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LRBX5048

1995 .
(: 1999 .)

CATERPILLAR

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(A) .21

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c
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DeNOx . . . . . . . . .34


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JP5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
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/
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114
NEMA-IEC . . . . . .115
MG 1-22,40
NEMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115

MG 1-22,41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115

MG 1-22,42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115

(TIF) MG 1-22,43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115
MG 1-22,45
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MG 1-22,47 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116
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.123

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Caterpillar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84
ADEM II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84
Woodward . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
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( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95

(c ) . . . . . . . . . .95
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( ) 97
. .97
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. .103

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, A/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133
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(EPG
Designer),
, , , ,
.




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Caterpillar , . Caterpillar -
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.
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,

- . , .
, , . ,
, Caterpillar .

2.
, .


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.
.


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.

1.
.
: , ,
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(

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.


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6,7
(27 ).
.



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. , ,
, 60 %
,
30-
.
100 .

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200 .


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.


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5 .

3. , , . , - , .

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8,55

8,30

7,60

7,10

6,70

:
;
,
;

1,030
1,000
0,916
0,855
0,800


, .


. . 3
.

/
70
482

56
386
/

28
193




14
96,4


0-14
0-96,4


, .

,

( ),
.

1
Wall Mount the Battery Charger =

, , .

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, , .

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. .

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, .

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.


. . , , .

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, .
(P), ,
(W) (A) , .

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,

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, ;
,
,
300 (1 );

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,
(
, , ..
, ).

P = W/A

P , /2 ( . );
W , ();
A , 2 (. ).


1:2:3 ,
100 (4 ) 28-
, 20 (3000
. ).

8 ,
152,4-
(6-) .
6
305- (12 )
.
76,2
(3 ).


, . , - , Caterpillar
. , , .
. ,
, 125 % .

,
, :
FD = W / (D x B x L)

FD , ();
W
, ();
D , /2 ( . );
: 2403
150 ;

,
,
, 2
.

B , ();
L , ().

6
Single Bearing Generator =
Light Duty Base =
Two-Bearing Generator =
Structurally Rigid Base =

10

[(
5,5 x 10-6
1,8 C) (5,5 x 10-6
1,0 F)]

2,3
(0,09 ). . ,
. , , . -
.



,
,
,
.
.
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(. . 6).
, :

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11


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.

7
Vibration Frequency cpm =

Peak-to-Peak Vibration Amplitude-mils (0,001) =
(0,001)
Very Rough =
Acceptable Limits =
(No Load) = ( )

Engine and Generator =


Engine Only =
Rough =
Slightly Rough =
Fair =
Good =
Very Smooth =
Sensory perception Level =

12

, , ,
, .


.
.
.
(1 x /) 0,254
(0,010 )
,
0,051 (0,002 ). ,
. 7, .

,
, (. . 9),
.
1
, 1 .
1 , , ..,
1 , , ..
, 20
1 , 20
.


:
( ), . 8.
,
.
. , . -

8
Mass-Spring System =

W =
Spring At Rest =

(Mean Position = )
Spring Extended =

Position Of Weight (X) =

1 Cycle = 1
Amplitude =
Time =

9
Upper Limit =
Neutral Position =
Lower Limit =
Distance =
Peak Acceleration =

Peak Velocity =
Peak-To-Peak Displacement =

Time =

13



,
.

.
. ,
,
,
0.
,
0 .

,
, , .
[0,025 (0,001 )]. .

g. g
386
= 32,2 .


( = 0,707 ).
.

( g )
, .
(60 000 )
, ,
.

. ,
, .
.
0. .



g Peak ( ) = 1,42 D F2 x 10-8
. ,
. , ,
. , , . 10,
.

,
. , .

.
.


.
, .

:
V Peak = 52,3 D F x 10-6
,

V Peak
;
D
(1 = 0,001 );
F .

10

Unbalance = ( )
1 Mil = 1
Looseness =
Bad Gear =
Bad Bearing =

14


, , .
Caterpillar c , ,
.
. ,
.
, .
.
, 25 % ,
. , ,
.
, . ,
, ,
,
- .
, . ,
.
-
, (. 11) ,
.
,
.

11
Basic Vibration Chart =
Resonance Natural Frequency =

Isolation Efficiency % =
Vibration Frequency = ( )

,
, .
,
.
, , ,
. , ,
.
, , , . ,
(. . 12).

12
Poor =
Good =
etc. = ..

15

,

,
(. . 13).


, :
1. .

2. .


.
, ,
. . .
.
. 14. ,
.

3.
,
.
, , . , , - .
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, .
,
, .
, , , .
, . , , , .


.
.
,
.

14
WG =
CG =
WT =
WE =
WR =
Rear Face of Flywheel Housing =

. , , (WT)
. (. . 14).

, .
WT (D) = WE (D2) WG (D1) +WR (D3)
D = [WE (D2) WG (D1) + WR (D3)] / WT
13

Base mounting holes =


Locknut =
Isolator mounting holes =

Leveling bolt =
Snubber bolt =

16

,
2 1,414.


. . 17.
96 % ,

, .
.

. . , ,
.

,
.15,
,
:
S1 = W B / C
S2 = WT A /C
CG =

, . , .

15

,
. 99 % . ,
, .

, .

, .
, .

, . 16.
,

, ,
, , . . , -

16
Transmissibility =
Transmitted Force =
Disturbing Force =
Theoretical Curve =
Transmitting Effect Without Isolation =

Ratio =
Disturbing Frequency =
Mounting Natural frequency =

% Transmissibility =

17


.

.

18
Separator =
Foundation =
Isolating Material =
Subbase =

17

.
, .

.
,
,

- 20 95 C ( 20
200 F).



.
, .


200-250
(8-10 ).
. .
,
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.
, .
, .


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,
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,
. ,
,
.
. , ,
. .
.


, , , . .

.

.

. 19
1897 . , .

18

19

20

Zone 0 - No Significant Damage = 0 -
Zone 1 - Minor Damage = 1 -
Zone 2 - Moderate Damage = 2 -
Zone 3 - Major Damage = 3 -
Zone 4 - Major Faults

19

.
, ,
, ,
, , ,
,
.
, :



,
, , . , , , .
.
, , .

A. :
1. .
2. .
3. .
B. :
1.
,

.


.
.
, .

2. (WR2)
-
.
3.
.
, .
4.
.


,
,

.

,
.
:

21
Torsional Vibration =

= [/ (.)
/ (.)] / [/ ()]

Caterpillar,
,
.
,
,
.
.
, .


.

,

.


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.

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. .
, . ()

20


(A)




5000 10 000 . (
, .)

() A

, . 22.

,
.

(A).


. , ,
,
. ,
,
, ,

.
3 .

X
2X
4X


100 %
50 %
25 %


,
.

.
,
.

.
, 100 000
.

.
().


.
,

.
22
Signals Entering Filter =
A Weighted Filtering =

Signals Leaving Filter =


High Frequencies =
Low Frequencies =
dB Total =
dB (A) Total = (A)
Relative Response -Decibels =

Response Characteristics of Standard A Filter =
Frequency-Hertz (cycles per sec.) = , (
)

5000-10 000
.

.
-
.

21


,

.
,

,

.
, ..
, . 23, .


.

24
Increase In Sound Pressure in dB or dB (A)=
(A)
Number of sources =

. 25 c
.
,
.
,
,

.
,
.
, ,

.

23

ANSI
S1,11
IEC 225
Band Designation (Center Frequency) =
( )
Band Limits =
Hz =


,
, .


.
(. 24)
( 10)
.

25
Decibels added to higher of two noises to obtain total in decibel =
,

Difference between two noises in dB =

22



. ,

,
.


.
, .
,
. ,
,
.


D(8)
,
:


. 27.



.
,

.
10 (A)
.


,
. ,
,
. . 28

.

D(8) = (1/T1) +(C2/T2) +... +(Cn/Tn), Cn



,
Tn
,
(. . 26).
, 1 .


,
8
6
4
3
2
1,5
1
1/2
1/4

, ( )
90
92
95
97
100
102
105
110
115

,
,
.

20 (A).

26

31,5

63

125

250

500

1000

2000

4000

8000

71
73
76
81

63
69
71
75

44
52
59
65

37
44
50
58

35
39
44
54

34
38
43
50

33
38
43
47

33
38
43
44

33
38
43
43

81
87

77
85

71
81

64
75

60
71

58
70

56
68

55
66

54
66

112

108

100

95

94

94

94

94

94

27

23




.


.

,
.
,
15 (A).
3,3
(10 ) .


.
,

.

29
Attenuation in decibels =
Straight through packed =
Straight through non-packed =
Octave bands in cycles per seconds =

Chamber =
28
Original Machine =
Vibration Isolators =
Baffle =
Absorption Material Only =
Rigid Sealed Enclosure =

Enclosure and Isolators =


Enclosure, Absorption and Isolators = ,

Double Walled Enclosure, Absorption and Isolators =
,
Approximate Sound Level Reduction dB (A) =
, (A)

24


(A)
(A),
.

, (A) =
= , (A) - 10 x Log10 (CpD2),
= 2 ,
,
,
,


. . . , (, ). ,
. ,
( )
.

C = 4 ,

, , ,
,
.
D , ().

,
, ,

, :
SPL2 = SPL1 - 20 x Log10 (D2 D1),

SPL1
, (A);
SPL2
, (A);
D1 , ();
D2 , ().

25


.
6-7
.


0,09 3/ (3,2 . )

17
. (V) (M)

;

: .

V (3/) = 0,01486 x M (/)

V (. ) = 0,2382 x M ( )



. ,
.

, ,
40 %
, .

, , . 99,5 % .

. , ,
1,2 (5
). ,

6,2 (25 ). , , 12,5 (50 ),

Caterpillar.

,
0-5
6 - 10
11 - 20
21 - 40
41 - 80
81 -200


, . ,
, ,
.

, , .
,
() 0,5 (2 ).
. . .

12,5 (50 ) .


(% )

39 2 %
12 2 %
18 3 %
12 3 %
16 3 %
14 3 %
18 3 %
23 3 %
93%
30 3 %
0
92 3 %

,
.

( )

, (-
, , ..) ,
6,2 (25
). ,
1,2 (5 )
, .
,
,
.



,
. 0,25-0,75
(1-3 ),
.

, 70 %,
, 92 %. ,
.
, ,

26

P () = (L x S x Q2 x 3,6 x 106) / D5

, , . ,
. 50 (2 ),
200 (8 ).
,

.

P ( ) = L x S x Q2 / 187 x D5

P , ( );
psi ( . ) = 0,0361 x
;
kPa 6,3246 x ;
L ,
();
Q , 3/ (.
)

;


,
, .
, . 30.
.

D , ().
,

:
D = (2 x a x b) / (a +b)
S , /3 ( . )
S (/3)= 352,5 / + 273 C
S ( . ) = 39,6 /
/ +460 F

:

( )
30
l = 50 (2 )
Air lnlet Pipe =
Turboharger =
Flexible Connection =
Support =

L = 33D / X
( > 1,5 )
L = 20D / X
45
L = 15D / X

,
. , , .

L = 66D / X
X 1000 12 .
, , , , .


.
.

27

. , ,
, .


, -25 C
(-13 F),
( ). ,
.

,
, 0 C (32 F).



.


, , ,
.

,
, 12,5
(50 ).
, .

28


.
, . ,
.
,
,
.

.
,

.


. .
.


. , .
.

, , .
. .
(MSHA)
200 C
(400 F). ,
, ,
.
20-40 %,

/
.


. .
,
229 (9 ).

.
, ,
305 (12 ), (. . 32).
,
. , . , , ,
.
, 35-45,
, . ,
, .
. , ,
.
,
( . 32).

31
Water = ;
Exhaust =
Air passage =
Water Cooled =
Dry =
Water Shielded = C
Air Cooled Water Shielded =

29

32
Piping Pitched Slightly To Encourage Condensation Away From
Engine =

Long Sweep Elbow =

Flexible Pipe Connection =


Vibration Isolators =
Muffler =
Drain =
Thimble =
View A-A = -



,
.

Caterpillar 6,7 (27
). 2,5
(10 ) (Diesel
Naturally Aspirated (NA) Gas Engines) 3600.
3600
0,8 % ,
2,5 (10 ). , , 2,5 (10 ).

. , .
.
.
, .
,
,
.
, ,
.
. ,
.

,
,
,
3-5
,
.


,
,

.


,
, .
( )
. .

30


,
.

, ,
. . 34
.


,
.

V = Q /A
V ( )
Q (. )

A .
. 33.

P (ka) = [(L x S x Q2 x 3,6 x 106) / D5] + Ps


P ( ) =
=

LxSx

Q2

187 x D5


, .
0,00546
0,0123
0,0218
0,0341
0,0491
0,0668
0,0872
0,136
0,196
0,349
0,545
0,785
1,07
1,39
1,77
2,18
2,64
3,14
3,68
4,28
4,91

+ Ps,

P , ( );
Ps
;
psi 0,0361 x ;
kPa 6,3246 x ;
L , ();
Q , 3/ (. );
D , ();
S , /3 ( . ).

S (/3) = 352,5 / (
+273 )
S ( . ) = 39,6 / (
+ 460 F)

,
1
1, 5
2
1, 5
3
3, 5
4
5
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30

33


:
(
)
L = 33D /X
( > 1,5 )
L = 20D / X
45
L =15D / X

L =66D / X
X = 1000 12 .
,
, ,
,
.

34
Silencer Pressure Drop, in. H2O =
,
Velocity =

31

4 5
25,4
1,0
6,25
0,25
6,25
2,5
6
38,1
1,5
6,25
0,25
6,25
2,5
,

8 12
19,05
0,75
38,1
1,50
25,40
1,00
14
19,05
0,75
76,2
3,00
25,40
1,00
18
22,86
0,90
76,2
3,00
44,45
1,75



.
.

:

;

()
;
,
, ,

, , .


.

. .
,
.

Flanges must be parallel =


Free Lenght =
Diameter =
B C

/
-
8
29,7
170
12
33,9
194
14
68,5
391
18
19,3
110

. 35
,
Caterpillar,
.

35



, .
,
-
.

32

, , , ,
.

. , ,
,
.
,
(. 37).


, . 100 C (212 F)
1,13 (
0,0076 ).
35 510 C ( 100 950 F)
3,05 (10 ) 16 (0,65 ).

. .


.

,
. . 36.

. ,
.

37
Poor =
Good =
etc. = ..

36
Long Sweep Elbow =
Flexible Pipe Connection =
Engine Exhaust Outlet =
Roller Pipe Support =
Rigid Pipe Support =

Slight Pitch Away from Engine =



Drain =
Thimble with Spray Shield =
Vertical Pipe Support =

33



DeNOx




.
Caterpillar. .

, .


,
. DeNOx
Caterpillar , ,
(NOx)
. . , DeNOx 80 % . ,

0,05 %.
.

, c , ,
.

.
,
.

. .
80 %, N2 .
. ,
,
, ASTM-D 4806 , , 95 % , 5 % ( ) .





. .

Horiba Beckman.

( 40, 53
86).



. ( )
2:1. 0,789 ,
6,6 . 5 % .

,
Caterpillar, :


(NOx)

(CO)

(C)


/ . . .

12,0
15,0


/ . . .

19,0

1,2

2,0

3,5

2,0

1,5

1,0

1,7

0,4

1,5

1,5

0,5

0,35

34


6 10 %
, . , , - , , .
,
, .
, , , , . , ,
.

39


:
V = H / (D x Cp x DT)
V , 3/ (.
);
H , (. . ./);
D 38 C (100 F),
1,099 /3 (0,070 . );
CP ,
0,017 / K) (0,24 . . ./ F).
, , , (. . 39). , . 38.

38


, (. . 38).
.

(T) 7-10 C (44,6-50 F) .



.
,
.


. ,
. .

,
,
. ,
, .

, ,
.

.
.

35

, 0,028-0,042 3
(1-1,5 . ) . .
.

,
.

.
. ,

.
.
.
0,25 (1 ).

40
Movable Louvers =

.

.
.


, ,


. .
() , ,
0,06 (0,25
).


10 %
765 .
,
, .



. . ,
, , .


, ,
.
,
:



,
,

88 C (190 F).

/
15,2
30,5
45,7

36

50
100
150

396,0

1300

61,0

200

306,0610,0

12102000

,
,

, , 25 C
(77 F) 150 (500 ).
, ,
. . , , , .
.
,
.

,
Caterpillar
. , 20 40 %
, ,
.
,
,
, ,
.

, ,

.


. , .
177 C (350 F).



, ,

.

, .

, ,
,
.



. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 %

: = +
, + +
+ + .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 %
. .0 %
. . .10 %

, BSFC
(. . ./ /. . .)
. . ./.
. . ./
60 .

. . . .10 %

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 %
() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 %
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(25 %


.
. . ./.
42,4 . . ./.


Caterpillar
9,4 C (15 F),
. - , , DT.


,
, 25 C (77 F).
.
, .

,
. , , .

37

. , , , .

(/) =
= () / [DT (C) x (/) x
( - / C)]

. .

, 54 C (129 F).

( /) = (. .
./) / [DT (C) x ( ) x
x (. . ./ F)]

, /
,

,
/ C
,
. . ./ F

0,98
8,1

50/50

1,03
8,6

0,071

0,06

1,0

0,85


54 C (129 F).
.

, .

,
, . .




,
.
.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .276
. . . . . . . . . .(40 . )
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .276
. . . . . . . . . .(40 . )

. . .173
. . . . . . . .(25,07 . )



(..
) . . . . . . . . . . .196
. . . . . . . .(28,41 . )

:

, ,
,

;


(
);

,

.
.
,
, 88 C (190 F), ,
.
, .

, ..
. , , ,


;
,
,
;

.



.
,
,
.
,
.

38

,
,
. , .



. , c , 15 % .

.



:
.


,

/ , . 55a.
, . ( ,
) , -
, , .. , ..

, . , ,
. , , .
, .

1,4 C .

, , ,
.
,
,
, .
.


.
.
25 % - , . ,
40 %.



(. . 44).
. ,
. ,

.


, . . , , .
, , .


,
, , .
.

39


( ) .
.
. .

=
=

x

=
=
x

,
,
, ,
. , ,
(. 41).
. ,
.
635 (0,25 ).

=
=
x

=
=
x 2

=
= ,
x 3

=
=
0,7
x

=
=
0,7
x


= (99 C
) /

41
Blower fan =
Air duct (to outside) = ()
Flexible joint =


= 210 F
) /

,
, . 42a 42b. ,
/ , ,

(. . 42c).


,
99 C (210 F),
, .

. , .

. ,
. ,
.

, 8-10 C (46,4-50 F).


6 C (10 F).

40

,
, .
, ,
. ,
.
:

42
,
incorrect =
correct =
,

,
3 C (37,4 F)


4 C (39,2 F)

7 C (44,6 F)
,


9 C (48,2 F)
,

FF =

U coolant

1
U clean core

FF , . . ./ . 2 F;
U coolant
, . . ./ . 2 F;
U clean core
, . . ./
. 2 F.

.


116 C (240 F)
52 C (125 F)


3
3


0,0005
0,0005

0,002
0,001

:

0,001
0,001

0,003
0,003

0,001
0,001
(,
)
0,003
0,002

( 15
0,003
0,003

)

0,001
0,001


0,001
0,0005

,

, .

. -
. .
.
. . , , . .
,
10 %
. 10 %

41

, , , .

43
Expansion Tank =
Radiator =
Height of Coolant Above Engine Jacket Water Pump Must Be Less
Than 17,4 m (57 ft) = c

17,4 (57 )
Jacket Water Pump =


.
.
,
. ,
, .
, .
.



:



;


.
.
, .


15 %
.

;





;


.

42

44


Radiator =
Outlet =
Return =
Bypass Line =
Engine Thermostat =

Engine Driven J. W. Pump =



All Engine Models =
Piping =
Part of Engine =
A-B: =
A-C: =


- .


.
,
, ,
,


.


- 30-37 % . 20-40 %
, 30-40 %- 5 %
.


.
.

, ,
,.
50-70 % . 80 % .


96 (14 . ).

.

, , , , .
.
, ,
- .

.
,
. , , , .

. .

,
99 C (210 F),
, , 126,7 C (260 F). , , ,
, .

,
.

43

45

Exhaust Heat Recovery Device =



Generator =
To Load =
From Load =
A/C =
Separate Circuit Cooling =
Thermostat =

Engine =
Engine Mounted Expansion Tank = ,

Load Balancing Heat Exchanger =

To Remote Cooling Device =
Load Balancing Thermostatic Valve = T

Engine Coolant Heat Exchanger =

: , . .
. , , .


, .
38-65 C (100-149 F).
, . ,
60 %.


,

.
. . 46
,
. , - . , . .

, .
,

.

,
,
,
.
. 45.
:
, .
.
, .

,
,
( ).

44

46
C

Exhaust Heat Recovery Device =

Generator =
Air Vent & Deaeration Line =

A/C =
Separate Circuit Cooling =
Excess Flow Bypass Valve =

Engine =
Jacket Water Pump =

Engine Mounted Expansion Tank = ,



Low Water Level Shut Down =

JW Heat Exchanger =

Low Water Flow Shut-Down =



Circulating Pump =
Pressure Cap & Vacuum Breaker =

Expansion Tank =
Relief Valve =
Load Balancing Heat Exchanger =

Load Balancing Thermostatic Valve = T

Load Heat Exchanger =
To Remote Cooling Device =
Load Balancing Thermostatic Control Valve = T

To Load =
From Load =

47


Exhaust Heat Recovery Device =

A/C =
Air Vent & Deaeration Line =

Low Water Flow Shut-Down =



Circulating Pump =
Warm-up Thermostatic Valve =

Pressure Cap & Vacuum Breaker =


Expansion Tank =
Relief Valve =
Low Water Level Shut Down =

Load Balancing Heat Exchanger =

To Remote Cooling Device =

Load Balancing Thermostatic Valve = T



Engine Coolant Heat Exchanger =

To Load =
From Load =

45

, .
,
,
.




(. . 47).
,
.

, ,
.
.
, -

:
, . ,
, , .

48

Exhaust Heat Recovery Device =



Generator =
A/C =
Air Vent Line =
To Load =
From Load =
Engine =
O/C =
Separate Circuit Cooling =
Low Water Flow Shut-Down =

Circulating Pump =
Warm-up Thermostatic Valve =

Pressure Cap & Vacuum Breaker =



Expansion Tank =
Relief Valve =
Low Water Level Shut Down =

Load Balancing Heat Exchanger =

To Remote Cooling Device =

Load Balancing Thermostatic Valve = T



Engine Coolant Heat Exchanger =


,
.


,
. . - .

,
, ( , )
8,5 C (46,4 F).

46

.

,

.

,
,
,

,
:

, , ,

. 172
(25 . ), 35 (5 . ) ,
.. .


,
( ,
) 8,5 C (46,4 F);

;

;



,
.
.
10 C (50 F),
,
, .


, ;

.

;


;

, ,

, , , 99-126,7 C (210-260 F). , .
,
27,6-34,5 (4-5 .
) ,
.
, , .
126,7 C (260 F)
172 (25
. ).
276 (40 . ).

, .
,
(..48).



;

,
;
;

,
.
.

.
,
, ;
,
,
,
.
,
;


- .
47


10 % .


, , ,

, ,
, 96,5 (14
. ).

. ,
.
, . 49,
.
103 (15 . ) , . 96,5 (14 . ),
.
.
, . 89,6
(13 . ),


( ).

, .

48

49

Exhaust Heat Recovery Device =



Generator =
To Load =
From Load =
A/C =
Engine =
O/C =
Separate Circuit Cooling =
15 psig Maximum Relief Pressure =
15 .
Low Water Flow Shut-Down =

Circulating Pump =

14 psig = 14 .
Pressure Control Valve =
Steam Separator =
Water Level Control =
Low Water Level Shut-Down =

13 psig = 13 .
Load Balancing Condenser =
Air Eliminator =
Condensate Pump =
Condensate Tank =
Excess Steam Valve =
To Waste Cooling Device =

Make-Up Water =
Steam To Load =
Condensate From Load =

, .
;

,


.
. ,
;


.


;

55
(8,0 . ) 197 (28,5 .
).
126,7 C
(260 F);


.


.

;

, ,
.
, .
.
,


.
;


- ()

,
.

49

.
,
.
. , .
1,1-1,7 C
(33,8-35,6 F).
. - ,
, , , , .

Q - (. . ./);
C
- 0,258 . . ./ 1 F
- 0,279 . . ./ 1 F;
M ( ).
1
, F;
T2
, F;
(. ) x 60 x 39,6
M=


, c
, . , -
. ,
, 104 C
(220 F), , .
Caterpillar
7,9 . . ./ (5,5 . . ./ / . .)
12,2 . . ./ (8,5 . . ./ /
. .) .





.
, 149 C
(300 F),
.
,
:
Q = CpM (T1 T2),

. . . :

, . . . = (. . ./) / 33, 475

Q (/);
C
- 1,081 / 1 C
- 1,170 / 1 C;

M ( ).
1
, C;

T2
, C;


. ,
, .
. , ,
, , , .

M = (3/ x 60 x 353,0) / [T1(C) +273 F]

Q = CpM (T1 T2)

T1 ( F) +460 F

50

43
Expansion Tank =
Radiator =
Height of Coolant Above Engine Jacket Water Pump Must Be Less
Than 17,4 m (57 ft) = c

17,4
(57 )
Jacket Water Pump =

, ,
, .
, 29 C (85 F)
. c
, .
, .
,
. . 51 .


17,4
(57 ).


.

,
.
,
(.
. 50). . , .


, . , . . . ,
,
0,003 . (0,0353 . ) . , 29 C
(85 F).

, ,
.
, .
, .
.

600 (2 )
6,9
(1 . ).

51

51
c
Flexible Connectors =
Engine Mounted Expansion Tank = ,

Support Pipe in Water To Allow Circulation Of Water Around Pipe =


Galvanized Pipe =
Drain Plug =

;
;
;
;
.

, .
.

, .
.

.

.

,
.
,
.


, , ,

() .

, , 5,5 C (41 F). , , ,


2,7 C (35,6 F). 1 % .


, ,
,
.

, 252 /
/0,453 / (1000 . . .)
. , , .

52

:

.



.


.
,
,
,
, , .
,
, ,
15 % , .
.

, .
,
. ,
. .
.
. . .



.
, ,
.
19 / (5 /). ,

,
. . , , ,
.

.
, . 6,3
(0,25 ).

53

.
,
(. . 54). , ,
.

52
()
Expansion Tank =
Make-Up Line =
Regulator (Inlet-Control) = ( )
Vent Line =
Radiator =
De-aeration Chamber and Vent Line =

Engine Water Pump =


, .
,

.
,
,
. .
(. . 52). , ,
0,6 / (2 ). ,
. , ,
10 (3/8 ),
. , ,
,
(. . 53).

53
To System Expansion Tank =
Water Velocity Less Than 2 FPS (0,6 m/s) =
2 (0,6 /)

54

54a

54b

54c

55

54a


Deaeration and Vent Line 3/8 in diameter minimum =
.
3/8
Radiator =
14 psi Cap = ,
14 .
Expansion Tank =
Fill Line =
Outlet =
Connection Line = ,
1
Return =
1/4 in. Diameter Vent Line, if Required =
1/4 ,
Engine Thermostat =
Bypass Line =
Engine Driven J. W. Pump =

All Engine Models =
54b


14 psi Cap = ,
14 .
Fill Line =
Alternate Connection in Return Line =

Deaeration and Vent Line 3/8 in diameter minimum =
.
3/8
Outlet =
Return =
Bypass Line =
Engine Driven J. W. Pump =

1/4 in. Diameter Vent Line, if Required =
1/4 ,
Engine Thermostat =
All Engine Models =
54c

14 psi Cap = ,
14 .
Fill Line =
Alternate Connection Location in Return Line =

Deaeration and Vent Line =
.
1/4 in. Diameter Vent Line, if Required =
1/4 ,
Outline =
Return =
Bypass Line =
Engine Driven J. W. Pump =

Engine Thermostat =
All Engine Models =

56

55a

55b
55a


Full Flow Expansion Tank =

Heat Exchanger =
Return =
Engine Thermostat =
Outlet =
Engine Driven J. W. Pump =

55b


Heat Exchanger =
Remote Expansion Tank =

Shunt Line =
Engine Thermostat =
Engine Driven J. W. Pump =

Outlet =
Return =
Deaeration and Vent Line 3/8 in diameter minimum =
.
3/8
Vent, if required = ,

57

, , (. 54a,b,c).
.
. , .

.





.
. , .


,
. ,
, .

(. 55b). ,
.
25,4 (1 ).
,
.
- .

.
(. . 55a).


, ,
,
. .
, .
, ,
,
, .
, .
,
. . .
.
,
. , , 3516 1200 / 350
.
35 (. . 57).



. . ,
.
. ,

56


Radiator =
Outlet =
Return =
Bypass Line =
Engine Thermostat =
Engine Driven J. W. Pump =

All Engine Models =
Piping =
Part of Engine =
A-B: =
A-C: =

58

.
,
.


()


.
, ,
, . 58 59.

. 60
.
, .


.

. -


( / )

)
4,5
15




( )

2,5

1,5

0,6

gal min =
External Resistance meter of Water =
External Water Flow L/min= , /
ft of Water =

59


, /

, /


3RC00001
A

1300

1200

1100

1000

900

800

2600

2400

2200

1800

1600

,
/

2000

800

5,8

900
1000
1100
1200
1400

13,2

1600
1800
1900

8,8
4,4
2,3

211,4
237,8
269,2
290.6
317,0
364,9
422,7
475,6

13,1
9,0

5,0
1,0

11,0
9,2
5,4

7,4
5,8
4,4
2,8

9,1
7,3
5,7
2,4

4,4
3,1
1,8
0,4

2:1

(1300
/ )

1,7

43,2
28,7
14,5

43,0
29,5
16,4
3,3



2W9729

36,1
30,0
17,8
5,6

29,9
24,1
18,8
7,8

24,3
19,1
14,3
9,2

19,0
14,6
10,2
5,7
1,3

57

60


( )
( )
/

/100
( 100 )

19,05
(3/4 )

25,4
(1 )

31,75
(1 1/4
)

38,1
(1 1/2
)

50,8
(2 )

63,5
(2 1/2
)

0,34

10,5

3,25

0,84

0,40

0,16

0,05

0,63
0,95
1,26
1,58

10
15
20
25

11,7
25,0
42,0
64,0

3,05
6,50
11,1
16,6

1,43
3,05
5,20
7,85

0,50
1,07
1,82
2,73

1,9
2,21
2,52
2,84

30
35
40
45

38,0
80,0
136,0
101,6
(4 )
0,13
0,17
0,22
0,28

23,0
31,2
40,0
50,0

11,0
14,7
18,8
23,2

3,15
3,79
4,42
4,73
5,05
5,68

50
60
70
75
80
90

0,34
0,47
0,63
0,72
0,81
1,00

89,0
119,0
152,0
127
(5 )
0,11
0,16
0,21
0,24
0,27
0,34

6,31
7,89

100
125

1,22
1,85

0,41
0,63

60,0
85,0
113,0
129,0
145,0
152,4
(6 )
0,17
0,26

9,46
11,05

150
175

2,60
3,44

0,87
1,16

12,62
14,20
15,77
17,35

200
225
250
275

4,40
5,45
6,70
7,95

18,93
20,5
22,08
23,66

300
325
350
375

25,24
26,81
28,39
29,97
31,55
47,32
63,09
78,86
94,64
110,41
126,18

400
425
450
475
500
750
1000
1250
1500
1750
2000

0,34

0,17
0,37
0,61
0,92

76,2
(3 )
0,07
0,15
0,25
0,38

0,63
0,95
1,26
1,58

10
15
20
25

3,84
5,10
6,60
8,20

1,29
1,72
2,20
2,76

0,54
0,71
0,91
1,16

1,9
2,21
2,52
2,84

30
35
40
45

28,4
39,6
53,0
60,0
68,0
84,0

9,90
13,9
18,4
20,9
23,7
29,4

3,32
4,65
6,20
7,05
7,90
9,80

1,38
1,92
2,57
2,93
3,28
4,08

3,15
3,79
4,42
4,73
5,05
5,68

50
60
70
75
80
90

35,8
54,0

12,0
17,6

4,96
7,55

6,31
7,89

100
125

0,36
0,48

102,0
177,8
(7 )
0,17
0,22

25,7
34,0

10,5
14,1

9,46
11.05

150
175

1,48
1,85
2,25
2,70

0,61
0,77
0,94
1,10

0,28
0,35
0,43
0,51

76,0
203,2
(8 )
0,15
0,19
0,24
0,27

17,8
22,3
27,1
32,3

12,62
14,20
15,77
17,35

200
225
250
275

9,30
10,8
12,4
14,2

3,14
3,65
4,19
4,80

1,30
1,51
1,70
1,95

0,60
0,68
0,77
0,89

0,32
0,37
0,43
0,48

43,1
54,3
65,5
228,6
(9 )
0,18
0,21
0,24
0,28

18,93
20,5
22,08
23,66

300
325
350
375

16,0
17,9
19,8

5,40
6,10
6,70
7,40
8,10

2,20
2,47
2,74
2,82
2,90
7,09
12,0

1,01
1,14
1,26
1,46
1,54
3,23
5,59
8,39
11,7

0,55
0,61
0,68
0,75
0,82
1,76
2,97
4,48
6,24
7,45
10,71

0,31
0,35
0,38
0,42
0,46
0,98
1,67
2,55
3,52
4,70
6,02

38,0
44,1
50,5
254
(10 )
0,19
0,21
0,23
0,26
0,28
0,59
1,23
1,51
2,13
2,80
3,59

25,24
26,81
28,39
29,97
31,55
47,32
63,09
78,86
94,64
110,41
126,18

400
425
450
475
500
750
1000
1250
1500
1750
2000

58

61


. , ,
6 ,

6 16 .
:
(d),
.

Sudden Enlargement =
d/D = 1/4; d/D = 1/2; d/D = 3/4
Ordinary Entrance & Swing Check Valve =

Sudden Contraction =
45 Elbow = 450
Copyright by Crane Co.

Conversion Chart =
Equivalent Length of Straight Pipe, Feet =

Nominal Diameter of Standard Pipe, Inches =

Inside Diameter Inches =
mm =
INCHES =
FEET =

59
Globe Valve, Open = ,
Angle Valve = ,
Close Return Bend =
Standard Tee Through Side Outlet =

Standard Elbow or run of Tee reduced 1/2 =
, 1/2
Medium Sweep Elbow or run of Tee reduced 1/4 =
, 1/4
Long Sweep Elbow or run of Standard Tee =

Gate Valve =
3/4, 1/2 ,1/4 Closed = 3/4, 1/2 ,1/4
Fully Open =
Standard Tee =
Square Elbow =
Entrance =

62

A = in2 (ID) = .
ID =
For Other Wall Thickness =
NOM. Tube Size 0,065 Wall =
0,065

60
Velocity vs Flow =
Standard Pipe Sizes (1,5 in.-5 in.) 38,1-127 mm =
(1,5-5 ) 38,1-127
m/s = /
Velocity =
fps =
Flow =
gpm =
Velocity vs Flow =
Tube Sizes 25,4-127 mm (1,5 in.-5 in.) OD =
1,5-5 (38,1-127 )
(Common Usage Wall Thickness) =

V = Velocity (fps) = ( )
Q = Flow (gpm) = ( )


( )

( )

63

( )


.
: - , .

, -
. . .

,

,
100 C (212 F). ,
, . , ,
. .
, .

, . ( )
, .

.


, 17,1
/. . , 3,5

.
, ASTM D4985:

5,5 9,0
40

100

340

2,4

5,9

20,0

170

10,0

,
, .

. ,
. ,
, ,
, . 8,5-10 ,
3-6 %.
, , ,
.
, .

150
SiO2
700
CaCO3
10

2680
10,011,5

,
:


;

, CaCO3,
200-400 ;


;
.


Caterpillar ,
Dowtherm 209. 30-. .

250 . ,

64

0,1
0,05
0,3
CaCO3


,
,
-
-
,
.


,
.


Dowtherm 209.
,
Caterpillar NALCO 2000


.

61


TEMPERATURE ( F) = , F
BOILING TEMP. =
RECOMMENDED CONCENTRATION RANGE 30-67 % =

( SEA LEVEL) =
FREEZING TEMP =

.61 ,
.

, .
30 %
.
60 %
.
2 %
10 % .


3,3 C (37,4 F).



.
.
,
,

.

,
,
.

,
,
.
.
.

,
.

.


.

65

.
,
, .
.


. ( ). , , , 56,60-25 () .

.
, , .
.
, 2
. , . , ,
. ,
. ,
. , . ,
, .

. 700
. , 37

.

. ,
. .
, .
,
, ,
. ,
, -

, , .
Caterpillar
3 (9 ), ,
.
Overflow Line =
Fill Line =
Auxiliary Pump =
Main Tank =
Sediment and Water =
Drain =

:
,

.


.
62
Engine =
Return Line =
Sediment Bowl =

Shut-off =
Vent =
Auxiliary Tank =
Draw =

66

,
,
,
20 (3 . ),
,
, 3,5 (0,5
. ), .


, .
. , ,
,
.

, -,
42,2 (40 . . .)
.
,

68 C (154 F). ,
6 C (42,8 F) 38 C (100 F) 1 %.

, , , , . , 9 (30 ), , .


.
.
,
.


.
.
,
. , .
( ,
)
.

,
0,30
(0,012 ),
.

.
,
.



. . 50 (2 )
, . , ,
. .
( ) .

,
,

.
, ,
,
,
,
.

,
.

.


15 (50 ) 1,8
(6 ) , .
3 (9 ).

,
.
.
,
,
.
,
20

67

63

High Fuel Level =
Sight Glass =
Auxiliary Fuel Pump =
Baffle =
Shut-Off Valve =
Tank to Engine (Delivery Line) = (
)
Main Tank to Auxiliary Tank =
( )
Vent Cap -Locate Away From Flame or Sparks =

Engine to Tank (Retrun Line) = (


)
Auxiliary Tank to Main Tank Line (Overflow Line) =

( )
Pump Control Float Switch =

Cleaning Access =
Sediment and Water Trap =
2 in. = 2
Drain Valve =

68

A. ,
,
.


2
2D.


.
,


.

B. 0,4 %.

.

.
C.
. API
( )
c .

Caterpillar
.
,
(

).

D. . ,
.
.

, ,
:
ASTM D396 (ASTM =
) 1 2
( );

E. . ,
,
. , , .

ASTM D975 - 1-D


2-D;
BS2869 - A1, A2, B1 B2;
DIN51601 (DI -
) ;

F.
,
.

DIN51603 - (EL).


35
40
100 ( ) 38 C (100 F)
6 C (42,8 F)


( 0,5 %)
0,1 %

69

G.
,
,
.



.
.

, ,
.

.

H.
,
.
I.
,
.



API
45
37,78 C (100 F) 20
( )
-
35 %


30 %


0,5 %

35 ( )
40
( )

J. ,
, ,
.
K. 50 C
(122 F)
. ,
,
.
, . 80 % , .
, .

64

:
Caterpillar
35 API.
API ( )
,

.


.
Caterpillar
.

70

JP5
, . ,
. ,

Caterpillar , 1,4 (), . , , /
.


Caterpillar
.
. , - .
, .

:
.


.

65
,
(
)
Point A =
Air To Carburetor =
Load Adjustment Valve =
Carb =
Differential Here To Point A is Differential Gas Pressure =
,
Balance Line (12,7 mm) 1/2 in. Tubing Minimum =
(12,7 ) 1/2 .

Gas Pressure Regulator =

71

66

Fuel =
Pressure Regulator =
Fuel Valve & Actuator =
Fuel Mass Flow Sensor =
Air =
Air Mass Flow Sensor =
Balance Line =
Turbocharger =
Air/Fuel =
Carburetor Mixer =
Desired Speed =

Actual Speed =
Air Flow =
Fuel Flow =
Oxygen Sensor =
Aftercooler =
Electronic Control =
Actuator =
Throttle Body =
Speed Sensor =
Fuel Valve Actuator =
Throttle Body Actuator =
Exhaust Stack =
Engine =
Flywheel =


.

,

.



-
.
/ -
.

, .
()
G3300


G3400


G3500



(
9:1 8:1)

(
11:1)


G3600
G3600

, .
()

1,5
12

(10)
(83)

10
25

(69)
(172)

1,5
20

(10)
(138)

5
25

(35)
(172)

1,5
1,5

(10)
(10)

35

(241)

40

(276)

31

(214)

40

(276)

25

(172)

25

(172)

(14)

10

(69)

(330)

150

2
48

7
5

(48)
(35)

(1030)

67
, .

72

68


Balance Line Must Be Kept Separate =

Point A =
Carburetor =
Carb =
Differential Regulator =
Pressure Switch =
Low Btu Adjustment Valve =

Natural Gas (Low Btu Gas) = (
)
Balance Line (12,7 mm) 1/2 in. =
(12,7 ) 1/2
High Btu Adjustment Valve =

(25,4 mm) 1 in. H2O Neg. Differential Here To Point A =


, (25,4 )
1 ,
(139,7 mm) 5,5 in. (127,0 mm) 5 in. H2O Differential Here To Point
A For Low Btu Gas = ,
(139,7 ) 5,5 ,
.
Manual Shut-Off Valve (Or) Solenoid Valve & Pressure Switch =

Solenoid Valve =
Vaporized Propane Gas (High Btu Gas) = (
)
A Regulator =
*

.

73



.

.
.
:
3,78 (1 ) = 1,03 3 (36,39 . )
= 0,88 3 (31,26 . )
10-12 %

.

,
.
, ,
, ,

.

69
Pressure =
Vapor Pressure (Approximate Values) =
( )
Propane =
50/50 Mixture = 50/50
Butane =
Temperature Vapor-Pressure Curve =

(14,08 kg/cm2) 200 psi = (14,08 /2) 200 .
(11,25 kg/cm2) 160 psi = (11,25 /2) 160 .
(8,44 kg/cm2) 120 psi = (8,44 /2) 120 .
(5,62 kg/cm2) 80 psi = (5,62 /2) 80 .
(2,81 kg/cm2) 40 psi = (2,81 /2) 40 .


.
.

74

.

.

Caterpillar

.

.
,

.


.

,
.

,
.

70
Starting Motor =
To Power Input =
Wall Mount Battery Charger =

Batteries =


.
.
0 C (32 F) S
.

27 0 C (80 0 F)
0

C
F

28
80
100
0
32
65
-18
0
40


,

.

,
, , . .

.

, .

-

. , .
- , . -
,
. .


. , ..

.

,
, :
,
;
. ,
20 (
). 30 , .

. 32 C (90 F)

75

.

,

.


.

.
.

(,
, ) 0,0002 .
(
) 0,0001 .

, .
, .
, ,
.


.
(Rf)
(Rt)
(Rc): Rt - Rf = Rc.
:

, ,
, . . ,
, .

12
24
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
. . . .
. . . . . . . . .0,00200
6
0,00001 . . . . . . . . . . . . .0,00006
, . . . . . . . .0,00194

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144

.

. .



,

.

12 , 0,048
0,0067
0,0012
24 , 0,10
0,030
0,002
32 , 0,124
0, 070
0,002

71
56 in. = 56
6 in. = 6
76 in. = 76

76


,
(. . 72).
.
1 ,
.


.

73

.
,
.

.
.
,
.

,
.
, , . .

72
27 C (80 F),
Inches -=
Meters =


, ,
. ,
,
2
,
.
,
758 1723 ( 110 250
. ), .
758 (110 . )
.
.


.
.

,
, ,
,
.

. 0 C (32 F). . -18 C (-0,4 F) .

77

74

Plant Air Supply =

Generator =
Engine =
Starting Motor =
Oiler =
Solenoid Valve =
Check Valve =
Regulator =
Starting Air =
Motor =
Compressor =

75
( )
Air or Gas Supply =
Solenoid Valve =
Slave Valve =
Relay Valve =
Engine Oil Pressure =
Prelube Pump =

Rc - , 3 (. );
Ns ;
Rp , (
. );
Ar , 3
(. );

ASME
( -)
.

.

Ap , (
. );
90 = 724 (
. ).


.
:
Rc =

Ns (Ar Ap)
Rp - 724 90

78

,
10- :

,
(Ar), :


21 C (70 F);

,
, ,
, ,
, ,
,
.
25 C
(77 F) 5 7 .
2 .
,

, ,
,
.



32 C (90 F);

60 ,

;
.



20 C (70 F)

.



,
.
620-690 (90-100
. ).

.
37 1194 ( 50
1600 ..) 0,14 0,42 3 ( 5
15 . ) .


, 20 C
(70 F). ,
, . V-
.

30 C (86 F)
. .


,

.

.


,
,
,
.

Caterpillar
.


.
.

. ,
.
3600.

10-
10-
. 10-
.

79

.
.

, , - . , , 150 C (302 F),



0,02 /2 (13 . ).

, .
, .
, , .



.
.


.
,

.
.
.

-20
-54 C ( -4 -65 F)
. MIL-L 10295,

MIL-G 23827.


,
. ,
.
.
.

. - 2440 (8000 ).

, ,
.
MIL-W 5086.
. , .
, , . , .

.
,

, , .
- , .. , , ,
.



. , ,
. , ,
.

,
MG1-22,40
, . . .
,
Caterpillar, ,

. , .
,

80


1 ,
50 % , ( 30 %
50 % ), 1 30 .
,
.


.
, . ,
,
. Caterpillar
.


,
,
5-30 . .
, 1
, 30 % .
. .

.
,
.

.


.

,
. , ,
..
.


.

.
. 110 (1993) :

, , , , , .
.

(EPSS)
1, ,
30 .

, , .


.
, , ,
.

. ,
.
, .

81

3.
.

,
50 %
50 % .
.


.

SEHS9031
SEBU5898,
Caterpillar.

4.
,
.



,
.
,

.
.

5.
(, , ,
..) .
(

).
.

.

,
,

, 50 %
Caterpillar 50 % .

6.
.
,
,

.

1. ,
,
,
.
2. .

7. ,
, .

,
.

82


,
.

,
.
:
,
,


( )
( ) .

% = [(
) /
] 100

76

Frequency (Hz) = ,
Droop =
Isochronous =
% Load =

. 76

.

.


(.
. 77). Caterpillar
0,33 %,
Woodward 0,25 %.


.

,

.
(0 %)
, ..

.
,

.
,

.

.

77
Speed Band =
Speed rpm or Hz = , /
Full =
Load =



.


.


,
.

83

Caterpillar

78

Overshoot =
Load Removed =
Load Applied =
Speed Band =
Speed Dip =
Time =
Recovery Time =

, , .
.
500 .
10 %.

,


.

. . 78
, .

ADEM II

(ADEM II) ,

,
, ,

. ADEM

25 %
0 ( ) 10 %
0,5 %

Woodward.
,
.


,
.
,
,
.
1 2 ISO

. ISO
. 2
, 1.
Caterpillar
1 2
ISO 8528.



,
, .

, Caterpillar

.
,

.

79

84

8290/1724
,
0 % ( ) 10 %.
1724 .
24 .

5 %.

80

Woodward
PSG
( ) 7 %, ,
24
. ,
. c
5 %.

82

81

3161
( ) 7 %, ,
24
. . , , . , ,
.
5 %.

85

84

Woodward 2301a
2301a
2301a
.
EG3P.

,
2301a , 2301a
.
( )

.
- .

83a

Heinzmann
83b

KG30/STG30

2301a


Woodward 2301,
,
24 .

, 0 ( ) 10 %. ,
/ EG3P, . ,

. 3 % ( ), 5 %.

86

ANSI

95 -105 %
A
( )
91,7-105 %
B

91,7-105 %
A
()
88,3-105,8 %
B



, .
. , .

38 IEC ,


10 %.
,

.
,
.


, . ,
. , ,
,
, .


,
( ). ,
( ),
.
, - (A).

,
- ().

, , .
. , .

,
EPG.



, , ,

(ANSI)
(IEC) .


.


().
.
, , .

Average kW Load = ,
, ,

87

(NEC) , . , , .


.
.
. . 86
. .

, , . ,
. .


.
, , .

, , , .
.
,

. , .

, - ().
.
:


. .
.

85

Load =
Total Connected Load =
Peak Demand =
Emergency Connected Load =

Average Load =
AM = 12.00
Time =
PM = 12.00

86
Chronological =
Duration =
Load, Kilowatts = ,
AM = 12.00
PM = 12.00
Time (Hours) = ,

88

, , . ,
. , , ,
.

. ,
1,0, .

.

= , /
,
.
. 87a 60 (1/6 ). ,
, ,
.
. 87c
.

,
.
60, 0,5 60.
,
, ; , . , , .

,
,
.
, , . ,
, .
,
,
-.
. ,
( ),
(rkva) -. ( .
87c 87d , - - (, ).

, ,


, .
, .
, , .
, ,
, .

89

87a
, .
Voltage =
Current =

87b
, .
Voltage =
Current =

87c
,
.
, , () ().
kVAR =
kW Power = ,
Voltage =
Current =

, ,
, .

j.

87d
/cosj =
sinj =
cosj =
j . Arc sin 36,87 = 400/500-0,8,
.

90


,

( )


1,0
(
( ,


)

1 . . 0,55 0,75

,
1 . . 10 . .
0,75 0,85
)

0,95
,
(
0,97

)

1 . .
10 . .
0,75 0,90

10 . .
0,85 0,92

0,70 0,85

1,0

0,80 0,90

1,0

0,50 0,90

(

;


)


0,50 0,60


0,50 0,70

1,0

0,80 0,90


0,60 0,70


(


, ,
0,9 0,8)

(
,

)

(
,

)

. ,

.
, , , ,
.

. ,
,
,


.
.


(NEMA)
0,8.

.
, 0,8-0,9
.
.

.
, .
, ,
.
,
20-25 % ,

91

, . ,
,
. , ,
, ,
.
:


, , . , , , . .
, . ,
. .

.

ekW = pf x kVA

bkW = ekW / eff

% x % ,

kVA ;

%
/ ;

pf ;
ekW ;

% /
.

bkW ;
eff .

,
, . Caterpillar .

88
ENGINE =
kW =
LOAD =
pf =
GENERATOR =
kVA =
kW = pf x kVA
=

92

Caterpillar
:
*

= 60 %

= 100

= 80 %
100 %

=

+ 10 % :
*

= 60 %

= 500

= 80 % 100 %


= , ,
,
:
**

= 60 70 %

=

= 100 % . , .

= , ,
,

:
***

= 70 100 %

=

= 100 % ,
100 %

= , ,
,

:
6 *

= 60 %

= 500

= 80 % 100 %


= ,

200 :
200 6 **

= 60 70 %

= 200

= 100 % 10 %,

=

500 :
500

= 60 70 %

= 500

= 100 % ,

=

500 :
***

= 70 100 %

=

= 100 % , 100 %

= , ,
,
,

. , ,
Caterpillar.
* ISO 3046/1, AS2789, DIN6271 BS5514.
** ISO 8528.
ISO 3046/1, AS2789, DIN6271 BS5514.
*** ISO 8528, ISO 3046/1, AS2789, DIN 6271 BS5514.

93

, , ..), ( , NEMA, ..), .


, .
,
.

,
.
EPG,
, ,
. : (, , ..), (


NEMA



NEMA




,
,


.
65 % .

30 %. .



.
10 %

5%


30

10 %
1
5 %
- 15 %

- 25 %
()
= 30 40 %
1/2

-15 %
-40 -60 %
-15 10 %
-20 %
-30 -40 %


10 %

-10 %
-25 +15 %
- 50 %
5 %

10 %
-8%
5 %
+5 %

+1/2

5%

(2 %)

+10 %
(
-10 %

10 %

:
.

94


(c )

0,5 0,95 , .
, , .

(c
)

.

, . 130 % . ,
,
. ,
,

.

,
2-8 , . , , , .
.

.


, .
40 ..
.
. , . .
.


.

( )

.
(NEMA) . , ,
, , .

NEMA .

67
150 %

5,56
150 %


, , (
), ,



5,56
() 225 %

( ),
, (
), (
),


5,56
() 275 %

, ,
,

3,53,75
125 %


30 . .

95

, .


, ,
, , ,
.
86 92 %.

, .

. ,
.

. , , . :

,
, ,
( ).
,
,
.

= ( . x 1000) /
.

= . x 0,816

66 % Caterpillar , . ,
, .

= ( . x
. x 1,732) /1000

= . / .


,
,
.

, ,
, ,
.
. . 94 .
.

, .

, , , .

, = ( x A x 1,732) / 1000

(0,3-0,4). ,
,
:
=

,
. 89, , . .
.

,
.

. .
.
.


,
.

, :

96


(

).

89
Motor Starting =
6 x Running = x 6
Current Amperes = ,
Unloaded =
Loaded =
Time (Seconds) = c

( )
,
(
).

, . .
, - .



, ,
.

,
.
,
,
.


, ,
(, ), .



.

. . 90
.


,
,
.
,
. ,
- (),
.
.. :
, .. = (- x /) / 5250

, .. = ( x /) / 7350

97

90
Time Withstand Capability Versus Multiples of
Amperes For Continuous Duty 3 Phase Squirrel
Cage Induction Motors = ,

,
,

,
Frames 140T-440T = 140T-440T
Motors with: = :
1,0 S.F. = 1,0
1,15S.F. = 1,15
Minutes =
Operation in This Range Generally Results From
Reduced Voltage. Application Assistance
Required From Motor Supplier. =

.
.
Running Overload =

Abnormal Accelerating or Momentary Loading
=

Locked Rotor =
Seconds =
Multiples of Rated Amperes =

Cold Start Time-Current Withstand Capability Of
Squirrel Cage Motors = ,



.


t* = J (n2 n1) /9,55 T

,
.
. , .
.

t , ;
n2 , /;
n1 , /;
Ta
(
), (-);


( )
:

J c ,

, 2 (2).
* ,

, = (
, . .. x 1,8 x 0,746) /
/ 0,9

t 15 .

,

.

0,9 - ;
1,8 - ;

0,746 - . .. .

,

.


,
,
,
.

98

* ,
,

1
10
25
63
160
40
100

2-5
6-3
16
40
100
250

250
630
1600
4000

650
1600
4000
10 000

,

2

2
105
98
92
87
82
78

76
74
72
70

58
56
54
52

62
60

* ( ) ,
.
2613
,
( )


A
1
B
2
C
2
D
3
E
3
F
1
G



NEMA
,
. .
A
0,003,14
B
3,153,54
C
3,553,99
D
4,004,49
E
4,504,99
F
5,005,59
G
5,606,29
H
6,307,09
J
7,107,99
K
8,008,99
L
9,009,99
M
10,0011,19
N
11,2012,49
P
12,5013,99
R
14,0015,99
S
16,0017,99
T
18,0019,99
U
20,0022,39
V
22,40 -


, , . ,
, 30 % . .
.

:
200 ..

(NEMA) .

99



,
,

.


,
:
. , ,

;
.

.
,

;
, ;
,
, ;
, .
,
,
;

91
Voltage % = , %
Voltage Dip =
2 Cycle = 2
Unloaded =
Loaded =
2-3 Seconds = 2-3
Normal Recovery =
15 seconds Maximum = 15
Time =

. . .

1/2
3/4
1
1,5
2
3
5
7,5
10
15
20
25
30
40
50
60
75
100
125
150
200
250
300

60 - 230

, *
20
25
30
40
50
64
92
127
162
232
290
365
435
580
725
870
1085
1450
1815
2170
2900
3650
4400

,
,

.

- NEMA MG 1

50 - 380

. . .

, **
B,D
1
20
B,D
1,5
27
B,D
2
34
B,D
3
43
B,D
5
61
B,C,D
7,5
84
B,C,D
10
107
B,C,D
15
154
B,C,D
20
194
B,C,D
25
243
B,C,D
30
289
B,C,D
40
387
B,C,D
50
482
B,C,D
60
578
B,C,D
75
722
B,C,D
100
965
B,C,D
125
1207
B,C,D
150
1441
B,C,D
200
1927
B,C,D
B,C
B
B

* ,
220 ,
.

B,D
B,D
B,D
B,C,D
B,C,D
B,C,D
B,C,D
B,C,D
B,C,D
B,C,D
B,C,D
B,C,D
B,C,D
B,C,D
B,C,D
B,C,D
B,C,D
B,C,D
B,C

** ,
380 ,
.

92

100

Percent Full Load Torque and VA =


A
Motor VA = A
Motor Torque =
Power Factor =
Percent Synchronous Speed =

93
Line =
Motor Stator =
Start: Close 1-2-3 = : 1-2-3
Run: No change = :

A , . ,
,
600 % .

- . , , , .
. - ,
, , .



(. . 94).

.
.


,
,
.
(. . 94).
. -

. , 80- , -


80 %
65 %
50 %

(
,
80 % )

50 %
45 %
37,5 %

(
)
75 %
50 %



100

100
100

80
65
50

68
46
29

64
42
25

80

80

64

50
45
37,5

50
45
37,5

25
20
14

100
100
57

75
50
33

75
50
33

94

101

,
64 % .
( 80-
.)

Transfer = : 6-7
Reactor =
Second Step: =
Third Step: =
Resistor:=
Percent Full Load Torque and VA =
A
Motor VA = A
Motor Torque =
Percent Synchronous Speed =

Line =
Motor Stator =
Start: Close 2-3-5 6-7 = : 2-3-5-6-7
Run: Open 2-3-5-6-7 Close 1-4-8 = : 2-3-5-67 1-4-8

95

96

97

98

102

, ,
. .

,
(. . 95). , .


(.
. 99). .
A, .

,
(. . 100).
. 33 %
.

,
.
A A.
.




20 100 % , ,
40 80 %.
,
. :


, , () (. . 96).
.


,
.

.
50, 65
80 % . , ,
. , (80 %) 80 %2 64 % ,
.
25 A
100 . . .

A .


150-450 %
, . , . , , (.
101).
,
.


,
, (. . 97). .
, .
,
A , .
, .

103

99
Line =
Motor Stator =
Start: Close 1-2-3 = : 1-2-3
Run: Close 4-5-6 = : 4-5-6

100
Line =
Motor Stator =
Start: Close 1-2-3-4-5-6 = : 1-2-3-4-5-6
Run: Open 4-5-6 Close 7-8-9 = : 4-5-6 7-8-9
Percent Synchronous Speed =

101
Solid State =
Percent Full Load Torque and kVA =


. -

.


.
.
110-
0,5
. 1,0 ,
, . . 102
,

.



.
, ,
. (A),
,
(W)
(V).
A=W/V


,
.
.
.

104

10/
2/
2/
12/
12/
1/
1/
3/



, , ,
. , , .

102
Volts Total Change, 120 Volt System =
120-
Cyclic =
Non-Cyclic =
Range in Which Eye is Most Sensitive To Cyclic Flicker =
,

Threshold of Objection =
Threshold of Perception =
Period of Flicker, Seconds =
Frequency, Cycles/sec = ( )

, ,
66 %
. .. 6 %
, . , , 500 , 30 ..

100 . .

.

105

2%

, , , ,
, ,

(
,
)

3%

510 %

, , ,

35 %

, ,

2530 %

*
, ,
.

, , .


, .
, () 20 . , , , ,
. .
, . A
.

, . ,
.
, , .
.

,
,
, :

,

,
.
,
,

A
.

. ,
;
-

(. . 103);


, . , -
,
. ,
, ,
. .

5 %.
. 10 % ,

106

103
Utility =
Standby Generator =
Motor =
Generator =
Load =



,

.


(. .
105);


,

.


(. . 105).

105
Utility =
4160 V-AC (Example) = 4160 . ()
AC =
Transformer =
Rectifier =
Battery =
Inverter =
Load =
Normal =
Power Flow =
During Outage =

104
Speed Increaser =
Inertia =
Eddy Current Coupling =


, . A ,
,
.


.
,
,
A
10 %.

107

.
, .
,
.


.
.
,
,
.
,

.


, . :
( ).

,
, .
,
,
. ,
. ,

.


.

() .

( )

.

, , , .
,
. , , .

,
,
,
.
.
. () , .



-
. :
. , , .

, ;

. , .
.
;

, , , . .
, ,
.

.

.

,
.
-

. (10 %
A ), , ,
.

108

2:

,
.


100
0,8. ,
334 .
50
0,8.
125 216 . 125-
0,9
.
216 , 10
0,8 pf (. . 106).

1:

,

125/216 , 100
(pf) 0,8.
334 .
,
,
(pf) 0,9,

50 0,8.

1. ,
, ,
1, 1, 167 .

1. ,
.

2.
167 .
3. 216 .

= (3V x I x pf) / 1000


I = (P x 1000) / V x pf = (10 x 1000) /(216 x 0,8) = 58
I = (P x 1000) / 3V x pf = (50 x 1000) / (1,73 x 216 x 0,8) =
= 167

4. ,
125 .
167-58 = 109 .

2. ,
.

5. 125.

334-167 = 167
= (V x I x pf) / 1000 = (125 x 109 x 0,9) / 1000 = 12,3

3. .

, 2

P = (V x I x pf) /1000 = (125 x 167 x 0,9) /1000 = 18,8

.
106
125 volt Single-Phase 0,9 pf Load =
125 pf = 0,9
216 volt Single-Phase 10 kW @ 0,8 pf Load =
10 , 216 pf =0,8
Three-Phase 50 kW 216 volt 0,8 pf Load =
50 , 216 pf = 0,8

109

. .

,
,
.

;
;
;
.

,
. , ( ), ( ).
, ,
.

.


.
.

,
,
. ,
, .

. ,
(NEC),
,
.

,
. .

107
Volts =
Constant Volts =
Volts per Hertz =
Hertz =
Time =



.
, ,
.

2000 ,
. , ,
- .
:

,

.
32 (90 F)
. ,
, .
. , ,
.

1. .
2.
( ). ,

. ,

.

,
Caterpillar .

110

(. 109 B D)
.
.
.
500 .
500
.
,
,
.
.

,
,
-
. , ,
( )
.


(. 108) ,
120 (. 109).

,
.
, .
,

.
,

.
, 120.

.

108
Line =
Line 1 = 1
Neutral = ()
115 V = 115

(. . 109 A C)
, .

109
Volts =
Phase Three-Wire (WYE) = ()
Phase Four-Wire (WYE) = ()

Phase Three-Wire (DELTA) = ()


Phase Four-Wire (DELTA) =
()

111

,

, .
, , .

.
. .
( ) .
,
, .

, 0,8
, ,
.

. 108,
109. , ,

,
.

/
Caterpillar ,
, .
---
(. .110). ----. (---)
( )
(/):

. .
.

.

,
.

. ,
.

/ = (120 x f ) /
50 ,
1500 /.

1000 /:
1000 / = (120 x f ) /6 = 50


,
SR4, ( ) .

-.
, 1,732
. - . .
.
110
N=
S=

112

, , ,
. 1-1/2 3 ,
.
.


, , .
,
(, ).
, , ,
.
, ,
RMS, :

,
, -
.
,
. . . , .
, . .

Isc = Ig / xd

Isc =
Ig = ,
d =
( ) .

Caterpillar

. ,
, , . , .
,

.


,
.

,
300 % .
.

().

113

111

% amperes = , %
Level Specified by Marine Societies for Selective Circuit Breaker
Tripping = , Marine Societies
( )

Rated current =
With series Boost or PM =

WO Series Boost or PM =

Seconds =
Cycles =


,

.
.
, .

.

. . 112 ,
.


3600 (v- )
3600 ( )
3500 ()
3412
3408
3406
3300 ()

:
.
(NEC) ,
25 .
. (Guide
for Generator Ground Protection, ANSI / IEEE
C37-101-1985).

114

7500
7100
2000
1420
1230
1750
932

3410
3220
910
642
556
795
424

,
,
40 C (104 F).
40 C (104 F)
,
, ,
.

40 50
50 60


,

. ,
,
.

112
Generator Bearing =
Weight to be Supported by the Generator Bearing =

Rotor Weight =
Weight to be Supported by the Engine Flywheel =


MG 1-22,41

50 %
,
.

=
= ( Y) / ( + Y)


MG 1-22,42

NEMA-IEC
, ,
, (NEMA),
.



0,1.

(TIF) MG 1-22,43



(IEC).

AT&T ( )
, , .. . (TIF)
(), , ,
. ,

1000 3000 , 17-
49- ( ).

MG 1-22,40
NEMA
, *

A
B
F
H

60
80
105
125

85
105
130
150
* . ,
40 (104 F), .
( F)

,
, 1007 (3300 )

1 %
101 (330 ) 3963
(13 000 ).


,
10
20

115

MG 1-22,45

MG 1-22.43
(TIF)

TIF
,
62,5 299
350
300 699
250
700 4999
150
5000 19999
100

30 () , 5 % .

MG 1-22,47

,

25 %.

(TIF), , 250 50 .


( () ).
TIF. TIF ,
,
. TIF, 50, . Caterpillar
.


,
. , , . , 60
60 , 180 , 300 , 420 .. , , .
,
- .

113
Telephone Influence Factor (TIF) = (TIF)
Frequency in Hz = ,
TIF Weighting Characteristics =

116

, ,
, ,
. ,

, , ,
, .
,
.
- ().
,
600 .


,
. ,
, ,
, , .
,
, ,
.
,
. 114.
, .

114
Generator 1 = 1
, ,
, ,
,

117

115
Current =
Fundamental Wave Form
Example: 60 cycles/sec (cps) =
: 60 ()
Composite Wave Form =
Third Harmonic 180 cps = 180
Third Harmonic 300 cps = 300
Time =

(67 %)
(80 %)
(86 %)
(83 %)

1
0,866
0,951
0,975
0,966

3
0,000
0,588
0,782
0,707

5
0,866
0,000
0,434
0,259

7
0,866
0,588
0000
0,259

. 114,

.

.
.
,
,
.
.

:
(1), (3), (5)
(7) .

.
116

, , . , . .

Caterpillar
,
,
.

,
.

.


. , , . ,
.
. . . 116.

= /
/ /
= 1;
.. 15 1 = 14

118

, , , ,
. .
, , ,
. 114, .

,
. ,
.

3
X01

,
X02

XL

,
. ,
.
,
.

,

. ,
, ,
. 30 %
10 % (30:3) . 1 %.


. .
.
- .

. ,
,
RMS. .

,
. 400 , 100 ,
.
:


. ( )

. :


0,015 180

0,400 180

I3T =( V3 V3) / 3 (X01+ X02 + XL)


0,001 180

I3T

V3
,


0,1 % 0,28

V3 -

2,5 % 6,9


0,2 % 0,56

119

65 %
- . , , (
), . , ,
. .
.

(
) :

= (0,56-0,28) /
/ (0,015 +0,001) = 17,5

= (6,9-0,56) /
/ (0,4 +0,001) = 15,8


, 5,8
5,3
. ,
1 %.
,
, :



,
.


.


.
.
.

150 = 100 %
(1502 +5,32) / 150 = 1,000627 0,0627 %

,
, . , -
, .




.
.

.
, . .


, .
.
,
. ,
, , .


. , .

120

117
I (EMCP I)

II (EMCP II)


.
,

. ,
, ,
.

.

,
. , . .
, .


.
, .
30 .
, , - 10
10-
. .
.
.
.


, , ,
.
. .

.
, c
,
. Caterpillar
, , - .

121



, .
2 (3 )

, . . 118.
, . , , ,
, , 30 (85 F).

.


, . 117,
(. 119).
() .
,

, .

118


/

.


. , , , . 118, .


, , . , , , , .
, .

. , ? ,
? , ? ,
.

119
Lamp test =
ALM =
Alarm silence =

122


120

Engine Generator Control =

Normal Power Source =


Engine =
Generator =
Main Service Disconnect =
Current Protective Device =

Emergency Loads =
Transfer Switch =
Non-Emergency Loads =


.

,
, ,
..
,
.

, ,
-
.


.

123


,
, , , ,
. .

, , . , ,
40
(104 F) 1830 (6000 )
.


.
. , .

, , . ,
,
.

.
30 .
, ,
. ,
, - . .
, .

.

,
, .
, , , . , , ( RMS), , :
Isc = Ir / xd


, 25 % .
.

Isc
Ir
xd
( )

,

.
.


.
Caterpillar , .
,
,
. , .
, .


.
,
, .

124


50 400 , . .
SCR, - .

, ,
. . . 111, . 107.
1-1/2 3 ,

. .

. 7,5 .

, ,
, .

, .
.
.
, .

,
,
, .
.





.
,
.


.

.

.

.
.

,

.
. 300 % .

. . 111 .

( )



* ,
.
,
, .


( ),
. - .

.

125


,


(. . 121).
,

.

.


,
.
. ,
:

121


,
,
.

, . ,



,
.

-
.
,
. , , . .



,
, .


,
,

.

. 122 .
, , RMS, , 100 000 , . -
230 000 . 100 ,
7500
4 % , ,
.



600
,
200 000
,
RMS.

.

126

122
Instantaneus Peak Let Thru Current in amps =

Ampere Ratings =
Prospective Short Circuit Current Symmetrical RMS amps =

RMS.

.
,

.


. . ,
.
.

123

127

124
Magnetic Element =
Trip Bar =
Latch =
Load =
Contacts Closed =
Contacts Open =
Lime =
Bimetal =

.
. 40
(104 F).


. .

, .

. ,
, /.
.

() . . ( )
,
.

. .
UL ( )

. 6000

4000 .


. ( ). .
100
Westinghouse . 125.

125
Thermal action =
Time seconds = ,
Magnetic action =
.016 = 0,016
Current in % Of Breaker Rating =

128

1
25,4
304,8
914,4
1000
1 000 000
1 609 340

0,03937
1
12
36
39,3701
39 370,1
63 360

0,003281
0,083 33
1
3
3,280 84
3208,84
5280

0,001094
0,027 78
0,333 33
1
1,093 61
1093,61
1760

0,000001
0,000 03
0,000 30
0,000 91
0,001
1
1,609 34

0,001
0,0254
0,3048
0,9144
1
1000
1609,34

0,000 62
0,621 37
1

2
.
2
.

0,000 645 16
1
0,0929

.
0,00155
1
1550
144

1
645,16
10 00000
92903

0,006 944
10,764
1

1 . = 640
1 = 4840 .
1 = 7,854 x 10 -7 .
1 = 0,7854 .
1 = 5,067 x 10 -6 2

.
.
.
3
3

.
-

1
1728
46 656
6,1 x 10 -5
61 023,7
231
277,419

61,0237

0,000 58
1
27
4,0 x 10 -8
35,3147
0,133 68
0,160 54
43 560
0,03531

0,000 02
0,037 04
1

1,307 95
0,004 95
0,005 95
1613,33
0,00131

16387,1
28, 320 000
764, 554 858
1
1000000000
3 785 420
4 540 090

1 000 000

0,000 02
0,028 32
0,764 55

1
0,003 78
0,004 55
1233,48
0,001

0,004 32
7,480 52
201,974
2,6 x 10 -7
264,192
1
1,200 95
325 851
0,26417

0,003 61
5,228 83
168,178
2,2 x 10 -7
219,969
0,832 67
1
271 335
0,21997

0,016 39
28,3169
764,555
1,0 x 10 -6
1000
3,785 41
4,546 09

1 = 144 .
1 = 1,244 .
1 = 4

()

1
0,02835
0,4536
907,2
1,016
1,000


35,27
1
16
32, 000
35,840
35,300


2,205
0,0625
1
2,000
2,240
2,205

1
1,12
1,102

0,8929
1
0,9842

0,9072
1,016
1

1 = 0,064799

129

1 .

1 .

1 3 /
1 /

0,001 440

0,002 23

3 /

0,2270

0,0631

694,5

1,547

157,73

43,8

448,8

0,646

101,9

28,32

4,403
15,85

0,006 34
0,0228

0,009 81
0,0353

1
3,60

0,2778
1

MCFD = 1 000 .
MMCFD = 1 000 000 .
. . . x 607,73 =


. .

(0 C)

. .
(0 C)

. .
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
/2

1
25,4

0,039 37
1

0,5357
13,61

1,868 27

0,07 355

22,4192

. .
(60 F)

. .
(60 F)

0,001 33
0,033 86

101,4
(14,7
. )
0,001 315
0, 033 42

0,04464
1,134

0,019 34
0,491 15

0,001 36
0,034 53

0,083 33

0,036 13

0,002 54

0,002 49

0,002 46

0,249

0,882 65

12

0,433 52

0,030 479

0,029 89

0,029 50

2,989

51,7149

2,036 02

27,70

2,309

0,070 31

0,068 95

0,068 05

6,895

735,559
750,062
7,500 62

28,959
29,530
0,295 30

394,7
401,8
4,01835

32,84
33,49
0,33486

14,2257
14,504
0,145 038

1
1,01972
0,0101972

0,980 67
1
0,010 000

0,967 84
0,98692
0,009 869 20

98,067
101,325
1

. .

. . .
1
0,00397
0,001285
0,000948
3,96825
100 000

252
1
0,323765
0,23895
1000
396,8254

-
778
3,08866
1
0,73745
3089
128,5347

1055,056
4,187
1,356
1
4185,0
94,78169

0,00001
0,002519
0,000816
0,01055
2,519
1

0,252
0,001
0,003089
0,000239
1
0,39682

. . . . = 0,1220 .
. . . . = 8,899 /3
. . . = 0,5556 /

. .
./
/
. . .
/

..

. .
./
1

- /

. ..

1055,0

..
0,02391

778,2

0,02358

0,017584

17,5843

0,00128

0,00003

1,3504

0,00003

0,00002

0,0226

42,456
0,00095
41,827

33 000
0,7405
32550

1
0,0000223
0,98632

44791
1
44127

1,014
0,0000226
1

0,74570
0,0000166
0,73549

745,7
0,016668
735,498

56,8690
0,05687

44250
44,25

1,34102
0,00134

59997
59,9968

1,35962
0,00136

1
0,001

1000
1

1 = 90
1 = 1,57
1 = 57,3

1 = 60
1 = 2,9 10

130


( F) ( C)

.. = 1/4 . () /
100 .

F = (1,8 C) + 32

. .. 10 %
125 .

C = 0,5555( F - 32)

. .. 10 %
80 .
: 15 20
, . ..=
= ( /) / 500
:
, . .. =
= ( / ) /3
, . .. =
. 0,00053

, ... =
= [ / () x
] / (33 000 *)
*
,
65-80 %
,

55-75 %

65-80 %

75 %

:
Q = Flow = ()

N = Speed =

100 000 .
,
40.

P= Static pressure of head =


:
600
(
)
3 300
(2 1 )

hp = ..

:
400
200 ..

1 = 200 . . ./ =
= 12 000 . . ./

, . .. = /
/ 33 000 0,85 ()

.. =
= 33 475 . . ./


, . .. = / /
x ( ) / 33 000
(. )

=
..

1/4 ..

0-4000

75

4000-8000

100

8000-12 000

150

12 000-16 000

200


4-5 .. 1

131

,
. ..

1-1,5 . .. 500 /


g = 32,2 /2

g = 9,81 /2


24 3 . ..
36 7,5 . ..

(F)
1 = 1 /2

42 10 . ..

7,5 10 . ..

1 = 0,225


12 3 5 . ..

()

- 2 4 . ..
100

1 = 0,0685 2/
1 2/ = 14,6

- 15 25 . ..

(WR2)

2 12 15 . ..
3 15 25 . ..

/-2 =

10 . ..

()2
64,4 /2 4

12

1 /-2 = 0,113 2

10 . ..

(T)

1 1000

1 = 0,1

1 750

1 = 8,85 -


():
, . (4 ) =
= (792 000 ..) / (/ )
, . (2 ) =
= (396 000 . .) / (/ )
, . = (150,8 )/
/
:
, - =
= ( ) / 150,8

, - =
=(33 000 ..)/ (2 p /) = (5252 ..) / /

132

, A/
A
6,3
9,4
12,5
18,7
25
31,3
37,5
50
62,5
75
93,8
100
125
156
187
219
250
312
375
438
500
625
750
875
1000
1125
1250
1563
1875
2188
2500
2812
3125
3750
375
5000

5
7,5
10
15
20
25
30
40
50
60
75
80
100
125
150
175
200
250
300
350
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1250
1500
1750
2000
2250
2500
3000
3500
4000

208 220
17,5
16,5
26,1
24,7
34,7
33
52
49,5
69,5
66
87
82,5
104
99
139
132
173
165
208
198
261
247
278
264
347
330
433
413
520
495
608
577
694
660
866
825
1040
990
1220
1155
1390
1320
1735
1650
2080
1980
2430
2310
2780
2640
3120
2970
3470
3300
4350
4130
5205
4950

240
15,2
22,6
30,1
45
60,2
75,5
90,3
120
152
181
226
240
301
375
450
527
601
751
903
1053
1203
1504
1803
2104
2405
2709
3009
3765
4520
5280
6020
6780
7520
9040
10 550
12 040

380 400
9,6
9,1
14,3
13,6
19,2
18,2
28,8
27,3
38,4
36,4
48
45,5
57,6
54,6
77
73
96
91
115
109
143
136
154
146
192
182
240
228
288
273
335
318
384
364
480
455
576
546
672
637
770
730
960
910
1150
1090
1344
1274
1540
1460
1730
1640
1920
1820
2400
2280
2880
2730
2250
3180
3840
3640
4320
4095
4800
4560
5760
5460
6700
6360
7680
7280

440
8,3
12,3
16,6
24,9
33,2
41,5
49,8
66,5
83
99,6
123
133
166
208
249
289
332
415
498
581
665
830
996
1162
1330
1495
1660
2080
2490
2890
3320
3735
4160
4980
5780
6640

133

460
8,1
12
16,2
24,4
32,4
40,5
48,7
65
81
97,5
120
130
162
204
244
283
324
405
487
568
650
810
975
1136
1300
1460
1620
2040
2440
2830
3240
3645
4080
4880
5660
6480

480 600 2400 3300 4160


7,6
6,1
11,3
9,1
15,1
12
22,5
18
30,1
24
6
4,4
3,5
37,8
30
7,5
5,5
4,4
45,2
36
9,1
6,6
5,2
60
48
12,1
8,8
7
76
61
15,1
10,9
8,7
91
72
18,1
13,1
10,5
113
90
22,6
16,4
13
120
96
24,1
17,6
13,9
150
120
30
21,8
17,5
188
150
38
27,3
22
225
180
45
33
26
264
211
53
38
31
301
241
60
44
35
376
300
75
55
43
451
361
90
66
52
527
422
105
77
61
602
481
120
88
69
752
602
150
109
87
902
721
180
131
104
1052
842
210
153
121
1203
962
241
176
139
1354
1082
271
197
156
1504
1202
301
218
174
1885
1503
376
273
218
2260
1805
452
327
261
2640
2106
528
380
304
3015
2405
602
436
348
3400
2710
678
491
392
3765
3005
752
546
435
4525
3610
904
654
522
5285
4220
1055
760
610
6035
4810
1204
872
695

V I x pf
1000


VxI
1000

( 1)

VxI
1000

0,746 x (.)

1,732 x V x I
1000

0,746 x (.)

0,746 x (.)

( 3)

.. x 0,746
()

.. x 0,746
()

.. x 0,746
()

( 4)

.. 746
V x pf x

.. 746
1,732 x V x x pf

.. x 746
V x

( 5)

x 1000
V x pf
x 1000
V
x /
120

x 1000
1,732 x V x pf
x 1000
1,732 x V
* x /
120

x 1000
V

( 6)

V x I x 1 - (pf)2
1000

1,732 x V x I x 1 - (pf)2
1000

100 (V . - V . )
V .

100 (V . - V . )
V .

..,



, ,


..
,


,

,

(
)
,

, %

1,732 x V x I x pf
1000

( 2)

( 7)
( 8)
( 9)
100 (V . - V . )
V .

( 10)

V = ()
I = , ()
pS =
*

134