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Practice Materials for Simple Vowels (AmE)

These materials can be used as additional phonetic exercises for practicing


simple vowel sounds (monophthongs) in frequently used words. The words
in the list are grouped according to the vowel letter or letter combination
representing the indicated sound. After sufficient practice of these exercises,
you can mix the words and practice their pronunciation again. (You can
listen to similar words in Listening for Vowels (AmE) in the section
Phonetics.)

The words in this material are grouped according to American pronunciation.


Words with the sounds [æ], [a:], [o:], [o], [ər] may have different
pronunciation in British English and American English. For example, the
letter "a" in the words "dance, draft, last" is usually pronounced [æ] in AmE
and [a:] in BrE; the letter "o" in "coffee, gone, loss" is pronounced [o:] or
[o] in AmE and [o] in BrE. In AmE, [o] is a rather long sound colored as
[a:]; in BrE, [o] is a short sound. (Some of the differences are described
together with the spelling patterns of these vowel sounds in Spelling
Patterns for Vowels in the section Writing.)

Эти материалы можно использовать как дополнительные фонетические


упражнения на простые гласные звуки (монофтонги) в часто
употребляемых словах. Слова в списке сгруппированы по гласной букве
или сочетанию букв, передающих указанный звук. После достаточной
практики на этих упражнениях, можно перемешать слова и снова
упражняться в их произношении. (Вы можете прослушать похожие слова
в материале для прослушивания Listening for Vowels (AmE) в разделе
Phonetics.)

Слова в данном материале сгруппированы согласно американскому


произношению. Слова со звуками [æ], [a:], [o:], [o], [ər] могут иметь
разное произношение в британском английском и американском
английском. Например, буква "a" в словах "dance, draft, last" обычно
произносится [æ] в AmE и [a:] в BrE; буква "o" в "coffee, gone, loss"
произносится [o:] или [o] в AmE и [o] в BrE. В AmE, [o] довольно долгий
звук, окрашенный как [a:]; в BrE, [o] краткий звук. (Некоторые
различия описаны вместе с моделями написания этих гласных звуков в
статье Spelling Patterns for Vowels в разделе Writing.)

Vowel sounds in this material

[i:], [i], [e], [æ], [a:], [o:], [o], [u:], [yu:], [u], [yu], [ər], [ə]
Spelling examples: see – hit – red – cat – car – more – not – rule – use –
book – fury – sir – but.

The sound [i:] as in SEE

be – me – he – she – we – eve – these – theme – scene – scheme – Pete –


Steve;

compete – complete – delete – supreme – extreme – Chinese – Maltese –


Japanese – Vietnamese;

Egypt – equal – even – evening – evil – legal – detail – female – media –


meter – Peter – secret – sequence – veto;

recent – region – remake (n.) – regency – premium – previous – preview;

recycle – rewrite (v.) – remake (v.) – reorganize – prepay – prewar –


prehistoric;

hero – zero – period – series – serious – serial – cereal; material – bacteria


– criterion – superior – experience;

bee – see – fee – free – tree – three – knee – feel – keen – seen – seem –
feed – need – speed – cheese – sleeve;

meet – feet – sleet – seek – peek – meek – week – deep – keep – sleep –
steep – geese;

agree – degree – proceed – succeed – trainee – refugee; employee;

sea – tea – team – cream – clean – lead – read – deal – meal – leave –
please – tease – breathe – easy;

heat – meat – seat – peak – speak – weak – leak – leaf – leap – heap –
teach – peach – peace – lease – least – feast – beast; release;

piece – field – brief – chief – priest – siege – yield; achieve – believe –


relieve – belief – relief;

seize – ceiling – leisure; receive – deceive – perceive – receipt;

ski – liter – pizza; machine – marine – police – casino – regime – naive –


unique – technique; magazine;

key – people – Aesop.


[i:] before final [r]

here – mere – sphere – atmosphere; sincere – severe – interfere;

beer – peer – cheer – sheer – steer – queer; career – engineer – pioneer –


volunteer;

fear – hear – ear – near – clear – rear – tear – dear – year – beard; appear
– disappear;

fierce – pierce – pier – tier; cashier.

Note: The sound [i:] before final [r] in words like "here, sincere, near,
appear, cheer, engineer" usually has diphthongal character. Transcription
symbols for this sound in American ESL materials may be [i:r], [ihr], [ir], [i:
(ə)r], [iər].

Примечание: Звук [i:] перед конечным [r] в словах типа "here, sincere,


near, appear, cheer, engineer" обычно имеет характер дифтонга. Символы
транскрипции для этого звука в американских материалах ESL могут
быть [i:r], [ihr], [ir], [i:(ə)r], [iər].

Note: In AmE, [i:] or [e] (usually [i:]) is pronounced in the word "leisure".
(В AmE, [i:] или [e] (обычно [i:]) произносится в слове "leisure".)

The sound [i] as in HIT

hit – it – fit – bit – sit – quit – tip – dip – lip – lick – pick – sick – kiss – miss
– this;

did – kid – lid – rid – bid – rib – lib – pig – fig – dig – his – is – Liz – live –
bridge;

fist – list – mist – risk – disk – gift – drift – lift – stiff – fix – six – dish – fish
– rich – witch;

fill – kill – bill – swim – him – Tim – win – pin – pink – drink – sing – bring –
rinse;

finish – limit – visit – critic – liquid – river – dinner – idiot – city – pity –
sister – history – distance – dizzy;

consist – resist – admit – forbid – begin – ignore – inform – invite – disturb


– dislike – mistake – mislead;
cabin – habit – unit – justice – public – critical – stupid – foolish – terrible –
active – primitive;

running – stopping – talking – hitting – eating – living – leaving – growing –


trying – doing;

English – England – pretty;

enough – ecology – emotion – equip – erase – expand – expect – become –


because – before – decide – design – depart – deposit – despair – security;

refer – regard – relax – remove – renew – repair – repay – repeat – reply –


report – return – review;

predict – prefer – prepare – present (v.) – pretend – prevent – presume –


preliminary;

actress – illness – madness – easiness – fruitless – bullet – pocket – rocket;

classes – prizes – mixes – watches – bridges – added – loaded – painted –


counted;

symbol – lyrics – crystal – system – mystery – myth – sympathy – synonym


– typical – pyramid;

build – building – built – guilt – guilty – biscuit – circuit;

busy – business – minute.

The sound [e] as in RED

red – bed – bet – let – met – set – dress – mess – stress – yes – rest – test
– chest – desk – deck – neck – peck; debt;

bell – tell – sell – well – pen – men – rent – end – spend – leg – peg – help
– self;

bent – lent – sent – spent – went – kept – crept – slept – swept – wept –
left – held – felt;

berry – very – every – empty – better – letter – tender – central – mental –


lesson – second – sentence – entrance – fellow – yellow;

record (n.) – reference – register – residence – present (n.) – preference –


prejudice – precious – prevalent;
accept – connect – inspect – respect – impress – address – intend – invent –
invest;

embrace – employ – engage – enjoy – enlarge – enroll – escape – establish


– estate;

bread – dead – head – lead – read – spread – thread – sweat – threat –


breath – death – health – wealth – dealt – meant – deaf;

ready – steady – sweater – weather – leather – measure – pleasure –


treasure – pleasant – heavy – jealous – breakfast – weapon;

any – many; said – says; friend; leopard; bury;

[e] before final [r]

care – dare – bare – rare – share – spare – stare – scare; declare – compare
– prepare;

chair – fair – hair – air – affair – pair – stair; repair – despair;

wear – swear – bear – pear – tear; there – where.

Note: The sound [e] before final [r] in words like "care, share, compare, air,
repair, wear, bear" usually has diphthongal character [e(ə)r].

Note: In AmE, initial "e" in words like "embrace, employ, engage, enjoy,
escape, establish" is pronounced [e] or [i].

The sound [æ] as in CAT

bad – lad – sad – mad – had – glad – add – cab – lab – tab – bag – lag –
flag – rag – drag – tag;

cat – rat – sat – mat – cap – lap – map – tap – wrap – back – pack – lack –
rack – sack – stack;

catch – match – latch – batch – patch – cash – cache – clash – slash – dash
– mash – rash – crash;

ham – Pam – Sam – tram – tramp – camp – lamp – damp – stamp; lamb;

fan – pan – Ann – Annie – Dan – tan – man – ban – plan – clan – ran –
span;
bank – tank – rank – frank – bang – hang – rang – sang – anger – angry –
angle;

land – hand – band – sand – stand – ant – pant – can't; command –


demand;

dance – chance – glance – fancy – answer – dancer – cancel – castle;

class – glass – grass – grasp – task – ask – last – fast – past – master –
pass – mass – bath – path – jazz; disaster;

craft – draft – raft – after – staff; half – calf – halves – calves;

talent – family – travel – panel – manner – matter – grammar – camel –


camera – carry – marry;

fashion – fashionable – rational – national – natural – sanity – vanity;

happy – happen – apple – battle – cattle – rattle – candle – handle;


example;

tact – fact – act – action – actor – accident – access – actually;

aunt – laugh – draught (draft).

Note: In AmE, "a" in words like "ask, after, class, dance, demand, last,
path, castle" may be pronounced [a:] in some regions.

The sound [a:] as in CAR

car – are – far – bar – star – card – hard – garden – pardon – yard – guard;
regard;

harm – charm – farm – farmer – arm – army – argue – large – charge –


margin;

start – art – artist – cart – part – party – Marty; depart – apart –


compartment;

dark – bark – lark – park – parking – spark – mark – market – marker –


march;

father – calm – palm – balm – drama – bravo – spa;

mirage – garage – massage – facade; ensemble;


heart – hearth;

sergeant.

The sound [o:] as in MORE

core – more – bore – shore – sore – store – tore; before – explore – ignore;

cord – lord – sword – order – port – sort – sport – short – fork – pork –
force – horse – north – porch – torch;

form – norm – normal – storm – born – torn – horn – corn – corner;

boring – story – sorry – glory – borrow – sorrow – morning – forum – forest


– orange; tomorrow;

law – saw – draw – crawl – lawn – dawn – awful – awkward – hawk;

call – hall – ball – tall – wall – all – always – false – salt – halt; walk – talk –
chalk;

cause – pause – sauce – Saul – Paul – haul – launch – laundry – sausage;


because;

August – autumn – audio – audience – auto – author – fraud – fault – vault;

quart – quartz – quarter – quartet – quarrel;

caught – taught – daughter – slaughter;

bought – brought – fought – ought – thought – cough;

four – pour – course – source – court; of course;

door – floor – roar – board – broad;

war – warm – warn – warning – ward – warden – dwarf; award – reward;

water – want – wash – swan;

long – wrong – song – gone – boss – loss – lost – cost – dog – fog – log;

coffee – off – soft – often – office – offer.

Note: In AmE, [o:] or [o] is pronounced in words like "gone, coffee, office,
borrow, orange, sorry, dog, song, loss, lost, quarrel, want, wash, water".
Note: In AmE, "o" before "r" in some words, e.g., "port, force, more", may
be pronounced [ou] (as in "no").

The sound [o] as in NOT

hot – lot – not – got – bottle – bottom – body – model – modern; forgot –
forgotten;

lock – clock– cock – mock – rock – sock – doctor – document;

top – stop – pop – popular – job – rob – robber – hobby – lobby;

profit – problem – project (n.) – proper – proverb – prompt;

college – collar – dollar – doll – follow – hollow – holiday;

Tom – mom – comment – common – comedy – compliment; bomb;

John – bond – fond – pond – concert – conference – monitor – monster;


respond – beyond;

possible – positive – probably – bother – honest – hostel – hostage;

object (n.) – occupy – odd – option – optimist – optical;

squad – squash – squander – quality – quantity – quantum;

waffle – wand – wander – wasp – watch – what – swamp – swallow.

The sound [u:] as in RULE

rude – rule – rumor – ruin – brutal – truth – June – junior – Julia – Luke –
Lucy – lunatic – luminous – parachute;

do – two – who – whom – whose – lose – move – prove – tomb – shoe;


improve;

too – zoo – food – mood – cool – school – fool – foolish – pool – tool – boom
– room – groom – moon – soon – choose – soothe;

boot– root – shoot – booth – tooth – boost – rooster – goose – loose – proof
– roof;

group – soup – wound – coupon – route – routine – souvenir – boulevard –


through;
flew – blew – crew – drew – Jew – jewel;

blue – glue – clue – true – cruel – fluent;

fruit – juice – juicy – cruise – bruise;

rheumatism; rheumatic – leukemia – lieutenant.

Note: In AmE, [u:] or [u] is pronounced in "room, broom, groom, roof, root,
soot, hoof, coop, boulevard".

Note:

In AmE, [u:] or [yu:] (usually [u:]) is pronounced after "d, n, s, t" in words
like these:

duty – due – dew – dual – dude – dune – duplicate; produce (v.) – reduce;

new – newspaper – nude – nuclear – numeral – neutral; nutrition; neurosis


– neurotic;

suit – sue – Susan – super – supermarket; consume – consumer – pursue;

tube – tune – tuna – tulip – tumor – student – studio – stupid – stew –


stewardess.

The sound [yu:] as in USE

use – useful – usual – union – unit; unite – unique – university – utility;

fuse – future – cute – cube – huge – humor – human – fuel; confuse –


refuse;

music – mute – mutual – menu – pupil; amuse – community – computer –


dispute – museum;

few – view – mew – ewe – nephew;

feud – feudal – feudalism;

beauty – beautiful;

you – youth – youthful;

yule – yuletide.
Note: In AmE, [u:] or [yu:] (usually [u:]) is pronounced after "d, n, s, t" in
words like "duty, due, produce, new, newspaper, neutral, suit, super,
consumer, tune, tulip, student, stupid".

The sound [u] as in BOOK

book – cook – hook – look – shook – took – brook – crook;

good – hood – stood – wood – foot – wool – woolen;

childhood – brotherhood – motherhood – neighborhood;

put – push – pull – full – bull – bush;

bullet – bushel – butcher – pudding – sugar – cushion;

plural – rural – jury – during – durable; duration – endurance – insurance;

could – should – would; tourist – tourism;

woman – wolf – wolves;

poor – moor – tour – sure – lure; assure – endure – insure.

Note: The sound [u] before final [r] as in "poor, tour, sure, lure, endure,
assure, insure" usually has diphthongal character [u(ə)r].

Note: In AmE, [u:] or [u] is pronounced in "room, broom, groom, roof, root,
soot, hoof, coop, boulevard".

Note: In AmE, [u] or [yu] (usually [u]) is pronounced after "d" in "during,
durable, duration, endurance".

The sound [yu] as in FURY

fury – furious – curious – purity – bureau – bureaucrat; curiosity;

Ural – Uranus – urine – urinate; urology – uranium;

Europe – euro; eureka – European;

cure – pure; secure – obscure.

Note: The sound [yu] before final [r] as in "cure, pure, secure, obscure"
usually has diphthongal character [yu(ə)r].
The sound [ər] as in SIR

her – err – were – herb – verb – verse – serve – nerve – nervous – certain;

perk – clerk – jerk – perch – merge – verge – term; emerge – determine;

perfect – person – perfume – merchant – kerchief – kernel;

perhaps – perform – permit – perceive – percent; concern – prefer –


reserve;

better – later – mister – teacher – buyer – never – cover – finger – differ –


paper – powder;

heard – learn – search – pearl – early – earn – earth;

fur – purr – burn – turn – curb – curse – nurse – purse – church – urge –
hurt – burst;

hurry – current – currency – curtain – burden – furnish – further – murder –


murmur – purple – purpose – turkey – urgent – urban; return – disturb –
occur;

lecture – nature – picture – furniture – pressure – pleasure – measure;

fir – sir – stir – bird – shirt – skirt – firm – girl – circle – circus – circuit –
dirty – third – thirty – first – thirsty;

word – work – worm – worry – worse – worst – worth – world;

favor – humor – visitor – doctor – terror – comfort – effort; forget – forgive;

courage – courtesy – journey – journal – glamour;

amateur – chauffeur; liqueur;

grammar – dollar – sugar – beggar – burglar – solar – vulgar – similar –


popular;

coward – steward – backward – forward.

Note: The word "amateur" has several variants of pronunciation.

The neutral sound [ə] as in BUT


but – cut – nut – bud – mud – bus – plus – fuss – buzz – must – dust – just
– rust – trust;

hush – rush – brush – blush – plush – much – such – cuff – stuff – buff –
puff;

duck – luck – truck – rug – bug – lug – mug – cup – cub – club – rub – tub;

fun – bun – gun – nun – pun – run – sun – dull – gull – hull – null – skull –
gulf – gulp;

hum – rum – drum – plum – slum; dumb – numb – thumb – plumb –


plumber;

jump – jumper – dump – dumpling – lump – plump – pump;

lucky – funny – ugly – under – supper – suddenly – study – punish – publish


– bundle – jungle – stumble;

unhappy – unreal – undo – understand – submit – suggest – supply –


support;

helpful – skillful – difficult – minus – bonus; adult – consult – result;

about – afraid – again – ago – aloud – around – aside – asleep – away –


alarm – alert – accept – advise – arrive – assume – avoid;

central – metal – signal – human – urban – constant – distant – instant –


likable – portable – cinema – opera – soda;

assistant – consultant – official – musician – technician – comedian;


republican;

come – some – son – ton – done – won – one – tongue – glove – love –
dove;

honey – money – mother – brother – other – onion – oven – dozen – color –


company – wonder;

melody – memory – history – lesson – person – button – custom – freedom


– wisdom – random – ransom;

correct – collect – consult – contain – complain – observe – obtain – opinion;

blood, flood;
rough – tough – touch – country – cousin – couple – double – trouble –
young – famous – jealous;

gallery – operate – tolerate – liberal – golden – often – darken – system –


agent – different – difference – payment – instrument;

terrible – horrible – possible – festival – animal – family;

station – nation – mention – fashion – mission – vision – question; attention


– production – promotion – reaction – tradition.

Note: The following transcription symbols are generally used for the neutral
sound in American ESL materials: 1. [ʌ] (caret) in stressed syllables (fun,
son) and [ə] (schwa) in unstressed syllables (about, lesson); 2. [ə] (schwa)
in both stressed and unstressed syllables.

Примечание: Следующие символы транскрипции обычно используются


для нейтрального звука в американских материалах ESL: 1. [ʌ] (caret) в
ударных слогах (fun, son) и [ə] (schwa) в неударных слогах (about,
lesson); 2. [ə] (schwa) и в ударных, и в неударных слогах

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