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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации

Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение


высшего профессионального образования
«Курский государственный университет»

Кафедра иностранных языков и профессиональной коммуникации

English for Future Job


Профессионально ориентированный английский язык

Учебное пособие для бакалавров

Курск 2017

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УДК 811.111-26
ББК 81.2 Англ
П 84

Печатается по решению
редакционно-издательского совета
ФГБОУ ВПО «Курский государственный университет»

П 84
English for Future Job. (Профессионально ориентированный
английский язык): Учебное пособие для бакалавров / авт. – сост.
О.С. Бабенкова, Ю.А. Манжосова, Е.А. Одинцова, Н.В. Плаксина,
Т.В. Праведникова, Е.А. Стародубцева, В.А. Шишова. – Курск: Изд-во
Курск. гос. ун-та, 2017. – 87 с.

© ФГБОУ ВПО «Курский государственный университет», 2017

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Предисловие

English for Future Job представляет собой учебное пособие по


английскому языку, предназначенное для студентов – бакалавров 3
курса различных направлений обучения.
Учебное пособие English for Future Job состоит из 5 модулей,
которые знакомят обучаемых с исследованием рынка профессий,
готовят к осознанному выбору будущей профессии, предлагают
системное рассмотрение международных языковых экзаменов,
формируют корпоративную культуру и навыки профессионального
общения в мультикультурной среде, дают представление о грантовых
программах и международных организациях, дистанционном обучении
и возможностях он-лайн обучения.
Каждый модуль состоит из 3 уроков (Lessons). В каждом уроке
имеются мотивационные темы для обсуждения в виде вопросов,
известных высказываний, фотографий и картинок; основной
лексический минимум по теме урока; базовые тексты по основной теме
урока; задания, направленные на развитие навыков восприятия
иноязычной речи на слух и сопровождаемые упражнениями для
дальнейшей практики языкового материала; коммуникативные
упражнения и творческие задания для развития навыков устной речи;
упражнения для развития письменной речи, нацеленные на ситуативное
употребление лексических и грамматических единиц.
Предлагаемое учебное пособие отвечает основным дидактическим
и методическим принципам обучения.

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Contents

MODULE 1. RESEARCH AND PREPARATION

LESSON 1. RESEARCHING YOURSELF 5


LESSON 2. TRANSFERABLE SKILLS 9
LESSON 3. RESEARCHING THE MARKET 12

MODULE 2. ENGLISH LANGUAGE EXAMS


LESSON 1. LIVE AND STUDY IN THE UK WITH CAMBRIDGE 17
ENGLISH!
LESSON 2. ACHIEVE YOUR DREAMS TO GO TO THE USA 26
WITH TOEFL!
LESSON 3. OPEN DOORS TO ENGLISH SPEAKING WORLD 37
WITH IELTS!

MODULE 3. PREPARING TO COMMUNICATE ACROSS


CULTURES
LESSON 1. DEVELOPING INTERCULTURAL SKILLS 46
LESSON 2. STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING FIRST MEETINGS 51
LESSON 3. COMMUNICATION STRATEGY IN CORPORATE 56
CULTURE

MODULE 4. A FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND


INTERNATIONAL
COOPERATION
LESSON 1. APPLICATION FOR A GRANT: A COVER LETTER, 61
A MOTIVATION LETTER, A LETTER FOR
RECOMMENDATION

LESSON 2. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION 70


LESSON 3. GRANTS AND INTERNATIONAL STUDENT 71
ORGANIZATIONS

MODULE 5. DISTANCE EDUCATION


LESSON 1. WHAT IS DISTANCE LEARNING? 74
LESSON 2. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF 78
DISTANCE EDUCATION
LESSON 3. MASSIVE OPEN ONLINE COURSES 83

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MODULE 1.
RESEARCH AND PREPARATION

LESSON 1.
RESEARCHING YOURSELF

You are about to complete your university course and receive


your degree. What’s next? Before you start looking for the
perfect job, write a CV or apply for a job, you need to do
some research. Researching yourself is the key to finding the
job that is right for you. This lesson will help you research
and identify your strengths and weaknesses and understand
what skills you have already developed while studying.

Ex. 1. Look at the questions given below. Think a minute. Then talk to
your friend and discuss these questions.

 What are you good at? What could you be better at?
 Have you recently managed to complete anything successfully?
What?
 What languages are you fluent in?

Ex. 2. (Track 1) Silvia Carnali is approaching the end of her degree


course at University. She is talking to her friend Sophie who works in the
university careers office. Sophie is giving Silivia some advice how to
understand what you want before you start looking for a job. Listen to
their conversation and, discuss the following questions with a group-
mate.

 What is the first thing Sophie suggests Silvia does?


 How does Sophie identify her transferable skills?
 Does Sophie think personality tests are very important?
 What is the final piece of advice Sophie gives Silvia?

Ex. 3. Have you tried any of Sophie’s suggestions? Did they work for
you?

Ex. 4. Listen to their conversation again and practice it in pairs. You can
use the script to help (Appendix 1, Module 1, Lesson 1, ex.2)

Ex. 5. You are looking for a job and you don’t know what to start with.
Ask your friend who is working in careers office at University for some
advice.

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The first thing you need to do when starting the job-hunting
process is a self-assessment of your own strengths and
weaknesses. This process will help you identify the skills,
qualifications, experience, knowledge and personal
characteristics that employers are looking for.

Ex. 6. After talking to Sophie, Silvia produced a ‘mind map’ to highlight


her strengths and weaknesses. Complete the sentences (a-j) in Silvia’s
mind map using the prepositions in, to or at.
a) Complete the headings (1-6) on the mind map using the words given
below.

Achievements Experience Knowledge Languages


Personal characteristics Skills

b) Close the book and try to remember as much as possible about Silvia.

Ex. 7. Answer the following questions with your group-mate.

 What do you think about personality tests?


 Have you ever done any of them?
 What results did it show?

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Ex. 8. Let’s see whether these tests work for you.
a) Answer the questions of the test in the link and read your profile.
https://www.16personalities.com/free-personality-test
b) Write out characteristics and things that describe your type best of all. Do
you agree with the characteristics of your personality type?
c) Go around your class and talk to your friends about their personality types
You can use this model to help.
Model:
- What’s your type? / What strengths and weaknesses of your type? /
What are the main characteristics of your type? / What are you good
at?
- My type is… entertainer. Born entertainers, ESFPs love the
spotlight. Many famous people with the ESFP personality type are
indeed actors, but they love putting on a show for their friends too.
We love chatting with a unique and earthy wit.
- I think it’s true about you. You always love being in the center, you
love attention and people.

d) What types are there in our class? Do you agree with the given
descriptions?

Ex. 9. (Track 2) Listen to two friends, Federico and Jack, talking


about Federico’s strengths and weaknesses. Discuss the following
questions with a friend.

 What has Federico recently decided to do?


 Why has he made this decision?
 What does Federico claim to be good at?
 What would Federico really like to be able to do?
 What is Federico doing in order to achieve this aim?

Ex. 10. Listen again and underline the personal characteristics in the
box that best describe Federico. In pairs, discuss your answers using
evidence from the conversation to support your opinion.

creative disorganised flexible impatient reliable successful

Ex. 11. Make your own mind map and show it to your friends. Discuss
the key points of your mind map. Can you describe your strengths and
weaknesses using the mind map you prepared? Talk to your friend and
ask questions. You can use this model.

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Model:
A: ‘Do you always do what you say you will do?’
B: ‘Yes, I ’m very reliable. I’m always on time to work, classes and
meetings, and when I can’t make it, I let people know ahead of time.’

Your qualifications are very important too. At all stages


during the job application process you will need to be able to
describe your academic qualifications clearly.

Ex. 12. Complete the sentences using the correct form of the verbs in the
box. You will need to use some verbs more than once.

award complete graduate hold obtain read

1. I graduated with a BA in Sociology from the University of California in


Los Angeles in 2007.
2. I ________ Economics at the London School of Economics and
Political Science (LSE). I then ______________ a Master's in Security
Studies at the University of Birmingham, which included a semester at New
York University at the Centre of European Studies.
3. I _____________ with a BA in Hotel & Catering Management from Hong
Kong Polytechnic University I also ___________ an MBA in Marketing,
which I last year.
4. After _________ from the School of Oriental Languages and
Communication with a BA (Hons) in Mandarin Chinese and English in
Maastricht (The Netherlands), I was ___________ a scholarship to
____________International Relations at the College of Europe, Warsaw.

Ex. 13. Complete the sentences using the prepositions at, from, in or with.
1. I started my career at Johnston Group after graduating ____ Hanyang
University ____ a BA and MA ___ Chemical Engineering.
2. I graduated __ 2008 __ an MSc in Criminology and Criminal Justice __
Tokyo University.
3. I also obtained ____ a BSc ___ Computer Science ___ Moscow State
University____ 2005.
4. 1 read Modern Languages _____ The National University of Singapore.

Ex. 14. Discuss the following questions with a group-mate.


1. What qualifications do you have?
2. Where did you go to university?
3. When did you graduate?
4. What types of career are common for people with your qualifications?
5. Which of your qualifications is most likely to impress a future employer?

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LESSON 2.
TRANSFERABLE SKILLS

Employers will ask for transferable skills or competencies -


the skills, knowledge and behaviour they consider necessary
for a particular job. Reviewing your previous experience will
help you to identify your transferable skills and recognize jobs
that you are qualified for.
Ex. 1. Discuss the following questions with a group-mate.

 What general skills and knowledge do most employers look for


in job applicants?
 Apart from specific qualifications and technical expertise, what
skills and knowledge have you got that make you employable?

Ex. 2. Match the transferable skills (1-8) to the examples of professional


behaviour (a-h).

1. ANALYTICAL SKILLS a) I have a justified belief in my ability to do the job. I


am able to express my opinion or provide advice when
necessary, I am good at making decisions
2. CREATIVITY b) I actively seek feedback on my performance and
carefully consider feedback, demonstrate an interest in
and understanding of my own and other cultures,
understand my own strengths and limitations
3. SELF-CONFIDENCE c) I am good at getting a good deal. I am good at
developing and managing relationships with others, am
able to persuade, convince and gain support from others
4.COMMUNICATION d) I am able to formulate new ideas to solve problems, I
SKILLS am able to think ahead to spot or create opportunities.
I set aside thinking time to come up with alternative ways
of getting things done more efficiently
5. INDEPENDENCE e) I can work with sustained energy and determination on
my own. I can find ways to overcome obstacles to set
myself achievable goals, I strive towards my own targets
and refuse to settle for second best.
6.INTERPERSONAL SKILLS f) I am good at data analysis. I am excellent at
interpreting data to see cause and effect and am able to
use this information to make effective decisions.
7.NEGOTIATION SKILLS g) I am able to make my opinions totally clear and am
rarely misunderstood; I produce clear, well-written
reports that can be easily understood.
8.SELF-AWARENESS j) I am good at working cooperatively.
I am good at working and communicating within a team
to achieve shared goals, am a good listener.

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Ex. 3. Identify three key transferable skills of your own, which you have
used at work or university. Tell each other about your skills, giving
examples of your behaviour.
Ex. 4. (Track 3) Silvia talks to Sophie about her university and work
experience. Listen to her conversation and answer the following
questions.

 When did Silvia apply for her MA course?


 What was Silvia doing in Africa?
 What job did Silvia have at University?

Ex. 5. Complete the extracts from the conversation using the correct
form of the verbs in the box. Listen and check your answers.

apply convince deal give plan talk understand work

1. I ___________ for my MA course while I was working in Africa, and even


managed to start doing some research for the course before I came back to
England.’
‘So you’re clearly quite good at ____________ ’
2. I _________________ for an NGO as part of a large team with people from
all over the world. We all lived together and shared a bathroom. The work
was quite varied and I was ___________ different tasks to complete each
week.
3 ... our main aim was to educate local people about the need for
reforestation. We tried putting up posters, but this didn’t have much of an
effect. We needed to find a better way to communicate this message. Later
on I _________________ to respected members of the community, and
________________ them to talk to other people in the village. This approach
was far more effective.
4 When I was at university I was the communications officer of the
student union and I was responsible for __________ with suppliers. I had to
order food and drink for university concerts and so on. It was always possible
to get a better deal if you were good on the phone. It wasn’t just a question of
being persuasive though, it was really a case of being clear and expressing
yourself well, making sure that everybody __________ what I was saying.

Ex. 6. Discuss with a group-mate which transferable skills Silvia


demonstrated.

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Ex. 7. Role-play.
Speaker 1. Recommend Sylvia to your friend who works for a big company
selling software product all over the word. There is a vacancy of sales
negotiator. Persuade your friend to hire this lady with no big experience but
great potential of learning and a good bunch of skills.
Speaker 2. You are head of London office of Consul Group Company selling
software product all over the word. There is a vacancy of a sales negotiator
in your office. You think that word of mouth recommendation is the best way
to find an employee. Talk to your friend and decide whether you want to hire
this person or not.

Ex. 8. Go to Appendix 2, Module 1, Lesson 2. There are more examples of


transferable skills and actions demonstrating them.
a) Study the information and discuss with your friend what skills would you
like to develop? Why?
b) Close your book, try to remember as many transferable skills as possible
and illustrate them at least with one example of the action.

Ex. 9. At university you can develop different skills through different


activities. Making speeches in public, participating in conferences,
preparing reports can help you develop communication skills.
a) What transferable skills have you developed at university? There are some
examples of university activities Appendix 2, Module 1, Lesson 2.
b) Use this link to see how students at Cambridge University develop their
transferable skills.
http://www.transkills.admin.cam.ac.uk/skills-portal/key-skills-undergraduates
c) Check all of the key skills in this webpage to see university activities which
help students develop the skills to the best of their ability?
d) Do you have to perform similar activities at your university?

Ex. 10. Identify three of your transferable skills.

 Make notes about the things you have done in the past that demonstrate
these skills.
 Take turns to tell each other short stories about the things you have
done.
 Try to guess which transferable skills your partner’s stories
demonstrate.

Ex. 11. Think of three different jobs and list two transferable skills that
are essential to each job.

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LESSON 3.
RESEARCHING THE MARKET

Finding a job. Once you know yourself, it's time to start


researching the market - finding out more about the type of
job you want and the companies and organisations that have
similar posts. Doing this will help you make a short list of the
places where you’d like to work.

Ex. 1. Discuss the following questions with a group-mate.

 Where would you start looking for a job?


 Which of these methods would you consider using?

job agencies / headhunters the Internet newspapers and magazines


cold calling / mailing networking

Ex. 2. (Track 4) Listen to five people discussing job-hunting. Which


job-hunting method in Exercise 1 does each speaker recommend?
Speaker 1 ________ Speaker 4 ________
Speaker 2 ________ Speaker 5 ________
Speaker 3 ________

Ex. 3. Listen again and. Discuss the following questions with a group-
mate

 Do you agree with the advice the speakers give?


 Have you used these methods in the past? Would you try any of
these methods?
 What are the advantages and disadvantages of each method?
 Can you think of any other job-hunting methods?

Ex. 4. Choose one of the ways to find a job. Persuade your friend that
this very approach is the best one.

Cold calling
Cold calling means phoning a company to enquire about job
opportunities which have not been advertised. The phone
conversation is used to generate interest in you as a potential
employee. The aim of the call is to get an invitation to send
your CV.

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Ex. 5. Discuss the following questions with a group-mate.

 Have you ever tried cold-calling a company? Was it successful?


 What advice would you give somebody cold-calling a company
in your country?

Ex. 6. (Track 5) Eryk and Patrick are looking for work in the hotel
industry in London. They decide to cold-call a number of hotels in
London to try and find a suitable job. Listen to their calls and decide who
has the more successful cold calling technique.

Ex. 7. Complete the extracts from Eryk’s call (1-5) using the sentences (a-
e). Listen again and check your answers.

a) I have worked for a number of big hotels in Poland.


b) I would like to speak to Janet Robinson.
c) What background experience are you looking for?
d) Are you looking for someone with experience such as this?
e) Are you looking for employees with international experience?

1. Good morning. I’m Eryk Pawlak. ___________Is she there?


2. I have considerable professional experience in the hotel industry.
_______
3. My mother tongue is Polish, but I can also speak Spanish, having
worked for a big hotel in Spain. _________
4. To begin with I mainly worked managing a team of cleaners and
porters. However, my Spanish improved quickly and I was moved to
reception, where I dealt with customers both face to face and on the
phone. _______
5. ‘Do you have a degree?’
‘Yes, I have a degree in tourism. '

Ex. 8. Match the extracts (1-5) in Exercise 7 to the following cold calling
techniques (a-e).
a) Give just enough information about yourself to generate interest in
yourself as a potential employee.
b) Respond to questions with your own questions to find out more
about the company.
c) Use positive questions that invite a 'yes’ response.
d) Mention one or two concise achievements, using facts and figures
where
possible.
e) Ask to speak to the decision maker by name

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Ex. 9. To sound more confident and convincing you should speak fluently
with minimal pauses. Let’s try to do it together with Eryk and Janet.
Read the conversation together with the recording (Appendix 1, Module
1, Lesson 3, ex. 6).
Ex. 10. Role play

Speaker 1. You work in HR department of a small office of Pacific Television,


a US company. There are no vacancies in your company at the moment but
the office might need to hire a new assistant who will work for 2 bosses Ben
(television) and Sylvia (radio). Ben and Sylvia would like to work with a
lively, tolerant person who gets on well with males and females, hard-working
(he/she will have to work some weekends), calm, able to work under pressure,
and not too sensitive. The person should have a strong personality, probably,
and be able to accept criticism. A good sense of humour is essential. You’ve
got two unexpected calls from some candidates. You are surprised and
interested. They might have a chance to get this job. Who would you choose?

Speaker 2. You are cold-calling a small office of Pacific Television, a US


company. You want to try a position of a secretary or a personal assistant.
You are a happy person, smile a lot. You come from a large family (three
older brothers, two sisters). You are quite confident. You get on well with
people. You hold a BA in management, no working experience. You really
need this job.
Your three best qualities: hard-working, responsible, energetic.
Your worst quality: you want people to like you and get upset if they don’t

Speaker 3. You are cold-calling a small office of Pacific Television, a US


company. You want to try a position of a secretary or a personal assistant.
You have really strong personality, very self-confident, an only child. You’ve
got a good sense of humour. You speak English with a very strong French
accent. You are completing a course in Marketing and hopefully you will
obtain a BA soon. This is going to be your first job. It would be nice to get it.
Your three best qualities: charismatic, assertive, open-minded.
Your worst quality: you are rather moody at times.

Ex. 11. To learn more about cold-calling watch the video and write down
the tips the expert gives to those who want to try this method.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B3imlX33PsE

Ex. 12. Give some recommendations to your friend how to use cold
calling to succeed. You can use this model.
Model:
If you want to do cold calling you should…
You shouldn’t

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You have to/You don’t have to
You must insist on talking to the person who makes decision If they say
no to me / reject… I can’t insist…

Job advertisements. A good job advertisement is designed to


attract the most suitably qualified applicants. It’s not just
applicants that are competing with each other for jobs;
employers are also competing with each other to attract the
best candidates for their vacancies.

Ex. 13. Discuss the following questions with a group-mate.

 What information would you expect to find in a well-written job


advertisement?
 What makes a good job advertisement?

Ex. 15. Employers usually try to squeeze as much information into their
job advertisements as possible. However, because advertising is expensive
and space limited, they tend to use abbreviations to describe roles in as
few words as possible. Write the full meanings of the following
abbreviations using the words in the box.

agency annum clean current curriculum driving earnings


experience license of on per per point sale target vitae
week

1. CCDL_____________ 5. OTE ___________


2. CV__________ 6. PA ____________
3. EXP ___________ 7. PW ____________
4. AGY __________ 8. POS ____________

Ex. 16. Which abbreviation would you expect to see in a job


advertisement?
1. if you need relevant professional experience for the position? —
2. if the salary mentioned was for the whole year?
3. if a job agency is advertising the job? —
4. if the position requires experience of selling products to customers?

5. if the take-home pay will be part basic salary and part performance-
related pay? —

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Ex. 17. Follow these links to find the professional sphere you are
interested in.
http://www.careerbuilder.com/
https://www.monster.com/jobs/

a) Study the job advertisements there. Pick two-three jobs you would like to
apply for. Write down the following things:

- 3 advantages of every position


- what professional skills required
- what transferable skills are required

b) Discuss these jobs with your friend. Tell your friend why you find
these jobs appealing.
18. Role-play. Choose one of your friend’s job advertisements. Read it
carefully.

Speaker 1. You are going to play an employer who is looking for the right
person for this position. Interview a candidate who is applying for this
position. Ask about skills, qualifications, strengths and weaknesses he/she
has.

Speaker 2. You are applying for one of the jobs you’ve just studied on the
sites. You are being interviewed by the employer. Try to present the best of
you.

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MODULE 2.
ENGLISH LANGUAGE EXAMS

LESSON 1.
LIVE AND STUDY IN THE UK WITH CAMBRIDGE ENGLISH!

Today’s world gives us boundless opportunities to travel, to


live and to study in any country we would like to. Studying
abroad is not just about getting a degree it is about
expanding your mind and being open to many new ideas.
Britain is consistently ranked as one of the most popular
countries for international students and the University of
Cambridge is on the most prestigious universities list. Do you
know any interesting facts about it?

Ex. 1. Read the text and check your ideas.

The University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge is rich in history - its famous Colleges and


University buildings attract visitors from all over the world. But the
University's museums and collections also hold many treasures which give an
exciting insight into some of the scholarly activities, both past and present,
of the University's academics and students.
The University of Cambridge is one of the world's oldest universities
and leading academic centres, and a self-governed community of scholars.
Its reputation for outstanding academic achievement is known world-wide
and reflects the intellectual achievement of its students, as well as the
world-class original research carried out by the staff of the University and
the Colleges.
With more than 18,000 students from all walks of life and all corners
of the world, over 11,000 staff, 31 Colleges and 150 Departments, Faculties,
Schools and other institutions, no two days are ever the same at the

17
University of Cambridge. At the heart of this confederation of Departments,
Schools, Faculties and Colleges is a central administration team. It is small
because the Colleges are self-governing and teaching staff carry out much of
the daily administration at Cambridge. Students live, eat and socialise in one
of the University’s 31 autonomous Colleges. Undergraduates receive College
supervisions – small group teaching sessions – regarded as one of the best
teaching models in the world.
Each College has its own internal procedures. They select their own
students, subject to University regulations, and most admit both
undergraduate and postgraduate students. College representatives sit on the
University Council and Finance Committee.
The mission of the University of Cambridge is to contribute to society
through the pursuit of education, learning, and research at the highest
international levels of excellence. The University's core values are freedom
of thought and expression and freedom from discrimination.

Ex. 2. Match the English word combinations to their Russian equivalents.

1. leading academic centres a. иметь богатое историческое


прошлое
2. outstanding academic b. привлекать туристов
achievement
3. the staff c. научная деятельность
4. administration team d. ведущие образовательные
центры
5. socialize e. выдающие академические
достижения
6. all walks of life f. все слои общества
7. the best teaching model in the g. управленческая команда
world
8. to contribute to society h. самоуправление
9. the highest international level i. профессорско-
преподавательский состав
10. freedom of thought and j. социализироваться
expression
11. self-governing k. лучшая образовательная модель
в мире
12. scholarly activity l. внести вклад в развитие общества
13. to attract visitors m. свобода мысли и слова
14. to be rich in history n. высокий международный
уровень

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Ex. 3. Use the cues to write sentences.

1. is, the, oldest, leading, centres, one, the, Cambridge, of, University, of,
world’s, the, universities, and.
2. world-wide, for, academic, its, is, reputation, know, outstanding,
achievement.
3. two, ever, the, are, at, days, Cambridge, of, University, same, no, the.
4. are, small, is, self-governing, it, because, colleges, the.
5. receive, as, undergraduates, supervisions, regarded, college, as, the,
one, world, the, in, teaching, of, models.
6. procedures, each, own, its, internal, College, has.
7. freedom, is, value, of, expression, the, University’s, core, and, thought.

Ex.4. Look back at the text again and answer the following questions.

1. Why does the University of Cambridge attract visitors from all over the
world?
2. What are two special things about the University of Cambridge?
3. What can be said about the University of Cambridge reputation?
4. What sort of students can be admitted to the University?
5. Who carries out much of the daily administration at Cambridge?
6. What experience do Cambridge students get?
7. What is regarded as one of the best teaching models in the world?
8. What are the mission and core values of the University of Cambridge?

Being enrolled at any university is not easy. You have to


consider a lot of aspects. Is a good command of English a
crucial one if you want to study in Britain? What are the most
widely respected English-language tests in the world?

Ex. 5. If you want to study in Britain, learn some more information about
Cambridge exams.

Cambridge English Language Assessment

Cambridge English Language Assessment is part of the University of


Cambridge and has been providing English language assessments and
qualifications for over 100 years. Cambridge English exams are taken by over
5 million people each year.
The Cambridge English: Young Learners (YLE) tests are designed for
young learners in primary and lower secondary education who are taking

19
their first steps in English. The tests include tasks designed to motivate
young children, such as drawing, colouring and solving puzzles.
Cambridge English: Key (KET), Cambridge English: Preliminary (PET)
and Cambridge English: First (FCE) are designed for learners who need
English for work, study and travel. They also help learners working towards
higher level qualifications such as Cambridge English: Advanced (CAE) and
Cambridge English: Proficiency (CPE).
Cambridge English: Advanced (CAE) has become a natural exit level for
many school learners, due to ever-growing demands for English language
proficiency and is accepted around the world for higher education study,
work and migration purposes. Students with a Cambridge English: Advanced
(CAE) certificate gain exemption from the English components of school-
leaving exams in countries such as Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Ukraine.
Cambridge English: Proficiency (CPE) is also available for exceptional school
learners with the ability to use English at near-native levels.

20
Ex. 6. Read the article about the most widely taken Cambridge exam.

Cambridge English: First (FCE)

The exam is offered in two variations: Cambridge English: First (for


adult learners) and Cambridge English: First (FCE) for Schools. Both versions
assess at the same level, have the same exam format (four papers) and lead
to the same qualification – the First Certificate in English. The only difference
between the two versions is that the topics in the ‘for Schools’ version have
been targeted at the interests and experiences of school-age learners.
Both versions of the exam are made up of four exam papers, designed
to test the key language skills. The four papers are: Reading and Use of
English; Writing; Listening; and Speaking. Both Cambridge English: First and
Cambridge English: First for Schools offers candidates the choice of taking
their exam on either a computer or on paper. The Speaking test is taken
face-to-face with two examiners and two candidates, providing a realistic
and reliable measure of ability.
The Reading and Use of English paper (1 hour 15 minutes) has seven
parts and 52 questions. The paper contains texts totalling approximately
3,000 to 3,500 words and candidates are expected to understand different
types of text, such as fiction, newspapers and magazines, promotional and
informational materials. In Cambridge English: First for Schools the text
topics are targeted at the interests of school-age pupils.
The Writing paper (1 hour 20 minutes) has two parts. Part 1 has one
compulsory question and involves writing an essay. In Part 2, candidates are
given three options and are asked to write one of the following using
between 140 and 190 words: an article, email/letter, report, or review.
The Listening paper (approximately 40 minutes) has four parts and
includes a mixture of monologues and dialogues from a range of familiar
sources, such as news programmes, radio broadcasts, speeches and public
announcements.
The Speaking test (14 minutes) has four parts and is conducted face-
to-face, with one or two other candidates and two examiners. Candidates
are expected to be able to participate in discussions, express opinions,
exchange ideas and reach decisions through negotiation.

Ex. 7. Discuss the following questions with your group mates.

1. What variants is Cambridge English: First offered?


2. What is the difference between them?
3. How many papers does the exam include?
4. How long does the exam last?
5. Describe each part of the exam.

21
Ex. 8. Role-play.

Speaker 1. You are a successful businessman from Brazil. You think


everything you have achieved by now is due to your graduation from the
University of Cambridge and a good command of English.

Speaker 2. You are a reporter. You are interviewing a successful


businessman. Ask him about the secrets of his success.

Ex. 9. Let’s practice some of the FCE tasks.

22
23
24
Ex. 10. Watch the video about FCE Speaking test procedures.

Ex. 11. Describe and compare the pictures following the models from the
video and some useful phrases from the table below.

Comparing Speculating
The people in the photos are in very Perhaps they have decided to do this
different places because…
In the first photo they are…, whereas The people seem to be enjoying…
in the second photo…
These are very different activities… I get the impression that the
woman…
I can see some similarities in these The girl looks like she is feeling…
photos, they have the same…
This first photo is more\less active I think this man looks really tired; he

25
than the second one because… may have been working all day.
The situations are very different, here The family in the first photo are
people are enjoying… whilst here probably at home.
they are…
I think these people may be feeling
rather nervous because…

Look at the two photographs. They show people doing outdoor


activities.
Compare the photographs and say what the people are trying to do.

Project.
Go http://www.cambridgeenglish.org/exams/ and find the samples of
FCE Listening and Writing tests. Do these tests.

LESSON 2.
ACHIEVE YOUR DREAMS TO GO TO THE USA WITH TOEFL!

When people refer to American dream often they mean


making educational opportunities accessible to all. There is an
incredible array of scholars, research activities and great
universities in the USA. Can you name the oldest institution
of higher education in the United States?

26
Ex. 1. Read some interesting facts about Harvard University taken from
its official site.

Harvard is the oldest institution of higher education in the United


States, established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the
Massachusetts Bay Colony. It was named after the College’s first benefactor,
the young minister John Harvard of Charlestown, who upon his death in 1638
left his library and half his estate to the institution. A statue of John Harvard
stands today in front of University Hall in Harvard Yard, and is perhaps the
University’s best known landmark. Harvard University has 12 degree-
granting Schools in addition to the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study.
The University has grown from nine students with a single master to an
enrollment of more than 20,000 degree candidates including undergraduate,
graduate, and professional students. There are more than 360,000
living alumni in the U.S. and over 190 other countries.
Harvard University has around 22,000 students across the College,
graduate, and professional schools located in Cambridge and Boston. When
people refer to Harvard students, often they mean the subset of roughly 6,700
students who attend Harvard College. Students arrive every year in late
August. Harvard College’s diverse student population makes it hard to
describe the typical student and even harder to describe the quintessential
Harvard student experience. Students come from all 50 states and from over
80 countries; from cities, suburbs, small towns and farms; from public,
private and parochial schools; from every ethnic and religious background;
and from across the economic spectrum. Based on longstanding tradition and
an extensive financial aid program, Harvard is committed to making
educational opportunity accessible to all, with over 60% of the undergraduate
population receiving financial aid.
With over 400 official student organizations including extracurricular,
co-curricular and athletic opportunities in addition to academics, Harvard
students are active around and beyond campus. Whether in Harvard Stadium

27
playing on the field or cheering on The Harvard Crimson, volunteering
through various organizations, fostering entrepreneurial activities in the
Harvard innovation lab, writing or editing at The Harvard Crimson or The
Harvard Lampoon, or researching in one of the many labs, Harvard students
are continuously learning — and constantly busy!

Ex. 2. Match the sentence beginning (1-10) with the correct ending (a-j).

1. Harvard is the oldest institution of a…and is perhaps the University’s


higher education… best known landmark
2. A statue of John Harvard stands b…with over 60% of the
today in front of University Hall in undergraduate population receiving
Harvard Yard… financial aid.

3. The University has grown from c…from every ethnic and religious
nine students with a single master… background; and from across the
economic spectrum.
4. Harvard College’s diverse student d…Harvard students are active
population makes it hard to around and beyond campus.
describe…
5. Harvard is committed to making e…Harvard students are continuously
educational opportunity accessible to learning — and constantly busy!
all…
6. Students come from all 50 states f…in the U.S. and over 190 other
and from over 80 countries… countries.

7. With over 400 official student g…often they mean the subset of
organizations… roughly 6,700 students who attend
Harvard College
8. Whether in Harvard Stadium h…established in 1636 by vote of the
playing on the field or cheering Great and General Court of the
on The Harvard Crimson, Massachusetts Bay Colony.
volunteering through various
organizations…
9. There are more than 360,000 i…the typical student and even harder
living alumni… to describe the quintessential Harvard
student experience.
10. When people refer to Harvard j…to an enrollment of more than
students… 20,000 degree candidates including
undergraduate, graduate, and
professional students.

Ex. 3. Find in the article the English equivalents for the following
Russian word combination.

28
Старейшее высшее учебное заведение, разнообразный состав студентов,
многолетние традиции, образовательные возможности, доступное
(всем), на территории и за пределами кампуса, предпринимательская
деятельность, быть постоянно занятым, государственные и частные
школы, этническая и религиозная принадлежность, программа
финансовой помощи, заниматься волонтерской деятельностью,
пожертвовать библиотеку университету, самое знаменитое место в
университете, основать посредством голосования.

Ex. 4. Look back at the article again and answer the following questions.

1. When and how was Harvard established?


2. Who was the first Harvard’s benefactor the University was named
after?
3. What is the University’s best known landmark?
4. What has the University grown from?
5. What do people mean when they refer to Harvard students?
6. Where do Harvard students come from?
7. What can be said about Harvard educational opportunity?
8. What are Harvard students around and beyond campus?

Harvard is a dream university for many students. Josh Drean has


recently become a Harvard student.

Ex. 5. Watch the video about his first day in one of Harvard schools and
answer the questions.

1. What sort of student is Josh in particular?


2. What semester does he start?
3. How does he feel about the beginning of the semester?
4. What makes him a legit Harvard student?
5. What is he going to do with a big Harvard flag?
6. How much time did he spend studying on his first day at Harvard?

29
7. What University motto brought Josh to Harvard?
8. What are his recommendations how to be successful?
9. What is Christine’s message to the world?

Ex. 6. Having decided to study in America you should consider taking the
TOEFL test which measures your ability to use and understand English
at the university level. Learn some more information about TOEFL.

The TOEFL test is the most widely respected English-language test in


the world, recognized by more than 9,000 colleges, universities and agencies
in more than 130 countries, including Australia, Canada, the U.K. and the
United States. Wherever you want to study, the TOEFL test can help you get
there. The TOEFL iBT test, delivered via the Internet, is an important part of
your journey to study in an English-speaking country. In addition to the test,
the ETS TOEFL Program provides tools and guides to help you prepare for the
test and improve your English-language skills. The TOEFL iBT test measures
your ability to use and understand English at the university level. And it
evaluates how well you combine your listening, reading, speaking and
writing skills to perform academic tasks.
More than 30 million people from all over the world have taken the
TOEFL test to demonstrate their English-language proficiency. The average
English skill level ranges between Intermediate and Advanced.

 Students planning to study at a higher education institution


 English-language learning program admissions and exit
 Scholarship and certification candidates
 English-language learners who want to track their progress
 Students and workers applying for visas

More than 9,000 colleges, agencies and other institutions in over 130
countries accept TOEFL scores. The TOEFL test has more test dates (over 50
per year) and locations than any other English-language test in the world.
You can retake the test as many times as you wish, but you cannot take it
more than once in a 12-day period. If you already have a test appointment,
you cannot register for another test date that is within 12 days of your
existing appointment. During the test, you are asked to perform tasks that
combine more than one skill, such as:

30
 Read, listen and then speak in response to a question
 Listen and then speak in response to a question
 Read, listen and then write in response to a question

TOEFL iBT Test Sections


Time
Section Questions Tasks
Limit
60–80 36–56 Read 3 or 4 passages from academic texts
Reading
minutes questions and answer questions.
60–90 34–51 Listen to lectures, classroom discussions
Listening
minutes questions and conversations, then answer questions.
10
Break — —
minutes
20 Express an opinion on a familiar topic;
Speaking 6 tasks
minutes speak based on reading and listening tasks.
Write essay responses based on reading and
50
Writing 2 tasks listening tasks; support an opinion in
minutes
writing.
Ex. 7. Discuss the following questions with your group mates.

1. What is the TOEFL iBT Test?


2. Who takes the TOEFL Test?
3. Who accepts TOEFL Test scores?
4. Where and when can I take the TOEFL iBT Test?
5. What does the TOEFL test combine?

Ex. 8. Role-play.

Speaker 1. You’ve just passed your TOEFL test and you are very proud of it
because your score is great. You are going to be enrolled at Harvard
University next semester. You are very excited about it so you want to share
your emotions with a friend.

Speaker 2. Your dream is entering a prestigious American university and you


know that a good TOEFL score is required in this case. You have a good friend
who has just passed the TOEFL test successfully so you want to know every
single detail!

Ex. 9. Let’s practice some of TOEFL tasks.

Read the text and choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you think fits best
according to the text.

31
Meteorite Impact and Dinosaur Extinction

There is increasing evidence that the impacts of meteorites have had


important effects on Earth, particularly in the field of biological evolution.
Such impacts continue to pose a natural hazard to life on Earth. Twice in the
twentieth century, large meteorite objects are known to have collided with
Earth.
5 If an impact is large enough, it can disturb the environment of the
entire Earth and cause an ecological catastrophe. The best-documented such
impact took place 65 million years ago at the end of the Cretaceous period of
geological history. This break in Earth’s history is marked by a
mass extinction, when as many as half the species on the planet
10 became extinct. While there are a dozen or more mass extinctions in
the geological record, the Cretaceous mass extinction has always intrigued
paleontologists because it marks the end of the age of the dinosaurs. For
tens of millions of years, those great creatures had flourished. Then,
suddenly, they disappeared.
15 The body that impacted Earth at the end of the Cretaceous period
was a meteorite with a mass of more than a trillion tons and a diameter of at
least 10 kilometers. Scientists first identified this impact in 1980 from the
worldwide layer of sediment deposited from the dust cloud that enveloped
the planet after the impact. This sediment layer is enriched in the rare metal
iridium and other elements that are relatively abundant in a meteorite but
20 very rare in the crust of Earth. Even diluted by the terrestrial material
excavated from the crater, this component of meteorites is easily identified.
By 1990 geologists had located the impact site itself in the Yucatán region of
Mexico. The crater, now deeply buried in sediment, was originally about 200
kilometers in diameter.
25 This impact released an enormous amount of energy, excavating a
crater about twice as large as the lunar crater Tycho. The explosion lifted
about 100 trillion tons of dust into the atmosphere, as can be determined by
measuring the thickness of the sediment layer formed
when this dust settled to the surface. Such a quantity of material would
have blocked the sunlight completely from reaching the surface, plunging
Earth into a period
30 of cold and darkness that lasted at least several months. The
explosion is also calculated to have produced vast quantities of nitric acid
and melted rock that sprayed out over much of Earth, starting widespread
fires that must have consumed most terrestrial forests and grassland.
Presumably, those environmental disasters could have been responsible
for the mass extinction, including the death of the dinosaurs.

32
35 Several other mass extinctions in the geological record have been
tentatively identified with large impacts, but none is so dramatic as the
Cretaceous event. But even without such specific documentation, it is
clear that impacts of this size do occur and that their results can be
catastrophic. What is a catastrophe for one group of living things,
however,
40 may create opportunities for another group. Following each mass
extinction, there is a sudden evolutionary burst as new species develop to
fill the ecological niches opened by the event.
Impacts by meteorites represent one mechanism that could cause global
catastrophes and
45 seriously influence the evolution of life all over the planet. According
to some estimates, the majority of all extinctions of species may be due to
such impacts. Such a perspective fundamentally changes our view of
biological evolution. The standard criterion for the survival of a species is its
success in competing with other species and adapting to slowly changing
environments. Yet an equally important criterion is the ability of a species to
50 survive random global ecological catastrophes due to impacts.
Earth is a target in a cosmic shooting gallery, subject to random violent
events that were unsuspected a few decades ago. In 1991 the United States
Congress asked NASA to investigate the hazard posed today by large impacts
on Earth. The group conducting the
55 study concluded from a detailed analysis that impacts from meteorites
can indeed be hazardous. Although there is always some risk that a large
impact could occur, careful
1. The word “pose” on line 2 is closest in meaning to
a. claim
b. model
c. assume
d. present

2. In paragraph 2, why does the author include the information that


dinosaurs had flourished for tens of millions of years and then
suddenly disappeared?

a. To support the claim that the mass extinction at the end of the
Cretaceous is the best-documented of the dozen or so mass
extinctions in the geological record
b. To explain why as many as half of the species on Earth at the
time are believed to have become extinct at the end of the
Cretaceous
c. To explain why paleontologists have always been intrigued by

33
the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous
d. To provide evidence that an impact can be large enough to
disturb the environment of the entire planet and cause an
ecological disaster

3. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 3 about the


location of the meteorite impact in Mexico?

a. The location of the impact site in Mexico was kept secret by


geologists from 1980 to 1990.
b. It was a well-known fact that the impact had occurred in
the Yucatán region.
c. Geologists knew that there had been an impact before they
knew where it had occurred.
d. The Yucatán region was chosen by geologists as the most
probable impact site because of its climate.

4. According to paragraph 3, how did scientists determine that a large


meteorite had impacted Earth?

a. They discovered a large crater in the Yucatán region of Mexico.


b. They found a unique layer of sediment worldwide.
c. They were alerted by archaeologists who had been
excavating in the Yucatán region.
d. They located a meteorite with a mass of over a trillion tons.

5. The word “excavating” on line 25 is closest in meaning to

a. digging out
b. extending
c. destroying
d. covering up

6. The word “consumed” on line 32 is closest in meaning to

a. changed
b. exposed
c. destroyed
d. covered
7. According to paragraph 4, all of the following statements are true of
the impact at the end of the Cretaceous period EXCEPT:

34
a. A large amount of dust blocked sunlight from Earth.
b. Earth became cold and dark for several months.
c. New elements were formed in Earth’s crust.
d. Large quantities of nitric acid were produced.

8. The phrase “tentatively identified” on line 36 is closest in meaning to

a. identified after careful study


b. identified without certainty
c. occasionally identified
d. easily identified

9. The word “perspective” on line 46 is closest in meaning to

a. sense of values
b. point of view
c. calculation
d. complication

10. Paragraph 6 supports which of the following


statements about the factors that are essential for the
survival of a species?

a. The most important factor for the survival of a species is its


ability to compete and adapt to gradual changes in its
environment.
b. The ability of a species to compete and adapt to a gradually
changing environment is not the only ability that is essential
for survival.
c. Since most extinctions of species are due to major meteorite
impacts, the ability to survive such impacts is the most
important factor for the survival of a species.
d. The factors that are most important for the survival of a
species vary significantly from one species to another.

11. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential


information in the following sentence?

Earth is a target in a cosmic shooting gallery, subject to


random violent events that were unsuspected a few decades
ago.

35
Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave
out essential information.

a. Until recently, nobody realized that Earth is exposed to


unpredictable violent impacts from space.

b. In the last few decades, the risk of a random violent impact


from space has increased.

c. Since most violent events on Earth occur randomly, nobody


can predict when or where they will happen.

d. A few decades ago, Earth became the target of random


violent events originating in outer space.

12. According to the passage, who conducted


investigations about the current dangers posed by
large meteorite impacts on Earth?

a. Paleontologists
b. Geologists
c. The United States Congress
d. NASA

Ex. 10. Watch the video “iBT TOEFL Speaking Questions Tips” to
improve your speaking abilities.
Do the tasks following the models from the video.
1. Talk about a pleasant and memorable event that happened while you
were in school. Explain why this event brings back fond memories.
Preparation Time: 15 seconds. Response Time: 45 seconds

2. Some people think it is more fun to spend time with friends in restaurants
or cafés. Others think it is more fun to spend time with friends at home.
Which do you think is better? Explain why. Preparation Time: 15 seconds.
Response Time: 45 seconds

Project.

Go http://www.ets.org/toefl and find the samples of TOEFL


Listening and Writing TOEFL tests. Do these tests.

36
LESSON 3

OPEN DOORS TO ENGLISH SPEAKING WORLD WITH IELTS!

The English language gives you a great chance to explore


spectacular diversity of educational context in English-
speaking countries. The University of Toronto is a prime
example of activism and dynamism in knowledge.

Ex. 1. Read the article about the University of Toronto. Would you like to
become a U of T student?

The University of Toronto is committed to being an internationally significant


research university, with undergraduate, graduate and professional programs
of excellent quality.

Purpose of the University. The University of Toronto is dedicated to


fostering an academic community in which the learning and scholarship of
every member may flourish, with vigilant protection for individual human
rights, and a resolute commitment to the principles of equal opportunity,
equity and justice.
Within the unique university context, the most crucial of all human
rights are the rights of freedom of speech, academic freedom, and freedom of
research. And we affirm that these rights are meaningless unless they entail
the right to raise deeply disturbing questions and provocative challenges to
the cherished beliefs of society at large and of the university itself. It is this
human right to radical, critical teaching and research with which the
University has a duty above all to be concerned; for there is no one else, no
other institution and no other office, in our modern liberal democracy, which
is the custodian of this most precious and vulnerable right of the liberated
human spirit.

37
There is always a buzz at U of T and it’s no wonder. One university,
three campuses, 84,000+ enrolled students from 160+ countries, 13,000+
faculty, 6,000+ staff, over 800+ student clubs, and the 3rd largest library
system in North America.
Beyond the lecture hall. Does the thought of sitting in a classroom for
hours make you restless? Us too. Take advantage of the amazing experiential
opportunities available to all our students, and take your learning to the next
level.
Spaces & places. Enjoy a coffee in a historic building over 100 years
old, use the same world-class athletic facilities used in the 2015 Pan
Am/Parapan Am Games, lose track of time in our beautiful library
collections. We have some amazing spaces across all three campuses and
invite everyone in the community to enjoy.
Community impact. Toronto and the surrounding region is
consistently ranked as one of the most diverse urban centers in North
America. Toronto attracts great businesses, restaurants, entertainment and
community events are everywhere you turn – and that’s what makes it a
fantastic region in which to live and learn. U of T is connected to its local and
global communities through a number of initiatives that link our students,
staff and faculty with those around us.

Ex. 2. Match the English word combinations to their Russian equivalents.

1. internationally significant research a. уникальный образовательный


university контекст
2. excellent quality b. принципы равных возможностей
3. to foster an academic community c. задавать противоречивые
вопросы
4. unique university context d. невероятные возможности
получить опыт
5. the principles of equal opportunity e. потерять счет времени
6. the most crucial of all human rights f. наиболее развитая городская
структура
7. to raise deeply disturbing questions g. самые важные права человека
8. critical teaching and research h. учебное заведение
международного значения
9. amazing experiential opportunities i. проблемное обучение
10. to lose track of time j. оказывать содействие
академическому сообществу
11. the most diverse urban center k. высокое качество

Ex. 3. Fill in the gaps with the words from the article.

1. The University of Toronto is committed to being …… …….. research


university.2. The University of Toronto ……. to fostering an academic

38
community in which the learning and scholarship of every member may
…….. . 3. We …. that these rights are meaningless unless they entail the right
to raise deeply ……. questions and …… challenges to the cherished beliefs of
society. 4. There is no one else, no other …… and no other office, in our
modern …… democracy, which is the custodian of this most …….. and
…….. right of the liberated human spirit. 5. There is always a …….. at U of T
and it’s no wonder. 6. Take advantage of the amazing experiential ……….
available to all our students! 7. We have some amazing spaces across all three
…….. and invite everyone in the community to ……… .

Ex. 4. Translate the words in brackets from Russian into English.

1. The University of Toronto is an internationally significant research


university with undergraduate, graduate and (профессионально-
ориентированные) programs of (высокого качества). 2. The University of
Toronto guarantees vigilant (защиту) for individual human rights, and a
resolute commitment to the principles of equal opportunity, (равенства и
справедливости). 3. Within the unique university context, (наиболее
важными) of all human rights are the rights of (свобода слова), academic
freedom, and freedom of research. 4. The University of Toronto has the 3rd
largest (система библиотек) in North America. 5. Does the thought of sitting
in a classroom for hours make you (неуютно)? 6. Enjoy a coffee in a historic
building over 100 years old, use the same (спортивное оборудование
мирового класса) used in the 2015 Pan Am/Parapan Am Games. 7. U of T is
connected to its local and global communities through (ряд инициатив) that
link our students, (персонал) and faculty with those around us.

Ex. 5. Look back at the text again and answer the following questions.

1. What is the University of Toronto committed to?


2. How does the University of Toronto foster an academic community?
3. What are the most crucial human rights considered at the University of
Toronto?
4. Why is there always a buzz at U of T?
5. What advantage can all students take at U of T?
6. What is the reason of losing track of time on U of T campus?
7. How are Toronto and the surrounding region consistently ranked in
North America?

Ex. 6. Watch the 1st part of the video about the University of Toronto and
say whether these statements are true or false.

1. U of T is proud of its legacy of excellence and leadership spanning


every human endeavor.

39
2. There are more than 500,000 alumni, 12 Nobel laureates, 6 Canadian
prime ministers.
3. Discovery of insulin belongs to U of T alumni Frederick Banting and
James Macleod.
4. A number of great ideas that shape global conversation are “Global
Village”, “The Anatomy of Criticism” and “The Tipping Point”.
5. U of T lost its leadership in defining successful societies.

Ex. 7. Watch the 2nd part of the video about the University of Toronto
and find the English equivalents to the following words and word
combinations.

Невероятное место для сотрудничества, расширять кругозор, создание


технологий будущего, поиск своей области, в широком смысле,
способствовать реабилитации, потенциальный, перспективный,
величайшие умы современности, чувство социальной справедливости,
развивать, в академических целях, передовой пример, впитывать как
губка, удивлять мир.

Ex. 8. In English-speaking countries educational institutions, employers,


professional registration bodies and government immigration agencies
often require proof of English language skills as part of their recruitment or
admission procedures. IELTS is widely accepted for these purposes.

The International English Language Testing System (IELTS)


measures the language proficiency of people who want to study or work
where English is used as a language of communication. It uses a nine-band
scale to clearly identify levels of proficiency, from non-user (band score 1)
through to expert (band score 9).

40
IELTS is available in two test versions: Academic – for people
applying for higher education or professional registration, and General
Training for those migrating to Australia, Canada and the UK, or applying
for secondary education, training programmes and work experience in an
English-speaking environment.
Listening and Speaking are the same for both tests, but the subject
matter of the Reading and Writing components differs depending on which
test you take. The total test time is 2 hours and 45 minutes.
Test format.
Listening (30 minutes). You will listen to four recordings of native
English speakers and then write your answers to a series of questions.
Assessors will be looking for evidence of your ability to understand the main
ideas and detailed factual information, the opinions and attitudes of speakers,
the purpose of an utterance and evidence of your ability to follow the
development of ideas.
The Reading component (60 minutes) consists of 40 questions,
designed to test a wide range of reading skills. These include reading for gist,
reading for main ideas, reading for detail, skimming, understanding logical
argument and recognising writers' opinions, attitudes and purpose.
Writing (60 minutes). In IELTS Academic test topics are of general
interest to, and suitable for, test takers entering undergraduate and
postgraduate studies or seeking professional registration. There are two tasks:
Task 1 – you will be presented with a graph, table, chart or diagram and asked
to describe, summarise or explain the information in your own words. Task 2
– you will be asked to write an essay in response to a point of view, argument
or problem. In IELTS General Training topics are of general interest. There
are two tasks: Task 1 – you will be presented with a situation and asked to
write a letter requesting information, or explaining the situation. Task 2 – you
will be asked to write an essay in response to a point of view, argument or
problem.
The Speaking component (11-14 minutes) assesses your use of spoken
English. Part 1 – the examiner will ask you general questions about yourself
and a range of familiar topics, such as home, family, work, studies and
interests. This part lasts between four and five minutes. Part 2 – you will be
given a card which asks you to talk about a particular topic for up to two
minutes. The examiner will then ask one or two questions on the same topic.
Part 3 – you will be asked further questions about the topic in Part 2. These
will give you the opportunity to discuss more abstract ideas and issues. This
part of the test lasts between four and five minutes.

Ex. 9. Discuss the following questions with your group mates.

1. What does IELTS measure?


2. How is it scored?

41
3. What are the two versions of IELTS? What is the difference
between them?
4. How long does the test last?
5. What parts are included in the test?
6. Describe each part of the exam.

Ex. 10. Let’s practice some of IELTS tasks.

Read the text and choose the correct letter (A, B, C or D).

Greenhouse gases arise from a wide range of sources and their


increasing concentration is largely related to the compound effects of
increased population, improved living standards and changes in lifestyle.
From a current base of 5 billion, the United Nations predicts that the global
population may stabilise in the twenty-first century between 8 and 14 billion,
with more than 90 per cent of the projected increase taking place in the
world’s developing nations. The associated activities to support that growth,
particularly to produce the required energy and food, will cause further
increases in greenhouse gas emissions. The challenge, therefore, is to attain a
sustainable balance between population, economic growth and the
environment.
The major greenhouse gas emissions from human activities are carbon
dioxide (CO2), methane and nitrous oxide. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are
the only major contributor to the greenhouse effect that does not occur
naturally, coming from such sources as refrigeration, plastics and
manufacture. Coal’s total contribution to greenhouse gas emissions is thought
to be about 18 per cent, with about half of this coming from electricity
generation.
The worldwide coal industry allocates extensive resources to
researching and developing new technologies and ways of capturing
greenhouse gases. Efficiencies are likely to be improved dramatically, and
hence CO2 emissions reduced, through combustion and gasification
techniques which are now at pilot and demonstration stages.
Clean coal is another avenue for improving fuel conversion efficiency.
Investigations are under way into super-clean coal (35 per cent ash) and
ultraclean coal (less than 1 per cent ash). Super-clean coal has the potential to
enhance the combustion efficiency of conventional pulverised fuel power
plants. Ultraclean coal will enable coal to be used in advanced power systems
such as coal-fired gas turbines which, when operated in combined cycle, have
the potential to achieve much greater efficiencies.
Defendants of mining point out that, environmentally, coal mining has two
important factors in its favour. It makes only temporary use of the land and
produces no toxic chemical wastes. By carefully preplanning projects,
implementing pollution control measures, monitoring the effects of mining

42
and rehabilitating mined areas, the coal industry minimises the impact on
the neighbouring community, the immediate environment and long-term
land capability.
Dust levels are controlled by spraying roads and stockpiles, and water
pollution is controlled by carefully separating clean water runoff from runoff
which contains sediments or salt from mine workings. The latter is treated and
reused for dust suppression. Noise is controlled by modifying equipment and
by using insulation and sound enclosures around machinery.
Since mining activities represent only a temporary use of the land,
extensive rehabilitation measures are adopted to ensure that land capability
after mining meets agreed and appropriate standards which, in some cases, are
superior to the land’s pre-mining condition. Where the mining is
underground, the surface area can be simultaneously used for forests, cattle
grazing and crop raising, or even reservoirs and urban development, with little
or no disruption to the existing land use. In all cases, mining is subject to
stringent controls and approvals processes.

1 The global increase in greenhouse gases has been attributed to


A industrial pollution in developing countries.
B coal mining and electricity generation.
C reduced rainfall in many parts of the world.
D trends in population and lifestyle.

2 The proportion of all greenhouse gases created by coal is approximately


A 14 per cent.
B 18 per cent.
C 27 per cent.
D 90 per cent.

3 Current research aims to increase the energy-producing efficiency of coal


by
A burning it at a lower temperature.
B developing new gasification techniques.
C extracting CO2 from it.
D recycling greenhouse gases.

4 Compared with ordinary coal, new, ‘clean’ coals may generate power
A more cleanly and more efficiently.
B more cleanly but less efficiently.
C more cleanly but at higher cost.
D more cleanly but much more slowly.

5 To control dust at mine sites, mining companies often use


A chemicals which may be toxic.

43
B topsoil taken from the site before mining.
C fresh water from nearby dams.
D runoff water containing sediments.

Writing.

You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.

You live in a room in college which you share with another


student. However, there are many problems with this arrangement and
you find it very difficult to work.
Write a letter to the accommodation officer at the college. In the
letter,

• describe the situation

• explain your problems and why it is difficult to work

• say what kind of accommodation you would prefer


Write at least 150 words.
You do NOT need to write any addresses.
Begin your letter as follows:

Dear Sir or Madam,

Ex. 11. Watch the video ‘Filip’s IELTS story’ and answer the questions.

1. Where did Filip study before he decide to continue in the UK?


2. How does he depict the procedure of taking the IELST test?
3. When and how did he get the results?
4. How did he prepare for the speaking test?
5. What did he say about the opportunities after passing IELTS?

Project.

a) Go http://www.cam.ac.uk/, http://www.harvard.edu/,
https://www.utoronto.ca/ and study the information about different
courses connected with your major. What are the opportunities for
students in your field? Share this information with your group mates.

44
b) If you want to be an expert in your field and work in an international
environment you might take special language exams to meet your
professional needs.

Go http://www.toleslegal.com/,
http://www.cambridgeenglish.org/teaching-english/teaching-
qualifications/tkt/, http://my.engineering.queensu.ca/Current-
Students/First-Year-Studies/EPT.html and study the information about the
exams available for specialists in your field.

Share this information with your group mates.

45
MODULE 3
PREPARING TO COMMUNICATE ACROSS CULTURES

LESSON 1
DEVELOPING INTERCULTURAL SKILLS

Ex.1. People working across cultures need to become more sensitive to


possible misunderstandings and to handle them effectively.

a) Read the introduction to the case study.

Jack is a financial controller based in New York. He has asked Akash, a


colleague in India, several times over the last ten days to email him some
local budget figures. However, Jack has not received any information. He
decides to send this email about the problem to two colleagues with
experience of working in India.
Hi
How goes it? Hope you’re busy. Look, sorry to trouble you but I have a bit of
a challenge with Akash in Bangalore. I keep requesting figures, getting a
promise to deliver, but then I never get anything. To be honest, I’m getting
annoyed because this whole style of promising and then not delivering is just
unprofessional. I'm also worried because I need the figures for my own report
in the next week - if I don’t get that, I’ll miss one of my key targets. I’m
thinking of escalating the problem and writing a very direct email to Akash’s
boss and copying in my boss. What do you think? Any advice would be much
appreciated!
Best regards
Jack

b) Answer the following questions:


1) What is the problem from Jack’s point of view?
2) How well do you think Jack understands the reasons for Akash’s
behaviour?
3) What other cultural, personality and business reasons could there be?
4) What is Jack's proposal to ’solve’ the problem? What other solutions
could there be?

Ex. 2. Read the emails which Jack receives from his colleagues with
advice on dealing with the problem.
Student A: read email 1.
Student B: read email 2.
Tell each other what his colleagues recommend and decide what would be the
best thing for Jack to do.

46
Email 1:
Hi Jack
Sorry to hear about the problems. Not sure what is going on. I heard that quite
a few managers in the local operation in India are unhappy about the new
centralised reporting system. This might explain the delay in getting figures to
you. Seems like they feel you’re checking up on them!

Not sure about the escalation idea. What kind of relationship do you have
with Akash and his manager? You haven't visited them yet, have you? I think
you should probably get across there and do some relationship building. All
this asking for figures by email can come across as pretty disrespectful
sometimes. Be careful just relying on mail.

If you want to talk more about it, give me a call!

Piotr

Email 2:
Dear Jack
I had a similar problem last year. Kept asking for information but never got
anything. The problem was actually IT. They couldn’t get the figures out of
the system for some reason. And they didn't want to tell me because they
didn’t want to say no to me ... so they said yes all the time and never
delivered. It’s actually a cultural thing.

To get things moving, you could ask your boss to speak to the local boss in
India. Probably best handled at that level as you may not have the authority to
speak to high-level management. It can be very hierarchical there, as you
know.
Sorry I can’t be more helpful. Good luck!

Cheers

Javed

Ex. 3. What is ‘flexible thinking'? Share your ideas with your group-
mates.

Ex. 4. Read what Craig Storti in his book The Art of Crossing Cultures says
about flexible thinking.

The ability to interpret situations, problems, practices - the way we do things


from multiple perspectives, from the way other people see them, is a
tremendous benefit to you and your company. You begin to understand that
behaviour that makes no sense to you might make perfect sense to others.

47
You’re not so quick to judge any more ... you give the benefit of the doubt.
Flexible thinking model
Flexible thinking stops people judging others’ behaviours negatively
too quickly. It makes people more open and interact more positively with each
other and creates a stronger foundation for cooperation and mutual learning
- all with the simple step of trying to understand the world from the other
person’s point of view.

Ex. 5. Answer the following questions:

1. Which ability can produce real benefits for those working


internationally?
2. What does flexible thinking stop people doing?
3. How can flexible thinking improve cooperation between people?

Ex. 6. Match each heading (a-e) to the expressions (1-5).


a) Evaluating different perspectives
b) Asking for the opinion of others
c) Giving an opinion
d) Generating multiple interpretations
e) Deciding what to do
1. ...........................................................
I tend to think that ...
From my perspective ...
2……………………………………………
What do you reckon?
How do you see it?
3…………………………………………….
Could we look at it another way and say that... ?
Just putting myself into her shoes, maybe...?
4.………………………
This makes a lot of sense if we assume that...
If this is the case, then you're right that ...
5………………………....
Given what has happened, I think it would be best if...
In the circumstances the best thing to do is to ...

Ex. 7. a) See Communication Tasks (Appendix 2, Module 3, Lesson 1).


Read and discuss one of two case studies of intercultural
misunderstanding. Group A, turn to Case A.
Group B, turn to Case В.
Consider the following questions:

48
 What do you think is happening in each case?
 Which cultural, personality and business factors could be important?
 How are the people involved seeing things? Are they thinking flexibly
or inflexibly?

b) Prepare your recommendations according to the cases and present them to


the other group. Use the expressions from Ex. 6

c) See Communication Tasks (Appendix 2, Module 3, Lesson 1). Read


case summaries and compare them with your recommendations.

Ex. 8. Discuss the following questions with a group-mate

 What is a corporate culture?


 How does the organizational structure influence the corporate culture?
 Does the corporate culture play an important role in success?

Ex. 9. (Track 6) Bo Graasborg is Danish but lives in Germany where


he works for a multinational retailer of electronic goods. He talks about
the challenges of working across both national and corporate cultures.
Listen to the first part of the interview. Answer the following questions:

1. What is «the key point about understanding culture»?


2. How useful are checklists on national culture (dos and don’ts) as a
method of learning about national cultures?
3. How does Bo describe the culture of his company and the retail sector?
4. What causes «big misunderstandings in communication» in his
company?
5. Do you agree/disagree with any of Bo's opinions? Why?

Ex. 10. (Track 7) Listen to the second part of the interview in which
Bo describes two examples of cultural misunderstanding in his
organization. Answer the following questions:

1. Why does the other department see itself as 'the kings of the company’?
2. What is the main difference in approach to store design between the
two departments?
3. What can be the result of the cultural differences between departments?
4. Which part of the company does Bo describe first? What is the problem
with this part of the company in his opinion?
5. What is the second part of the company? What is the problem?
6. How does Bo summarize the differences between the cultures of these
two departments?

49
Ex. 11. These words and phrases can describe organizational culture.

a) Match the opposites. Can you think of any more?


b) Which of these adjectives does Bo use to describe his organization?

top-down task-oriented
people-oriented individualistic
risk-focused cost-driven
quality-focused action-oriented
team-oriented bottom-up

Ex. 12. Study the information about Apple’s Corporate Culture. Make a
list of 3 facts which are truly surprising. Share them with the group-
mates.

APPLE’S CORPORATE CULTURE


Apple’s corporate culture is a key factor in the company’s success. A
company’s corporate culture determines capabilities in supporting changes,
new policies and new strategies. In Apple’s case, employees are effectively
developed and integrated into an organizational culture that facilitates rapid
innovation. Such innovation is observable in terms of products like the
iPhone, iPad, and Apple Watch.
Apple’s corporate culture has the necessary characteristics to ensure
the company’s leading position in the market. However, this corporate
culture also presents some challenges to Apple in optimizing its human
resources.
Apple’s corporate culture is effective in supporting the firm’s
leadership because of key features that fit the business. Different businesses
have different requirements for their culture. In Apple’s case, the following
characteristics are the most significant in its organizational culture:
 Top-notch excellence. Apple’s corporate culture involves a policy of
selecting only the best of the best workers. Steve Jobs was known to readily
fire employees who did not meet his expectations.
 Creativity. Apple employees are selected for their knowledge, skills, and
creative abilities. The firm’s corporate culture highlights the importance of
creativity. This characteristic of Apple’s corporate culture helps the firm
maintain the capacity to develop solutions to business needs and consumer
needs.
 Innovation. Apple’s corporate culture is also highly innovative. In fact,
Apple is frequently appraised as one of the most innovative companies in the
world. Apple’s corporate culture succeeds in facilitating rapid innovation,
which is at the heart of the business.

50
The combination of these characteristics in Apple’s corporate culture
supports the firm’s industry leadership. They are key factors that enable
success and competitive advantage. Creativity and excellence are especially
important in Apple’s rapid innovation processes.
Ex. 13. Go https://intothelook.wordpress.com/2013/11/24/apples-
corporate-culture/
Enjoy APPLE’S employee recruiting video. Explain why you
would/wouldn’t like to work there.

Ex. 14. PROJECT


Go https://www.glassdoor.com/Award/Best-Places-to-Work-
LST_KQ0,19.htm
http://www.businessinsider.com/25-best-corporate-cultures-2014-8/#no-24-
progressive-2
Read about the 25 Most Enjoyable Companies in the world to work for. Study
employees rating of their corporate culture. Which one would you like to
work for? Why? Share your ideas with your group-mates.

LESSON 2.
STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING FIRST MEETINGS

Ex. 1. Kwintessential is a global organization which offers intercultural


training. Read how to handle first meetings in four different countries.
Which countries are being described?

 Senegal
 Japan
 Germany
 Kazakhstan

1. Greetings are rather formal due to the hierarchical nature of society. The
common greeting is the handshake, often done with both hands and a smile.
Some men will not shake hands with women, so be sensitive to these religious
differences. Wait until invited before using someone’s first name, although
the invitation generally comes early in the relationship.
2. Greetings are formal. A quick, firm handshake is the traditional greeting.
Titles are very important and denote respect. Use a person’s title and their
surname until invited to use their first name. In general, wait for your host or

51
hostess to introduce you to a group. When entering a room, shake hands with
everyone individually, including children.
3. Greetings are very formal and ritualized. It is important to show the correct
amount of respect and difference to someone based upon their status relative
to your own. If at all possible, wait to be introduced. It can be seen as impolite
to introduce yourself, even in a large gathering. A foreign visitor may bow the
head slightly, since no one expects foreigners to generally understand the
nuances of bowing.
4. When people greet, they take time to ask about the health and welfare of
family members. It is customary for these questions to be asked over a very
long handshake. People should be addressed by their academic, professional
or honorific title and their surname or first name

Ex. 2. Discuss the following questions with a group-mate

 What is your experience of meeting people from different countries?


 What differences in behaviour from another culture have you observed?
What do you say and do when you meet someone visiting your
organization?

Ex. 3. (Track 8) Nigel Ewington is a director of WorldWork, an


intercultural consultancy. Listen to him talking about managing first
meetings in different cultures. Answer the following questions:

1. Why is it important to manage first meetings well when working


internationally?
2. What is the main purpose of first meetings in the Arab world?
3. When he goes to China, how does he usually start small talk? Why does
this create a positive impression?
4. Why is asking ‘open questions’ important?

Ex. 4. Complete these open questions which you could use during the first
conversation with a stranger.

1. Job: What do you …….. for a ……… ?


2. Company activity: What ……. of business is your company ………?
3. Work location: Where …… your company ……. ?
4. Arrival: When …… you …… here?
5. Hotel: Where …… you ….. ?
6. Duration: …… long ….. you …… for?
7. Travel: How many times …… you …. to the Ukraine?
8. Time working for company: …. Long …...you ……. for your
company?
9. Departure: When …… you …… ?

52
Ex. 5. (Track 9) Listen to a conversation between Pavel Simon,
working in his Prague office, and Jon Sondheim from the US, visiting the
Czech Republic. They are meeting for the first time. Answer the
following questions:

1. What topics does Jon ask about?


2. How does Pavel respond to the questions?
3. In what other ways could Jon have handled this first meeting?

Ex. 6 (Track 10) Listen to a second conversation between Pavel and


Jon over dinner. Answer the following questions:

1. Which main topic does Pavel decide to discuss?


2. How does Jon respond during the conversation?
3. What is Pavel’s reaction to the questions about Dr Kuehn? What
is his answer? Why does he react and answer in this way?
4. How could Pavel have handled the conversation differently?

Ex. 7. There are some differences in a conversational style between Jon


and Pavel. Answer the following questions:

1. What differences in style do you hear?


2. How far do you think these differences are a result of cultural and
personality factors?

Ex. 8. Across cultures people build professional relationships in


different ways. Susanne M Zaninelli analyses the impact of these cultural
differences on small-talk styles, using the metaphor of peaches and
coconuts.
a) Read the texts.
b) Answer the following questions:

1. What is the style of polite small talk for a coconut?


2. What is the style of polite small talk for a peach?
3. How can peaches and coconuts negatively judge each other?
4. The article ends, ‘Perhaps we should become “pea-nuts”. What does
this mean?

PEACHES AND COCONUTS – THE ART OF MANAGING SMALL


TALK
THE COCONUT CULTURE
People from a coconut culture are more reserved and only offer a thin layer of

53
their private ‘space’. Therefore they may appear serious and a bit distant during
initial social conversations-this is the ‘hard shell’ you experience when you first
meet coconuts. It can mean that not much personal information is shared in the
beginning; this is perceived as being polite. For peaches, it’s difficult to get to
know a coconut fast.

THE PEACH CULTURE

Peaches, on the other hand, are seen as relatively more sociable. They like
‘large talk’ with people they don’t know. They like to share personal space with
others and even talk about private aspects easily. Peaches are more likely to
smile a lot and be enthusiastic towards others. This is politeness. Of course, they
still keep a small area, the ‘peach stone’, private from others.

SOLVING THE PEACH-COCONUT CHALLENGE

When peaches and coconuts meet, misunderstanding is common. Peaches can


see coconuts as cold and difficult to get to know, because they don’t engage
much in social conversation. On the other hand, coconuts can see peaches as
too friendly, superficial and even impolite because they ask too many
personal questions.
The peach and coconut metaphor highlights important cultural differences and
tells us that what we think is polite may be seen as impolite by others. The
answer? To be effective across cultures we should firstly not misinterpret
signals we receive from others. Understanding the meaning of signals gives
both sides the freedom to stay as we are. We also could become more flexible
and adapt our style to people from different cultures - to be more ‘peachy’
with the peach and more like a coconut with coconuts, so that the other side
feels comfortable. Perhaps we should become ‘pea-nuts’!

Ex. 9. Are you a peach or a coconut? Assess yourself. Do your group-


mates agree or disagree with your self-assessment?

Ex. 10. Questions can help to support small talk. However, it is


important to choose the right topic. Look at the list of personal and
professional topics. Add a few more and brainstorm as many questions as
you can for each topic.

Personal focus: home, family, hobbies / interests.


Mode 1: Do you live far from the office?
Professional focus: work responsibilities, current tasks, developments in the
organisation
Model 2: What are you working on at the moment?

54
Ex. 11 Role-play

Speaker 1. Host of an international project meeting


You are about to meet two colleagues for the first time five minutes before an
international project meeting. You don’t have much time to build the
relationship before getting down to the business of the meeting.
Talk to Miguel, first and then meet Dani. Try to adapt your communication
style to the different personalities. You have heard that Miguel is quite serious
about his work so be careful in your questions. You have heard that Dani is
very easy to get on with and likes to socialise with colleagues.
Speaker 2. Visitor: Miguel
As a person, you are task-focused and do not usually invest a lot of time in
small talk. People often say you are quiet and reserved. You often give short
answers when questions are asked and ask few questions back. You do not
smile often because you think business is a serious activity. You are punctual
and you like to start meetings on time. Read your profile below.

Personal profile Professional profile

Home: Moved to Porto, Portugal 2 Responsibilities: Head of Marketing


month ago
Family: married, no children Current tasks: Marketing strategy for
Portugal and Spain
Out of work interests: Football and Work abroad: 3 month in Madrid
fishing
Relationships at work: Valdemar Business developments at work:
Baretto (Head of Finance) has left the Working closely with Italy to develop
company joint strategy

Speaker 3. Visitor: Dani


As a person, you are relationship-focused and you like to make small talk.
You enjoy speaking about personal subjects like home and family, and are
very ready to show photographs of your children to strangers. You also like to
ask personal questions to get to know people. Read your profile below.

Personal profile Professional profile

Home: Stockholm, Sweden Responsibilities: Head of Marketing


in Scandinavia
Family: two young sons (one at Current tasks: Developing a new
school now) strategy in Finland

55
Out of work interests: You play in a Work abroad: In Helsinki three days
rock band per week

Relationships at work: You have Business developments at work:


good contact with CEO of the Looking to expand into Estonia next
company Eric Hallberg year

Ex. 12. After the role play, as a group, discuss the following questions:

1. How effectively did the host manage each visitor?


2. How effectively did the host adapt to the communication style of each
visitor?
3. What do you think are the biggest challenges to managing small-talk
conversations in English?

LESSON 3.
COMMUNICATION STRATEGY IN CORPORATE CULTURE

Ex. 1.
a) Jose Romeu is a senior executive in a large multinational Spanish
bank which recently took over a local bank in Russia. He met the local
Russian management team in Moscow for the first time and gave a 30-
minute presentation to launch a new international partnership after the
takeover. What do you think should be his main message to the Russian
management team?
b) (Track 11) Listen to the first part of the interview with Jose
Romeu and answer the following questions:

1. What was his objective for his presentation?


2. How did he feel about it?
3. What was the feedback from his audience?
4. Why do you think his audience felt this way? Discuss your ideas in
small groups.

Ex. 2. (Track 12) Listen to the second part of the interview and
answer the following questions.

1. What was his biggest mistake?


2. What else did he do wrong? Why did this cause a problem?
3. What is his advice for professionals who have to present
internationally?

Ex. 3. How far do you agree with Jose’s advice? In what other situations
could you apply this advice?

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Ex. 4. When working across cultures we need to communicate sensitively,
particularly when giving both good and bad news.
Read the strategies for communicating good and bad news. Each
sentence (1-7) represents one of the strategies for communicating good
and bad news sensitively (a-g). Match each strategy to the correct
sentence.

Communicating good and bad news (strategies)

Highlight good news (a)


Give positive feedback (b)
Show respect for the other person’s time when asking for something to be done (c)
Apologize for any problems (d)
State clearly your positive motivation (e)
Be open and honest with bad news (f)
Show understanding of the other person’s point of view/needs (g)

…………OK, let’s turn now to our IT harmonisation project which we


started at the end of last month. (1) Now I know that many of you were a little worried
about disruption to services. And, (2) in fact we did have a few problems and lose some data
during the migration. So, today (3) I would like to take this opportunity at the beginning to
say I’m sorrv for that. However, to better news:
(4) I am happy to announce to you today that the project has been completed on budget and
on time, which is a fantastic result. So I should also say (5) a big ‘well done’ to you and
all of the staff of your departments. So, what’s next? Well, we now move to Phase 2
of the project, which means we want to change some functionalities offered
under home banking. (6) I know that this is a busy time of year for you with budget
preparation but we don’t believe Phase 2 will cause too much extra work for
you. And at the end of the day (7) our main objective is to help you do your jobs more
efficiently and deliver a better quality to the customer, which we all want. So, let’s start
with a more detailed look at Phase 2. I’ve asked Vladimir to talk us through
this. So, over to you, Vladimir………

Ex. 5. Replace the underlined parts from the above extract with as many
different words and phrases of your own as you can, keeping the original
meaning.

Ex. 6. Read the email and redraft it using the strategies from Ex. 4 (a-g)
to communicate the main messages more sensitively. Read out your
emails to the class and say which email is the most sensitive and effective.

From: Project lead

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To: All heads of IT department
Subject: Management team meeting
Dear all
Next Monday during the afternoon we will install some new software features
on the company IT platform to increase functionality. This means that email
will be unavailable for 24 hours from Monday 13.00.
Regards

Ex. 7. In the book Riding the Waves of Culture, the authors investigate
differences in the way people speak and listen across national cultures.
Read the descriptions of three different communication styles based on
their work.

a. Speakers give their opinions briefly with just a little information - this is
seen as more modest and less dominant. There is lots of silence to allow
people time to think and reflect. People are not direct when giving an
opinion because harmony in the group is seen as important. People may
not disagree strongly. Not so much time is taken to clarify what was said.
Professionals are expected to understand the first time.
b. People can give opinions in a very emotional or creative way. They may
move around many subjects and talk so much that the only way to stop
them is to interrupt them, and this is acceptable. People speak as others are
speaking. If you don’t interrupt, you never get a chance to speak. Little
time is allowed for clarification. It is more important to give an opinion
than to check you have understood the other person’s opinion.
c. In discussions people speak for a long time when giving an opinion, and
can be powerful and direct. It is seen as professional to be analytical, to
give all the facts and to have a strong opinion. Interruption is seen as
impolite. You wait until it is your turn to speak - you know when that is
because the other person just stops talking. It is possible to start your turn
with a strong and direct disagreement with the other person.

Ex. 8. Which style is the closest to the style in your culture? Which do
you think is the most effective?

Ex. 9. One way to manage these different styles and create a clear flow of
communication is to use an interactive communication style. Read the

58
guidelines and fill in the gaps (1-7) with the phrases from the box.

I couldn’t agree more on that. I think, and it's just my experience,


that….
I’m not disagreeing with you.
It’s just that... You mean that...
What’s your experience with this? I may be wrong about this but for me
... What do you think?
What’s your take on this? What about you? What you said was very
interesting ... Interesting. Yes, but... Absolutely.

Interactive communication style: guidelines

When speaking: When listening:


Give an opinion briefly. Don't speak for Give feedback to the speaker. Do this with
too long before letting the other person non-verbal communication, e.g. nodding or
speak (90 seconds maximum). smiling, or verbally, e.g. Aha, OK, 1 see what
Don't be too direct when giving an you're saying or
opinion. Show modesty and openness, (4) ..................................
perhaps by saying the other person As the other person stops talking:
could be right, e.g. Don’t disagree too quickly by saying
(1) ............... 5)
Make clear that your opinion is not Begin with a short summary of what was
negative about what the other person said, e.g. If l understand you correctly... or
said, e.g. 6) to make sure that you
(2) ............... understand.
As you decide to stop talking: Focus first on areas of agreement, e.g.
Finish with a question such as You may be right or (7) .........
(3) ............. or Do you see what 1 If you want to disagree, be polite and ask a
mean? to hand over to the other person question to discover more about the
and to show you are interested in their opinion: Why do you say...?
point of view. Finally, give your opinion briefly.
This handover question also helps to
make the conversation flow more
easily.

Ex. 10. (Track 13). Listen to three colleagues exchanging opinions


over lunch and answer the following question:

1) Which proposal is discussed?

Ex.11. Summarize the opinions of the three colleagues to the proposal.

59
Jari: .......................................................
Marie: .................. ....................................
Sue: .......................................................

Ex. 12. Listen again. Answer the following questions:

1. What questions does Jari ask to help the conversation to flow?


2. Which two handover questions does Marie use?
3. Sue does not want to appear direct or arrogant. Which phrases does
she use to communicate her opinions less forcefully?

Ex.13 Role-play

Work in small groups. Choose one of the topics about communication in


organizations. Discuss the topics using an interactive communication style to
exchange opinions and thoughts. One person in the group should observe and
then give feedback on the conversation using the guidelines from exercise 9.

Topic 1
1. Research shows that telephone conferences are much less effective than
face-to-face meetings. The general level of involvement is lower: for
example, people often write emails as they listen and don’t concentrate on
what is said. Participants’ understanding of the discussion also decreases: it’s
more difficult to follow the discussion without the support of body language.
Another major problem is that native speakers of the language being used
tend to talk too much compared to the non-native speakers. What can
organizations do to make telephone conferences more effective?
Topic 2
2. Research shows that most people complain about the use of email in their
organisation. They complain that they receive too many unnecessary emails.
They say that the emails which they do receive are usually written too quickly
and are not clear enough, leading to further email exchanges. Many people
report that email is a frequent generator of misunderstanding and even
conflict. What can organisations do to make email communication more
effective?

60
MODULE 4.
A FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND INTERNATIONAL
COOPERATION

LESSON 1.
APPLICATION FOR A GRANT: A COVER LETTER,
A MOTIVATION LETTER, A LETTER FOR
RECOMMENDATION

Ex. 1. Answer the following questions about grants using information


from the Internet, go http:// www.fulbright.ru.

 What is a grant?
 What is the difference between grants, loans and scholarship?
 What international grants do you know?
 Enumerate several Federal grants.
 What documents do you need to apply for a grant?

Ex. 2. Go http:// grantist.com and make a top list of the most interesting
grant programmes for you. Compare your list with your group-mates’
lists. Have you included the same grant programmes?

Ex. 3. Read the text and divide it into paragraphs.

How to apply for a grant

A grant is money that does not need to be repaid given by one party to
another. Grants are typically given by a government agency or philanthropic
organization to fund specific projects by a nonprofit entity, educational
institution, a business or an individual. By locating, applying for and winning
relevant grants, you or your organization may get the funding to support your
project. Although each grant requires different processes, the sample
documents below provide a good overview for the documents that may be
required for applying to grants. Method One of Four: Identify potential grants.
You can identify potential grant funding opportunities by searching the
federal government’s grant website. The website allows you to search by
keyword. If you are searching for new grant opportunities, perform a keyword
search that best reflects your business products, research areas or business
needs. Quickly review the search results by clicking on the Funding
Opportunity Number, which is a hyperlink that will redirect you to additional
information about the grant. Download a Grant Application Package. Once
you have determined that you meet the eligibility and scope of work
requirements, download the grant application. You can download the grant
application. In order to submit a grant application, you must register as either

61
an individual or business applicant. You can register online. Generally, you
will need to provide the following information :As an individual registrant,
you must know funding number of the grant for which you are applying. You
will need the following information to get your DUNS number: your legal
name; the name and address of your business headquarters; any other
organization names used by your business; the mailing address if different
from the physical or business address; and a business telephone number,
contact name and title. You may also need to provide the number of
employees at your organization.

a) What information do you find helpful?


b) Describe the main steps of applying for grants.

Ex. 4. Study the instructions how to write a cover letter and answer the
following questions and discuss them with your group-mates:

 What are the main principles of the letter?


 What are the main mistakes?
 How can you avoid them?

a) Formatting Your Cover Letter

Follow these basics, and you can't go wrong:


1. Use your organization's letterhead. Put the same date on the cover letter
that is on the completed grant application. That is the date you will send
the grant proposal to the grantor. Using the same date makes all the
documents in your proposal package consistent.
2. For the inside address (goes at the top of the letter) use the foundation or
corporate contact person's name and title, followed by the funding
source's name, address, city, state, and zip code. Double check this
information with a telephone call or an email. Such information changes
frequently, so make sure you have the current name and address. Also,
when you submit an electronic grant application, you may not know a
particular name.
3. In your salutation, use "Dear" plus the personal title (Mr., Ms., Mrs., Dr.,
Messrs., etc.), followed by the last name. It is critical that you address the
letter to a particular person. Call the foundation or corporate office to
make sure you have the right person and the right personal title. These
details may seem unimportant, but they do matter.
4. Your first paragraph should be short and focused. Introduce your
organization (its legal name) and tell the funder how much money you are
requesting and why. Include a sentence or two about what your
organization does, and then include one research-based point that shows
there is a need for what your organization does.

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5. Write one or two more brief paragraph. State your project's purpose and
how it fits with the funder's mission or funding priorities. Include the fact
that your board of directors fully supports the project.
6. End your letter with a summarizing paragraph. Add what this funding
partnership can mean for your project's target audience. You might want
to include an invitation for a site visit as well.
7. Use a closing such as "Sincerely."
8. The letter should be signed by the executive director or the board
president, or both. Below the signature, type the signer's first name,
middle initial, last name, and job title. Although the ED or board president
should sign the letter, do include the contact information for the best
person to answer questions at the end of the last paragraph.
9. At the bottom of the letter, include the word, "ENCLOSURE" (in all
caps).

b) Ways to Spoil Your Cover Letter


1. Writing too much. A cover letter is not a dissertation, nor is it a full
proposal. Keep it short and to the point

c) Tip: Have someone else read it. Do they understand it?


2. Using big words. If you've been to graduate school, you learned to write
in a complicated way. Don't do that here. You're not trying to impress
someone with your erudition. You only want to state your case as simply
as possible. If you don't know when you're overcomplicating your writing,
use an app such as Hemingway. It will tell you when your sentences are
hard to read and when you are too wordy.
3. Making Grammatical Mistakes. If you're not sure of your grammar, don't
take chances. Use the grammar check in WORD, and, also run your draft
through an app such as Grammarly. There is a free version, but the paid
version goes well beyond the typical basic grammar check.

Ex. 5. Role-play
Speaker 1. You are an expert on academic writing. You are having a
discussion class with two students on writing cover letters. Write down all the
tips which you think are essential for writing a good cover letter. When you
are ready, start the discussion with your students.

Speaker 2, 3. You are university students who are preparing for the
discussion class on writing cover letters. Make up some questions on this
topic to ask your teacher and when you are ready, start the discussion.

Study the sample cover letter and match these functions (1-5) with
paragraphs ( a-e):

1) request

63
2) information about grant
3) project’s purpose
4) address
5) project’s target
a) Mary Smith,
PhD Program Officer
Community Foundation
4321 Common Lane
Some City, YZ 55555

Dear Dr. Smith:

b) The Some City Senior Center respectfully requests a grant of $50,000 for
our Senior Latino Community Outreach Pilot Project.

c) As the largest senior center in Any County, serving over 450 seniors every
day, we are aware of the changing demographics in our service area. And we
are committed to growing and adapting our center to meet emerging needs.
The Senior Latino Community Outreach Pilot Project will allow us to pilot a
one-year effort to determine if our center can effectively:
 provide comprehensive access to health and social services to seniors in
the Latino communities served by our center, and
 raise and fully integrate the cultural competency of the board, staff,
and volunteers of the Some City Senior Center.

d) Our board of directors is enthusiastic about this program and eager to


launch it so we can become the most inclusive and culturally competent
center for seniors in all of our communities that need these services. Should
we find at the end of our pilot year that this program is, in fact, successful, our
board has committed to including a portion of the project's yearly expenses
into our annual operating budget so that the program becomes an integral part
of our core services.

e) Through this project, the Center will become the primary referral given
by Health Access Latinos, Families of Any County, and three community
clinics within a fifteen-mile radius of our center. We will also accept referrals
of Spanish-speaking seniors from any other community agency in our
immediate service area.

Thank you for your consideration of our request. I will follow up with you
in the next week to answer any questions you might have, as well as to learn
whether we might meet with you to discuss the merits of our proposal.
Meanwhile, should you have any questions, please feel free to contact Connie
Jones, our Director of Development, at (555) 555-5555, x555, or
cjones@scsc.org.

64
Sincerely,

Jane Lovely

Executive Director

ENCLOSURE

Ex. 6. Give Russian equivalents of expressions in bold.

Ex. 7. Read the example of a motivation letter and find the following
parts:

a) description of academic accomplishments;


b) opportunities;
c) career objective;
d) motivation.

65
Ex. 8. Another necessary thing to apply for a grant is a letter for
recommendation.
a) Every recommendation letter must have the following functions:
 description of services,
 description of personal characteristic,
 recommendation.

66
b) Read these letters for recommendations. Check if the letters contain all the
functions mentioned above.

67
68
69
Ex. 9. Project.
Go FREE Science Resource From the California Academy of Sciences;
Beckman Award for Teachers; High School Journalism Teacher Award
and study a list of grant programmes, choose the most interesting for you
and prepare all necessary documents (a cover letter, a motivation letter
and a letter of recommendation).

LESSON 2
INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

Ex. 1. Discuss the following questions in the class.

 Have you ever worked on international project? (When? Who with?


What was the project?)
 What other forms of international cooperation do you know?

Ex. 2. Read the information about the programme of international


cooperation and find answers to the following questions:

 What does Tempus promote?


 What does Tempus support?
 Who can be a part of consortium?

TEMPUS
TEMPUS is the European Union’s programme which supports the
modernisation of higher education in the EU's surrounding area. Tempus
promotes institutional cooperation that involves the European Union and
Partner Countries and focuses on the reform and modernisation of higher
education systems in the Partner Countries of Eastern Europe, Central Asia,
the Western Balkans and the Mediterranean region.
It also aims to promote voluntary convergence of the higher education
systems in the Partner Countries with EU developments in the field of higher
education. With regards to the Western Balkans, Tempus contributes to
preparing the candidate and potential candidate countries for a participation in
the integrated Life Long Learning Programme.
In addition to promoting cooperation between institutions, Tempus also
promotes a people-to-people approach. Tempus provides support to consortia
of institutions composed mainly of universities or university associations.
Non-academic partners can also be part of a consortium.
The Tempus programme is implemented in close coordination with the
Erasmus Mundus programme which provides scholarships to third country
students allowing them to participate in top-level Master courses and
Doctorate programmes outside the EU.

70
Ex. 3. Go http:// Studyinhungary.hu and watch the interview with
international students who study in Hungary due to TEMPUS and
answer these questions:

 Where are these students from?


 Why do they study in Hungary?
 What will they bring home from Hungary?

Ex. 4. Watch the video again and fill in this chart.

Name of student Reasons of studying Their expectations


there
Anastasiya

Riho

Ex. 5. Go Digital Citizenship Curriculum from Google; Free STEM


Outreach Programs From Lockheed Martin; High School Journalism
Teacher Awards
and prepare a presentation of any program of international cooperation
according to your specialization using this plan:

1. Main features of the programme;


2. Opportunities for this programme;
3. Reasons of choosing this programme.;
4. Necessary documents for applying.

LESSON 3
GRANTS AND INTERNATIONAL STUDENT ORGANIZATIONS

Ex. 1. Discuss the following questions in the class.


 What activities can be supported by a grant of some kind?
 Have you ever applied for a grant? Were you successful or not? Why?
 What grants do you know?

Ex. 2. Match these typical functions of texts about grants and


international cooperation (1-5) with extracts (A-D). There is one extra
function.
1) informing
2) inviting

71
3) telling a success story
4) warning
5) giving instructions

Ex. 3. Use other words instead of the words in bold in paragraph D.

Ex. 4. What information from exercise 2 do you find helpful?

Ex. 5. Read the information about new international grants. Choose the
most interesting one for you and tell the class about it.

NEW! National Endowment for the Arts: Art Works Grants


Each year, the National Endowment for the Arts provides grants to support
innovative arts learning programs. Grants are available in three categories:
Direct Learning, Professional Development, and Collective Impact grants.
Direct Learning grants increase access to arts learning for preK-12;
professional development support programs that teach educators how to better
engage students in arts learning, and collective Impact grants support
community- and school-wide systematic approaches to arts learn. A database
of past winners, application criteria, and in-depth information about each
category is available online.
Prize: Many grants of varying sizes are available.
Grants to Support Physics Teaching
Do you need funding for a physics teacher training program? The Frederick
and Florence Bauder Endowment for the Support of Physics Teaching
provides grants to educators for a number of unique physics-teaching and
learning projects. Grants are available to support teacher training programs,
development of teacher training materials, and funds to support physics

72
teaching workshops and other professional development opportunities.
Prize: Many grants are available; local workshop funding is available up to
$2,500.
Grants for Boat and Car Maintenance Programs
Do you need funding for a hands-on boat or car maintenance learning
program? The RPM Foundation provides grants to organizations to support
hands-on learning projects for high school and college-aged students. In the
past, high schools, museums, and career learning centers have earned grants
to offer hands-on restoration and maintenance projects. Check out the list of
past recipients to see if your program fits.
Prize: Several grants are available; first-time grants average $10,000.
Field Trip Grants from the Civil War Trust
Want to get outdoors for a history lesson? The Civil War Trust's field trip
grants allow K-12 educators to take students on learning trips at natural
historic sites. In particular, The Trust provides grants to help educators plan
field trips to Civil War, War of 1812, and Revolutionary War battlefields, as
well as related historic sites.
Prize: Grants are available up to $1,500.

5. Do you know any Russian grant programmes?


Go http://www.studyinrussia.ru; http:// www.unipage.net and find
Russian grant programmes. Choose any one and find out what
documents are necessary for it. Then make presentation following the
plan:

1. Main features of the program


2. Opportunities of this program
3. Reasons of choosing this program.
4. Necessary documents.

73
MODULE 5. DISTANCE EDUCATION

LESSON 1. WHAT IS DISTANCE LEARNING?

Ex. 1. Read the following quote. How do you understand it? Has the
Internet changed your studying? How do you use it in your education?

“The question is no longer if the Internet can transform learning in


powerful ways.” – The Web-Based Education Commission

Ex. 2. Besides being an assistant in studying, the Internet is also a means


of education when speaking about distance learning or e-learning. What
do you know about e-learning? Try to answer the following questions.

a) What is "distance learning"?

b) Are the notions "distance learning" and "distance education"


synonymous?

c) Why do people use distance education?

d) Who uses e-learning?

e) What technologies are used for online distance learning?

Ex. 3. Read the article uploaded to find out more facts about distance
education. Put the stages of distance learning history in the chronological
order.

a) Video-based distance education

b) Web-based instruction using telecommunication and Internet


technologies

c) Correspondence study

d) Computer-based distance education

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e) Audio-based distance education

What is Distance Education?

The History of Distance Education

The term "distance education" is used interchangeably with "distance


learning". The earliest efforts at distance education involved correspondence
study and really did not use any form of telecommunication. Instead, these
early efforts relied on the postal service for the delivery of content and
assignments.

Next came audio-based distance education which incorporated radio


and audio teleconferencing. During the 1940's, video-based distance
education consisted of one-way video and audio, one-way video and two-way
audio or two-way video-audio. Video-based distance education is still one of
the major sources of training delivered from a distance. The late 1960's and
early 1970's introduced computer-based distance education, using
technologies such as network-based computer conferencing and tapes.

Today we're looking at web-based instruction using telecommunication


and Internet technologies.

So What is Distance Education?

Distance education is defined by Moore and Kearsley(1996) as "the


planned learning that normally occurs in a different place from teaching and
as a result requires special techniques of course design, special instructional
techniques, special methods of communication by electronic and other
technology, as well as special organization and administrative agreements".

The Future of Distance Education

Given the rate of current technological advancements, no one can truly


and accurately predict the future of distance education. However, we can
recognize the advancements that have already arrived, such as:

Desktop Video conferencing - using Microsoft's NetMeeting or Webex


is an example of video conferencing. Desktop videoconferencing allows you
to both hear and see the other party. You can share live, motion video images

75
and exchange images of objects and documents. File sharing and application
sharing is also possible.

Web-based Instruction - Most online learning offered by the some of


the top accredited colleges and universities constitutes web-based instruction.
It's convenient for the student because it allows him or her to access the
instruction (learning materials) anytime, from any location with an Internet
connection.

We are still in the early stages of web-based instructional learning. To a


large degree, it will be up to technology and educators to define and shape its
future.

Ex. 4. Answer the following questions.

1) What does the future of distance education depend on?


2) What technical advancements have been introduced into distance
education process yet?

Ex. 5. a) Distance education can include Associate's, Bachelor's, Master's,


MBA (masters in business administration) and PhD programmes
according to http://www.distance-learning-college-guide.com. You will
probably be interested in Bachelor's online programme. Try to guess
whether these statements are true or false.
a) Online Bachelor's programme takes four years.
b) You can enroll for a bachelor's program only at an accredited online
university.
c) No matter what your geographical location is, you may be able to
study online at any college of your choice.
d) Only teaching staff is responsible for your success.
e) You don't need organizational skills to become a good candidate for
online learning.
f) All bachelor's programmes are easy to complete online.

b) Read the text and check your ideas.

Online Bachelor Degree Programmes

Online bachelor degree programmes are provided by accredited schools


for the benefit of learners who want to earn their undergraduate college
education on a flexible schedule.

Although a traditional bachelors degree with campus attendance takes


four years of full-time learning to complete, an online programme may take

76
more or less time to complete depending on the specific degree requirements,
transfer credits and if the learner is on part-time or full-time study.

You can enroll for a bachelor's programme at a traditional college or at


an accredited online university.

Online programmes are good alternatives to traditional learning for


many reasons. Through online classes, students are able to learn at their own
pace without being constricted to the learning speed of their classmates. This,
combined with the flexibility of schedule that online schools affords make
pursuing a bachelor's education online a very viable option for many students.

One other advantage of online learning is that you are not constrained
by geographical location. No matter where you live, you may be able to study
at any college of your choice located anywhere in the world.

If you are interested in enrolling for a distance learning programme,


you might be concerned about the quality of education you will receive. The
reality is, as an online learner, you will be the one responsible for your own
success.

Many employers and graduate school admission committees also


consider online degrees favorably, as students earning their degree through
distance education often display more discipline and dedication as well as a
better familiarity with technology.

Distance education certainly is not suited for every type of learner and
it is important that you have independence, discipline, dedication and
organizational skills.

Certain programmes such as a music degree etc. may be harder to


complete online due to the nature of the discipline - music students are
required to perform, just like applied science students need to execute lab
experiments, for example.

Once you have earned your education, it is up to you to decide what the
next step will be. Earning your bachelor's degree can put you on your way to
graduate school, where you will be able to undertake your master's degree and
move on to a PhD programme, for example.

On the other hand, earning this undergraduate degree will also offer
you the adequate preparation to enter the workforce.

77
Ex. 6. What is your major at the university? Do you think it's possible to
complete your Bachelor's programme online? Check it using
http://www.distance-learning-college-guide.com.

Step 1. Choose your programme on the left.

Step 2. Study the information carefully.

Step 3. Discuss the information with a group-mate asking and


answering the following questions:

a) Is your programme suitable for e-learning?

b) Why is it good to study (e.g. accounting/graphic design/psychology)


via distance learning?

c) Is it possible to combine majors?

d) What accredited online US universities can offer that programme?

e) What should you expect from an (e.g. accounting/graphic


design/psychology) online program?

f) What career options will you have after you graduate?

LESSON 2.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF

DISTANCE EDUCATION

Ex. 1. Do you think distance education is for everyone? Why can it be


difficult? Why is it convenient? Will you suit distance learning? Why?

Model:

Distance education can be difficult because...

Distance learning is convenient because...

E-learning is(not) for me because...

78
Ex. 2. How do you think experienced professors regard distance
education? Watch the video and find out if the statements are true or
false.

a) The number of students enrolling for online courses is growing 80%


per year.

b) You have to coordinate your studying process with the demands of


the course.

c) In distance learning the schedule is dictated to you.

d) Teaching online is easier than teaching face to face.

e) It's important for students to understand their own learning style


before they sign up for an online course.

Ex. 3. An American magazine has published an article about pros and


cons of distance education. Read the text. Do you agree or disagree with
these pros and cons? Which (dis)advantages do you consider the most
reasonable?

Advantages and Disadvantages of Distance Learning

If you're considering online education, e-learning or taking any course


or program via online learning, it's worthy to note that this is all regarded as
distance learning and there are a few aspects that you need to be aware of,
primarily the advantages and disadvantages of distance learning.

Advantages of distance learning to the learner:

 Distance learning does not require commuting. This saves you


money and time that you would otherwise spend on travel back and
forth to school.
 You can complete most of the classes at your convenience. Most of the
classes are asynchronous, which means you don't have to attend a
lecture at a particular time and place.
 Live anywhere, study from anywhere while pursuing the education
of your choice. You don't have to live in the same city or the same
country to attend the learning institution of your choice.
 Gain extra knowledge. You can transfer the computer and Internet
skills that you'll gain in the process of your distance learning
experience to other facets of your life.
 Self-paced learning. This reduces stress and increases satisfaction.

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 Accessibility. Online classes address physical accessibility issues that
some people with limited mobility encounter when taking traditional
classes. Disadvantages of distance learning to the learner:

 Costly and complex technology. Despite the many opportunities of


distance education, there are inevitable accompanying costs. Live video
communication for example, requires careful planning of the
equipment and facilities. For online learning, you must own a
computer (with access to the Internet).
 Advance planning. Both the instructors and students involved in
distance learning may need to make sacrifices at times to get things
done in time.
 Hidden costs. If you work for the military for example, and you are on
the ship, how do you get your materials?
 Distance learning does not offer immediate feedback. With distance
learning, a student has to wait for feedback until the instructor has
reviewed their work and responded to it.
 Distance learning does not always offer all the necessary courses
online. While you can study a history lesson completely online, you
cannot perform nursing clinicals online.
 Distance learning degrees may not be acknowledged by all
employers. Students who want to work for a specific employer upon
graduation should be sure of that employer's perspective about online
education.
 Distance learning does not give students the opportunity to work
on oral communication skills.
 Social isolation. Distance learners may feel isolated or miss that social
physical interaction that comes with attending a traditional classroom.

Ex. 4. Role-play.

Speaker 1: You're going to enroll for an online course. That makes you so
excited that you are looking forward to sharing this information with the best
friend of yours. He/She turns out to be against e-learning at all. Try to
persuade him/her in positive aspects of distance education.

Speaker 2: You share very conservative views on the point of studying.


Distance learning is not your cup of tea. Try to explain the possible
disadvantages of e-learning to your friend who is going to study online.

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Ex. 5. Despite all disadvantages your friend has decided to study at an
online university. What tips would you give him/her? Make your own list
of 5-10 tips, then compare it with the followings.

Tips and Strategies for Success with an Online Degree Program

Select the Right Online Distance Education School

Unfortunately, there are numerous unscrupulous "degree mills" on the


Internet, and these businesses are keen on selling their degrees without
providing quality education or ample student support. To avoid being
scammed, do a proper background check on the school you are considering, in
order to verify their accreditation and authenticity before you register.

Choose the Right Online Degree Program

Select an online degree program that has a direct relationship to your


future career. This will motivate you to work harder in your coursework,
because you can see how closely it relates to your future career, and the
benefits of your upcoming graduation are tangible.

Utilize Credit Transfers

Most distance learning colleges allow students to transfer credits from


courses that they had taken at other colleges or universities. The benefit here
is that students do not have to repeat what they have already learned.

Exercise Discipline, Determination & Time Management

It is very easy to lose motivation and become distracted when you are
working alone, without peer support. Good time management, along with
consistent communication, will help you develop excellent work habits and
ensure your success.

Make Advance Preparations

Before your first class starts, preview and, if possible, print out all of
the course materials and syllabi related to your coursework.

Get to Know Your Instructor and Your Classmates

Chat with your classmates and your teachers online, communicate with
them via email, and seek help if you do not fully understand an assignment or
concept.

Keep Up with the Coursework. Avoid getting behind in your


homework, readings and assignments. This will keep you from having to

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cram at the last minute or feeling overwhelmed as the assignments become
more challenging.

Come to Class Ready to Work. Set your frame of mind in the same
way you would for a traditional class, and take the coursework seriously. In
addition, take notes of all of the critical points the instructor presents in class,
and prepare in advance for upcoming quizzes and exams.

Set a Time of the Day or Week for Your Class. Put aside your other
chores and activities, and find a quiet area where you can "go to class" online.

Make Full Use of the Facilities Provided

Most distance education degree courses offer online lectures, chat


rooms, private discussion boards, and email to facilitate communication with
lecturers, tutors and other students. Use these facilities adequately to stay
connected, motivated and up-to-date in your courses.

Utilize Technology and Resources to Advance Your Education

Another way to ensure success with online distance education courses


is to make full use of the conveniences that technology has to offer. Many
online universities provide students with online research resources, databases,
and access to experts that are valuable for completing assignments and
research papers.

Reward Yourself. Celebrate! A crucial online distance education tip is


to celebrate after every accomplishment in your course activities. This will
keep you motivated and looking forward to the next session.

Ex. 6. Go http://www.distance-learning-college-guide.com and find more


tips for students enrolling for online courses.

Ex. 7. Enumerate all the tips from the article and the website that you
liked. Share your list with the class. Try to make one list of the best tips
together.

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LESSON 3.

MASSIVE OPEN ONLINE COURSES

Ex. 1. a) Watch the video and find out what the abbreviation MOOC
stands for. What does it mean?

b) Watch the video again. Fill in the gaps with the words from the
video.
Imagine you could take a course from one of the greatest
____________. In the right hands the potential of digital technology is
endless. Bringing university courses online allows the best professors to
____________ their brightest ideas with the world welcoming students and
independent ____________ of all ages. In fact it's already happening. When a
few Stanford university professors opened their courses to the world it was a
monumental _____________ with more than a quarter of a million students
enrolling in just two courses. Since then professors from the world's finest
_____________ institutions have created hundreds of open courses. So what
does all of this mean for the future of __________ education?
As the president of Stanford University put it there's a tsunami coming
but we don't want educators to get swept away. We want to help them ride the
wave. That's why we're establishing ________________ with top professors
and universities to produce high quality online courses that will attract tens of
______________of students from around the globe.
Okay, so how does this actually work? An open course is not about
simply filming 90-minute ______________, it's about creating custom
content designed specifically for online _______________. An open course
transforms the traditional course concept, uses multimedia formats and allows
for easy________________ online. Our long lectures are broken down into
short videos explaining individual concepts, so students can
______________, pause or revisit topics whenever they like. After every
sequence students take short ______________or submit assignments to
ensure they understand what's being explained and stay engaged. Hmm, this
sounds very interesting. But isn't a lot of learning about interaction with other
students? We agree that learning with and from each other is
_____________. That's what makes the University campus so vibrant. Now
imagine thousands of students from all walks of life coming together to learn
with and from each other on a digital campus. Obviously no one professor can
answer questions from thousands of students. So just like on a traditional
campus ________________ learning is a core component of an open online
course. All students will post, _____________ and answer questions. They
even ensure quality control. By voting for helpful responses they let the best
content bubble to the top. This logic also works with _______________.

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Where multiple-choice doesn't cut it, peer-to-peer grading can be used to
provide qualitative feedback. In the end a ____________ shows what students
have learned and where they rank amongst their peers. The idea is simple.
Millions are already learning online. Joining us now is up to you.

Ex. 2. Here is a list of the most popular MOOCs. Search the Internet for
some general information about one of the MOOCs. Tell the class about
it using the following plan:
1) When and where was it invented?
2) Who was it invented by?
3) What does it provide a student with?
4) What are the main peculiarities of this massive open online course?
 https://www.coursera.org
 https://www.EdX.org
 https://www.udacity.com
 http://oyc.yale.edu/courses
 http://academicearth.org/
 https://htmlacademy.ru
 http://ocw.mit.edu/index.htm
 https://www.khanacademy.org/
 https://www.futurelearn.com

3. Read the information about one of the top MOOCs. Who was it
founded by? What does it offer? What do courses include? What do you
have after completion of a course?
Coursera is a venture-backed, education-focused technology company
founded by Stanford professors Andrew Ng and Daphne Koller that offers
online courses and is based in Mountain View, CA. Coursera works with
universities and other organizations to offer online courses, specializations,
and degrees in a variety of subjects, such as engineering, humanities,
medicine, biology, social sciences, mathematics, business, computer science,
digital marketing, data science, and others. Every course on Coursera is taught
by top instructors from the world’s best universities and educational
institutions. Courses include recorded video lectures, auto-graded and peer-
reviewed assignments, and community discussion forums. When you
complete a course, you’ll receive a sharable electronic Course Certificate.

4. Go https://www.coursera.org. Choose a course you like according to


your major. Study the brief of the course. Exchange this information
with your group-mate following the model.
Model:
-What course are you going to enroll for?
-It's Programming for Everybody.
-What does it aim to?

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-This course aims to teach everyone the basics of programming
computers using Python.
-Who should be able to master it?
-Anyone with moderate computer experience.
-What's the language of the course?
-English. Besides, Chinese subtitles are available.
-How long does it take to complete the course?
-It takes 2-4 hours.
-What do you get after completing the course?
- Once a student completes this course, they will be ready to take more
advanced programming courses.

5. Tell the others about your group-mate's course using the information
from the dialogue.
6. Go round the class and exchange the information about the course
you've chosen with as many students as possible. How do you find the
courses of your group-mates? Have you changed your mind about the
course to choose?
7. Go https://www.coursera.org. Watch a video lecture from the course
you like. Prepare a visual presentation on the topic of the lecture. Follow
the plan:
1) introduction;
2) opening;
3) the middle/main part;
4) conclusion;
5) feedback session.

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СПИСОК ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ

1. Allsop J., Aspinall T. NEC Vantage Testbuilder. - Macmillan, 2008.


2. Bob Dignen. Communicating Across Cultures. Cambridge University
Press, 2012.
3. Colm Downes. Cambridge English for Job-hunting. Cambridge
University Press, 2008.
4. Taylor J., Zeter J. Business English:Student's Book.- Express
Publishing, 2016.

Электронные источники

http://www.cam.ac.uk/
http://www.harvard.edu/
https://www.utoronto.ca/
http://www.ets.org/toefl
http://www.cambridgeenglish.org/exams
http://www.fulbright.ru
http://www.distance-learning-college-guide.com
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ESqMeZGQKw
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b_N_NHbC80E
https://www.coursera.org
https://intothelook.wordpress.com/2013/11/24/apples-corporate-culture/
https://www.glassdoor.com/Award/Best-Places-to-Work-LST_KQ0,19.htm
http://www.businessinsider.com/25-best-corporate-cultures-2014-8/#no-24-
progressive-2
http://www.fulbright.ru
http://www.tempus.ru
http://studyinhungary.hu

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English for Future Job
Профессионально ориентированный английский язык

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