sit with her.

71
6. Now he sat down in an armchair opposite Charlie, sat bolt upright, with
his hands on his knees, and looked hard at Charlie.
7. Alan too looked well, his cheeks filled out, his eyes cheerful.
8. Then, with her heart beating fast, she went up and rang the bell.
9. She sat on the steps, with her bare arms crossed upon her knees.
10. Mr. Pickwick's mouth and chin having been hastily enveloped in a
large shawl, his hat having been put on his head and his great coat thrown over
his arm, he replied in the affirmative.
11. With the watch in her hand she lifted her head and looked directly at
him, her eyes calm and empty as two holes.
12. He stood shamefully, hesitating, the strength of his resolution
exhausted in his words.
13. With Lowell closely watching, he slowly removed a paper and spread
it carefully on his desk.
14. The door of the opposite parlour being then opened, I heard some
voices.
15. Catherine looked at me all the time, her eyes happy.
16. I admired her, with love dead as a stone.
17. They lived the life of normal suburban children, school and holidays
passing in a gentle rhythm.
18. The first bustle of installation over, time hung heavy on his hands.
19. The child lay on the bed, its eyes shut, flushed and sweating, breathing
in short, whistling gasps.
20. Now this Miss Barbary was extremely close for a female; females
being generally rather given to conversation.

Exercise 12. Translate into English, using Absolute Constructions.


1. Так как было очень тепло, дети спали на открытом воздухе.
2. Когда все приготовления были закончены, студенты отправились в
поход.
3. Корабль медленно плыл вдоль берегов Белого моря; сотни птиц
кружились над ним.
4. Было очень темно, так как на небе не было ни одной звездочки.
5. Когда солнце село, туристы развели костер.
6. Когда торжественное заседание (grand meeting) окончилось,
начался концерт.
7. Инспектор молча вошел в спальню жертвы, мы последовали за
ним.
8. Меня лечил армейский врач, поскольку никаких других медиков в
окрестностях не было.
9. Тут Эдмунд повернулся к нам, и все его внимание устремилось (to
give) на неприятеля.

72
10. Час спустя Гаррисон уже лежал в постели с искусно
забинтованной ногой.
11. Я дремал на диване, мечтая даже во сне о жарком и стейке, когда
Вернер вошел в мою комнату.
12. Оглянешься на (I would look round...) Генри, а он уже сидит с
книгой в руке и как будто ничего не замечает.

Exercise 13. Change the sentences so as to avoid using misrelated


participle.
1. Walking along the street, his hat was blown off by the wind.
2. Waiting for the train, my bag was stolen.
3. When using this device, it must be remembered that it can break.
4. While reading, the book shouldn’t be held too close to eyes.
5. Having missed the train, it seemed wise to walk back home.
6. When speaking to the old woman, it seemed to her that they had met
before.
7. Driving along the road, a hare rushed in front of our car.
8. While playing with the cat, it scratched him.
9. When changing a pipe or a tap, the water should be turned off.
10. Walking in the park, a dog attacked her.
11. When speaking to her, it is difficult to understand what she wants to
say.
12. Realising that it could have happened to her, her hands began to
tremble.
13. Having spoken to him, it seemed to me he wouldn’t do that again.
14. Knowing her friend to be reliable, it was difficult to believe that she
had failed her.
15. Standing by the window, a noise attracted her attention.
16. Entering the room it felt as if she had been there before.
17. Reading the book for the second time, the message became clear to
her.

Revision
Exercise 14. Insert the appropriate form of Participle I or Participle
II.
1. Derek, who had slept the sleep of the dead, … (to have) none for two
nights, woke up … (to think) of Nelly.
2. The gypsy smiled, … (to show) his teeth.
3. While … (to obey) my directions, he glanced at me now and then,
suspiciously, from under his frost-white eyelashes.
4. … (to watch) them, he raised his coffee cup.
5. It [the letter] contained very little matter, … (to write) in haste; but the
meaning was bulky enough.
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6. … (to turn) my back on him I started down the steps.
7. At that moment he was plunged into the depth of an easy-chair, … (to
talk) to by Mr. Kamden.
8. There was only one candle … (to flicker) on the rough board table.
9. Young Herndon had done preparatory work at Illinois College for a
year but, not … (to admit) to the college proper, had returned home.
10. … (to wash) his hands and … (to pass) a towel over his face, he
followed her down the stairs of the hushed house.
11. Frank … (to hear) the step on the gravel, turned sharply round.
12. She had not brought him money or position, … (to be) no more than
the daughter of a doctor.
13. Adam was back at the end of three weeks, … (to ride) an extra eighty
miles.
14. Then swiftly … (to look) neither to left nor right, she returned to
Adrian.
15. And … (to say) this in her official and impersonal tone of voice, the
chambermaid then grinned, winked and vanished.
16. The campaign progressed uneventfully, from day to day, no longer …
(to mention) in news broadcasts.
17. … (to see) that no one else was coming, Mr. Lincoln rose.
18. … (to finish) dinner, Soames lighted the second of his two daily
cigars, and took up the earpieces of the wireless.

Exercise 15. Translate into English, using Participle I or Participle II


where possible.
1. Получив телеграмму, моя сестра немедленно выехала в Мюнхен.
2. Войдя в класс, учитель спросил старосту, кто отсутствует.
3. Мать улыбалась, глядя на детей, играющих в саду.
4. Взяв перо и бумагу, мальчик стал писать письмо отцу, уехавшему
на Дальний Восток.
5. Услышав голос товарища, я вышел из комнаты, чтобы встретить
его.
6. Увидев незнакомого человека, я извинился и вернулся в свою
комнату.
7. Будьте осторожны, переходя улицу.
8. Приехав в Уфу, мы прежде всего сдали вещи на хранение (to leave
something in the left luggage room).
9. Прожив много лет в Англии, он хорошо говорит по-английски.
10. Читая эту книгу, я встретил несколько интересных выражений (to
come across).
11. Прочитав книгу, мальчик вернул ее в библиотеку.
12. Проведя лето в деревне, больной совершенно поправился (to be
fully recovered).
74
13. Студенты, читающие английские книги в оригинале, легко
овладевают языком.
14. Увидев своих друзей, пришедших проводить его, он подошел к
ним.
15. Законы, существовавшие в Америке, позволяли покупать и
продавать негров.
16. Выйдя из дома, Элиза направилась в сторону рыбацкого поселка,
который располагался на берегу реки Огайо.
17. Измотанная долгой дорогой, она постучала в дверь небольшой
таверны (public house).
18. Женщина, открывшая ей дверь, была хозяйкой таверны.
19. Положив ребенка на кровать, она подошла к окну, выходившему
на реку (to overlook the river).
20. Элиза стояла у окна и глядела на реку Огайо, лежавшую между
ней и свободой.
21. В комнате была дверь, выходившая к реке (to open to the river).
22. Перепрыгивая (to leap) с одной льдины на другую, Элиза
добралась до противоположного берега реки.
23. Она посмотрела на человека, стоявшего на берегу, как бы моля
его о помощи.

Exercise 16. State the function of Participle I and Participle II.


Translate into Russian.
1. Stirred by the beauty of the twilight, he strolled away from the hotel.
2. All the country near him was broken and wooded.
3. There was a tiny smile playing at the corners of his mouth.
4. For a moment the trio stood as if turned to stone.
5. Through the dark hall, guarded by a large black stove I followed her
into the saloon.
6. The lady living next door aroused everybody’s curiosity.
7. If left to myself, I should infallibly have let this chance slip.
8. Being very tired after a long walk, he soon fell asleep.
9. He soon returned, having accomplished his mission.
10. He spoke when spoken to, politely and without much relevance.
11. He cast upon her one more look, and was gone.
12. James raised his eyes and looked at her as though peering over the top
of his glasses.
13. Miss Broderick, though not personally well known in the county, had
been spoken well of by all men.
14. Prepared, then for any consequences, I formed a project.
15. He looked at her thoughtfully for a while, leaning dangerously close to
the fire.
16. Thus absorbed, he would sit for hours defying interruption.
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17. As directed, I took the lead, almost happily.
18. He looked at her for a moment as though amazed at her friendliness.
19. Cecilia heard very little, being absorbed in her own thoughts.
20. Fancy a married woman doomed to live on from day to day without
one single quarrel with her husband.
21. He bowed low when presented to Donna.
22. A cold wind swept the pavement, bearing a scrap of silver paper from
a chocolate box across the lamplight.
23. Displeased and uncertain, Brande gazed from his son to the Spanish
gardener.

Exercise 17. Insert not+participle or without+gerund.


1. Dr. Wallace filled a pipe from the bowl on his desk, then put it down …
(to light) it.
2. … (to find) what he wanted, he looked slowly about the room.
3. Zee drew a breath and leaned against the birch for a moment … (to say)
anything.
4. I won't go abroad … (to see) you.
5. … (to know) what to reply, I remained silent.
6.... on the street he would look directly at friends … (to see) them.
7. Only then, … (to know) what further to say, had he become silent.
8. We walked … (to speak) for a short while.
9. Would she have gone away … (to see) you if she loved you?
10. Then she saw Lisa and turned away, … (to want) to talk with her. She
went hastily to cross the road … (to look) and was almost run over by a bus.
11. … (to like) to leave him in the club, I offered to take him home to my
wife, or to go with him to his own house, deserted now.
12. He returned the salutes of several privates … (to see) them.
13. He stopped … (to know) how to continue and stood shifting from one
foot to the other.
14. Miss Casement stood for a moment, … (to know) whether to be
pleased or not at this unforseen familiarity.
15. He sat down, … (to take off) his mackintosh.
16. … (to turn around), the driver rudely shrugged his shoulders.
17. … (to wish) any sale to take place I told Evan I wanted a chat with
him and took him downstairs.
18. They sat there … (to talk) for several minutes.
19. … (to love) him greatly, she could not be jealous in a disturbing way.

Exercise 18. Translate into English, using not+participle or


without+gerund.
1. Смотритель (postmaster), не отвечая, вошел в залу.

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2. Не получая ответа, Дина подняла голову и с криком упала на
ковер.
3. Маша по целым дням, не осушая глаз (to dry one's eyes) плакала.
4. Не закончив своей речи, он побежал за уходившей (retreating)
девушкой.
5. Не зная пароля (password), я хотел молча проехать мимо них.
6. Не имея привычки (to be in the habit) кокетничать с прохожими
офицерами, она перестала глядеть на улицу, и шила около двух часов, не
приподнимая головы.
7. Но Гарри, не оборачиваясь, только рукой махнул и вышел.
8. Но обойдя кругом (to make the round of...) палубу, и не найдя
Дины, Гарвей заволновался, стал искать (to search) повсюду.
9. Берг еще что-то говорил, но Роберт, не дослушав его (to hear
somebody to the end), уже поехал дальше.
10. Соня и Наташа спали не раздеваясь, в диванной.
11. Наташа подошла к нему и спросила, что с ним. Он не ответил ей
и, не понимая ее, посмотрел на нее странным взглядом.
12. Алан вздохнул, и не сказав больше ничего, отправился в
спальню.
13. Он оглянулся своими сощуренными (half-shut) глазами и,
взглянув на графа, видимо не узнав его, зашагал к крыльцу (the steps).
14. Княгиня Бетси, не дождавшись конца последнего акта, уехала из
театра.
15. Анна, не отвечая мужу, подняла бинокль и смотрела на то место,
где упал Вронский.

Exercise 19. State the function of the Participle and Participial


Constructions.
1. Philip limped to the door, turned there, meaning to say something, saw
Adele Gerry sitting in her chair, looking blankly at the floor, with her face a ruin
of sorrow... and age.
2. The girl, being really weak and exhausted, dropped her head over the
back of a chair and fainted.
3. Poor luck pursuing him, he had secured but ten cents by nightfall.
4. Vincent glanced over at Christine knitting by the fire.
5. At that moment footsteps were heard coming across the hall.
6. He had discovered the loss of his pound when taking his coat off, and
had at once suspected Louise but then he had wondered if he hadn't had his
pocket picked at the pub.
7. She frowned a little as though puzzled.
8. His meal over, and numerous questions from his mother answered, he
turned from the table to the hearth.

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9. He came in quietly, cap and coat on, and sat down, looking at the
candles.
10. I imagine that she saw her husband installed in a luxurious suite of
rooms, dining at one smart restaurant after another, and she pictured his days
spent at race-meetings and his evenings at the play.
11. She looked at me slyly, as if concealing something.
12. A man could be seen advancing from the outskirts towards them.
13. But is a man not equally attractive when married?
14. She found Abraham pacing the house, his head down, his hands
clasped behind his back.
15. In the night, going slowly along the crowded roads we passed troops
marching under the rain, guns, horses pulling wagons, mules, motor trucks, all
moving away from the front.
16. I never saw a woman so altered.
17. Collingwood did not usually utter a word unless spoken to.
18. Rosa's voice could now be heard rising above the din.
19. This thought broke her down and she wandered away, with the tears
rolling down her cheeks.
20. Having closed the door on him, Fletcher returned to Lammel, standing
with his back to the bedroom fire, with one hand under his coat-skirts, and all
his whiskers in the other.
21. The floor, though regularly swept every evening, presented a littered
surface.
22. When next he comes he'll find everything settled.
23. The city lay around Central Park in a deep hush, the four-o'clock-in-
the-morning sky mild with stars and a frail softly rising mist.
24. As if touched by a wand, Annette and Rainborough froze into a silent
immobility, arrested in wild gestures of the struggle.
25. She went to the front window to see if the rain had stopped; there
coming down Eighth Street, a carpet bag in one hand, an unopened umbrella in
the other, with his coat-tails flying in the breeze, and his head craned forward,
was Abraham.
26. He listened as though brooding.
27. Temple held the child, gazing at the woman, her mouth moving...
28. One evening he was seen... going into this very house, but was never
seen coming out of it.
29. They now had all her telephone calls intercepted.
30. She was understanding. Educated. Well situated in New York.
31. He sat alone, with hate curled inside him, and envied them all, the
shouting children, the barking dogs, the lovers whispering.
32. She saw Abraham coming up the street carrying a blue cotton
umbrella.

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33. And still she sat there, her hands lying loosely in front of her, staring
at the wall.
34. Having finished dinner, he sat with his cigar in a somewhat deserted
lounge, turning over weekly papers...

Exercise 20. Translate into English.


1. Родившись в семье бедного крестьянина, он с самого детства
проникся любовью (to be inspired with love) к своему народу и своей
родине.
2. Когда он был мальчиком, он часто ездил с отцом на Белое море и в
Северный Ледовитый океан; постоянные морские путешествия развивали в
нем волю и упорство.
3. Покинув в возрасте девятнадцати лет родную деревню, он пешком
пошел в Москву учиться.
4. Прибыв в Москву, он поступил в Славяно-греко-латинскую
академию (the Slavonic-Greek-Latin Academy).
5. Так как Ломоносов был одним из лучших студентов, его послали
за границу, чтобы усовершенствовать свои знания.
6. Назначенный профессором химии Петербургской академии наук,
Ломоносов повел борьбу за самостоятельное развитие русской науки и
культуры.
7. Многие ученые, приехавшие из Европы, презирали русскую
культуру.
8. Ломоносов занимался (to be concerned with) вопросами,
относящимися к различным областям естествознания, истории и
филологии.
9. Он предполагал написать работу, охватывающую (to embrace) все
отрасли естествознания.
10. В своей лаборатории Ломоносов делал химические анализы
солей н руд, присылаемых в академию.
11. Опыты, проведенные Ломоносовым, привели к многочисленным
открытиям; самым важным среди них является закон сохранения материи
(the law of preservation of matter).
12. Основанный Ломоносовым университет сделался центром
передовой науки.

Test Your Knowledge


1. Use the gerund or the infinitive in the correct form:
1. Jane wasn’t sure what to tell Mark and took it as a gift that he avoided
… (see) her.
2. I didn’t mean … (hurt) anyone, but the fact remains – you cannot stay
here any longer.
3. Fancy her … (come) to their party! We just couldn’t believe our eyes.
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4. As a student I tried … (work) at fast food restaurants for some
additional earning but it wasn’t successful.
5. On seeing Henry entering the room she came on to the improvised
stage and started … (sing).
6. I regret … (tell) you that but your aunt had been rather ill recently. In
fact, she died two days ago.
7. George stopped … (smoke) thinking of something, hesitated a little and
then turned in the direction of the theatre.
8. Signing this document means … (take) a kind of responsibility for their
future lives.
9. I remember that door started … (squeak) when I was here eight
summers ago. Hasn’t anyone oiled it ever since?
10. This jacket wants … (iron), I should say, just a bit of it.

2. Use the correct form of participle I and participle II or a gerund:


1. I remember distinctly your … (tell) me your son’s name was David but
I didn’t hear of any girl called Caroline.
2. When … (drink), he developed an obsession of … (mock) poor Mr.
Samgrass.
3. … (tell) her a lie there and then, he wouldn’t know now how to pass on
to the truth.
4. They thought very ill of his family for … (leave) him like that.
5. Oh dear, you see Charles lives for one thing – Beauty. He got bored
with … (find) it ready-made in Britain. He wanted other worlds … (conquer).
6. There in the darkness we noticed a man on the pavement, … (daze),
with blood running down his face.
7. Rex, … (fail) her in that matter, went on to Monte Carlo.
8. We were not in the least surprised at his … (steal) that money from his
late aunt Muriel.

3. Point out the function of a participle or a gerund:


1. Unfortunately, I can’t afford to live here in the center any more, the
crisis having ruined my position.
2. The wind blowing so hard that day, we didn’t want to set sails.
3. Julia was sitting in a cube of blotting paper, her hands folded on her
lap, so still that I failed to notice her.
4. We all agreed to the letter being registered but as Jack saw the secretary
writing the inscription, he changed his mind.
5. The results of the investigation were frustrating and, seeing no way to
avoid publicity, we set out for escape.
6. The young lady, scared, sat on the ground with a meaningless
expression on her face.
7. As I saw Jasper in his red pajamas I burst out laughing.
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8. There was little chance of meeting Claire at the party but I still didn’t
want to spare it.

4. Point out the –ing form and say whether it is a participle, a verbal
noun or a gerund:
1. She didn’t like her daughter’s spending so much time in their company,
but she could do nothing about it.
2. The answer of the student was disappointing, but he found no harm in
giving the boy a second chance.
3. A loud crying was heard from downstairs, and the guests insisted on
going down there to see what was going on.
4. Coming to the Lake District, we found the sights very beautiful and
stopped to take some photos.
5. She shivered with fright, as if realizing the danger.
6. What’s the use of sitting quietly here waiting for your death?
7. In the gardens dancing fairies were getting ready for the feast.

5. Translate from Russian into English using the gerund or a


participle:
1. Я не имел каких-то особых планов на то утро, и мне пришла в
голову идея прогуляться по набережной и выпить чашку чая с моей
бывшей квартирной хозяйкой.
2. Я смертельно устала от того, что он так поздно приходит домой,
запирается у себя в кабинете и сидит там ночи напролет, не обращая на
меня никакого внимания, как будто я вообще не существую.
3. Его фигура, четко вырисовывавшаяся на фоне полной луны,
исчезла из моего поля зрения, едва луна скрылась за облаками, и,
осторожно ступая по гравиевой дорожке, я все время боялась, что он в
следующую секунду схватит меня за руку и заставит объяснить свое
странное, вызывающее много вопросов поведение.
4. Я обнаружила их во дворе дерущимися и ломающими мебель, и
это зрелище сильно меня напугало.
6. Поскольку погода была отвратительной, они не смогли поехать на
пикник.

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The functions of the Infinitive
Function Sentence Pattern Tense, Aspect, Voice Phrases/sentences to memorize
1. Never to study at night was Judy’s Indefinite infinitive 1. It is always easy to … .
new unbreakable rule. active/passive 2. It was hard to … .
2. It was a great pleasure for him to 3. It gives him pleasure to … .
be thinking all the time about Judy. Continuous Infinitive 4. It’s wise of him to … .
Subject 3. To visit her was all that I desired. 5. It will do you a lot of good/harm to
Perfect infinitive active/passive ….
6. It has become his habit to … .
Perfect continuous infinitive 7. It surprised me to … .
8. It made me feel awkward to … .
1. After a long trip to New York her Indefinite infinitive 1. He is hard to please.
Part of a Compound
first desire was to take a bath. active/passive 2. She is pleasant to look at.
Nominal Predicate
2. Judy was by nature a sunny soul 3. The article is difficult to translate.
(Predicative)
and she was pleasant to deal with.
1. He must have been an excellent Indefinite infinitive 1. Modal verbs: can, may, must, to be
swimmer years ago. active/passive to, to have to, should, ought to, will,
2. Old Burton said: “You’d better would, shall, need, dare.
come back and see me in another Continuous infinitive 2. Expressions: had better, would
thirty-five years.” rather, to be able to, to be obliged, to be
Part of a Compound Verbal 3. Judy thought: “I’d rather read Perfect infinitive active/passive bound, to be willing, to be anxious, to
Modal Predicate plain books.” be capable, to be going to, etc.
4. He was quite willing to come. Perfect continuous infinitive 3. Verbs with a modal meaning: to
5. We tried to talk him out of it but hope, to expect, to try, to attempt, to
failed, I’m afraid. endeavour, to long, to wish, to want, to
desire, etc.

Part of a Compound Verbal A bit of money used to come in for Indefinite infinitive active 1. The verbs expressing the beginning,
Aspect Predicate Burton once a quarter. the continuation, the repetition or the
end of the action: to begin, to start, to
commence, to continue, to cease +
infinitive.

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2. Used to + infinitive, would +
infinitive.
1. Judy was happy to continue her Indefinite infinitive 1. After the verbs to agree, to forget, to
education. active/passive remember, to order, to teach, to ask, to
2. I found it utterly cruel to offer the help, to assist, to tell, to instruct, to
man to swim when he was not in Continuous infinitive request, to advise, to beg, to invite, to
good condition. encourage, etc.
Perfect infinitive active/passive 2. After the expressions to be glad, to
be happy, to be delighted, etc.
Object Perfect continuous infinitive 3. In the constructions : …
find/consider/
think/make/feel it interesting
necessary
impossible to do
cruel
useful
important
1. This is a chance not to be missed. Indefinite infinitive The infinitive is used after:
2. There’s nothing to worry about. active/passive 1. class nouns (a doctor, a book, a room,
3. He was the last to realize the etc.);
danger. Continuous infinitive 2. abstract nouns (time, hope, desire,
4. There was much to tell you love, hate, beauty, help, etc.);
5. She was the first to guess what he Perfect infinitive active/passive 3. expressions of quantity (much, little,
Attribute was driving at. plenty, no more, a great deal, etc.);
4. pronouns (somebody, something,
anybody, anything, anyone, someone,
nothing, no one, nowhere, etc.);
5. the adjective last;
6. ordinal numerals (the first, the
second, the third, etc.)
Adverbial Modifier of 1. You must be a good player to be Indefinite infinitive active After the conjunctions in order, so as or
Purpose captain of the team. without any conjunctions at all.

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2. You’d better wait outside so as to
be at hand if someone wants you.
1. The opportunity was too good to Indefinite infinitive 1. After the adverbs too, enough.
be missed. active/passive 2. After so…as, such…as.
2. He was old enough to be her
Adverbial Modifier of father.
Result 3. He was not such a man as to
break his promise.
4. He wasn’t so sure as to get mixed
up in this business.
1. He opened his mouth as if to speak. Indefinite infinitive After the conjunctions as if, as though,
Adverbial Modifier of 2. She seemed more anxious to listen active/passive than.
Manner/Comparison to the troubles of others than discuss
her own.
1. He left her never to come back Indefinite infinitive Sometimes after the adverb never or the
again. active/passive particle only.
2. Ann turned to look at me with
Adverbial Modifier of
those candid blue eyes of hers.
Attendant Circumstances
3. They arrived at the inn only to
learn that nobody was waiting for
them.
To begin with, I had an accident last Indefinite infinitive active To cut a long story short
week. To tell the truth
Parenthesis To put it mildly
To say nothing of
To be quite frank, etc.

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The Infinitive Constructions
Construction Function Sentence Pattern Verbal Form Verbs and Expressions
Introducing the Construction
1. I felt the blood rush into my Indefinite infinitive Verbs of sense perception: to hear,
cheeks. active to feel, to watch, to observe, to
notice, to find, etc.
2. I believe him to be honest with us. Indefinite infinitive Verbs of mental activity: to know,
3. The doctor found his heart to have active/passive to think, to consider, to believe, to
stopped two hours before. suppose, to expect, to imagine, to
Perfect infinitive find, to feel, to trust, etc.
active/passive
4. I didn’t mean him to do that so Indefinite infinitive Verbs denoting wish or intention:
soon. active/passive to want, to wish, to desire, to mean,
to intend, to choose, etc.
Objective Complex Object Perfect infinitive
Infinitive active/passive
Construction 5. He reported the meeting to be Indefinite infinitive Verbs of declaring: to report, to
over. active/passive pronounce, to declare, etc.
6. I hate him to say so. Indefinite infinitive Verbs denoting feeling or emotion:
active/passive to like, to dislike, to love, to hate,
cannot bear, etc.
7. I won’t have you speak like that. Indefinite infinitive Verbs denoting permission,
8. Ms. Effin could hardly suffer Jane active/passive inducement or compulsion: to ask,
to appear in her house. to tell, to order, to allow, to suffer,
9. The sound of somebody’s steps to have, to let, to make, to cause, to
made him raise his head. get, etc.
Prepositional I rely on you to come in time. Indefinite infinitive After rely on/upon
Complex Object active
Subjective Complex Subject 1. The girl was often heard singing Indefinite infinitive The verbs denoting sense
Infinitive that tune. active/passive perception: to hear, to see, to
Construction Continuous Infinitive observe, to notice, etc. in the
Perfect infinitive passive voice.
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2. James was believed to have taken The verbs denoting mental
part in the revolt. perception: to know, to think, to
consider, to believe, to suppose, to
expect in the passive voice.
3. I was made to put on my coat and The verb to make in the passive
leave the house. active/passive voice.
4. June is said to have spent millions Perfect continuous The verbs to say, to report in the
of pounds on charity. infinitive passive voice.
5. Only yesterday we happened to The following pairs of verbs: to
see our old friend Julie Walters. seem and to appear, to happen and
to chance, to prove and to turn out.
6. He is sure to get panic-stricken The expressions: to be likely, to be
after such news. sure, to be certain.
The For-to- Complex Subject 1. For him to ask this would be a Indefinite infinitive The element for + pronoun or a
Infinitive mistake. active/passive noun is included into the member
Construction 2. It is a shame for you to waste so Continuous Infinitive of the sentence.
much money. Perfect infinitive
active/passive
Perfect continuous
infinitive
Complex 1. That was for him to find out. Indefinite infinitive
Predicative 2. To leave her is for me to die. active/passive
Complex Object 1. We all waited for her to speak. Indefinite infinitive
2. Sui was impatient for Mrs. active/passive
Jackobs to leave.
3. I don’t think it very strange for
him to behave this way.
Complex Attribute 1. The best thing for you to do here is Indefinite infinitive
to apologise. active/passive
2. There was really nothing for him
to do here.
Complex Adverbial 1. He stepped aside for me to pass. Indefinite infinitive
86
Modifier of active
Purpose
Complex Adverbial 1. The temptation was too great for Indefinite infinitive
Modifier of Result me to resist. active/passive
2. She spoke loud enough for Ronan
to hear.

87
The functions of the Gerund
Function Sentence Pattern Tense, Voice Patterns/sentences to memorize
Subject 1. Flying is a thrilling thing. Indefinite gerund Simple and complex subjects with the
2. Your being so stubborn makes me active/passive nominal part expressed by a pronoun or a
mad. noun can be observed.
3. It’s no use discussing it now. Perfect gerund
4. It’s worth while seeing the active/passive
exhibition.
5. There was no denying the fact.
Part of a Compound 1. What he loves best is strolling Indefinite gerund Simple and complex predicatives with the
Nominal Predicate along the quay. active/passive nominal part expressed by a pronoun or a
(Predicative) 2. What annoyed me most was his noun can be observed.
accepting their proposal quite
readily.
Part of a compound verbal The audience burst out applauding. Indefinite gerund active After the verbs to keep on, to go on, to give
aspect predicate up, to leave off, to burst out, to finish, to stop,
to cease, to begin, to start, to continue.
Part of a compound verbal 1. Julia couldn’t help feeling the Indefinite gerund 1. After the expression can’t help.
modal predicate warmth of the reception. active/passive 2. Verbs with a modal meaning: to hope, to
2. She tried acting but soon expect, to try, to attempt, to endeavour, to
understood it wasn’t her cup of tea. long, to wish, to want, to desire, etc.
Direct Object 1. The gallery is widely known and Indefinite gerund 1. Simple and complex objects with the
worth seeing. active/passive nominal part expressed by a pronoun or a
2. I remember my brother-in-law noun can be observed after the verbs to avoid,
going for a sea trip once. Perfect gerund to deny, to enjoy, to fancy, to mind, to
active/passive postpone, to put off, to suggest, to want, to
need, to require, to deserve, to be busy, to
(dis)like, to hate, to prefer, to excuse, to
remember, to forgive, to forget, to regret, to
recollect, etc.
2. After the expression can’t bear.
Prepositional object 1. We are looking forward to seeing Indefinite gerund After the verbs and expressions:
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her tonight. active/passive 1. to approve of, to complain of, to accuse of,
2. He agreed to the letter being to suspect of, to think of, to boast of, to be
registered. Perfect gerund aware of, to be capable of, to be fond of;
active/passive 2. to be pleased at, to be surprised at;
3. to agree to, to object to, to confess to, to
devote to, to look forward to, to get used to, to
get accustomed to;
4. to rely on, to insist on, to count on, to
depend on;
5. to persist in, to succeed in, to be busy in, to
be engaged in, to be interested in;
6. to prevent from, to keep from;
7. to thank for, to care for;
8. to feel like, to look like.
Attribute 1. The doctor gave three different Indefinite gerund The Gerund is used as an attribute after the
medications with the instructions for active/passive following nouns:
giving them. 1. chance, habit, idea, trouble, risk, method,
2. He has no interest in studying the Perfect gerund way, custom, fear, manner, means, problem,
law. active/passive necessity, possibility, pleasure, right, hope,
intention, effort, importance, feeling sound,
sign, etc. + of;
2. instruction, apology, explanation, reason,
preparation, excuse, gift,
plan + for;
3. experience, use, skill, interest, sense, harm,
difficulty + in;
4. astonishment, disappointment, surprise +
at.
Adverbial modifier of time 1. Before crossing the road, stop and Indefinite gerund After the prepositions in, (up)on, before, after,
look both ways. active/passive at.
2. On hearing the news she hurried
home.

89
3. In trying to avoid another car, he
ran into a lamp post.
Adverbial modifier of 1. She spent the whole evening in Indefinite gerund After the prepositions in, by, without2.
manner packing. active/passive
2. He saved a good deal of time by
going there in a car.
Adverbial modifier of 1. Besides being clever she was also Indefinite gerund After the prepositions without, besides,
attendant circumstances really hard-working. active/passive instead of.
2. He put the letter away without
reading it.
Adverbial modifier of The hall is used for dancing. Indefinite gerund After the preposition for.
purpose active/passive
Adverbial modifier of You will never speak good English Indefinite gerund After the prepositions without, in case of.
condition without learning it. active/passive

Adverbial modifier of cause Through his being careless he met Indefinite gerund After the prepositions for, for fear of, owing
(reason) worst enemy in a dark lane. active/passive to, through, because of.

Perfect gerund
active/passive
Adverbial modifier of In spite of being tired, he continued Indefinite gerund After the preposition in spite of, despite.
concession working. active/passive

Perfect gerund active

2
This preposition is more likely to point at the adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances, still some books include it into the list of
prepositions typical of the adverbial modifier of manner.
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The functions of the Participles
Function Sentence Pattern Tense, Voice, Aspect Peculiarities
Attribute 1. The roaring water of the river Participle I Indefinite Participle I Perfect can be used only as an
made a deep impression on him. active/passive adverbial modifier and never as an attribute. To
2. Great Britain is situated on the express priority an attributive clause is used:
British isles lying to the west of the The man who had spoken to you is Jim’s
continent. cousin.
3. Frozen with horror, he understood Participle II of transitive verbs has a passive
everything. Participle II meaning (a locked door, a written letter) while
4. The path was covered with faded Participle II of intransitive verbs denotes
leaves. passing into a new state (faded leaves, withered
flowers, fallen trees, retired captain).
Predicative (Part of a 1. The answer of the student is Participle I Indefinite Phrases to be memorized:
compound nominal disappointing. active to be astonishing, to be disappointing, to be
predicate) 2. He seemed delighted. exciting, to be humiliating, to be inviting, to be
3. I confessed I was bewildered. Participle II tempting, to be terrifying, to be touching;
The link-verb to the compound nominal
predicate may the following:
to be, to look, to seem, to get, to grow, to turn,
to remain, etc. + Participle II.
Adverbial modifier of time 1. While getting breakfast ready the Participle I Indefinite 1. With such verbs as
two old ladies exchanged gossips. active/passive to see, to hear, to notice, to come, to arrive, to
2. Coming up to the door, he took seize, to look, to enter, to turn, to close, to
out his ID. Participle I Perfect open, to cross
3. When in England she didn’t miss active/passive Participle I Indefinite is used to
the chance to see Avebury. express priority when the action expressed by
4. When told the fare he realized he the finite verb closely follows the action
couldn’t afford it. expressed by the Participle:
Seeing that it was useless to argue, I dropped
Participle II the subject.
2. Participle I Indefinite of the verb to be is not
used as an adverbial modifier of time. Clauses

91
“когда он был в Москве” are translated
“When in Moscow”.
3. In this function the Participle II must have
logically the same subject as the predicate of
the whole sentence.
4. In this function the Participles may be
introduced by when/while/once (for Participle
II only).
Adverbial modifier of cause 1. Having been informed about her Participle I Indefinite
(reason) arrival beforehand, he was able to active/passive
meet her at the platform. In this function the Participle II must have
2. Deprived of his wife, Jolyon found Participle I Perfect logically the same subject as the predicate of
the solitude unbearable. active/passive the whole sentence.

Participle II
Adverbial modifier of 1. He was standing on the top of the Participle I Indefinite
manner (attendant mountain admiring the beautiful active In this function the Participle II is practically
circumstances) view. always introduced by as and usually has the
2. Fill in the application form as same subject as the predicate of the whole
instructed. Participle II sentence.
Adverbial modifier of 1. He was silent for a moment as if Participle I Indefinite In this function the Participle II must have
comparison posing to think of the reply. active logically the same subject as the predicate of
2. He looked bewildered as if told the whole sentence.
something unbelievable. Participle II
Adverbial modifier of 1. She ought to go there but, being Participle I Indefinite 1. In this function the Participle II must have
condition there, she wouldn’t know what to active/passive logically the same subject as the predicate of
say. the whole sentence.
2. If sent immediately, the telegram Participle I Perfect 2. In this function the Participle II is usually
will be delivered in time. active/passive introduced by if.

Participle II

92
Adverbial modifier of 1. Though moving with difficulty, a Participle I Indefinite 1. In this function the Participle II must have
concession man was approaching me. active/passive logically the same subject as the predicate of
2. Though frightened, he didn’t show the whole sentence.
it. Participle II 2. The participles in this function are mainly
introduced by while or though
Parenthesis Judging by his words, he has visited Participle I Indefinite Generally speaking …
Great Britain. active Judging by …
Mildly speaking …
Speaking frankly …
Strictly speaking …
Saying nothing of …
Roughly speaking …

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The Participial Constructions
Construction Function Sentence Pattern Verbal Form Peculiarities Verbs after which the
construction is used
1. I heard these words Participle II Participle II shows that Verbs of sense perception:
mentioned several times. the meaning is passive; to hear, to feel, to watch, to
2. I watched him seeing a Participle I shows that observe, to notice, to find,
friend off. Participle I the action is in etc.
Indefinite active progress.
1. I consider him engaged Participle II Participle II shows that Verbs of mental activity: to
at the local theatre. the meaning is passive. consider, to understand,
etc.
Objective 1. I want the parcel Participle II Participle II shows that Verbs denoting wish: to
Participial Complex Object delivered in time. the meaning is passive. want, to wish, to desire, etc.
Construction 1. I had my room Participle II 1. Participle II Verbs to have, to get.
reconstructed. expresses the idea of
2. Get this prescription smth. done for the
made at the chemist’s. benefit of the person
expressed by the
subject of the sentence.
2. In questions and in
negative sentences the
auxiliary “do” is used.
1. The girl was often heard Participle I Participle II shows that Verbs of sense perception:
Subjective singing that tune. Indefinite active the meaning is passive; to hear, to feel, to watch, to
Participial Complex Subject 2. The man was found Participle I shows that observe, to notice, to find,
Construction strangled in the yard. Participle II the action is in etc.
progress.
The Nominative Our lessons being over, we Participle I The construction is
Absolute Adverbial hurried home. Indefinite active generally rendered in
___
Participial Modifier of Time Russian by means of an
Construction Participle II adverbial clause
Adverbial The night becoming pitch- Participle I The construction is ___
94
dark, we lit the lantern. Indefinite active generally rendered in
Modifier of Cause Russian by means of an
Participle II adverbial clause
Weather permitting, the Participle I The construction
ship will leave the harbour Indefinite active seldom occurs in this
Adverbial
at daybreak. function and is nearly
Modifier of ___
Participle II always goes with the
Condition
participles permitting
and failing.
Adverbial On the little pond the Participle I In this function it is
Modifier of leaves floated, the sunlight Indefinite active mostly placed at the end
___
Attendant shining over them. of a sentence.
Circumstances Participle II
1. I could hardly work Participle I The construction is
Adverbial
The Prepositional with that noise going on. Indefinite active introduced by with or
Modifier of
Participial 2. I can’t concentrate without. ___
Attendant
Construction without the door shut Participle II
Circumstances
behind my back.
Adverbial Breakfast over, we went
The Nominative ___ ___
Modifier of Time for a walk.
Absolute
Adverbial His heart full of
Construction
Modifier of apprehension, he entered The construction is
(without ___ ___
Attendant the room. always separated from
Participle)
Circumstances the rest of a sentence by
Adverbial He walked along the a coma.
The Prepositional
Modifier of corridor, with his hat in
Absolute ___ ___
Attendant his hand.
Construction
Circumstances

95
Gerund as Prepositional Object

I. verbs with one prepositional object


to admit признавать вину, сознаваться He admitted to having stolen the apples in their garden.
to agree соглашаться на что-либо Jane agreed to our joining them.
to confess признаваться, сознаваться George confessed to having seen them in Paris that day.
to devote посвящать Alice devoted herself to serving the needs of her man.
to feel up быть в состоянии, хотеть чего-л. Do you feel up to having a walk?
to
to get down взяться, засесть за что-либо We finally got down to signing the invitation cards.
to look forward ждать с нетерпением I’m looking forward to hearing from you!
to object возражать против чего-либо I must object to your going to that place alone so late.
to resort прибегнуть к чему-либо Finally, he resorted to threatening them.
to settle down взяться за что-либо, начать June settled down to writing a report.
to agree on договориться о чем-либо We all agreed on spending the weekend at the Parsons’.
to testify to/against давать показания (в пользу/против) He testified to Joe having been there at noon.
to consist in/of заключаться в чём-л., состоять из чего-л. My duties consisted in looking after the girl all night.
to believe верить во что-либо I don’t believe in getting the money for nothing at all.
to persist упорствовать в чём-либо Henry persisted in proving his point of view.
to result in приводить к чему-либо, иметь результат The whole campaign resulted in the candidate failing.
to specialize специализироваться в чём-либо I specialized in managing a small business.
to succeed иметь успех в чём-либо Louis succeeded in breaking down their car.
to count полагаться, рассчитывать на что-л. I counted on George’s paying the expenses.
to depend зависеть от кого-либо Much depended on Kate’s coming to the office in time.
on
to insist настаивать на чём-либо They all insist on our joining them.
to rely доверять, надеяться на что-либо I can easily rely on your fulfilling the project successfully.
to approve of одобрять Lauren approved of my flying alone to the meeting.
to recover поправиться, преодолеть What if I never recover from hating the whole world?
from
to refrain воздерживаться от чего-либо She chose to refrain from going there alone.
to decide on/against принять решение в пользу/против чего-л. I decided against joining the production group of the film.
to aim at стремиться, нацеливаться на что-л. Mark aimed at achieving success in this field.

96
to apologize for извиняться за что-либо I apologized for having said such things to her that night.
to boast хвастаться James boasted of having done such base-jumps before.
to complain жаловаться You shouldn’t complain of being ill-treated by your dad.
to hear слышать, узнать I have never heard of their having stayed there at all.
to dream of /about мечтать, видеть во сне For years I dreamed of buying a car. *
to learn узнать, услышать от кого-либо There we learned of her having found a better job.
to speak говорить о чём-либо Leonard didn’t speak much about his having been there.
to think думать о чём-либо, помышлять I have never even thought of travelling that far in my life.
II. verbs taking a direct and a prepositional object
to arrest арестовать за что-либо Luke was arrested for braking into their house.
to blame винить за что-либо Alice blamed me for losing the suitcase.
to care беспокоиться о чём-л.; нравиться She cares a lot for buying a new pair of shoes weekly.
to condemn приговаривать за ч.-л. (to – к ч.-л.) Clarke was condemned for murdering that man.
to criticize критиковать за что-либо Sheila often criticizes me for earning too little.
to despise for презирать Susan despised Kim for failing to get the prize after all.
to give credit доверять в чём-либо (to – кому-л.) I knew I can give you credit for finding the gang leader.
to praise хвалить, превозносить He praised me for helping him so much.
to punish наказывать The child was punished for breaking the vase.
to sentence приговаривать за ч.-л. (to – к ч.-л.) They’ll be sentenced to death for committing the crime.
to thank благодарить Thank you for coming here, my friends!
to ban запрещать, отстранять Keith was banned from participating in the project.
to dissuade отговаривать I tried to dissuade her from going to that meeting alone.
to free освобождать His spirit was freed from guarding the ruins of the castle.
to keep from воздерживаться, удерживать She kept us from being happy.
to prevent мешать, не допускать John prevented his wife from signing the credit papers.
to stop удерживать от чего-либо It’s stopping us from communicating freely.
to rescue спасать, избавлять Harry rescued her from meeting the cruel fate.
to charge обвинять (в суде) The judge charged him in court with robbing the bank.
with
to content oneself довольствоваться We contented ourselves with talking of trifles.
to accuse обвинять Jude was accused of stealing the woman’s bag.
of
to suspect подозревать We suspected her of trying to drive him mad.

97
to persuade from/against убеждать, отговаривать I’m here to persuade her from making a crucial error.
to congratulate поздравлять с чем-либо Lucy congratulated me on receiving the award.
on
to pride oneself гордиться Ann prides herself on being such a good wife.
to assist помогать, содействовать Sue assisted him in operating on the poor dog.
in
to help оказывать помощь Father helped me in buying a new notebook.
to try one’s hand at попробовать, испытать себя в ч.-л. I tried my hand at painting first but finally gave it up.
to browbeat запугивать, подавлять The police browbeat him into taking the guilt.
to coax упрашивать лестью Rose coaxed her husband into buying the shoes.
to delude вводить в заблуждение We were deluded into selling the house cheaply.
to mislead into обманывать, сбивать с пути They misled Ron into committing the crime.
to talk уговаривать Morgan talked us all into helping him with the repairs.
to tempt искушать, соблазнять Carrie was tempted into buying the new dress.
to terrify запугивать She was terrified into giving away all her money to them.
III. adjectives
to be afraid бояться, опасаться чего-либо She was afraid of being drowned in that old dirty pond.
to be (un)aware (не) осознавать чего-либо I was completely unaware of his sitting nearby.
to be (un)conscious (не) понимать чего-либо We were conscious of being deceived.
to be (in)capable (не) быть способным сделать ч.-л. The patient was incapable of feeding himself.
to be fond любить I’m fond of riding a bicycle.
of
to be guilty быть виноватым We found him guilty of having said it to her.
to be ignorant быть в неведении Dora was ignorant of Joe having gone to the dinner alone.
to be proud гордиться I’m proud of being a student.
to be sick быть уставшим, пресыщенным Sarah felt sick of waiting for them so long in the hall.
to be sure быть уверенным в чем-либо Robert is sure of his being admitted to college.
to be angry сердиться He was angry at his sister using his razor.
to be clever быть умным, ловким Meg was quite clever at evading the taxes.
to be good хорошо разбираться в чём-либо She is good at gardening.
at
to be indignant злиться, негодовать I felt indignant at his leaving the club so soon.
to be skillful иметь навыки в чём-либо Hugh is rather skillful at repairing cars.
to be smart быть ловким, сообразительным Claire was so smart at catching the possible clients.
to be sorry for/about сожалеть She’s so sorry about having missed the game.

98
to be busy in/with быть занятым, вовлечённым Frank was busy in cooking the dinner for his wife.
to be anxious волноваться, тревожиться She was anxious about John losing his money.
to be careful about быть осторожным I was careful about keeping the news from her.
to be optimistic быть оптимистично настроенным I’m quite optimistic about my finding a job.
to be intent быть поглощённым, погружённым George seemed rather intent on his investigating the case.
on
to be keen быть увлечённым I’m keen on riding speedy cars.
to be grateful быть благодарным за что-либо I’m very grateful for your interfering, sir!
to be responsible for быть ответственным Carl was responsible for Liz coming late.
to be thankful быть благодарным за что-либо We are all thankful to you for joining us.
to be different отличаться It was all different from living in the old house on my own.
from
to be far быть далёким от чего-либо I was far from believing him.
to be slow не спешить, запаздывать Alan was slow in keeping appointments.
to be successful in иметь успех в чём-либо Josh was successful in earning money.
to be wrong ошибаться I was wrong in telling him the truth.
IV. participle II
to be annoyed at/about испытывать раздражение Carol was annoyed at their interrupting her constantly.
to be renowned for быть известным благодаря ч.-л. Louise is renowned for acting in classic films.
to be concerned испытывать беспокойство I’m quite concerned about the kid being alone.
to be excited about быть взволнованным, в восторге Ruth felt excited about his returning home at last.
to be worried беспокоиться о чём-либо We are rather worried about her being so late.
to be astonished быть напуганным, в ужасе I was astonished at Michael’s finding us.
to be delighted радоваться, быть в восторге Martha seemed delighted at being taken home.
to be embarrassed прийти в смущение She felt embarrassed at his saying so.
at
to be irritated раздражаться Keith felt irritated at John’s being so stubborn.
to be (dis)pleased быть (не)довольным чем-либо Bex looked pleased at my helping her with the shopping.
to be scared быть напуганным She felt scared at finding them all dead in the basement.
to be absorbed быть поглощённым чем-либо We were absorbed in reading the article.
to be engaged вовлечённый, поглощённый We got engaged in fighting with them and tried to stop it.
to be engrossed in быть поглощённым чем-либо Brad looked engrossed in discussing the topic.
to be interested быть заинтересованным I’m rather interested in riding horses.
to be justified быть оправданным, извинять Were you morally justified in lying to Miss Fley?

99
to be set on/against твердо решить что-либо She had her heart set on becoming a teacher.
to be ashamed стыдиться чего-либо I felt ashamed of my having been so jealous.
to be frightened of бояться We were frightened of James’ coming again.
to be tired быть уставшим от чего-либо I’m sick and tired of your ever lying to me!
to be (un)accustomed (не) иметь привычку к чему- либо Julia was unaccustomed to being treated like that.
to be addicted быть приверженным, склонным Fred was addicted to wasting money lavishly.
to be opposed to выступать против Lynn was opposed to their talking to Carol in such way.
to be used иметь привычку I’m used to reading horror stories at night.
to be given быть склонным к чему-либо He is given to exaggerating things.
to be bored испытывать скуку Mia was bored with studying and having no fun.
to be entrusted получить поручение He was entrusted with deciphering the note.
with
to be fed up быть сытым по горло I’m fed up with following his commands.
to be preoccupied быть захваченным, поглощённым We found him preoccupied with writing a letter.

* The verb ‘to dream’ in combination with ‘of’ means ‘to have a great desire for smth’, while in combination with ‘about’ it means ‘to see while
you are sleeping’. With the rest of the verbs from this group the difference is not observed.

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Gerund as Attribute

advantage of преимущество, выгода I can easily see the advantage of living here.
art искусство The art of dancing is so popular among the girls of our department.
business бизнес, дело Dan settled the matter of his leaving us by giving large allowances.
chance шанс, случай You can lose your chance of surviving if you don’t treat it seriously.
custom обычай, привычка We discussed his custom of coming late.
effort усилие The whole business requires an additional effort of avoiding her.
evidence подтверждение, улика At last we found the evidence of his having been there.
expense стоимость, цена Prudence stayed in the firm at the expense of losing her family.
fear страх, ужас For fear of being caught she chose to leave her home.
feeling чувство I had a feeling of being watched.
the good смысл, польза, добро What’s the good of dying so young?
habit привычка His habit of rocking in his chair irritated me.
hope надежда We lost the last hope of finding our beloved boy.
idea мысль, идея I toyed with the idea of holding back the news from her for a while.
intention намерение Sam understood her intention of disclosing the secret.
importance важность “The Importance of Being Earnest” is a famous O.Wilde’s play.
manner манера, способ Will’s manner of talking to people is rather remarkable.
matter вопрос, причина, основание It’s the matter of staying alive, don’t take it as a joke!
means средство A car is a good means of transporting things.
method метод, способ His method of teaching is rather disputable.
necessity необходимость I don’t see the necessity of doing it right now.
need нужда What’s the need of leaving so early?
notion идея, понятие, намерение He didn’t like the notion of abandoning his job so easily.
opportunity возможность You mustn’t spare a single opportunity of being promoted!
option выбор, альтернатива They had an option of going to any night club in the city.
pleasure удовольствие, радость The pleasure of seeing you here is indescribable!
possibility возможность Can you score the possibility of our finding him there?
problem проблема The problem of polluting the atmosphere is vital now to all of us.
process процесс She is now in the process of looking around for ideas.

101
prospect перспектива I don’t much admire the prospect of losing my business.
question вопрос, проблема The question of paying the debts still remains.
recollection воспоминание The recollection of her having met them disturbed Ann.
right право Charlotte has every right of living in this house alone.
risk риск Vince refused to run the risk of breaking his car.
sensation ощущение She experienced a pleasant sensation of floating in the air.
sign знак We found no sign of her ever having been there.
sound звук The sound of a child crying awoke me at night.
tendency цель, склонность Sue had the unfortunate tendency of losing people’s trust.
thought мысль, идея The thought of going there alone didn’t even occur to me.
trouble проблема, недостаток Jemma refused to take the trouble of transporting us home.
use польза, смысл What’s the use of staying here all night waiting for him?
way способ, образ действия Kate’s way of dealing with producers is quite effective.
work дело, действие, работа He fulfilled hard work of finding her at home.
apology извинение I made an apology for my being late.
capacity способность, особенно умств. We were struck by his capacity for doing all things at once.
excuse извинение, прощение There is no excuse for his having been so rude to us.
explanation объяснение Steve gave a good explanation for having missed the dinner.
gift дар Donna has a real gift for making friends with people.
for
ground основание, причина They saw no grounds for investing their money into this scam.
instruction распоряжение, указание Penny left detailed instructions for running the bar to us.
passion страсть, увлечение They both had a real passion for sky-diving.
reason причина Today I had a good reason for coming here.
talent талант, способность We tried to develop his talent for painting.
plan план, замысел The administration voiced the plan of reducing the bonus payments.
of/for
reputation репутация, доброе имя That judge has a reputation for being fair.
point смысл, значение What’s the point of staying here any longer?
satisfaction удовлетворение Andrew took satisfaction in insulting everybody on his way.
in/of
sense смысл, значение I don’t see much sense in listening to all that gossip of the market.
use толк, польза What’s the use of sitting here and waiting for him to come?
objection to возражение Kenneth voiced his objection to the bill passing the hearings.

102
difficulty трудность Russel found some difficulty in speaking to the visitors.
experience опыт Unfortunately I don’t have much experience in running a restaurant.
harm вред I don’t see much harm in allowing her to go to the party.
in
hesitation сомнение, колебание Maureen felt no hesitation in throwing him out.
interest интерес к чему-либо Shirley didn’t quite believe in his sincere interest in writing memoirs.
skill навык, умение You should develop your skills in writing political speeches.
amazement изумление, удивление Natasha expressed utter amazement at our coming to the party.
astonishment удивление, страх Harry couldn’t conceal his astonishment at seeing them again.
delight удовольствие, наслаждение Gordon smiled with delight at sitting with her on that dusty old sofa.
at
disappointment разочарование I couldn’t help feeling some disappointment at his failing to appear.
pleasure удовольствие We found great pleasure at returning to our homes at last.
surprise удивление The Minister expressed surprise at the State Secretary saying so.
fantasy мечта, фантазия He’s always had fantasies about living in a large beautiful castle.
about
scruples сомнения, угрызения совести I have no scruples about throwing him out of the house.
preparation to/for подготовка, приготовление We ordered the flowers in preparation for conducting the ceremony.

* In some cases the preposition+gerund can be replaced by an infinitive in the function of attribute:

e.g. Graham lost his chance of meeting Emily at the station.


(‘chance’ means ‘the possibility that something will happen’)

She had no chance to say anything more.


(‘chance’ means ‘the opportunity’ or ‘time’)

I seized at the opportunity to tell her I had been wrong.


(the infinitive is more common here)

Clive took the opportunity of looking up the data from Henley’s report.

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Литература

1. Грамматика английского языка. Пособие для студентов педагогических институтов /


В.Л. Каушанская, Р.Л. Ковнер, О.Н. Кожевникова, Е.В. Прокофьева и др. – 5-е изд.,
испр. и доп. – М.: Айрис-пресс, 2009. – 384с. (Высшее образование).

2. Гуревич, В. В. Практическая грамматика английского языка. Упражнения и


комментарии [Электронный ресурс] : учебное пособие / В. В. Гуревич. - М.: Флинта,
2012. - Режим доступа: http://biblioclub.ru

3. Истомина Е.А., Саакян А.С. Английская грамматика: Теория и практика для


начинающих: Учеб. пособие для студ. высш. учеб. заведений. – М.: Гуманитарный
издательский центр ВЛАДОС, 2003 – 320 с.

4. Комаров, А. С. Практическая грамматика английского языка для студентов. Сборник


упражнений [Электронный ресурс] / А. С. Комаров. - М.: Издательство «Флинта», 2012.
- Режим доступа: http://biblioclub.ru

5. A Grammar of Present–day English. Practical course/Грамматика современного


английского языка: Учебник для ин-тов и фак. иностр. яз. И.П. Крылова, Е.М. Гордон. –
8-е изд. – М.: Книжный дом «Университет»: Высшая школа, 2002. – 448с.

6. A Grammar of Present-day English. Practice Book/ Сборник упражнений по грамматике


английского языка: Учебное пособие для ин-тов и фак. иностр. яз. И.П. Крылова. – М.:
Книжный дом «Университет»: Высшая школа, 2003. – 432с.

7. Exercises in Modern English Grammar.Упражнения по грамматике современного


английского языка. А.С. Саакян. – 2-е изд. – М.: Айрия-пресс, 2004. – 448с. (Высшее
образование).

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Учебно-методическое пособие

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Практическая грамматика: неличные формы глагола

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